Sample records for african states ecowas

  1. African Sub-Regional Organizations in Peacekeeping and Peacemaking: The Economic Community of West African State (ECOWAS) (United States)


    West Africa.18 At the advent of the Liberian crisis ECOWAS attempted to move quickly from dealing with economic to security 17 Confort Ero and> (8 February 2005). Confort Ero and A, Ndinga-Muvumba, "Small Arms, Light Weapons", in Adekeye Adebajo and Ismail Rashid, West


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    Karolina Pawlak


    Full Text Available The state of agri-food trade in two selected trade blocs from the African region was presented in the paper. Moreover, the possibilities of development of trade, production, demand and prices in agri-food sector of ECOWAS countries in view of changes caused by further liberalization of the world agricultural trade were discussed. A general equilibrium model Global Trade Analysis Project was used in the research to make the projections. The results of the analysis showed that a greater degree of liberalization of the world agricultural trade could cause an increase in the value of export and import of certain plant origin products, as well as may contribute to the decline in production and prices for these products. 

  3. Low Savings Rates in the Economic Community of West African States (Ecowas: The Role of the Political Instability-Income Interaction

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    Abu Nurudeen


    Full Text Available This paper employs PCSE, OLS and TSLS with random effects to investigate the impact of the political instabilityincome interaction on savings in ECOWAS countries during the period 1996-2012. The empirical evidence illustrates that higher political stability is associated with higher savings and income levels moderate the adverse effect of political instability on savings, indicating that the impact of political instability on savings is higher in low income ECOWAS countries, but lesser at higher levels of income. The paper recommends the promotion of political stability via increases in incomes to raise savings in the ECOWAS region.

  4. Youth and Ethnic Movements and Their Impacts on Party Politics in ECOWAS Member States

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    Taiwo A. Olaiya


    Full Text Available Although they historically played a pivotal role in the fight against colonial rule—as they have in recent attempts to entrench multiparty democratic processes—the role of youth in political parties in West Africa has received less than commensurate attention in studies on democratization. Unlike in advanced democracies where parties are key agents of political socialization and leadership, parties in West Africa are built on ethno-religious foundations. A peculiar character of highly marginalized youth thus becomes inevitable, both in politics and decision-making processes of the state. To assert themselves, the youth have also become agents of destabilization of the democracy they partook to build. Apart from their involvement in political violence, youths are now available as unconscientious “foot soldiers” of ethnic militias and terrorist groups that are constituting increased social problems in West Africa. In this article, we examine how parties and youth have interacted to define the emergence and character of threat to the nascent democracies in contemporary West Africa. The article interrogates how the notions of “youth” and “political participation” have continued to play out in different West African countries within the context of the opportunities and challenges of Africa’s youth bulge on the democratization process. The article observes that the marginalization of West African youths has been part and parcel of history only that their situation has further raised the stake as agent of social disorder in the absence of positive engagement in the recent times.

  5. Investigating the Impacts of Intraregional Trade and Aid on Per Capita Income in Africa: Case Study of the ECOWAS

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    Assandé Désiré Adom


    Full Text Available In the past 50 years, a striking stylized fact has been the downward—or flat—trend of intra-African trade as a share of Africa’s total trade, while official development assistance (ODA has experienced a noticeable expansion. During the same period, economic growth performances have not been consistent and robust enough to put a dent in the poverty level across the African continent in general and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS in particular. Using a two-stage least square (TSLS estimation technique, this paper finds out that intra-ECOWAS trade stimulates per capita income growth substantially more than foreign aid, which rather constitutes an impediment to that growth in most specifications. Additionally, comparable results are obtained when the scope of the study is expanded to include trade of ECOWAS members with the rest of the world. As a result, it becomes appropriate to suggest policy recommendations encouraging increased cooperation among member states in an attempt to (i expand and build new cross-states infrastructures, aimed at boosting communications and telecommunications networks, (ii accelerate the trade facilitation process by addressing administrative red tapes that balloon both transaction costs and delays in the flows of goods across borders, seaports, and airports, and (iii develop and diversify the industrial base in member states.

  6. The Neglected Economic Dimensions of ECOWAS’s Negotiated Peace Accords in West Africa Vernachlässigte ökonomische Dimensionen von ECOWAS-Friedensvereinbarungen in Westafrika

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    Kwesi Aning


    Full Text Available Since its first intervention in Liberia in December 1989, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS has, in conjunction with the African Union (AU and the United Nations (UN, managed to resolve intrastate violence in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Côte d’Ivoire through its political and military interventions. One aspect of the work undertaken by the ECOWAS that has received little scholarly attention are the economic dimensions of the peace accords it has negotiated. To date, no scholarly work that we know of has focused on this aspect of ECOWAS peace initiatives. The same is true of other peace initiatives, such as those in Côte d’Ivoire, led by other actors. This paper seeks to bridge these scholarly lacunae by evaluating the economic dimensions of peace agreements in these three countries, and by examining how these agreements address the distribution and management of economic resources. We argue that because these conflicts were partially underpinned by the mismanagement of economic resources, the search for peace should necessarily include addressing economic issues at the negotiating table.Seit ihrer ersten Intervention in Liberia im Dezember 1989 ist es der Wirtschaftsgemeinschaft Westafrikanischer Staaten (Economic Community of West African States, ECOWAS – gemeinsam mit der Afrikanischen Union (AU und den Vereinten Nationen (VN – gelungen, durch politische und militärische Interventionen gewaltsame innerstaatliche Konflikte in Liberia, Sierra Leone und Côte d’Ivoire zu lösen. Den ökonomischen Dimensionen der von ECOWAS ausgehandelten Friedensvereinbarungen wurde bislang von wissenschaftlicher Seite wenig Aufmerksamkeit entgegengebracht; es gibt keine Forschungsarbeit, die diesen Aspekt der ECOWAS-Friedensinitiativen in den Fokus rückt. Das gilt auch für Friedensinitiativen anderer Akteure, zum Beispiel in Côte d’Ivoire. Mit dem vorliegenden Beitrag wird versucht, diese Forschungslücke zu überbrücken. Wir

  7. Development of a Cartographic Strategy and Geospatial Services for Disaster Early Warning and Mitigation in the Ecowas Subregion (United States)

    Gueye, L. A.; Keita, M. S.; Akinyede, J. O.; Kufoniyi, O.; Erin, G.


    The West Africa Sub-region has been crisis and disaster ridden in recent times with enormous challenges for disaster mitigation. The crisis/disasters range from conflicts fuelled by political upheaval to epidemics that take their tolls on the population of some countries in the sub-region. The crisis and disaster events have overwhelming magnitudes and are highly dynamic, requiring a well-articulated plan for immediate response in order to mitigate their effects. A study carried out by the Early Warning Directorate (EWD) of the Economic Commission of West African States (ECOWAS) highlighted the risks and vulnerabilities of the region despite the considerable progress made in development and peace consolidation in some parts of the region. The study identified apparent institutional and infrastructural deficiencies, such as the lack of up-to-date geospatial data and information, and inadequate platforms for data gathering and data sharing among the relevant national agencies, which have made much of the region particularly vulnerable to the emerging threats. It is against the foregoing that the development of a Cartographic Strategy and Geospatial Services for EWD and the ECOWAS is being proposed. In addition to the resolution of the crucial need of reliable geospatial data capacity of member states, this initiative will spearhead the realisation of a Geospatial Data Infrastructure for ECOWAS Commission, through the appropriate policy formulation and implementation. Through the proper implementation of the Cartographic Strategy and Geospatial Services, ECOWAS will have the capacity to provide geospatial analysis and mapping support focusing on areas related to conflict prevention and resolution, regional planning for food security, early warning of viral diseases and epidemics, disaster preparedness, mitigation and response, infrastructural development and refugee resettlement, and a host of other vital projects/programmes for promoting ECOWAS regional integration

  8. Measuring multi-membership in economic integration and its trade-impact. A comparative study of ECOWAS and SADC

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    Afesorgbor, Sylvanus Kwaku; van Bergeijk, Peter A.G.

    in two major African Regional blocs, ECOWAS and SADC. We find that the impact of multi-membership critically depends on the characteristics of the multi-membership of regional integration initiatives. We find a positive impact if an additional membership complements the integration process......One of intriguing aspects of African Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) is the extent of multi-membership, where many Africa countries are members of more than one RTA. Using a gravity model for 25 countries and the years 1980-2006 we measure the extent of multi-membership and compare its impact...... of the original regional integration initiative: overlapping memberships had a much stronger and significant positive effect on bilateral trade within ECOWAS compare to an insignificant impact within SADC....

  9. Empowering African States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China helps bring lasting peace and stability to Africa African think tanks expressed a high opinion of China’s role in helping build African peace and security at the first meeting of the China-Africa Think Tanks Forum. The

  10. West African Power Pool: Planning and Prospects for Renewable Energy

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    Miketa, Asami [IRENA, Bonn (Germany); Merven, Bruno [Energy Research Centre, Univ. of Cape Town (South Africa)


    With the energy systems of many African countries dominated by fossil-fuel sources that are vulnerable to global price volatility, regional and intra-continental power systems with high shares of renewable energy can provide least-cost option to support continued economic growth and address the continent’s acute energy access problem. Unlocking Africa’s huge renewable energy potential could help to take many people out of poverty, while ensuring the uptake of sustainable technologies for the continent’s long-term development. The report examines a ''renewable scenario'' based on a modelling tool developed by IRENA and tested with assistance from the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Initial results from the ECOWAS Renewable Energy Planning (EREP) model for continental ECOWAS countries show that the share of renewable technologies in the region could increase from the current 22% of electricity generation to as much as 52% in 2030, provided that the cost of these technologies continues to fall and fossil fuel prices continue to rise. In this scenario, nearly half of the envisaged capacity additions between 2010 and 2030 would be with renewable technologies. Analysis using EREP – along with a similar model developed for Southern Africa – can provide valuable input for regional dialogue and energy projects such as the East and Southern Africa Clean Energy Corridor and the Programme for Infrastructure and Development in Africa (PIDA). IRENA, together with partner organisations, has started plans to set up capacity building and development support for energy system modelling and planning for greater integration of renewables in Africa. IRENA is also completing a similar model and study for East Africa and intends to extend this work to Central and North Africa.

  11. Fragile states and protection under the 1969 African Refugee Convention

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    Tamara Wood


    Full Text Available Current practice in African states highlights both the potential andthe limitations of the 1969 African Refugee Convention in providingprotection to persons displaced from fragile states.

  12. Implementing the ECOWAS Small Arms Moratorium : a new regionalism approach?


    Bakke, Joakim Michael


    In realisation of the huge consequences of the proliferation of small arms and light weapons, the Economic Community of West African States acted upon an initiative by President Konare of Mali in 1993. On 31 October 1998 a Moratorium on the Importation, Exportation and Manufacture of Small Arms and Light Weapons was signed and declared by 16 West African countries for a renewable period of three years. Now they had to begin the huge task of implementing this arrangement. The leading theor...

  13. A Comparative Analysis of the Impact of Agricultural Exports on Economic Growth of ECOWAS Countries

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    Richardson Kojo Edeme


    Full Text Available Towards the acceleration of the attainment of sustainable growth, most countries have focused on agricultural exports as a means of driving their economy. Developing countries of Africa are highly dependent on the agricultural sector and agricultural exports are a major determinant of economic growth of these countries. However, the impact of agricultural exports on economic growth of ECOWAS countries remains unclear. This study therefore evaluates the impact of agricultural exports on the economic growth of fifteen ECOWAS countries using panel data for the period 1980–2013. Variables employed are labour force participation rate, capital stock, agricultural exports, non-agricultural exports, inflation and economic growth. The results of the fixed-effect model show that agricultural exports have not impacted significantly on the economic growth of ECOWAS countries such as Côte d’Ivoire and Nigeria with respect to the Republic of Benin, which is the selected baseline. The study also analysed the country combined effect of the agricultural exports and found that it was significant but the rate of impact was weak. The study recommends, among others, that even though agricultural exports had a significant impact on economic growth, there is still a need for ECOWAS governments to improve their agricultural sector as its significance is more noticeable in some countries such as Côte d’Ivoire and Nigeria.

  14. The challenge of globalization and democratization to the African Union: The case of Togo Crisis

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    Ngboawaji Daniel Nte


    Full Text Available Times have changed for African cold warrior dictatorships.  It used to be that these cold warriors would kill, main and muscle their way into political leadership while the western world and their fellow African state look the other way.  Thanks to the multinationals that supported them.  The paper examines the political crisis in Togo through the Kantian Democratic Peace Theory.  It assumes that the UN, and AU, ECOWAS and the international community are practical example of the Kantian "republican confederation" with overwhelming international political influence to bring pressure upon any one-republican member that threatens world peace.  The paper holds that the political crisis in Togo was a threat to both regional and global peace and concludes that international pressure was responsible for the resignation of Faure Eyadema hence the restoration of constitutional order in Togo.

  15. Horse trading? EU-African Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs)


    Kohnert, Dirk


    EU- Africa Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) are on the brink. In July 2014 the Head of States of ECOWAS endorsed the negotiated compromise EPA after prolonged negotiations. However, last-minute objections of the heavy-weight Nigeria which wants to protect its infant industries as well as promising trade relations with new global players still could prevent the deal. Whether the ECOWAS EPA in its current form would really create a win-win situation for both partners as asserted by the E...

  16. Vital Signs: The State of African Americans in Higher Education. (United States)

    Cross, Theodore L.; And Others


    Presents a statistical record of the progress of African Americans in institutions of higher education in the United States. Statistics include trends in black enrollment, library resources in historically black colleges, leading foundation grants, blacks in business schools, and comparative analysis of Asian Americans and blacks in higher…

  17. Decline of African American Enlistment in the United States Army (United States)


    be considered equal men. Racially motivated slander, bigotry, and condemnation of African Americans’ wartime service plagued the Army at the... workplace . The Vietnam Era Veterans’ Readjustment Assistance Act of 1974 was another program that assisted Vietnam Veterans in education and job placement...programs, which are now nearly extinct , gave priority to hiring of minorities and offering government contracts to African American businesses. Many

  18. Critical Postcolonial Dance Pedagogy: The Relevance of West African Dance Education in the United States (United States)

    Cruz Banks, Ojeya


    This dance ethnography examines work conducted by the Dambe Project--a nonprofit organization that specializes in African performing arts education and mentorship. The study focuses on the implications of the organization's dance pedagogy in light of its postcolonial context and the importance of West African dance education in the United States.…

  19. Agriculture, development and international trade: Lessons to be learned from the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union

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    Koning, N.B.J.


    In 2005, the Economic Union of West African States (ECOWAS) decided to create a common agricultural policy (ECOWAP), with food sovereignty and the promotion of efficient family farms as its main aims. The structure and instruments of the policy still have to be elaborated. Because the ECOWAS countri

  20. The Universal Jurisdiction of South African Criminal Courts and Immunities of Foreign State Officials

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    Full Text Available Under the "complementarity" regime of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC, the jurisdiction of the ICC is secondary to the jurisdiction of domestic courts. States Parties, not the ICC, have the primary responsibility of investigating and prosecuting international crimes. The ICC acts only when States are "unable" or "unwilling" to prosecute. As a State Party, in order to give effect to the complementarity principle, South Africa enacted the Implementation of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Act 27 of 2002, which determines the modalities of prosecuting perpetrators of the crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes in South African courts. The Implementation Act also provides that South African courts will have jurisdiction over these crimes not only when they are committed on the territory of South Africa but also when they are committed outside the Republic. By granting South African courts jurisdiction over a person who commits a crime outside the Republic when that person is later found on South African territory, without regard to that person's nationality or the nationality of the victims, the Implementation Act empowers South African courts with universal jurisdiction over international crimes. This paper seeks to determine whether and to what extent foreign State officials, such as foreign heads of State, heads of government and ministers of foreign affairs, can plead immunity when they are accused of international crimes before South African courts when exercising their universal jurisdiction in terms of the Implementation Act and in accordance with the complementarity regime of the Rome Statute. In other words, the article endeavours to determine whether international law rules regarding immunities of State officials may or may not limit the ability of South African courts to exercise universal jurisdiction over international crimes committed in foreign States.

  1. Africans’ Perception of the United States’ Post-9/11 Africa Policy and Africom (United States)


    United States and Croatia than Senegal and Ethiopia. Another difficulty is to isolate the anti- neocolonialism factor and set it aside, as this thesis...entwined. However, anti- neocolonialism should not be underestimated, as non-Africans often tend to do, for it is probably one of the most powerful driving...interference in internal affairs, to the sovereignty of the African nations, and the denunciation of neocolonialism . Beijing also remembers that the

  2. United States-South African Relations: The Challenge for AFRICOM (United States)


    line]; available from Jane’; accessed 8 December 2007. 46 Nyirabu, 27-28. 47 Kent Hughes Butts and Paul R. Thomas, The Geopolitics of Southern...Africa: South Africa as a Regional Superpower (Boulder, Colorado, West View Press, 1986)1, 170. 48 Robert S. Chase, Emily B. Hill, and Paul Kennedy...16. 70 Neethling, 59. 71 Helmoed- Romer Heitman, Jane’s, The South African Army Outlines Vision 2020 Force Design Implementation,” (19 September

  3. Vital Signs: The Current State of African Americans in Higher Education. (United States)

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2000


    Presents a statistical record of the progress of African Americans in higher education, offering: the Black-White Higher Education Equality Index; statistics that measure racial inequality; states in which black college enrollments are expected to grow over the next 15 years; and differences among the states in their percentages of low-income…

  4. Spread of Africanized Honey Bees in the United States - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the spread, by year, of the Africanized honey bee (AHB) in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data indicate the...

  5. Minority language, ethnicity and the state in two African situations : the Nkoya and the Kalanga of Botswana

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    Binsbergen, van W.M.J.; Fardon, R.; Furniss, G.


    The chapters in this collection record a workshop held at the School of Oriental and African Studies, in April 1991, on African languages, development and the State. The book is divided into an introductory chapter, by Richard Fardon and Graham Furniss, and three parts. Part 1, West Africa, contains

  6. Counterterrorism in African Failed States: Challenges and Potential Solutions (United States)


    observed in these three failed states were able to operate without attracting the attention or effective sanction of the United States or its allies...anecdotal rather than quantitative in methology .14 Sageman’s two-celled terrorist model discriminates between “hubs” and “nodes” in describing the... observing “its lack of a functioning central government” and “the absence of functioning police, immigration, customs, and intelligence agencies

  7. Analysis of West African Drug Trafficking: The Dynamics of Interdiction and State Capacity (United States)


    cultivator of cannabis that is mostly for local consumption as are several West African nations. Local demand for cocaine is growing, but still...Bahamas, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Jamaica , Panama and Venezuela. United States, Government Accountability Office, “Drug...DV) is cocaine arrests/seizures, as this is the most reliable source of the surge in trafficking between 2005 and 2007. Heroin and cannabis will be

  8. Introduction: Agents of Change? Staging and Governing Diasporas and the African State

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    Turner, Simon; Kleist, Nauja


    , state responses, neoliberalism, depoliticisation, and mistrust. We thereby aim to establish an analytical framework that focuses on how various actors stage, govern, and seek to instrumentalise so-called diaspora involvement. Two central questions arise: Are we witnessing an anti-politics machine...... and knowledge transfer. This Introduction seeks to scrutinise critically these processes, examining issues of governance and categorisation in relation to African states and diasporas. We explore the theoretical and political implications of the emergence of diasporas in relation to questions of hybridity...

  9. African American women's experience of infection with HIV in the rural southeastern United States. (United States)

    Mallory, Caroline


    The design of effective behavioral interventions to prevent HIV infection among African American women requires a more complete understanding of the context and circumstances that precipitate infection with the virus. A descriptive study was designed to explore African American women's experiences of infection with HIV in the rural southeastern United States. Ten women living with HIV participated in interviews. All were infected through sex with a man or men; three had engaged in high-risk activities associated with HIV infection including sex trading; seven described themselves as at low risk for infection related to serial monogamy, no injection drug use, and no history of addiction. Participants reported that desire for intimacy coupled with inaccurate risk appraisal of sex partners contributed to their infection. These results provide insight into the role of intimacy in sexual risk taking. Inquiry into how women can be assisted to protect themselves in the context of intimate relationships may improve interventions to prevent HIV.

  10. Buying intoformalization? State institutions and interlocked markets in African small-scale gold mining

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    Fold, Niels; Jønsson, Jesper Bosse; Yankson, Paul


    . This paper argues that future research and design of policy mechanisms needs to focus on the inter-linkages of actors and material flows within the complex intertwinement of the formal and informal ASM sectors. Our point of departure is the findings on interlocked markets within the literature on rural...... dependency relations, barriers for poverty eradication and agricultural development. The paper outlines the previous debate on formalization and maps out the territorial and organizational configuration of the present ASM gold chain in Tanzania and Ghana. On this basis we maintain that state action...... is inevitable and suggest possible institutional mechanisms to set up incentives for possible formalization pathways for African ASM gold chains....

  11. Universal jurisdiction under attack: an assessment of African misgivings towards international criminal justice as administered by Western states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wilt, H.G.


    This article discusses the current criticism, expressed by African states and institutions, of the exercise of universal jurisdiction by Western states, accusing the latter of overstepping their lawful powers, as well as practicing ‘legal colonialism’. In order to gauge whether this criticism is war

  12. Trypanosomiasis in Red Sokoto and West African Dwarf Goats at Ikpa Abattoir, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

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    Okafor Obioma Juliet


    Full Text Available Goat serves as a major investment to most homes in Nigeria, mainly for provision of animal protein and income. The output of this animal is disturbed by Tsetse infestation which is the primary vector of Trypanosome. A survey of Trypanosomiasis of goat in Ikpa abattoir Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria was carried out between September and October 2010. This was aimed at determining the species of Trypanosome prevalent in the area and their infection rates among breeds of goat. 106 goats were sampled, among which 15(14.1% were positive for Trypanosome infection. The infection rates among the goat breeds were; Sokoto red (10.4% and West African Dwarf Goat (50.0%. The species of Trypanosome encountered were Trypanosoma vivax(66.7% and Trypanosoma brucei (33.3%. In the infection by sex, this was common among female goats in the various breeds examined and this stood as follows; 9.4% in Sokoto red and 4.7% in West African Dwarf goat. Considering the overall infection rate of Trypanosome in the breeds of goat in the study area, this was relatively high when compared with similar results in related areas; chemo prophylactic and insect control measures should be put in place to rescue the area.

  13. Child fosterage in the United States: signs of an African heritage. (United States)

    Miller, A T


    "The presence of significant numbers of family and household structures among African Americans...[differs] from traditional Euro-American models.... The recently developed U.S. Census public use samples and measures oriented to the practices of informal child fosterage are used to examine and compare these different bases of family life. Data from the turn of the century provide some historical distance from previous explanations of difference centered on slavery, or explanations that focus on contemporary social issues such as urban problems or the welfare state. Comparisons with studies of the contemporary U.S., Africa, the Caribbean, and historical materials give broader scope to fosterage analysis and to the consideration of cultural family differences."

  14. African swine fever virus: current state and future perspectives in vaccine and antiviral research. (United States)

    Zakaryan, Hovakim; Revilla, Yolanda


    African swine fever (ASF) is among the most significant of swine diseases for which no effective vaccines and antivirals are available. The disease, which is endemic in Africa, was introduced to Trans-Caucasian countries and the Russian Federation in 2007, where it remains prevalent today among domestic pigs and wild boars. Although some measures were implemented, ASF continues to pose a global risk for all countries, and thereby highlighting the importance of vaccine and antiviral research. In this review, an overview of research efforts toward the development of effective vaccines during the past decades is presented. As an alternative to vaccine development, the current state in antiviral research against ASFV is also presented. Finally, future perspectives in vaccine and antiviral research giving emphasis on some strategies that may allow researchers to develop effective countermeasures against ASF are discussed.

  15. Images of safe tourism destinations in the United States held by African Americans

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    Bingjie Liu


    Full Text Available Ensuring a safe destination is an essential factor in travelers’ decision-making, as well as a destination’s success. Recent crises have threatened perceptions of safety related to tourism. Under such circumstances, negative destination images might be produced and destination choices might be altered. Thus, understanding the effect of risk perceptions on destination image is a necessary researchstream. This study examined African American travelers’ perceptions of safety related to the top three state tourism destinations in the USA. Factors that influenced perceptions of a safe destination varied among the destinations. Consistently, however, past travel experience and the perception of the likelihood of health-related crisis were significant predictors of perceptions of a safe destination

  16. Skills Needed by Secondary School Graduates for Breeding and Rearing of Giant African Land Snail (GALS) in Ebonyi State (United States)

    Ogba, Ernest Ituma; Ndem, Joseph Uka


    The purpose of the study is to identify the skills required by secondary school Graduates for breeding and rearing Giant African Land Snail (GALS) in Ebonyi State. Three research questions guided the study. The design was descriptive survey. The total population was 254 agricultural science Teachers in junior and senior secondary schools in Ebonyi…

  17. The State and Water Resources Development through the Lens of History: A South African Case Study

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    Larry A. Swatuk


    Full Text Available This article sets contemporary challenges to good water governance in South Africa within an important historical context. While it is correct to say that 'the world water crisis is a crisis of governance', it is problematic to assume that all states can follow a similar path toward environmentally sustainable, economically efficient and socially equitable water resources governance and management. The nexus of decision-making power varies within and beyond states, and over time. Gramsci (1971 describes this as the "constellation of social forces". Where this constellation of social forces achieves consensus, a 'historic bloc' is said to emerge giving rise to a particular state form. The South African state form has varied greatly over several centuries, giving rise to various historic blocs. The resulting body of laws and policies and the varied forms of infrastructure that were developed to harness water for multiple social practices over time constitute a complex political ecological terrain not easily amenable to oversimplified frameworks for good water governance. This article outlines the role of water in the history of South Africa’s multiple state forms. It shows that over time, water policy, law and institutions came to reflect the increasingly complex needs of multiple actors (agriculture, mining, industry, cities, the newly enfranchised represented by different state forms and their characteristic political regimes: the Dutch East India Company; the British Empire; the Union of South Africa; the apartheid and post-apartheid republics. Authoritarian, semi-authoritarian and democratic state forms have all used central-state power to serve particular interests. Through time, this constellation of social forces has widened until, today, the state has taken upon itself the task of providing "some water for all forever" (slogan of the Department of Water Affairs. As this article suggests, despite the difficult challenges presented by a

  18. The African Americanization of menthol cigarette use in the United States. (United States)

    Gardiner, Phillip S


    Today, over 70% of African American smokers prefer menthol cigarettes, compared with 30% of White smokers. This unique social phenomenon was principally occasioned by the tobacco industry's masterful manipulation of the burgeoning Black, urban, segregated, consumer market in the 1960s. Through the use of television and other advertising media, coupled with culturally tailored images and messages, the tobacco industry "African Americanized" menthol cigarettes. The tobacco industry successfully positioned mentholated products, especially Kool, as young, hip, new, and healthy. During the time that menthols were gaining a large market share in the African American community, the tobacco industry donated funds to African American organizations hoping to blunt the attack on their products. Many of the findings in this article are drawn from the tobacco industry documents disclosed following the Master Settlement Agreement in 1998. After a short review of the origins and growth of menthols, this article examines some key social factors that, when considered together, led to disproportionate use of mentholated cigarettes by African Americans compared with other Americans. Unfortunately, the long-term impact of the industry's practice in this community may be partly responsible for the disproportionately high tobacco-related disease and mortality among African Americans generally and African American males particularly.


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    Phazha Jimmy Ngandwe


    Full Text Available The "paradox of migration and the interests of the atomistic nation-states" interrogates the phenomenon of migration in general and in the Southern African Development Community in particular. The point of departure of the paper is the African Union and the Southern African Development Community’s legal framework on migration, as read with the national legal instruments of the different member states. Its focal point is the raison d’être of this phenomenon of migration and the corresponding approaches and attitudes of the nation-states within which migration takes place inter se. This includes the psycho-social impact of migration. Internationally as well as regionally, States are concerned with issues of sovereignty, the preservation of the welfare of the citizenry, ensuring social cohesion social, cultural and economic development including job creation, and fighting against transnational organised crime, including terrorism. The theme of the paper is that whereas migration should form the bedrock of regionalism and globalisation, the negative attitudes of the nation-states to migration are more often than not at variance with the objectives of regionalism and globalisation. The central question of the research is how states can discharge their duties and obligations vis-à-vis their nationals without perpetuating the bottlenecks to and the stigma that attaches to migration and thereby upsetting the international as well as regional integration objectives of the free movement of people. This is the issue that the paper is intended to explore. The main areas of concern are that the negative attitudes of the nation-states are manifested in the hostile treatment of migrants at all ports of entry, including illegal or ungazetted points of entry, within the nation-states in general, and in their labour markets in particular. This research therefore explores the paradoxical nature of the duties and responsibilities of states within the

  20. African palm in Los Rios Province of Ecuador: agrobusiness, the state and violation of peasants´ rights

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    Natalia Landívar


    Full Text Available This article provides an analysis of the African palm cluster in the upper region of Los Rios province, and is an emblematic case that reveals the current condition of the power exerted by agro-business in Ecuador. As the analysis of the various actors of the cluster demonstrates, this sector has relied on strong state support, as a result of coalitions between State and a handful of big companies that concentrate the sector’s income and result in the violation of peasant and small producers Human Rights. This process, apparently, hides the historical discrimination towards this constituency and perpetuates historical disadvantages and social debts in our society.

  1. Catalyzing Gender Equality-Focused Clean Energy Development in West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Regional Center for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (ECREEE) partnered with the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center), the African Development Bank and other institutions to develop a Situation Analysis of Energy and Gender Issues in ECOWAS Member States. Through a systematic approach to assess interlinked gender and energy issues in the region, the report puts forth a number of key findings. This brochure highlights ECREEE's partnership with the Solutions Center and key findings from the report.

  2. Culture and Dental Health among African Immigrant School-Aged Children in the United States (United States)

    Obeng, Cecilia S.


    Purpose: The paper examines African immigrant parents' views on dental decay and whether such views affect their decision to obtain dental insurance for their children. The paper also examines the cultural underpinnings of the immigrants' oral health care practices. Design/methodology/approach: The data for the study were collected in the states…

  3. The politics of African energy development: Ethiopia's hydro-agricultural state-building strategy and clashing paradigms of water security. (United States)

    Verhoeven, Harry


    As key economic, ecological and demographic trends converge to reshape Africa and its relationship with the outside world, a new politics is emerging in the twenty-first century around the water-food-energy nexus, which is central to the continent's relevance in the global economy. On the one hand, Malthusian anxieties are proliferating; pessimists link population growth and growing water scarcity to state failure and 'water wars'. On the other hand, entrepreneurs, sovereign wealth funds and speculators consider Africa's potential in water resources, energy production and food output as one of the last great untapped opportunities for the global economy: Africa is on the brink of an agro-industrial transformation. This article examines how African actors are not merely responding to economic and environmental changes but also thinking politically about water, food and energy security. Many of them are seizing the new opportunities to redefine their national politics, their relationship with local communities and their ties with external players, regionally and globally. Ethiopia's project of hydro-agricultural state-building helps to identify the most important fault lines of this new politics at the national, local and international level. The politics of water security and energy development simultaneously puts African states and their populations on the defensive, as they grapple with huge challenges, but also provides them with unique opportunities to take advantage of a more favourable global configuration of forces.

  4. Natural occurrence of Diplostomum spp. in farm-raised African catfish (Clarias gariepinus from Oyo state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeshina Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Diplostomum species are the parasites responsible for diplostomiasis in fish which may cause blindness, eyefluke, severe ocular disease, opacity of the lens and many other affections. The parasites use many organisms including fish as a host. African catfish is one of the widely distributed fish species in tropical Africa and has become one of the most important culturable fish species in Africa especially in Nigeria. This study examined the occurrence of Diplostomum species in farm raised African catfish in Oyo state. A total of two hundred and sixteen eye samples were collected from 108 fishes in 36 farms. The eye lens and vitreous body were examined for the presence of Diplostomum species. The data obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis to the relationship between the eye size and parasite occurrence. The result shows that 33.18% of the samples had Diplostomum species. Males had higher occurrence (23.53% than the females (9.65%. There were statistically significant differences in the percentage, intensity and index of infection between males and females (p = 0.010, p = 0.003, and p = 0.012 respectively while the density of infection between both sexes was not statistically significant (p = 0.063. The relationship between eye diameter and occurrence of the parasites shows positive relationship Pearson correlation (R2 = 0.125. In conclusion, Diplostomum species are present in farm raised African catfish in Oyo state-Nigeria with a positive relationship between the eye diameter and occurrence of the parasites.

  5. Mixing state of aerosols and direct observation of carbonaceous and marine coatings on African dust by individual particle analysis (United States)

    Deboudt, Karine; Flament, Pascal; ChoëL, Marie; Gloter, Alexandre; Sobanska, Sophie; Colliex, Christian


    The mixing state of aerosols collected at M'Bour, Senegal, during the Special Observing Period conducted in January-February 2006 (SOP-0) of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis project (AMMA), was studied by individual particle analysis. The sampling location on the Atlantic coast is particularly adapted for studying the mixing state of tropospheric aerosols since it is (1) located on the path of Saharan dust plumes transported westward over the northern tropical Atlantic, (2) influenced by biomass burning events particularly frequent from December to March, and (3) strongly influenced by anthropogenic emissions from polluted African cities. Particle size, morphology, and chemical composition were determined for 12,672 particles using scanning electron microscopy (automated SEM-EDX). Complementary analyses were performed using transmission electron microscopy combined with electron energy loss spectrometry (TEM-EELS) and Raman microspectrometry. Mineral dust and carbonaceous and marine compounds were predominantly found externally mixed, i.e., not present together in the same particles. Binary internally mixed particles, i.e., dust/carbonaceous, carbonaceous/marine, and dust/marine mixtures, accounted for a significant fraction of analyzed particles (from 10.5% to 46.5%). Western Sahara was identified as the main source of mineral dust. Two major types of carbonaceous particles were identified: "tar balls" probably coming from biomass burning emissions and soot from anthropogenic emissions. Regarding binary internally mixed particles, marine and carbonaceous compounds generally formed a coating on mineral dust particles. The carbonaceous coating observed at the particle scale on African dust was evidenced by the combined use of elemental and molecular microanalysis techniques, with the identification of an amorphous rather than crystallized carbon structure.

  6. Concentration of trace element in milk of West African dwarf goats affected by state of lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinsoyinu, A.O.; Tewe, O.O.; Mba, A.U.


    Ten adult West African dwarf (Fouta djallon) does about 2 yr old and weighing from 22 to 28 kg were kept for two lactations with 18 wk per lactation. During these periods the does were handmilked twice daily, and the daily samples were bulked for each animal for subsequent chemical analysis. Each goat was fed Cynodon nlemfuensis ad libitum and 1 kg of dairy concentrate mixture daily. Colostrum contained (mg/liter) much higher iron, 2.46 +- .27; copper, 3.14 +- .12; manganese, .20 +- .03; zinc, 14.11 +- .45; and iodine, 319.69 +- 14.13 mg/liter than the corresponding values in mature milk which were .43 +- .12; .28 +- .20; .5 +- .04; 4.01 +- .51, and 108.52 +- 28.25. These elements in the colostrum approached normal values between the 5th and 6th day after parturition. The concentration decreased with advance in lactation except for zinc.

  7. Trends and changes in the system of higher education in the United States for African-Americans and Hispanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattie Golubov


    Full Text Available Using a wide variety of statistical sources, particularly those created by government agencies in the United States of America (USA, this article offers a descriptive overview of the insertion of ethnic and racial minorities in the USA higher education system. This process illustrates more profound and general changes within USA society, which have a specific though not exclusive origin in the social transformations that began in the 1960’s and were consolidated in the 1970’s. These changes gave rise to a new polítical, social and cultural space for African-Americans, who waged a powerful battle to gain political and civil rights, which were then extended to the Hispanic population.

  8. Slavery, the Civil War Era, and African American Representation in U.S. History: An Analysis of Four States' Academic Standards (United States)

    Anderson, Carl B.; Metzger, Scott Alan


    This study is a mixed-methods text analysis of African American representation within K-12 U.S. History content standards treating the revolutionary era, the early U.S. republic, the Civil War era, and Reconstruction. The states included in the analysis are Michigan, New Jersey, South Carolina, and Virginia. The analysis finds that the reviewed…

  9. Review: Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhart Kößler


    Full Text Available Review of the monograph:Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa, Potsdam: Potsdam University Press, 2013, ISBN 9783869562483, 300 pp.

  10. The role of the United States Supreme court in securing African Americans’ Civil rights in 1945–1952

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sementsov Nikolay Yur’evich


    Full Text Available The article dwells on the major United States Supreme court decisions that influenced African Americans’ civil rights progress in 1945-1952. These decisions referred racial segregation in transportation, education, housing and the election system. The Supreme Court reconsidered the federal power in civil rights protection against violations by states, local authorities and private persons. The issue is studied with a brief regard of previous court practice. The study concludes that a significant change in Supreme Court approach to the issue of race took place in 1945–1952. The cases examined allow determining the reasons of the change. They were the new international conditions and the policy of the national executive power. The first one is connected with the international condemnation of Nazi ideology as well as with the need to concur Soviet influence on the new independent sates inhabited by representatives of non-white races. The domestic reason is connected with the personality of president Harry S.Truman. He claimed officially for civil rights reform and turned the attention of all state powers, including the judicial one, to the issue. He gathered a special committee to make recommendations on the civil rights reform. It was also Truman who had formed the personal membership of Supreme court and pointed liberal judge Fred Winson as the court president. Some states had also prepared the basis for the court’s decisions by taking some non-discriminatory measures. The article also includes the comparative evaluation of the Supreme Court and other United States institutions performance in the issue of civil rights. The performance of Congress is determined as incommensurably lower than that of Supreme court. The Supreme Court appearance is regarded as a prerequisite for the followed civil rights movement. But strong opposition of southern states representatives indicated future difficulties of such actions.

  11. A survey of West African Dwarf (WAD goats enterprises in Lafia area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ishaq Ibrahim


    Full Text Available West African Dwarf (WAD Goat enterprises were studied using data collected from 120 households where goats are kept. The result revealed that majority of the households heads were male and married, with an average of 46 years and had up to eight years experience in goat production. A very few were members of cooperative societies. Contact with extension agents by the respondents was also minimal, while 40% rear goats for both home consumption and income generation. Goats were kept by the respondents under semi intensive and extensive feeding systems. The average number of goats kept per household was 12. Majority of the respondents sell their goats at home and the selling price was determined by the prevailing market price or by reproductive value. Feed shortage was the major constraint militating against goat production in the study area. There is a high potential to increase the productivity of goats if the technical and managerial constraints can be solved by providing better quality feeds and improved extension service delivery.

  12. The Effect of China’s Scramble for Resources and African Resource Nationalism on the Supply of Strategic Southern African Minerals: What Can the United States Do? (United States)


    seek to dominate the South African mining industry and minerals and metals markets. For Southern Africa, resource nationalism and demand from China...that major changes would be taking place in Namibia’s previously tranquil mining industry . In May 2011 the Namibian government acted, contrary to the...the mining industry , a disincentive for investors, and a source of continued decline for South Africa’s mining industry . The 2010/2011 Fraser

  13. Measuring Multi-Membership in Economic Integration and Its Trade Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afesorgbor, Sylvanus Kwaku; van Bergeijk, Peter A.G.


    impact in two major African regional blocs, Economic Community of West Africa States (ECOWAS) and Southern Africa Development Community (SADC). We find that the impact of multi-membership critically depends on the characteristics of the multi-membership of regional integration initiatives. We find...... a positive impact if an additional membership complements the integration process of the original regional integration initiative: overlapping memberships had a much stronger and significant positive effect on bilateral trade within ECOWAS compare with an insignificant impact within the SADC....

  14. The Experience of African Students Studying Nursing in the United States in Relation to Their Use of Critical Thinking (United States)

    Tyson, Donald Lee


    This qualitative study explores the critical thinking experiences of African nursing students enrolled in several universities in the U.S. Using a semi-structured interview approach, twelve African students discussed their experiences using and learning a western critical thinking approach, as well as described their educational experiences in…

  15. Historical volcanism and the state of stress in the East African Rift System (United States)

    Wadge, Geoffrey; Biggs, Juliet; Lloyd, Ryan; Kendall, Michael


    Crustal extension at the East African Rift System (EARS) should, as a tectonic ideal, involve a stress field in which the direction of minimum horizontal stress is perpendicular to the rift. A volcano in such a setting should produce dykes and fissures parallel to the rift. How closely do the volcanoes of the EARS follow this? We answer this question by studying the 21 volcanoes that have erupted historically (since about 1800) and find that 7 match the (approximate) geometrical ideal. At the other 14 volcanoes the orientation of the eruptive fissures/dykes and/or the axes of the host rift segments are oblique to the ideal values. To explain the eruptions at these volcanoes we invoke local (non-plate tectonic) variations of the stress field caused by: crustal heterogeneities and anisotropies (dominated by NW structures in the Protoerozoic basement), transfer zone tectonics at the ends of offset rift segments, gravitational loading by the volcanic edifice (typically those with 1-2 km relief) and magmatic pressure in central reservoirs. We find that the more oblique volcanoes tend to have large edifices, large eruptive volumes and evolved and mixed magmas capable of explosive behaviour. Nine of the volcanoes have calderas of varying ellipticity, 6 of which are large, reservoir-collapse types mainly elongated across rift (e.g. Kone) and 3 are smaller, elongated parallel to the rift and contain active lava lakes (e.g. Erta Ale), suggesting different mechanisms of formation and stress fields. Nyamuragira is the only EARS volcano with enough sufficiently well-documented eruptions to infer its long-term dynamic behaviour. Eruptions within 7 km of the volcano are of relatively short duration (<100 days), but eruptions with more distal fissures tend to have greater obliquity and longer durations, indicating a changing stress field away from the volcano. There were major changes in long-term magma extrusion rates in 1977 (and perhaps in 2002) due to major along-rift dyking

  16. Historical volcanism and the state of stress in the East African Rift System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Wadge


    Full Text Available Crustal extension at the East African Rift System (EARS should, as a tectonic ideal, involve a stress field in which the direction of minimum horizontal stress is perpendicular to the rift. A volcano in such a setting should produce dykes and fissures parallel to the rift. How closely do the volcanoes of the EARS follow this? We answer this question by studying the 21 volcanoes that have erupted historically (since about 1800 and find that 7 match the (approximate geometrical ideal. At the other 14 volcanoes the orientation of the eruptive fissures/dykes and/or the axes of the host rift segments are oblique to the ideal values. To explain the eruptions at these volcanoes we invoke local (non-plate tectonic variations of the stress field caused by: crustal heterogeneities and anisotropies (dominated by NW structures in the Protoerozoic basement, transfer zone tectonics at the ends of offset rift segments, gravitational loading by the volcanic edifice (typically those with 1-2 km relief and magmatic pressure in central reservoirs. We find that the more oblique volcanoes tend to have large edifices, large eruptive volumes and evolved and mixed magmas capable of explosive behaviour. Nine of the volcanoes have calderas of varying ellipticity, 6 of which are large, reservoir-collapse types mainly elongated across rift (e.g. Kone and 3 are smaller, elongated parallel to the rift and contain active lava lakes (e.g. Erta Ale, suggesting different mechanisms of formation and stress fields. Nyamuragira is the only EARS volcano with enough sufficiently well-documented eruptions to infer its long-term dynamic behaviour. Eruptions within 7 km of the volcano are of relatively short duration (<100 days, but eruptions with more distal fissures tend to have greater obliquity and longer durations, indicating a changing stress field away from the volcano. There were major changes in long-term magma extrusion rates in 1977 (and perhaps in 2002 due to major along


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins ADJEI MENSAH


    Full Text Available Integrating green spaces such as parks and gardens into the physical landscape of cities has been identified to enhance the health and wellbeing of urban dwellers. This paper assesses the state of green spaces in Kumasi city (Ghana, once known as the garden city of West Africa. Using a case study approach, a mixture of qualitative research techniques were employed whilst a set of eight themes were put together to guide the assessment. In all, green spaces were found to be in poor state. With the exception of conservation and heritage theme, the remaining seven themes that were used for the assessment all found the green spaces to be in poor state. It is therefore recommended that there should be an attitudinal change towards the maintenance of green spaces, the application of a collaborative governance approach, and priority giving to green spaces in all development agendas by city authorities.

  18. African Literature


    Recek, Denis


    The topic of this diploma is the formation and shaping of African literature. The first chapter is about the beginning of African literature. It describes oral literature and its transmission into written literature. Written African literature had great problems in becoming a part of world literature because of its diversity of languages and dialects. Christianity and Islam are mentioned as two religions which had a great impact on African literature. Colonialism is broadly described as an es...

  19. Prostate cancer chemoprevention in men of African descent: current state of the art and opportunities for future research. (United States)

    Chornokur, Ganna; Kumar, Nagi B


    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in men. However, African American/Black men are 60 % more likely to be diagnosed with and 2.4 times more likely to die from prostate cancer, compared to Non-Hispanic White men. Despite the increased burden of this malignancy, no evidence-based recommendation regarding prostate cancer screening exists for the high-risk population. Moreover, in addition to screening and detection, African American men may constitute a prime population for chemoprevention. Early detection and chemoprevention may thus represent an integral part of prostate cancer control in this population. Importantly, recent research has elucidated biological differences in the prostate tumors of African American compared to European American men. The latter may enable a more favorable response in African American men to specific chemopreventive agents that target relevant signal transduction pathways. Based on this evolving evidence, the aims of this review are threefold. First, we aim to summarize the biological differences that were reported in the prostate tumors of African American and European American men. Second, we will review the single- and multi-target chemopreventive agents placing specific emphasis on the pathways implicated in prostate carcinogenesis. And lastly, we will discuss the most promising nutraceutical chemopreventive compounds. Our review underscores the promise of chemoprevention in prostate cancer control, as well as provides justification for further investment in this filed to ultimately reduce prostate cancer morbidity and mortality in this high-risk population of African American men.

  20. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September. This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,aleading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  1. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September.This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,a leading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging: Clinical experience with an open low-field-strength scanner in a resource challenged African state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G I Ogbole


    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the fact that an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been in clinical use for over 20 years, its use and availability in Nigeria, a West African state, is still extremely low. Hence, only few publications are available on the clinical experience with MRI from Nigeria. We set out to evaluate our initial clinical experience with a low-field-strength MRI in a Nigeria′s foremost university hospital. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of all studies, performed with an open 0.2 Tesla MAGNETOM Concerto (Siemens Medical MRI scanner over a 5-year period (2006 - 2010 was conducted. All patients with complete records were evaluated for their clinical and demographic characteristics. Results: The records of 799 MRI studies were available. Patients′ ages ranged from 1 day to 90 years, with a mean of 40.1 years (± 20.7 SD. There were 463 (57.9% males and 336 (42.1% females. Over 90% of the studies were requested to evaluate brain or spine lesions. Low back pain represented the commonest (161/799, 20.7% clinical indication for MRI. The largest number of patients was referred by physicians from surgical specialties (65.6%. Conclusion: The awareness and competence for proper use of MRI in Nigeria appears high. Low back pain is the commonest indication for MRI in our institution, and surgeons make a greater use of the facility. The provision of high-signal strength MRI may be beneficial in making a wider range of applications available to clinicians.

  3. Institution Building for African Regionalism


    Khadiagala, Gilbert M.


    Since the 1960s, African states have embraced regional integration as a vital mechanism for political cooperation and for pooling resources to overcome problems of small and fragmented economies. In building meaningful institutions for regionalism, however, Africans have faced the challenges of reconciling the diversities of culture, geography, and politics. As a result, African regional institutions are characterized by multiple and competing mandates and weak institutionalization. This stud...

  4. East African institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja

    For the past decade security in East Africa has gained focus internationally. However there is a growing ambition among African states to handle such issues by themselves, sometimes through regional institutions. This has been supported by many Western states but potential risks are often forgotten....

  5. The sexually active states of free-ranging male African elephants (Loxodonta africana): defining musth and non-musth using endocrinology, physical signals, and behavior. (United States)

    Ganswindt, André; Rasmussen, Henrik B; Heistermann, Michael; Hodges, J Keith


    Musth in male African elephants, Loxodonta africana, is associated with increased aggressive behavior, continuous discharge of urine, copious secretions from the swollen temporal glands, and elevated androgen levels. During musth, bulls actively seek out and are preferred by estrous females although sexual activity is not restricted to the musth condition. The present study combines recently established methods of fecal hormone analysis with long-term observations on male-female associations as well as the presence and intensity of physical signals to provide a more detailed picture about the physical, physiological, and behavioral characteristics of different states of sexual activity in free-ranging African elephants. Based on quantitative shifts in individual bull association patterns, the presence of different physical signals, and significant differences in androgen levels, a total of three potential sub-categories for sexually active bulls could be established. The results demonstrate that elevations in androgen levels are only observed in sexually active animals showing temporal gland secretion and/or urine dribbling, but are not related to the age of the individual. Further, none of the sexually active states showed elevated glucocorticoid output indicating that musth does not represent an HPA-mediated stress condition. On the basis of these results, we suggest that the term "musth" should be exclusively used for the competitive state in sexually active male elephants and that the presence of urine dribbling should be the physical signal used for defining this state.

  6. The New African Civil-Military Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on the African continent to embark upon the New African Civil Military Relations (ACMR). In the last decade and half, the implosion of African states exposed to forces of democratization has escalated, manifest in Algeria, Egypt, Mali, Madagascar, Somalia, South Sudan, Central African Republic and Lesotho...... accorded the responsibility of organizing a Session on ACMR. From amongst some of the exciting Abstracts presented, authors submitted these as full chapters for this book which captures International African Studies Perspectives, managed by the African Public Policy & Research Institute (APPRI...

  7. Efficacy of HIV/STI behavioral interventions for heterosexual African American men in the United States: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Henny, Kirk D; Crepaz, Nicole; Lyles, Cynthia M; Marshall, Khiya J; Aupont, Latrina W; Jacobs, Elizabeth D; Liau, Adrian; Rama, Sima; Kay, Linda S; Willis, Leigh A; Charania, Mahnaz R


    This meta-analysis estimates the overall efficacy of HIV prevention interventions to reduce HIV sexual risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among heterosexual African American men. A comprehensive search of the literature published during 1988-2008 yielded 44 relevant studies. Interventions significantly reduced HIV sexual risk behaviors and STIs. The stratified analysis for HIV sexual risk behaviors indicated that interventions were efficacious for studies specifically targeting African American men and men with incarceration history. In addition, interventions that had provision/referral of medical services, male facilitators, shorter follow-up periods, or emphasized the importance of protecting family and significant others were associated with reductions in HIV sexual risk behaviors. Meta-regression analyses indicated that the most robust intervention component is the provision/referral of medical services. Findings indicate that HIV interventions for heterosexual African American men might be more efficacious if they incorporated a range of health care services rather than HIV/STI-related services alone.

  8. A Public Health Priority: Disparities in Gynecologic Cancer Research for African-Born Women in the United States (United States)

    Pinder, Leeya F.; Nelson, Brett D.; Eckardt, Melody; Goodman, Annekathryn


    African-born immigrants comprise one of the fastest growing populations in the U.S., nearly doubling its population size in recent years. However, it is also one of the most underrepresented groups in health-care research, especially research focused on gynecologic and breast malignancies. While the opportunity exists for access to an advanced health-care system, as immigrants migrate to the U.S., they encounter the same health-care inequalities that are faced by the native-born population based on ethnicity and social class, potentiated by limitations of health literacy and lack of familiarity with U.S. health systems. Given the continued influx of African-born immigrants in the U.S., we sought to understand the representation of this population in cervical and breast cancer research, recognizing the population’s high risk for these diseases at baseline while residing in their native countries. We determined that there is limited research in these diseases that disproportionately affect them; yet, there are identifiable and potentially modifiable factors that contribute to this paucity of evidence. This clinical commentary seeks to underscore the clear lack of research available involving African-born immigrants with respect to gynecologic and breast malignancies in the existing literature, demonstrate the need for more robust research in this population, and provide fundamental insights into barriers and solutions critical to the continued health of this growing population. PMID:27499654

  9. Beyond Marikana: The Post-Apartheid South African State Jenseits von Marikana: Der Post-Apartheid-Staat in Südafrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwas Satgar


    Full Text Available This article situates the Marikana massacre, in which 34 mine workers were gunned down by police in South Africa, in the context of what the South African state has become, and questions the characterisation of the post-Apartheid state as a “developmental state”. This contribution first highlights what is at stake when the post-Apartheid state is portrayed as a “developmental state” and how this misrecognition of the state is ideologically constituted. Second, it argues for an approach to understanding the post-Apartheid state by locating it within the context of the rise of transnational neoliberalism and the process of indigenising neoliberalism on the African continent. Third, it examines the actual economic practices of the state that constitute it as an Afro-neoliberal state. Such economic practices are historicised to show the convergence between the post-Apartheid state and the ideal type neoliberal state coming to the fore in the context of global neoliberal restructuring and crisis management. The article concludes by recognising that South Africa’s deep globalisation and globalised state affirm a form of state practice beyond utilising market mechanisms that includes perpetrating violence to secure its existence. Marikana makes this point.Dieser Beitrag setzt das Marikana-Massaker, bei dem 34 Bergarbeiter von der Polizei erschossen wurden, in Bezug zum derzeitigen Zustand des südafrikanischen Staates. Gleichzeitig wird die Charakterisierung des Post-Apartheid-Staates als „Entwicklungsstaat“ infrage gestellt. Der Autor beleuchtet zunächst, was diese Charakterisierung impliziert und inwieweit diese Fehlinterpretation ideologisch begründet ist. Er plädiert dann für einen Ansatz, der den Zustand des Post-Apartheid-Staates im Kontext des wachsenden Einflusses des Neoliberalismus sowie der „Indigenisierung“ des Neoliberalismus auf dem afrikanischen Kontinent erklärt. Schließlich analysiert er die aktuellen

  10. Mapping the state of the field of social psychology in Africa and patterns of collaboration between African and international social psychologists. (United States)

    Quayle, Michael; Greer, Megan


    Patterns of collaboration in social psychology from 2000 to 2010 were mapped to analyse the position of African authors in the international co-authorship network using bibliographic records from the Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge. There are very few social psychologists working in Africa, with the majority of these located in South Africa. Indeed, some small European countries boast more social psychologists than the entire continent of Africa. African authors published less than their non-African collaborators, but had comparable status on joint publications. Co-authorship relationships between African researchers from different African countries were generally mediated by partners from other continents, and direct collaboration between non-compatriot African authors was very rare. The small size, and extremely sparse connection of the African co-authorship network, is likely to be an obstacle both in the development of social psychology as a universally relevant discipline and in the penetration of social psychological knowledge in Africa.

  11. Wirtschaftliche Partnerschaftsabkommen (EPAs) der EU mit Afrika: Dominanz der EU Exportinteressen statt Partnerschaft auf Augenhöhe


    Kohnert, Dirk


    In view of the global run on African resources the EU is at pains to conclude Economic Partnership Programs with African states up to October 2014. The EPAs are meant not just to liberalize trade but also to promote economic development in Africa and thus creating a win-win situation in a partnership on eye-level. However, many Africans suspect the EU of double talk and of promoting selfish export interest at the expense of inclusive growth in African countries. Taking the proposed ECOWAS EPA...

  12. Monitoring Sub-Saharan African physician migration and recruitment post-adoption of the WHO code of practice: temporal and geographic patterns in the United States. (United States)

    Tankwanchi, Akhenaten Benjamin Siankam; Vermund, Sten H; Perkins, Douglas D


    Data monitoring is a key recommendation of the WHO Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel, a global framework adopted in May 2010 to address health workforce retention in resource-limited countries and the ethics of international migration. Using data on African-born and African-educated physicians in the 2013 American Medical Association Physician Masterfile (AMA Masterfile), we monitored Sub-Saharan African (SSA) physician recruitment into the physician workforce of the United States (US) post-adoption of the WHO Code of Practice. From the observed data, we projected to 2015 with linear regression, and we mapped migrant physicians' locations using GPS Visualizer and ArcGIS. The 2013 AMA Masterfile identified 11,787 active SSA-origin physicians, representing barely 1.3% (11,787/940,456) of the 2013 US physician workforce, but exceeding the total number of physicians reported by WHO in 34 SSA countries (N = 11,519). We estimated that 15.7% (1,849/11,787) entered the US physician workforce after the Code of Practice was adopted. Compared to pre-Code estimates from 2002 (N = 7,830) and 2010 (N = 9,938), the annual admission rate of SSA émigrés into the US physician workforce is increasing. This increase is due in large part to the growing number of SSA-born physicians attending medical schools outside SSA, representing a trend towards younger migrants. Projection estimates suggest that there will be 12,846 SSA migrant physicians in the US physician workforce in 2015, and over 2,900 of them will be post-Code recruits. Most SSA migrant physicians are locating to large urban US areas where physician densities are already the highest. The Code of Practice has not slowed the SSA-to-US physician migration. To stem the physician "brain drain", it is essential to incentivize professional practice in SSA and diminish the appeal of US migration with bolder interventions targeting primarily early-career (age ≤ 35) SSA physicians.

  13. African America. (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.; Brown, Gloria


    Presents an annotated bibliography of quality materials by and about African Americans in the areas of poetry, music, folklore, women, picture books, history/collective biography, authors, and professional materials. Activities are suggested in each area for Black History Month. (LRW)

  14. African-American Biography. (United States)

    Martin, Ron


    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  15. A proposed framework for short-, medium- and long-term responses by range and consumer States to curb poaching for African rhino horn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, S.M.; Ouma, B.O.


    African rhinos are suffering a new poaching onslaught for their high-priced horns. Despite intensified anti- poaching activities, the number of rhinos poached per day has continued to increase since 2008. Between 2010 and 2011 more than 1.5% of the African rhino population was poached each year: a h

  16. African Trypanosomiasis (United States)


    Histol. 1977;375:53- 70. 42. Poltera AA, Owor R, Cox JN. Pathological aspects of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) in Uganda. A post - mortem survey of...nodular lesions , including anthrax or tick bite associated with Rickettsia conorii infection. The chancre is followed by a hemolymphatic stage, dur- ing...electrocardiograph- ic changes and, at times, terminal cardiac insufficiency.41 Pulmonary lesions specifically related to trypanosomiasis are not

  17. Obesity and African Americans (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  18. The African Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas; Mandrup, Bjørn


    . Moreover, the ‘African Security Architecture’, of which it is the central component, also includes sub-regional organisations to which responsibility is to be devolved for dealing with armed confl ict and other matters. These so-called Regional Economic Communities (RECs) are, likewise, constantly changing......The African Union (AU) is a young international organisation, founded in 2002, which is still in the process of setting up its various institutions, while constantly having to face up to new challenges, such as civil wars breaking out and military coups being undertaken in its member states......, just as they have very different strengths. Hence, any account of the AU and the RECs can only provide a ‘snapshot’ of the organisation at any given time, one which may soon become outdated. In contrast with regional and sub-regional organisations in the North, those in Africa are facing an additional...

  19. 77 FR 66582 - Notice of Request for Information for the Proposed United States-East African Community... (United States)


    ... establishing a Commercial Dialogue as part of the U.S.-EAC Trade and Investment Partnership (``Partnership... later than 5:00 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) on November 19, 2012. ADDRESSES: You may send comments... resolve to pursue a new Trade and Investment Partnership between the United States and the EAC,...

  20. The African State and the role and nature of non-state sources of security in the Democratic Republic of Congo and South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas


    , that is, popes, princes, the rulers of sovereign states, states in the contemporary international system and international organisations like the UN. Th e second element focuses on the argument that mercenaries are morally objectionable because they do not fi ght for a cause, such as religious beliefs...

  1. A Reevaluation of African Education: Woodson Revisited. (United States)

    Okafor, Victor Oguejiofor


    Reviews the ideas of C. G. Woodson (1875-1950) about the inappropriate education received by African Americans. Although Woodson's book, "The Mis-Education of the Negro," was written in 1933, his diagnosis of the state of the African-American community appears to hold up well today. (SLD)

  2. Rationale, Design and Methods of the Ecological Study of Sexual Behaviors and HIV/STI among African American Men Who Have Sex with Men in the Southeastern United States (The MARI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeMarc A Hickson

    Full Text Available This paper describes the rationale, design, and methodology of the Ecological Study of Sexual Behaviors and HIV/STI among African American Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM in the Southeastern United States (U.S.; known locally simply as the MARI Study.Participants are African American MSM aged 18 years and older residing in the deep South.Between 2013 and 2015, 800 African American MSM recruited from two study sites (Jackson, MS and Atlanta, GA will undergo a 1.5-hour examination to obtain anthropometric and blood pressure measures as well as to undergo testing for sexually transmitted infections (STI, including HIV. Intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental factors are assessed by audio computer-assisted self-interview survey. Primary outcomes include sexual risk behaviors (e.g., condomless anal sex and prevalent STIs (HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and Chlamydia.The MARI Study will typify the HIV environmental 'riskscape' and provide empirical evidence into novel ecological correlates of HIV risk among African American MSM in the deep South, a population most heavily impacted by HIV. The study's anticipated findings will be of interest to a broad audience and lead to more informed prevention efforts, including effective policies and interventions, that achieve the goals of the updated 2020 U.S. National HIV/AIDS Strategy.

  3. 77 FR 5375 - National African American History Month, 2012 (United States)


    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8776 of January 31, 2012 National African American History Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The story of African Americans is a story of... for the better. During National African American History Month, we celebrate the rich legacy...

  4. Monogenean parasites of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus from two fish farms in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyo Victor Oscar


    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence, mean intensity, and abundance of monogenean parasites in Clarias gariepinus (C. gariepinus from two selected fish farms in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. Methods: Eighty specimens of C. gariepinus from the two farms (40 each were necropsied for parasitological analysis. Skin, gill and fin biopsies were prepared from each specimen following standard methods for microscopic analysis. Parasitological indices including dominance (D, prevalence, mean intensity and abundance were calculated according to standard formulae. Data were analyzed using the Fisher's exact test. Results: C. gariepinus from the two farms were infested with a total of ninety individuals of monogenean parasites belonging to three species including Macrogyrodactylus clarii (M. clarii, Gyrodactylus sp. and Dactylogyrus sp. D index showed that the three monogenean species were eudominant (D-value > 10%. Gyrodactylus sp. was more abundant (46 followed by Dactylogyrus sp. (23 while M. clarii was the lowest (21. Prevalence, meaning intensity and abundance of monogenean parasites in the two farms, varied insignificantly higher (P > 0.05. Prevalence in both farms were higher in female C. gariepinus than that in male. Monogenean parasites exhibited organ specificity as M. clarii and Dactylogyrus sp. were recovered from the gills while Gyrodactylus sp. colonized the skin and fin. Conclusions: High abundance of these parasites may lead to poor growth performance and high mortality in C. gariepinus, leading to huge monetary loss and low profit margin by increasing production cost due to the cost of treatments.

  5. Monogenean parasites of the African catifsh Clarias gariepinus from two ifsh farms in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eyo Victor Oscar; Edet Theresa Arit; Ekanem Albert Philip


    Objective: To determine the prevalence, mean intensity, and abundance of monogenean parasites in Clarias gariepinus (C. gariepinus) from two selected fish farms in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. Methods:Eighty specimens of C. gariepinus from the two farms (40 each) were necropsied for parasitological analysis. Skin, gill and fin biopsies were prepared from each specimen following standard methods for microscopic analysis. Parasitological indices including dominance (D), prevalence, mean intensity and abundance were calculated according to standard formulae. Data were analyzed using the Fisher's exact test. Results:C. gariepinus from the two farms were infested with a total of ninety individuals of monogenean parasites belonging to three species including Macrogyrodactylus clarii (M. clarii), Gyrodactylus sp. and Dactylogyrus sp. D index showed that the three monogenean species were eudominant (D-value>10%). Gyrodactylus sp. was more abundant (46) followed by Dactylogyrus sp. (23) while M. clarii was the lowest (21). Prevalence, meaning intensity and abundance of monogenean parasites in the two farms, varied insignificantly higher (P>0.05). Prevalence in both farms were higher in female C. gariepinus than that in male. Monogenean parasites exhibited organ specificity as M. clarii and Dactylogyrus sp. were recovered from the gills while Gyrodactylus sp. colonized the skin and fin. Conclusions:High abundance of these parasites may lead to poor growth performance and high mortality in C. gariepinus, leading to huge monetary loss and low profit margin by increasing production cost due to the cost of treatments.

  6. Determination of chemical elements in africanized Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae honey samples from the State of Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geni da Silva Sodré


    Full Text Available Honey is a food used since the most remote times, appreciated for its characteristic flavor, considerable nutritional value and medicinal properties; however, little information exists about the presence of chemical elements in it. The objectives of this work were to determine the chemical elements present in 38 honey samples, collected directly from beekeepers from the State of Piauí, Brazil and to verify whether they presented any contamination. The chemical elements were determined by means of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence. The means of three replicates were: K (109.671 ± 17.487, Ca (14.471 ± 3.8797, Ti (0.112 ± 0.07, Cr (0.196 ± 0.11, Mn (0.493 ± 0.103, Fe (1.722 ± 0.446, Co (0.038, Ni (0.728 ± 0.706, Cu (0.179 ± 0.0471, Zn (0.967 ± 0.653, Se (not detected, Br (not detected, Rb (0.371 ± 0.097, Sr (0.145 ± 0.45, Ba (11.681, Hg (not detected, and Pb (0.863 µg g-1.

  7. Crossing Cultures in Marriage: Implications for Counseling African American/African Couples (United States)

    Durodoye, Beth A.; Coker, Angela D.


    A wealth of literature exists regarding intermarriage between White and ethnic minority couples. Noticeably lacking, however, is information considering within-group diversity amongst Black couples. This paper will focus on cultural dynamics that may operate with African American and African couples residing in the United States. Through an…

  8. Heart Disease and African Americans (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  9. Perceptions of the Religion--Health Connection among African Americans in the Southeastern United States: Sex, Age, and Urban/Rural Differences (United States)

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Schulz, Emily; Wynn, Theresa A.


    Extensive literature reviews suggest that religiousness is positively associated with health. Much less understood is the particular nature of the religion-health connection. Religion and the church play a central role in the lives of many African Americans. This study used a mixed-methods approach to examine perceptions of the religion-health…

  10. Factors Influencing Generation Y African Americans in Their Choice for College Education: An Empirical Case Study of Fort Valley State University Students (United States)

    Gyapong, Samuel K.; Smith, Thomas


    In an effort to assist a newly appointed Public Relations Officer to determine the most effective way to promote the institution to college-bound Generation Y African-Americans we offered to conduct a survey research of our current students. The results were very revealing and have been used successfully to increase enrollment to historically high…

  11. Trade liberalisation and financial compensation : the BLNS states in the wake of the EU-South African trade and development agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staak, van der S.


    This study discusses the fate of Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Swaziland (BLNS) following the 1999 free trade agreement between the European Union and South Africa. As members - with South Africa - of the Southern African Customs Union (SACU), the BLNS countries are now effectively locked into reci

  12. Depression and African Americans (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Depression And African Americans Depression And African Americans Not “Just the Blues” Clinical ... or spiritual communities. Commonly Asked Questions about Clinical Depression How do I get help for clinical depression? ...

  13. The European Union’s and Poland’s trade relations with the African, Caribbean and Pacific group of states (ACP in the agri-food products in the years 2000-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kita


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to examine key trends in the European Union’s trade policy towards the African, Caribbean and Pacific group of states (ACP, as well as to identify main changes in the commodity structure of the European (and Polish agri-food trade. The results showed that for the ACP countries, the European market is perceived as a source of food industry while the EU (including Poland imports from ACP region coffee, tea and cocoa. This confirms a certain specialization of production and trade in ACP countries. Both the European Union and Poland, are net importers of agri- food products from the ACP region.

  14. Central African Republic. (United States)


    Focus in this discussion of the Central African Republic is on: geography; the people; history and political conditions; government; the economy; foreign relations; and relations with the US. The population of the Central African Republic totaled 2.7 million in 1985 with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate is 134/1000 with life expectancy at 49 years. The Central African Republic is at almost the precise center of Africa, about 640 km from the nearest ocean. More than 70% of the population live in rural areas. There are more than 80 ethnic groups, each with its own language. The precolonial history of the area was marked by successive waves of migration, of which little is known. These migrations are responsible for the complex ethnic and linguistic patterns today. United with Chad in 1906, it formed the Oubangui-Chari-Chad colony. In 1910, it became 1 of the 4 territories of the Federation of French Equatorial Africa, along with Chad, Congo, and Gabon. After World War II, the French Constitution of 1946 inaugurated the first of a series of reforms that led eventually to complete independence for all French territories in western and equatorial Africa. The nation became an autonomous republic within the newly established French Community on December 1, 1958, and acceded to complete independence as the Central Africa Republic on August 13, 1960. The government is made up of the executive and the judicial branches. The constitution and legislature remain suspended. All executive and legislative powers, as well as judicial oversight, are vested in the chief of state. The Central African Republic is 1 of the world's least developed countries, with an annual per capita income of $310. 85% of the population is engaged in subsistence farming. Diamonds account for nearly 1/3 of export earnings; the industrial sector is limited. The US terminated bilateral assistance programs in 1979, due to the human rights violations of the Bokassa regime, but modest

  15. Linguistic Imperialism: African Perspectives. (United States)

    Phillipson, Robert


    Responds to an article on aspects of African language policy and discusses the following issues: multilingualism and monolingualism, proposed changes in language policy from the Organization for African Unity and South African initiatives, the language of literature, bilingual education, and whose interests English-language teaching is serving.…

  16. Determination of Browse Intake and Nutrient Digestibility of Grazing West African Dwarf (WAD) Goats Fed Varying Levels of Gmelina arborea Leaves as Supplements in Delta State Nigeria


    O. Okpara; P.O. Akporhuarho; G.O. Okagbare


    The Research was carried out to assess the browse intake and nutrient digestibility of grazing West African Dwarf (WAD) goats fed varying levels of Gmelina arborea leaves as supplement. Which produces appreciable amount of forage even at the peak of the dry season in the tropics, thereby ensuring all year round supply of follage and fodder. Thirty growing West Africa Dwarf (WAD) goats were used to dertermine the level of browse intake and nutrient diggestibility by goats fed verying levels Gm...

  17. Security Cooperation Missions in Africa: Is the United States Conducting the Correct Types of Security Cooperation Missions in the African Continent? (United States)


    The East Africa/Horn of Africa region has been a priority area for providing stability and offensive operations against the threat of piracy , al... online -based site is a DoD sponsored institution for strategic security studies, research, and outreach in Africa. The Africa center engages African...illegal trafficking, terrorism, political unrest and weapons proliferation, illicit trafficking and piracy , and instability (USAFRICOM 2014, 10). Illegal

  18. 76 FR 44976 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Heroic Africans... (United States)


    ... Exhibition Determinations: ``Heroic Africans: Legendary Leaders, Iconic Sculptures'' SUMMARY: Notice is... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Heroic Africans: Legendary Leaders, Iconic Sculptures,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural significance....

  19. Distribution of toenail selenium levels in young adult Caucasians and African Americans in the United States: The CARDIA Trace Element Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xun, Pengcheng; Bujnowski, Deborah [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2221 McGavran-Greenberg, Campus Box: 7461, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Liu, Kiang [Department of Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Steve Morris, J. [Research Reactor Center, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO (United States); Guo, Zhongqin [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Ningxia Medical University, Ningxia (China); Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2221 McGavran-Greenberg, Campus Box: 7461, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); He, Ka, E-mail: [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2221 McGavran-Greenberg, Campus Box: 7461, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)


    Background: Data on selenium (Se) levels in American young adults, especially in African Americans, are lacking. Objective: This study presented toenail Se distributions in American young adults of both genders, including both Caucasians and African Americans; and explored potential predictors of toenail Se levels. Data and methods: Data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study among 4252 American young adults, aged 20-32 in 1987 was used to examine toenail Se levels by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The distribution of Se levels was described and multivariable linear regression was used to examine potential modifiers of toenail Se concentration within ethnicity-gender subgroups. Results: The geometric mean of toenail Se in this cohort was 0.844 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 {mu}g/g) and the median was 0.837 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.833-0.844 {mu}g/g). Median levels from lowest to highest quintile were 0.691, 0.774, 0.838, 0.913 and 1.037 {mu}g/g. Se levels varied geographically, and were generally in accordance with its concentrations in local soil. Males, African Americans, current smokers, heavy drinkers and less educated participants were more likely to have low Se levels. Conclusion: This study suggests that toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. In addition to gender, ethnicity and education level, smoking status and alcohol consumption are two important indicators of Se status since they are modifiable lifestyle factors. Findings from this study might aid public health professionals in identifying people at relatively high or low Se levels, so that chronic disease prevention efforts can be directed toward these subgroups. - Research highlights: {yields} Average of toenail Se levels in this cohort was 0.844 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 {mu}g/g). {yields} Toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. {yields} Males, African Americans and less educated participants have

  20. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia in African Americans. (United States)

    Coombs, Catherine C; Falchi, Lorenzo; Weinberg, J Brice; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Lanasa, Mark C


    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent leukemia in the United States with almost 4390 attributable deaths per year. Epidemiologic data compiled by the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program identifies important differences in incidence and survival for African Americans with CLL. Although the incidence of CLL is lower among African Americans than among Caucasians (4.6 and 6.2 per 100 000 men, respectively), age-adjusted survival is inferior. African American patients with CLL are almost twice as likely to die from a CLL-related complication in the first 5 years after diagnosis as are Caucasian patients with CLL. The biologic basis for these observations is almost entirely unexplored, and a comprehensive clinical analysis of African American patients with CLL is lacking. This is the subject of the present review.

  1. An Exploratory Study on Initial STEM Classes and African American Freshman Males Who Are STEM Majors at a Large Mid-Atlantic State University: Factors Affecting Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Persistence in the STEM Pipeline (United States)

    Calhoun, William Jason

    The purpose of this study was to test how well social cognitive career theory (SCCT) explains the effects of an introductory freshman year science course on the career perspectives of African American males at a large, public mid-Atlantic state university. Embracing SCCT as the foundation of this project, the dissertation intended to gather data from these young men to develop insight into how and in what ways their self-efficacy throughout the semester was influenced by their first science course, and changing their outlook on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) careers while in school and after graduation. To a small number of freshman African American male students who have declared themselves STEM majors, I utilized a qualitative study investigating this phenomenon. The major findings detailed themes that affected these young men including concerns about mathmatics preparation, isolation, balance, microagression, and help-seeking. Results indicate that there was an impact on the confidence, achievement, and goal setting for these young men due to these factors and that social cognitive career theory was an appropriate framework from which to test these questions.

  2. Pan-Africanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Diaz Guevara


    Full Text Available This essaic-article goes against established conventions that there is anything ethno-cultural (and hence national about the so-called African tribes. Drawing largely from the culture history of precolonial/prepolitical Africans—that is, the Bantu/Cushitic-Ethiopians (Azanians—the author has demonstrated vividly that far from being distinct ethno-culture national communities, the so-called tribes of African states are better considered subculture groups, whose regional culture practices erstwhile paid tribute to their nation’s main culture center in Karnak. For example, using the culture symbols and practices of some local groups and linking them to the predynastic and dynastic Pharaonic periods, I argued that there is compelling evidence against qualifying Africa’s tribes as distinct ethno-culture national entities. In genuine culture context, I stressed that the Ritual of Resurrection and its twin culture process of the mummification of deceased indigenous Pharaohs tend to suggest that the object of the Bantu/Cushitic-Ethiopians national culture was life (in its eternal manifestation and then resurrection later, and that there are recurring (culturally sanctioned ethical examples among the culture custodians of these subculture groups that generally pay tribute to the overarching culture norm. Furthermore, the fact that the Ritual of Resurrection began in the Delta region and ended at the Sources of the Nile, where the spirit of the deceased indigenous Pharaohs was introduced into the spiritual world of their ancestors, contradicts conventional perceptions that ancient Egypt was a distinct national community isolated from precolonial/prepolitical Africa/Azania.

  3. Reading the African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musonda Bwalya


    Full Text Available There is so much alienation, pain and suffering in our today�s world. In this vein, African Christianity, a voice amongst many voices, should seek to be a transformational religion for the whole of life, affecting all facets of human life towards a fuller life of all in Africa. This article sought to highlight and point to some of the major societal challenges in the African context which African Christianity, as a life-affirming religion, should continue to embrace, re-embrace and engage with, if it has to be relevant to the African context. In this vein, the article argued that a correct reading of the African context would lead to a more relevant theory and praxis of African Christianity for the benefit of all African peoples and their global neighbours. The contention of this article was that African Christianity has a significant role to play in the re-shaping of the African society and in the global community of humans, only that this role must be executed inclusively, responsibly and appropriately, together with all those who seek the holistic development of Africa towards one common destiny.

  4. African American women and breastfeeding: an integrative literature review. (United States)

    Spencer, Becky S; Grassley, Jane S


    The purpose of this article is to present a review of literature regarding factors that influence breastfeeding intentions, initiation, and duration in the African American population. Research related to health disparities experienced by African Americans in the United States, as well as research regarding the protective benefits of breastfeeding for those specific health disparities, are also presented. Community and institutional interventions and promotional campaigns aimed at increasing initiation and duration of breastfeeding in the African American population are discussed. Future research regarding African American women's breastfeeding experiences using Black feminist thought as a theoretical foundation is recommended.

  5. Parenting African American Children in the Context of Racism (United States)

    Keyes, Angela W.; Smyke, Anna T.; Middleton, Melissa; Black, Corey L.


    The legacy of slavery in the United States has impacted generations of African Americans, especially parents who must prepare their children to face the challenges associated with being a person of color in this country. The authors explore aspects of racism, White privilege, racial socialization, and African American parents' fears as they equip…

  6. Stalling Out: The Relative Progress of African Americans. (United States)

    Tidwell, Billy J.

    The socioeconomic progress of African Americans appears to be in a stalled state. This study analyzes the progress of African Americans toward parity with Whites over a 15- to 20-year period in the following areas: (1) employment; (2) economic development; (3) education; (4) health; (5) housing; and (6) political empowerment. For individual…

  7. Higher Education and the Early Education of African American Ministers (United States)

    Cooks, Michael


    The education of African American ministers in the United States has been little researched. Numerous books address the profession of ministry and the education of Blacks in general, but most do not specifically address issues pertaining to the professional education of Black ministers. The majority of the hurdles African Americans faced were…

  8. Beyond Statistics: African American Male Persistence in Community College (United States)

    Dickens, Manuel Dewayne


    The purpose of this qualitative case study that consists of six African American male participants is to examine, describe, and analyze African American male persistence factors at a community college in the midwest of the United States. The study uses qualitative content analysis as a research method that provides a systematic and objective means…

  9. Asthma Management Disparities: A Photovoice Investigation with African American Youth (United States)

    Evans-Agnew, Robin


    Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice…

  10. Perceived Racism and Encouragement among African American Adults (United States)

    Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming


    Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…

  11. 76 FR 6519 - National African American History Month, 2011 (United States)


    ..., 2011 National African American History Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... February 4, 2011 Part II The President Proclamation 8627--National African American History Month, 2011 #0..., there is no progress.'' Progress in America has not come easily, but has resulted from the...

  12. 78 FR 8347 - National African American History Month, 2013 (United States)


    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8930 of January 31, 2013 National African American History Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In America, we share a dream that lies at the heart... Nation's history, that dream has gone unfulfilled. For African Americans, it was a dream denied until...

  13. African-American Press Coverage of Clarence Thomas Nomination. (United States)

    Fearn-Banks, Kathleen


    Examines pressures facing the African American press by focusing on its coverage of the 1991 nomination of Clarence Thomas to the United States Supreme Court. Discusses the dilemma these newspapers faced in choosing between supporting African Americans and supporting civil rights, with their mixed coverage of the story reflecting this dilemma. (SR)

  14. A Case Study of the Development of African American Women Executives (United States)

    Brooks Greaux, Lisa


    Even in an era when the country elected an African American man as President of the United States, there is still a paucity of African American women executives within Fortune 500 companies. Although more African American women have joined the ranks of corporate management over the last two decades, the numbers, when compared to those of White…

  15. 3 CFR 8345 - Proclamation 8345 of February 2, 2009. National African American History Month, 2009 (United States)


    ... African American History Month, 2009 8345 Proclamation 8345 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8345 of February 2, 2009 Proc. 8345 National African American History Month, 2009By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The history of African Americans is unique and...

  16. Adaptation of the African couples HIV testing and counseling model for men who have sex with men in the United States: an application of the ADAPT-ITT framework. (United States)

    Sullivan, Patrick S; Stephenson, Rob; Grazter, Beau; Wingood, Gina; Diclemente, Ralph; Allen, Susan; Hoff, Colleen; Salazar, Laura; Scales, Lamont; Montgomery, Jeanne; Schwartz, Ann; Barnes, Jasper; Grabbe, Kristina


    To respond to the need for new HIV prevention services for men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States, and to respond to new data on the key role of main partnerships in US MSM epidemics, we sought to develop a new service for joint HIV testing of male couples. We used the ADAPT-ITT framework to guide our work. From May 2009 to July 2013, a multiphase process was undertaken to identify an appropriate service as the basis for adaptation, collect data to inform the adaptation, adapt the testing service, develop training materials, test the adapted service, and scale up and evaluate the initial version of the service. We chose to base our adaptation on an African couples HIV testing service that was developed in the 1980s and has been widely disseminated in low- and middle-income countries. Our adaptation was informed by qualitative data collections from MSM and HIV counselors, multiple online surveys of MSM, information gathering from key stakeholders, and theater testing of the adapted service with MSM and HIV counselors. Results of initial testing indicate that the adapted service is highly acceptable to MSM and to HIV counselors, that there are no evident harms (e.g., intimate partner violence, relationship dissolution) associated with the service, and that the service identifies a substantial number of HIV serodiscordant male couples. The story of the development and scale-up of the adapted service illustrates how multiple public and foundation funding sources can collaborate to bring a prevention adaptation from concept to public health application, touching on research, program evaluation, implementation science, and public health program delivery. The result of this process is an adapted couples HIV testing approach, with training materials and handoff from academic partners to public health for assessment of effectiveness and consideration of the potential benefits of implementation; further work is needed to optimally adapt the African couples

  17. African Literature as Celebration. (United States)

    Achebe, Chinua


    Describes the Igbo tradition of "Mbari," a communal creative enterprise that celebrates the world and the life lived in it through art. Contrasts the cooperative, social dimension of pre-colonial African culture with the exclusion and denial of European colonialism, and sees new African literature again celebrating human presence and…

  18. African American Suicide (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...

  19. African Peacekeepers in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.


    behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...

  20. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron


    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...

  1. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Baharian


    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance.

  2. African American Diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Brown


    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. With regard to all historic migrations (forced and voluntary, the African Union defined the African diaspora as "[consisting] of people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union." Its constitutive act declares that it shall "invite and encourage the full participation of the African diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union." Keywords: literature concepts, African American abstracts

  3. North African populations carry the signature of admixture with Neandertals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sánchez-Quinto

    Full Text Available One of the main findings derived from the analysis of the Neandertal genome was the evidence for admixture between Neandertals and non-African modern humans. An alternative scenario is that the ancestral population of non-Africans was closer to Neandertals than to Africans because of ancient population substructure. Thus, the study of North African populations is crucial for testing both hypotheses. We analyzed a total of 780,000 SNPs in 125 individuals representing seven different North African locations and searched for their ancestral/derived state in comparison to different human populations and Neandertals. We found that North African populations have a significant excess of derived alleles shared with Neandertals, when compared to sub-Saharan Africans. This excess is similar to that found in non-African humans, a fact that can be interpreted as a sign of Neandertal admixture. Furthermore, the Neandertal's genetic signal is higher in populations with a local, pre-Neolithic North African ancestry. Therefore, the detected ancient admixture is not due to recent Near Eastern or European migrations. Sub-Saharan populations are the only ones not affected by the admixture event with Neandertals.

  4. 'Great power' intervention in African armed conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye


    to contribute to understanding the changing geopolitical environment and the current conditions for conflict management in Africa. The focus is not on trade and aid. The paper launches the hypothesis that the explanations why the US, China and the EU have intervened are basically identical. In spite......This paper asks why the United States (US), China and the European Union (EU) have intervened in a number of armed conflicts in Africa in the twenty-first century. Scrutiny and comparison of the motivations and interests of the three non-African actors in intervening in African crises are assumed...

  5. Perceptions and viewpoints on proceedings of the Fifteenth Assembly of Heads of State and Government of the African Union Debate on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and Development, 25–27 July 2010, Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambo Luis


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Out of 358000 maternal deaths that occurred globally in 2008, 57.8% occurred in continental Africa. Africa had a maternal mortality ratio of 590 compared to 14 in developed regions, 68 in Latin America and Caribbean, and 190 in Asia. This article reflects on the discussions held during the Fifteenth Assembly of the Heads of State and Government of the African Union on the reasons why the maternal mortality ratio is so high in Africa and what can be done to reduce it. Methods Methods employed included panel and open public discussions among the Heads of State and Government of the African Union. The article uses the WHO health systems strengthening framework, which consists of six pillars (information systems, leadership and governance, health workforce, financing, and medical products, vaccines and technologies, and health services to describe the proceedings of the discussions. Discussion The high maternal mortality ratios in countries were attributed to weak national health information systems; leadership and governance challenges related to poverty, health illiteracy, poor transport networks and communications infrastructure, risky cultural practices, armed conflicts and domestic violence, dearth of women empowerment; inadequate levels of skilled birth attendants; inadequate domestic and external funding; stock-outs of consumable inputs; and limited coverage of maternal and child health interventions. In order to accelerate progress towards MDGs 4 and 5, the Heads of State and Government recommended that countries should make maternal deaths notifiable and institutionalize maternal death audits; develop, fund and implement policies and strategies geared at improving maternal, newborn and child health; accelerate inter-sectoral action to address the broad health determinants; increase the number of skilled birth attendants; fulfil commitment to allocate at least 15% of the national budget to the health sector and allocate

  6. Determination of Browse Intake and Nutrient Digestibility of Grazing West African Dwarf (WAD Goats Fed Varying Levels of Gmelina arborea Leaves as Supplements in Delta State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Okpara


    Full Text Available The Research was carried out to assess the browse intake and nutrient digestibility of grazing West African Dwarf (WAD goats fed varying levels of Gmelina arborea leaves as supplement. Which produces appreciable amount of forage even at the peak of the dry season in the tropics, thereby ensuring all year round supply of follage and fodder. Thirty growing West Africa Dwarf (WAD goats were used to dertermine the level of browse intake and nutrient diggestibility by goats fed verying levels Gmelina arborea leaves as supplement. The goats were randomly divided into five groups of six animal per group. Goats in Treatment A were fed commercial growers mash, at 0.50 kg, Treatment B were fed 0.25 kg of Gmelina arborea Treatment C were fed 0.50 kg of Gmelina arborea leaves, Treatment D 0.75 kg and Treatment E 1.00 kg of Gmelina arborea leaves. Data were collected for thirteen weeks on browse intake and nutrient digestibility. Chemical analysis showed significantly (pPennisetum purpurem and growers mash. The values observed for growers mash for Nitrogen free extract and ether extract were higher than those observed in Gmelina arborea leaves and elephant grass. Significant differences (p<0.05existed for values recorded by the goats fed the different experimental diets. Goats fed Diet E had the highest (p<0.05 browse intake than Goat fed Diet D and C. Goat fed Diet B recorded the least significant (p<0.05 quantity of browse intake. Dry matter digestibility values as well as the crude protein difestibility were appreciably high for all animal fed the experimental diets. The goats fed diet E had the highest crude fibre digestibility followed by goats fed diest A and that of D, B and C respectively. Therefore, the study suggested 0.5 kg inclusion of Gmelina arborea leaves in the diet of grazing WAD goats as the optimum level for better performance.

  7. African Otter Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Reed-Smith


    Full Text Available All concerned thought this was an excellent workshop with important progress made towards creating a viable beginning of an African Otter Network. There is a long road ahead but the 2015 African Otter Workshop is a start on developing range country partners, activists and researchers as well as collaborating on issue identification and resolution which will assist in preserving at least some refugia for Africa’s otters. A list of actions was agreed on, including the creation of an African Otter Network website and social media network, apublic Otter Awareness facebook page, encouraging online reporting of otter sightings, conducting otter awareness surveys, and emphasising the need for communication with the public, other members of the network and other professionals. information not shared or documented is information LOST. A Second African Otter Workshop should be held in 2017 elsewhere in Africa to encourage attendance from a wider range of countries.

  8. African Americans and Glaucoma (United States)

    ... Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by ... and eventually, in developing more effective treatments. Does glaucoma treatment differ? Although treatment varies for all individuals, ...

  9. SADCC: challenging the "South African connection.". (United States)

    Liebenow, J G


    The Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) which unites 9 states with a combined population of 60 million, has as its objective the task of promoting economic development and realizing economic independence. In many respects the strain of neocolonialism that Southern Africa faces at this time is even more virulent than that facing West, Central, and East Africa. In the latter regions the surrender of political authority by colonial administrators frequently left the commercial, agricultural, and industrial interests of the European powers in continued control of the economies of the former colonies. The fate of economic development plans was determined by situations and decisions made in places distant from the African continent. In the case of Southern Africa, the withdrawal or expulsion of European colonialists has found whites in neighboring South Africa most eager to step into the economic breech. For most of the Southern African states this variant strain of the neocolonial virus creates a dual problem: the independent states acting separately have been no match for South Africa; and the acquiescence of independent African states in forging economic links with South Africa has impeded the liberation efforts of Africans in Namibia and the Republic of South Africa. Discussion focus turns to the challenges that confront SADCC; transport as the most significant factor accounting for the dependency of SADCC states upon South Africa; the role of minerals in dependency; other aspects of dependency; South Africa's proposed Constellation of States; the origins and objectives of SADCC; and dollars and donors. SADCC planning for economic liberation has been conducted against the background of a counterproposal advanced by South Africa's government, which put the Republic at the center of an expanded network of economic linkages within the entire southern African region. While being formally rejected, the Constellation of States scheme does have

  10. Geoconservation - a southern African and African perspective (United States)

    Reimold, Wolf Uwe


    In contrast to Europe, where geoconservation is actively pursued in most countries and where two international symposia on this subject have been staged in 1991 and 1996, geoconservation in Africa has indeed a very poor record. Considering the wealth of outstanding geological sites and the importance African stratigraphy has within the global geological record, pro-active geoconservation on this continent has not featured very prominently to date. In the interest of science, education and tourism, unique and typical geosites need to be identified, catalogued, and prioritised with the aim being their protection. Most African countries do not have vibrant non-governmental organisations such as a strong geological society, which could drive projects like geoconservation, or strong support from the private sector for environmental work. Here, a case is made for the role that established National Geological Surveys, some of which are already involved with retroactive environmental geological work, could play in the forefront of pro-active geoconservation and site protection.

  11. African literature to-day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sulzer


    Full Text Available Being interested in African literature one seems to swim from the very beginning in a terminological maelstrom. What is African literature? Is it literature written by any African author in any language? That would mean approaching the question from a purely racial basis. It would imply the art of demonstrating that any piece of such literature could infallibly be recognised as African, a thing which, as far as I know has never been done. Or is African literature strictly bound to traditional African culture?

  12. Linguistic Discrimination in Writing Assessment: How Raters React to African American "Errors," ESL Errors, and Standard English Errors on a State-Mandated Writing Exam (United States)

    Johnson, David; VanBrackle, Lewis


    Raters of Georgia's (USA) state-mandated college-level writing exam, which is intended to ensure a minimal university-level writing competency, are trained to grade holistically when assessing these exams. A guiding principle in holistic grading is to not focus exclusively on any one aspect of writing but rather to give equal weight to style,…

  13. African-Americans and Alzheimer's (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  14. Mental Health and African Americans (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  15. African Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Jarita C; Medupe, R. Thebe; Current Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy research in Africa


    Astronomy is the science of studying the sky using telescopes and light collectors such as photographic plates or CCD detectors. However, people have always studied the sky and continue to study the sky without the aid of instruments this is the realm of cultural astronomy. This is the first scholarly collection of articles focused on the cultural astronomy of Africans. It weaves together astronomy, anthropology, and Africa. The volume includes African myths and legends about the sky, alignments to celestial bodies found at archaeological sites and at places of worship, rock art with celestial imagery, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions including ethnomathematics and the creation of calendars. Authors include astronomers Kim Malville, Johnson Urama, and Thebe Medupe; archaeologist Felix Chami, and geographer Michael Bonine, and many new authors. As an emerging subfield of cultural astronomy, African cultural astronomy researchers are focused on training students specifically for do...

  16. English as an African Language. (United States)

    Desai, Gaurav


    Discusses the role of the English language in postcolonial African literature, focusing on the politics of language, "Africanized" English, and the social languages used in Chinua Achebe's novels and concludes that English today is as much an African language as a British or American one. (Contains 37 references.) (MDM)

  17. African names for American plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.


    African slaves brought plant knowledge to the New World, sometimes applying it to related plants they found there and sometimes bringing Old World plants with them. By tracing the linguistic parallels between names for plants in African languages and in communities descended from African slaves, pie

  18. The Struggles over African Languages (United States)

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter


    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  19. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron


    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... outside of tariffs. Impressive results were forecast by simulating both a 50% reduction in what can be considered traditional non-tariff barriers and a modest 20% reduction in the costs associated with transit time delays at customs, terminals and internal land transportation. Gains from tariff...

  20. Straight Talk: HIV Prevention for African-American Heterosexual Men--Theoretical Bases and Intervention Design (United States)

    Frye, Victoria; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Henny, Kirk; Bond, Keosha; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Smith, Stephen; Koblin, Beryl A.


    In the United States, racial disparities in HIV/AIDS are stark. Although African Americans comprise an estimated 14% of the U.S. population, they made up 52% of new HIV cases among adults and adolescents diagnosed in 2009. Heterosexual transmission is now the second leading cause of HIV in the United States. African Americans made up a full…

  1. Women and the social construction of gender in African development. (United States)

    Kalu, A C


    Because a footnote of Marxism teaches that capitalism must first destroy primitive cultures that lack a dynamic social change mechanism and then rejuvenate them as modern industrialized states, the economic and cultural bases of social relationships in developing countries have been deemed irrelevant. In a similar way, Western feminist paradigms fail to acknowledge epistemological differences from those of African women. This article explores these contradictions and analyzes social change mechanisms within the Igbo culture in Africa that were stunted by colonialism. The first topic considered is the relationship of African literature (using Toni Morrison's "Beloved" as a point of reference) with sustainable African development and African women. The remainder of the article is devoted to an examination of the role of women in light of precolonial and colonial literary traditions. It is noted that continued use of Western feudal and capitalist terms for self-identification alienates Africans from Africa's problems. Traditional African thought assigned women the power to feed the family and to serve as protectors of children and society, and ancestral wisdom directed how societies responded to threats, took charge of their world, and resolved conflict. Problems faced by contemporary African researchers are shown to center on the dilemma faced by those who wish to design a program that analyzes the content of African development and provides contemporary solutions without completely deriving the program completely from contemporary thought. It is, thus, concluded that redefinition of the African development agenda must involve recognition of the essential role of African women as a change agent and a rearticulation of the male role within traditional thought.

  2. The grant is what I eat: the politics of social security and disability in the post-apartheid South African state. (United States)

    MacGregor, Hayley


    In South Africa, disability grant allocation has been under review and tensions are evident in government rhetoric stressing welfare provision on the one hand, and encouraging 'rationalization' on the other. This ambiguity is traced down to the level of grant negotiations between doctors and 'clients' in a psychiatry clinic in Khayelitsha. Here 'having nerves' embodies the distress associated with harsh circumstances and is deemed by supplicants as sufficient to secure a grant. The paper illustrates how national discourses influence the presentation and experience of suffering and the way in which doctors mediate diagnoses. The implications of local understandings of 'health citizenship' for expectations of the post-apartheid state are explored.

  3. Training African-American residents in the 20th century. (United States)

    Green-McKenzie, Judith


    Bellevue Hospital, the oldest public hospital in the United States and a lineal descendant of an infirmary for slaves, accepted its first African-American resident, Dr. Ubert Conrad Vincent, in 1918. This occurred at a time when many medical centers were not accepting African-American residents. At the end of WWII, one-third of the accredited medical schools still barred African Americans. However, Bellevue Hospital continued to train African-American residents. Between the 1920s and 1940s four African Americans matriculated at Bellevue Hospital. There were six in the 1950s, four in the 1960s, and 25 in the 1970s. By the 1980s, 40 African Americans matriculated, and between 1990 and 1995, 61 matriculated. Despite its historic first, Bellevue lagged slightly behind the national average. While the number of African-American residents occupying U.S. residency slots increased from 2.8% in 1978 to 6.5% in 1996, African Americans comprised 3.6% of residency slots at Bellevue between 1985-1995. Currently, only 7% of practicing physicians and 5% in faculty positions are latino, African-American, and Native American. Increasing the number of under-represented minority (URM) physicians is important to the United States, as URM physicians are more likely to serve the poor and uninsured, therefore improving the overall healthcare of the underprivileged. A study by the Association of American Medical Colleges indicated that minority medical school graduates were five times more likely to report that they planned to serve minority populations than other graduates. In their position paper, the American College of Physicians expressed the belief that increasing the number of URM physicians will help reduce healthcare disparities that can hurt minority populations and lead to poor health outcomes. The Supreme Court acknowledged the importance of racial diversity by upholding the University of Michigan affirmative action admissions policy in its June 2003 ruling. URM physicians are

  4. African Oral Tradition Literacy. (United States)

    Green, Doris


    Presents the basic principles of two systems for notating African music and dance: Labanotation (created to record and analyze movements) and Greenotation (created to notate musical instruments of Africa and to parallel Labanotation whereby both music and dance are incorporated into one integrated score). (KH)

  5. African Women Writing Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Browdy de Hernandez; Pauline Dongala; Omotayo; Jolaosho; Anne Serafin


    AFRICAN Women Writing Resistance is the first transnational anthology to focus on women's strategies of resistance to the challenges they face in Africa today.The anthology brings together personal narratives,testimony,interviews,short stories,poetry,performance scripts,folktales and lyrics.

  6. African tick bite fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jakob Aaquist; Thybo, Søren


    The incident of spotted fever imported to Denmark is unknown. We present a classic case of African Tick Bite Fever (ATBF) to highlight a disease, which frequently infects wildlife enthusiasts and hunters on vacation in South Africa. ATBF has a good prognosis and is easily treated with doxycyclin...

  7. Africans and the myth of rural retirement in South Africa, ca 1900-1950. (United States)

    MacKinnon, Aran S


    The South African mining industry relied upon a massive African migrant workforce from the rural areas. Rural transformations in this migrant labor system form an important part of the story of developing capitalism in industrializing South Africa. Yet, recent historical studies on southern African migrant and rural wage labor have paid little attention to life adjustments made by the elderly and those 'burned out' by the mines and forced to leave formal wage employment in the urban areas. The South African segregationist state's rhetoric implied that 'retired' Africans could find economic security in their designated rural reserves. Indeed, legislation sought to prohibit Africans who were not employed from remaining in the 'white' urban areas. By the 1930s, however, the reserves were rapidly deteriorating. Many elderly Africans could not retire and were forced to seek wage labor. This raises significant questions about how retirement came to be defined and experienced by Africans in South Africa during a critical period of dramatic economic decline in the 1930s and 40s, and what the underlying material circumstances of African South Africans were with regard to adaptations to employment and ageing-related life changes. In many cases, elderly Africans were forced to forgo retirement, and find wage labor, usually in the most poorly paid, least sought-after or dangerous fields of employment. This article thus seeks to illuminate critical generational dimensions of the impact of segregation and racism in South Africa prior to the formal articulation of Apartheid.

  8. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy investigations of iron oxidation states in the Harmattan dust nutrient contribution to West African soils (United States)

    Adetunji, Jacob


    A variety of investigations have been carried out on Harmattan dust over many decades demonstrating the continuing importance of the Harmattan dust phenomenon. The investigations have included elemental enrichment factors, mineralogical nutrient input through dust deposition on the soil, meteorological studies, etc. Harmattan dust is important, not only for its impact on radio communication and low visibility in the shipping lanes over the Atlantic, but also on the livelihood and health of people living in countries over which the dust-laden Harmattan wind blows. However, so far, the aspect of nutrient mineral deposition on the soil has not been thoroughly investigated and requires attention, since the majority of people living in West Africa rely heavily on agriculture. It is therefore relevant to know the useful nutrients in the Harmattan dust deposited on soils of the region. This study is therefore aimed at determining the ferric-ferrous ratio of the iron-bearing minerals contained in the Harmattan dust, so their nutritional contribution can be considered. The Mössbauer technique is a powerful tool for studying the ferric-ferrous ratio and has therefore been used, for the first time, to determine the oxidation states of iron in the dust samples. The results of the analysis show that the Harmattan dust is seriously deficient in ferrous iron, which is the more soluble Fe-ion, needed in the soil for healthy crops and plants in general.

  9. Female genital mutilation in African and African American women's literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Marinšek


    Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.

  10. Prostate cancer disparities in Black men of African descent: a comparative literature review of prostate cancer burden among Black men in the United States, Caribbean, United Kingdom, and West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reams R Renee


    Full Text Available Abstract Background African American men have the highest prostate cancer morbidity and mortality rates than any other racial or ethnic group in the US. Although the overall incidence of and mortality from prostate cancer has been declining in White men since 1991, the decline in African American men lags behind White men. Of particular concern is the growing literature on the disproportionate burden of prostate cancer among other Black men of West African ancestry in the Caribbean Islands, United Kingdom and West Africa. This higher incidence of prostate cancer observed in populations of African descent may be attributed to the fact that these populations share ancestral genetic factors. To better understand the burden of prostate cancer among men of West African Ancestry, we conducted a review of the literature on prostate cancer incidence, prevalence, and mortality in the countries connected by the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Results Several published studies indicate high prostate cancer burden in Nigeria and Ghana. There was no published literature for the countries Benin, Gambia and Senegal that met our review criteria. Prostate cancer morbidity and/or mortality data from the Caribbean Islands and the United Kingdom also provided comparable or worse prostate cancer burden to that of US Blacks. Conclusion The growing literature on the disproportionate burden of prostate cancer among other Black men of West African ancestry follows the path of the Transatlantic Slave Trade. To better understand and address the global prostate cancer disparities seen in Black men of West African ancestry, future studies should explore the genetic and environmental risk factors for prostate cancer among this group.

  11. Some Aspects of the State-of-the-Arts in Biomedical Science Research: A Perspective for Organizational Change in African Academia. (United States)

    John, Theresa Adebola


    In the biomedical sciences, there is need to generate solutions for Africa's health and economic problems through the impact of university research. To guide organizational transformation, the author here presents some aspects of the state-of-the-arts of biomedical science research in advanced countries using a perspective derived from the FASEB journal publications. The author examines the thirty three peer reviewed scientific research articles in a centennial (April 2012) issue of the FASEB Journal [Volume 26(4)] using the following parameters: number of authors contributing to the paper; number of academic departments contributing to the paper; number of academic institutions contributing to the paper; funding of the research reported in the article. The articles were written by 7.97±0.61 authors from 3.46±0.3 departments of 2.79±0.29 institutions. The contributors were classified into four categories: basic sciences, clinical sciences, institutions and centers, and programs and labs. Amongst the publications, 21.2% were single disciplinary. Two tier collaboration amongst any two of the four categories were observed in 16/33 (48.5%) of the articles. Three tier and four tier collaborations were observed amongst 7/33 (21.2%) and 3/33 (9%) of the articles respectively. Therefore 26/33 (78.7%) of the articles were multidisciplinary. Collaborative efforts between basic science and clinical science departments were observed in 9/33 (27.3%) articles. Public funding through government agencies provided 85 out of a total of 143 (59.5%) grants. The collaborative and multidisciplinary nature and government support are characteristic of biomedical science in the US where research tends to result in solutions to problems and economic benefits.

  12. 77 FR 23318 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “African Cosmos: Stellar Arts” (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``African Cosmos: Stellar Arts... Cosmos: Stellar Arts,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, is...

  13. African American marriage in the 20th century. (United States)

    Pinderhughes, Elaine B


    It is not possible to understand African American marriages fully without attention to the social, economic, racial, and historical factors that have stressed male-female relationships beyond those stresses experienced by majority couples. I propose that the societal projection process (Bowen, 1978) has entrapped African Americans in ways that have continually and severely strained their marital and couple relationships. These experiences, and the ways in which African Americans have responded to them, have created a vulnerability that is compounded by societal shifts and changes, and is manifest in the precipitous decline of marriages at a rate higher than that found in all other racial groups in the U.S. I will examine the state of African American marriages in this cultural context, with specific attention to the effects of the unequal sex ratio, socioeconomic conditions, and overstressed male-female relationships. I will then discuss implications and offer suggestions for therapists who work with this population.

  14. South Africa in African an in the International System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    Much have been said and written about the rising powers of the BRICS and the implications for the current global order. However, the BRICS are not a harmonious group, and discrepancies between the different BRICS states can be found both in terms of actual size, regional role and power, but also......-Saharan African (SSA) states....

  15. Steps to African Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The development of Africa is vital to the world’s sustainable development.However,African countries still face key challenges in achieving the meaningful expansion of their economies.At the High-Level Symposium on China-Africa Investment Cooperation in Xiamen,southeast China’s Fujian Province,held from September 8 to 10,Chen Deming,Minister of Commerce of China,elaborates on these challenges and sees

  16. Human African trypanosomiasis. (United States)

    Lejon, Veerle; Bentivoglio, Marina; Franco, José Ramon


    Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is a neglected tropical disease that affects populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by infection with the gambiense and rhodesiense subspecies of the extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, and is transmitted to humans by bites of infected tsetse flies. The disease evolves in two stages, the hemolymphatic and meningoencephalitic stages, the latter being defined by central nervous system infection after trypanosomal traversal of the blood-brain barrier. African trypanosomiasis, which leads to severe neuroinflammation, is fatal without treatment, but the available drugs are toxic and complicated to administer. The choice of medication is determined by the infecting parasite subspecies and disease stage. Clinical features include a constellation of nonspecific symptoms and signs with evolving neurological and psychiatric alterations and characteristic sleep-wake disturbances. Because of the clinical profile variability and insidiously progressive central nervous system involvement, disease staging is currently based on cerebrospinal fluid examination, which is usually performed after the finding of trypanosomes in blood or other body fluids. No vaccine being available, control of human African trypanosomiasis relies on diagnosis and treatment of infected patients, assisted by vector control. Better diagnostic tools and safer, easy to use drugs are needed to facilitate elimination of the disease.

  17. Diversity among African pygmies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando V Ramírez Rozzi

    Full Text Available Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies.

  18. African Diaspora Associations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vammen, Ida Marie; Trans, Lars Ove


    Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically on their tr......Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically...

  19. Glucose intolerance in the West African Diaspora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie; Christensen, Dirk Lund


    muscle fibre type I. Skeletal muscle fibre type II is less oxidative and more glycolytic than skeletal muscle fibre type I. Lower oxidative capacity is associated with lower fat oxidation and a higher disposal of lipids, which are stored as muscular adipose tissue in higher amounts in Black compared......In the United States, Black Americans are largely descendants of West African slaves; they have a higher relative proportion of obesity and experience a higher prevalence of diabetes than White Americans. However, obesity rates alone cannot explain the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Type 2...... diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. We hypothesize that the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes in African Americans (as compared to White Americans) is facilitated by an inherited higher percentage of skeletal muscle fibre type II and a lower percentage of skeletal...

  20. 论美国重建时期南部黑人民权运动的兴起%On the Rise of the African American Civil Rights Movement in South America During the Reconstruction Era of the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雅琦; 张玲玲


    The problem of the African Americans in American history wasn't solved properly for a long time and the American Civil War provided a chance to solve this problem.After the Civil War,the changes in domestic politics and economy,the fights of the slavery abolitionism advocators and African Americans and the awakening of African Americans' racial consciousness and rights consciousness precipitated the raise of the African American Civil Rights Movement in South America.%在历史上美国黑人问题长期未得到合理解决,南北战争为解决这一问题提供了契机。美国内战后国内政治和经济上的变化,废奴主义者和黑人长期坚持不懈的抗争,黑人自身种族和权利意识的觉醒,共同促成了内战后美国南部黑人民权运动的兴起。

  1. Exploration of Anaemia as a Progression Factor in African Americans with Cardiovascular Disease (United States)

    Despite the higher incidence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) among African Americans, whites in the United States population have a higher prevalence of chronic kidney disease. This may be due, in part, to a faster rate of progression to ESRD among African Americans with kidney disease. Anemia i...

  2. 75 FR 18252 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Through African Eyes: The... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Through African Eyes: The European in... 15, 2003 , I hereby determine that the object to be included in the exhibition ``Through African...

  3. The African Diaspora, Civil Society and African Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opoku-Mensah, Paul Yaw

    This paper, a work-in-progress, makes a contribution to the discussions on the appropriate modalities for incorporating the African diaspora in the African integration project.  It argues that the most appropriate entry points for incorporating the African diaspora into the integration project...... might not, necessarily, be in the formal political structures, although this is important. To the contrary, the most effective and sustainable might be within civil society---that is the links between the peoples and organizations of Africa and the diaspora. Using the case of the African academy......-- as an institution of civil society--- the paper outlines a conceptual framework for incorporating the diaspora into the African integration project....

  4. Clozapine underutilization and discontinuation in African Americans due to leucopenia. (United States)

    Kelly, Deanna L; Kreyenbuhl, Julie; Dixon, Lisa; Love, Raymond C; Medoff, Deborah; Conley, Robert R


    Clozapine use has been notably lower in African American patients than in Caucasians. It has been suggested that lower normal ranges for white blood cell (WBC) counts in African Americans, known as benign ethnic neutropenia, may account partially for the disparity. We examined the rates of leucopenia and agranulocytosis as reasons for discontinuation of clozapine in a sample of 1875 patients with schizophrenia treated in the State of Maryland. Between 1989 and 1999, 5.3% (31/588) of African Americans and 2.4% (31/1287) of Caucasians discontinued clozapine treatment due to leucopenia (chi square = 10.35, df = 1, P = 0.001). No African American patients developed agranulocytosis while 8 Caucasian patients (0.62%) developed this blood dyscrasia. Discontinuations due to leucopenia occurred throughout treatment. Discontinuations due to agranulocytosis occurred primarily in the first 18 weeks (7/8; 87.5% patients with agranulocytosis). It is likely that African Americans had clozapine discontinued unnecessarily due to benign ethnic neutropenia. We concur with recent recommendations to acknowledge differences in WBC values in African Americans and to modify prescribing guidelines or formally acknowledge benign ethnic leucopenia like in other countries in order to facilitate greater use of clozapine in these patients.

  5. China’s Expanding African Relations: Implications for U.S National Security (United States)


    AFRICOM United States Africa Command ANC African National Congress BRIC Brazil, Russia, India, and China CCP Chinese Communist Party DRC Democratic...increasing from $9 billion annually in 2000 to $62 billion in 2008.15 Of Brazil, Russia, India, and China (or BRIC countries), China is leading a... BRIC countries and African economies, singling out Chinese economic interactions appears more suspect. Many states feature a heavy state role in their

  6. A Call to African Unity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    This month's paper, written by Professor Mammo Muchie, examines the necessity for a pan-African monetary union.  Professor Muchie argues for the "the creation of a unified African strategy and unified approach to dealing with the outside donor world by neutralising the poison of money as honey...

  7. African Conservation Tillage Network Website


    African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT)


    Metadata only record Maintained by the African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT), this website provides information on Conservation Agriculture in an African context and gathered by stakeholders (NGOs) native to the continent. Resources on projects, practices, reports, and training courses are provided.

  8. Booster for African Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China’s investment is fueling African growth SINCE 2000,driven by the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation,China’s foreign direct investment(FDI) in Africa has been growing rapidly.In the face of the global financial crisis,which led to global FDI flows falling,China’s investment in Africa has been on a steady, upbeat rise without any interruption.In 2009,China’s direct investment in Africa reached $1.44 billion,of which nonfinancial direct investment soared by 55.4 percent from the previous year.Africa

  9. Understanding the Rise of African Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorem, Kaja Tvedten; Jeppesen, Søren; Hansen, Michael W.

    In light of recent enthusiasm over the African private sector, this paper reviews the existing empirical literature on successful African enterprises and proposes an analytical framework for understanding African firm success. Overall, it is argued that we need to develop an understanding...... of African firm strategy and performance that takes into account the specificities of the African business environment and African firm capabilities. The paper starts by juxtaposing the widespread pessimistic view of African business with more recent, optimistic studies on African firms’ performance....... The latter suggests that profound improvements in African business performance are indeed under way: with the private sector playing a more important role as an engine of growth, with the rise of a capable African entrepreneurial class, and with the emergence of dynamic and competitive African enterprises...

  10. A plea to better feed African soils (United States)

    Stroosnijder, Leo


    Most African cropping system are rainfed. Rain is distributed at the soil surface over infiltration and runoff. The infiltrated water is stored in the rootable soil layer and the excess drains below that layer into the groundwater. The stored water is partly lost as evaporation to the atmosphere and partly used as transpiration for plant growth. In African cropping system the green water use efficiency (GWUE: fraction transpiration over rainfall) is as low as 15%. This low value is due to the often poor soil quality (physical, chemical and biological) of African soils. The poor physical state causes a weak soil structure resulting in crust formation with low infiltration and high runoff as consequences. The water holding capacity of the rootable soil layer is also poor, causing quite some water lost into deeper layers. African soils are poor due to long time soil mining. Soil life depends on soil organic matter (SOM) which is decreasing everywhere at an average rate of 2% per year. It is common sense that an improved soil quality is essential for improved food security. The key that triggers a sustainable improvement in soil quality is a system's approach that focus on the management of organic resources. Soil is a living organism, and it feeds on SOM. This feed is continuously consumed but a living soil makes new SOM out of fresh organic matter. In order to keep our soils alive we need cropping systems that feed our soils with fresh organic matter in the form of crop residues in the right mix of quality and quantity. The tendency to breed crops with a high harvest index (hence low straw) and the many other uses of crop residues (competing claims) with it recent use for bio-ethanol fabrication is disastrous for our living soils. If we continue to allow SOM to decrease, soil crusting and hard setting will increase with less end less water available for the production of green biomass. Lower available water will trigger a negative spiral with lower food security and

  11. The history of African trypanosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steverding Dietmar


    Full Text Available Abstract The prehistory of African trypanosomiasis indicates that the disease may have been an important selective factor in the evolution of hominids. Ancient history and medieval history reveal that African trypanosomiasis affected the lives of people living in sub-Saharan African at all times. Modern history of African trypanosomiasis revolves around the identification of the causative agents and the mode of transmission of the infection, and the development of drugs for treatment and methods for control of the disease. From the recent history of sleeping sickness we can learn that the disease can be controlled but probably not be eradicated. Current history of human African trypanosomiasis has shown that the production of anti-sleeping sickness drugs is not always guaranteed, and therefore, new, better and cheaper drugs are urgently required.

  12. Micropropagation of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.). (United States)

    Shukla, Mukund; Sullivan, J Alan; Jain, Shri Mohan; Murch, Susan J; Saxena, Praveen K


    Micropropagation is an important tool for rapid multiplication and the creation of genetic variability in African violets (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.). Successful in vitro propagation depends on the specific requirements and precise manipulation of various factors such as the type of explants used, physiological state of the mother plant, plant growth regulators in the culture medium, and growth conditions. Development of cost-effective protocols with a high rate of multiplication is a crucial requirement for commercial application of micropropagation. The current chapter describes an optimized protocol for micropropagation of African violets using leaf explants obtained from in vitro grown plants. In this process, plant regeneration occurs via both somatic embryogenesis and shoot organogenesis simultaneously in the explants induced with the growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ; N-phenyl-N'-1,2,3-thidiazol-5-ylurea). The protocol is simple, rapid, and efficient for large-scale propagation of African violet and the dual routes of regeneration allow for multiple applications of the technology from simple clonal propagation to induction or selection of variants to the production of synthetic seeds.

  13. East African ROAD (United States)

    Tekle, Kelali


    In the developing world astronomy had been treated as the science of elites. As a result of this overwhelming perception, astronomy compared with other applied sciences has got less attention and its role in development has been insignificant. However, the IAU General Assembly decision in 2009 opened new opportunity for countries and professionals to deeply look into Astronomy and its role in development. Then, the subsequent establishment of regional offices in the developing world is helping countries to integrate astronomy with other earth and space based sciences so as to progressively promote its scientific and development importance. Gradually nations have come to know that space is the frontier of tomorrow and the urgency of preeminence on space frontier starts at primary school and ascends to tertiary education. For this to happen, member nations in east African region have placed STEM education at the center of their education system. For instance, Ethiopian has changed University enrollment strategy to be in favor of science and engineering subjects, i.e. every year seventy percent of new University entrants join science and engineering fields while thirty percent social science and humanities. Such bold actions truly promote astronomy to be conceived as gateway to science and technology. To promote the concept of astronomy for development the East African regional office has actually aligned it activities to be in line with the focus areas identified by the IAU strategy (2010 to 2020).

  14. Bioenergy and African transformation. (United States)

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H


    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures.

  15. 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop was held from 10 May to 18 June 2002 at Hangzhou Regional Center for Small Hydro Power(HRC). Attended altogether 9 participants from 5 African countries, i.e. Burundi, Nigeria, South African, Tanzania and Tunisia. This is the second training workshop on SHP that HRC conducted for African countries.

  16. Cystic Fibrosis in the African Diaspora. (United States)

    Stewart, Cheryl; Pepper, Michael S


    Identifying mutations that cause cystic fibrosis (CF) is important for making an early, unambiguous diagnosis, which, in turn, is linked to better health and a greater life expectancy. In patients of African descent, a molecular diagnosis is often confounded by the fact that the majority of investigations undertaken to identify causative mutations have been conducted on European populations, and CF-causing mutations tend to be population specific. We undertook a survey of published data with the aim of identifying causative CF mutations in patients of African descent in the Americas. We found that 1,584 chromosomes had been tested in only 6 countries, of which 876 alleles (55.3%) still remained unidentified. There were 59 mutations identified. Of those, 41 have been shown to cause CF, 17 have no associated functional studies, and one (R117H) is of varying clinical consequence. The most common mutations identified in the patients of African descent were: ΔF508 (29.4% identified in the United States, Colombia, Brazil, and Venezuela); 3120 + 1G>A (8.4% identified in Brazil, the United States, and Colombia); G85E (3.8% identified in Brazil); 1811 + 1.6kbA>G (3.7% identified in Colombia); and 1342 - 1G>C (3.1% identified in the United States). The majority of the mutations identified (81.4%) have been described in just one country. Our findings indicate that there is a need to fully characterize the spectrum of CF mutations in the diaspora to improve diagnostic accuracy for these patients and facilitate treatment.

  17. Vocal communication in African elephants (Loxodonta africana). (United States)

    Soltis, Joseph


    Research on vocal communication in African elephants has increased in recent years, both in the wild and in captivity, providing an opportunity to present a comprehensive review of research related to their vocal behavior. Current data indicate that the vocal repertoire consists of perhaps nine acoustically distinct call types, "rumbles" being the most common and acoustically variable. Large vocal production anatomy is responsible for the low-frequency nature of rumbles, with fundamental frequencies in the infrasonic range. Additionally, resonant frequencies of rumbles implicate the trunk in addition to the oral cavity in shaping the acoustic structure of rumbles. Long-distance communication is thought possible because low-frequency sounds propagate more faithfully than high-frequency sounds, and elephants respond to rumbles at distances of up to 2.5 km. Elephant ear anatomy appears designed for detecting low frequencies, and experiments demonstrate that elephants can detect infrasonic tones and discriminate small frequency differences. Two vocal communication functions in the African elephant now have reasonable empirical support. First, closely bonded but spatially separated females engage in rumble exchanges, or "contact calls," that function to coordinate movement or reunite animals. Second, both males and females produce "mate attraction" rumbles that may advertise reproductive states to the opposite sex. Additionally, there is evidence that the structural variation in rumbles reflects the individual identity, reproductive state, and emotional state of callers. Growth in knowledge about the communication system of the African elephant has occurred from a rich combination of research on wild elephants in national parks and captive elephants in zoological parks.

  18. The South African nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walmsley, John


    The history of the South African nuclear industry is outlined and its present status described. Eskom, the state electric utility, generates 5% of its output from two 921MWe PWRs sited at Koeberg near Capetown. A pebble bed variant of the HTGR is being considered as an option for future nuclear power generation. The Atomic Energy Corporation (AEC) in the past developed a complete front-end fuel cycle capability, conversion of the mining output of ammonium diuranate to UF{sub 6}, enrichment and fuel fabrication facilities, post-irradiation facilities for Koeberg fuel and one of the best low level waste repositories in the world. It also designed a nuclear weapon, six of which were built and later dismantled. Recently, government policy has dictated drastic staff reductions at AEC. The enrichment plant has been dismantled and the PWR fuel fabrication is under threat of closure. Considerable effort is being put into Molecular Laser Isotope Separation, in cooperation with the French organisation COGEMA, as a project with good commercial prospects in the medium term. The Council for Nuclear Safety is the licensing authority for Koeberg, AEC activities and mining and minerals processing. Uranium production in the mines has dropped dramatically with South Africa now being eighth in the world ranking whereas at its peak in 1980 it ranked third. (UK).

  19. Coal: a South African success story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boers, R.


    Describes the South African coal mining industry, including exports domestic use of coal, coal geology and mining methods, employment, labour relations, benefits and social amenities provided for workers, safety and environmental aspects including land reclamation. Also discusses the implications of sanctions on coal and the mining industry, and argues that sanctions have not achieved and cannot achieve the stated objective of the social and political emancipation of black South Africa. Concludes that in order to defeat apartheid, South Africa, needs economic growth and encouragement for those attempting reform.

  20. Exploring Artistic Practice in Global Communities of the African Diaspora (United States)

    Ellis, Auburn E.


    In 2012 an African Centered single case study was conducted in the United States. The problem is as follows: K-12 practitioners in urban areas are faced with unique circumstances while serving marginalized students in urban areas. As a response to this issue, the purpose of this study was to identify and describe curricula used in three African…

  1. African American College Students: Literacy of Depression and Help Seeking (United States)

    Stansbury, Kim L.; Wimsatt, Maureen; Simpson, Gaynell Marie; Martin, Fayetta; Nelson, Nancy


    Depression is a serious public health concern in the United States affecting almost 18.8 million adults. It is a common mental disorder in college students, with estimates of 1 in 4 "experiencing an episode by age 24." African American college students are at an elevated risk for depression due to racism, stress, sleep deprivation, and lack of…

  2. Africanized honey bees are slowere learners than their European counterparts (United States)

    The range of Africanized honeybees continues to expand, superseding the common European honeybees in the southern United States. Are superior learning and memory the reason for their ecological success? Surprisingly, a comparison in a classical conditioning test of the two bee races shows that few...

  3. Dental Care Issues for African Immigrant Families of Preschoolers (United States)

    Obeng, Cecilia S.


    This article examines dental health issues for African immigrant families of preschoolers living in the United States. The study was done within the framework of narrative inquiry and ethnographic impressionism. Through personal interviews and questionnaire completion, 125 parents of children ages 3 to 5 answered questions about ways in which…

  4. Surfaces on African sculpture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Mack


    Full Text Available Review of: Leonard Kahan, Donna Page, and Pascal James Imperato (eds in collaboration with Charles Bordogna and Bolaji Campbell with an introduction by Patrick McNaughton, Surfaces: Color, Substances, and Ritual Applications on African Sculpture, Indiana University Press, 2009.The book reviewed here has potential interest to a wide range of readers, whether researchers and academics, museum, curators, conservators or connoisseurs. It examines the perception of surface as an aspect of the indigenous understanding of sculpted objects in sub-Saharan Africa, treating of questions of materials, patination, colouration and use. It includes both survey essays and case studies (on the Bamana of Mali and the Yoriuba of Nigeria in a compendium which has suggestive implications beyond the immediate field of the Africanists to whom it is principally addressed.

  5. Central African Republic. (United States)


    The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices.

  6. Final Report: African Power/Energy and Environmental Development Plan, July 1, 1994 - August 21, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, John M.


    In 1994 AEF signed a Cooperative Agreement with DOE to address a program called the African Power /Energy and Environmental Development Plan. The Program initially addressed five area: (1) Historical Black Colleges and Universities Energy/Environmental Program; (2) The Department of Energy and United States Private Industry Africa Program; (3) The Annual United States Energy Study Tour; (4) South African Training Program, and (5) South African Environmental Program. The programs were implemented in conjunction with DOE, institutions, agencies and the private sector support in the USA and within African nations. AEF has worked with government and technical representatives from 13 African nations and expanded the program to address sponsorship of South African students in Historical Black Colleges and Universities, supporting DOE trade missions through participation and planning, and giving presentations in the U.S., and Africa regarding business opportunities in the African energy sector. The programs implemented have also opened doors for the US private sector to seek business opportunities in Africa and for African nations to gain exposure to US products and services.

  7. African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer: position and vision for cancer research on the African Continent


    Ogunbiyi, J. Olufemi; Stefan, D. Cristina; Timothy R. Rebbeck


    The African Organization for Research and training in Cancer (AORTIC) bases the following position statements on a critical appraisal of the state on cancer research and cancer care in Africa including information on the availability of data on cancer burden, screening and prevention for cancer in Africa, cancer care personnel, treatment modalities, and access to cancer care.

  8. The African Capacity for the Immediate Response to Crisis (ACIRC) – a monster or a revelation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    The African Capacity for Immediate Response to Crises (ACIRC) was setup in 2013 as a direct consequence of the inability of the West African states to timely intervene in the crisis in Mali, which led to a French led military intervention. This was politically seen as a heavy blow to the whole id...... state like South Africa, Uganda, Senegal and Angola support the ACIRC concept?...

  9. African Ethnobotany in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egleé L. Zent


    Full Text Available Review of African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Edited by Robert Voeks and John Rashford. 2013. Springer. Pp. 429, 105 illustrations, 69 color illustrations. $49.95 (paperback. ISBN 978‐1461408352.

  10. Family therapy with unmarried African American mothers and their adolescents. (United States)

    Becker, D; Liddle, H A


    Almost two-thirds of African American births are to unmarried mothers, and these single parents are among the most economically vulnerable in the United States. The effects of chronic stressors such as poverty can compromise the ability of these mothers to parent effectively, particularly during the developmental period of adolescence, typically a stressful phase of parenting. This article describes a multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) approach to working with African American adolescents who have drug and/or behavior problems. It is maintained that addressing the intrapersonal functioning of African American single mothers is vital if they are to re-establish the attachment bonds necessary for the maintenance of essential parental influence in the lives of their adolescents. Through systematic attention to the parent as an individual, leading to a balance between self-care and care for others, parental supervision is more easily achieved and relational impasses between parent and adolescent more equitably resolved.

  11. Investigative Journalism and Human Trafficking in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Gyuracz


    Full Text Available Investigative journalism that aims to prise out information that the state or certain businesses want to keep undisclosed has been unthinkable under many postcolonial African regimes. However, since the promulgation of democratic constitutions, a generation of ambitious investigative journalists has grown up in Africa. In order to show how journalism has changed, the paper brings Anas Aremeyaw Anas’s activities into focus. Anas’s single-minded mission to bring justice has targeted organisations involved in human trafficking, smuggling, and forced labour in West African countries since 2010. Although his team’s way of gathering information raises moral concerns about undercover journalism, their efforts illustrate that human trafficking is widespread among the countries of West and Central Africa. Therefore, the author suggests that both the AU and ECOWAS must create a more stable legal environment for investigative journalists, as their reports can help these institutions and national governments protect human rights.

  12. The role of urban design in South African corridor development


    Comrie, Henri Pierre


    The joyous advent of democracy in South Africa in 1994 brought real promise of an improvement in the life chances for millions of marginalised South Africans. There was reason for many citizens to have great faith in the new order after decades of sustained struggle. Effective state intervention and the spatial reorganisation of society seemed a realistic prospect in a country blessed with abundant natural resources and an established industrial base. The power of the state to affect change a...

  13. CPAFFC Working Group Attends Sino-African Initiative Conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan; Jun


    <正>A CPAFFC working group led by its Vice President Xie Yuan attended the 2013 Sino-African Initiative (SAI) Conference sponsored by Sister Cities International (SCI) of the United States and organized by the Eastern Africa Sister Cities (EASC) in Nairobi, Kenya, from January 31 to February 2. About 60 officials and representatives of sister cities associations from China, the United States, Kenya, Nigeria and

  14. An African ethic for nursing? (United States)

    Haegert, S


    This article derives from a doctoral thesis in which a particular discourse was used as a 'paradigm case'. From this discourse an ethic set within a South African culture arose. Using many cultural 'voices' to aid the understanding of this narrative, the ethic shows that one can build on both a 'justice' and a 'care' ethic. With further development based on African culture one can take the ethic of care deeper and reveal 'layers of understanding'. Care, together with compassion, forms the foundation of morality. Nursing ethics has followed particular western moral philosophers. Often nursing ethics has been taught along the lines of Kohlberg's theory of morality, with its emphasis on rules, rights, duties and general obligations. These principles were universalistic, masculine and noncontextual. However, there is a new ethical movement among Thomist philosophers along the lines to be expounded in this article. Nurses such as Benner, Bevis, Dunlop, Fry and Gadow--to name but a few--have welcomed the concept of an 'ethic of care'. Gilligan's work gave a feminist view and situated ethics in the everyday aspects of responsiveness, responsibility, context and concern. Shutte's search for a 'philosophy for Africa' has resulted in finding similarities in Setiloane and in Senghor with those of Thomist philosophers. Using this African philosophy and a research participant's narrative, an African ethic evolves out of the African proverb: 'A person is a person through other persons', or its alternative rendering: 'I am because we are: we are because I am.' This hermeneutic narrative reveals 'the way affect imbues activity with ethical meaning' within the context of a black nursing sister in a rural South African hospital. It expands upon the above proverb and incorporates the South African constitutional idea of 'Ubuntu' (compassion and justice or humanness).

  15. Assessing Vitamin D Status in African Americans and the Influence of Vitamin D on Skeletal Health Parameters. (United States)

    Shieh, Albert; Aloia, John F


    In the United States, there is a significant disparity in vitamin D status among individuals of African versus European descent. Despite having lower total 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels compared with white Americans, African Americans have higher bone mineral density and lower fracture risk. This article reviews classical and nonclassical vitamin D physiology, describes whether total versus free 25-hydroxyvitamin D is a better marker of vitamin D status in African Americans, and summarizes the influence of vitamin D status and vitamin D supplementation on markers of vitamin D bioactivity (intestinal calcium absorption, parathyroid hormone secretion, bone mineral density, fracture) in African Americans.

  16. Cultural (De)Coding and Racial Identity among Women of the African Diaspora in U.S. Adult Higher Education (United States)

    Murray-Johnson, Kayon K.


    Over time, research has suggested there are sometimes tensions arising from differences in the way African Americans and Black Caribbean immigrants in the United States perceive each other as part of the African diaspora. In this autoethnographic study, I explore personal experiences with cross-cultural misperceptions between Black female students…

  17. An Application of Strategic Culture Concepts in U.S.-African Foreign Policy: Mutual Understanding Can Yield Mutual Interests (United States)


    neocolonial era. Over the past 150 years, the political and sociological relationship between Western and African states has framed African...the continent, or areAmerican interests less noble and riddled with neocolonial economic objectives.4o Clearly, the U.S. is interested in oil and

  18. The History and Future of the Southern Bible Institute: A Post-Secondary School of Biblical Studies for African Americans (United States)

    Cooks, Michael


    The United States of America has a long history in higher education, but one area of its history not exhausted through research involves higher education for African Americans. Specifically, higher education for African Americans in the area of theology or biblical studies presents numerous opportunities for further research. Soon after the…

  19. 9 CFR 96.2 - Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. (United States)


    ... ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 96.2 Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine... processed in a region where African swine fever exists, as listed in § 94.8 of this subchapter, is... swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. 96.2 Section 96.2 Animals and Animal Products...

  20. The Roles of Ethnic Identity, Anti-White Attitudes, and Academic Self-Concept in African American Student Achievement (United States)

    Cokley, Kevin O.; Chapman, Collette


    Conventional wisdom in much of the educational and psychological literatures states that the ethnic and racial identity of African American students is related to their academic achievement. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ethnic identity and anti-white attitudes predicted the academic achievement of African American students at…

  1. African horse sickness. (United States)

    Mellor, Philip Scott; Hamblin, Christopher


    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a non-contagious, infectious insect-borne disease of equids and is endemic in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa and possibly Yemen in the Arabian Peninsula. However, periodically the virus makes excursions beyond its endemic areas and has at times extended as far as India and Pakistan in the east and Spain and Portugal in the west. The vectors are certain species of Culicoides biting midge the most important of which is the Afro-Asiatic species C. imicola. This paper describes the effects that AHSV has on its equid hosts, aspects of its epidemiology, and present and future prospects for control. The distribution of AHSV seems to be governed by a number of factors including the efficiency of control measures, the presence or absence of a long term vertebrate reservoir and, most importantly, the prevalence and seasonal incidence of the major vector which is controlled by climate. However, with the advent of climate-change the major vector, C. imicola, has now significantly extended its range northwards to include much of Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece and has even been recorded from southern Switzerland. Furthermore, in many of these new locations the insect is present and active throughout the entire year. With the related bluetongue virus, which utilises the same vector species of Culicoides this has, since 1998, precipitated the worst outbreaks of bluetongue disease ever recorded with the virus extending further north in Europe than ever before and apparently becoming endemic in that continent. The prospects for similar changes in the epidemiology and distribution of AHSV are discussed.

  2. Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history. (United States)

    Boyko, Adam R; Boyko, Ryan H; Boyko, Corin M; Parker, Heidi G; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Liz; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D; Auton, Adam; Hedimbi, Marius; Kityo, Robert; Ostrander, Elaine A; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey; Todhunter, Rory J; Jones, Paul; Bustamante, Carlos D


    High genetic diversity of East Asian village dogs has recently been used to argue for an East Asian origin of the domestic dog. However, global village dog genetic diversity and the extent to which semiferal village dogs represent distinct, indigenous populations instead of admixtures of various dog breeds has not been quantified. Understanding these issues is critical to properly reconstructing the timing, number, and locations of dog domestication. To address these questions, we sampled 318 village dogs from 7 regions in Egypt, Uganda, and Namibia, measuring genetic diversity >680 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop, 300 SNPs, and 89 microsatellite markers. We also analyzed breed dogs, including putatively African breeds (Afghan hounds, Basenjis, Pharaoh hounds, Rhodesian ridgebacks, and Salukis), Puerto Rican street dogs, and mixed breed dogs from the United States. Village dogs from most African regions appear genetically distinct from non-native breed and mixed-breed dogs, although some individuals cluster genetically with Puerto Rican dogs or United States breed mixes instead of with neighboring village dogs. Thus, African village dogs are a mosaic of indigenous dogs descended from early migrants to Africa, and non-native, breed-admixed individuals. Among putatively African breeds, Pharaoh hounds, and Rhodesian ridgebacks clustered with non-native rather than indigenous African dogs, suggesting they have predominantly non-African origins. Surprisingly, we find similar mtDNA haplotype diversity in African and East Asian village dogs, potentially calling into question the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for dog domestication.

  3. The FDI African Strategy for Oral Health: addressing the specific needs of the continent. (United States)

    Hescot, Patrick; China, Emile; Bourgeois, Denis; Maina, Susan; Monteiro da Silva, Orlando; Luc Eiselé, Jean; Simpson, Christopher; Horn, Virginie


    The FDI World Dental Federation has defined a strategy for the development of oral health in Africa during the "African Summit" held in Cape Town, South Africa. The summit gathered presidents from 16 African National Dental Associations, FDI stakeholders, the World Health Organisation and government delegates. The outcomes of this summit were stated in a Declaration, defining the functional principles of the African strategy as three priorities: To establish and reinforce the credibility of NDAs To acquire and develop leadership and management skills Effective peer-to-peer exchange of information.

  4. Increasing Reading Engagement in African American Boys (United States)

    Husband, Terry


    Much has been written concerning the challenges many teachers face in engaging African American males in reading practices. While much of this extant scholarship focuses on African American males at the pre-adolescent stage of development and beyond, little has been written regarding increasing reading engagement in African American boys in P-5…

  5. African Centered Knowledge: A British Perspective. (United States)

    Christian, Mark


    Considers the impact of African centered knowledge within the United Kingdom. Recent development of African Diaspora studies has forged links between various black Atlantic communities. The United Kingdom has experienced positive grassroots community response to the work of noted African centered scholars, yet within the British academy,…

  6. Empowering African genomics for infectious disease control. (United States)

    Folarin, Onikepe A; Happi, Anise N; Happi, Christian T


    At present, African scientists can only participate minimally in the genomics revolution that is transforming the understanding, surveillance and clinical treatment of infectious diseases. We discuss new initiatives to equip African scientists with knowledge of cutting-edge genomics tools, and build a sustainable critical mass of well-trained African infectious diseases genomics scientists.

  7. African American Teaching and the Matriarchal Performance. (United States)

    Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes

    This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…

  8. Ecology, trade and states in pre-colonial Africa



    State capacity matters for growth. I test Bates' explanation of pre-colonial African states. He argues that trade across ecological boundaries promoted states. I find that African societies in ecologically diverse environments had more centralized states. This is robust to reverse causation, omitted heterogeneity, and alternative interpretations of the link between diversity and states. Ecological diversity also predicts states outside of Africa. I test mechanisms connecting trade to states, ...

  9. Positioning the Testimony of Job Ben Solomon, An Enslaved African American Muslim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Sulaiman Al-Badaai


    Full Text Available Ayyub Ben Suleiman Diallo, better known as Job ben Solomon was among thousands of African Muslims enslaved in America. Job was a son of a high Priest from Senegal. He was kidnapped by his African enemy and sold as a slave in the New World in 1731. He worked on a tobacco plantation in Maryland. He ran away and was captured and imprisoned. Job’s literacy in Arabic attracted the attention of the philanthropist James Oglethorpe who helped to free him. In 1733, Job sailed to England and later returned to Africa. Upon Job’s request, Thomas Bluett wrote Some Memoirs of the Life of Job the Son of Solomon (1734. Allan Austin claims in his book African Muslims in Antebellum America: Transatlantic Stories and Spiritual Struggles (1997 that Job might be considered as the “father of African American Literature”. Muhammad Al-Ahari (2006 states that this account “is perhaps the earliest biography of any African-Americans”. However, William Andrews (1988 with other scholars consider the year of 1760 the appearance of slave narrative as genre. What is more, African Muslim slave narratives have been excluded from African American anthologies. Florence Marfo (2009 in her article entitled “African Muslims in African American Literature” discusses some possible reasons for this omission which mostly relate to the perceived identity of enslaved African American Muslims and the absence of an anti-slavery goal in their narratives. This paper aims to position Job’s testimony in the light of arguments made by the other scholars. Keywords: antebellum, Ayyub, canonization, enslaved Muslims, Job Ben Solomon, slave narrative

  10. Developing programs for african families, by african families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halliday, Jennifer A; Green, Julie; Mellor, David


    Obesity is an emerging problem for African migrants in Australia, but few prevention programs incorporate their cultural beliefs and values. This study reports on the application of community capacity-building and empowerment principles in 4 workshops with Sudanese families in Australia. Workshop...

  11. How student teachers understand African philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsephe M. Letseka


    Full Text Available The question ‘What constitutes African philosophy?’ was first raised with the publication of Placide Tempels’s seminal work Bantu philosophy in 1959. Tempels’s book inevitably elicited considerable critical response from African philosophers, which culminated in a wide range of publications such as Wiredu’s (1980 Philosophy and an African culture, Hountondji’s (1983 African philosophy: Myth and reality, Oruka’s (1990 Sage philosophy: Indigenous thinkers and modern debate on African philosophy, Shutte’s (1993 Philosophy for Africa, Masolo’s (1994 African philosophy in search of identity and Gyekye’s (1995 An essay of African philosophical thought: The Akan conceptual scheme. It has been over 60 years since the publication of Temples’s book and there continues to be serious debate about African philosophy. This article sought to contribute to the debate on the various conceptions of African philosophy, but with a focus on the challenges of teaching African philosophy to Philosophy of Education students at an open distance learning institution in South Africa. This article discussed the tendency amongst undergraduate Philosophy of Education students to conflate and reduce African philosophy to African cultures and traditions, and to the notion of ubuntu, and sought to understand the reasons for students’ inclination to treat African philosophy in this way. It examined students’ background knowledge of African philosophy, their critical thinking skills and whether their official study materials are selected and packaged in a manner that, in fact, adds to the challenges they face. Finally, the article explored the ways in which Philosophy of Education lecturers can adapt their pedagogy to provide students with a better understanding of African philosophy.

  12. Stimulant Use among African American and Latino MSM social networking users


    Young, Sean D.; Shoptaw, Steve


    High stimulant-using and at-risk HIV populations, such as African American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), are increasingly using social networking technologies. However, no known research has explored associations between stimulant use, sexual risk behaviors, and social networking among these populations. Participants were recruited using state-of-the-art computer science methods, which narrowed the sample to 118 (primarily African American and Latino MSM) active Facebook users. ...

  13. "Using history to make slavery history": the African American past and the challenge of contemporary slavery


    James B. Stewart


    This article argues that contemporary antislavery activism in the United States is programmatically undermined and ethically compromised unless it is firmly grounded in a deep understanding of the African American past. Far too frequently those who claim to be “the new abolitionists” evince no interest in what the original abolitionist movement might have to teach them and seem entirely detached from a U.S. history in which the mass, systematic enslavement of African Americans and its consequ...

  14. The African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Carey F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than thirty-five sub-Saharan African countries have severe health workforce shortages. Many also struggle with a mismatch between the knowledge and competencies of health professionals and the needs of the populations they serve. Addressing these workforce challenges requires collaboration among health and education stakeholders and reform of health worker regulations. Health professional regulatory bodies, such as nursing and midwifery councils, have the mandate to reform regulations yet often do not have the resources or expertise to do so. In 2011, the United States of America Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began a four-year initiative to increase the collaboration among national stakeholders and help strengthen the capacity of health professional regulatory bodies to reform national regulatory frameworks. The initiative is called the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives. This article describes the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives and discusses its importance in implementing and sustaining national, regional, and global workforce initiatives. Discussion The African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives convenes leaders responsible for regulation from 14 countries in East, Central and Southern Africa. It provides a high profile, south-to-south collaboration to assist countries in implementing joint approaches to problems affecting the health workforce. Implemented in partnership with Emory University, the Commonwealth Secretariat, and the East, Central and Southern African College of Nursing, this initiative also supports four to five countries per year in implementing locally-designed regulation improvement projects. Over time, the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives will help to increase the regulatory capacity of health professional organizations and ultimately improve regulation and

  15. Characterizing the learning styles and testing the science-related attitudes of African American middle school students: Implications for the underrepresentation of African Americans in the sciences (United States)

    Perine, Donald Ray

    African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans and women are underrepresented among the population of scientists and science teachers in the United States. Specifically, the shortage of African Americans teaching math and science at all levels of the educational process and going into the many science-related fields is manifested throughout the entire educational and career structure of our society. This shortage exists when compared to the total population of African Americans in this country, the population of African American students, and to society's demand for more math and science teachers and professionals of all races. One suggestion to address this problem is to update curricular and instructional programs to accommodate the learning styles of African Americans from elementary to graduate school. There is little in the published literature to help us understand the learning styles of African American middle school students and how they compare to African American adults who pursue science careers. There is also little published data to help inform us about the relationship between learning styles of African American middle school students and their attitudes toward science. The author used a learning styles inventory instrument to identify the learning style preferences of the African American students and adults. The preferences identified describe how African American students and African American adult science professionals prefer to function, learn, concentrate, and perform in their educational and work activities in the areas of: (a) immediate environment, (b) emotionality, (c) sociological needs, and (d) physical needs. The learning style preferences for the students and adults were not significantly different in key areas of preference. A Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) was used to measure seven distinct science-related attitudes of the middle school students. A comparison of the profile of the mean scores for the students in this study

  16. East African odontopygid millipedes 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Sara B.; Enghoff, Henrik


    Five new species of the endemic East African genus Xystopyge are described: X. pelecys, X. frontieri, X. proplicatus, X. biacanthus, and X. zanzibarensis. Three are from the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania, two are from the Usambara Mtns. and one is from the Uluguru Mtns. One further species is f...

  17. Classic African American Children's Literature (United States)

    McNair, Jonda C.


    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  18. Alternatives to Suspending African American High School Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The research site was one high school in the southern United States where African American males were suspended at greater rates than their counterparts. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the perspectives of high school administrators and teachers regarding alternatives to suspending African American males in one southern high school within a public school district. Guided by the social learning theory, the research question focused on the suspensions of these students. Data were collected through in-depth, semi structured, face-to-face interviews with a purposive sample of 6 high school teachers and 2 administrators, and coded and analyzed for emergent themes. The findings revealed that African American high school males might benefit from education programs such as character education programs to develop social, academic, and discipline skills. The findings of this study may be used for professional development for teachers and administrators regarding strategies to reduce suspensions of African American high school males, which might facilitate their graduation from high school and subsequent entry into higher education or the workforce.lications to display the level of psychological strain and workplace stressors among nurses as part of the postmodern organizational problems. Classification-JEL: A23

  19. Exploring the Sexuality of African American Older Women (United States)

    Laganá, Luciana; White, Theresa; Bruzzone, Daniel E.; Bruzzone, Cristine E.


    Aims To identify sexually-related themes of the sexuality of older African American women. Study Design Mixed method. Place and Duration of Study Department of Psychology, California State University Northridge, between July 2009 and June 2011. Methodology We included 13 African American older women (57 to 82 years of age), 11 of whom self-identified as heterosexual, one as bisexual, and one as lesbian. We used a semi-structured interview protocol through which we explored some aspects of the respondents’ sexuality (assessed at a superficial level, to be as tactful as possible). Moreover, we collected information on demographics and self-rated physical health. Two co-authors served as coders, and used content analysis to identify the most salient sexuality themes. Results Emerging themes were (in order from most to least endorsed): having sexual desire (often unfulfilled); engaging in less sexual activity in older age; experiencing changes in one’s sexual life as a function of absence of a spouse; and exercising control over how one’s sexual life is conducted. Motivated by the paucity of our sexuality data, we have also provided suggestions to scholars interested in conducting more in-depth further research on this topic with older African American women. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the common notion that older women are asexual is a myth, while lack of a suitable sexual partner is a problem reported by many African American older women who would otherwise enjoy sexual interaction. PMID:25632380

  20. The Underrepresentation of African Americans in Army Combat Arms Branches (United States)


    Henry Barnard, Military Schools and Courses of Instruction in the Science and Art of War, in France, Prussia, Austria, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland ...problem exists, it hides that fact that African Americans are underrepresented in the flag officer ranks. Unfortunately, this issue requires significant...Prussia, Austria, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland , Sardinia, England, and the United States. Rev. Ed. New York: Greenwood Press, 1969. Berger, Peter L

  1. Trade policy and regionalism in the Central African Republic


    Walkenhorst, Peter


    This paper reviews the trade policy situation in the Central African Republic (CAR) and identifies a number of key issues and challenges for the country. The focus of the study is thereby on how trade taxes and quantitative restrictions affect the goods sector. The analysis falls into three parts. First, the state of domestic trade policy is described, with particular emphasis on the structure and economic effects of border policies. Then, CAR’s regional integration efforts are examined, ...

  2. Desenvolvimento de colônias de abelhas Apis mellifera africanizadas na região de Maringá, Estado do Paraná = Growing of Africanized honeybee colonies in Maringá region, State of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Martins Costa


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi estimar o desenvolvimento das colônias de Apis mellifera africanizadas no período de julho de 1999 a junho de 2000, na Fazenda Experimental, quanto às porcentagens de ocupações por cria, alimento e total dos favos, correlacioná-las com variáveis ambientais e determinar o teor de proteína bruta no pólenestocado pelas abelhas. Foram utilizadas cinco colônias de abelhas A. mellifera africanizadas, realizando-se mapeamentos e coletas de pólen mensalmente. Foram obtidos dados climáticos de temperatura máxima e mínima, umidade relativa máxima e mínima do ar e precipitação pluviométrica de cada mês, coletados na própria Fazenda Experimental. As porcentagens médias de ocupação com cria (ovo-larva + pupa de operárias e zangões, com alimento (mel e pólen e da área total não foram diferentes entre as colônias (p>0,05. As abelhas africanizadas diminuíram sua população com temperaturas externas baixas (invernoe também com excesso de umidade relativa do ar (verão. O teor médio de proteína bruta presente no pólen durante o ano foi de 24,51%, sendo este valor aceitável para um bom desenvolvimento das colônias.This research was carried out to evaluate the growing of Africanized honeybee colonies from July 1999 to June 2000, as for the percentages of occupation area with brood, food, occupied total area, to correlate them with environmental variables and to determine the tenor of crude protein in the pollen stocked in the combs by workers. Five colonies were mapped monthly, which were made the counting of the occupied area with brood, food, occupied total area and also the pollen was collected and submitted to the bromatological analysis to determine the tenor of crude protein. The medium percentages of occupation with brood (egg-larvae plus workers pupa and drones, with food (honey and pollen and of the occupied total area they were not also different among the treatments (p>0.05. The

  3. Differences in African American and White Women’s Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men (United States)

    Vincent, Wilson; Peterson, John L.; Parrott, Dominic J.


    The aim of the present study was to examine racial differences in women’s attitudes toward lesbians and gay men and to offer an understanding of these differences. Participants were 224 18–30 year old heterosexual African American (64%) and White (36%) female undergraduates from a large urban university in the southeastern United States. Participants completed measures of social demographics, sexual orientation, and sexual prejudice. Results showed that African American, relative to White, women endorsed more negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Also, unlike White women, African American women reported more negative attitudes toward gay men than lesbians. Implications are discussed regarding differences in cultural contexts that exist between African American and White women. PMID:20161368

  4. Toddler Feeding: Expectations and Experiences of Low-Income African American Mothers (United States)

    Horodynski, Mildred A.; Brophy-Herb, Holly; Henry, Michelle; Smith, Katharine A.; Weatherspoon, Lorraine


    Objective: To ascertain maternal expectations and experiences with mealtimes and feeding of toddlers among low-income African American mothers in two mid- to large-size cities in the United States. Design: Qualitative focus group study. Setting: Two Early Head Start programme sites in a Midwestern state which serve low income families. Method:…

  5. Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Pi Chapter: African American Male Identity and Fraternity Culture, 1923-2003 (United States)

    Johnson, Edwin T.


    Pi Chapter of the Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc. at Morgan State University made a significant contribution to the identity construction of college-educated African American men in the state of Maryland. The initiates of Pi Chapter constructed identities that allowed the members to see themselves as participants in mainstream American society as…

  6. Curriculum Change and Contextual Realities in South African Education: Cui Bono? (United States)

    Jansen, Jonathan D.


    Evaluates two South African curriculum change projects (Science Education Project and Fort Hare Project) that illustrate the difficulty of instituting meaningful change while working within the confines of the state school system. Concludes that control of schools by the state, supremacist ideology in curricula, and institutionalization of…

  7. The UCAR Africa Initiative: Enabling African Solutions to African Needs (United States)

    Pandya, R.; Bruintjes, R.; Foote, B.; Heck, S.; Hermann, S.; Hoswell, L.; Konate, M.; Kucera, P.; Laing, A.; Lamptey, B.; Moncrieff, M.; Ramamurthy, M.; Roberts, R.; Spangler, T.; Traoré, A.; Yoksas, T.; Warner, T.


    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Africa Initiative (AI) is a coordinated effort aimed at building sustainable partnerships between UCAR and African institutions in order to pursue research and applications for the benefit of the African people. The initiative is based on four fundamental operating principles, concisely summarized by the overall philosophy of enabling African solutions to African needs. The four principles are: • Collaborate with African institutions • Focus on institutional capacity building and research support • Explore science research themes critical to Africa and important for the world • Leverage the research infrastructure in UCAR to add value These principles are realized in a set of pilot activities, chosen for their high probability of short-term results and ability to set the stage for longer-term collaboration. The three pilot activities are listed below. 1. A modest radar network and data-distribution system in Mali and Burkina Faso, including a data-sharing MOU between the Mail and Burkina Faso Weather Services. 2. A partnership among UCAR, the Ghana Meteorological Agency, and the Ghana university community to develop an operational Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for West Africa. The output is used by researchers and operational forecasters in Africa. Model output is also part of a demonstration project that aims to allow humanitarian agencies to share geo-referenced information in Africa via a web portal. 3. A workshop in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from April 2-6, 2007, with the theme Improving Lives by Understanding Weather. The workshop, co-organized with Programme SAAGA and the Commité Permanent Inter-Etats de Lutte Contre la Sécheresse dans le Sahel (CILSS), included over 80 participants from 18 countries, and produced a set of recommendations for continued collaboration. Our presentation will provide an update of these pilot activities and point to future directions. Recognizing

  8. Schistosomes in South African penguins. (United States)

    Aldhoun, Jitka A; Horne, Elizabeth C


    During the years 2009-2012, faeces of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus L.) from South African rehabilitation centres were examined for helminths. In total, 46 out 555 samples (8.29 %), mostly belonging to adult birds, were found to contain oval schistosome eggs with a spine on one pole. Their dimensions were 153.21 ± 9.07 × 87.14 ± 8.67 μm. Selected DNA fragments (18S, 28S and ITS rDNA) were sequenced and compared to other schistosome isolates deposited in GenBank. The shape of the eggs suggests that they belong to the genus Gigantobilharzia; however, due to the insufficient stage of knowledge of the genus and limited number of species available for comparison, we were not able to assign the isolate unambiguously to this genus based on either the egg morphology or the results of molecular analysis.

  9. Afri-Can Forum 2


    Sartorius, Benn; Coetzee, Jenny; Mokgatswana, Kgaugelo; Jewkes, Rachel; Gray, Glenda E.; Dugas, Marylène; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Rutakumwa, Rwamahe; Mbonye, Martin; Kiwanuka, Thadeus; Nakamanya, Sarah; Muhumuza, Richard; Nalukenge, Winfred; Seeley, Janet; Atujuna, Millicent


    Table of contents A1 Introduction to the 2nd synchronicity forum of GHRI/CHVI-funded Canadian and African HIV prevention and vaccine teams O1 Voluntary medical male circumcision for prevention of heterosexual transmission of HIV in adult males in Soweto: What do indicators and incidence rate show? Hillary Mukudu, Neil Martinson, Benn Sartorius O2 Developing a peer-led community mobilization program for sex workers in Soweto: HIV risk and demographics Jenny Coetzee, Janan Dietrich, Kgaugelo Mo...

  10. African financial systems: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Allen


    Full Text Available We start by providing an overview of financial systems in the African continent. We then consider the regions of Arab North Africa, West Africa, East and Central Africa, and Southern Africa in more detail. The paper covers, among other things, central banks, deposit-taking banks, non-bank institutions, such as the stock markets, fixed income markets, insurance markets, and microfinance institutions.

  11. Experiences of African American Young Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education (United States)

    Kolo, Yovonda Ingram

    African American women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields throughout the United States. As the need for STEM professionals in the United States increases, it is important to ensure that African American women are among those professionals making valuable contributions to society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of African American young women in relation to STEM education. The research question for this study examined how experiences with STEM in K-10 education influenced African American young women's academic choices in their final years in high school. The theory of multicontextuality was used to provide the conceptual framework. The primary data source was interviews. The sample was composed of 11 African American young women in their junior or senior year in high school. Data were analyzed through the process of open coding, categorizing, and identifying emerging themes. Ten themes emerged from the answers to research questions. The themes were (a) high teacher expectations, (b) participation in extra-curricular activities, (c) engagement in group-work, (d) learning from lectures, (e) strong parental involvement, (f) helping others, (g) self-efficacy, (h) gender empowerment, (i) race empowerment, and (j) strategic recruitment practices. This study may lead to positive social change by adding to the understanding of the experiences of African American young women in STEM. By doing so, these findings might motivate other African American young women to pursue advanced STEM classes. These findings may also provide guidance to parents and educators to help increase the number of African American women in STEM.

  12. African management : concept, content and usability.


    Seny Kan, K. A.; Apitsa, S.M.; Adegbite, E.


    Purpose While management research in African context is all but invisible in management literature, the notion of "African management" emerges through a piecemeal corpus of literature that has arisen in response to the exclusion and marginalisation of Africa in the broad field of management literature. The idea underlying this reasoning is that the Western management model prevailing so far in Africa is inadequate because of cultural considerations. However, what is meant by “African manag...

  13. Aspects of the phytogeography of African Pteridophyta

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    E. A. C. L. E. Schelpe


    Full Text Available A diversity of distribution patterns exhibited by African pteridophytes on intercontinental and continental scales are presented. Occasional random dispersal among the Pteridophyta over long distances is accepted. The ecological importance of the gametophyte phase is inferred. Future progress in the elucidation of African fern phytogeography will require a broader alpha-taxonomic pan-African base and the plotting of many more distribution maps.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Akinmade


    The history of African continent has been that of pristine aesthetics, cultural independence, composite values and communalistic disposition. Regrettably, the compelling impact of colonization has refracted the states of Africa and the effect has been monumental as the African states have not recovered from the overwhelming impact of colonization even after independence.

  15. Family matters: Familial support and science identity formation for African American female STEM majors (United States)

    Parker, Ashley Dawn

    This research seeks to understand the experiences of African American female undergraduates in STEM. It investigates how familial factors and science identity formation characteristics influence persistence in STEM while considering the duality of African American women's status in society. This phenomenological study was designed using critical race feminism as the theoretical framework to answer the following questions: 1) What role does family play in the experiences of African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? 2) What factors impact the formation of science identity for African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? Purposive sampling was used to select the participants for this study. The researcher conducted in-depth interviews with 10 African American female undergraduate STEM major from a predominantly White and a historically Black institution with the state of North Carolina public university system. Findings suggest that African American families and science identity formation influence the STEM experiences of the African American females interviewed in this study. The following five themes emerged from the findings: (1) independence, (2) support, (3) pressure to succeed, (4) adaptations, and (5) race and gender. This study contributes to the literature on African American female students in STEM higher education. The findings of this study produced knowledge regarding policies and practices that can lead to greater academic success and persistence of African American females in higher education in general, and STEM majors in particular. Colleges and universities may benefit from the findings of this study in a way that allows them to develop and sustain programs and policies that attend to the particular concerns and needs of African American women on their campuses. Finally, this research informs both current and future African American female

  16. Gentle Africanized bees on an oceanic island. (United States)

    Rivera-Marchand, Bert; Oskay, Devrim; Giray, Tugrul


    Oceanic islands have reduced resources and natural enemies and potentially affect life history traits of arriving organisms. Among the most spectacular invasions in the Western hemisphere is that of the Africanized honeybee. We hypothesized that in the oceanic island Puerto Rico, Africanized bees will exhibit differences from the mainland population such as for defensiveness and other linked traits. We evaluated the extent of Africanization through three typical Africanized traits: wing size, defensive behavior, and resistance to Varroa destructor mites. All sampled colonies were Africanized by maternal descent, with over 65% presence of European alleles at the S-3 nuclear locus. In two assays evaluating defense, Puerto Rican bees showed low defensiveness similar to European bees. In morphology and resistance to mites, Africanized bees from Puerto Rico are similar to other Africanized bees. In behavioral assays on mechanisms of resistance to Varroa, we directly observed that Puerto Rican Africanized bees groomed-off and bit the mites as been observed in other studies. In no other location, Africanized bees have reduced defensiveness while retaining typical traits such as wing size and mite resistance. This mosaic of traits that has resulted during the invasion of an oceanic island has implications for behavior, evolution, and agriculture.

  17. Cultural aspects of African American eating patterns. (United States)

    Airhihenbuwa, C O; Kumanyika, S; Agurs, T D; Lowe, A; Saunders, D; Morssink, C B


    The high mortality from diet-related diseases among African Americans strongly suggests a need to adopt diets lower in total fat, saturated fat and salt and higher in fiber. However, such changes would be contrary to some traditional African American cultural practices. Focus group interviews were used to explore cultural aspects of eating patterns among low- and middle-income African Americans recruited from an urban community in Pennsylvania. In total, 21 males and 32 females, aged 13-65+ years were recruited using a networking technique. Participants identified eating practices commonly attributed to African Americans and felt that these were largely independent of socioeconomic status. They were uncertain about links between African American eating patterns and African origins but clear about influences of slavery and economic disadvantage. The perception that African American food patterns were characteristically adaptive to external conditions, suggest that, for effective dietary change in African American communities, changes in the food availability will need to precede or take place in parallel with changes recommended to individuals. Cultural attitudes about where and with whom food is eaten emerged as being equivalent in importance to attitudes about specific foods. These findings emphasize the importance of continued efforts to identify ways to increase the relevance of cultural context and meanings in dietary counseling so that health and nutrition interventions are anchored in values as perceived, in this case, by African Americans.

  18. Race, health, and the African Diaspora. (United States)

    Spigner, Clarence

    Health inequalities exist throughout the African Diaspora and are viewed in this article as largely color-coded. In developed, developing, and undeveloped nations today, "racial" stratification is consistently reflected in an inability to provide adequate health regardless of national policy or ideology. For instance, African Americans experience less than adequate health care very similar to Blacks in Britain, in spite of each nations differing health systems. Latin America's Africana Negra communities experience poorer health similar to Blacks throughout the Caribbean. The African continent itself is arguably the poorest on earth. A common history of racism correlates with health disparities across the African Diaspora.

  19. The African diaspora: history, adaptation and health. (United States)

    Rotimi, Charles N; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Baker, Jennifer L; Shriner, Daniel


    The trans-Atlantic slave trade brought millions of Africans to the New World. Advances in genomics are providing novel insights into the history and health of Africans and the diasporan populations. Recent examples reviewed here include the unraveling of substantial hunter-gatherer and 'Eurasian' admixtures across sub-Saharan Africa, expanding our understanding of ancestral African genetics; the global ubiquity of mixed ancestry; the revealing of African ancestry in Latin Americans that likely derived from the slave trade; and understanding of the ancestral backgrounds of APOL1 and LPL found to influence kidney disease and lipid levels, respectively, providing specific insights into disease etiology and health disparities.

  20. African American girls and the challenges ahead. (United States)

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L


    The research on the psychosocial development of African American girls is limited. Information that is available focuses on teen pregnancy and health issues such as nutrition and physical activity. African American girls are facing challenges, including poverty, crime, poor self-esteem, and peer pressure. Despite some of the negative characteristics attributed to African American girls, many are achieving some success. Policy makers and service providers need to recognize the resiliency and unique needs of African American girls and develop services that ensure their needs are being fully met.

  1. The African Standby Force and Regional Security Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas


    the challenges facing the region? The regional enmities between the states seem to be widespread, deep-rooted and of a nearly chronic nature. In June 2015 the African Union and its member-states announced that they expected the five regionally based standby brigades to be fully operational by December 2015....... The readiness is to be tested at a continental field exercise, Amani Africa 11 to take place in South Africa October 2015. (Defence Web, 2015) The article will start by mapping out the security dynamics and architecture in East Africa, including its membership circles and priorities. The article...

  2. Research on undergraduate mathematics education: A South African perspective.

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    Ansie Harding


    Full Text Available Research on undergradute mathematics education is a relatively new field that originated less than 20 years ago in the United States of America (USA, and that is known under the acronymn RUME (Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education. In South Africa researchers in this field form a small but strong group that originated at the University of Pretoria. In this article a brief overview is firstly given on the international increase in interest and activities in this research field. Secondly the research field is viewed from a South African perspective. Examples of research projects are discussed, as well as the career path that leads to research in this field. Finally local activities and existing international ties are considered. The aim of this article is to give a South African overview of the research field and activities, hoping to motivate and stimulate research in this important and growing field.

  3. African Agency and EU–African Economic Partnership Agreements

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    Dirk Kohnert


    Full Text Available Review Article: European Parliament (EP (ed. (2014, African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP Countries’ Position on Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs, Brussels: European Parliament, Directorate-General for External Policies, Policy Department, April, ISBN 978-92-823- 5667-8, 84 pp. Contemporary Politics (2014, vol. 20, issue 1, Special Issue: Perspectives on the Trade–Development Nexus in the European Union, London: Routledge, ISSN: 1356-9775 (print, 1469-3631 (online, 126 pp. Trommer, Silke (2014, Transformations in Trade Politics: Participatory Trade Politics in West Africa, London: Routledge, ISBN: 978-0- 415-81973-2, 232 pp.

  4. Navigating Racialized Contexts: The Influence of School and Family Socialization on African American Students' Racial and Educational Identity Development (United States)

    McCoy, Shuntay Z.


    Within the United States, African American students experience school socialization that exposes them to racial segregation, economic stratification, and route learning masked as education. Consequently African American families are compelled to engage in socialization practices that buffer against the adverse influences of racism, oppression, and…

  5. The Role of the Black Church, the Barbershop/Beauty Salon, and Digital Communication to Support African American Persons Living with HIV/AIDS (United States)

    Pillay, Yegan


    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010) reports that approximately 1 million people in the United States are living with HIV. African Americans comprise 12% of the population yet account for approximately 46% of the people living with HIV. The rising prevalence rate among African Americans is an anomaly given that the prevalence rate…

  6. African Americans & Hispanics among Physics & Astronomy Faculty: Results from the 2012 Survey of Physics & Astronomy Degree-Granting Departments. Focus On (United States)

    Ivie, Rachel; Anderson, Garrett; White, Susan


    The United States is becoming more and more diverse, but the representation of some minority groups in physics and astronomy lags behind. Although 13% of the US population is African American or black, and 17% is Hispanic (US Census), the representation of these two groups in physics and astronomy is much lower. For this reason, African Americans…

  7. Intervention Induced Changes on Parenting Practices, Youth Self-Pride and Sexual Norms to Reduce HIV-Related Behaviors among Rural African American Youths (United States)

    Murry, Velma McBride; Berkel, Cady; Chen, Yi-fu; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg


    AIDS is the leading killer of African Americans between the ages of 25 and 44, many of whom became infected when they were teenagers or young adults. The disparity in HIV infection rate among African Americans youth residing in rural Southern regions of the United States suggests that there is an urgent need to identify ways to promote early…

  8. Use of Machine Learning Techniques for Identification of Robust Teleconnections to East African Rainfall Variability (United States)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Robertson, F. R.; Funk, C.


    Hidden Markov models can be used to investigate structure of subseasonal variability. East African short rain variability has connections to large-scale tropical variability. MJO - Intraseasonal variations connected with appearance of "wet" and "dry" states. ENSO/IOZM SST and circulation anomalies are apparent during years of anomalous residence time in the subseasonal "wet" state. Similar results found in previous studies, but we can interpret this with respect to variations of subseasonal wet and dry modes. Reveal underlying connections between MJO/IOZM/ENSO with respect to East African rainfall.

  9. African American Race and Prevalence of Atrial Fibrillation:A Meta-Analysis (United States)

    Hernandez, Marlow B.; Asher, Craig R.; Hernandez, Adrian V.; Novaro, Gian M.


    Background. It has been observed that African American race is associated with a lower prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) compared to Caucasian race. To better quantify the association between African American race and AF, we performed a meta-analysis of published studies among different patient populations which reported the presence of AF by race. Methods. A literature search was conducted using electronic databases between January 1999 and January 2011. The search was limited to published studies in English conducted in the United States, which clearly defined the presence of AF in African American and Caucasian subjects. A meta-analysis was performed with prevalence of AF as the primary endpoint. Results. In total, 10 studies involving 1,031,351 subjects were included. According to a random effects analysis, African American race was associated with a protective effect with regard to AF as compared to Caucasian race (odds ratio 0.51, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.59, P < 0.001). In subgroup analyses, African American race was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of AF in the general population, those hospitalized or greater than 60 years old, postcoronary artery bypass surgery patients, and subjects with heart failure. Conclusions. In a broad sweep of subjects in the general population and hospitalized patients, the prevalence of AF in African Americans is consistently lower than in Caucasians. PMID:22548197

  10. African American Race and Prevalence of Atrial Fibrillation:A Meta-Analysis

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    Marlow B. Hernandez


    Full Text Available Background. It has been observed that African American race is associated with a lower prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF compared to Caucasian race. To better quantify the association between African American race and AF, we performed a meta-analysis of published studies among different patient populations which reported the presence of AF by race. Methods. A literature search was conducted using electronic databases between January 1999 and January 2011. The search was limited to published studies in English conducted in the United States, which clearly defined the presence of AF in African American and Caucasian subjects. A meta-analysis was performed with prevalence of AF as the primary endpoint. Results. In total, 10 studies involving 1,031,351 subjects were included. According to a random effects analysis, African American race was associated with a protective effect with regard to AF as compared to Caucasian race (odds ratio 0.51, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.59, <0.001. In subgroup analyses, African American race was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of AF in the general population, those hospitalized or greater than 60 years old, postcoronary artery bypass surgery patients, and subjects with heart failure. Conclusions. In a broad sweep of subjects in the general population and hospitalized patients, the prevalence of AF in African Americans is consistently lower than in Caucasians.

  11. The history and visions of African American psychology: multiple pathways to place, space, and authority. (United States)

    Holliday, Bertha Garrett


    The author describes the multiple pathways of events and strategies that served to nurture African American psychology in the United States. Special attention is given to strategies for inclusion and empowerment used in 4 psychological professional and scholarly associations: the American Counseling Association, the American Psychological Association, the Association of Black Psychologists, and the Society for Research in Child Development. In addition, the author describes 4 major intellectual traditions that informed not only the strategies of inclusion but also the theoretical, research, and intervention perspectives and other professional and academic efforts of African American psychologists. Those perspectives are the Afrocentric/African-centered tradition derived from longstanding nationalist/Pan-African and culturally centered traditions within African American communities; the social contextual/multidisciplinary research tradition of the University of Chicago School of Social Science; the empirical social science research tradition of the University of Michigan; and the Black scholar/activist tradition of Howard University. This article also presents a chronological timeline of major events in the history of African American psychology.

  12. The AU Model Law on Universal Jurisdiction: An African Response to Western Prosecutions based on the Universality Principle

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    Angelo Dube


    Full Text Available The African continent has been consistent in placing its concerns regarding the manner in which international criminal justice is administered on the international platform. For the past decade, the continent has minced no words about its misgivings concerning the use of universal jurisdiction (UJ by both foreign States and the International Criminal Court (ICC. The African Union (AU has been very supportive of UJ and its utility in fighting impunity and affording justice to victims of the core crimes of international law, namely, genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity. Often referred to as core crimes, these are regarded as customary law crimes which are an affront to entire humankind. These crimes were also codified by the Rome Statute of the ICC. However, the political and selective use of the principle of universality by foreign States to prosecute perpetrators of these crimes was seen as causing conflicts and undermining peace efforts, reconciliation and regional stability. As a result the African continent voiced its concerns at various public platforms, including under the auspices of the UN and it therefore called for reforms. This prompted the AU to produce its own model law on UJ, which African States could adapt to their own socio-political circumstances and legal context. The debates that ensued around UJ on the African continent offered African States a chance to contribute to the development of international law, especially on the rules concerning UJ. This paper analyses the interaction amongst African states that eventually led to the development of UJ regulations within their individual legal systems, and tries to determine if there is indeed an African signature in those legal rules.

  13. Conflict and human African trypanosomiasis. (United States)

    Berrang-Ford, Lea; Lundine, Jamie; Breau, Sebastien


    Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) has reemerged in sub-Saharan Africa as a disease of major public health importance. The success of HAT elimination in sub-Saharan Africa is subject to the feasibility of controlling, eliminating, or mitigating the determinants of incidence in affected countries. Conflict has been widely recognized and cited as a contributing factor to the resurgence of HAT in many countries, as well as to continuing HAT incidence in politically unstable and resource-poor regions. Despite extensive anecdotal and qualitative recognition of the role of conflict, there has been no quantitative research of this topic at the population level in affected African countries. We characterize the qualitative and quantitative associations between HAT incidence and conflict-related processes in HAT-affected African countries over the past 30 years. HAT and conflict-related data were collected for 35 affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa for the years 1976-2004. Descriptive and univariate inferential statistics, as well as negative binomial regression modeling, are used to assess the associations between HAT and conflict. A space-time scan statistic is used to identify significant incidence clusters. Clusters of HAT incidence over the past 30 years have predominantly coincided with periods of conflict or socio-political instability. HAT cases occurred significantly more often in countries and during years with conflict, high political terror, and internationalized civil war. The results indicate a lag period between the start of conflict events and a peak in incidence of approximately 10 years. We recommend explicit consideration and quantification of socio-political measures such as conflict and terror indices in GIS (Geographic Information Systems)-based risk assessments for HAT policy and intervention.

  14. African American Teachers and Culturally Relevant Pedagogy. (United States)

    Foster, Michele

    An overview is presented of research on African American teachers, addressing the large body of literature written by policy analysts, first-person narratives, and the sociological and anthropological literature. Policy research has identified the small number of African American teachers and has studied some reasons for this shortage and some of…

  15. Prostate cancer in men of African origin. (United States)

    McGinley, Kathleen F; Tay, Kae Jack; Moul, Judd W


    Men of African origin are disproportionately affected by prostate cancer: prostate cancer incidence is highest among men of African origin in the USA, prostate cancer mortality is highest among men of African origin in the Caribbean, and tumour stage and grade at diagnosis are highest among men in sub-Saharan Africa. Socioeconomic, educational, cultural, and genetic factors, as well as variations in care delivery and treatment selection, contribute to this cancer disparity. Emerging data on single-nucleotide-polymorphism patterns, epigenetic changes, and variations in fusion-gene products among men of African origin add to the understanding of genetic differences underlying this disease. On the diagnosis of prostate cancer, when all treatment options are available, men of African origin are more likely to choose radiation therapy or to receive no definitive treatment than white men. Among men of African origin undergoing surgery, increased rates of biochemical recurrence have been identified. Understanding differences in the cancer-survivorship experience and quality-of-life outcomes among men of African origin are critical to appropriately counsel patients and improve cultural sensitivity. Efforts to curtail prostate cancer screening will likely affect men of African origin disproportionately and widen the racial disparity of disease.

  16. A Mirror Image African American Student Reflections (United States)

    Cannon Dawson, Candice


    This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…

  17. France: Africans and the French Revolution. (United States)

    Fatunde, Tunde


    The French Revolution had profound and long-term effects for Africans, both in Africa and throughout the Western hemisphere. Revolutionary leaders not only opposed the emancipation of slaves in French territories but supported an intensified slave trade, sparking numerous rebellions. French exploitation of Africans extended well into the twentieth…

  18. British African Caribbean Women and Depression (United States)

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney


    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  19. Precolonial African History. AHA Pamphlets, 501. (United States)

    Curtin, Philip D.

    This pamphlet surveys western historiography of precolonial Africa. Prior to World War II, African history emphasized the European role in Africa, relegating African history before European colonization to minor importance. Only after the increase in university enrollments and funding in the 1960's did opportunities for innovative research and new…

  20. Hidden Education among African Americans during Slavery (United States)

    Gundaker, Grey


    Background/Context: Historical studies examine aspects of African American education in and out of school in detail (Woodson 1915, 1933, Bullock 1970, Anderson 1988, Morris 1982, Rachal 1986, Rose 1964, Webber 1978, Williams 2005). Scholars of African American literacy have noted ways that education intersects other arenas such as religion and…

  1. Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women (United States)

    Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David


    The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

  2. South African cities and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Vacchiani-Marcuzzo


    Full Text Available Illustration 1 – Centre des affaires, Le CapAuteur : Céline Vacchiani-Marcuzzo.Born with colonial settlement patterns, the South-African urban system has experienced half a century of Apartheid. Under the effects of globalization, this urban system evolves as more developed urban systems and mature settlement patterns. This urbanization process (in the limits of functional urban agglomeration makes South Africa one of the most advanced countries in Africa in terms of urban growth. The world-...

  3. Population genetics of African ungulates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Eline

    Molecular genetic techniques were used to gain insights into the evolutionary forces that have shaped the present day diversity of African savannah ungu-lates, which constitute the most species-rich mega faunal assemblage on earth. The studies included in this thesis represent individual species......-specific data sets, which are used to elucidate evolutionary processes of importance to the savannah ungulate community. Patterns of DNA variation were analyzed to assess the genetic signatures of Pleistocene refugia and investigate aspects of speciation, intraspecific structuring, hybridization, and historic...

  4. African witchcraft in theological perspective

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    I.W.C. van Wyk


    Full Text Available This article is a theological contribution aimed at creating an understanding of the phenomenon of witchcraft in South Africa. Witchcraft still causes major social problems in this country. The article argues that the development of a culture of human rights and the improvement of the judicial process alone will not solve this problem. Witchcraft is a too deeply rooted religious phenomenon. The phenomenon is described in its religious complexity and diversity. Witchcraft is discussed within the framework of the African theodicy.

  5. African Americans and the medical establishment. (United States)

    Smith, C


    The African American community's response to the AIDS epidemic has reflected the profound mistrust of the medical establishment which many African Americans feel. Among African Americans, the belief that the epidemic originated in a genocidal plot is widespread. It is thought that organized medicine has been significantly involved in this plot. If we look at African Americans' historical relationship to the medical establishment from the era of slavery to the recent past, the suspicious attitudes which make such beliefs possible can be seen as an intelligible response to a new disease which disproportionately affects African Americans. Successful medical and public health responses to the epidemic have depended and will continue to depend upon overcoming the historical legacy of suspicion and gaining the trust of the community.

  6. An African VLBI network of radio telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Gaylard, M J; Combrinck, L; Booth, R S; Buchner, S J; Fanaroff, B L; MacLeod, G C; Nicolson, G D; Quick, J F H; Stronkhorst, P; Venkatasubramani, T L


    The advent of international wideband communication by optical fibre has produced a revolution in communications and the use of the internet. Many African countries are now connected to undersea fibre linking them to other African countries and to other continents. Previously international communication was by microwave links through geostationary satellites. These are becoming redundant in some countries as optical fibre takes over, as this provides 1000 times the bandwidth of the satellite links. In the 1970's and 1980's some two dozen large (30 m diameter class) antennas were built in various African countries to provide the satellite links. Twenty six are currently known in 19 countries. As these antennas become redundant, the possibility exists to convert them for radio astronomy at a cost of roughly one tenth that of a new antenna of similar size. HartRAO, SKA Africa and the South African Department of Science and Technology (DST) have started exploring this possibility with some of the African countries...

  7. Understanding the Rise of African Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorem, Kaja Tvedten; Hansen, Michael Wendelboe; Jeppesen, Søren


    enterprises, observing that while much research is focusing on the role of the African business environments for enterprise development, much less attention has been devoted to the role of firm-specific capabilities, strategies and management. The paper concludes by advocating a contingency approach......Purpose: In light of recent enthusiasm over African private sector development, the purpose of this paper is to review the business literature on African enterprise development with a view of identifying lacunas in the literature and of developing an analytical framework that may guide future...... research on this issue. Design/methodology/approach: The paper provides a review of the extant literature on African enterprise development by juxtaposing the traditional pessimistic view of African business performance with more recent, optimistic accounts. Based on the literature review, lacunas...

  8. Adding to the Education Debt: Depressive Symptoms Mediate the Association between Racial Discrimination and Academic Performance in African Americans. (United States)

    English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F; Ialongo, Nicholas S


    Although the United States faces a seemingly intractable divide between white and African American academic performance, there remains a dearth of longitudinal research investigating factors that work to maintain this gap. The present study examined whether racial discrimination predicted the academic performance of African American students through its effect on depressive symptoms. Participants were a community sample of African American adolescents (N=495) attending urban public schools from grade 7 to grade 9 (Mage=12.5). Structural equation modeling revealed that experienced racial discrimination predicted increases in depressive symptoms 1year later, which, in turn, predicted decreases in academic performance the following year. These results suggest that racial discrimination continues to play a critical role in the academic performance of African American students and, as such, contributes to the maintenance of the race-based academic achievement gap in the United States.

  9. Epigenetic Markers of Renal Function in African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha M. Bomotti


    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is an increasing concern in the United States due to its rapidly rising prevalence, particularly among African Americans. Epigenetic DNA methylation markers are becoming important biomarkers of chronic diseases such as CKD. To better understand how these methylation markers play a role in kidney function, we measured 26,428 DNA methylation sites in 972 African Americans from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA study. We then evaluated (1 whether epigenetic markers are associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, (2 whether the significantly associated markers are also associated with traditional risk factors and/or novel biomarkers for eGFR, and (3 how much additional variation in eGFR is explained by epigenetic markers beyond established risk factors and biomarkers. The majority of methylation markers most significantly associated with eGFR (24 out of the top 30 appeared to function, at least in part, through pathways related to aging, inflammation, or cholesterol. However, six epigenetic markers were still able to significantly predict eGFR after adjustment for other risk factors. This work shows that epigenetic markers may offer valuable new insight into the complex pathophysiology of CKD in African Americans.

  10. Protection of the African Lion: A Critical Analysis of the Current International Legal Regime

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    Samantha Watts


    Full Text Available This article looks at the current international regime that pertains to the African lion, a species that needs adequate protection across its range (a range that does not adhere to state boundaries. This analysis comes at a time when threats such as habitat and prey loss, retaliatory killing, trophy hunting and trade, are all impacting the remaining populations of African lions. The species is in danger of rapid population decline and possible extinction in the near future. Two decades ago there was an abundance of African lions, roughly 100 000, on the continent. But at present there are less than 32 000, while some believe there to be as little as 15 000 left. This decline is mainly due to the threats noted above. African lions are currently listed as "vulnerable" on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List of Threatened Species. This listing is being contested by commentators who believe that the species now requires an "endangered" status. African lion populations, and the threats to the species, extend across state boundaries. Therefore, international law is of particular importance in providing conservation and protection measures to the species. Creating conservation obligations at a global level allows for more uniform action, implementation and enforcement of legislation at regional and local levels. Therefore this article looks at each threat to African lion populations in detail and then assesses the international legal regime pertaining to each of these threats, and whether that regime is adequate. The Convention on Biological Diversity, Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species, Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora and the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance are but some of the international instruments that are analysed. This article outlines the arguments that the international legal framework is not acceptable for the protection of the species

  11. Social motility in african trypanosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Oberholzer


    Full Text Available African trypanosomes are devastating human and animal pathogens that cause significant human mortality and limit economic development in sub-Saharan Africa. Studies of trypanosome biology generally consider these protozoan parasites as individual cells in suspension cultures or in animal models of infection. Here we report that the procyclic form of the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei engages in social behavior when cultivated on semisolid agarose surfaces. This behavior is characterized by trypanosomes assembling into multicellular communities that engage in polarized migrations across the agarose surface and cooperate to divert their movements in response to external signals. These cooperative movements are flagellum-mediated, since they do not occur in trypanin knockdown parasites that lack normal flagellum motility. We term this behavior social motility based on features shared with social motility and other types of surface-induced social behavior in bacteria. Social motility represents a novel and unexpected aspect of trypanosome biology and offers new paradigms for considering host-parasite interactions.

  12. The hemorrhagic fevers of Southern Africa with special reference to studies in the South African Institute for Medical Research.



    In this review of studies on the hemorrhagic fevers of Southern Africa carried out in the South African Institute for Medical Research, attention has been called to occurrence of meningococcal septicemia in recruits to the mining industry and South African Army, to cases of staphylococcal and streptococcal septicemia with hemorrhagic manifestations, and to the occurrence of plague which, in its septicemic form, may cause a hemorrhagic state. "Onyalai," a bleeding disease in tropical Africa, o...

  13. Historic and early life origins of hypertension in Africans. (United States)

    Forrester, Terrence


    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) causes 12.4 million deaths annually, most (9.6 million) occurring in developing countries. Hypertension, the most common CVD, arises within the context of obesity, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Obesity and salt intake are two important risk factors for hypertension and are the focus of this paper. Traditional African populations show a low prevalence of hypertension, but hypertension is more common in migrant African populations in the West than in other ethnic groups. One explanation is genetic, but no causative gene has been confidently identified. Nongenetic susceptibilities such as fetal programming are an alternative explanation. Hypothetically, fetal programming induced by transient stimuli permanently alters fetal structure and function at the cellular, organ and whole-body levels. Birth weight is inversely related to blood pressure and hypertension risk, suggesting that susceptibility to hypertension risk factors such as obesity and salt sensitivity are themselves programmed. In support of this hypothesis, obesity (especially central obesity) is also inversely related to size at birth. Likewise, salt sensitivity might derive from undernutrition in utero, reducing the nephron number and resetting the pressure-natriuresis curve rightward. However, no robust human data or evidence of enhanced salt sensitivity among African-origin populations exist. In the United States, blacks have a greater prevalence of low birth weight than whites, suggesting that the higher prevalence of hypertension among blacks is related to fetal programming. Nevertheless, we need to be scrupulous in ascribing risk to the myriad other confounders of this relationship, including environmental and behavioral correlates of ethnicity, before concluding that excess risk of hypertension in Africans is programmed in utero.

  14. Design, recruitment, and retention of African-American smokers in a pharmacokinetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayo Matthew S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background African-Americans remain underrepresented in clinical research despite experiencing a higher burden of disease compared to all other ethnic groups in the United States. The purpose of this article is to describe the study design and discuss strategies used to recruit and retain African-American smokers in a pharmacokinetic study. Methods The parent study was designed to evaluate the differences in the steady-state concentrations of bupropion and its three principal metabolites between African-American menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers. Study participation consisted of four visits at a General Clinical Research Center (GCRC over six weeks. After meeting telephone eligibility requirements, phone-eligible participants underwent additional screening during the first two GCRC visits. The last two visits (pharmacokinetic study phase required repeated blood draws using an intravenous catheter over the course of 12 hours. Results Five hundred and fifteen African-American smokers completed telephone screening; 187 were phone-eligible and 92 were scheduled for the first GCRC visit. Of the 81 who attended the first visit, 48 individuals were enrolled in the pharmacokinetic study, and a total of 40 individuals completed the study (83% retention rate. Conclusions Although recruitment of African-American smokers into a non-treatment, pharmacokinetic study poses challenges, retention is feasible. The results provide valuable information for investigators embarking on non-treatment laboratory-based studies among minority populations.

  15. Towards an Africological Pedagogical Approach to African Civilization. (United States)

    Okafor, Victor Oguejiofor


    Presents a case study of controversies related to African studies and makes the case for an Africological pedagogical approach to African Civilization. The title "African Civilization" reflects the African place in the whole of world civilization even though that place is itself a multiple entity. (SLD)

  16. School Counseling for African American Adolescents: The Alfred Adler Approach (United States)

    Sapp, Marty


    This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…

  17. African hunt for investment: any chance for success?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignaty Dyakov


    Full Text Available During recent two decades the world has witnessed a drastic increase in global FDI inflows. Gradually more and more investment has been directed to the developing countries in the attempt to diversify portfolios and use finance in the most efficient way. Not all developing regions of the world perfectly succeeded in attracting FDI. Large by labor force and territory, abundant in natural resources Sub-Saharan Africa could perform much better in this aspect. This paper once again reviews the opportunities for FDI in Africa and suggests possible ways for authorities of African states to overcome the existing situation.

  18. Violence exposure and teen dating violence among African American youth. (United States)

    Black, Beverly M; Chido, Lisa M; Preble, Kathleen M; Weisz, Arlene N; Yoon, Jina S; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Kernsmith, Poco; Lewandowski, Linda


    This study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, and family with dating violence attitudes and behaviors among 175 urban African American youth. Age, gender, state support and experiences with neglect, school violence, and community violence were the most significant predictors of acceptance of dating violence. Experiences with community violence and age were important predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization. Findings highlight the importance of planning prevention programs that address variables affecting attitudes and behaviors of high-risk youth who have already been exposed to multiple types of violence.

  19. The African concept of caring for life

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    Maake Masango


    Full Text Available This article analyses the village concept of caring among African people. The old pattern of caring was based on the concept of ubuntu (humanity which respects people, because they are created in the imago Dei. Then the article compares the western concept of caring, which is based on individualism and people's privacy. Finally, economy, globalisation and this western concept are analysed. The impact of the above concepts affects Africans in urban areas, who are caught up in the two worlds, namely the African and western worlds.

  20. African traditional fermented foods and probiotics. (United States)

    Anukam, Kingsley C; Reid, Gregor


    African traditional fermented foods remain the main source of nutrition for many rural communities in Africa. Although lactic acid bacteria are integral to many of these foods, little is known about the specific health benefits they confer or the properties of their strains. This mini-review explores the history of some African fermented foods and their microbial content and properties within the context of probiotic characteristics. Given the recent upsurge in probiotic research, recommendations are made on studies that could be performed with African fermented foods and their strains, with a view to improving the health of people in sub-Saharan Africa.

  1. 21st Century South African Science Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008 and Zoo City (2010 are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published in 2011 as this consolidates women's presence in the SF world.

  2. Salient Themes as Voices in African Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.B. Ogunyemi


    Full Text Available The paper examines the various voices in African poetry. African poets use their themes as echoes to salvage various inherences found in the decaying political, economic and social landscape. The paper argues textually the cultural ethos and the contemporary post-independence disillusionment on the African psyche as a result of colonilization. Using the meta-critical approach combined with realism, within sociological approach, the research calls for a concerted effort to stimulate originality and harness the benefits of globalization for the development of humanity in Africa.

  3. Male role norms, knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of colorectal cancer screening among young adult African American men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Rogers, Ph.D., CHES


    Full Text Available Racial disparities in health among African American men in the United States are extensive. In contrast to their White counterparts, African American men have more illnesses and die younger. African American men have colorectal cancer (CRC incidence and mortality rates 25% and 50% higher, respectively, than White men. Due to CRC’s younger age at presentation and high incidence among African American men, CRC screening is warranted at the age of 45 rather than 50, but little is known about younger African American men’s views of CRC screening. Employing survey design, the purpose of the study was to describe the male role norms, knowledge, attitudes, perceived subjective norms, and perceived barriers associated with screening for CRC among a non-random sample of 157 young adult African American men (ages 19-45. Sixty-seven percent of the study sample received a passing knowledge score (85% or better, yet no significant differences were found among the three educational levels (i.e., low, medium, high. More negative attitudes towards CRC screening correlated with the participants’ strong perceptions of barriers, but no extremely negative or positive male role norms and perceived subjective norms were found. The factors significantly associated with attitudes were family history of cancer (unsure, work status, and perceived barriers. Findings from this study provide a solid basis for developing structured health education interventions that address the salient factors shaping young adult African American men's view of CRC and early detection screening behaviors.

  4. Promoting African American women and sexual assertiveness in reducing HIV/AIDS: an analytical review of the research literature. (United States)

    Kennedy, Bernice Roberts; Jenkins, Chalice C


    African American women, including adolescents and adults, are disproportionately affected by the transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). HIV/AID is a health disparity issue for African American females in comparison to other ethnic groups. According to data acquired from 33 states in 2005, 64% of women who have HIV/ AIDS are African American women. It is estimated that during 2001-2004, 61% of African Americans under the age of 25 had been living with HIV/AIDS. This article is an analytical review of the literature emphasizing sexual assertiveness of African American women and the gap that exists in research literature on this population. The multifaceted model of HIV risk posits that an interpersonal predictor of risky sexual behavior is sexual assertiveness. The critical themes extracted from a review of the literature reveal the following: (a) sexual assertiveness is related to HIV risk in women, (b) sexual assertiveness and sexual communication are related, and (c) women with low sexual assertiveness are at increased risk of HIV As a result of this comprehensive literature, future research studies need to use models in validating sexual assertiveness interventions in reducing the risk of HIV/AIDS in African American women. HIV/AIDs prevention interventions or future studies need to target reducing the risk factors of HIV/AIDS of African Americans focusing on gender and culture-specific strategies.

  5. Aging out: a qualitative exploration of ageism and heterosexism among aging African American lesbians and gay men. (United States)

    Woody, Imani


    African Americans elders, like their non-African American counterparts, are not a homogeneous group; however an early characteristic placed on all African Americans is in their shared history in the United States. As members of multiple minority groups, older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people of African descent have survived racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and now ageism. This article describes a qualitative study grounded in Black feminist and minority stress theories that explored the issues of perceived social discrimination and alienation of 15 older African American lesbians and gay males whose lived experiences were captured using in-depth, face-to-face interviews. Several themes were identified in the study, including (a) Sense of Alienation in the African American Community, (b) Deliberate Concealment of Sexual Identity and Orientation, (c) Aversion to LGBT Labels, (d) Perceived Discrimination and Alienation From Organized Religion, (e) Feelings of Grief and Loss Related to Aging, (f) Isolation, and (g) Fear of Financial and Physical Dependence. The implication of the findings suggests that the ethos and needs of older African American lesbian women and gay men need to be addressed to eliminate potential barriers to successful aging for this cohort.

  6. Till Death Do Us Part: Lived Experiences of HIV-Positive Married African American Women (United States)

    Edwards, Lorece V.; Irving, Shalon M.; Hawkins, Anita S.


    HIV/AIDS disease continues to be an escalating health problem, particularly among women. However, African American women are among the leading demographic groups for HIV prevalence in the United States. The typical woman with HIV/AIDS is young, in her late twenties, economically challenged, and of childbearing age. Participants were recruited from…

  7. Predictors of African American and European American Adolescents' Endorsement of Race-Conscious Social Policies (United States)

    Hughes, Julie Milligan; Bigler, Rebecca S.


    To examine the predictors of adolescents' evaluations of affirmative action and school desegregation policies, African American and European American students (ns = 94 and 116, respectively; aged 14 to 17 years) attending a racially diverse high school in the Midwestern United States completed measures of (a) implicit racial attitudes, (b)…

  8. Genetics of coronary artery calcification among African Americans, a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.K. Wojczynski (Mary ); M. Li (Mingyao); L.F. Bielak (Lawrence F.); K.F. Kerr (Kathleen); A. Reiner (Alexander); N.D. Wong (Nathan); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); L. Qu (Liming); C.C. White (Charles); L.A. Lange (Leslie); J.F. Ferguson (Jane); J. He (Jing); T. Young (Taylor); T.H. Mosley (Thomas); J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); B.G. Kral (Brian); X. Guo (Xiuqing); Q. Wong (Quenna); S.K. Ganesh (Santhi); S.R. Heckbert (Susan); M.D. Griswold (Michael); D.H. O'Leary (Daniel H.); M.J. Budoff (Matthew); J. Carr (Jeffrey); H.A. Taylor (Herman); D.A. Bluemke (David); S. Demissie (Serkalem); S.-J. Hwang (Shih-Jen); D.N. Paltoo (Dina); J.F. Polak (Joseph F.); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); D.M. Becker (Diane); M.A. Province (Mike); W.S. Post (Wendy S.); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); J.G. Wilson (James); T.B. Harris (Tamara); M. Kavousi (Maryam); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); M. Fornage (Myriam); L.C. Becker (Lewis); P.A. Peyser (Patricia A.); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); M.P. Reilly (Muredach)


    textabstractBackground: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the major cause of death in the United States. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) scores are independent predictors of CHD. African Americans (AA) have higher rates of CHD but are less well-studied in genomic studies. We assembled the largest

  9. Factors that Influence Career Choice among Native American and African American High School Students (United States)

    Bennett-Smith, Keisha K.


    There is a need for research in the area of career choice of minority students in the United States. This descriptive study examined the factors that may influence Native American and African American high school students' career choices. These factors include such variables as parental educational level, family composition, and potential grade…

  10. "A Grammar for Black Education beyond Borders": Exploring Technologies of Schooling in the African Diaspora (United States)

    Givens, Jarvis Ray


    Education has been a technology used to sustain black abjection across the African Diaspora. Employing Mills' Racial Contract and Althusser's theory of the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISA) through a racial lens, this article will discuss how white supremacist education has been used to promote the misrecognition of black subjects as sub-human.…

  11. Journey to J'Burg: My Travels in South African Young Adult Literature. (United States)

    Littlejohn, Carol


    Discusses five South African writers for young adults and highlights representative works dealing with family relationships, AIDS, natural disaster, interracial relationships and marriage, racial prejudice, and incest. Although most of the books are not currently available in the United States, a bibliography and a list of addresses for the South…

  12. Illuminating the Experiences of African-American Nursing Faculty Seeking Employment in Higher Education in Nursing (United States)

    Loyd, Vanessa


    This study explored and described the experience of female African-American nursing faculty seeking employment in higher education in nursing. The lack of diversity in the nursing workforce has been attributed as a major underlying cause of disparity in healthcare in the United States. The importance of increasing the number of minority nursing…

  13. Sub-Saharan African Students and Their Experiences in American Higher Education (United States)

    Osikomaiya, Olujide


    The purpose of this research project is to study the experiences of Sub-Saharan African students, who have earned professional degrees from American institutions and are currently living in the United States. Acculturative stressors have been identified by researchers as predictors of loneliness, depression, homesickness, and poor mental health…

  14. The Methodist Episcopal Church and the Education of African Americans after the Civil War (United States)

    Butner, Bonita K.


    Religious denominations have a long history of benevolent outreach to individuals considered "less fortunate." The institution of slavery in the United States created an opportunity for most denominations in the North to advance an image of "patron saint" to an oppressed African American community. Immediately following the Civil War, the church…

  15. Dual Use of Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco among South African Adolescents (United States)

    Rantao, Masego; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A.


    Objectives: To determine factors associated with dual use of tobacco products in a population of black South African adolescents. Methods: Data were obtained from a self-administered questionnaire completed by a representative sample of grade 8 students from 21 randomly selected secondary state schools in the Limpopo Province, South Africa (n =…

  16. Trapping African fig fly (Diptera: Drosophilidae) with combinations of vinegar and wine (United States)

    The African fig fly, Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive fruit pest that has spread rapidly through much of the eastern United States. Tests were conducted in southern Florida that recorded the response of Z. indianus to baits that included Merlot wine, rice vinegar, et...

  17. Wine and vinegar-based attractants for the African fig fly (Diptera: Drosophilidae) (United States)

    The African fig fly (AFF), Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive fruit pest that has spread rapidly through much of the eastern United States after first being detected in Florida in 2005. This drosophilid is a primary pest of figs in Brazil, so there were initial concern...

  18. Speaking up for African American English: Equity and Inclusion in Early Childhood Settings (United States)

    Beneke, Margaret; Cheatham, Gregory A.


    A large percentage of young children entering preschool are English speakers who speak a language variety that often differs from the English dialect expected by educators within early childhood programs. While African American English (AAE) is one of the most widely recognized English dialects in the United States, the use of AAE in schools and…

  19. A Novel Approach: Using Fiction by African American Women To Teach Black Women's History. (United States)

    Bunch-Lyons, Beverly A.


    Discusses the use of novels and other works written by African American women as tools for teaching the history of black women in the United States in an undergraduate course. Focuses on specific works used in the course, such as Octavia Butler's "Kindred" and Terry McMillan's "Waiting to Exhale." (CMK)

  20. Correlating Parental Involvement and Mathematics Achievement of African American Eighth-Grade Students (United States)

    Oyerinde, Bolanle Adenike


    Low involvement of African American parents in middle school education is a concern in a school district in the southeastern United States. The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the relationships between the explanatory variables of parental involvement, socioeconomic status, and level of education, and the achievement of…

  1. African American Faculty Women Experiences of Underrepresentation in Computer Technology Positions in Higher Education (United States)

    King, Dolores


    African American women are underrepresented in computer technology disciplines in institutions of higher education throughout the United States. Although equitable gender representation is progressing in most fields, much less information is available on why institutions are still lagging in workforce diversity, a problem which can be lessened by…

  2. Demographics of African-American vs. European-Heritage Mothers of Newborns with Down Syndrome (United States)

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.


    Although important for public health policy, ethnic/racial disparities have rarely been examined among families of young children with Down syndrome. This study compared 144 African-American mothers with 726 European-heritage mothers of newborns with Down syndrome using official birth records in one American state from 1990 through 2002; outcome…

  3. The Academic Opportunity Gap: How Racism and Stereotypes Disrupt the Education of African American Undergraduates (United States)

    Johnson-Ahorlu, Robin Nicole


    Using Critical Race Theory as a framework, this article reveals how racism and stereotypes obstruct the academic success of black students. Through the use of focus groups, African American undergraduates from a large California State University campus, share the ways in which campus racism impacts their achievement potential as well as their…

  4. Transitions to Engagement among Low-Income Cohabiting African American Couples: A Family Perspective for Policy (United States)

    Chaney, Cassandra; Monroe, Pamela


    With passage of the Welfare Reform Law of 1996, various national, state, and local programs were created to encourage marriage, particularly among low-income African American cohabiting couples with children. However, policy makers know little about the deterrents to marriage for members of this group. More specifically, there is a lack of data…

  5. Palaearctic-African Bird Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwajomo, Soladoye Babatola

    investigated the relationship between the timing of autumn migration and climatic variations at local and spatial scale. The first three papers focused on speciesspecific analysis. In them I described the age-specific patterns in biometrics, phenology and migration strategies as well as trends...... of birds from Europe to Africa and opens up the possibility of studying intra-African migration. I have used long-term, standardized autumn ringing data from southeast Sweden to investigate patterns in biometrics, phenology and population trends as inferred from annual trapping totals. In addition, I...... also molt their flight feathers at this location and intraspecific interactions are non-aggressive. The second manuscript investigates whether variations in the timing of migration of wader species at a stopover site in southeast Sweden is influence by local or regional climatic variables...

  6. African Biochemists Plan More Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter N. Campbell


    Full Text Available The Federation of European Biochemical Societies (FEBS was the first regional organisation of biochemists, holding its first congress in London in 1964. There followed the creation of the Pan American Association of Biochemical Societies (PAABS and then the Federation of Asian and Oceanian Biochemists (FAOB. An obvious development was the formation of a similar organisation to take care of Africa, but this proved impossible so long as apartheid survived in South Africa. With the removal of the latter, the way was clear for the foundation of the Federation of African Societies of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (FASBMB. The first congress of the new federation was held in Nairobi in September 1996 under the Presidency of Prof. Dominic Makawiti of Nairobi University. Among the 300 participants were representatives from 19 countries in Africa. The second congress was held at Potchefstroom in South Africa in 1998 and the third was just held in Cairo.

  7. African swine fever : transboundary diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M-L. Penrith


    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is a devastating haemorrhagic fever of pigs that causes up to 100 % mortality, for which there is no vaccine. It is caused by a unique DNA virus that is maintained in an ancient cycle between warthogs and argasid ticks, making it the only known DNA arbovirus. ASF has a high potential for transboundary spread, and has twice been transported from Africa to other continents - Europe and subsequently the Caribbean and Brazil (1957, 1959 and the Caucasus (2007. It is also a devastating constraint for pig production in Africa. Research at Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute has made and is making important contributions to knowledge of this disease, focusing on the cycle in warthogs and tampans and transmission from that cycle to domestic pigs, resistance to its effects in domestic pigs, and the molecular genetic characterisation and epidemiology of the virus.

  8. Enhancing the African bioethics initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogundiran Temidayo O


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical ethics has existed since the time of Hippocrates. However, formal training in bioethics did not become established until a few decades ago. Bioethics has gained a strong foothold in health sciences in the developed world, especially in Europe and North America. The situation is quite different in many developing countries. In most African countries, bioethics – as established and practiced today in the west- is either non-existent or is rudimentary. Discussion Though bioethics has come of age in the developed and some developing countries, it is still largely "foreign" to most African countries. In some parts of Africa, some bioethics conferences have been held in the past decade to create research ethics awareness and ensure conformity to international guidelines for research with human participants. This idea has arisen in recognition of the genuine need to develop capacity for reviewing the ethics of research in Africa. It is also a condition required by external sponsors of collaborative research in Africa. The awareness and interest that these conferences have aroused need to be further strengthened and extended beyond research ethics to clinical practice. By and large, bioethics education in schools that train doctors and other health care providers is the hook that anchors both research ethics and clinical ethics. Summary This communication reviews the current situation of bioethics in Africa as it applies to research ethics workshops and proposes that in spite of the present efforts to integrate ethics into biomedical research in Africa, much still needs to be done to accomplish this. A more comprehensive approach to bioethics with an all-inclusive benefit is to incorporate formal ethics education into health training institutions in Africa.

  9. Enhancing the African bioethics initiative (United States)

    Ogundiran, Temidayo O


    Background Medical ethics has existed since the time of Hippocrates. However, formal training in bioethics did not become established until a few decades ago. Bioethics has gained a strong foothold in health sciences in the developed world, especially in Europe and North America. The situation is quite different in many developing countries. In most African countries, bioethics – as established and practiced today in the west- is either non-existent or is rudimentary. Discussion Though bioethics has come of age in the developed and some developing countries, it is still largely "foreign" to most African countries. In some parts of Africa, some bioethics conferences have been held in the past decade to create research ethics awareness and ensure conformity to international guidelines for research with human participants. This idea has arisen in recognition of the genuine need to develop capacity for reviewing the ethics of research in Africa. It is also a condition required by external sponsors of collaborative research in Africa. The awareness and interest that these conferences have aroused need to be further strengthened and extended beyond research ethics to clinical practice. By and large, bioethics education in schools that train doctors and other health care providers is the hook that anchors both research ethics and clinical ethics. Summary This communication reviews the current situation of bioethics in Africa as it applies to research ethics workshops and proposes that in spite of the present efforts to integrate ethics into biomedical research in Africa, much still needs to be done to accomplish this. A more comprehensive approach to bioethics with an all-inclusive benefit is to incorporate formal ethics education into health training institutions in Africa. PMID:15488145

  10. Academic attainment and the high school science experiences among high-achieving African American males (United States)

    Trice, Rodney Nathaniel

    This study examines the educational experiences of high achieving African American males. More specifically, it analyzes the influences on their successful navigation through high school science. Through a series of interviews, observations, questionnaires, science portfolios, and review of existing data the researcher attempted to obtain a deeper understanding of high achieving African American males and their limitations to academic attainment and high school science experiences. The investigation is limited to ten high achieving African American male science students at Woodcrest High School. Woodcrest is situated at the cross section of a suburban and rural community located in the southeastern section of the United States. Although this investigation involves African American males, all of whom are successful in school, its findings should not be generalized to this nor any other group of students. The research question that guided this study is: What are the limitations to academic attainment and the high school science experiences of high achieving African American males? The student participants expose how suspension and expulsion, special education placement, academic tracking, science instruction, and teacher expectation influence academic achievement. The role parents play, student self-concept, peer relationships, and student learning styles are also analyzed. The anthology of data rendered three overarching themes: (1) unequal access to education, (2) maintenance of unfair educational structures, and (3) authentic characterizations of African American males. Often the policies and practices set in place by school officials aid in creating hurdles to academic achievement. These policies and practices are often formed without meaningful consideration of the unintended consequences that may affect different student populations, particularly the most vulnerable. The findings from this study expose that high achieving African American males face major

  11. Barriers and facilitators affecting African Americans continuation into graduate programs in nursing. (United States)

    Mingo, Aunderia Doreen


    The population in the United States (US) is becoming more and more diverse. With each year the minority population in the US continues to grow. In the year 2000 there were over 281 million Americans with approximately 23% of them being minorities (US Census, 2000). African-Americans accounted for 34.6 million of the population or 12.3% in the 2000 census. Yet despite their growing numbers in the general population African-American Registered Nurses (RNs) only accounted for 4.9% of the total nurse population in the 2002 National Sample Survey of RN's (Health Resources Services Administration [HRSA], 2002).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Anoruo


    Full Text Available This paper uses nonlinear unit root testing procedures to examine the issue of inflation convergence for the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC member states including Cameron, Central African Republic, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and the Republic of Congo. The results from nonlinear STAR unit root tests suggest that inflation differentials for the sample countries are nonlinear and mean reverting processes. These results provide evidence of inflation convergence among countries within CEMAC. The finding of inflation convergence indicates the feasibility of a common monetary policy and/or inflation targeting regime within CEMAC.

  13. Abortion laws in African Commonwealth countries. (United States)

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M


    This paper provides an overview of the range of current (1981) abortion laws in the African Commonwealth countries, traces the origins of the laws to their colonial predecessors, and discusses legal reform that would positively provide for legal termination of pregnancy. The authors claim that the range of these laws demonstrates an evolution that leads from customary/common law (Lesotho and Swaziland) to basic law (Botswana, The Gambia, Malawi, Mauritius, Nigeria's Northern States and Seychelles) to developed law (Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria's Southern States, Sierra Leone, and Uganda), and, finally, to advanced law (Zambia and Zimbabwe). The authors call for treating abortion as an issue of health and welfare as opposed to one of crime and punishment. Since most of the basic law de jure is treated and administered as developed law de facto, the authors suggest decriminalizing abortion and propose ways in which to reform the law: clarifying existing law; liberalizing existing law to allow abortion based upon certain indications; limiting/removing women's criminal liability for seeking an abortion; allowing hindsight contraception; protecting providers treating women in good faith; publishing recommended fees for services to protect poor women; protecting providers who treat women with incomplete abortion; and punishing providers who fail to provide care to women in need, with the exception of those seeking protection under a conscience clause. The authors also suggest clarifying the means by which health services involving pregnancy termination may be delivered, including: clarification of the qualifications of practitioners who may treat women; specification of the facilities that may treat women, perhaps broken down by gestational duration of the pregnancy; specifying gestational limits during which the procedure can be performed; clarifying approval procedures and consents; and allowing for conscientious objections to performing the procedure.

  14. The Revival of Non-Traditional State Actors' Interests in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter


    credit ratings make external finance available for African governments. This article examines how non-traditional state actors affect the possibility of African governments setting and funding their own development priorities. It argues that while the current situation may increase the policy autonomy......Africa’s external relations are currently undergoing major changes. Non-traditional state actors like China and India are reviving their ties with African economies and thereby affecting power relations between African states and traditional partners. Meanwhile, high commodity prices and improved...

  15. Development of 'Serunding' from African catfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhari, Nurul Hanisah Binti; MK, Zainol; MM, Masduki

    This research was conducted to develop serunding from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Proximate analysis, physical analysis, ascorbic acid analysis, mineral analysis and sensory evaluation were carried out to determine the nutrient compositions and consumer acceptance towards the products. ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Lillie


    Full Text Available It has been said that 'Necessity is the mother of invention' and there can be few countries, if any, where this is more true than in South Africa.In the late 1930's, prior to World War II, the South African Artillery was severely restricted due to its lack of mobility. The inventiveness shown in tackling this probelm is surely not a thing of the past and the possiblity of adapting South African artillery to current South african needs in warfare should not be overlooked. The South African Defence Force is not able to purchase armament in a free and open market place and the costs of developing new artillery are prohibitive in a country of South Africa's size. it will be argued that it is necessary and possible, in the short term, to take what is currently available and adapt this to South Africa's needs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Beneoluchi Odili


    Full Text Available This is an introductory paper to the newly-designed African Buffalo Optimization (ABO algorithm for solving combinatorial and other optimization problems. The algorithm is inspired by the behavior of African buffalos, a species of wild cows known for their extensive migrant lifestyle. This paper presents an overview of major metaheuristic algorithms with the aim of providing a basis for the development of the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm which is a nature-inspired, population-based metaheuristic algorithm. Experimental results obtained from applying the novel ABO to solve a number of benchmark global optimization test functions as well as some symmetric and asymmetric Traveling Salesman’s Problems when compared to the results obtained from using other popular optimization methods show that the African Buffalo Optimization is a worthy addition to the growing number of swarm intelligence optimization techniques.

  18. Economic Key to Sino-African Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Following Chinese President Hu Jintao's visit to Africa's Morocco, Nigeria and Kenya in April, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao is currently visiting seven African countries-Egypt, Ghana, Republic of Congo, Angola, South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda. Haile-Kiros Gessesse, Ethiopia's Ambassador to China, discussed with Beijing Review reporter Ni Yanshuo the future of the Sino-African relationship. As special envoy for the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation, he also expressed his expectations of the forum summit t...

  19. South African coal statistics 2006. Marketing manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The report shows that South African thermal exports increased 5% from 66.6Mt to 69.9Mt in 2005 and that the country was the world's third largest seaborne exporter of thermal coal last year. Covering local coal consumption, South African coal imports, exports, prices and qualities, the report offers a complete statistical review of 2005. The report also includes details on labour, individual collieries, export and rail infrastructure and Black Empowerment (BEE) companies.

  20. Barack Obama’s Dreams from My Father and African American Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Stein


    Full Text Available This article provides a series of close readings of Barack Obama’s autobiography Dreams from My Father. It places the narrative within the history of African American literature and rhetoric and argues that Obama uses the text to create a life story that resonates with central concepts of African American selfhood and black male identity, including double consciousness, invisibility, and black nationalism. The article reads Dreams from My Father as an attempt to arrive at a state of “functional Blackness,” which moves away from questions of racial authenticity and identity politics but recognizes the narrative powers of African American literature to shape a convincing and appealing black self.

  1. The Impact of STORY on Depression and Fatigue in African-American Women with Breast Cancer. (United States)

    Heiney, Sue P; Reavis, Karen; Tavakoli, Abbas S; Adams, Swann Arp; Hayne, Pearman D; Weinrich, Sally P


    The intervention Sisters Tell Others and Revive Yourself (STORY) is a teleconference intervention for African-American women with breast cancer that was studied with a randomized, non-blinded, intention-to-treat trial between 2006 and 2010 in the southeastern United States. This secondary data analysis research measured the impact of STORY on depression and fatigue in African-American women (N = 168) with breast cancer. The were no significant differences in depression or fatigue found between the intervention and control groups based on the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Further research is needed to develop effective interventions aimed at decreasing depression and fatigue in African-American women with breast cancer.

  2. In/dependent Collaborations: Perceptions and Experiences of African Scientists in Transnational HIV Research. (United States)

    Moyi Okwaro, Ferdinand; Geissler, P W


    This article examines collaboration in transnational medical research from the viewpoint of African scientists working in partnerships with northern counterparts. It draws on ethnographic fieldwork in an HIV laboratory of an East African state university, with additional data from interviews with scientists working in related research institutions. Collaboration is today the preferred framework for the mechanisms by which northern institutions support research in the south. The concept signals a shift away from the legacy of unequal (post-) colonial power relations, although, amid persisting inequalities, the rhetorical emphasis on equality might actually hinder critical engagement with conflicts of interest and injustice. To collaborate, African scientists engage various strategies: They establish a qualified but flexible, non-permanent workforce, diversify collaborators and research areas, source complementary funding to assemble infrastructures, and maintain prospective research populations to attract transnational clinical trials. Through this labor of collaboration, they sustain their institutions under prevailing conditions of scarcity.

  3. Physical Performance Is Associated with Executive Functioning in Older African American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke C. Schneider


    Full Text Available An older adult's ability to perform physical tasks is predictive of disability onset and is associated with declines in cognition. Risk factors for physical performance declines among African Americans, a group with the highest rates of disability, remain understudied. This study sought to identify demographic, health, and cognitive factors associated with lower-extremity physical performance in a sample of 106 African American women ages 56 to 91. After controlling for global cognitive functioning (Mini Mental State Exam, physical performance was associated with executive functioning (Stroop Color/Word, but not visuospatial construction (WASI Block Design or processing speed (Trail Making Test, Part A. Executive functioning remained associated with physical performance after entry of demographic variables, exercise, depression, disease burden, and body mass index (BMI. Age, and BMI were also significant in this model. Executive functioning, age and BMI are associated with lower-extremity physical performance among older African American women.

  4. Case-control assessment of diet and lung cancer risk in African Americans and Mexican Americans. (United States)

    Pillow, P C; Hursting, S D; Duphorne, C M; Jiang, H; Honn, S E; Chang, S; Spitz, M R


    In this case-control study we determined whether dietary differences underlie some of the ethnic and sex differences in US lung cancer rates. We examined the relationship between diet and lung cancer development in 137 lung cancer cases (93 African Americans and 44 Mexican Americans) and 187 controls (78 African Americans and 109 Mexican Americans). Cases reported a higher daily mean total fat intake (p fruits (p = 0.02). Ethnic differences in diet were also observed: Mexican Americans consumed less total fat (p fruits (p lung cancer risk (p fruit consumption and lung cancer risk (p = 0.05). In conclusion, our findings support the hypothesis that diet, particularly high fat consumption and low fruit and vegetable consumption, contributes (independent of cigarette smoking) to the excess lung cancer risk in African-American men, who have the highest lung cancer rates in the United States.

  5. Pollination of rapeseed (Brassica napus) by Africanized honeybees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) on two sowing dates. (United States)

    Chambó, Emerson D; De Oliveira, Newton T E; Garcia, Regina C; Duarte-Júnior, José B; Ruvolo-Takasusuki, Maria Claudia C; Toledo, Vagner A


    In this study, performed in the western part of the state of Paraná, Brazil, two self-fertile hybrid commercial rapeseed genotypes were evaluated for yield components and physiological quality using three pollination tests and spanning two sowing dates. The treatments consisted of combinations of two rapeseed genotypes (Hyola 61 and Hyola 433), three pollination tests (uncovered area, covered area without insects and covered area containing a single colony of Africanized Apis mellifera honeybees) and two sowing dates (May 25th, 2011 and June 25th, 2011). The presence of Africanized honeybees during flowering time increased the productivity of the rapeseed. Losses in the productivity of the hybrids caused by weather conditions unfavorable for rapeseed development were mitigated through cross-pollination performed by the Africanized honeybees. Weather conditions may limit the foraging activity of Africanized honeybees, causing decreased cross-pollination by potential pollinators, especially the Africanized A. mellifera honeybee. The rapeseed hybrids respond differently depending on the sowing date, and the short-cycle Hyola 433 hybrid is the most suitable hybrid for sowing under less favorable weather conditions.

  6. Review of Recent Developments and the Future Prospective in West African Atmosphere/Land Interaction Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongkang Xue


    Full Text Available This paper reviews West African land/atmosphere interaction studies during the past decade. Four issues are addressed in this paper: land data development, land/atmosphere interactions at seasonal-interannual scales, mesoscale studies, and the future prospective. The development of the AMMA Land Surface Model Intercomparison Project has produced a valuable analysis of the land surface state and fluxes which have been applied in a number of large-scale African regional studies. In seasonal-interannual West African climate studies, the latest evidence from satellite data analyses and modeling studies confirm that the West African region has a climate which is particularly sensitive to land surface processes and there is a strong coupling between land surface processes and regional climate at intraseasonal/seasonal scales. These studies indicate that proper land surface process representations and land status initialization would substantially improve predictions and enhance the predictability of West African climate. Mesoscale studies have revealed new understanding of how soil moisture heterogeneity influences the development of convective storms over the course of the diurnal cycle. Finally, several important issues regarding the future prospective are briefly addressed.

  7. Psychological empowerment in the South African military: The generalisability of Menon's Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay T Menon


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the factorial validity and internal consistency of the Menon Scale for Psychological Empowerment, developed in the United States and Canada and tested in Australia and Greece, in the South African National Defence Force (SANDF. The 2231 participants in the study represented the gender and racial distribution of the military population. The South African data initially yielded a two-factor structure. A forced three-factor structure rendered acceptable alpha coefficients, but did not resemble the theoretically expected factors. The forced factor analyses were repeated for Africans, Asians and Coloureds, and Whites separately. Results for the first two groups kept the original structure, whereas the factor structure for the white participants resembled the theoretically hypothesised factors. The forced three-factor structures rendered very high internal consistencies for the total scale, but one factor for both the African and the Asian and Coloured groups showed unsatisfactory reliability, suggesting a single underlying empowerment factor. This was confirmed by high correlations between subscales. Menon’s model seemingly fits the South African data slightly better for the white participants than for their non-white counterparts. The scale thus needs to be revised for the different cultural groups.

  8. African-American Fathers' Perspectives on Facilitators and Barriers to Father-Son Sexual Health Communication. (United States)

    Randolph, Schenita D; Coakley, Tanya; Shears, Jeffrey; Thorpe, Roland J


    African-American males ages 13 through 24 are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), accounting for over half of all HIV infections in this age group in the United States. Clear communication between African-American parents and their youth about sexual health is associated with higher rates of sexual abstinence, condom use, and intent to delay initiation of sexual intercourse. However, little is known about African-American fathers' perceptions of what facilitates and inhibits sexual health communication with their preadolescent and adolescent sons. We conducted focus groups with 29 African-American fathers of sons ages 10-15 to explore perceived facilitators and barriers for father-son communication about sexual health. Participants were recruited from barbershops in metropolitan and rural North Carolina communities highly affected by STIs and HIV, and data were analyzed using content analysis. Three factors facilitated father-son communication: (a) fathers' acceptance of their roles and responsibilities; (b) a positive father-son relationship; and (c) fathers' ability to speak directly to their sons about sex. We also identified three barriers: (a) fathers' difficulty in initiating sexual health discussions with their sons; (b) sons' developmental readiness for sexual health information; and (c) fathers' lack of experience in talking with their own fathers about sex. These findings have implications for father-focused prevention interventions aimed at reducing risky sexual behaviors in adolescent African-American males. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Pollination of Rapeseed (Brassica napus by Africanized Honeybees (Hymenoptera: Apidae on Two Sowing Dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this study, performed in the western part of the state of Paraná, Brazil, two self-fertile hybrid commercial rapeseed genotypes were evaluated for yield components and physiological quality using three pollination tests and spanning two sowing dates. The treatments consisted of combinations of two rapeseed genotypes (Hyola 61 and Hyola 433, three pollination tests (uncovered area, covered area without insects and covered area containing a single colony of Africanized Apis mellifera honeybees and two sowing dates (May 25th, 2011 and June 25th, 2011. The presence of Africanized honeybees during flowering time increased the productivity of the rapeseed. Losses in the productivity of the hybrids caused by weather conditions unfavorable for rapeseed development were mitigated through cross-pollination performed by the Africanized honeybees. Weather conditions may limit the foraging activity of Africanized honeybees, causing decreased cross-pollination by potential pollinators, especially the Africanized A. mellifera honeybee. The rapeseed hybrids respond differently depending on the sowing date, and the short-cycle Hyola 433 hybrid is the most suitable hybrid for sowing under less favorable weather conditions.

  10. Weight loss maintenance in African American women: a systematic review of the behavioral lifestyle intervention literature. (United States)

    Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Kong, Angela; Odoms-Young, Angela


    We performed a systematic review of the behavioral lifestyle intervention trials conducted in the United States published between 1990 and 2011 that included a maintenance phase of at least six months, to identify intervention features that promote weight loss maintenance in African American women. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Generally, African American women lost less weight during the intensive weight loss phase and maintained a lower % of their weight loss compared to Caucasian women. The majority of studies failed to describe the specific strategies used in the delivery of the maintenance intervention, adherence to those strategies, and did not incorporate a maintenance phase process evaluation making it difficult to identify intervention characteristics associated with better weight loss maintenance. However, the inclusion of cultural adaptations, particularly in studies with a mixed ethnicity/race sample, resulted in less % weight regain for African American women. Studies with a formal maintenance intervention and weight management as the primary intervention focus reported more positive weight maintenance outcomes for African American women. Nonetheless, our results present both the difficulty in weight loss and maintenance experienced by African American women in behavioral lifestyle interventions.

  11. Understanding Impediments and Enablers to Physical Activity among African American Adults: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies (United States)

    Siddiqi, Zoveen; Tiro, Jasmin A.; Shuval, Kerem


    Physical inactivity is a leading cause of premature death, disability and numerous chronic diseases. Minority and underserved populations in the United States and worldwide have a higher prevalence of physical inactivity affecting their morbidity and mortality rates. In the United States, African Americans are less physically active and have a…

  12. African Scientific Network: A model to enhance scientific research in developing countries (United States)

    Kebede, Abebe


    Africa has over 350 higher education institutions with a variety of experiences and priorities. The primary objectives of these institutions are to produce white-collar workers, teachers, and the work force for mining, textiles, and agricultural industries. The state of higher education and scientific research in Africa have been discussed in several conferences. The proposals that are generated by these conferences advocate structural changes in higher education, North-South institutional linkages, mobilization of the African Diaspora and funding. We propose a model African Scientific Network that would facilitate and enhance international scientific partnerships between African scientists and their counterparts elsewhere. A recent article by James Lamout (Financial Times, August 2, 2001) indicates that emigration from South Africa alone costs $8.9 billion in lost human resources. The article also stated that every year 23,000 graduates leave Africa for opportunities overseas, mainly in Europe, leaving only 20,000 scientists and engineers serving over 600 million people. The International Organization for Migration states that the brain drain of highly skilled professionals from Africa is making economic growth and poverty alleviation impossible across the continent. In our model we will focus on a possible networking mechanism where the African Diaspora will play a major role in addressing the financial and human resources needs of higher education in Africa

  13. Rules of engagement: predictors of Black Caribbean immigrants' engagement with African American culture. (United States)

    Joseph, Nancy; Watson, Natalie N; Wang, Zhenni; Case, Andrew D; Hunter, Carla D


    The cultural context in the United States is racialized and influences Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturation processes, but what role it plays in Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturation into specific facets of American society (e.g., African American culture) has been understudied in the field of psychology. The present study extends research on Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturative process by assessing how this group's experience of the racial context (racial public regard, ethnic public regard, and cultural race-related stress) influences its engagement in African American culture (i.e., adoption of values and behavioral involvement). Data were collected from 93 Black participants of Caribbean descent, ranging in age from 13 to 45 and analyzed using a stepwise hierarchical regression. The findings highlighted that when Black Caribbean-descended participants perceived that the public held a favorable view of their racial group they were more likely to engage in African American culture. In contrast, when participants perceived that the public held a favorable view of their ethnic group (e.g., Haitian) they were less likely to engage in African American culture. Furthermore, among participants experiencing low levels of cultural race-related stress, the associations between racial public regard and engagement with African American culture were amplified. However, for participants experiencing high cultural race-related stress, their engagement in African American culture did not change as a function of racial public regard. These findings may suggest that, for Black Caribbean immigrants, the experience of the racial context influences strategies that serve to preserve or bolster their overall social status and psychological well-being in the United States.

  14. Genome-wide association analysis of blood-pressure traits in African-ancestry individuals reveals common associated genes in African and non-African populations. (United States)

    Franceschini, Nora; Fox, Ervin; Zhang, Zhaogong; Edwards, Todd L; Nalls, Michael A; Sung, Yun Ju; Tayo, Bamidele O; Sun, Yan V; Gottesman, Omri; Adeyemo, Adebawole; Johnson, Andrew D; Young, J Hunter; Rice, Ken; Duan, Qing; Chen, Fang; Li, Yun; Tang, Hua; Fornage, Myriam; Keene, Keith L; Andrews, Jeanette S; Smith, Jennifer A; Faul, Jessica D; Guangfa, Zhang; Guo, Wei; Liu, Yu; Murray, Sarah S; Musani, Solomon K; Srinivasan, Sathanur; Velez Edwards, Digna R; Wang, Heming; Becker, Lewis C; Bovet, Pascal; Bochud, Murielle; Broeckel, Ulrich; Burnier, Michel; Carty, Cara; Chasman, Daniel I; Ehret, Georg; Chen, Wei-Min; Chen, Guanjie; Chen, Wei; Ding, Jingzhong; Dreisbach, Albert W; Evans, Michele K; Guo, Xiuqing; Garcia, Melissa E; Jensen, Rich; Keller, Margaux F; Lettre, Guillaume; Lotay, Vaneet; Martin, Lisa W; Moore, Jason H; Morrison, Alanna C; Mosley, Thomas H; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Palmas, Walter; Papanicolaou, George; Penman, Alan; Polak, Joseph F; Ridker, Paul M; Salako, Babatunde; Singleton, Andrew B; Shriner, Daniel; Taylor, Kent D; Vasan, Ramachandran; Wiggins, Kerri; Williams, Scott M; Yanek, Lisa R; Zhao, Wei; Zonderman, Alan B; Becker, Diane M; Berenson, Gerald; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bottinger, Erwin; Cushman, Mary; Eaton, Charles; Nyberg, Fredrik; Heiss, Gerardo; Hirschhron, Joel N; Howard, Virginia J; Karczewsk, Konrad J; Lanktree, Matthew B; Liu, Kiang; Liu, Yongmei; Loos, Ruth; Margolis, Karen; Snyder, Michael; Psaty, Bruce M; Schork, Nicholas J; Weir, David R; Rotimi, Charles N; Sale, Michele M; Harris, Tamara; Kardia, Sharon L R; Hunt, Steven C; Arnett, Donna; Redline, Susan; Cooper, Richard S; Risch, Neil J; Rao, D C; Rotter, Jerome I; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Reiner, Alex P; Levy, Daniel; Keating, Brendan J; Zhu, Xiaofeng


    High blood pressure (BP) is more prevalent and contributes to more severe manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in African Americans than in any other United States ethnic group. Several small African-ancestry (AA) BP genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been published, but their findings have failed to replicate to date. We report on a large AA BP GWAS meta-analysis that includes 29,378 individuals from 19 discovery cohorts and subsequent replication in additional samples of AA (n = 10,386), European ancestry (EA) (n = 69,395), and East Asian ancestry (n = 19,601). Five loci (EVX1-HOXA, ULK4, RSPO3, PLEKHG1, and SOX6) reached genome-wide significance (p < 1.0 × 10(-8)) for either systolic or diastolic BP in a transethnic meta-analysis after correction for multiple testing. Three of these BP loci (EVX1-HOXA, RSPO3, and PLEKHG1) lack previous associations with BP. We also identified one independent signal in a known BP locus (SOX6) and provide evidence for fine mapping in four additional validated BP loci. We also demonstrate that validated EA BP GWAS loci, considered jointly, show significant effects in AA samples. Consequently, these findings suggest that BP loci might have universal effects across studied populations, demonstrating that multiethnic samples are an essential component in identifying, fine mapping, and understanding their trait variability.

  15. East African Community (EAC) as Regionalism : The Exclusion and Inclusion of Globalization


    Butanaziba, Yunus Lubega


    The objective of this paper is to examine and recommend possible prescriptions against problems that regionalism has since occasioned for the last 110 years, and the ones we might face in the short and long term future. It brings forward the East African Community (EAC) as a regional grouping under the ‘exclusive’ and ‘inclusive’ damages of controls by western dominant states, particularly Britain and the United States of America (USA). The problem is that official reasoning and incompetence ...

  16. African Self-Consciousness and Health-Promoting Behaviors among African American College Students. (United States)

    Thompson, Shawn N.; Chambers, John W., Jr.


    Investigated three models of relationships between African self-consciousness, health consciousness, and health-promoting behaviors among African American college students. The models included the mediator model, moderator model, and independent model. Surveys of 80 students supported the independent model, suggesting that African…

  17. Pan-African Genetic Structure in the African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer): Investigating Intraspecific Divergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smitz, N.; Berthouly, C.; Cornelis, D.; Heller, R.; Hooft, van W.F.; Chardonnet, P.; Caron, A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Jansen van Vuuren, B.; Iongh, de H.H.; Michaux, J.


    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) exhibits extreme morphological variability, which has led to controversies about the validity and taxonomic status of the various recognized subspecies. The present study aims to clarify these by inferring the pan-African spatial distribution of genetic diversit

  18. Changing Fatherhood: An Exploratory Qualitative Study with African and African Caribbean Men in England (United States)

    Williams, Robert; Hewison, Alistair; Wildman, Stuart; Roskell, Carolyn


    This paper presents findings from a qualitative study undertaken with 46 African and African Caribbean men exploring their experiences of fatherhood. Data analysis was informed by Connell's theoretical work on changing gender relations. Findings indicate that fathers' lives were mediated by masculinities, racism, gender, migration and generational…

  19. African Games of Strategy: A Teaching Manual. African Outreach Series, No. 2. (United States)

    Crane, Louise

    Appreciation of African games has increased in this country; especially board games which have been popularized through commercial versions. African games are invaluable resources for studying subjects requiring mathematical concepts, as well as social studies, history, geography, and languages. This manual presents some of the better known…

  20. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community (United States)

    Wells, Tesia Denis


    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest…

  1. African swine fever virus serotype-specific proteins are significant protective antigens for African swine fever (United States)

    African swine fever (ASF) is an emerging disease threat for the swine industry worldwide. No ASF vaccine is available and progress is hindered by lack of knowledge concerning the extent of African swine fever virus (ASFV) strain diversity and the viral antigens conferring type specific protective im...

  2. "Women ... Mourn and Men Carry on": African Women Storying Mourning Practices--A South African Example (United States)

    Kotze, Elmarie; Els, Lishje; Rajuili-Masilo, Ntsiki


    African mourning of loss of lives in South Africa has been shaped by discursive practices of both traditional African cultures and the sociopolitical developments under apartheid and in post-apartheid South Africa. This article reports on changes in mourning practices on the basis of a literature review and uses a collection of examples to…

  3. Bessie Coleman, First African American Pilot (United States)


    Born on January 26, 1892 in Atlanta, Texas to a family of sharecroppers, Bessie Coleman grew up in poverty. Her father abandoned the family when she was nine, and her elder brothers soon left as well, leaving her mother with the four youngest of her thirteen children. While taking care of her younger sisters, Bessie completed all eight available years of primary education, excelling in math. She enrolled at the Colored Agricultural and Normal University in Langston, Oklahoma in 1910, but lack of funds forced her to leave after only one term. Five years later, she left the South and moved to Chicago to join two of her brothers, Walter and John, where she worked as a beautician for several years. An avid reader, she learned about World War I pilots in the newspaper and became intrigued by the prospect of flying. As a black woman, she had no chance of acceptance at any American pilot school, so she moved to France in 1919 and enrolled at the Ecole d'Aviation des Freres Caudon at Le Crotoy. After returning briefly to the United States, she spent one more term in France practicing more advanced flying before finally settling back in her birth country. She did exhibition flying and gave lectures across the country from 1922 to 1926. While flying, she refused to perform unless the audiences were desegregated. She was test flying a new plane on April 30, 1926 when it malfunctioned, killing both her and the mechanic who was piloting it. Her career as the world's first African American pilot inspired many who followed.

  4. African Easterly Jet: Structure and Maintenance (United States)

    Wu, Man-Li C.; Reale, Oreste; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Suarez, Max J.; Koster, Randy D.; Pegion, Philip J.


    This article investigates the African Easterly Jet (AEJ), its structure and the forcings contributing to its maintenance, critically revisiting previous work which attributed the maintenance of the jet to soil moisture gradients over tropical Africa. A state-of-the-art global model in a high-end computer framework is used to produce a 3-member 73-year ensemble run forced by observed SST to represent the Control run. The AEJ as produced by the Control is compared with the representation of the AEJ in the European Center for Medium Range Forecast Reanalyses (ERA-40) and other observational data sets and found very realistic. Five Experiments are then performed, each represented by sets of 3-member 22 year long (1980-2001) ensemble runs. The goal of the Experiments is to investigate the role of meridional soil moisture gradients, different land surface properties and orography. Unlike previous studies, which have suppressed soil moisture gradients within a highly idealized framework (i.e., the so-called bucket model), terrestrial evaporation control is here achieved with a highly sophisticated landsurface treatment and with an extensively tested and complex methodology. The results show that the AEJ is suppressed by a combination of absence of meridional evaporation gradients over Africa and constant vegetation, even if the individual forcings taken separately do not lead to the AEJ disappearance, but only its modification. Moreover, the suppression of orography also leads to a different circulation in which there is no AEJ. This work suggests that it is not just soil moisture gradients, but a unique combination of geographical features present only in northern tropical Africa, which causes and maintains the jet.

  5. Independent and linked migrants: determinants of African American interstate migration. (United States)

    Lee, S W; Roseman, C C


    "Through kinship and other links to destinations, many African American interstate migrants in the United States join other people in destination households. These ¿linked' migrants contrast to ¿independent migrants' who move as individuals or intact groups and set up their own households at the destination. Using U.S. Census Public Use Micro Sample data, this paper first shows that, in the 1985-90 period, about 45 percent of all Black interstate migrants were independent, compared to 38 percent who were linked to housing at the destination and 17 percent who moved into group quarters. Second, a multinomial logit model, incorporating individual and state-level variables, is specified that contrasts the determinants of independent and linked migration.... It is concluded that the understanding of Black migration must take into account a variety of factors beyond traditional labor market conditions, including links to the destination and individual housing circumstances."

  6. Re-spacing African drylands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korf, Benedikt; Hagmann, Tobias; Emmenegger, Rony Hugo


    processes of state territorialization and indigenous commodification become mutually entangled. Sedentarization is not imposed by the state or corporate capital, but by indigenous merchants who capture the frontier's potential resource dividend. Land appropriation in the drylands is co-produced by political...... claims to territory, capital investment and new technopolitics through which indigenous (pastoral, Somali) merchants and politicians become complicit with the state's project of territorialization and sedentarization in a self-governing fashion. The irony of this situation is that the (Ethiopian) state...

  7. Afriphone Literature as a Prototypical Form of African Literature: Insights from Prototype Theory (United States)

    Bodomo, Adams


    What is the most prototypical form of African literature? Shouldn't we be using African languages to produce African literary texts, shouldn't we produce more Afriphone African literature compared to Europhone African literature or Afro-Europhone literature? This issue underlies the reality that the vast majority of African writers presumably…

  8. African-American attitudes towards United States immigration policy. (United States)

    Diamond, J


    In the growing US debate over immigration policy since the 1980s, it is often argued that immigration must be restricted in order to protect Black Americans from competition with newly arrived immigrants. Findings are reported upon Black Americans' attitudes toward immigration policy. An extensive review of more than 50 Black newspapers and magazines, from January 1994 to June 1996, uncovered attitudes both in favor of and against restricting immigration. The majority of articles in the Black press on immigration, however, were nonrestrictionist. The Black political leadership is also against restricting immigration. Furthermore, a review of the 14 most recent national opinion polls on immigration available to the Roper Center for Public Opinion Research as of July 1996 found that while many Blacks favor restricting immigration, all US Blacks should not be characterized as restrictionist, especially when compared with Whites. Historical attitudes among US Blacks dating back to before the abolition of slavery are discussed.

  9. South Sudan Negotiated Independence: A Critique of African Union’s Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubkar o. Sulaiman


    Full Text Available The emergence of South Sudan on the 9th of July 2011 as the world's 195th independentState, 54th Member State of the African Union (AU and 209th Federation of InternationalFootball Association member (FIFA marks the final stage of a six year peace agreementending decades of protracted civil war. According to BBC between 1983 and the peaceagreement signed in January 2005, Sudan's civil war took nearly two million lives and leftmillions more displaced. It is reputed as Africa's longest-running civil war. The Sudanesecivil war took roots from its colonial experience, which led to forceful cohabitation ofArabic (North and African (South ethnic groups into a single state.

  10. The entry of African-American students into US medical schools: an evaluation of recent trends. (United States)

    Carlisle, D M; Gardner, J E


    A need to reassess US medical schools' admission of African-American students exists based on recent challenges to affirmative action. The Association of American Medical Colleges (AMMC) provided US medical school enrollment data and characteristics. Measures of enrollment were constructed for each medical school and aggregated by ownership type and state. After peaking at 1311 students in 1994, African-American medical school matriculation decreased by 8.7% by 1996. This decline was disproportionately generated by public medical schools. However, it was not limited to institutions that are located in states where anti-affirmative action policies have been implemented. Several schools were consistently successful (e.g., UCLA, Case Western, and Robert Wood Johnson) or unsuccessful (e.g., Texas Tech and Texas A&M) in enrolling African-American students. Recent gains in the enrollment of African-American students are being reversed, particularly at public institutions. Implications exist, particularly for the health of poor and underserved communities that are more likely to be cared for by such students during their careers as physicians.

  11. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure? (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...

  12. Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium (United States)

    The Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium collaborates on epidemiologic studies to address the high burden of prostate cancer and to understand the causes of etiology and outcomes among men of African ancestry.

  13. Selected French Speaking Sub-Saharan African Countries: Burundi, Cameroon (Eastern), Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Dahomey, Gabon, Ivory Coast, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Togo, Upper Volta, Zaire. A Guide to the Academic Placement of Students from These Countries in Academic Institutions of the United States. (United States)

    Trudeau, Edouard J. C.

    The educational systems of 15 Sub-Saharan African countries are described, and guidelines concerning the academic placement of students who wish to study in U.S. institutions are provided. Tables indicate the grades covered by primary education and secondary education (academic and technical). Burundi, Rwanda, and Zaire have followed the Belgian…

  14. Persistence of African American Men in Science: Exploring the Influence of Scientist Identity, Mentoring, and Campus Climate (United States)

    Guy, Breonte Stephan

    The scant literature on persistence of African American males in science typically takes a deficits-based approach to encapsulate the myriad reasons this population is so often underrepresented. Scientist Identity, Mentoring, and Campus Climate have, individually, been found to be related to the persistence of African American students. However, the unified impact of these three variables on the persistence of African American students with science interests has not been evaluated, and the relationship between the variables, the students' gender, and markers of academic achievement have not been previously investigated. The current study takes a strengths-based approach to evaluating the relationship between Scientist Identity, Mentoring, and Campus climate with a population of African American students with science interests who were studying at six Minority Serving Institutions and Predominantly White Institutions in the Southern United States. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the impact of Scientist Identity, Mentoring, and Campus Climate on Intention to Persist of African American males. The results indicate that Scientist Identity predicts Intention to Persist, and that gender, academic performance, and institution type moderate the relationship between Scientist Identity and Intention to Persist. These results lend credence to the emerging notion that, for African American men studying science, generating a greater depth and breadth of understanding of the factors that lead to persistence will aid in the development of best practices for supporting persistence among this perpetually underrepresented population.

  15. African-American college student attitudes toward physics and their effect on achievement (United States)

    Drake, Carl Timothy

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting the attitudes that African-American college students have towards introductory college physics. The population targeted for this study consisted of African-American males and females enrolled in introductory college physics classes at an urban public historical black college or university (HBCU) located in the southeastern United States. Nine of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Scales, modified for physics, were used to analyze the attitudes of the 135 participants enrolled in an introductory college physics class. The nine scales used to measure the students' attitudes were Attitude Toward Success in Physics Scale (AS), The Physics as a Male Domain Scale (MD), The Mother Scale (M), The Father Scale (F), The Teacher Scale (T), The Confidence in Learning Physics Scale (C), The Physics Anxiety Scale (A), The Effectance Motivation Scale in Physics (E), and The Physics Usefulness Scale (U). Hypothesis I states that there is a significant difference in the domain scores of African-American college students in the Fennema-Sherman Math Attitudes Scales adapted for physics. It was found using a repeated measures ANOVA that there was a significant difference between the attitudes of African-Americans on the nine attitude scales of the Fennema-Sherman Math Attitude Scales, F(8,992) = 43.09, p .05. Hypothesis III states that there is a statistically significant relationship between attitude towards physics and achievement for African-American students. The students with good attitudes toward physics would have a higher level of achievement. The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that there was a significant relationship between a good attitude toward physics and achievement in the class. The result of the analysis implied that 18.9% of the grade could be explained by the domain scales.

  16. The influence of African air pollution on regional and global tropospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Aghedo


    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of African biomass burning, biogenic, lightning and anthropogenic emissions on the tropospheric ozone over Africa and globally using a coupled global chemistry climate model. Our model studies indicate that surface ozone concentration may rise by up to 50 ppbv in the burning region during the biomass burning seasons. Biogenic emissions yield between 5–30 ppbv increase in the near surface ozone concentration over tropical Africa. The impact of lightning on surface ozone is negligible, while anthropogenic emissions yield a maximum of 7 ppbv increase in the annual-mean surface ozone concentration over Nigeria, South Africa and Egypt. Our results show that biogenic emissions are the most important African emission source affecting total tropospheric ozone. The influence of each of the African emissions on the global tropospheric ozone burden (TOB of 384 Tg yields about 9.5 Tg, 19.6 Tg, 9.0 Tg and 4.7 Tg for biomass burning, biogenic, lightning and anthropogenic emissions emitted in Africa respectively. The impact of each of these emission categories on African TOB of 33 Tg is 2.5 Tg, 4.1 Tg, 1.75 Tg and 0.89 Tg respectively, which together represents about 28% of the total TOB calculated over Africa. Our model calculations also suggest that more than 70% of the tropospheric ozone produced by each of the African emissions is found outside the continent, thus exerting a noticeable influence on a large part of the tropical troposphere. Apart from the Atlantic and Indian Ocean, Latin America experiences the largest impact of African emissions, followed by Oceania, the Middle East, Southeast and south-central Asia, northern North America (i.e. the United States and Canada, Europe and north-central Asia, for all the emission categories.

  17. Lift every voice: voices of African-American lesbian elders. (United States)

    Woody, Imani


    Old lesbians of African descent have experienced racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and ageism. This article explores the topics of aging, ageism, heterosexism, and minority stress among older African-American lesbians. The narratives and subsequent analysis offer significant contributions to the dialogue regarding Black aging lesbians in the aging and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities generally and in the African-American and African-American lesbian communities specifically.

  18. Population Genomics of sub-saharan Drosophila melanogaster: African diversity and non-African admixture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Pool

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster has played a pivotal role in the development of modern population genetics. However, many basic questions regarding the demographic and adaptive history of this species remain unresolved. We report the genome sequencing of 139 wild-derived strains of D. melanogaster, representing 22 population samples from the sub-Saharan ancestral range of this species, along with one European population. Most genomes were sequenced above 25X depth from haploid embryos. Results indicated a pervasive influence of non-African admixture in many African populations, motivating the development and application of a novel admixture detection method. Admixture proportions varied among populations, with greater admixture in urban locations. Admixture levels also varied across the genome, with localized peaks and valleys suggestive of a non-neutral introgression process. Genomes from the same location differed starkly in ancestry, suggesting that isolation mechanisms may exist within African populations. After removing putatively admixed genomic segments, the greatest genetic diversity was observed in southern Africa (e.g. Zambia, while diversity in other populations was largely consistent with a geographic expansion from this potentially ancestral region. The European population showed different levels of diversity reduction on each chromosome arm, and some African populations displayed chromosome arm-specific diversity reductions. Inversions in the European sample were associated with strong elevations in diversity across chromosome arms. Genomic scans were conducted to identify loci that may represent targets of positive selection within an African population, between African populations, and between European and African populations. A disproportionate number of candidate selective sweep regions were located near genes with varied roles in gene regulation. Outliers for Europe-Africa F(ST were found to be enriched in genomic regions of locally

  19. South African Artillery in the Eighties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Lillie


    Full Text Available Emerging from the Second World War armed with the then completely adequate 25 pounder and BL 5.5" guns, the South African Field Artillery continued to use the same guns operationally over thirty years later.When the armed forces of South Africa were thrown into a conventional conflict during the Angolan Civil War in 1975, the gunners found their equipment to be woefully inadequate. Soviet made artillery systems in the hands of the Russian-backed forces possessed ranges far in excess of the Second World War vintage South African systems and brought home in a very real way the need for drastic modernisation of the artillery branch of the South African Army.

  20. What is Ubuntu? Different Interpretations among South Africans of African Descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Christian B.N.


    In this article, I describe and systematize the different answers to the question 'What is Ubuntu?' that I have been able to identify among South Africans of African descent (SAADs). I show that it is possible to distinguish between two clusters of answers. The answers of the first cluster all...... define ubuntu as a moral quality of a person, while the answers of the second cluster all define ubuntu as a phenomenon (for instance a philosophy, an ethic, African humanism, or, a wordview) according to which persons are interconnected. The concept of a person is of central importance to all...

  1. Seeing African Americans as Competent Parents: Implications for Family Counselors (United States)

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla


    One of the primary roles of parents is to guide and socialize children to make meaningful life choices. African American parents, in particular, have the additional tasks of preparing their children to thrive in an environment that has historically been hostile toward African Americans. Yet, many African American parents are often depicted as…

  2. Contrastive Studies - African Languages and English. Specialised Bibliography C9. (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This selective bibliography lists 8 books and 19 journal articles dealing with contrastive studies of African languages and English. The entries range in date from 1953 to 1972 with the majority published since 1965. The books cited are African and British publications and the articles appeared in well-known African, European or American…

  3. Representing African American Women in U.S. History Textbooks (United States)

    Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine


    This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…

  4. Barriers to Hospice Use among African Americans: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Washington, Karla T.; Bickel-Swenson, Denise; Stephens, Nathan


    The present review was undertaken to explore recent evidence in the professional literature pertaining to use of hospice services by African Americans. The article addresses the research methods that have been used to study African American hospice use, obstacles to African American participation in hospice that have been identified, and…

  5. The African Storybook and Language Teacher Identity in Digital Times (United States)

    Stranger--Johannessen, Espen; Norton, Bonny


    The African Storybook (ASb) is a digital initiative that promotes multilingual literacy for African children by providing openly licenced children's stories in multiple African languages, as well as English, French, and Portuguese. Based on Darvin and Norton's (2015) model of identity and investment, and drawing on the Douglas Fir Group's (2016)…

  6. Some Growth Points in African Child Development Research (United States)

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi


    We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots. Connecting…

  7. North African populations carry the signature of admixture with Neandertals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Botigué, Laura R; Civit, Sergi


    One of the main findings derived from the analysis of the Neandertal genome was the evidence for admixture between Neandertals and non-African modern humans. An alternative scenario is that the ancestral population of non-Africans was closer to Neandertals than to Africans because of ancient popu...

  8. Engaging Youth through African-Derived Dance and Culture (United States)

    Franklin, Kikora


    This article provides a brief history of African and African-derived dance and culture and highlights the physical health, dance education, historical, and cultural benefits of a school-based program that incorporates African dance as its core component. The article also includes the phases of the programming and brings attention to potential…

  9. Registers in the Academic Writing of African American College Students (United States)

    Syrquin, Anna F.


    The study examines the development of the registers of academic writing by African American college-level students through style and grammar: indirection inherent in the oral culture of the African American community and the paratactic functions of "because." Discourse analysis of 74 samples of academic writing by 20 African American undergraduate…

  10. Some Growth Points in African Child Development Research (United States)

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi


    We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots.…

  11. Student-Centered Designs of Pan-African Literature Courses (United States)

    M'Baye, Babacar


    A student-centered teaching methodology is an essential ingredient of a successful Pan-African literary course. In this article, the author defines Pan-Africanism and how to go about designing a Pan-African literature course. The author combines reading assignments with journals, film presentations, and lectures in a productive learning…

  12. An ecological approach to physical activity in African American women. (United States)

    Walcott-McQuigg, J A; Zerwic, J J; Dan, A; Kelley, M A


    Physical activity in women has assumed increasing significance as a policy issue as a result of the release of the 1996 Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health. This report revealed that women in the United States were less likely than men to adhere to the recommended guidelines for physical activity. African American women are less likely than white women to participate in leisure time physical activity across age, occupational, and income groups. The purpose of this study was to use the Ecological Model of Health Promotion to explore policy, environmental, and individual factors influencing physical activity of middle- to older-aged African American women in a mixed income community in a large midwestern city. Focus group discussions were held with 3 groups of women -- administrators/community leaders, exercisers, and nonexercisers. Thirty-three women between the ages of 40 and 78 participated in the study. The women identified 6 themes influencing physical activity: perceptions of physical activity and exercise; perceived barriers to exercise; perceived benefits of and motivators to exercise; past and present opportunities for exercise; factors that enhance the successful delivery of an exercise program; and coalition building to deliver an exercise program to women in the community. The results of this study reveal that to successfully increase physical activity in an ethnic urban community, researchers and other concerned individuals need to collaborate at multiple ecological levels, with an initial emphasis on establishing coalitions between institutions, community groups, policy makers, and individuals.

  13. Adaptation of an Acculturation Scale for African Refugee Women. (United States)

    Johnson-Agbakwu, Crista E; Flynn, Priscilla; Asiedu, Gladys B; Hedberg, Eric; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki


    Newly-arrived African refugees are a vulnerable group of immigrants for whom no validated acculturation measures exist. A valid measurement tool is essential to understand how acculturative processes impact health and health disparities. We adapted the Bicultural Involvement Questionnaire (BIQ) to characterize its reliability among ethnic Somali women residing in Minnesota, and Somali, Somali Bantu, and Burundian women in Arizona. Surveys were administered to 164 adult women. Analyses were conducted along socio-demographic variables of ethnicity, geographic residence, age, and length of time in the United States through t tests and one-way analysis of variance. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the modified BIQ. Exploratory factor analyses yielded five subscales: "Speak Native Language", "Speak English Language", "Enjoy Native Activities", "Enjoy American Activities", and "Desired Ideal Culture". The subscales of the modified BIQ possessed Cronbach's α ranging from 0.68 to 0.92, suggestive that all subscales had acceptable to excellent internal consistency. The modified BIQ maintained its psychometric properties across geographic regions of resettled Central and East African refugees.

  14. Rethinking Christian Identity: African Reflections from Pauline Writings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Togarasei Lovemore


    Full Text Available Despite its existence for over a century in Africa and statistics putting the Christian populations at average 80 percent mostly in sub-Saharan African countries, Christianity has not managed to provide an alternative identity to ethnicity as issues of identity continue dogging the continent. Many African societies remain divided and at war on the basis of identities, be they racial, tribal, creedal, gender, class, language or other identities. Surprisingly, this state of affairs is also found even within the precincts of the church. Many churches remain divided along racial, ethnic, tribal, and other identities. One does not need to look far and wide to acknowledge this reality. Does Christianity have an identity? Could the writings of Paul address the issues of Christian identity? Or do the writings address this problem at all? These are the questions at the heart of this paper. Making use of Pauline texts such as Galatians 3:28 and scholarly works such as those of Buell and Hodge (2004:237, I discuss Paul’s understanding of Christian identity and its implications for Christian identity in Africa today.

  15. Depressive Symptomatology and College Persistence among African American College Students. (United States)

    Boyraz, Güler; Horne, Sharon G; Owens, Archandria C; Armstrong, Aisha P


    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between depressive symptomatology and college outcomes among African American students, as well as to determine whether these relationships were moderated by gender and type of university. Participants included 569 African American first-year students attending two public universities in the Southeast United States: a historically Black college/university (HBCU) and a predominantly White institution (PWI). Using a longitudinal study design, data were collected at three time points. Results indicated that, after adjusting for the effects of the control variables (gender, type of institution, high school GPA, participation in on-campus activities, institutional and goal commitments), depressive symptomatology present in the first semester of college was associated with increased likelihood of dropping out of college before the end of the second year of college. The relationship between these two variables was mediated by first-year cumulative GPA. Results also indicated that the hypothesized relationships did not vary as a function of gender and the university type.

  16. Reflections on entrepreneurship education in African tertiary institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bawuah


    Full Text Available It is a well-established fact that several developed economies grew on the back of small businesses and entrepreneurial development. It stands to reason then that the development of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA can also be catalysed by a rise in the number of entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial activity. In that general regard, this paper sought to investigate the state of entrepreneurship education in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. The method adopted in investigating this phenomenon was to critique the existing tertiary education entrepreneurship structures (where these existed at all and to proffer recommendations where anomalies were discovered. It came to light that despite the critical importance of entrepreneurs in the economic development of a nation, Sub-Saharan African (SSA countries have not fully developed strategies to tap this resource. What the countries have, are haphazard policies designed to promote the lesser or uneducated individuals in the informal sector into entrepreneurship. SSA educational leaders must find ways to structure their curricula so that all or most of their students can take courses in entrepreneurship. This is essential for SSA countries in order to move them from their present disadvantaged economic status, to greater economic and social development. A tentative syllabus for African tertiary education is proffered at the end of the article but its robustness needs to be tested.

  17. Regional assessment of the hydropower potential of rivers in West Africa (United States)

    Kling, Harald; Stanzel, Philipp; Fuchs, Martin


    The 15 countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) face a constant shortage of energy supply, which limits sustained economic growth. Currently there are about 50 operational hydropower plants and about 40 more are under construction or refurbishment. The potential for future hydropower development - especially for small-scale plants in rural areas - is assumed to be large, but exact data are missing. This study supports the energy initiatives of the "ECOWAS Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency" (ECREEE) by assessing the hydropower potential of all rivers in West Africa. For more than 500,000 river reaches the hydropower potential was computed from channel slope and mean annual discharge. In large areas there is a lack of discharge observations. Therefore, an annual water balance model was used to simulate discharge. The model domain covers 5 Mio km², including e.g. the Niger, Volta, and Senegal River basins. The model was calibrated with observed data of 410 gauges, using precipitation and potential evapotranspiration data as inputs. Historic variations of observed annual discharge between 1950 and 2010 are simulated well by the model. As hydropower plants are investments with a lifetime of several decades we also assessed possible changes in future discharge due to climate change. To this end the water balance model was driven with bias-corrected climate projections of 15 Regional Climate Models for two emission scenarios of the CORDEX-Africa ensemble. The simulation results for the river network were up-scaled to sub-areas and national summaries. This information gives a regional quantification of the hydropower potential, expected climate change impacts, as well as a regional classification for general suitability (or non-suitability) of hydropower plant size - from small-scale to large projects.

  18. “Using History to Make Slavery History”: The African American Past and the Challenge of Contemporary Slavery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Stewart


    Full Text Available This article argues that contemporary antislavery activism in the United States is programmatically undermined and ethically compromised unless it is firmly grounded in a deep understanding of the African American past. Far too frequently those who claim to be “the new abolitionists” evince no interest in what the original abolitionist movement might have to teach them and seem entirely detached from a U.S. history in which the mass, systematic enslavement of African Americans and its consequences are dominating themes. As a result contemporary antislavery activism too often marginalizes the struggle for racial justice in the United States and even indulges in racist ideology. In an effort to overcome these problems, this article seeks to demonstrate in specific detail how knowledge of the African American past can empower opposition to slavery as we encounter it today.

  19. The African VLBI network project (United States)

    Loots, Anita


    larger teams in science, engineering and technology issues and collaborate with the broader global science community to develop new African radio astronomy science communities.

  20. Predicting Non-African American Lesbian and Heterosexual Preadoptive Couples' Openness to Adopting an African American Child (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.


    Despite increases in transracial adoption, African American children remain the least likely to be adopted. No research has examined the factors that predict prospective adopters' willingness to adopt an African American child. This study used multilevel modeling to examine predictors of willingness to adopt an African American child in a sample…

  1. Effects of Mediated Learning Experience on Raven's Matrices Scores of African and Non-African University Students in South Africa. (United States)

    Skuy, Mervyn; Gewer, Anthony; Osrin, Yael; Khunou, David; Fridjhon, Peter; Rushton, J. Philippe


    Studied whether mediated learning experience would improve the scores of African students on Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices. Seventy African and 28 non-African college students in South Africa were given the Raven's Progressive Matrices on 2 occasions, and some subjects were exposed to the mediated learning experience. Both groups improved…

  2. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy. (United States)

    Affinnih, Yahya H


    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti

  3. "Now the African reigns supreme": the rise of African boxing on the Witwatersrand, 1924-1959. (United States)

    Fleming, Tyler


    This essay explores the growth of boxing among the African populations on the Witwatersrand region of South Africa between 1924 and 1959. It details how the sport's jump in popularity with Africans paralleled migration to Johannesburg. Africans increasingly saw boxing as an activity and skill conducive with survival in this new environment, and thus the sport grew in popularity, stature, and skill-level amongst this emergent urban population. The essay further explores the various ways that the sport was disseminated and popularized during the era, thus detailing how the sport reached both the African masses and petit-bourgeois educated elite. As their presence in Johannesburg became more and more permanent, boxing came to encompass various meanings and ideals, such as notions of discipline, independence and civility, to these urban populations.

  4. African-American women and abortion: a neglected history. (United States)

    Ross, L J


    The history of African-American women's efforts to control their fertility is largely unknown. From slavery to the present, the growth rate of the African-American population has been cut in half. Demographers and historians frequently attribute this change to external factors such as poverty, disease, and coerced birth control, rather than the deliberate agency of African-American women. This essay assembles a brief historical record of the ways African-American women have sought to control their fertility through the use of abortion and birth control. It also examines the activism of African-American women in the establishment of family planning clinics and in defense of abortion rights.

  5. Family Support and Colorectal Cancer Screening among Urban African Americans. (United States)

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Northouse, Laurel; Caldwell, Cleopatra H


    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death among African Americans. Less than 50% of African Americans have had CRC screening. This study examined the relationships between family support and influence, cultural identity, CRC beliefs, and a screening informed decision among 129 urban African Americans. Family support (p < .01) significantly predicted CRC beliefs and CRC beliefs significantly predicted informed decision (p < .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely assess family support and CRC beliefs with African Americans patients. This may improve patient-provider shared decision-making satisfaction and CRC screening adherence among African American patients.

  6. U.S.{/}South African Undergraduate Education and Research Workshops (United States)

    Coleman, K. M.; Nolan, J. R.; Davis, K. L.; Phelps, T. J.; Kieft, T. L.; van Heerden, E.; Litthauer, D.; Pfiffner, S. M.


    Deep South African mines (2 to 3.5 km below land surface) have provided unique opportunities for research investigating geochemical and microbial processes in deep subsurface environments. The environments encountered in these mines range from prolific biofilms to hot saline water emanating from gas-rich boreholes. This venture is an outgrowth of ongoing research funded by the NSF Life in Extreme Environments Program as the Witswatersrand Deep Microbiology Project. A workshop for U.S. and South African underrepresented undergraduates was held in December 2001 and is being repeated in December 2002. The main purpose of the workshops were to provide a field and laboratory research experience for underrepresented undergraduate students from the United States (U.S.) and South Africa (S.A.) in the fields of earth, biological, and environmental sciences and engineering. Additional purposes included continuing the exchange of scientific, educational, and biotechnological efforts, and to discuss and explore opportunities for expanding the educational, research and biotechnological efforts. The workshop goals were to recruit and engage undergraduate students in unique and exciting research not normally available to them. The workshops offered state-of-the-art experimental opportunities on specific scientific topics, including subsurface biogeochemstry and microbial ecology. The workshops strengthened scientific and technological collaborations between the South African and U.S. academic communities and South African mining companies. The mines welcome opportunities to host under represented student education initiatives and are forthcoming with refreshments, mining gear, underground transport and geologists. We successfully demonstrated that a workshop with underground activities involving students from both nations was safe, feasible, and career enhancing. Student activities included chemical analyses of groundwater, enrichment for iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria and

  7. Prevalence of Stuttering in African American Preschoolers (United States)

    Proctor, Adele; Yairi, Ehud; Duff, Melissa C.; Zhang, Jie


    Purpose: In this study, the authors sought to determine the prevalence of stuttering in African American (AA) 2- to 5-year-olds as compared with same-age European Americans (EAs). Method: A total of 3,164 children participated: 2,223 AAs and 941 EAs. Data were collected using a 3-pronged approach that included investigators' individual…

  8. The landscape of recombination in African Americans. (United States)

    Hinch, Anjali G; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D; Chen, Gary K; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Akylbekova, Ermeg L; Aldrich, Melinda C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L; Diver, W Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue A; Isaacs, William; John, Esther M; Kao, W H Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A; Kolonel, Laurence N; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H; Millikan, Robert C; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J; Press, Michael F; Psaty, Bruce M; Reiner, Alex P; Rich, Stephen S; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rotter, Jerome I; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Schwartz, Ann G; Signorello, Lisa B; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S; Thun, Michael J; Tucker, Margaret A; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K; Witte, John S; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Henderson, Brian E; Taylor, Herman A; Price, Alkes L; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J; Haiman, Christopher A; Wilson, James G; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R


    Recombination, together with mutation, gives rise to genetic variation in populations. Here we leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P value < 10(-245)). We identify a 17-base-pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of PRDM9 alleles common in West Africans and rare in Europeans. Sites of this motif are predicted to be risk loci for disease-causing genomic rearrangements in individuals carrying these alleles. More generally, this map provides a resource for research in human genetic variation and evolution.

  9. African American Homeschooling Practices: Empirical Evidence (United States)

    Mazama, Ama


    Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…

  10. African American Women Counselors, Wellness, and Spirituality (United States)

    Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.


    Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…

  11. Researching Africa : Explorations of everyday African encounters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de M.E.; Merolla, D.


    The studies in this volume are the result of research carried out by students of the Research Masters in African Studies (RMAS) at Leiden University who graduated in 2008. The studies cover such areas as conflict, democracy, migration, urban and rural studies, language, communication and youth. An i

  12. Assessing sanitary mixtures in East African cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.


    The urbanisation of poverty and informality in East African cities poses a threat to environmental
    health, perpetuates social exclusion and inequalities, and creates service gaps (UN-Habitat, 2008).
    This makes conventional sanitation provision untenable citywide, giving rise to the emerg

  13. HIV/AIDS among African Americans (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among African Americans Format: Select One File [163K] ...

  14. Some remarks on the African wild ass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmel, van A.C.V.


    INTRODUCTION Without any doubt the African Wild Ass should be considered a species threatened with extinction. Therefore, it seems worth-while to collect as many data on this species as possible and to do this quickly. Data and material, however, are scarce. Many sportsmen and zoologists observed th

  15. Beijing Summit Promotes Sino-African Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Weizhong


    @@ Since the establishment of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation in 2000, China-Africa relations have entered a new period of cooperation. 2006 not only consolidated friendship between China and Africa, but also laid a sound foundation for more prosperous Sino-African relations.

  16. Breeding for trypanotolerance in African cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaij, van der E.H.


    Trypanosomosis, or sleeping sickness, is one of the most important livestock diseases in Africa. Some West African cattle breeds show a degree of resistance to a trypanosome infection: they are trypanotolerant. At the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) in Nairobi, Kenya, an F2 experim

  17. The South African Species of Myrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. B. Killick


    Full Text Available The South African species of Myrica are revised, the 19 species previously recognized being reduced to 9. One variety is elevated to specific rank, viz. M. conifera Burm.f. var.  Integra A. Chev. becomes M. Integra (A. Chev. Killick.

  18. African and Pacific Literature: A Comparative Study. (United States)

    Martin, Kristine L.

    Literary writing in Africa and the Pacific addresses themes that reflect colonial experience and the struggles of newly independent nations to cope with change and conflicts between traditional and modern existence. The novels of Chinua Achebe of Nigeria and Ngugi Wa Thiong'o of Kenya illustrate many dominant themes of African literature. Achebe…

  19. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon (United States)


    Mack McKinney (left), chief, Programs Resources Management, and Delores Abraham (right), with the Astronaut office, flank one of the posters decorating the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. McKinney is chairperson for the event.

  20. The Politics of African Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Therkildsen, Ole; Buur, Lars;

    in the early stages of capitalist transformation that also experience the pressures of elections due to democratization, this book provides four in-depth African country studies that illustrate the challenges to economic transformation and the politics of implementing industrial policies....

  1. Examining School Engagement of African American Adolescents. (United States)

    Sirin, Selcuk; Jackson, Lisa R.

    This study investigated the impact of behavioral and affective factors on 688 African American high school students' academic performance, examining the relationship between school engagement, educational expectations, self-esteem, and school achievement; noting differences between males and females; and discussing whether behavioral and affective…

  2. African Women in the Visual Arts. (United States)

    Aronson, Lisa


    Explores recent studies in anthropology, art history, and archeology on African women's art from a feminist theoretical perspective. Relates women's arts to several sociological and economic factors and suggests new avenues of exploration, especially in the face of urbanization and modernization. (CJS)

  3. Coronavirus antibodies in African bat species. (United States)

    Müller, Marcel A; Paweska, Janusz T; Leman, Patricia A; Drosten, Christian; Grywna, Klaus; Kemp, Alan; Braack, Leo; Sonnenberg, Karen; Niedrig, Matthias; Swanepoel, Robert


    Asian bats have been identified as potential reservoir hosts of coronaviruses associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV). We detected antibody reactive with SARS-CoV antigen in 47 (6.7%) of 705 bat serum specimens comprising 26 species collected in Africa; thus, African bats may harbor agents related to putative group 4 CoV.

  4. An Exploration of African Students in Malaysia (United States)

    Lian, Irene Tan Ai


    The exploratory study is an attempt to understand the reasons that prompted African students to study in Malaysia, the challenges encountered and the coping strategies used. The research on such topics among international students is well documented, but studies on international students in Malaysia are scarce. The sample included 155 African…

  5. The African American Public Policy Update. (United States)

    McAlpine, Robert; And Others


    Reviews actions of the 102nd Congress of particular interest to African Americans, including the (1) Domestic Marshall Plan House Resolution; (2) Unemployment Benefits extension; (3) Job Training Partnership Act; (4) Workplace Fairness Act; (5) Family and Medical Leave Act; and (6) Civil Rights Act of 1991. (SLD)

  6. African swine fever: an epidemiological update. (United States)

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; Mur, L; Martínez-López, B


    African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most important swine diseases, mainly because of its significant sanitary and socioeconomic consequences. This review gives an update on the epidemiology of the disease and reviews key issues and strategies to improve control of the disease and promote its eradication. Several characteristics of ASF virus (ASFV) make its control and eradication difficult, including the absence of available vaccines, marked virus resistance in infected material and contaminated animal products, and a complex epidemiology and transmission involving tick reservoir virus interactions. The incidence of ASF has not only increased on the African continent over the last 15 years, so that it now affects West African countries, Mauritius and Madagascar, but it has also reached new areas, such as the Caucasus region in 2007. In fact, the rapid spread of the disease on the European continent and the uncontrolled situation in the Russian Federation places all countries at great risk as a result of intense global trade. The proximity of some affected areas to the European Union (EU) borders (African swine fever -free countries should be aware of the potential risk of ASF incursion and implement risk reduction measures such as trade controls and other sanitary measures. This review will discuss lessons learnt so far about ASF control, current challenges to its control and future studies needed to support global efforts at prevention and control.

  7. African-American Women in History. (United States)

    Martin, Ron


    Describes two reference books suitable for middle/junior high school library media centers that present information about African-American women and suggests activities for Afro-American History Month. Library media skills objectives, social studies and art objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, activities and procedures,…

  8. Violent Behaviors among African-American Adolescents. (United States)

    Garrett, Darhyl


    Explores the development of behaviors by using Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, with emphasis on adolescents. Examines factors, such as identity versus identity diffusion, that may be contributing to increasing acts of violence by African American adolescents. Other factors are examined that may contribute to increased violence.…

  9. African American Vernacular English and Rap Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    African American Vernacular English (AAVE) is the language spoken by almost 20 milion speakers al over the world. It is also used frequently in rap lyrics. Studying the origin and grammar rules of AAVE is a very important topic in today's English Language and English Teaching Studies.

  10. African Universities Tackle the Continent's Agricultural Crisis (United States)

    Lindow, Megan


    Pests, population growth, and depleted soil have wreaked havoc on agriculture in Africa, so universities across the continent are rethinking how they teach the topic. Some African universities have been building their own networks and pooling their limited resources to train more agricultural scientists and improve their responsiveness to the…

  11. Dictionaries of African Sign Languages: An Overview (United States)

    Schmaling, Constanze H.


    This article gives an overview of dictionaries of African sign languages that have been published to date most of which have not been widely distributed. After an introduction into the field of sign language lexicography and a discussion of some of the obstacles that authors of sign language dictionaries face in general, I will show problems…

  12. Assessing vulnerability of urban African communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Herslund, Lise Byskov


    East African cities are in the process of assessing their vulnerabilities to climate change, but face difficulties in capturing the complexity of the various facets of vulnerability. This holistic approach, captures four different dimensions of vulnerability to flooding - Assets, Institutions...... to flooding across the city, at the finest administrative level....

  13. Tuberculosis Detection by Giant African Pouched Rats (United States)

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Durgin, Amy; Mahoney, Amanda


    In recent years, operant discrimination training procedures have been used to teach giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum samples. This article summarizes how the rats are trained and used operationally, as well as their performance in studies published to date. Available data suggest that pouched rats, which can…




  15. Heart Truth for African American Women (United States)

    THE HEART TRUTH ® FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN: AN ACTION PLAN When you hear the term “heart disease,” what’s your first reaction? ... That’s a man’s disease.” But here’s The Heart Truth ® : Heart disease is the #1 killer of women ...

  16. Gravimetric maps of the Central African Republic (United States)

    Albouy, J.; Godivier, R. (Principal Investigator)


    Gravimetric maps of the Central African Republic are described including a map of Bouguer anomalies at 1/1,000,000 in two sections (eastern sheet, western sheet) and a map, in color, of Bouguer anomalies at 1/2,000,000. Instrumentation, data acquisition, calibration, and data correction procedures are discussed.

  17. The nomenclature of the African wild ass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, C.P.; Smeenk, C.


    The 19th-century reports on the occurrence and identity of wild asses in North-East Africa are reviewed, as well as the names applied in various publications by Fitzinger and von Heuglin, respectively. The first published name for the African wild ass, Asinus africanus Fitzinger, 1858, is a nomen nu

  18. Contemporary Sexism in the South African Navy (United States)

    Van Wijk, Charles H.


    The military traditionally embraces highly sexist attitudes. Over the past decade, the South African Navy (SAN) has been exposed to an increasingly progressive political environment. This study investigated contemporary expressions of sexism in the SAN. A representative sample of 476 sailors completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, Modern Sexism…

  19. Towards a critique of indigenous African religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Strijdom


    Full Text Available In this article, it is argued that a postcolonial critique of the colonial study of religion should not preclude a critique of indigenous African religion itself. The latter may be developed from a human rights perspective and a critique of exclusionary views of indigeneity. The argument is illustrated by means of specific case studies.

  20. The African Heritage in Spanish Caribbean Literature. (United States)

    Smart, Ian I.


    Uses Fanon's concept of the Manichean colonial situation and his Dialectical Theory of Identification to explore images of African heritage in the works of two mulatto Cuban poets, Gabriel de la Concepcion Valdez (1809-1844) and Nicolas Guillen (born 1902). (GC)

  1. African-American Axioms and Maxims. (United States)

    Zulu, Itibari M.


    Examines and describes 30 African-American centered quotation and motivational books, all but one of which were published between 1993 and 1997. The books articulate a diversity of genres and themes. Annotations are divided into: (1) general quotation; (2) daily words and meditation/motivation sources; (3) religion and theology; and (4)…

  2. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers (United States)

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay


    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  3. Logic in African Philosophy: Examples from two Niger Delta Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones M. Jaja


    Full Text Available There have been questions as to whether African Philosophy exists or not. European scholars and some African scholars are at the opposite end of this scholarly debate. The result is the production of various works by Odera Oruka, Omoregbe, Bordunrin, Wright, Maurier and others espousing their views for or against the existence of African Philosophy. This paper attempts to show the existence of a unique Philosophy that deserves to be recognized and rightly known as African Philosophy. It shows the existence of African Logic using examples from two Niger-Delta societies. The paper begins with the concept of Logic in African thought system, the natural nature of it and it’s applicability to these communities especially as it permeates every aspect of the African way of life. The Ibani and Ogoni societies in the Niger-Delta were used as case studies.

  4. Managing the hair and skin of African American pediatric patients. (United States)

    Smith, W; Burns, C


    In Africa, the ancestral home of most African Americans, hair is viewed as the epitome of beauty. However, when Africans were brought to America as slaves, they were unable to care for their hair and skin adequately and were exposed to the predominant white culture, which valued straight hair and light skin. As a result, many African Americans lost self-esteem because of the characteristics of their hair and skin. In this article we examine the anatomic and physiologic features of African American hair and skin and typical African American hair and skin care practices. Common African American hair and skin disorders and their management are discussed. The goal of this article is to help primary care providers understand the special hair and skin care required for African American children (as well as other dark-skinned patients). With good patient education, understanding one's own hair and skin characteristics can also support positive self-esteem.

  5. Workplace discrimination predicting racial/ethnic socialization across African American, Latino, and Chinese families. (United States)

    Hagelskamp, Carolin; Hughes, Diane L


    Informed by Kohn and Schooler's (1969) occupational socialization framework, this study examined linkages between racial/ethnic minority mothers' perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination in the workplace and adolescents' accounts of racial/ethnic socialization in the home. Data were collected from 100 mother-early adolescent dyads who participated in a longitudinal study of urban adolescents' development in the Northeastern United States, including African American, Latino, and Chinese families. Mothers and adolescents completed surveys separately. We found that when mothers reported more frequent institutional discrimination at work, adolescents reported more frequent preparation for bias messages at home, across racial/ethnic groups. Mothers' experiences of interpersonal prejudice at work were associated with more frequent cultural socialization messages among African American and Latino families. Chinese youth reported fewer cultural socialization messages when mothers perceived more frequent interpersonal prejudice at work. Findings are discussed in the context of minority groups' distinct social histories and economic status in the United States.

  6. Stakeholder Perspectives on Barriers for Healthy Living for Low-income African American Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronnie Faye Jones


    Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity is a growing problem for children in the United States, especially for children from low-income, African American families. Objective: The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand facilitators and barriers to engaging in healthy lifestyles faced by low-income African American children and their families. Methods: This qualitative study used semi-structured focus group interviews with eight African American children clinically identified as overweight or obese (BMI > 85 and their parents. An expert panel provided insights in developing culturally appropriate intervention strategies. Results: Child and parent focus group analysis revealed eleven barriers and no definitive facilitators for healthy eating and lifestyles. Parents reported confusion regarding what constitutes nutritional eating, varying needs of family members in terms of issues with weight, and difficulty in engaging the family in appropriate and safe physical activities; to name a few themes. Community experts independently suggested that nutritional information is confusing and, often, contradictory. Additionally, they recommended simple messaging and practical interventions such as helping with shopping lists, meal planning, and identifying simple and inexpensive physical activities.Conclusions: Childhood obesity in the context of low-resource families is a complex problem with no simple solutions. Culturally sensitive and family-informed interventions are needed to support low-income African American families in dealing with childhood obesity.

  7. Brief research report: sociodemographic factors associated with HIV status among African American women in Washington, DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkins EL


    Full Text Available Emory L Perkins,1 Dexter R Voisin,2 Kesslyn A Brade Stennis1 1Department of Social Work, Bowie State University, Bowie, MD, USA; 2School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Introduction: African American women living in Washington, DC have one of the highest Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV incidence rates in the US. However, this population has been understudied, especially as it relates to factors associated with HIV status. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined sociodemographic factors that were associated with having a negative or positive HIV status among a sample of 115 African American women between the ages of 24 and 44 years. We assessed such factors as age, education, sexual orientation, household income, sources of income, number of children, length of residency tenure in Washington, DC, and level of HIV-prevention knowledge. Results: Among the overall sample, 53 women self-identified as HIV-positive and 62 as HIV-negative. Compared to their HIV-negative counterparts, women who reported being HIV-positive were less educated, had lower household income, and had longer residency tenure in Washington, DC. There were no differences in HIV knowledge between HIV-positive and -negative study participants. Conclusion: These findings may provide important directions for targeting specific subpopulations of African Americans for HIV-prevention/intervention programs. Keywords: HIV status, African American women, sociodemographic factors

  8. Social work research on African Americans and suicidal behavior: a systematic 25-year review. (United States)

    Joe, Sean; Niedermeier, Danielle M


    Suicide among African Americans is a neglected topic. Social workers practice in both clinical and nonclinical settings, and as the largest occupational group of mental health professionals, they have a unique opportunity to reach this underserved group. However, little is known about social work's empirical knowledge base for recognition and treatment of suicidal behavior among African Americans. The authors performed a systematic critical review of published articles by social workers on African American suicide and suicidal behavior, to ascertain the state of social worker's contribution to and knowledge of suicide risk factors and effective treatments. They conducted Web-based (for example, Social Work Abstracts, PsycINFO, PubMed, JSTOR) and manual searches of suicide research conducted by social work investigators and published in peer-reviewed journals from 1980 to 2005. References cited in the articles were used to identify candidate articles. According to the search results, social workers contributed only 11 empirical research articles focusing on African American suicide or nonfatal suicidal behavior. Risk factors for suicide are reviewed, and the implications for clinical social work practice and research are addressed.

  9. African origins and chronic kidney disease susceptibility in the human immunodeficiency virus era. (United States)

    Kasembeli, Alex N; Duarte, Raquel; Ramsay, Michèle; Naicker, Saraladevi


    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health problem worldwide with the estimated incidence growing by approximately 6% annually. There are striking ethnic differences in the prevalence of CKD such that, in the United States, African Americans have the highest prevalence of CKD, four times the incidence of end stage renal disease when compared to Americans of European ancestry suggestive of genetic predisposition. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are the major causes of CKD. HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is an irreversible form of CKD with considerable morbidity and mortality and is present predominantly in people of African ancestry. The APOL1 G1 and G2 alleles were more strongly associated with the risk for CKD than the previously examined MYH9 E1 risk haplotype in individuals of African ancestry. A strong association was reported in HIVAN, suggesting that 50% of African Americans with two APOL1 risk alleles, if untreated, would develop HIVAN. However these two variants are not enough to cause disease. The prevailing belief is that modifying factors or second hits (including genetic hits) underlie the pathogenesis of kidney disease. This work reviews the history of genetic susceptibility of CKD and outlines current theories regarding the role for APOL1 in CKD in the HIV era.

  10. The evolution of African plant diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Peter Linder


    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa includes some 45,000 plant species. The spatial patterns of this diversity have been well explored. We can group the species into a set of biogeographical regions (largely co-incident with regions defined for terrestrial vertebrate groups. Furthermore, we know that the diversity is unevenly distributed, with southern Africa (especially the south-western tip disproportionally species rich, while the West African interior is disproportionally species poor. However, the origins of this diversity have only been explored for two anomalous African Floras (the Tropic-alpine Flora and the Cape Flora, whereas the origins of the diversity of the other floras are still unknown. Here I argue that six floras, with distinct geographical centres, different extra-African affinities, ages of radiation and radiation rates, can be delimited: the Austro-temperate, Tropic-alpine, Lowland forest, Tropic-montane, Savanna and Arid Floras. The oldest flora may be the Lowland forest Flora, and the most recent is the Tropic-alpine, which probably evolved during the Plio-Pleistocene on the summits of the East Africa volcanoes. My results suggest that the most rapidly radiating flora is the Austro-temperate Flora, while the other floras are all diversifying at more or less the same rate, this is also consistent with the current massive species richness in this flora (about half of the African species richness. The Austro-temperate Flora appears to be related to the floras of the other southern continents, the Tropic-alpine Flora to that of the Northern Hemisphere, and the four tropical floras to the tropical regions of the other continents, consistent with the theory of phylogenetic niche conservatism. Current African diversity may be the result of the sequential adding of new floras to the continent. Possibly the species poverty especially of the Lowland forest Flora may be the result of the spread of C4 grasslands and associated regular fires.

  11. Epidemiological criminology: drug use among African American gang members. (United States)

    Lanier, Mark M; Pack, Robert P; Akers, Timothy A


    Epidemiological methods and public health theories can be tied to theories of crime and delinquency and used to create evidence-based policy. Interdisciplinary theoretical approaches to existing, and emerging, public health and criminal justice problems hold great promise. Differential association theory postulates that close association with delinquent peers leads to an increase in deviant activities such as illicit drug use. Social cognitive theory postulates that health behavior change is driven by the interaction of (a) cognitive states that support a health outcome, (b) the social and contextual environment, (c) and individual action. Combined, these theories can be applied to drug eradication programs as well as other health and crime issues. Focus groups and interviews were performed to identify rates of illicit substance use among incarcerated African American adolescent male gang members and nongang members. The policy recommendations illustrate the convergence of criminological and epidemiological theory under the new paradigm of epidemiological criminology or ''EpiCrim.''

  12. Survival Strategies for African American Astronomers and Astrophysicists

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, J C


    The question of how to increase the number of women and minorities in astronomy has been approached from several directions in the United States including examination of admission policies, mentoring, and hiring practices. These point to departmental efforts to improve conditions for some of the students which has the overall benefit of improving conditions for all of the students. However, women and minority astronomers have managed to obtain doctorates even within the non-welcoming environment of certain astronomy and physics departments. I present here six strategies used by African American men and women to persevere if not thrive long enough to earn their doctorate. Embedded in this analysis is the idea of 'astronomy culture' and experiencing astronomy culture as a cross-cultural experience including elements of culture shock. These survival strategies are not exclusive to this small subpopulation but have been used by majority students, too.

  13. Survival Strategies for African American Astronomers and Astrophysicists (United States)

    Holbrook, Jarita C.


    The question of how to increase the number of women and minorities in astronomy has been approached from several directions in the United States including examination of admission policies, mentoring, and hiring practices. These point to departmental efforts to improve conditions for some of the students which has the overall benefit of improving conditions for all of the students. However, women and minority astronomers have managed to obtain doctorates even within the non-welcoming environment of certain astronomy and physics departments. I present here six strategies used by African American men and women to persevere if not thrive long enough to earn their doctorate. Embedded in this analysis is the idea of `astronomy culture' and experiencing astronomy culture as a cross-cultural experience including elements of culture shock. These survival strategies are not exclusive to this small subpopulation but have been used by majority students, too.

  14. African-American Parents' Racial and Ethnic Socialization and Adolescent Academic Grades: Teasing out the Role of Gender (United States)

    Brown, Tiffany L.; Linver, Miriam R.; Evans, Melanie; DeGennaro, Donna


    This study examined the relationship of racial and ethnic socialization and academic achievement in a sample of 218 African American adolescents (grades 9-12; 52% girls) attending a public high school in the northeastern United States. Researchers were particularly interested in whether adolescent gender moderated the relationship between racial…

  15. Reaching into the Digital Divide: Technological Use of Computers by African American Male Youth in the American South (United States)

    Moore, Antionette L.


    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how the computer is utilized in the daily lives of seven African American male youth in the southeastern region of the United States. Critical pedagogy was selected as the theoretical framework using Paulo Freire ideas of problem-posing education to promote awareness towards using the computer…

  16. Good Governance and Foreign Direct Investment : A Legal Contribution to a Balanced Economic Development in the East African Community (EAC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbembe, Binda


    One of the objectives of the East African Community (EAC) is the promotion of a balanced economic development between its Partner States: Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda. And one of the ways to reach this economic development is the attraction of investment, especially Foreign Direct In

  17. Adaptive and Challenged Parenting among African American Mothers: Parenting Profiles Relate to Head Start Children's Aggression and Hyperactivity (United States)

    Carpenter, Johanna L.; Mendez, Julia


    Research Findings: This study used a within-group research design and person-centered analytic methods to identify multidimensional profiles of parenting styles, parenting practices, and related emotional factors in a sample of 274 African American mothers recruited from Head Start programs in the northeastern and southeastern United States.…

  18. The emergence of institutional innovations in tourism: the evolution of the African Wildlife Foundation's tourism conservation enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van J.J.; Duim, van der V.R.; Lamers, M.A.J.; Sumba, D.


    This paper examines the evolving and innovatory role of the African Wildlife Foundation (AWF), an NGO with charitable status, in dealing with the challenge of protecting wildlife outside state-protected areas. Drawing on the theoretical framework of institutional entrepreneurship, we historically tr

  19. A Qualitative Investigation of African Americans' Decision to Pursue Computing Science Degrees: Implications for Cultivating Career Choice and Aspiration (United States)

    Charleston, LaVar J.


    According to Pearson (2002), minority groups are not well represented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) occupations. Among these underrepresented groups are African Americans. To ensure the economic vitality of the STEM workforce in the United States, it is imperative to broaden participation in STEM-related fields and…

  20. Rethinking "Turner v. Keefe": The Parallel Mobilization of African-American and White Teachers in Tampa, Florida, 1936-1946 (United States)

    Shircliffe, Barbara J.


    In 1941, members of the local unit of the Florida State Teachers Association (FSTA) met in Tampa to plan a lawsuit against Hillsborough County's school board for paying African-American teachers less than white teachers. Hilda Turner, who taught history and economics at Tampa's historically black high school, agreed to serve as plaintiff; she was…

  1. African American Women Executives' Leadership Communication within Dominant-Culture Organizations: (Re)Conceptualizing Notions of Collaboration and Instrumentality. (United States)

    Parker, Patricia S.


    Examines African American women executives' leadership communication within majority White, male-dominated organizations in the United States. Reveals five themes related to the executives' leadership communication that challenge views of women as master collaborators who shun control-oriented leadership. Offers implications of this study for…

  2. Dating Violence and Sexual Assault Prevention with African American Middle Schoolers: Does Group Gender Composition Impact Dating Violence Attitudes? (United States)

    Black, Beverly M.; Weisz, Arlene N.; Jayasundara, Dheeshana S.


    A dating violence and sexual assault prevention program was presented to 396, predominately African American, middle schoolers in two inner city schools in the United States. In one school the program was offered with a same-gender group composition; in the other school, the same program was offered with mixed-gender group composition. A…

  3. The Magic of the Populace: An Ethnography of Illegibility in the South African Immigration Bureaucracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoag, Colin Brewster


    their interactions with the public. This perspectival bias needs to be overcome through ethnographies of the state and of state bureaucracies in everyday practice. This article examines the Immigration Services Branch of the South African Department of Home Affairs, a state bureaucracy widely deemed “illegible......Recent anthropological accounts of the state have demonstrated the potential for danger or illegibility in the public's encounter with the state. Much of this work has taken the perspective of the public, however, and less has been said about how functionaries of the state perceive...... to stabilize these two unstable entities, but they also enable officials to act in ways that might run counter to official discourse while simultaneously upholding its legitimacy. Their stabilization efforts therefore incite a destabilization of the state, leading it to appear as “magical” or “illegible...

  4. African-American males in computer science---Examining the pipeline for clogs (United States)

    Stone, Daryl Bryant

    " self-efficacy between lower-level computer science majors and upper-level computer science majors. (5) There is no significant difference in "Computer Science Degree" self-efficacy between each of the five groups of students. Finally, the researcher selected African-American male students attending six primary schools, including the predominately African-American elementary, middle and high school that the researcher attended during his own academic career. Additionally, a racially mixed elementary, middle and high school was selected from the same county in Maryland. Bowie State University provided both the underclass and upperclass computer science majors surveyed in this study. Of the five hypotheses, the sample provided enough evidence to support the claim that there are significant differences in the "Computer Science Degree" self-efficacy between each of the five groups of students. ANOVA analysis by question and total self-efficacy scores provided more results of statistical significance. Additionally, factor analysis and review of the qualitative data provide more insightful results. Overall, the data suggest 'a clog' may exist in the middle school level and students attending racially mixed schools were more confident in their computer, math and science skills. African-American males admit to spending lots of time on social networking websites and emailing, but are 'dis-aware' of the skills and knowledge needed to study in the computing disciplines. The majority of the subjects knew little, if any, AAMs in the 'computing discipline pipeline'. The collegian African-American males, in this study, agree that computer programming is a difficult area and serves as a 'major clog in the pipeline'.

  5. Africanization of a feral honey bee (Apis mellifera) population in South Texas: does a decade make a difference? (United States)

    Rangel, Juliana; Giresi, Melissa; Pinto, Maria Alice; Baum, Kristen A; Rubink, William L; Coulson, Robert N; Johnston, John Spencer


    The arrival to the United States of the Africanized honey bee, a hybrid between European subspecies and the African subspecies Apis mellifera scutellata, is a remarkable model for the study of biological invasions. This immigration has created an opportunity to study the dynamics of secondary contact of honey bee subspecies from African and European lineages in a feral population in South Texas. An 11-year survey of this population (1991-2001) showed that mitochondrial haplotype frequencies changed drastically over time from a resident population of eastern and western European maternal ancestry, to a population dominated by the African haplotype. A subsequent study of the nuclear genome showed that the Africanization process included bidirectional gene flow between European and Africanized honey bees, giving rise to a new panmictic mixture of A. m. scutellata- and European-derived genes. In this study, we examined gene flow patterns in the same population 23 years after the first hybridization event occurred. We found 28 active colonies inhabiting 92 tree cavities surveyed in a 5.14 km(2) area, resulting in a colony density of 5.4 colonies/km(2). Of these 28 colonies, 25 were of A. m. scutellata maternal ancestry, and three were of western European maternal ancestry. No colonies of eastern European maternal ancestry were detected, although they were present in the earlier samples. Nuclear DNA revealed little change in the introgression of A. m. scutellata-derived genes into the population compared to previous surveys. Our results suggest this feral population remains an admixed swarm with continued low levels of European ancestry and a greater presence of African-derived mitochondrial genetic composition.

  6. An examination of Euro-American and African-American differences in social physique anxiety among college women. (United States)

    Jordan, Eleanor H; Smisson, Cassandra P; Burke, Kevin L; Joyner, A Barry; Czech, Daniel R


    Many studies have examined sex differences in social physique anxiety; however, few researchers have examined possible perceptual differences in such anxiety based on ethnicity. The present purpose was to examine social physique anxiety among college-age women of Euro-American and African-American descent. Participants (N = 91) from physical activity classes at a university located in the southeastern United States completed the Social Physique Anxiety Scale. The participants were 67 Euro-Americans and 24 African Americans. An independent t test yielded a significant difference (p =.01) between groups on Eklund's scale, which supports the hypothesis.

  7. Tectonic breccia of the Cabo Frio area, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, intruded by Early Cretaceous mafic dyke: evidence of the Pan-African brittle tectonism? Brecha tectônica da área de Cabo Frio - RJ, intrudida por dique máfico do Eocretáceo: evidência do tectonismo rúptil do Pan-Africano?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihisa Motoki


    Full Text Available This paper presents the field descriptions and microscopic observations of a tectonic breccia in the basement gneiss of the Cabo Frio and Arraial do Cabo areas, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and its intrusive contact with the Early Cretaceous mafic dyke. At the sea cliff close to the Ilha do Japonês, there is an excellent contact outcrop between them. The tectonic breccia zone is 10 to 20m wide and has N30ºE direction. The breccia clasts are angular and characterized by auto-brecciation texture, and composed of breccia with similar aspect of the host tectonic breccia. The matrix is firmly consolidated by hydrothermalism and following silicification. The mafic dyke is 7 to 10m wide and of N45ºE direction. Along the contact, the dyke chilled margin featured by fine-grained basalt and prismatic joints can be observed. At the Conchas Beach and Arraial do Cabo city, there are four outcrops demonstrating the mafic dyke intrusion into the consolidated tectonic breccias. These outcrops prove that the tectonic breccias are older than the Early Cretaceous tholeiitic dykes. The fault breccias could have been formed during the brittle-phase tectonism of the last stage of the Pan-African Orogeny by hydrothermalism without magmatic activities, namely tectonic hydrothermalism. The existence of the clasts constituent of the breccia that are composed of breccia suggests that the fault movement and following hydrothermalism occurred repeatedly.Esse trabalho apresenta as descrições de campo e observações petrográficas de uma brecha tectônica no embasamento gnáissico das áreas de Cabo Frio e Arraial do Cabo, RJ, e seu contato intrusivo com um dique máfico do Eocretáceo. Na proximidade da ilha do Japonês, ocorre um excelente afloramento de contato entre esses litotipos. A zona da brecha tectônica tem 10 a 20 m de largura e tem direção de N30ºE. Os clastos da brecha são angulosos e caracterizados pela textura de auto-brechação, sendo similares

  8. Challenging the ‘Four Corner Press’ as framework for invitational leadership in South African schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Niemann


    Full Text Available Orientation: Invitational leadership (IL is consistent with current leadership trends and, because South African schools are in need of sound leadership, it is necessary to have a framework that can guide principals to act in accordance with the expectations of their educators.Research purpose: This study challenges the internationally accepted ‘Four Corner Press’ of Purkey and Novak (1984 as a framework for IL in the South African school context.Motivation for the study: IL appears to be a comprehensive model for successful school leadership. This necessitated an investigation to determine whether the ‘Four Corner Press’ reflects the expectations of teachers and, if so, whether it could serve as a valuable leadership tool.Research design, approach and method: A questionnaire containing 31 Likert-scale items, underpinned by the principles of IL, was disseminated to 600 educators conveniently drawn from the population of 88 828 teachers in Free State and Eastern Cape schools.Main findings: The data obtained from the survey enabled the researchers to perform a factor analysis, which revealed that South African educators’ expectations of leadership aligned with the ‘Four Corner Press’.Managerial implications: The ‘Four Corner Press’ can be used as a plausible framework for IL in South African schools, which has implications for the development and training of principals.Contribution/value-add: The ‘Four Corner Press’ can be regarded as a reliable prototype of IL expectations within the South African context, which contributes to extending the body of knowledge of education leadership in South Africa.

  9. Voice of the voiceless: The legacy of the Circle of Concerned African Women Theologians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel O. Ayanga


    Full Text Available The Circle of Concerned African Women Theologians (the Circle formally came into existence in 1989 in Accra, Ghana. Under the charismatic leadership of Mercy Amba Oduyoye, the Circle sought to be the voice of African Christian women at the grass roots level. To this end research and publication was and still is one of the major pillars and activities of the Circle. The main objective of the Circle is �to write and publish theological literature written by African women from their own experience of religion and culture on this continent�. In this regard the Circle has been and continues to be the voice for and on behalf of the African woman in religion, culture and theology. However, 25 years down the line there is need for an evaluation of the legacy of the Circle. How has the Circle been a voice for the voiceless, a mentoring instrument for women venturing into the academia? This article seeks to do this evaluation by examining the activities of the Circle including research publication.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article seeks to evaluate the achievements of the Circle of Concerned African Women Theologians in relation to the Circle�s stated objectives. The article picks up the notion of the Circle theologians as the voice of the voiceless women of Africa. The general approach of the article brings together discussions on social issues like gender, poverty and marginalisation as well as language. Theological and religious perspectives on these issues are understood from a Circle point of view.Keywords: women; voice; voicelessness; poverty; gender; The Circle; theology

  10. The meteorology of the Western Indian Ocean, and the influence of the East African Highlands. (United States)

    Slingo, Julia; Spencer, Hilary; Hoskins, Brian; Berrisford, Paul; Black, Emily


    This paper reviews the meteorology of the Western Indian Ocean and uses a state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation model to investigate the influence of the East African Highlands on the climate of the Indian Ocean and its surrounding regions. The new 44-year re-analysis produced by the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) has been used to construct a new climatology of the Western Indian Ocean. A brief overview of the seasonal cycle of the Western Indian Ocean is presented which emphasizes the importance of the geography of the Indian Ocean basin for controlling the meteorology of the Western Indian Ocean. The principal modes of inter-annual variability are described, associated with El Nino and the Indian Ocean Dipole or Zonal Mode, and the basic characteristics of the subseasonal weather over the Western Indian Ocean are presented, including new statistics on cyclone tracks derived from the ECMWF re-analyses. Sensitivity experiments, in which the orographic effects of East Africa are removed, have shown that the East African Highlands, although not very high, play a significant role in the climate of Africa, India and Southeast Asia, and in the heat, salinity and momentum forcing of the Western Indian Ocean. The hydrological cycle over Africa is systematically enhanced in all seasons by the presence of the East African Highlands, and during the Asian summer monsoon there is a major redistribution of the rainfall across India and Southeast Asia. The implied impact of the East African Highlands on the ocean is substantial. The East African Highlands systematically freshen the tropical Indian Ocean, and act to focus the monsoon winds along the coast, leading to greater upwelling and cooler sea-surface temperatures.

  11. Attitudes and Beliefs of African Immigrant Mothers Living in the US Towards Providing Comprehensive Sex Education to Daughters Aged 12-17 Years: A Pilot Study. (United States)

    Agbemenu, Kafuli; Terry, Martha Ann; Hannan, Margaret; Kitutu, Julius; Doswell, Willa


    The literature currently contains no comprehensive sex education (CSE) interventions targeting the African immigrant population. African immigrant mothers have been inhibited by several factors from providing their daughters with CSE. The primary aim of this study was to identify attitudes and beliefs of Sub-Saharan immigrant mothers living in the United States towards providing comprehensive sex education to their daughters aged 12-17 years. The study utilized a one-time anonymous nine-question survey. Fifteen women who met the inclusion criteria completed the study survey online or via paper format. African immigrant mothers are willing to allow comprehensive sex to be taught in schools and at home. Accepted education appears to range from religious and moral teaching to some factual information. This research will potentially assist in the designing of more culturally appropriate comprehensive sex education programs for African immigrant mothers and their daughters.

  12. Using computer technology for HIV prevention among African-Americans: development of a tailored information program for safer sex (TIPSS) (United States)

    Noar, Seth M.; Webb, Elizabeth M.; Van Stee, Stephanie K.; Redding, Colleen A.; Feist-Price, Sonja; Crosby, Richard; Troutman, Adewale


    New prevention options are urgently needed for African-Americans in the United States given the disproportionate impact of HIV/AIDS on this group. This combined with recent evidence supporting the efficacy of computer technology-based interventions in HIV prevention led our research group to pursue the development of a computer-delivered individually tailored intervention for heterosexually active African-Americans—the tailored information program for safer sex (TIPSS). In the current article, we discuss the development of the TIPSS program, including (i) the targeted population and behavior, (ii) theoretical basis for the intervention, (iii) design of the intervention, (iv) formative research, (v) technical development and testing and (vi) intervention delivery and ongoing randomized controlled trial. Given the many advantages of computer-based interventions, including low-cost delivery once developed, they offer much promise for the future of HIV prevention among African-Americans and other at-risk groups. PMID:21257676

  13. African Voices and Activists at the WSF in Nairobi: The Uncertain Ways of Transnational African Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Emmanuelle Pommerolle


    Full Text Available Transnational social movement studies have long neglected the way activists from the South, and particularly from Africa, have participated in World Social Forum processes. Alterglobal activists have also been accused of neglecting or dominating southern voices. The organization of the WSF in Nairobi was seen as an opportunity to make African voices be heard. This examines how Africans activists participated in Nairobi, and the complex relationship they have to northern and other southern (such as Asia and Latin America activists. The African alterglobal movement is seen as a space of tensions (i.e. between South Africans and the rest of the continent, between French and English speaking Africa, or between NGOs and more radical organizations reflected in national mobilizations. Our team of 23 French and 12 Kenyan scholars made collective ethnographic observations in more than a hundred workshops and conducted 150 biographical interviews of African activists in order to examine how: Africa was referred to in the WSF; activists financed their trip to Nairobi; and Afrocentric, anti-imperialist, and anticolonial arguments have been used.

  14. Integration of renewable energies and nuclear power into North African Energy Systems: An analysis of energy import and export effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supersberger, Nikolaus, E-mail: [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment, Energy, P.O. Box 10 04 80, 42004 Wuppertal (Germany); Fuehrer, Laura, E-mail: [Sciences Po Paris, College Universitaire, Campus de Menton, du College Chemin du College, 06500 Menton (France)


    The North African countries Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt have been and are currently experiencing rapid growth in energy demand. This development confronts their political leaders with the question of how to expand or diversify their countries' generation capacities. In this context, renewable energies and nuclear power constitute options that have rarely been exploited so far in the region. This article analyzes the drawbacks and benefits of both alternatives, with a special focus on import and export dynamics. When attempting to make the strategic decision between renewables and atomic power, North African regional specifics and circumstances have to be taken into account. Hence, in a first step, the article characterizes the energy systems of the North African countries and presents scenarios for their future development. In a second step, it scrutinizes the energy challenges these states face in terms of domestic concerns and foreign affairs. Finally, a case study of Algeria is used to demonstrate how renewable energies, but not nuclear power, are able to respond to North African energy challenges. - Research Highlights: > Using nuclear power would require fuel imports over the entire operation time. > Hence, energy exporters (Algeria, Libya) would become dependent on fuel imports. > Renewable energies can make North African countries less fuel import dependent. > Nuclear technologies would have to be imported over the whole life cycle of plants. > Domestic production for renewables technologies could be established after a first phase of technology imports.

  15. John Henryism Active Coping as a Cultural Correlate of Substance Abuse Treatment Participation Among African American Women. (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Knighton, Joi-Sheree'; Allen, Kristin; Fisher, Sycarah; Crowell, Candice; Mahaffey, Carlos; Leukefeld, Carl; Oser, Carrie


    The rates of illicit drug use among African American women are increasing, yet African American women are least likely to participate in treatment for substance use disorders when compared to women of other racial groups. The current study examined family history of substance use, perceived family support, and John Henryism Active Coping (JHAC) as correlates to seeking treatment for substance abuse. The underlying theoretical frame of JHAC (James et al., 1983) suggests that despite limited resources and psychosocial stressors, African Americans believe that hard work and self-determination are necessary to cope with adversities. The current study is a secondary data analyses of 206 drug-using African American women (N=104 urban community women with no criminal justice involvement and N=102 women living in the community on supervised probation) from urban cities in a southern state. It was expected that African American women with a family history of substance abuse, higher levels of perceived family support, and more active coping skills would be more likely to have participated in substance abuse treatment. Step-wise logistic regression results reveal that women on probation, had children, and had a family history of substance abuse were significantly more likely to report participating in substance abuse treatment. Perceived family support and active coping were significant negative correlates of participating in treatment. Implication of results suggests coping with psychosocial stressors using a self-determined and persistent coping strategy may be problematic for drug-using women with limited resources.

  16. From Gospel to Gates: Modal Blending in African-American Musical Discourse before the Signifyin(g Monkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Coady


    Full Text Available Despite its origins in the literary realm, Henry Louis Gates The Signfiyin(g Monkey: A Theory of African-American literary criticism has become a standard methodological text for the study of African-American music. Those who embrace the theory accept as the foundation of their argument an apparent link between African-American linguistic and musical realms. This short paper locates the origin of this type of modal blending in research into the rhetorical practices of Gospel services in the United States during the early 1970s. It posits that this body of work established a consensus in the field of Cultural Studies over the affinity of linguistic/musical practices in African-American culture and demonstrates that this understanding was used to justify the application of Gates theory to musical analysis in the 1990s. The ubiquity of Gates theory in the study of African-American music today is therefore shown to be the result of interdisciplinary collaboration rather than the legacy of any one particular individual.

  17. Cash flow forecast for South African firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li


    Full Text Available This paper applies models in the extant literature that have been used to forecast operating cash flows to predict the cash flows of South African firms listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange. Out-of-sample performance is examined for each model and compared between them. The reported results show that some accrual terms, i.e. depreciation and changes in inventory do not enhance cash flow prediction for the average South African firm in contrast to the reported results of studies in USA and Australia. Inclusion of more explanatory variables does not necessarily improve the models, according to the out-of-sample results. The paper proposes the application of moving average model in panel data, and vector regressive model for multi-period-ahead prediction of cash flows for South Africa firms.

  18. Collaboration with East African security organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja L.


    African Community) and IGAD (Intergovernmental Authority on Development) have broader perceptions of the concept. According to EAC, security also concerns matters such as policy reform, legislation, education and infrastructure. IGAD considers food security and environmental and economic issues as part......When it comes to understanding the concept of security and the way fragile security situations should be solved, the difference is big. While EASF – the East African Standby Force – is a regular military force with a rather traditional, military perception of the concept of security, EAC (East...... of the concept. At the same time the three organisations represent different constellations of member nations and thus different national interests, and locally they have different legitimacy and political strength. Thus, when choosing collaboration partners for a security project it is not simply a question...

  19. Young Africans Tackle Their Continent's Environmental Issues (United States)

    Olwoch, Jane Mukarugwiza


    Young African Scientists Session at the Fourth International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress; Cape Town, South Africa, 7 May 2008; Africa is often described as a unique and diverse continent. This is reflected in its biodiversity, economic and social circumstances, and diversity in culture and environment. The Young African Scientists (YAS) session at the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress was one of the congress's highlights. Global environmental change research in Africa was presented to an audience that included visiting international and national scientists, policy makers, and a group of schoolchildren. From the uniqueness of Africa's paleoclimate to the diversity and complexity of current and future impacts of environmental change on Africa, the session not only provided an overview of current projects but also highlighted the problems that are intertwined with poverty. This session was sponsored by the Global Change System for Analysis, Research, and Training (START).

  20. The Transnationalization of the Akan Religion: Religion and Identity among the U.S. African American Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Guedj


    Full Text Available In 1965, Gus Dinizulu, an African American percussionist, traveled to Ghana with the dance company he was leading. There, he took the trip as an opportunity to explore his African roots and met Nana Oparebea, the Ghanaian chief-priestess of the Akonedi Shrine, one of the most famous shrine houses north of Accra. At the Akonedi Shrine, Nana Oparebea performed for Dinizulu a divination, during which she explained that his enslaved ancestors were parts of the Akan people of Ghana and gave him the mission to search for other African Americans who, like him, were of Ghanaian ancestries. She also offered him a set of altars, containing the spiritual forces of the deities revered in the Akonedi Shrine and asked him to import in the United States what was then labelled the Akan religion. Based on research led both in Ghana and in the United States, the aim of this paper will be to describe the process of diffusion, importation, transnationalization and indigenization of the Akan religion between West Africa and the East Coast of the United States. Focusing on ethnographic data, we will argue that this process can only be understood if it is placed in the context of African American identity formations. Therefore, we will show how in the context of globalization, religion and identity constructions are walking hand-in-hand, creating new discourses on hybridity and authenticity.

  1. Effect of Hurricane Katrina on Low Birth Weight and Preterm Deliveries in African American Women in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau-Kuang Chen


    Full Text Available Using three modeling techniques (GLR, GEP, and GM, the effect of Hurricane Katrina on low birth weight and preterm delivery babies for African American women is examined in Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. The study results indicate that risk factors associated with low birth weight and preterm delivery for American African women include unemployment and percent of mothers between the ages of 15-19. Among White women, ages 15-19, risk factors included poverty rate, median household income, and total birth rate. The GMs performed accurate predictions with increasing low birth weight and preterm delivery trends for African American women in the Gulf Coast states and other U.S. states, and decreasing low birth weight and preterm delivery trends for their White counterparts in the same state locations. Data presented between 2007-2010 show low birth weight and preterm delivery for White women as a decreasing tendency while adverse birth outcomes for African American women exhibited a monotonically increasing trend. The empirical findings suggest that health disparities will continue to exist in the foreseeable future, if no effective intervention is taken. The models identify risk factors that contribute to adverse birth outcomes and offer some insight into strategies and programs to address and ameliorate these effects.

  2. Do African Manufacturing Firms Learn from Exporting?


    Paul Collier; Marcel Fafchamps; Francis Teal; Stefan Dercon


    In this paper, we use firm-level panel data for the manufacturing sector in four African countries to estimate the effect of exporting on efficiency. Estimating simultaneously a production function and an export regression that control for unobserved firm effects, we find both significant efficiency gains from exporting, supporting the learning-byexporting hypothesis, and evidence for self-selection of more efficient firms into exporting. The evidence of learning-by-exporting suggests that Af...

  3. African primary care research: Participatory action research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Mash


    Full Text Available This article is part of the series on African primary care research and focuses on participatory action research. The article gives an overview of the emancipatory-critical research paradigm, the key characteristics and different types of participatory action research. Following this it describes in detail the methodological issues involved in professional participatory action research and running a cooperative inquiry group. The article is intended to help students with writing their research proposal.

  4. Does land abundance explain African institutions?



    The land abundance view of African history uses sparse population to explain pre-colonial land tenure and slavery. I document the geographic forcing variables that predict land rights, slavery, and population density in a cross section of global societies. I discuss whether these correlations support theories of land rights and slavery, including the land abundance view. I show that pre-colonial institutions predict institutional outcomes in Africa in the present, including land transactions,...

  5. Homosexuality: A challenge to African churches


    Maake Masango


    Globalization has brought numerous challenges to churches. Homosexuality is one of those challenges facing African churches. There has been a growing evidence of rejection, isolation, discrimination and  condemnation as sub-human of homosexuals. Some conservative churches have misused Scripture in order  to strengthen their case of condemnation. This article  seeks to correct the misinterpretation or misuse of Scriptural passages. For example, Sodom and Gomorrah is often referred to as a pass...

  6. Intraspinal tumours in the Kenya African. (United States)

    Ruberti, R F; Carmagnani, A L


    Thirty-one cases of intraspinal tumours in the African have been described, with age, sex incidence, frequency, site and histopathology shown. Intraspinal tumours in this series are compared with the larger series. Extradural and intramedullary tumours together with cervical spine tumours appear to be more frequent in this series. There is a high incidence of dumbell tumours in the neurinomas. Sarcomas are the most common type of tumours and mainly affect the thoracic spine.

  7. Aspidonepsis (Asclepiadaceae, a new southern African genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nicholas


    Full Text Available Aspidonepsis, an endemic southern African genus, is described and compared to the closely allied genus Aspidoglossum. This newly described genus is composed of two subgenera, Aspidonepsis and Unguilobium. consisting of three and two species respectively.  Asclepias diploglossa, A. flava, A. cognata and A. reneensis are transferred to Aspidonepsis. and A. shebae is newly described. All species are discussed, illustrated and a key is given to aid in their identification.

  8. African perspectives on the clean development mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The papers, which are all written from an African perspective, are an important contribution to the debate surrounding the relevance and applicability of the Clean Development Mechanism in Africa. In addition to sector-specific discussions on the prospects for CDM in the energy, transport, industry and forestry sectors, various authors have attempted to tackle complex issues related to the instituional design of CDM, its mode of operation, participatory implementation and methodological questions such as baselines and additionality. (au)

  9. The evolution of African plant diversity


    Hans Peter Linder


    Sub-Saharan Africa includes some 45,000 plant species. The spatial patterns of this diversity have been well explored. We can group the species into a set of biogeographical regions (largely co-incident with regions defined for terrestrial vertebrate groups). Furthermore, we know that the diversity is unevenly distributed, with southern Africa (especially the south-western tip) disproportionally species rich, while the West African interior is disproportionally species poor. However, the ...

  10. African Woman Gets No.2 UN Post

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    With a pledge to work for an inte-grated UN, former Tanzanian Foreign Minister Asha-Rose Migiro was sworn in as UN deputy secretary gen-eral on February 5, making her the first woman from the African conti-nent to hold such a powerful posi-tion in the world body.Migiro’s appointment early last month was widely seen as a signal of new UN Secretary General Ban Ki Moon’s reform initia-

  11. African return migration: past, present, and future. (United States)

    Gregory, J W; Piche, V


    The various forms of return migration in Africa in the twentieth century are first examined, and the factors affecting them are discussed. The authors then consider the value of the household, rather than the individual, as the unit of analysis. Return migration is also analyzed in terms of the linking role it plays between Africa's capitalist and non-capitalist countries. Finally, alternative future trends in the circulatory flow of African labor are considered.

  12. ACLED Country Report: Central African Republic (United States)


    Rights Watch, 2014). This has led to reprisal attacks on the part of the Séléka, and targeting by both groups now frequent- ly focuses on the religion ... religion . The distribution of Figure 8: Conflict Events Involving the Anti-Balaka, Central African Republic, August 2013 - September 2014. The...of the country where Islam is the majority religion . Most of its members are Muslim, including leader Michel Djotodia, who served as president from

  13. Effects of Community African Drumming on Generalised Anxiety in Teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Akombo


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test the effects of community music projects (CMPs, such as after-school African drumming circles, on academic performance and generalised anxiety in adolescents. Adolescents from a Junior High (7th, 8th, and 9th graders, age range from 12-14 in the State of Utah (USA participated in the study. A one-sample t-test found a significant difference in reading scores (df(4 p=.004. A paired samples t-test found a significant relationship between the maths trait anxiety score pre-intervention and the total state anxiety score pre-test (df(4 p=.033. A paired samples t-test found a significant relationship between the reading trait anxiety score post-intervention and the total state anxiety score post-test (df(4 p=.030. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of community music such as drumming for reducing anxiety and also for improving academic performance in adolescents. CMPs are recommended as a non-invasive intervention modality for adolescents.

  14. The topology of African exports: Emerging patterns on spanning trees (United States)

    Araújo, Tanya; Ferreira, Manuel Ennes


    This paper is a contribution to interweaving two lines of research that have progressed in separate ways: network analysis of international trade and the literature on African trade and development. Gathering empirical data on African countries has important limitations and so does the space occupied by African countries in the analysis of trade networks. Here, these limitations are dealt with by the definition of two independent bipartite networks: a destination share network and a commodity share network. These networks-together with their corresponding minimal spanning trees-allow to uncover some ordering emerging from African exports in the broader context of international trade. The emerging patterns help to understand important characteristics of African exports and its binding relations to other economic, geographic and organizational concerns as the recent literature on African trade, development and growth has shown.

  15. African American teen mothers' perceptions of parenting. (United States)

    Wayland, J; Rawlins, R


    The purpose of this study was to describe the childbearing African American teens' perceptions of parenting based on their own experiences. Focus group discussions were held with 17 teens in their school setting for 50 minutes each week. Group discussions were audiotaped, tapes were transcribed, and then analyzed for common themes. The unmarried teens ranged in age from 15 to 18 years. Findings indicated that the teens depended on grandmothers to provide child care and for information about parenting. The teens identified parenting problems including crying, discipline, and conflicts dealing with grandmothers and the child's father. Teens wanted more information about breastfeeding and minor childhood diseases. The researchers identified that teens lacked information about their children's growth and development and safety issues. Findings have implications for nurses who care for childbearing teens and their children; and those involved in planning and implementing parent education programs for African American teen mothers and their families. Further research is indicated with larger samples of African American teens; and to explore the context of family relationships in which teen mothers and grandmothers share parenting for the teens' children.

  16. Nutritional consequences of the African diaspora. (United States)

    Luke, A; Cooper, R S; Prewitt, T E; Adeyemo, A A; Forrester, T E


    Along with their foods and dietary customs, Africans were carried into diaspora throughout the Americas as a result of the European slave trade. Their descendants represent populations at varying stages of the nutrition transition. West Africans are in the early stage, where undernutrition and nutrient deficiencies are prevalent. Many Caribbean populations represent the middle stages, with undernutrition and obesity coexisting. African-Americans and black populations in the United Kingdom suffer from the consequences of caloric excess and diets high in fat and animal products. Obesity, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and certain cancers all follow an east-to-west gradient of increasing prevalence. Public health efforts must focus not only on eradicating undernutrition in West Africa and the Caribbean but also on preventing obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and their consequences. Fortunately, a coherent and well-supported set of recommendations exists to promote better nutrition. Implementation of it founders primarily as a result of the influence of commercial and political interests.

  17. Rethinking "relevance": South African psychology in context. (United States)

    Long, Wahbie


    This article examines the phenomenon known as the "relevance debate" in South African psychology. It begins with a historical overview of the contours of the discipline in that country before describing the controversy's international dimensions, namely, the revolutionary politics of 1960s higher education and the subsequent emergence of cognate versions of the debate in American, European, and "Third World" psychology. The article then details how South Africa's "relevance" project enjoyed a special affinity with an assortment of ethnic-cultural, national, and continental myths and metaphors, all of which served the interests of the political formations of the day. It discusses how, in present-day South Africa, the intelligentsia has become an important catalyst for the so-called African Renaissance, which seeks to provide "relevant" solutions for the regeneration of African society. However, the global hegemony of what began in the 1970s as a "second academic revolution," aided by the lifting of the academic boycott of South Africa, has blunted the once critical edge of "relevance" discourse. A new mode of knowledge production now holds sway, the outcome of a dramatic reformulation of the capitalist manifesto in which the values of the "May 68" generation have been hijacked by a managerialist rationality. In light of the capitalization of the knowledge-production enterprise, it is concluded that the idiom of "relevance" has outlived its usefulness.

  18. Epidemiology of African swine fever virus. (United States)

    Costard, S; Mur, L; Lubroth, J; Sanchez-Vizcaino, J M; Pfeiffer, D U


    African swine fever virus used to occur primarily in Africa. There had been occasional incursions into Europe or America which apart from the endemic situation on the island of Sardinia always had been successfully controlled. But following an introduction of the virus in 2007, it now has expanded its geographical distribution into Caucasus and Eastern Europe where it has not been controlled, to date. African swine fever affects domestic and wild pig species, and can involve tick vectors. The ability of the virus to survive within a particular ecosystem is defined by the ecology of its wild host populations and the characteristics of livestock production systems, which influence host and vector species densities and interrelationships. African swine fever has high morbidity in naïve pig populations and can result in very high mortality. There is no vaccine or treatment available. Apart from stamping out and movement control, there are no control measures, thereby potentially resulting in extreme losses for producers. Prevention and control of the infection requires good understanding of its epidemiology, so that targeted measures can be instigated.

  19. Intracranial aneurysms in an African country

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    Ogeng'o Julius


    Full Text Available Background : Characteristics of intracranial aneurysms display ethnic variations. Data on this disease from the African continent is scarce and often conflicting. Aim : To describe site, age and gender distribution of intracranial aneurysms among Kenyans. Study Design and Setting : Retrospective study at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. Materials and Methods: All records of black African patients with a diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, the largest referral hospital in the Eastern and Central African region, over the period from January 1998 to December 2007 were examined for site, age and gender distribution. The data gathered were coded, analyzed with SPSS 11.50. Results : Fifty-six cases of intracranial aneurysms were analyzed. The posterior communicating artery was the most affected (35.7%, followed by the anterior communicating artery (26.8%, while the posterior cerebral artery was the least affected (2%. Multiple aneurysms were present in 2%. The mean age at presentation was 50.9 years (range 21-80 years and the gender distribution was equal. Conclusions : Intracranial aneurysms among Kenyans occur most commonly on the posterior communicating artery, in young individuals, and without gender bias. The distribution differs from that described in the literature and this requires search for risk factors.

  20. The Lived Experience of African American Caregivers Caring for Adult African American Patients With Heart Failure. (United States)

    Hamilton, Heather


    Assistance from informal caregivers such as family members, friends, or neighbors is crucial to adequately managing the complex care of heart failure (HF) patients. This study examined the lived experience of African American caregivers caring for African American patients with HF. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 10 participants who were formally interviewed. The interviews, analyzed using Colaizzi's steps, revealed six themes: layers of support, realization of self-neglect, experiencing the "blues," connecting with healthcare providers, unmet financial needs, and perception of nonadherence. The information regarding the experience of African American caregivers of HF patients obtained through this research will inform the delivery of culturally competent support to caregivers, thereby improving quality of life for both the HF patients and their caregivers.

  1. Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies: WMS-R norms for African American elders. (United States)

    Lucas, John A; Ivnik, Robert J; Smith, Glenn E; Ferman, Tanis J; Willis, Floyd B; Petersen, Ronald C; Graff-Radford, Neill R


    Norms for African American elders on the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) were derived from a sample of 309 community-dwelling individuals participating in Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies (MOAANS). Normative estimates are provided for traditional WMS-R subtest scores and for supplemental procedures to evaluate forgetting rates and recognition memory. Tables are provided to convert raw WMS-R subtest and supplemental scores to age-corrected scaled scores. These may be further adjusted for years of education, if desired, by applying regression-based corrections. We anticipate that these data will enhance the diagnostic utility and clinical interpretation of WMS-R performance in older African Americans.

  2. The Reflection of Race and Law in African American Literature

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    Peter Schneck


    Full Text Available Since the law has been crucial in defining and delineating the dimensions of African American experience both in slavery and in freedom, the encounter with the American legal system and its representatives has left a strong imprint on African American cultural and literary memory and expression. The article sketches out a few aspects and features which characterize the reflection of law and race in African American culture and literature.

  3. Transgenerational Consequences of Racial Discrimination for African American Health


    Goosby, Bridget J.; Heidbrink, Chelsea


    Disparities in African American health remain pervasive and persist transgenerationally. There is a growing consensus that both structural and interpersonal racial discrimination are key mechanisms affecting African American health. The Biopsychosocial Model of Racism as a Stressor posits that the persistent stress of experiencing discrimination take a physical toll on the health of African Americans and is ultimately manifested in the onset of illness. However, the degree to which the health...

  4. The Lord’s Resistance Army: an African Terrorist Group?

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    Emma Leonard


    Full Text Available The years since 9/11 have been characterised by the increasing threat of terrorist action in the  Middle East and South Asia. Yet Sub-Saharan Africa was has also become a region of concern. In 1998, it had been the scene of two Al-Qaeda attacks against US embassies; besides Africa is home to large Muslim populations. Since 9/11 African violent non-state groups unrelated to Al- Qaeda or to the wider Islamist movement have been recast as terrorist organisations. These groups primarily operate in conflict zones, an area of research that traditionally has not been the main focus of Terrorism Studies. Protagonists have at various times been called freedom fighters, rebels, warlords, insurgents or simply violent gangs. This article looks at the most notorious of African groups – the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA. It argues that some groups like the LRA have been recast as terrorist organisations not because of a change in their activities but due to a change in the geo-strategic environment they found themselves in the post-9/11 period. The LRA’s ideology and tactics will be judged against a broad definition of terrorism in order to test whether the group can, in an objective way, be called a terrorist organisation. It is concluded that the LRA is too ambiguous an organisation to be simply labelled in such a way. It is also suggested that the terrorism label has in fact been an obstacle to attempts to end successfully a confrontation that is now going into its 24th year. 

  5. Mandela’s Favourite African Folktales

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    Carmen Concilio


    Full Text Available In this essay I would like to examine the selection of African tales that Nelson Mandela took care to leave as heritage to the future generations, not only to children, and not only to African children. The fact that a political leader, ex freedom fighter and political prisoner dedicated his time to the collection and editing of stories from all over the African continent to be addressed to new readers as simple entertainment or as educational tools clearly testifies to the great humanity, culture, and open mindedness of one of the most important men of our times. In his most recent autobiographical writing Conversations With Myself, Mandela claimed his double affiliation to both his own indigenous culture as well as to western culture. Moreover, he recalled with affection a dear pastime of his childhood:After supper we would listen enthralled to my mother and sometimes my aunt telling us stories, legends, myths and fables which have come down from countless generations, and all of which tended to stimulate the imagination and contained some valuable moral lesson. (p. 10Thus, it is not surprising that such a charismatic public figure, as Mandela has been, was also interested in- and worried about- the future survival of a cluster of traditional folktales with their lively, specific and “valuable moral lesson”. It is my intention to verify if there might be a dialogue between the western tradition of folktales where animals are protagonists and speak as anthropomorphic figures and the facets of the African traditions and cultures from which Mandela draws inspiration. Among the critical tools on this topic, Tess Cosslett’s Talking Animals in British Children’s Fiction (2006 seems to provide a useful starting point, together with the latest studies in the volume Dall’ABC a Harry Potter (2011, among others. Moreover, aspects of “orature” will be discussed with reference to the stories chosen by Nelson Mandela. Finally, an attempt will

  6. As below, so above: A perspective on African Theology

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    Arno Meiring


    Full Text Available African theology can be understood as a theology from below – or rather, “as below, so above”. This phrase not only reflects the concept of ubuntu and the African partiality towards horizontal relationships, but may help explain African perspectives on shame and guilt, sin and reconciliation, liberation, the ancestors and eschatology. Subsequently, there seems to be some concurrence between African theology and Western postmodern theology. Although these theologies challenge traditional theology, and should in turn be scrutinized, they may offer useful and valid ways of thinking and speaking about God.

  7. Critical social theory and the domination of African American Women. (United States)

    Davis, S P


    This historical reconstruction of the experiences of African American women in America from slavery to the present exposes the prevailing and enduring system of White male domination. From White men having control of their reproductive choices, to conspiracy to withhold the right to vote, African American women were victims of both sexism and racism. Later, as a result of the myth conceived by White sociologists of the super African American woman, further divisiveness became apparent in the African American home. As African American women took advantage of educational opportunities only to find that there was a dearth of similarly educated African American males to marry, increasing numbers of African American men were reported as parties to violent acts, drugs or illness. All of these variables are conjectured as impacting on the African American woman's experience. Lastly, data were presented depicting the increasing trend of African American women marrying White men, and the emergence of a more diverse workforce. It was concluded that economics serve as a catalyst for this change in human relations.

  8. In vitro permeation of platinum through African and Caucasian skin. (United States)

    Franken, A; Eloff, F C; du Plessis, J; Badenhorst, C J; Du Plessis, J L


    The majority of the South African workforce are Africans, therefore potential racial differences should be considered in risk and exposure assessments in the workplace. Literature suggests African skin to be a superior barrier against permeation and irritants. Previous in vitro studies on metals only included skin from Caucasian donors, whereas this study compared the permeation of platinum through African and Caucasian skin. A donor solution of 0.3 mg/ml of potassium tetrachloroplatinate (K₂PtCl₄) dissolved in synthetic sweat was applied to the vertical Franz diffusion cells with full thickness abdominal skin. Skin from three female African and three female Caucasian donors were included (n=21). The receptor solution was removed at various intervals during the 24 h experiment, and analysed with high resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Skin was digested and analysed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Significantly higher permeation of platinum through intact African skin (p=0.044), as well as a significantly higher mass of platinum retention in African skin in comparison with Caucasian skin (p=0.002) occurred. Significant inter-donor variation was found in both racial groups (pplatinum salts. These results are contradictory to limited literature suggesting a superior barrier in African skin and further investigation is necessary to explain the higher permeation through African skin.

  9. Africanized honeybees in urban areas: a public health concern

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    Rodrigo Zaluski


    Full Text Available Introduction This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of Africanized honeybees in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, and to implement a program to remove such swarms. Methods The occurrences of Africanized honeybee swarms between 2010 and 2012 were studied and strategies to prevent accidents were developed. Results We noted 1,164 cases of Africanized honeybee occurrences in the city, and 422 swarms were collected. The developed strategies to prevent accidents were disseminated to the population. Conclusions We contributed to reducing the risks represented by Africanized honeybee swarms in urban areas, by collecting swarms and disseminating strategic information for preventing accidents.

  10. Stress and ethical behaviour among South African managers

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    Ebben van Zyl


    Full Text Available Stress and ethical behaviour among South African managersThe South African business world is increasingly characterised by unethical behaviour and commercial crimes. Involvement of managers is contributing up to 80% of the total costs of white collar crime. In order to try to understand the situation, the current South African managerial climate is analysed.This analysis clearly indicates that South African managers function in stressful circumstances which can give rise to unethical behaviour. A theoretical model for ethical behaviour is therefore discussed and used as a basis for practical suggestions in order to improve the situation.

  11. Black and Blue: Depression and African American Men. (United States)

    Plowden, Keith O; Thompson Adams, Linda; Wiley, Dana


    Depression is a common mental disorder affecting individuals. Although many strides have been made in the area of depression, little is known about depression in special populations, especially African American men. African American men often differ in their presentation of depression and are often misdiagnosed. African American men are at greater risk for depression, but they are less likely to participate in mental health care. This article explores depression in African American by looking at environmental factors, sigma, role, and other unique to this populations, such as John Henryism. Interventions to encourage early screening and participation in care are also discussed.

  12. The African Standby Force and Regional Security Integration on the Horn of Africa

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    Mandrup, Thomas


    . Will it therefore ever be able to transform itself into an effective security management regime, with the ability to handle the challenges facing the region? The regional enmities between the states seem to be widespread, deep-rooted and nearly chronic in nature. In June 2015 the African Union and its member states...... announced that they expected the five regionally based standby brigades to be fully operational by December 2015. Their readiness was tested in the continental field exercise, Amani Africa II, that took place in South Africa in October-November 2015 (Defence Web, 2015) The exercise successfully tested both...

  13. Post Civil War African American History: Brief Periods of Triumph, and Then Despair. (United States)

    Graff, Gilda


    During Reconstruction, which is often called the most progressive period in American history, African Americans made great strides. By 1868 African American men constituted a majority of registered voters in South Carolina and Mississippi, and by 1870 eighty-five percent of Mississippi's black jurors could read and write. However, Reconstruction was followed by approximately one hundred years of Jim Crow laws, lynching, disenfranchisement, sharecropping, unequal educational resources, terrorism, racial caricatures, and convict leasing. The Civil Rights Revolution finally ended that period of despair, but the era of mass incarceration can be understood as a reaction to the Civil Rights Movement. This article attempts to understand the persistence of racism in the United States from slavery's end until the present.

  14. Factors associated with breast and cervical cancer screening behavior among African immigrant women in Minnesota. (United States)

    Harcourt, Nonyelum; Ghebre, Rahel G; Whembolua, Guy-Lucien; Zhang, Yan; Warfa Osman, S; Okuyemi, Kolawole S


    Immigrant populations in the United States (US) have lower cancer screening rates compared to none immigrant populations. The purpose of this study was to assess the rates of cancer screening and examine factors associated with cancer screening behavior among African immigrant women in Minnesota. A cross sectional survey of a community based sample was conducted among African immigrants in the Twin Cities. Cancer screening outcome measures were mammography and Papanicolau smear test. The revised theoretical model of health care access and utilization and the behavioral model for vulnerable populations were utilized to assess factors associated with cancer screening. Only 61 and 52% of the age eligible women in the sample had ever been screened for breast and cervical cancer respectively. Among these women, duration of residence in the US and ethnicity were significant determinants associated with non-screening. Programs to enhance screening rates among this population must begin to address barriers identified by the community.

  15. Genomic analysis of highly virulent Georgia 2007/1 isolate of African swine fever virus. (United States)

    Chapman, David A G; Darby, Alistair C; Da Silva, Melissa; Upton, Chris; Radford, Alan D; Dixon, Linda K


    African swine fever is widespread in Africa but has occasionally been introduced into other continents. In June 2007, African swine fever was isolated in the Caucasus Region of the Republic of Georgia and subsequently in neighboring countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and 9 states of the Russian Federation). Previous data for sequencing of 3 genes indicated that the Georgia 2007/1 isolate is closely related to isolates of genotype II, which has been identified in Mozambique, Madagascar, and Zambia. We report the complete genomic coding sequence of the Georgia 2007/1 isolate and comparison with other isolates. A genome sequence of 189,344 bp encoding 166 open reading frames (ORFs) was obtained. Phylogeny based on concatenated sequences of 125 conserved ORFs showed that this isolate clustered most closely with the Mkuzi 1979 isolate. Some ORFs clustered differently, suggesting that recombination may have occurred. Results provide a baseline for monitoring genomic changes in this virus.

  16. China’s African Policy – Increasing Importance and Active Adjustments

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    Joseph Yu-shek Cheng


    Full Text Available As China’s economy continues to grow, it wants to expand its markets and secure reliable supplies of resources in support of its economic development. Resource diplomacy therefore becomes a prominent feature of its modernization diplomacy. In turn, many African countries perceive political and economic ties with China an important asset which strengthens their international bargaining power, especially vis-á-vis the Western countries. African countries are also depicted as China’s reliable political and economic partners. Chinese leaders have no intention of engaging in diplomatic and strategic competition with the United States and the European Union in Africa, but they certainly will not cooperate with Western governments in helping Africa because they want to push for multipolarity. China's approach to Africa has come under criticisms of neo-colonialism; and in recent years serious adjustments have been implemented. It is expected that Africa’s significance within the Chinese foreign policy framework will continue to grow.

  17. The Workplace Environment for African-American Faculty Employed in Predominately White Institutions. (United States)

    Whitfield-Harris, Lisa; Lockhart, Joan Such


    Diversity in academia requires attention, especially with the expected increase in minority populations in the United States (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, (AACN) 2014). Despite theoretical papers that suggest that several challenges are encountered by minority faculty employed in predominately White institutions, a dearth of research on this topic has been published. The purpose of this literature review was to analyze the published research that addressed the workplace environment of African-American faculty employed in predominately White institutions. In utilizing the keywords in various combinations, 236 articles were retrieved through multiple databases. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 15 studies were reviewed with only three related to nursing. Two themes were extracted from the review: 1) the cultural climate of the workplace environment and, 2) underrepresentation of African-American faculty. It is apparent from this review that additional research is needed to understand the experiences of this group of faculty to target effective recruitment and retention strategies.


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    Glen Segell


    Full Text Available The first decade of the new millennium saw the European Union deploy ninesecurity missions to the African continent, quoting the European Security andDefence Policy. Unlike the numerous United Nations security missions thatEuropean states had previously contributed to, these were part of a grand strategydesigned to link the African Union and the European Union in a process of transregionalismdefined as a unique organisational infrastructure (joint secretariat forresearch, policy planning, preparation and coordination of meetings andimplementation of decisions. The rationale being that security and its associatedpeace and stability are the basis for sustainable development in other areas. Thisarticle follows the development of the trans-regionalism detailing the securitymissions.

  19. Seasonal Changes in Sleep Duration in African American and African College Students Living In Washington, D.C.

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    Janna Volkov


    Full Text Available Duration of nocturnal melatonin secretion, a marker of “biological night” that relates to sleep duration, is longer in winter than in summer in patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD, but not in healthy controls. In this study of African and African American college students, we hypothesized that students who met criteria for winter SAD or subsyndromal SAD (S-SAD would report sleeping longer in winter than in summer. In addition, based on our previous observation that Africans report more “problems” with change in seasons than African Americans, we expected that the seasonal changes in sleep duration would be greater in African students than in African American students. Based on Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ responses, African American and African college students in Washington, D.C. (N = 575 were grouped into a winter SAD/S-SAD group or a no winter diagnosis group, and winter and summer sleep length were determined. We conducted a 2 (season × 2 (sex × 2 (ethnicity × 2 (winter diagnosis group ANCOVA on reported sleep duration, controlling for age. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that African and African American students with winter SAD/S-SAD report sleeping longer in the summer than in the winter. No differences in seasonality of sleep were found between African and African American students. Students with winter SAD or S-SAD may need to sacrifice sleep duration in the winter, when their academic functioning/efficiency may be impaired by syndromal or subsyndromal depression, in order to meet seasonally increased academic demands.

  20. (InSecutiry Regime among African Youth: The Age and Law Curfew Aumenta dimensioni testoDiminuisci dimensioni testo

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    Chinedu Thomas Ekwealor


    Full Text Available this paper purports to present the account of twin phenomena of age and constitution that anointed the relegation of African youth to the wastebasket of oppression. African youth have been studied by various scholars; and social, economic, and political statistical analyses of the youth were habitually deduced from [un]employment quotient. According to National Treasury discussion paper[1] this instrument may not be a reliable tool in either understanding insecurity regimes threatening the youth in Africa and may not suffice in championing policy course for a secured African youth. [Un]employment are only symptoms of asymmetrical laws governing many African states. The principal problems are the constitution, and age limitations respectively (Ombagi 2012. In this guide, the instrument valid for testing and indeed, observing the true condition of young Africans are: the roles of state’s constitution; and the Age Grade limitation factors. These, are critical in the development and security of the youth. George McGovern cited in Jeanette Rankin (2012 noted that he [was] fed up to the ears with old men dreaming up wars for young people to die. Two salient factors, rudimentary to youth insecurity in the region in McGovern’s assertions are the law which authorises war and the age grade legally targeted in the war. In assortment of ways, constitutions provide the basis for definition, qualification and categorisation of the youth, who in turn are the direct sufferers of numerous human and state insecurity conditions forced on them by law. Constitution, therefore, plays exclusivist roles and enables the central authority to enforce rules on, and dictate norms for the youth. Despite the need for the state to adjust its behavior to reflect the actual or anticipated preferences of all citizens through a process of policy coordination, laws deprive the youth.