Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression among Rwandese and Somali refugees resident in a Ugandan refugee settlement, as a measure of the mental health consequences of armed conflict, as well as to inform a subsequent mental health outreach program. The study population comprised a sample from 14400 (n = 519 Somali and n = 906 Rwandese refugees resident in Nakivale refugee settlement in South Western Uganda during the year 2003. Methods The Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 25 were used to screen for posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. Results Thirty two percent of the Rwandese and 48.1% of the Somali refugees were found to suffer from PTSD. The Somalis refugees had a mean of 11.95 (SD = 6.17 separate traumatic event types while the Rwandese had 8.86 (SD = 5.05. The Somalis scored a mean sum score of 21.17 (SD = 16.19 on the PDS while the Rwandese had a mean sum score of 10.05 (SD = 9.7. Conclusion Mental health consequences of conflict remain long after the events are over, and therefore mental health intervention is as urgent for post-conflict migrant populations as physical health and other emergency interventions. A mental health outreach program was initiated based on this study.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little data exists on the effectiveness of psychological interventions for children with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD that has resulted from exposure to war or conflict-related violence, especially in non-industrialized countries. We created and evaluated the efficacy of KIDNET, a child-friendly version of Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET, as a short-term treatment for children. Methods Six Somali children suffering from PTSD aged 12–17 years resident in a refugee settlement in Uganda were treated with four to six individual sessions of KIDNET by expert clinicians. Symptoms of PTSD and depression were assessed pre-treatment, post-treatment and at nine months follow-up using the CIDI Sections K and E. Results Important symptom reduction was evident immediately after treatment and treatment outcomes were sustained at the 9-month follow-up. All patients completed therapy, reported functioning gains and could be helped to reconstruct their traumatic experiences into a narrative with the use of illustrative material. Conclusions NET may be safe and effective to treat children with war related PTSD in the setting of refugee settlements in developing countries.
"This article elaborates upon the problems of the refugee crisis in Africa. With around 4 million refugees, heavily concentrated in particular African nations like Sudan and Somalia, the impacts on the host country can be severe. A model, dealing with the process of refugee migration, with particular reference to impacts on host countries, is developed. Negative impacts include military attacks on communities in the host country. One positive impact is the increase in the number of development-type projects which go beyond the mandate of the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees. A tentative research agenda on African refugee migration is put forward." PMID:12316228
This study investigated the educational needs and barriers for diverse African refugee students in two inner-city high schools in Manitoba. Forty African refugee students, two principals, eight teachers, four parents, and four community leaders participated in the study. Five focus groups, individual interviews, and school and classroom…
Henry, Hani M.
This study examined the influence of pre-immigration trauma on the acculturation process of refugees, as reflected in the manifestations of their continuing bonds with native cultures. Six African refugees who sought refuge in Egypt because of wars and political persecution were interviewed about the circumstances of their departure from their…
Full Text Available This article provides an account of socialisation strategies among two African communities, the Congolese and Somali, in Britain. It looks at the ways in which the refugees attempt to may sense of new social realities in the host country and rebuild lives.This involves a process of psychological healing which leads the African refugees to adopt various strategies with varying degree of success. Among such strategies, involvement in educational, community and religious activities as well as marrying and founding a familywill take unprecedented importance.
Huemer, Julia; Karnik, Niranjan; Voelkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Steiner, Hans
We assessed the prevalence of a range of psychopathology among African unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) in Austria. Additionally, the predictive value of war exposure on PTSD symptoms was examined. Forty-one URMs were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents, the Youth Self-Report, the UCLA…
The design of refugee camps presents an extreme form of urban architectural practise. Despite the large numbers of those who are forced to live in such camps, their vulnerability, and the emergency nature of the camps’ construction, relatively few texts to date have been focused upon camp design, an
The design of refugee camps presents an extreme form of urban architectural practise. Despite the large numbers of those who are forced to live in such camps, their vulnerability, and the emergency nature of the camps’ construction, relatively few texts to date have been focused upon camp design, and the state-of-the-art type commonly used by humanitarian organisations reveals an emphasis upon short-term rather than long-term solutions, and an emphasis upon camps being a delivered collection ...
Full Text Available Introduction: The primary concern of this study is to assist refugee youths in telling their transition story through art in order to understand facilitators and barriers to successful settlement in Ontario, Canada. Methods: This article briefly explains a new approach to visual methodologies, body mapping. Body maps are life-size human body images created through drawing, painting or other art-based techniques and can be developed with different purposes. In this project, these artifacts were used to elicit refugee youths’ life stories in a more neutral and meaningful way than standard interviews. Results: The participants’ migration journey is described in three phases: (1 pre-arrival; (2 arrival; and (3 settlement. Each participant is presented in a brief narrative story. The main themes presented in the data are discussed, namely faith, family, education, and future. Finally, the body maps and their application in health research addressing sites of (a production, (b image, and (c audience are examined.
Githembe, Purity Kanini
The purpose of this study was to examine involvement of African refugee parents in the education of their elementary school children. The setting of the study was Northern and Southern Texas. African refugee parents and their children's teachers completed written surveys and also participated in interviews. In the study's mixed-method design,…
Flynn, Priscilla; Asiedu, Gladys B.; Hedberg, Eric; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki
Newly-arrived African refugees are a vulnerable group of immigrants for whom no validated acculturation measures exist. A valid measurement tool is essential to understand how acculturative processes impact health and health disparities. We adapted the Bicultural Involvement Questionnaire (BIQ) to characterize its reliability among ethnic Somali women residing in Minnesota, and Somali, Somali Bantu, and Burundian women in Arizona. Surveys were administered to 164 adult women. Analyses were conducted along socio-demographic variables of ethnicity, geographic residence, age, and length of time in the United States through t tests and one-way analysis of variance. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the modified BIQ. Exploratory factor analyses yielded five subscales: “Speak Native Language”, “Speak English Language”, “Enjoy Native Activities”, “Enjoy American Activities”, and “Desired Ideal Culture”. The subscales of the modified BIQ possessed Cronbach’s α ranging from 0.68 to 0.92, suggestive that all subscales had acceptable to excellent internal consistency. The modified BIQ maintained its psychometric properties across geographic regions of resettled Central and East African refugees. PMID:24573644
Blake, Charles Carlos, III
The number of refugees from Africa seeking asylum in Israel has recently skyrocketed, raising issues as to how to integrate them into Israeli society. Education is one of the mediums being used to encourage the cultural integration and inclusion of the refugees into Israeli society; very little is known, however, about how Africans are…
This thesis principally deals with issues of social identity management and integration amongst African refugee minorities in Norway. Employing an analytical strategy, the thesis explores varying complex and inter-related situations faced by indigenous African refugees in Norway and how these situations presents challenges in social identity management by the refugees. This piece of work specifically focuses on analyzing how the refugees in question employ social identity management variables...
Ahmed Fawzi Ismael; Abdel-Hady El-Gilany
Aim: to describe the pattern of skin diseases among refugees attending the dermatology clinic in refugee camps in southern Chad. Methods: A descriptive clinic-based cross-sectional study was done in two refugee camps of people from Republic of Central Africa in Southern Chad. Diagnosis of skin diseases was done through clinical examination by a single dermatologist along with the help of hand lens provided with illumination. Lack of investigations and other skin diagnostic tools prevented fur...
Brunner, Lisa Ruth
Between 2004 and 2006, the Canadian government resettled 154 refugees originally from Aceh, Indonesia in Metro Vancouver, British Columbia. Their resettlement was unique for three reasons: (1) they were the first group of refugees resettled entirely in one Canadian metropolitan area; (2) they were the first Acehnese refugees ever resettled in Canada; and (3) among adults, the gender ratio was disproportionately skewed towards (young, single) men. This thesis probes the meanings of refugee ‘in...
Gichunge, Catherine; Somerset, Shawn; Harris, Neil
A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availability were less likely to consume the recommended number of vegetable servings. Barriers faced in the food environment included language, lack of availability of traditional vegetables and lack of transport. All of these aspects contributed to the study findings that both individual and food environment characteristics may play a role in access to and availability of food and vegetable consumption of resettled refugees. Consumption of traditional foods among the resettled refugees continues post resettlement. PMID:26797623
Full Text Available A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availability were less likely to consume the recommended number of vegetable servings. Barriers faced in the food environment included language, lack of availability of traditional vegetables and lack of transport. All of these aspects contributed to the study findings that both individual and food environment characteristics may play a role in access to and availability of food and vegetable consumption of resettled refugees. Consumption of traditional foods among the resettled refugees continues post resettlement.
Catherine Gichunge; Shawn Somerset; Neil Harris
A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availabili...
European Master in Social Work with Families and Children The aim of this study was to evaluate how the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) article (art.) 22, has been operationalized in the Ugandan Legislation, and implemented in the local context of Nakivale Refugee Settlement. The researcher tried to comprehend specifically how the refugee children themselves perceive the implementation of CRC art.22 through their own voice. Hence, an important approach when pr...
Holt, Tara Ann Marie
This dissertation is based on a qualitative case study that examined the experiences of Settlement Workers in Schools (SWIS) when working with refugee students and their families. Based on a written questionnaire of all SWIS workers in a large urban school district thirteen participants were interviewed to explore the SWIS workers’ narratives to develop descriptions and interpretations of their experiences with refugee families with the intent of providing relevant insight into the program. T...
Yelland, Jane; Riggs, Elisha; Wahidi, Sayed; Fouladi, Fatema; Casey, Sue; Szwarc, Josef; Duell-Piening, Philippa; Chesters, Donna; Brown, Stephanie
Background Refugees have poor mental, social and physical health related to experiences of trauma and stresses associated with settlement, however little is known about how refugee families experience maternity and early childhood services. The aim of this study was to explore the responsiveness of health services to the social and mental health of Afghan women and men at the time of having a baby. Method Participatory methods including community engagement and consultation with the Afghan co...
Set within the changing political geography of Cape Town, South Africa, this study constructs a social history of African women through an examination of the complex process and consequences of settlement during the apartheid (1948-1994) and post-apartheid years. Africans began flowing into the city in increasing numbers at mid-twentieth century. However, they encountered coercive and effective resistance to their settlement endeavors, in part due to Cape Town’s historical association as th...
Major, Jae; Wilkinson, Jane; Langat, Kip; Santoro, Ninetta
This article discusses literature pertaining to the settlement of African refugees in regional and rural Australia, particularly focusing on the specific challenges and opportunities faced by Sudanese young people of refugee background in education. Drawing on a pilot study of the out-of-school resources of regionally located young Sudanese…
Ahmed Fawzi Ismael
Full Text Available Aim: to describe the pattern of skin diseases among refugees attending the dermatology clinic in refugee camps in southern Chad. Methods: A descriptive clinic-based cross-sectional study was done in two refugee camps of people from Republic of Central Africa in Southern Chad. Diagnosis of skin diseases was done through clinical examination by a single dermatologist along with the help of hand lens provided with illumination. Lack of investigations and other skin diagnostic tools prevented further confirmation of diagnosis. Data was manually analyzed and diagnosis was presented as number and percent using the ICD -10 of the World Health Organization. Results: A total of 366 dermatologic diseases were diagnosed in 361 patients. Certain infectious and parasitic diseases and dermatitis/ eczema were the commonest diagnostic categories (39.9% and 22.45; respectively followed by disorders of skin appendices (15% and infections of skin and subcutaneous tissues (13.1%. Tinea barbae /capitis, ringworm and impetigo are the commonest recorded infections (11.5%, 10.1% and 7.9%; respectively. Miliaria and acne vulgaris were the most frequent disorders of skin appendages. Conclusions: Infectious skin diseases are common among refugees. There are urgent needs for health education and promotion of personal hygiene with adequate sanitation as well as availability of diagnostic tests [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(4.000: 324-328
According to the literature on culturally and linguistically diverse parenting, refugee parenting practices and styles that are normative in countries of origin may not be sanctioned in Australia. In the case of refugee parenting, beliefs, practices, and values may be decentered in pre-resettlement contexts where survival becomes the primary concern. Engendering the discourse of masculinities to reflect a relationship between child protection and the experience of refugee parenting for African men in both pre- and post-resettlement contexts will inform culturally competent practice, intervention, and community development that is inclusive of their gender-specific needs. This article brings an expanded masculinities perspective to the ecology of refugee parenting for resettled African men resulting from larger research findings with focus group participants. Incorporating notions of masculinity into the child protection discourse is an attempt not only to reduce existing gender under- and misrepresentation among South Australian refugees but also to ensure greater visibility and increase the role of refugee men in the process of developing culturally relevant and appropriate policies, practices, and services to assist successful resettlement transitions while strengthening family well-being. The concept of masculinities, this article argues, must be treated as integral to any approach to working with refugees, particularly in areas that penetrate and may define the quality of their life experiences, expectations, and aspirations. Masculinities matter. Exploring refugee male perceptions, interpretations, and enactment of masculinity may unmask the differential experiences of refugee women from men and ensure the integration and operationalization of these differences into child protection services and practice. PMID:20042403
Usman, Lantana M.
In Canadian public primary schools, newcomer West African refugees like other ethnic immigrant students are a visible minority group, often referred as Linguistic and Culturally Different (LCD) students. In the province of British Columbia, newcomer immigrant students are subjected to a battery of tests, as soon as they enroll in the primary…
Full Text Available The paper explores the idea of settlement in each of its three major senses: as a place of human habitation; as a fixed and stable order of habitation; and as a political consensus reconciling fractious groups. Arguing that traditional accounts of settlement depend, with a kind of pastoral nostalgia, upon a view of abstraction and social complexity as in themselves harmful, it follows through the implications of the concept for ways of dealing with the stranger, and it uses a drawing by the nineteenth-century indigenous Australian artist Tommy McRae, done about 1890 and entitled Corroboree, or William Buckley and dancers from the Wathaurong people, to propose a counterfactual model through which a settlement with the stranger might be imagined.
Anjum Tanvir M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how positive phenomena can support resettlement of refugees in a new country. The aim of this study was to examine the hopeful thinking in a group of West African quota refugees at arrival and after 6 years in Sweden and compare these thoughts to the views of resettlement support professionals. Method The primary study population comprised 56 adult refugees and 13 resettlement professionals. Qualitative data were collected from the refugees by questionnaires on arrival and 6 years later. Data were collected from the resettlement professionals by interview about 3 years after arrival of the refugees. Snyder's cognitive model of hope was used to inform the comparative data analyses. Results Hopes regarding education were in focus for the refugees shortly after arrival, but thoughts on family reunion were central later in the resettlement process. During the later stages of the resettlement process, the unresponsiveness of the support organization to the family reunion problem became as issue for the refugees. The professionals reported a complex mix of "silent agency thoughts" underlying the local resettlement process as a contributing reason for this unresponsiveness. Conclusion Hopes regarding education and family reunion were central in the resettlement of West African refugees in Sweden. These thoughts were not systematically followed up by the support organization; possibly the resources for refugees were not fully released. More studies are needed to further investigate the motivational factors underpinning host community support of refugees' hopes and plans.
Pierce, L. Marinn; Gibbons, Melinda M.
Refugees are expected to determine how to integrate past experiences into their lives in a new culture. Constructivist approaches to counseling allow refugees opportunities to determine how to integrate these experiences into their future career choices. Refugee experiences throughout the resettlement process and a constructivist career counseling…
Tadesse, Selamawit; Hoot, James; Watson-Thompson, Ocie
Unlike most immigrants, who come to host countries after being granted legal permanent residency, refugees are forced to leave their homelands, often abruptly, due to threats to their personal safety. Refugees enter their host countries with no prior arrangements in place (e.g., housing, financial support of relatives, opportunities to start…
The advent of super-diversity and politicisation of migration has been accompanied by heightened interest in migrant settlement. Much has been written in policy and academic fields about the importance of integration particularly in relation to the settlement of refugees. However little attention has been paid to the varied settlement experiences of individual refugees or how personal, cultural and experiential factors combine to influence settlement experiences. This paper turns to cross-...
Children coming from refugee families have special psychological, social, and academic needs, and their success greatly depends on the positive support they receive from the host community. Teachers and peers at the school can provide cumulative support to help these children and their families overcome major socio-cultural and educational…
Prague : Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Arts, 2013 - (Dospěl, M.; Suková, L.), s. 35-62 ISBN 978-80-7308-457-8 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Bahriya Oasis * Prehistory * Settlement archaeology * Egypt Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://aleph.nkp.cz/F/?func=direct&doc_number=002468993&local_base=NKC
Waite, LJ; Cook, J; Aigner, P
Aims The report looks at how the migration and integration experiences of African migrants living in Yorkshire vary across family generations. The study was funded by the British Academy under its Research Development Scheme. Methodology Data was obtained over an 18 month period during 2008-09 through 40 biographical interviews with 20 families of African origin [Sudanese, Somali, Kenyan and Zimbabwean] living in Yorkshire. Interviews were also conducted with other key individuals including c...
In the complex relationship between forced migration and transitional justice, a visit by the Kenyan Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Commission to a refugee settlement in Uganda seems to mark a significant step…
Schools represent the primary setting where refugee children learn about Australian life and culture. They serve as a broad context for acculturation not only for academic development and language acquisition but for cultural learning too. This paper focuses on the after-school homework tutoring programme that uses University of Western Sydney…
Glicélia Cruz Aragão
Full Text Available Norovirus (NoV, sapovirus (SaV and human astrovirus (HAstV are viral pathogens that are associated with outbreaks and sporadic cases of gastroenteritis. However, little is known about the occurrence of these pathogens in relatively isolated communities, such as the remnants of African-descendant villages ("Quilombola". The objective of this study was the frequency determination of these viruses in children under 10 years, with and without gastroenteritis, from a "Quilombola" Community, Northern Brazil. A total of 159 stool samples were obtained from April/2008 to July/2010 and tested by an enzyme immunoassay (EIA and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR to detect NoV, SaV and HAstV, and further molecular characterization was performed. These viruses were detected only in the diarrheic group. NoV was the most frequent viral agent detected (19.7%-16/81, followed by SaV (2.5%-2/81 and HAstV (1.2%-1/81. Of the 16 NoV-positive samples, 14 were sequenced with primers targeting the B region of the polymerase (ORF1 and the D region of the capsid (ORF2. The results showed a broad genetic diversity of NoV, with 12 strains being classified as GII-4 (5-41.7%, GII-6 (3-25%, GII-7 (2-16.7%, GII-17 (1-8.3% and GI-2 (1-8.3%, as based on the polymerase region; 12 samples were classified, based on the capsid region, as GII-4 (6-50%, being 3-2006b variant and 3-2010 variant, GII-6 (3-25%, GII-17 (2-16.7% and GII-20 (1-8.3%. One NoV-strain showed dual genotype specificity, based on the polymerase and capsid region (GII-7/GII-20. This study provides, for the first time, epidemiological and molecular information on the circulation of NoV, SaV and HAstV in African-descendant communities in Northern Brazil and identifies NoV genotypes that were different from those detected previously in studies conducted in the urban area of Belém. It remains to be determined why a broader NoV diversity was observed in such a semi-isolated community.
Full Text Available Russia invaded the Caucasian region completely in the secondhalf of 19th century. The Muslim nations of the Caucasia, who rejectedthe domination of Russia, decided to emigrate Ottoman Empire. The oppression and the cruelty that Russia carried out had an importantrole in the decision of emigration. The first refugees, who came fromCaucasia, were settled in Anatolia, Rumelia and partly Syria province.The Ottoman Empire lost war at the result of 1877–1878 Ottoman-Russia war. As the result of the war, Ottoman Empire lost a great dealof land in Balkan geography. Therefore, the Caucasian refugees, whowere settled in Balkans before, became refugee again. Syria provincewas approved as the new settlement region both for Caucasian andRumelian refugees. These refugees, who had been sent to Syriaprovince, encountered, great problems. They experienced the problem ofadapting to natural conditions of Syria such as water and air. Besides,when the epidemic illnesses, which caused due to squalor, were addednearly half of the refugees died. Apart from that, the refugees facedtroubles with Druse and Bedouins in social aspect, thus, theyencountered great problems. After nearly thirty years that emigrantssettle in Syria province, they adapted to its socio-cultural structure andclimate conditions. After emigrants adapted to Syria province, theybecame strong towards Druse and Bedouins that attack them.Ottoman Empire mobilized all its opportunities for the settlementof refugees. However, it could not prevent the unwanted events. XIX yüzyılın ikinci yarısında Rusya Kafkasya Bölgesini tamamenistila etti. İstila neticesinde Rus hâkimiyetini kabul etmeyenKafkasya’nın Müslüman milletleri, Osmanlı Ülkesine göç etme kararıaldı. Bu göç kararında Rusların uyguladıkları baskı ve şiddet büyük birrol oynadı. Kafkasya’dan ilk gelen göçmenler Anadolu ve Rumeli’ye çokaz da olsa Suriye Vilayetine iskân edildi. 1877–1878 Osmanl
Rashida Abdel Mutalib
Full Text Available Thousands of Eritreans, many of them second- orthird-generation exiles, live in refugee camps in thenortheast of Sudan. Millions of southern Sudanesehave fled to the north where IDP settlements arescattered around urban outskirts.
Block, Karen; Cross, Suzanne; Riggs, Elisha; Gibbs, Lisa
In a context of increasing numbers of refugees and asylum seekers globally, recognition of the importance of the school environment for promoting successful settlement outcomes and inclusion for refugee-background young people is growing. Yet schools may be poorly equipped to recognise and respond to the multiple challenges faced by children and…
Valeras, Aimee Burke
This short story focuses on refugee patients. Family members talk about the horrific struggles of civil war, refugee camps, and promises of US resettlement. Their harsh reception into a brutal world includes unemployment, food scarcity, and isolation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27270253
When refugees flee their countries and cross the border, security ranks high among the priorities of those seeking asylum. Maintaining the purely civilian and humanitarian character of refugee camps and settlements is essential for effective protection of refugees, including safeguarding their personal security. This paper will discuss the aspect of physical and legal security as a fundamental right while highlighting the obligation of the state to take all necessary measures to ensure the sa...
Mary Hutchinson; Pat Dorsett
Refugee people experience many trials prior to arriving in Australia and face ongoing challenges associated with re-settlement. Despite facing such difficulties many refugee people demonstrate enormous strength and resilience that facilitates their re-settlement process. The authors’ experience however suggests that professionals working with refugee people tend to focus on the trauma story to the neglect of their strengths. At times this means resilience is overshadowed by a dominant Western...
In light of the May 2008 xenophobic attacks in Gauteng and Western Cape Provinces, this paper explains the process of refugee law in South Africa as stated in theory and as implemented in practice. Research was compiled through visits to refugee camps, townships, South African Parliament, regional prisons, judicial inspectorates, universities, and community events in and near Cape Town during June 2008. The South African Refugees Act guarantees protection to refugees and asylum seekers in con...
Full Text Available In East-African and Arab countries, khat leaves are traditionally chewed in social settings. They contain the amphetamine-like alkaloid cathinone. Especially among Somali refugees khat use has been associated with psychiatric symptoms. We assessed khat use patterns and psychiatric symptoms among male Somali refugees living in a disadvantaged urban settlement area in Kenya, a large group that has not yet received scientific attention. We wanted to explore consume patterns and study the associations between khat use, traumatic experiences and psychotic symptoms.Using privileged access sampling we recruited 33 healthy male khat chewers and 15 comparable non-chewers. Based on extensive preparatory work, we assessed khat use, khat dependence according to DSM-IV, traumatic experiences, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and psychotic symptoms using standardized diagnostic instruments that had been adapted to the Somali language and culture.Hazardous use patterns like chewing for more than 24 hours without interruption were frequently reported. All khat users fulfilled the DSM-IV-criteria for dependence and eighty-five percent reported functional khat-use, i.e. that khat helps them to forget painful experiences. We found that the studied group was heavily burdened by traumatic events and posttraumatic symptoms. Khat users had experienced more traumatic events and had more often PTSD than non-users. Most khat users experience khat-related psychotic symptoms and in a quarter of them we found true psychotic symptoms. In contrast, among control group members no psychotic symptoms could be detected.We found first evidence for the existence and high prevalence of severely hazardous use patterns, comorbid psychiatric symptoms and khat use as a self-medication of trauma-consequences among male Somali refugees in urban Kenyan refugee settlements. There is a high burden by psychopathology and adequate community-based interventions urgently need to be developed.
Full Text Available Unprecedented numbers of adult refugee learners are entering ESL classes, many of whom escaped war-torn countries and endured long stays in refugee camps. Research in public health and psychology has documented high levels of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder in refugee populations. Drawing on ethnographic research with Laotian refugee women who experienced pre-settlement trauma during the Vietnam War and interviews with bilingual mental health professionals, this article examines current second language acquisition theories to consider how they elucidate the effect of trauma on second language learning. The article offers cross-cultural perspectives about the impact of trauma on learning and recommendations for working with adult refugee learners who have experienced trauma. Findings have implications for ESL instructors and second language researchers concerned with the impact of pre- settlement experiences on second language acquisition and implications for classroom instruction.
Neil Harris; Fiona Rowe Minniss; Shawn Somerset
Refugees are a particularly vulnerable population who undergo nutrition transition as a result of forced migration. This paper explores how involvement in a community food garden supports African humanitarian migrant connectedness with their new country. A cross-sectional study of a purposive sample of African refugees participating in a campus-based community food garden was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with twelve African humanitarian migrants who tended established...
National Council of the Churches of Christ of the United States of America, New York, NY. Church World Service.
This is a partially annotated bibliography of books, journal articles, and other materials on refugees and refugee issues from an international perspective and from the perspective of several countries around the world. The materials cover a range of topics including general theories on refugees; the refugee experience before 1960 and the…
Tamlyn Jane Monson
Full Text Available Given the association between informal residence and the occurrence of “xenophobic” violence in South Africa, this article examines “xenophobic violence” through a political account of two squatter settlements across the transition to democracy: Jeffsville and Brazzaville on the informal periphery of Atteridgeville, Gauteng. Using the concepts of political identity, living politics and insurgent citizenship, the paper mines past and present to explore identities, collective practices and expertise whose legacy can be traced in contemporary mobilization against foreigners, particularly at times of popular protest. I suggest that the category of the “surplus person”, which originated in the apartheid era, lives on in the unfinished transition of squatter citizens to formal urban inclusion in contemporary South Africa. The political salience of this legacy of superfluity is magnified at times of protest, not only through the claims made on the state, but also through the techniques for protest mobilization, which both activate and manufacture identities based on common suffering and civic labour. In the informal settlements of Jeffsville and Brazzaville, these identities polarised insurgent citizens from non-citizen newcomers, particularly those traders whose business-as-usual practices during times of protest appeared as evidence of their indifference and lack of reciprocity precisely at times when shared suffering and commitment were produced as defining qualities of the squatter community.
Patricia A Ongpin
Full Text Available Studying the impact that a refugee population has on itshost country’s economy is important when assessing anddeveloping government refugee strategies, particularly inprotracted refugee situations.
This paper discusses the role of community, non-government organisations and universities in assisting secondary schools meet the needs of refugee students. On arrival in Australia, many African refugee communities experience high levels of stress particularly in adjusting to their new environment. The parents and students unfamiliarity with the…
Ali, Muzafar; Briskman, Linda Ruth; Fiske, Lucy Imogen
Asylum seekers and refugees in Indonesia increasingly experience protracted waiting times for permanent settlement in other countries. They have few, if any, legal rights, coupled with extremely limited financial resources and no access to government provided services. In response to the prospect of living for many years in this difficult and liminal space, a small community of refugees in the West Java town of Cisarua has built relationships, skills and confidence among themselves and with ...
Full Text Available Refugee people experience many trials prior to arriving in Australia and face ongoing challenges associated with re-settlement. Despite facing such difficulties many refugee people demonstrate enormous strength and resilience that facilitates their re-settlement process. The authors’ experience however suggests that professionals working with refugee people tend to focus on the trauma story to the neglect of their strengths. At times this means resilience is overshadowed by a dominant Western deficits model that defines refugee people as traumatised victims. Pathologising the trauma story of refugee people may further alienate refugee people from full inclusion into Australian life by denying their inherent resilience in the face of extraordinary life experiences. This article reviews Australian and International literature to explore factors that contribute to refugee resilience such as personal qualities, support and religion. The review also identifies elements that may impede resilience including; language barriers, racism, discrimination, and labelling the trauma story. The literature suggests refugee resilience moves beyond the Western individualised notion of resilience to a more communal construction of resilience that includes refugee people’s broader social context. The literature highlights important practice implications and the authors respond to the findings by reflecting on their own practice experience and considering implications for a more inclusive anti-oppressive strengths-based approach to work with refugee people. Keywords: refugee, resilience, strengths, trauma
Damm, Anna Piil
. Second, the dispersal policy successfully distributed new refugees equally across locations relative to the number of inhabitants in a location. Third, the actual settlement may have been influenced by six refugee characteristics. I conclude that the initial location of new refugees 1986-1998 may be...... regarded as random, when controlling for family status, need of treatment, educational needs, location of close family and friends and nationality at the time of immigration as well as year of immigration....
Turner, Marianne; Fozdar, Farida
From the late 1990s to the mid 2000s refugees who gained entry to Australia came mainly from the African region, in particular Sudan. This contrasts with earlier intakes from Asia, the Middle East and the former Yugoslavia. The change in regional focus sparked research into the resettlement of African refugees in Australia, but it is a new field…
Harild, Niels; Christensen, Asger; Zetter, Roger
Refugee return is one of the three so-called durable solutions to refugee displacement envisaged by United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the international community. The objective of this study is to identify the conditions that influence the decisions by refugees in protracted displacement regarding return to their home country - when, why, and by whom are decisions o...
Full Text Available Unprecedented numbers of adult refugee learners are entering ESL classes, many of whom escaped war-torn countries and endured long stays in refugee camps. Research in public health and psychology has documented high levels of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder in refugee populations. Drawing on ethnographic research with Laotian refugee women who experienced pre-settlement trauma during the Vietnam War and interviews with bilingual mental health professionals, this article examines current second language acquisition theories to consider how they elucidate the effect of trauma on second language learning. The article offers cross-cultural perspectives about the impact of trauma and recommendations for working with adult refugee learners who have experienced trauma. Research findings have implications for ESL instructors and second language researchers concerned with the impact of pre-resettlement experiences on second language acquisition and implications for classroom instruction.
Akokpari, J K
Migration and refugee movements could significantly decline in sub-Saharan African countries. However, countries must redistribute meager resources equitably and engage in environmental protection. Refugee and migrant populations have increased in sub-Saharan Africa during 1969-95, from 700,000 to 6.8 million. This study examined the causes of migration and the implications for host countries. Doornbos (1990) identifies the root problem as the partisan nature of African politics and the incapacity to manage ecological degradation. The African state is wholly or partially responsible for the creation of conflicts. Examples abound in Zaire, South Africa, Sudan, Rwanda, Burundi, Somalia, Ethiopia, Liberia, Congo, and Chad. State partisanship is also evident in Angola, Mozambique, Uganda, and Sierra Leone. An estimated 10 million Africans, in 1985, left their homes due to wars, government repression, or the inability of land to support them. In 1994, USAID estimated that 11.6 million Africans in 10 countries were threatened by famine from drought. Environmental degradation has generated conflicts. Africa's marginalized economy results in recession, unemployment, inflation, and distributional conflicts. Democratization has brought conflicts between the state, civil society, and exiles. Refugees face homelessness, poverty, emotional distress, inadequate food, and disease. Host countries face security threats, pressure on limited resources, rebellions from refugees and their involvement with foreign mercenaries, local conflicts between native and refugee populations, and environmental degradation from refugees. PMID:12293796
This paper discusses the laws and regulations governing refugees in India in general and the Tibetan refugees in particular. In this context, it describes the actual practices in two Tibetan settlements in Karnataka. The paper highlights the ways in which Tibetans have Negotiated the restrictions they face as refugees in India and created enabling conditions in exile. The discussion reveals the shortcomings of the current protection framework and the necessity of a national legislation on ref...
Taylor, J. Edward; Filipski, Mateusz J.; Alloush, Mohamad; Gupta, Anubhab; Rojas Valdes, Ruben Irvin; Gonzalez-Estrada, Ernesto
In 2015, the United Nations High Commission for Refugees accommodated over 15 million refugees, mostly in refugee camps in developing countries. The World Food Program provided these refugees with food aid, in cash or in kind. Refugees’ impacts on host countries are controversial and little understood. This unique study analyzes the economic impacts of refugees on host-country economies within a 10-km radius of three Congolese refugee camps in Rwanda. Simulations using Monte Carlo methods reveal that cash aid to refugees creates significant positive income spillovers to host-country businesses and households. An additional adult refugee receiving cash aid increases annual real income in the local economy by $205 to $253, significantly more than the $120–$126 in aid each refugee receives. Trade between the local economy and the rest of Rwanda increases by $49 to $55. The impacts are lower for in-kind food aid, a finding relevant to development aid generally. PMID:27325782
Thoen, Gail Ann
An experimental course on Asian American women, offered by the Department of Family life at the University of Minnesota is described. The curriculum innovation was designed in response to the Asian refugee settlement in the St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minnesota, area. The undergraduate course used a 1982 anthology containing works focusing on Asian…
Harris, Neil; Minniss, Fiona Rowe; Somerset, Shawn
Refugees are a particularly vulnerable population who undergo nutrition transition as a result of forced migration. This paper explores how involvement in a community food garden supports African humanitarian migrant connectedness with their new country. A cross-sectional study of a purposive sample of African refugees participating in a campus-based community food garden was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with twelve African humanitarian migrants who tended established garden plots within the garden. Interview data were thematically analysed revealing three factors which participants identified as important benefits in relation to community garden participation: land tenure, reconnecting with agri-culture, and community belonging. Community food gardens offer a tangible means for African refugees, and other vulnerable or marginalised populations, to build community and community connections. This is significant given the increasing recognition of the importance of social connectedness for wellbeing. PMID:25198684
Full Text Available Refugees are a particularly vulnerable population who undergo nutrition transition as a result of forced migration. This paper explores how involvement in a community food garden supports African humanitarian migrant connectedness with their new country. A cross-sectional study of a purposive sample of African refugees participating in a campus-based community food garden was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with twelve African humanitarian migrants who tended established garden plots within the garden. Interview data were thematically analysed revealing three factors which participants identified as important benefits in relation to community garden participation: land tenure, reconnecting with agri-culture, and community belonging. Community food gardens offer a tangible means for African refugees, and other vulnerable or marginalised populations, to build community and community connections. This is significant given the increasing recognition of the importance of social connectedness for wellbeing.
KIZILKAYA, Oktay; Tolga AKAY
Russia invaded the Caucasian region completely in the secondhalf of 19th century. The Muslim nations of the Caucasia, who rejectedthe domination of Russia, decided to emigrate Ottoman Empire. The oppression and the cruelty that Russia carried out had an importantrole in the decision of emigration. The first refugees, who came fromCaucasia, were settled in Anatolia, Rumelia and partly Syria province.The Ottoman Empire lost war at the result of 1877–1878 Ottoman-Russia war. As the result of the...
de Sherbinin, Michael J., Ed.
This report presents an update and analysis of refugee and/or resettlement situations in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Europe and Canada, and Latin America. Described are activities undertaken by the following refugee organizations: (1) the Office of United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); (2) the Intergovernmental Committee for…
Finnan, Christine Robinson
Presents a model explaining how refugee communities help their members accept the downward occupational mobility usually associated with refugee resettlement. Describes how refugees shape an image of themselves consistent with the occupational role, while shaping an image of the role consistent with their self-image. (Author MK)
Lori, Jody R; Boyle, Joyceen S
Undocumented migration is a global phenomenon that is manifest in diverse contexts. In this article, we examine the situations that precipitate the movement of large numbers of people across several African countries, producing a unique type of undocumented migrant--the refugee. These refugee movements impact already fragile African health care systems and often involve human rights violations that are of particular concern, such as gender-based violence and child soldiers. We use examples from several countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Mozambique. Drawing on key documents from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, current research, and our personal international experiences, we provide an overview of forced migration and discuss implications and opportunities for nurses to impact research, practice, and policy related to refugee health. PMID:25645484
Stein, B N
For most of the 4 decades since World War II, US refugee and asylum policy has been generous but ad hoc, discretionary, and highly variable favoring some refugee groups and discriminating against or ignoring others. This paper: 1) tries to clarify some of the terminology of the refugee field and explains the distinctions between asylum and resettlement, 2) provides some of the historical background that has brought the US to its present condition and chronicles the US overseas refugee admission policy, and 3) examines some asylum issues and other refugee issues. Asylum is far more difficult to control than refugee resettlement. As a result of what is perceived to be abuse of the asylum system, the US has joined the growing tendency of states to treat asylum-seekers as illegal migrants. The greatest problem with American asylum policy is its lack of fairness of application; many critics believe that foreign policy factors dominate asylum hearings rather than the individual merits of the case. The 3 classic solutions to this problem are resettlement, voluntary repatriation, and settlement in a country of 1st asylum. Only in the Indochinese refugee crisis has resettlement been widely used as a solution for 3rd World refugees. Nationalism and nation-building conflicts are at the root of many refugee movements; hosts are often no less nationalistic than source countries, thus many non-integrated refugees live in peril. Developed country political will and statesmanship are needed to revive resettlement as a durable solution. Resettlement may be difficult and costly, but the pluralistic western societies do offer an integrated new life. PMID:12178938
Shah, Ankoor Y; Suchdev, Parminder S; Mitchell, Tarissa; Shetty, Sharmila; Warner, Catherine; Oladele, Alawode; Reines, Susan
This study determines the nutritional status among refugee children entering one of the largest resettlement counties in the United States and identifies differences between incoming populations. Medical records of all newly arriving pediatric refugees (0-18 years) entering DeKalb County, Georgia between October 2010 and July 2011 were reviewed. Refugee children were grouped as African, Bhutanese, or Burmese (resettling from either Thailand or Malaysia) for comparative analysis. Approximately one in five refugees were anemic or malnourished, while a quarter had stool parasites, and nearly half had dental caries. African refugees had the highest anemia but the lowest underweight prevalence (p Malaysia, Burmese children from Thailand had a higher prevalence of anemia, underweight, and stool parasites (p refugees, as well as ensure proper nutritional support and follow-up care. PMID:23828627
Dourgnon, Paul; Kassar, Hassène
In recent years, North African (NA) countries ceased to be emigration-only countries and are now on the verge of becoming immigration as well as transit countries for economic migrants and refugees. Contextual as well as structural long-term factors are driving these changes. The ongoing crises in Africa and the Middle East are prompting strong outflows of refugees, which are likely to induce NA countries to share some common public policy and public health concerns with European countries in a near future. This article highlights some aspects of these changes, from the study of the consequences of the 2011 Libyan crisis in Tunisia. It addresses individual trajectories and health concerns of refugees in and out North Africa from a study of the Choucha camp in Tunisia. The camp opened to immigrants from Libya during the 2011 crisis and accommodated the bulk of the refugees flow to Tunisia until July 2012. The study includes a monographic approach and a qualitative survey in the Choucha camp refugees. We describe the crisis history and the health response with a focus on the camp. We then address refugees' trajectories, and health needs and concerns from the interviews we collected in the camp in April 2012. PMID:25107992
There has been a long tradition in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic of receiving refugees. There were Jewish refugees from the Spanish Inquisition, Hungarians and Poles fleeing revolts in 1848-9, and those of Turkish descent and usually from the Balkans. Concurrent with this trend is the history of refugees and immigrants leaving Turkey, such as many Armenians, Greeks and Jews leaving at the turn of the century, and after 1923 and the Treaty of Lausanne. Little is currently published on the topic. This article defines a refugee; provides an overview of the refugee problems of the 1980's due to Bulgarian, Kurdish, and Turkish refugees; and the legal and political aspects. As a country of origin, there is discussion of the political and economic aspects of Turkish asylum seekers in Europe. The potential refugee flows to and from Turkey are also examined. I) For this study, refugees are victims of political violence and are persecuted for political or religious beliefs, ethnic or racial background, or war. In Turkey, there are national refugees, international refugees outside the Convention, and UNHCR Convention refugees. During the 1980's all 3 groups were arriving: from eastern Europe, Iranian Kurds, Iraqis, and ethnic Turks from Bulgaria and Afghanistan. The Turkish restricted acceptance of the 1951 Convention on Refugees creates serious humanitarian and security consequences for refugees other than those from eastern Europe and of Turkish ethnicity. Political considerations play an important role in treatment where security threats outweigh humanitarian need. The case is given for Kurdish refugees. II) Asylum seekers from Turkey in Western Europe was determined between 1986-90 to be 185,000 from applications. These figures have risen steadily due to the political instability and military activity of areas bordering Iraq and Syria, the Emergency Region. In addition there are economic and employment problems, and there has been a suspension of human
Full Text Available In light of the May 2008 xenophobic attacks in Gauteng and Western Cape Provinces, this paper explains the process of refugee law in South Africa as stated in theory and as implemented in practice. Research was compiled through visits to refugee camps, townships, South African Parliament, regional prisons, judicial inspectorates, universities, and community events in and near Cape Town during June 2008. The South African Refugees Act guarantees protection to refugees and asylum seekers in conformity with international treaties and the South African Constitution. However, these rights are seldom realized due to a delay processing of asylum applications by the Department of Home Affairs, corruption in immigration enforcement, and a lack of education in civil society as to the difference between refugees and voluntary migrants. Refugees are left vulnerable to the violence of those South African citizens that believe all immigrants are illegally present to take advantage of employment and social opportunities. In an attempt to eliminate the fearfulness towards foreigners and bring the plight of refugees further to the forefront of international dialogue, general recommendations are made to the South African Government, its departments, and the citizens of South Africa.
Van Baalen, Christina Henriëtta
Refugee children are a specific vulnerable group in the South African society. In terms of the South African Constitution, refugee children are equally entitled to the right to basic nutrition, shelter, basic health care services, and social services in section 28(1)(c) and basic education in section 29(1)(a). It is unclear from jurisprudence whether indigent children under parental or family care have a direct entitlement to these rights. In Government of the Republic of South...
目前中国与非洲之间民商事法律纠纷主要有合同纠纷、信用证或保函纠纷、劳资纠纷、海事纠纷和侵权纠纷等类型。这些纠纷大都发生在非洲国家，且主要是在非洲国家法院或仲裁机构解决的。由于非洲国家在涉外民商事诉讼解决机制方面存在的一些不足，中非双方通过仲裁方式解决争议具有诸多好处。在现阶段通过仲裁方式解决争议时，中国企业应该特别注意几个现实问题。中非双方政府和民间机构在今后应分阶段逐步构建并完善具有中非特色的民商事纠纷解决机制。%Currently, the civil and commercial disputes arising from the China - African business relations are mainly the contractual disputes, letter of credit or guar- antee disputes, labor disputes, marine disputes and delictual disputes. These dis- putes often occur in African countries and are often settled in African courts or arbi- tral institutions. It is not a satisfactory choice to settle such disputes in African courts due to the defects in the legal system and inefficiency in legal practice. The author suggests that the parties should settle their disputes through arbitration taking into ac- count the fact that many African countries have comparably sound arbitral facilities, and arbitration is encouraged from both sides either at the governmental level or at non -governmental level. The Chinese parties must pay attention to several prac- tical problems when making resort to arbitration in Africa. In the long run, the gov- ernments and the non- governmental institutions such as the business councils from both sides should put more efforts in constructing and improving the civil and com- mercial dispute settlement mechanism with the China- African characteristics.
Orach, Christopher Garimoi; De Brouwere, Vincent
Since 1990, Uganda has hosted an estimated 200?000 refugees in postemergency settlements interspersed within host communities. We investigated the extent to which obstetric needs were met in the refugee and host populations during 1999-2002. Between September and December, 2000, we retrospectively collected data from 1999 and 2000 on major obstetric interventions for absolute maternal indications from all five hospitals in Arua, Adjumani, and Moyo districts, Uganda. The same data were collected prospectively for 2001. We did community-based maternal mortality surveys on refugee and host populations in Adjumani district in 2002. Rates of major obstetric interventions were significantly higher for refugees than for the host population who live in the same rural areas as refugees (1.01% [95% CI 0.77-1.25] vs 0.45% [0.38-0.52]; pinterventions were also significantly higher for refugees than for the host population who live in rural areas without refugees (1.01% [0.77-1.25] vs 0.40% [0.36-0.44]; pMaternal mortality was 2.5 times higher in the host population than in refugees in the Adjumani district (322 per 100000 births [247-396] vs 130 [81-179]. Refugees had better access to health services than did the rural host population in the northern Ugandan communities that we surveyed. PMID:15313362
Li, Susan S Y; Liddell, Belinda J; Nickerson, Angela
Refugees demonstrate high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychological disorders. The recent increase in forcible displacement internationally necessitates the understanding of factors associated with refugee mental health. While pre-migration trauma is recognized as a key predictor of mental health outcomes in refugees and asylum seekers, research has increasingly focused on the psychological effects of post-migration stressors in the settlement environment. This article reviews the research evidence linking post-migration factors and mental health outcomes in refugees and asylum seekers. Findings indicate that socioeconomic, social, and interpersonal factors, as well as factors relating to the asylum process and immigration policy affect the psychological functioning of refugees. Limitations of the existing literature and future directions for research are discussed, along with implications for treatment and policy. PMID:27436307
Erni, Fiorella Larissa
After six decades of protracted refugeehood, patterns of social identification are changing among the young people of the fourth refugee generation in the Palestinian refugee camp Burj al-Shamali in Southern Lebanon. Though their identity as Palestinian refugees remains the same compared to older refugee generations, there is an important shift in the young refugees’ relationship towards the homeland, their status as refugees, Islam, the camp society, as well as in their relationship towards ...
Lenore Manderson; Katie Vasey
Humanitarian immigrants and refugees face multiple adjustment tasks and post-settlement support services concentrated in metropolitan areas play an important role. As part of an ongoing commitment, the Australian Government has increasingly supported resettlement in rural and regional areas of the country. Drawing on the experience of Iraqi migrants in Victoria, Australia, we examine some of the conditions that characterize regional resettlement and raise key questions for public health polic...
Vera den Otter
The difficulties faced by urban refugees are often different from those faced by refugees in camps but are no less serious. The Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS ) in Bangkok is struggling to support growing numbers of urban refugees in Thailand.
A collaborative capacity building experience in a Rwandan refugee camp with refugee women from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is described in this article. In service to the American Refugee Committee, I taught 13 refugee women how to plan and facilitate focus group sessions with the larger community of refugee women. The facilitators then conducted 18 focus group sessions gathering data from 100 refugee women. Thematic results included the health implications of poverty, the struggle to survive, the overburden of daily work, ambivalence about family planning, and the lack of freedom to express themselves. PMID:16263661
In some post-communist cities, the formation of informal settlements is a phenomenon associated with the wave of urbanisation of the 1960s and 1970s. In others, the phenomenon is connected with the influx of immigrants and refugees in the 1990s. Informal settlement areas are the result of various factors: inadequate spatial planning, outdated and complex legislation, housing policies that do not ensure the provision of affordable housing and outdated public administration structures. Illegal ...
Edin, Per-Anders; Fredriksson, Peter; Åslund, Olof
Many developed countries, e.g. the UK, Germany, and Sweden, use or have used settlement policies to direct the inflow of new immigrants away from immigrant dense metropolitan areas. We evaluate a reform of Swedish immigration policy that featured dispersion of refugee immigrants across the country, but also a change in the approach to labour market integration. We focus exclusively on how immigrants fared because of the policy. The results indicate that immigrants experienced fairly substanti...
Verme, Paolo; Gigliarano, Chiara; Wieser, Christina; Hedlund, Kerren; Petzoldt, Marc; Santacroce, Marco
The book focuses on the largest refugee crisis of our time: the Syrian refugee crisis. It exploits a wealth of survey and registry data on Syrian refugees living in Jordan and Lebanon to assess their poverty and vulnerability status, understand the predictors of these statuses, evaluate the performance of existing policies toward refugees, and determine the potential for alternative policies. Findings point to a complex situation. In the absence of humanitarian assistance, poverty is extremel...
This thesis focuses on refugees and mental health interventions. A literature review and 24 months of participant observation among Tamil refugee parents in Norway form the basis of the findings presented here. The first study is concerned with refugees and public mental health services in Norway. Many refugees may have difficulties trusting professional helpers within the bureaucratically organized public health care system, replacing these services with relationships to other...
In 1996, an 18-month-old settlement created for 55,000 Sudanese refugees in northern Uganda came under attack by Ugandan rebels. By March 1997, the entire population of the settlement had migrated in search of safety. Because the refugees lost their livelihoods and cultivated fields, they had to adopt short-term coping strategies to acquire food. Two Oxfam researchers gathering information during this period for use in program planning and monitoring found that coping strategies included 1) hazarding dangerous journeys (women risked rape or abduction; men risked beating, looting, killing, or abduction) to harvest crops; 2) seeking piece-work employment; 3) exchanging sex for food; and 4) depleting assets. The crisis was particularly severe for single people (especially those with children). In families where the women but not the men could find employment, some men took on household responsibilities. As malnutrition increased, health declined. Observed changes to household gender relations included new sexual divisions of labor, assumption by females of decision-making power, increased domestic quarreling, and marital break-down (especially in cases where women had been raped). On the community level, women assumed more responsibility as men withdrew socially or left the settlement. These findings point to the importance of providing refugees with seeds, with small loans to stimulate business, and with the means to rebuild their sense of community. PMID:12321534
This essay attempts to disentangle a debate within the study of refugee crises and their security implications involving 'refugee warriors'. It situates the debate in the context of the Iraqi refugee crisis and its purported and real manifestations in three main host countries: Syria, Jordan and Leb
Full Text Available This study attempted to find a correlation between the trauma of family members of war and exile, and the characteristics of family functioning and lasted from 1992-1995. The term “family resilience” refers to the processes of adaptation and coping in the family as a functional unit. This paper presents a study of refugee families from Bosnia, who lived in refugee camps in Macedonia during the war of 1992- 1995. Data were obtained by interviews, observations, and a number of psychological instruments especially for children and parents, which measured the effects of psychological stress and family relationships. Based on the results obtained by quantitative and qualitative analysis, and application of theoretical models of systemic theory and family therapy, existence for four types of refugee families has been found and described, depending on the structure and the level of functionality.
Nof Nasser Eddin
Full Text Available This article argues that the situation of Palestinian refugees is still relevant till this day. There are around five million refugees living in neighbouring Arab countries, such as Lebanon, Jordan, Syria and Egypt, as well as neighbouring areas in Palestine itself, like the West Bank and Gaza Strip, under very precarious conditions. Their situation is extremely unstable as any changes in the region can influence them directly.The need to address this issue is particularly important because Palestinian refugees (as well as internally displaced Palestinians have been both historically and politically marginalised. In particular, I will argue for a need to gender the debate around the Palestinian refugees, because the distinct experience of women Palestinian refugees has been overlooked within this context. Most literature has focused on the Palestinian refugees as a holistic population, which assumes all refugees share the same struggle. However, understanding the position of women within the context of the refugees and the unique struggles they face is essential to understanding their particular experiences as refugees and in highlighting their differential needs; this is why a feminist perspective is needed within the field of refugee studies.This article is based on a feminist journey drawing on research interviews with female Palestinian refugees in camps in Jordan, and with Syrian Palestinian women in Turkey, Jordan and Europe.
Østergaard, Henrik; Bjarnild, Mie; Jørgensen, Ina; Flores, Alba
The purpose of the project is to examine what happens to the understanding of borders, rights and development when nation states are challenged by an increasing influx of refugees. This has been done through a critical analysis showing that nation states have been addressing the issue in a temporary way. This has led to a national self-imposed state of exception, which put refugees in a legal limbo due to lack of rights. This has negative implications for refugee’s visibility, identity and ca...
Syria has hosted since the beginning of the 20th century different refugee groups in large number such as Armenians, Palestinians and more recently Lebanese escaping the last war during the summer 2006. Since 2003 Syria hosts a large Iraqi community. The present exodus of Iraqi refugees has its own specificities: there was no mass exodus in one or two waves, such as in the Palestinian case in 1948, but a growing influx of individuals and families crossing everyday the boundary between Iraq an...
Full Text Available It seems that hardly a week passes without the news media reporting another harrowing account of the movement of refugees somewhere: Afghan boat people heading for Australia, Africans trying to get to a better life in Italy, Ethiopians living in Moscow Airport. Their stories are often horrifying, their health and sheer numbers mind-boggling, and their futures inconceivable. Yet most of these people do survive, long beyond the day's news headlines. Some finally get the chance to return home, while others settle down in another land.Sociologists have developed three categories to help explain the motivations which may lead people unwillingly into refugee status. Some "majority-identified" refugees, people who continue to identify with their homeland but not with its current government or social conditions: they fondly expect to return home at a later date. Secondly, there are "events-alienated" refugees who have been driven from their homeland by force or intolerable conditions, and who doubt they will ever set eyes on it again. Third, there are "self-alienated" refugees who move away for ideological or other personal reasons, including work or educational opportunities.
Full Text Available Egypt is host to an estimated 150,000 Iraqi refugees. Initiallyarriving with high hopes of resettlement, their resources arenow depleted, they are unable to work, their children are outof school and their community is fractured by divisions
Full Text Available The US offer to resettle 60,000 of the 106,000 Bhutaneserefugees in Nepal might offer a solution to this protractedrefugee situation. Resettlement may not be a perfect solutionbut after 16 years of exile refugees may well choose it as thebest option available.
Full Text Available Since spring 2003 the region has seen a massive migratory movement from Iraq into its neighbouring countries. Syria is the primary destination of refugees due to the historical relations between the two countries, and because the regulations in force do not require them to obtain anentrance visa.
Full Text Available Humanitarian immigrants and refugees face multiple adjustment tasks and post-settlement support services concentrated in metropolitan areas play an important role. As part of an ongoing commitment, the Australian Government has increasingly supported resettlement in rural and regional areas of the country. Drawing on the experience of Iraqi migrants in Victoria, Australia, we examine some of the conditions that characterize regional resettlement and raise key questions for public health policy. Structural vulnerabilities and discriminations impact upon physical, mental and social wellbeing, leading to further exclusion, with negative long-term implications. The discussion throws light on the issues that migrants and refugees may encounter in other parts within Australia, but are also germane in many countries and highlight the resulting complexity for policy-making.
Kalipeni, E; Oppong, J
Political violence in civil war and ethnic conflicts has generated millions of refugees across the African continent with unbelievable pictures of suffering and unnecessary death. Using a political ecology framework, this paper examines the geographies of exile and refugee movements and the associated implications for re-emerging and newly emerging infectious diseases in great detail. It examines how the political ecologic circumstances underlying the refugee crisis influences health services delivery and the problems of disease and health in refugee camps. It has four main themes, namely, an examination of the geography of the refugee crisis: the disruption of health services due to political ecologic forces that produce refugees; the breeding of disease in refugee camps due to the prevailing desperation and destitution; and the creation of an optimal environment for emergence and spread of disease due to the chaotic nature of war and violence that produces refugees. We argue in this paper that there is great potential of something more virulent than cholera and Ebola emerging and taking a big toll before being identified and controlled. We conclude by noting that once such a disease is out in the public rapid diffusion despite political boundaries is likely, a fact that has a direct bearing on global health. The extensive evidence presented in this paper of the overriding role of political factors in the refugee health problem calls for political reform and peace accords, engagement and empowerment of Pan-African organizations, foreign policy changes by Western governments and greater vigilance of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the allocation and distribution of relief aid. PMID:9672401
Rasmussen, Julie Fogt; Jein, Marie Amailie Rosentoft; Murray, Tamsin Sureka Parfitt
Climate change has and will have a tremendous effect on humanity. One of the consequences is people being forced to move - fleeing from the changes in climate and environment. This new group of refugees are known as environmental refugees. Scientific evidence (produced amongst others by the IPPC) suggests that environmental refugees will challenge our globalized world in growing numbers, warning our international political and legal system to take serious considerations of the future of these...
Demko, G J; Wood, W B
In the modern era, the world's refugee problem has changed magnitude and location; it has expanded from a local to a continental, and now global, scale issue. About 90% of the world's 10 million refugees are from developing countries, and over 90% of these will stay there. Refugee generating and receiving countries are concentrated in 5 world regions: Central America, Southwest Asia, Southeast Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa. Each concentration is unique and is associated with a particular set of regional conflicts. International efforts address short-term relief needs, whereas political instability and repression that generate refugees continue unabated. Refugees along sensitive border regions affect bilateral relations, large groups of refugees can pose political and security problems for the host country, and disputes over refugee policies and their implementation can complicate diplomatic ties. Some highlights of the data follow. 1) The 3 million cross-border refugees and 5.5 million internally displaced persons make the many governments in Sub-Saharan Africa increasingly dependent on Western assistance to solve their problems. Refugees are fleeing armed conflict, tribal violence, and drought, and often generate additional regional turmoil. 2) 3-4 million Afghans have fled their country since the 1978 Marxist coup; about 2.5 million have entered Pakistan. Most choose to remain in camps near the Afghanistan border where they are targets of cross-border attacks. 3) 1.2 million Salvadorans, Guatemalans, and Nicaraguans live outside their native countries. Official refugee and unofficial migrant populations are active in various rebel insurgencies, contribute to strained bilateral relations and tensions in border areas, and are the subject of heated political debate in host countries. 4) 90% of the 1.7 million Indochinese who fled from 1975-May 1986 have been resettled; 168,000 refugees remain in 1st-asylum camps, not including 240,000 Khmer without refugee status, in
Ahmed, Elisabeth; Goggins, David
Contents: Subsidiary Protection – a distinct and autonomous form of complementary protection / Enda O’Neill, Jennifer Higgins, UNHCR Ireland; Recent Changes at the Refugee Appeals Tribunal / Barry Magee, Refugee Appeals Tribunal; The Use of Decision Templates for Refugee Status Determination / Seán O’Connell, Refugee Appeals Tribunal; Forced Marriage in Afghanistan / David Goggins, Refugee Documentation Centre; Houses of the Holy: Iraq and the last days of the Mandeans / Patrick Dowling, R...
Kokotović Vlasta; Filipović Marko
The paper analyzes the problem of refugees, twenty years after their settling to Serbia. According to population Census 2011, the share of refugees in total population is 1.04%.The most significant contribution of the refugee contigent are reflecting in quantitative terms (increasing of population). The paper represents the scope and territorial distribution of refugees, some of the demographic components were analyzed, including influence of refugee migrations on demographic increase o...
Kaplan, Ida; Stow, Hardy David; Szwarc, Josef
There has been a growing recognition of the mental health needs of refugees in countries of settlement, as many are survivors of torture and other traumatic events experienced in countries of origin, during flight, and in places of temporary refuge. The challenges in providing access to services and quality mental health care arise not only from the fact that refugees generally come from cultures very different to the societies in which they settle and are not proficient in the languages of their new homes. Other significant barriers relate to the impact of the trauma and psychosocial stressors they experience despite finding apparent security. In response to the challenges, specialist agencies have developed ways of providing services that are trauma-informed, culture-informed, and holistic. This paper describes an Australian example of a mental health clinic as part of a community-based service for refugees who are survivors of torture and other traumatic events. PMID:27524758
This study examines differences in wage distributions between natives, non-refugees, and refugees in Sweden. We find that the wage differentials between natives and non-refugee immigrants decrease across the distribution, while those between natives and refugee immigrants increase. There is evidence of a glass ceiling effect for refugee males in Sweden, and we also find evidence of a glass ceiling effect for native-born women and non-refugee women in the Swedish labor market in comparison wit...
Bryceson, Deborah Fahy.
Over the last fifteen years many African countries have experienced a mining take-off. Mining activities have bifurcated into two sectors: large-scale, capital-intensive production generating the bulk of the exported minerals, and small-scale, labour-intensive artisanal mining, which, at present, is catalyzing far greater immediate primary, secondary and tertiary employment opportunities for unskilled African labourers. Youth residing in mining settlements, have a large vested interest in the...
David Bartram argues that Israel's recent acquisition of a sizable foreign labour force carries the potential to complicate negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians, especially concerning Palestinian refugees. Though officially temporary, many foreign workers in Israel show signs of long-term settlement, recalling foreign worker experiences in Western Europe and elsewhere. As the Israeli government attempts to manage foreign workers' demands for proper treatment and respect for human ...
Perry, Kristen H.
This case study investigates Carolyn, an effective volunteer ESL and literacy instructor of adult African refugees, in order to understand both what it means to be a qualified instructor, and also how community-based volunteer instructors may become more qualified. The study's findings suggest that Carolyn's qualifications are a…
McGuinness, Teena M; Durand, Simone C
Children and adolescents exposed to violence and upheaval of war and relocation are at high risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Rates of PTSD among refugee children may exceed 50%. Additional stressors encountered while adjusting to host cultures add another layer of difficulty. Most refugee children struggling with symptoms of PTSD or depression are never linked with appropriate mental health care resources. Psychiatric nurses can serve a critical function in the identification and treatment of refugee children experiencing PTSD and depression. PMID:26653091
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2016. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). PolicyâTobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...
In South Africa, a fatalistic attitude prevails among young black youth toward prevention of HIV transmission. Many of the 3 million black migrant laborers in single-sex hostels have many partners who are prostitutes. Due to culture, race, and class, black women are so oppressed that they cannot even require sex partners to wear condoms. Blacks perceive condoms as a governmental means to control population growth. The Centre for Health and Social Studies has learned that 14-17 year old blacks have been sexually active for a long time, so it has decided to also market its AIDS prevention program to 11-13 year olds. AIDS has not yet reached epidemic proportions in South Africa, however, and a full scale intervention program implemented between the end of 1992 and mid-1993 could stem the epidemic. The Health and Refugee Trust has developed a data base about the attitudes of South African refugees toward AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. It plans to distribute educational materials to hostels, squatter settlements, and rural communities. The Transport and General Workers Union has also set up an AIDS prevention program since truckers are at high risk of HIV infection. At the end of 1991, 445,000 people in South Africa have been infected with HIV. Heterosexuality is the predominate mode of HIV transmission among blacks, but among whites, it is homosexuality. Educated, affluent whites tend to be knowledge about AIDS and practice safer sex. Among the working class whites, however, knowledge levels are high, but they do not necessarily practice safer sex. Awareness tends to be quite high among blacks, but they do not generally practice safer sex. South Africa and the US are the only 2 developed countries that do not provide health care for all. This weak system limits AIDS prevention efforts. 80% of whites have health insurance compared with only 7% of blacks. PMID:12317691
Characteristics of settlements patterns and forms are encompassed between stability and instability. We evaluate them according to their historical value, but their image, as perceived today after centuries of changing, adapting and transformation, cannot be recognised in its original form. Time is the "super-factor" that balances, determines and transforms internal forces of settlement structures, and is decisively conditioned by social links. Instability can change to stability and vice ver...
Correa-Velez, Ignacio; Gifford, Sandra M; Barnett, Adrian G
For young people with refugee backgrounds, establishing a sense of belonging to their family and community, and to their country of resettlement is essential for wellbeing. This paper describes the psychosocial factors associated with subjective health and wellbeing outcomes among a cohort of 97 refugee youth (aged 11-19) during their first three years in Melbourne, Australia. The findings reported here are drawn from the Good Starts Study, a longitudinal investigation of settlement and wellbeing among refugee youth conducted between 2004 and 2008. The overall aim of Good Starts was to identify the psychosocial factors that assist youth with refugee backgrounds in making a good start in their new country. A particular focus was on key transitions: from pre-arrival to Australia, from the language school to mainstream school, and from mainstream school to higher education or to the workforce. Good Starts used a mix of both method and theory from anthropology and social epidemiology. Using standardized measures of wellbeing and generalised estimating equations to model the predictors of wellbeing over time, this paper reports that key factors strongly associated with wellbeing outcomes are those that can be described as indicators of belonging - the most important being subjective social status in the broader Australian community, perceived discrimination and bullying. We argue that settlement specific policies and programs can ultimately be effective if embedded within a broader socially inclusive society - one that offers real opportunities for youth with refugee backgrounds to flourish. PMID:20822841
Full Text Available Refugee status determination (RSD, which is vital to the protection of so many asylum seekers worldwide, is at best an imperfect, haphazard and challenging process. It merits greater attention and appropriate reform.
Georgia A Paxton
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To document the prevalence of nutritional deficiencies, infectious diseases and susceptibility to vaccine preventable diseases in Karen refugees in Australia. DESIGN: Retrospective audit of pathology results. SETTING: Community based cohort in Melbourne over the period July 2006-October 2009. PARTICIPANTS: 1136 Karen refugee children and adults, representing almost complete local area settlement and 48% of total Victorian Karen humanitarian intake for the time period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of positive test results for refugee health screening, with breakdown by age group (<6 years, 6-11 years, 12-17 years, 18 years and older. RESULTS: Overall prevalence figures were: anaemia 9.2%, microcytosis 19.1%, iron deficiency 13.1%, low vitamin B(12 1.5%, low folate 1.5%, abnormal thyroid function tests 4.4%, vitamin D<50 nmol/L 33.3%, hypocalcaemia 7.4%, raised alkaline phosphatase 5.2%, abnormal liver transaminases 16.1%, hepatitis B surface antigen positive 9.7%, hepatitis B surface antibody positive 49.5%, isolated hepatitis B core antibody positive 9.0%, hepatitis C positive 1.9%, eosinophilia 14.4%, Schistosoma infection 7%, Strongyloides infection 20.8%, malaria 0.2%, faecal parasites 43.4%. Quantiferon-gold screening was positive in 20.9%. No cases of syphilis or HIV were identified. Serological immunity to vaccine preventable diseases was 87.1% for measles, 95% for mumps and 66.4% for rubella; 56.9% of those tested had seroimmunity to all three. CONCLUSIONS: Karen refugees have high rates of nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases and may be susceptible to vaccine preventable diseases. These data support the need for post-arrival health screening and accessible, funded catch-up immunisation.
Nof Nasser Eddin
This article argues that the situation of Palestinian refugees is still relevant till this day. There are around five million refugees living in neighbouring Arab countries, such as Lebanon, Jordan, Syria and Egypt, as well as neighbouring areas in Palestine itself, like the West Bank and Gaza Strip, under very precarious conditions. Their situation is extremely unstable as any changes in the region can influence them directly.The need to address this issue is particularly important because P...
De Haene, L.; Dalgård, Nina Thorup; Montgomery, E.;
J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study.......J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study....
This statement by Dennis Gallagher, Director of the Refugee Policy Group, discusses the refugee situation in Thailand. Laotians have been entering Thailand in increasing numbers; some 86,000 Laotians are now in Thailand whereas there were 67,000 in November, 1983. The time is well past for the UN High Commissioner for Refugees and the Thai government to initiate screening for new arrivals from Laos to determine whether or not they are refugees. The question needs to be examined as to what national interest and humanitarian obligation Thailand has to afford safe havens for refugees and others from Indochina. While the Thai government does not want the Khmer resistance to be crippled, it also must be concerned that providing the resistance with a base of operations of Thai territory could invite attack by the Vietnamese. Refugee resettlement alone has not and cannot resolve the refugee problem in Thailand; a more comprehensive approach is required. In areas where there is a substantial number of Indochinese who are unlikely to be resettled, projects need to be developed and funded that contribute to a more productive life for them and, preferably, for the broader region in which they reside. It is important that modification of policies occur within a comprehensive framework rather than on a piecemeal basis. Encouraging the Thais to accept supporting self-reliance projects will not happen if commitments to resettlement are not sustained. That the refugee situation in Thailand is complex and is constantly evolving argues for policies that permit more options for addressing it. PMID:12178936
In April 1994, resumption of a longstanding conflict between the Hutus and Tutsis--the two major ethnic groups in the central African countries of Burundi and Zaire--resulted in civil war and mass genocide in Rwanda. An estimated 63,000 (primarily Tutsi) refugees subsequently moved from Rwanda into northern Burundi, and 500,000 refugees fled to Tanzania (Figure 1). In early July 1994, as armed strife subsided, many Tutsis returned home to Rwanda, and an estimated 1 million Rwandan Hutus fled to Zaire, and 170,000 fled to Burundi. To monitor the health status of the refugees, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) working in refugee camps in both countries established systems for rapid surveillance of morbidity and mortality. This report presents the findings of these systems during May-September 1994 (the period of the most intensive population migration) and indicates that mortality was high among refugees in camps in both countries. PMID:8592491
Mareng, Chuei D.
This reflective study explores refugee students' perceptions of the educational approach used in Kakuma Refugee Camp in Kenya. The study focuses on my personal reflections as a teacher and a student in this camp, and as a refugee. My goal of writing this narrative is to reflect fully on the refugee students' life in a camp and then contribute to…
Nelson-Peterman, Jerusha L.; Toof, Robin; Liang, Sidney L.; Grigg-Saito, Dorcas C.
Refugees in the United States have high rates of chronic disease. Both long-term effects of the refugee experience and adjustment to the U.S. health environment may contribute. While there is significant research on health outcomes of newly resettled refugees and long-term mental health experiences of established refugees, there is currently…
Stark, Lindsay; DeCormier Plosky, Willyanne; Horn, Rebecca; Canavera, Mark
Armed conflict causes massive displacement, erodes the social fabric of communities, and threatens the healthy development of a nation's future - its youth. Although more than half of the world's registered refugees under the age of eighteen currently reside in urban areas, research on the unique needs of and realities experienced by this population remain limited. In Uganda, as in many refugee-receiving countries, most regulated refugee protections and entitlements fail to extend beyond the confines of official settlements or camps. This dearth of support, in combination with few material resources, uncertain local connections, and little knowledge of the language, leaves refugee families vulnerable to the added burden of an unwelcome reception in cities. Drawing on qualitative data from a study conducted in March and April 2013 with Congolese and Somali adolescents, caregivers, and service providers in refugee settlements in Kampala, this manuscript explores the pervasive nature of discrimination against urban refugees and its effects upon adolescent well-being. Findings suggest that discrimination not only negatively impacts acculturation as youth pursue social recognition in the classroom and among neighborhood peers, but it also impedes help-seeking behavior by caregivers and restricts their ability to ameliorate protection concerns, thereby lowering adolescents' psychosocial well-being. Youth reported low self-worth, withdrawal from school, and an adverse turn toward street connections. Targeted and innovative strategies along with reformed policies that address the unique challenges facing urban refugees are paramount to ensuring that young people in this population experience greater protection, well-being, and future success. PMID:26517294
The authors propose a report on the various situations of people who had to be evacuated after the Fukushima accident. Along with examples of people who left their homes with taking with them a single object, the authors describe and comment how this evacuation occurred, the problems faced by the authorities for refugee reception and accommodation. This evacuation has been either organised or spontaneous. Hospitals had to be evacuated as well. Then, local authorities faced food shortage. Some animals have been saved, other starved to death. Dead animals are covered with lime. Dead bodies are decontaminated before being given back to families. Tests are regularly performed to assess people contamination. A second article discussed the bad news concerning the different Fukushima reactors with their melted cores. The geophysical aspects of the earthquake are evoked in a last article
... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159196.html For Refugee Children, Support Breeds Success Study sees 'potential to ... June 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- With adequate support, refugee children do as well in school as other ...
Full Text Available UNHCR supports local integration as one possiblesolution for refugees who cannot return home. Experiencein Mexico, Uganda and Zambia indicates that integrationcan benefi t refugee-hosting communities as well asrefugees.
Full Text Available Since 2001 Access First, a project of the Oxford based charity Refugee Resource, has been working in partnership with other organisations to support refugees and asylum seekers into work and training that match their abilities and aspirations.
Since 2001 Access First, a project of the Oxford based charity Refugee Resource, has been working in partnership with other organisations to support refugees and asylum seekers into work and training that match their abilities and aspirations.
Sulaiman-Hill Cheryl MR
Full Text Available Abstract Background Afghan and Iraqi refugees comprise nearly half of all those currently under United Nations protection. As many of them will eventually be resettled in countries outside the region of origin, their long term health and settlement concerns are of relevance to host societies, and will be a likely focus for future research. Since Australia and New Zealand have both accepted refugees for many years and have dedicated, but different settlement and immigration policies, a study comparing the resettlement of two different refugee groups in these countries was undertaken. The purpose of this article is to describe the instrument selection for this study assessing mental health and psychological well being with Afghan and Kurdish former refugees, in particular to address linguistic considerations and translated instrument availability. A summary of instruments previously used with refugee and migrant groups from the Middle East region is presented to assist other researchers, before describing the three instruments ultimately selected for the quantitative component of our study. Findings The Kessler-10 Psychological Distress Scale (K10, General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale (GPSE, and Personal Well-Being Index (PWI all showed good reliability (Cronbach's alphas of 0.86, 0.89 and 0.83 respectively for combined language versions and ease of use even for pre-literate participants, with the sample of 193 refugees, although some concepts in the GPSE proved problematic for a small number of respondents. Farsi was the language of choice for the majority of Afghan participants, while most of the Kurds chose to complete English versions in addition to Farsi. No one used Arabic or Turkish translations. Participants settled less than ten years were more likely to complete questionnaires in Farsi. Descriptive summary statistics are presented for each instrument with results split by gender, refugee group and language version completed. Conclusion
Djuraskovic, Ivana; Arthur, Nancy
Although the displacement of people from their home countries is of growing concern, little attention has been paid to refugees in the counselling literature. Experiences of refugees are more complex and difficult than those of voluntary immigrants because refugees are typically pushed out of their countries. Using heuristic inquiry, four main…
Friends of the Earth Australia is commemorating World Refugee Day in 2005 by publishing a 'Citizens Guide to Climate Refugees'. This publication gives the basic facts on climate change, greenhouse gas emissions; why people could become climate refugees, how many and where are they likely to come from; and what can be done about it
... States of America A Proclamation On World Refugee Day, we honor the contributions and resilience of those... refugees. Through the Refugee Act and continued humanitarian aid, America's leadership in international... thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-15404 Filed 6-22-10; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P...
Implications of recent developments in refugee outflow from Indochina demand a reexamination of American policy on Indochinese refugees. These developments include patterns of increased Vietnamese and Laotian refugee outflow despite Vietnam's disapproval of departure and Laos' liberalizing economic policies; the greater influx of "low risk" or…
Vatsavai, Ranga Raju; Graesser, Jordan B.; Bhaduri, Budhendra L.
A programmable media includes a graphical processing unit in communication with a memory element. The graphical processing unit is configured to detect one or more settlement regions from a high resolution remote sensed image based on the execution of programming code. The graphical processing unit identifies one or more settlements through the execution of the programming code that executes a multi-instance learning algorithm that models portions of the high resolution remote sensed image. The identification is based on spectral bands transmitted by a satellite and on selected designations of the image patches.
Johan Devriese; Janet Mitchell
This paper studies the potential impact on securities settlement systems (SSSs) of a major market disruption, caused by the default of the largest player. A multi-period, multi-security model with intraday credit is used to simulate direct and second round settlement failures triggered by the default, as well as the dynamics of settlement failures, arising from a lag in settlement relative to the date of trades. The effects of the defaulter's net trade position, the numbers of securities and ...
The Settlement movement, which originated in late nineteenth-century England, was a pioneer in bettering the conditions of the working poor. It pursued the utopian project of locating ‘settlements’ within poverty-ridden neighbourhoods where respectable students should meet slum dwellers on equal ...
Incomplete contracts and laws often lead to disputes. Before a dispute arises, parties can commit to arbitration. If they choose to do so, future disputes are resolved before an arbiter. Otherwise, parties will choose between settlement and litigation after a dispute has arisen. We analyze variables
Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2015 - (Kristiansen, K.; Šmejda, L.; Turek, J.), s. 278-292 ISBN 978-1-78297-770-4 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP405/10/2289 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : deposition * formation processes * settlement discard Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control over approved refugee numbers. 207... ADMISSION OF REFUGEES § 207.6 Control over approved refugee numbers. Current numerical accounting of approved refugees is maintained for each special group designated by the President. As refugee status...
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of refugee status. 207.9... REFUGEES § 207.9 Termination of refugee status. The refugee status of any alien (and of the spouse or child... district director in whose district the alien is found if the alien was not a refugee within the meaning...
This essay aims to understand how refugees present a problem for liberal nation-states. The point of departure is Arendt’s The Origins of Totalitarianism where she argues that the continual existence of refugees within liberal nation-states threatens to break down the principle of equality before the law thereby enabling the rise of police-states and totalitarianism. In light of this diagnosis, three of Arendt’s philosophical heirs—Giorgio Agamben, Seyla Benhabib and Peg Birmingham—argue that...
Full Text Available This essay aims to understand how refugees present a problem for liberal nation-states. The point of departure is Arendt’s The Origins of Totalitarianism where she argues that the continual existence of refugees within liberal nation-states threatens to break down the principle of equality before the law thereby enabling the rise of police-states and totalitarianism. In light of this diagnosis, three of Arendt’s philosophical heirs—Giorgio Agamben, Seyla Benhabib and Peg Birmingham—argue that it is necessary to think political membership in different and broader terms than national citizenship if we are to avoid a new rise of totalitarianism.
Full Text Available This article examines how TARGET 2 as system implements the idea of settlement finality regulated by Directive 98/26 EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 19 May 1998 on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems (Settlement Finality Directive and Directive 2009/44/EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 amending Directive 98/26/EC on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems and Directive 2002/47/EC on financial collateral arrangements as regards linked systems and credit claims (Directive 2009/44/EC. As the title of the arti and finality of the settlement in this system.
Elizabeth G Kennedy
Full Text Available El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras are among the world’s mostfragile nations, yet they are largely ignored by refugee agencies whounderestimate transnational criminal organisations’ abuses andpowers of control, while overestimating national governments’ abilityand willingness to protect their citizens.
The mental health of refugee families with children during the asylum period is a neglected research area in psychiatry. The present paper describes the situation of 10 refugee families residing at an asylum centre in Finland. Case vignettes are presented to illustrate the situations of these families. The study shows a high rate of depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder-related symptoms among adult refugees. The case vignettes suggest that during the asylum period, many children and adult members of the family are not in a post-traumatic situation, but they live constantly in a distressing situation. The foremost distress amongst the asylum seekers appeared to be fear of deportation and separation from family members. Most of the adults and all children had not received any psychiatric or psychotherapeutic assessment or treatment. It is likely that current procedures for dealing with the asylum seekers contributes to the level of stress, family confusion and psychiatric problems in already traumatized refugee families. PMID:12775295
This paper discusses settlement patterns and sustainability. Generally urbanization is recognised as an inevitable development driven by job opportunities, better service supply, education, and health services, and it is argued that this is the main driver for centralisation. Research based on...... utilization of local resources and trade opportunities. Furthermore the growing towns are struggling with an un-sustainable economic situation manly based on public financed jobs or welfare payments and with limited export oriented value creation....
Mambo Tabu Masinda
The global migration is transforming the social fabric of modern societies around the world. As a result, countries hosting large number of immigrants have developed a range of services to help immigrants adjust to their new countries. Many studies have investigated immigrant services, however, there is no discussion looking at immigrant services under what I call ¡°Immigrant settlement services literacy¡± (ISSL). This paper aims to close this gap. The discussion proposes some implications fo...
Full Text Available This article explores the different labels under which refugees in Dar es Salaam may be categorised. It identifies and profiles differentgroups of urban refugee in Dar es Salaam and considers some common assumptions about urban refugees.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2012 sorted by country of origin and state of initial resettlement in the United States.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2002 sorted by country of origin and state of initial resettlement in the United States.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2008 sorted by country of origin and state of initial resettlement in the United States.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2003 sorted by country of origin and state of initial resettlement in the United States.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2007 sorted by country of origin and state of initial resettlement in the United States.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2001 sorted by country of origin and state of initial resettlement in the United States.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2009 sorted by country of origin and state of initial resettlement in the United States.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2005 sorted by country of origin and state of initial resettlement in the United States.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2010 sorted by country of origin and state of initial resettlement in the United States
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2006 sorted by country of origin and state of initial resettlement in the United States.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2000 sorted by country of origin and state of initial resettlement in the United States.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2004 sorted by country of origin and state of initial resettlement in the United States.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2011 sorted by country of origin and state of initial resettlement in the United States.
Correa-Velez, Ignacio; Gifford, Sandra M; McMichael, Celia
This short report assesses the predictors of subjective health and happiness among a cohort of refugee youth over their first eight years in Australia. Five waves of data collection were conducted between 2004 (n = 120) and 2012-13 (n = 51) using mixed methods. Previous schooling, self-esteem, moving house in the previous year, a supportive social environment, stronger ethnic identity and perceived discrimination were significant predictors of wellbeing after adjusting for demographic and pre-migration factors. When compared with a previous analysis of this cohort over their first three years of settlement, experiences of social exclusion still have a significant impact on wellbeing eight years after arriving in Australia. This study contributes to mounting evidence in support of policies that discourage discrimination and promote social inclusion and cultural diversity and which underpin the wellbeing of resettled refugee youth. PMID:26310592
This paper starts from the encounter between a European navy vessel and a dinghy carrying boat refugees and other desperate migrants across the Mediterranean or West African Sea towards Europe. It explores the growing trend in the EU of enacting migration control at the high seas or international waters - so-called interdiction. It is argued that these forms of extraterritorial migra-tion control aim at reconquering the efficiency of the sovereign function to control migration, by trying to e...
The challenge of understanding refugee movements is huge and affects countries worldwide on a daily basis. Yet, in terms of simulation, the challenge appears to have been largely ignored. I argue that we as researchers can, and should, harness our computational skills to better understand and predict refugee movements. I reflect on the computational challenges of modelling refugees, and present a simulation case study example focused on the Northern Mali Conflict in 2012. Compared to UNHCR da...
Tuba Bircan; Ulaş Sunata
In political, social and economical terms, Turkey is the most affected country of the Syrian crisis. More importantly, Turkey as a host country of Syrian refugees has been living a dramatic demographic change. The most marginalized group living in Turkey is children. Refugee education has hence become of top priority. The global report in refugee education is below the critical level, but Turkish report is even worse in the contexts of not only accessibility and quality. This work refers to u...
This thesis considers how refugee-led community organisations generate social capital for their service users. The concept of social capital has become popular in policy debates in recent years, and previous research has attributed social capital creation for their service users to refugee community organisations (RCOs). This research aimed to analyse the process by which social capital is created by refugee community organisations, and what this means for the members of these organisations i...
This bachelor thesis gives insight into the functioning of UNRWA Agency, which was established as a response to Palestine refugee problem. It unique within its operational context, providing government style services to Palestine refugees. The work is aimed examine the impact of its operation on Palestine refugees while emphasis is put on the provision of education and health care services. Besides are described historical but also contemporary events related to the Israeli-Palestinian confli...
Perregård Larsen, Laura; Buike, Inese; Arce, Susana; Choughti, Arusa; Bonde, Christine
The purpose of the present project is to explore refugees´ constructions and experiences of home in Denmark. Through a focus on objects and places and the sensory reactions generated upon these, we wish to reveal our interlocutors’ feelings of home. The project is based on a conduction of empirical data with five male refugees who have received residence permission in Denmark. The refugees´ experiences of home are investigated using a phenomenological approach. The project presents the refuge...
The refugee problem is one of the unsolved problems of SAARC countries who have not ratified the 1951 UN Refugee Convention. Nepal despite being a developing country has been hosting the refugees since 1960s with the arrival of Tibetan refugee. Influx of Bhutanese refugees in 1990 once again made Nepal a host country providing asylum to Bhutanese refugees.This study has presented the socio-economic life of Bhutanese refugees living in Sanischare Camp of eastern Nepal for the last 18 years. Mo...
Scott, Michael J.; Gupta, Sujata; Jauregui, Ernesto; Nwafor, James; Satterthwaite, David; Wanasinghe, Yapa; Wilbanks, Thomas; Yoshino, Masatoshi; Kelkar, Ulka
Human settlements are integrators of many of the climate impacts initially felt in other sectors, and differ from each other in geographic location, size, economic circumstances, and political and social capacity. The most wide-spread serious potential impact is flooding and landslides, followed by tropical cyclones. A growing literature suggests that a very wide variety of settlements in nearly every climate zone may be affected, although the specific evidence is still very limited. Settlements with little economic diversification and where a high percentage of incomes derive from climate sensitive primary resource industries (agriculture, forestry and fisheries) are more sensitive than more diversified settlements
The refugee is the development of Amman has refugees. Owing to the relatively the hot topic around the world. After world war I1 , been constantly affected by the periodical wave of easing policy the government of Jordan made on refugee settlement and protection, a lot of refugees from neighbouring countries, especially Palestine and Iraq, came here to seek refuge. And Amman, the capital of Jor dan, became the first place for refugees to gather. Refugees are not only closely associated with the urban development security and economic security but also have great influence on the urban demographic structure, urban planning and living con- ditions. The settlement of refugees in Amman goes hand in hand with the policies of Jordan government and international community.%难民是国际热点问题。第二次世界大战后，安曼城市发展常常遭遇周边国家周期性的难民潮影响。由于约旦政府在难民安置和保护上的相对宽松政策，使其周边国家特别是巴勒斯坦、伊拉克的许多难民来此寻求保护，约旦首都安曼首当其冲成为难民的积聚地。难民不仅与城市发展安全、经济安全密不可分，而且在很大程度上影响着城市人口结构、城市规划与城市生活状况。安曼难民的走向与约旦政府、国际社会政策紧密相连。
Campbell, John; Afework, Solomon
This paper explores key aspects of the immigrant experience of 50,000-plus Ethiopians and Eritreans who live in the United Kingdom. We seek to understand the extent to which immigrant life in the UK has acted ‘as a kind of pivot’ between integrating in their country of settlement and enduring forms of connection with their country of origin. This question is explored by an examination of immigrant organising in the UK – in Refugee Community Organisations – and through interviews about their l...
SEÇİM, Mustafa Ozgur
Europe is facing one of the biggest refugee crisis since the World War II. According to the official numbers almost 1 million people from the North African countries have reached to the European Union countries such as Italy, Malta and Spain. When the refugee crisis first appeared, citizens of the countries that accept these people firstly helped these people with mercy and peace. As the time goes on, people started to feel anxiety due to the situation of this crisis. Because as the period of...
Ottino, Saskia von Overbeck
The recent flow of refugees in our countries connects the clinician to new challenges: posttraumatic consequences, exile pathologies, cultural differences. Moreover, the psychic pains express themselves often through the body in more or less qualified ways, making a clear understanding of them difficult. From the therapist's side, the confrontation to war violences and cultural differences might create difficulties in establishing an empathic and fruitful therapeutic alliance. PMID:27506069
Charles M. Kahn; Roberds, William
In this paper we consider the relative merits of net versus gross settlement of interbank payments. Net settlement economizes on the costs of holding non-interest-bearing reserves, but increases moral hazard problems. The "put option" value of default under net settlement can also distort banks' investment incentives. Absent these distortions, net settlement dominates gross, although the optimal net settlement scheme may involve a positive probability of default. Net settlement becomes more a...
Hurley, Jennifer J.; Medici, Andrea; Stewart, Emily; Cohen, Zachary
According to the United Nations High Commission for Refugees, the number of refugees worldwide was 10.5 million in 2009 and this number continues to grow (United Nations Refugee Agency, 2010). There is a shortage of evidence based practices and information regarding the state of service provision for young refugee children and their families in…
Rah, Yeonjai; Choi, Shangmin; Nguyen, Thu Suong Thi
This interview study examines the way practitioners in Wisconsin public schools created conditions to facilitate refugee parent involvement. Practitioners' perceptions of barriers to refugee parents' school involvement are explored as well as the strategies used to promote meaningful parent involvement. Interviewees included nine school…
Tobin, Joseph Jay; Koschmann, Nancy Lee
This handbook provides information for the prospective sponsors of Indochinese refugees. The refugees' general background, experiences, and reasons for coming to the United States are discussed. The sponsor's importance and role in the resettlement program are examined. The handbook also outlines problems of adjustment to life in America and what…
Further Education Unit, London (England).
Since 1992, Britain's Further Education Unit (FEU) has sponsored a series of projects, including two conferences and a number of case studies, to identify refugees' education and training needs and explore appropriate curriculum and accreditation of refugees who have professional qualifications. The projects established the following: (1) unlike…
Gorzalka, Frances; Keystone, Jay S.
Refugee children, although in generally good health, may present with unfamiliar infectious or hematological problems, primarily tuberculosis, hepatitis B, intestinal parasites, malaria, eosinophilia and anemia. Prevalence, clinical features and treatment are discussed, together with the features of some less common infections. In the symptomatic refugee child, both common and exotic infectious diseases should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Iron deficiency and hemoglobinopathies...
Bradford, Dianne; King, Nicole
In 2007 the Calvary Refugee Mentoring Program (CRMP) was initiated at Calvary Hospital, Canberra, to provide an affirmative and individualised learning placement in workplaces for individuals with a refugee background. This work placement was designed to enhance the participants' knowledge of workplaces and to prepare them for future career and…
Tafira, Chimusoro Kenneth
Love relationships between black South African women and immigrant men have not been given adequate attention by researchers of migration, refugee studies, and those concerned with anti-immigrant attitudes and violence. In this paper, based on ethnographicr esearch conducted in the Alexandra township of Johannesburg, South Africa, in 2009, I argue that cross-border love relationships provoke sexual and racial jealousies between the two sets of manhood: South African and black African immigran...
Full Text Available In order to study deposited sediment settlement and consolidation mechanisms, sediment settlement experiments were conducted using a settlement column. Based on the experimental results, sediment settlement stage definition, excessive pore pressure (EPP dissipation, and consolidation constitutive equations are discussed. Three stages, including the free settlement, hindered settlement, and self-weight consolidation settlement stages, are defined. The results of this study show that sediment settlement is mainly affected by the initial sediment concentration and initial settlement height, and the interface settlement rate is attenuated linearly with time on bilogarithmic scales during the hindered settlement and self-weight consolidation settlement stages. Moreover, the deposited sediment layer in the self-weight consolidation settlement stage experiences large strains, and the settlement amount in this stage is about 32% to 59% of the initial height of deposited sediment. EPP is nonlinearly distributed in the settlement direction, and consolidation settlement is faster than EPP dissipation in the self-weight consolidation settlement stage. Consolidation constitutive equations for the hydraulic conductivity and effective stress, applicable to large-strain consolidation calculation, were also determined and fitted in the power function form.
Kira, Ibrahim A; Ahmed, Asha; Wasim, Fatima; Mahmoud, Vanessa; Colrain, Joanna; Rai, Dhan
The paper discusses varieties of group therapies with refugees and torture survivors and the logic behind enhancing traditional group therapies to fit the unique experiences of refugees and torture survivors. It discusses some lessons learned from practice and from empirical research and some recommended adaptations. Finally, it discusses the Center for Torture and Trauma Survivors' therapy group model for torture survivors and describes two of its variants: The Bashal group for African and Somali women and the Bhutanese multi-family therapy group. Group therapies, in this model, extend to community healing. One of the essential and innovative features of the model is that it focuses not only on treating individual psychopathology but also extends to community healing by promoting the development of social clubs and organizations that promote the values and culture of the graduates of the therapy group and the continuation of social support. New graduates from the group join the club and become part of the social advocacy process and of group and community support and healing. This model adds an ecological dimension to the traditional group therapy. PMID:22229369
KNOW RESET - Building Knowledge for a Concerted and Sustainable Approach to Refugee Resettlement in the EU and its Member States This report surveys Afghan refugee resettlement from Pakistan for the Know Reset Project in order to better understand the processes and practices of the refugee populations’ resettlement in EU member states. This involved interviews with various agencies working with refugees as well as with individual refugees. The collected source material explains how the Afg...
Akgündüz, Yusuf Emre; VAN DEN BERG Marcel; Hassink, Wolter
The civil war in Syria has culminated into major refugee crises in its neighboring countries. By the end of 2013 more than half a million people were seeking shelter in cities and refugee camps in Turkey. We analyze how the Syrian refugee influx in Turkey has affected food and housing prices, employment rates and internal migration patterns in regions of Turkey where refugees are being accommodated. Refugee camps are geographically concentrated near the Syrian border, which enables us to empl...
Full Text Available How does the press in Hungary write about refugees, asylum-seekers and refugee affairs? We sought to answer this question. Articles appearing in 2005 and 2006 in two leading national Hungarian dailies were examined with quantitative content analysis. The results show that the articles analyzed often treat refugee affairs as an “official” political matter. The high proportion of legislation and political positions conveys the image that refugee affairs are a state or intergovernmental matter, an “official”, legal, political issue rather than for example a humanitarian question. Most of the articles published in both papers write about problems and conflicts in connection with refugee affairs. The negative media image has different significance for different topics. We argue that the question of refugee affairs is a topic where the image shown by the media is of great relevance: the media can be a more important source of information on this subject than personal contacts.
Puvimanasinghe, Teresa; Denson, Linley A; Augoustinos, Martha; Somasundaram, Daya
The negative psychological impacts of working with traumatised people are well documented and include vicarious traumatisation (VT): the cumulative effect of identifying with clients' trauma stories that negatively impacts on service providers' memory, emotions, thoughts, and worldviews. More recently, the concept of vicarious resilience (VR) has been also identified: the strength, growth, and empowerment experienced by trauma workers as a consequence of their work. VR includes service providers' awareness and appreciation of their clients' capacity to grow, maintaining hope for change, as well as learning from and reassessing personal problems in the light of clients' stories of perseverance, strength, and growth. This study aimed at exploring the experiences of mental health, physical healthcare, and settlement workers caring for refugees and asylum seekers in South Australia. Using a qualitative method (data-based thematic analysis) to collect and analyse 26 semi-structured face-to-face interviews, we identified four prominent and recurring themes emanating from the data: VT, VR, work satisfaction, and cultural flexibility. These findings-among the first to describe both VT and VR in Australians working with refugee people-have important implications for policy, service quality, service providers' wellbeing, and refugee clients' lives. PMID:25795221
Blankhart David; Kollie Sarah; Souare Yaya; Woodward Aniek; Howard Natasha; von Roenne Anna; Borchert Matthias
Abstract Background Maternal mortality can be particularly high in conflict and chronic emergency settings, partly due to inaccessible maternal care. This paper examines associations of refugee-led health education, formal education, age, and parity on maternal knowledge, attitudes, and practices among reproductive-age women in refugee camps in Guinea. Methods Data comes from a 1999 cross-sectional survey of 444 female refugees in 23 camps. Associations of reported maternal health outcomes wi...
Holm, Astrid Brandt; Sørensen, Line Toft
In this thesis we aim to answer the question on to what extent The Border Consortium and DanChurchAid, in a post conflict context, can alleviate insecurities hindering a sustainable return of the Myanmar refugees. Fieldwork in Thailand and Myanmar, along with UNHCR frameworks and theoretical literature on refugees and post conflict societies, have been used to examine which insecurities the Myanmar refugees express, how the organisations can alleviate these insecurities, and where they mee...
integrationist visions in their quest to protect immigrants’ and refugees’ fundamental wellbeing and status as human beings with equal rights, group life and history. These opposing elements generate ambiguity and contradiction within integrationist welfare work. The ambition of the presentation is to enquire......In this presentation I will discuss the ways in which welfare workers addressing immigrants and refugees (re)produce integrationist visions, symbolizing society as an integrated whole and immigrants/refugees as a distraction to that whole. Paradoxically, welfare workers also oppose these......, nurses and more) addressing immigrants and refugees and their families and descendants in the Danish welfare nation-state....
Desenclos, J.C.; Berry, A M; Padt, R.; B. Farah; C. Segala; Nabil, A. M.
In the Horn of Africa, scurvy is a serious public health problem for refugees who are dependent on standard relief food (cereals, legumes, and oil). To assess the risk factors and to quantify the potential magnitude of scurvy among these displaced communities, we reviewed data collected from 1985 to 1987 by relief programmes in five refugee camps in Somalia and one in the Sudan. Outbreaks of clinical scurvy occurred among refugees in all the camps from 3 to 4 months after their arrival. The i...
Edge, Sara; Newbold, K Bruce; McKeary, Marie
Studies on youth health and well-being are predominantly quantitative and expert-driven with less attention given to how youth understand what it means to be healthy themselves and the role of socio-cultural factors in shaping this. Knowledge on the perceptions and experiences of refugee youth is particularly lacking and notable given their unique stressors related to migratory, settlement and integration experiences. We contribute a better understanding of how refugee youth themselves define and contextualize health, with particular emphasis given to socio-cultural factors that enable or constrain health promotion efforts and individual health agency. This research was undertaken at a downtown drop-in centre in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada that provided settlement and integration services to newcomer youth. We employ a grounded theory approach and draw upon participant observation, focus groups and in-depth interviews. Twenty-six youth (age 18-25 years), representing 12 different countries of origin participated. The youth defined health very broadly touching upon many typical determinants of health (e.g. education, income, etc.). Yet factors of most importance (as demonstrated by the frequency and urgency in which they were discussed by youth) included a sense of belonging, positive self-identity, emotional well-being, and sense of agency or self-determination. We conceptualize these as "mediating" factors given the youth argued they enabled or constrained their ability to cope with adversities related to other health determinant categories. The youth also discussed what we interpret as "facilitators" that encourage mediating factors to manifest positively (e.g. informal, non-biomedical settings and programs that nurture trust, break down access barriers, and promote a sense of community amongst peers, mentors, and health professionals). When creating health promotion strategies for refugee youth (and perhaps youth more generally) it is important to understand the
White, Carol C; Solid, Craig A; Hodges, James S; Boehm, Deborah H
A history of trauma is common in refugee populations and appropriate treatment is frequently avoided. Using a convenience sample of 64 patients in a Somali primary care clinic, a culture and trauma specific intervention was developed to address retention into appropriate treatment. One goal of the intervention was to improve the rate of engagement in psychotherapy after a mental health referral and to test the effect of psychotherapy on health care utilization using a staged primary care clinical tool. Forty-eight percent of patients given a mental health referral engaged in psychotherapy. Patients engaging in psychotherapy had higher baseline utilization and over 12 months trended towards less emergency room use and more primary care. Our findings suggest that the intervention improved referral and retention in mental health therapy for East African refugee women. PMID:25150558
Gibbs, Andrew; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Jewkes, Rachel
Background: Urban informal settlements remain sites of high HIV incidence and prevalence, as well as violence. Increasing attention is paid on how configurations of young men’s masculinities shape these practices through exploring how men build respect and identity. In this paper, we explore how young Black South Africans in two urban informal settlements construct respect and a masculine identity.Methods: Data are drawn from three focus groups and 19 in-depth interviews.Results: We suggest t...
This article is based on a prior report for the UN High Commissioner on Refugees on repatriation of Mozambican refugees in 1994. Official statistics revealed that 45% of all immigrants in South Africa, during 1992-94, came from European countries. 31.4% were from Asian countries and 18.4% were from African countries. Prior to about 1990, migrants tended to include contract workers recruited by big South African mining companies and other firms, or highly qualified professionals who worked in urban industrial and institutional areas. Although the number of illegal migrants from neighboring countries is not known, this population group draws the most attention. A 1993 survey of 6348 households of Mozambican refugees indicated that most left their home country due to war. Only 6.7% were economic and 2.4% were ecological migrants. Over 50% of all Mozambican refugees currently in South Africa, arrived during 1985-89. 47.2% are aged under 15 years. Refugee households average 4.38 persons/household. Household size varies with sex of the household head and area of residence. Family size was the largest in Gazankulu and the smallest in Winterveld. Family size tended to be lower among female-headed households. 79% had extended families in Mozambique. 48.3% of refugee household heads had 1-3 years of formal education, while 10.2% had none. 36.3% were unemployed and 35.1% were subsistence farmers. 89.3% wanted to return to Mozambique. National policy on migration needs to consider local needs and expectations, the economic opportunities and conditions of South Africans, and South Africa's regional position. PMID:12293724
... of them children. Major risk factors for poorer school performance among refugee children include: history of trauma; low ... poorly, the study found. Factors associated with better school performance include: high levels of academic and life ambition; ...
van Basshuysen, Philippe
With the current refugee crisis showing no sign of abating, a fair and efficient method for distributing people to different countries is urgently needed. In this post, Philippe van Basshuysen looks at matching systems.
Gerhards, Jürgen; Hans, Silke; Schupp, Jürgen
Since the beginning of 2016, the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) study has been conducting a monthly survey of German attitudes, expectations, and fears concerning migration. The third wave of the survey,-the Barometer of Public Opinion on Refugees in Germany (Stimmungsbarometer zu Geflüchteten in Deutschland)-, conductedin March 2016, shows that more than half of all respondents still associate the influx of refugees with more risks than opportunities. Nonetheless, a clear majority (81 percent o...
Environmental refugees are produced when the human population exceeds the carrying capacity of a particular region and its inhabitants are forced to search for a more hospitable area. Since not much has been done to reduce greenhouse gas emissions or other issues of global warming, there will continue to be more environmental refugees for the next decade or more. Considering that the biosphere is made up of finite resources and finite space per capita, an increasing population will cause mor...
Opalić Petar D.
Full Text Available The study examined mental and psychopathological consequences of refugeeism and included (109 refugees from refugee camp in Krnjača. Their reactions were compared with the reactions of (70 somatically injured patients from Orthopedic Hospital of the Clinical Centre in Belgrade and subjects (105 from Belgrade denying any traumatic experience whatsoever. Apart from the questionnaire on socio-demographic features, subjects were asked to provide answers to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD-10 scale, Brief Eysenck’s Personality Inventory, Family Homogeneity Inventory and Impact of Events Scale. By implementation of appropriate statistical procedures (variance analysis, the significance of differences among certain features within the experimental group of refugees was examined, as well as the difference concerning presence of mental and psychopathological features among all three subgroups. It was determined that within the refugee group, males more significantly and more frequently reacted with PTSD symptoms, as well as with signs of general neuroticism and that married refugees more frequently presented with PTSD symptoms. In comparison to non-refugees, refugees more significantly and more frequently present with PTSD symptoms, which is probably caused by PTSD chronicity in this category of subjects. Subjects denying any significant traumatic experience in their lives presented with symptoms of general neuroticism more than the rest of examinees. This is an interesting finding that can be explained by the fact that the same group achieved the highest values on the extraversion scale (using the same Eysenck instrument, or may be correlated to the increase of neurotic reactions in the whole population of Serbia and Montenegro. The above mentioned and other results were compared to the findings of similar researches performed by other authors.
Larsen, Laura Perregård
This is a report studying how young Syrian male refugees in Denmark position themselves, after life in encampment, during the following three year period of integration. The report presents, in a chronological order, tracing the refugees from their past positions in Syria and asylum camps, to their present position after receiving residence and towards their hopes for the future. Through the chronological analysis the report will present how the young men experience the transition from refu...
Full Text Available In some post-communist cities, the formation of informal settlements is a phenomenon associated with the wave of urbanisation of the 1960s and 1970s. In others, the phenomenon is connected with the influx of immigrants and refugees in the 1990s. Informal settlement areas are the result of various factors: inadequate spatial planning, outdated and complex legislation, housing policies that do not ensure the provision of affordable housing and outdated public administration structures. Illegal construction practices in urban areas, often due to the lack of a clear system of property rights and urban poverty, have created significant challenges in many cities such as Tirana, Belgrade, Tbilisi and Bucharest. This paper presents a typology of informal settlements in post-communist cities and discusses the interrelated economic, social and environmental challenges associated with this phenomenon. Various types of informal settlements, as well as the evolution of those types, demonstrate the complexity of the problem as well as the need to develop contextually sensitive and diverse solutions. This study presents the emerging related policy responses, including legalisation and inclusion in formal urban planning, the provision of essential social services (e.g., schools and medical clinics, the construction of technical infrastructure (e.g., safe roads, public transit, water and sewage systems and resettlement programmes as part of social housing. Although these solutions represent various aspects of the policy continuum, they also require significant political will and the financial commitment of central and local institutions to ensure effective implementation.
Mohammadzadeh, Zahra; Jung, Felicitas; Lelgemann, Monika
The Bremen model recognizes that refugee health care has to go beyond merely checking for the prevalence of contagious diseases. Elementary health care offered in the reception centre and transitory facilities is based on voluntary acceptance by the refugees. At the same time, legal requirements for the medical reception of refugees are observed. In addition, doctors performing the initial medical examination are enabled to cover acute care on the spot. During the preliminary phase of immigration refugees are allowed to see a doctor in their facility repeatedly. After a certain time, they are provided with a health card permitting limited access to regular care outside of their facility. The current rise of refugee numbers affects the situation of Bremen health care for adult as well as juvenile refugees. In spite of the increase, health care standards are maintained by means of the health card. From 2011 to 2014, "Factors influencing health status and contact with health services" averaged 29.6 % in the health check data. Diseases of the respiratory system (18.1 %) and "symptoms, signs and abnormal findings not elsewhere classified" (16.9 %) ranked second and third, respectively. Diseases of the digestive system (6.1 %) of the musculoskeletal system (6 %) and of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (3.6 %) followed. Infectious diseases such as HIV infections, hepatitis or tuberculosis were seldom. PMID:27098974
... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal Year 2010 Refugee Admissions Numbers and Authorizations of In-country Refugee Status Pursuant to Sections 207 and 101(A)(42), Respectively, of the Immigration and Nationality Act, and Determination Pursuant to Section 2(B)(2) of the Migration and...
Ngo, Xuong, Comp.; Guay, Marcel, Ed.
Firsthand accounts by refugees from Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam, telling how they escaped from Indochina and how they are adjusting to life in Canada (and particularly Nova Scotia), form the greater part of this book. Most of the accounts are by Vietnamese. Information is also provided on the history of the Canadian refugee program, and on the…
Jiao, X.; Yan, X. X.; Wang, H. M.
Critical infrastructures in Shanghai have undergone uneven settlement since their operation, which plays an important role in affecting the security of Shanghai. This paper, taking rail transportation as example, investigates settlement characteristics and influencing factors of this linear engineering, based on long-term settlement monitoring data. Results show that rail settlement is related to geological conditions, regional ground subsidence, surrounding construction activities and structural differences in the rail systems. In order to effectively decrease the impact of regional ground subsidence, a monitoring and early-warning mechanism for critical infrastructure is established by the administrative department and engineering operators, including monitoring network construction, settlement monitoring, information sharing, settlement warning, and so on.
Knipscheer, Jeroen W.; Sleijpen, Marieke; Mooren, Trudy; ter Heide, F. Jackie June; van der Aa, Niels
Aims and method This study aimed to identify predictors of symptom severity for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in asylum seekers and refugees referred to a specialised mental health centre. Trauma exposure (number and domain of event), refugee status and severity of PTSD and depression were assessed in 688 refugees. Results Symptom severity of PTSD and depression was significantly associated with lack of refugee status and accumulation of traumatic events. Four domains of traumatic events (human rights abuse, lack of necessities, traumatic loss, and separation from others) were not uniquely associated with symptom severity. All factors taken together explained 11% of variance in PTSD and depression. Clinical implications To account for multiple predictors of symptom severity including multiple traumatic events, treatment for traumatised refugees may need to be multimodal and enable the processing of multiple traumatic memories within a reasonable time-frame. PMID:26755950
In November 2006, after 15 years of consideration, the Kenyan Parliament enacted the Refugee Act, believed by many to be potentially the most important milestone in the management of refugee affairs in Kenya.
Full Text Available Interviews with both refugees and organizational staff in two nonprofit refugee resettlement organizations in the United States reveal the ways in which knowledge(s and expertise are crafted, threatened, and understood in refugee organizations. Refugee-participants described the need for knowledgeable communication, barriers to the communication of knowledge, and processes of negotiating whose expertise is involved. Organizational staff participants described the duty of communicating expert knowledge, the limits of knowledge as expertise, and alternative communications of expertise. These tensions surrounding “knowing” in refugee resettlement organizations highlights the need for a more complex theoretical understanding of the processes of knowing present in refugee resettlement. These tensions also suggest areas in which refugee resettlement agencies and other nonprofit staff can make on-the-ground changes to better facilitate refugee resettlement processes.
Damm, Anna Piil; Rosholm, Michael
Do spatial dispersal policies on refugees promote their labour market outcomes? To investigate this we estimate the effects of location characteristics and the average effect of geographical mobility on the hazard rate into first job of refugees subjected to the Danish spatial dispersal policy 1986...... findings support dispersal policies. Second, on average geographical mobility had large, positive effects on the hazard rate into first job, suggesting that restrictions on placed refugees' subsequent out-migration would hamper labour market integration of refugees....
The object of the dissertation covers World War II refugee in Lithuania, their coming, staying and leaving Lithuania in 1939 – 1940. The first chapter of dissertation discusses similarities and differences of terms foreigner and refugee according to domestic legislation. Furthermore, the peculiarities of foreigners in pre war Lithuania and World War II refugees are analyzed and the features of refugee integration are depicted. The following aspects have been under discussion as well: the circ...
This study concerns the uprooting experiences of forced migration, particularly how refugees consider citizenship in the process of losing and regaining this status. I carried out fieldwork in an area in California where refugees from around the world are “resettled” or brought to live in relative safety, in order to answer the following research questions: How do refugees and their social workers experience citizenship? How are non-formal education programs in refugee resettlement used to co...
Hoggard, Michael; Gast, Julie
There are over 300 refugees resettled in Cache County, Utah (figure 2). Despite coming from different cultural and ethnic backgrounds, the Cache County refugee population shares similar circumstances in regards to access to health care: (a)96% of working adults are employed at the same job (b)Refugees have access to the same social services (c)None of the refugee populations speak English as a native language. The purpose of this study is to understand key physical, structural and cultu...
Prafulla Kumar Nayak
India has seen large influx of refugee population throughout history but does not have specific domestic law governing the treatment of refugees and asylum-seekers. Despite being a non-signatory to refugee convention, India has an obligation under international law to protect asylum-seekers which it has traditionally honored. Though India does not have a national framework in refugee law, yet in 2006 the Supreme Court ruled that the right to life and personal liberty as enshrined in Indian co...
Boyd, T. (ed.)
Friends of the Earth Australia is commemorating World Refugee Day in 2005 by publishing a 'Citizens Guide to Climate Refugees'. This publication gives the basic facts on climate change, greenhouse gas emissions; why people could become climate refugees, how many and where are they likely to come from; and what can be done about it.
... unmarried, minor child as set forth in 8 CFR part 204 must be submitted with the request for accompanying or... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivatives of refugees. 207.7 Section 207... REFUGEES § 207.7 Derivatives of refugees. (a) Eligibility. A spouse, as defined in section 101(a)(35)...
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment of status of refugees. 1209.1... IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS OF REFUGEES AND ALIENS GRANTED ASYLUM § 1209.1 Adjustment of status of refugees. The provisions of this section shall provide the sole and exclusive procedure...
van Tubergen, Frank
Little is known about the language acquisition of refugees in Western countries. This study examines how pre- and post-migration characteristics of refugees are related to their second language proficiency. Data are from a survey of 3,500 refugees, who were born in Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, former Yugoslavia and Somalia, and who resided in the…
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment of status of refugees. 209.1... STATUS OF REFUGEES AND ALIENS GRANTED ASYLUM § 209.1 Adjustment of status of refugees. The provisions of this section shall provide the sole and exclusive procedure for adjustment of status by a...
Sarr, Karla Giuliano; Mosselson, Jacqueline
The schooling experience of refugee students in the United States is inherently complex and demonstrates tensions between students' high aspirations and true opportunities present within the host culture. The majority of refugees view education as the key to economic mobility and hope for the future. However, the literature on refugee achievement…
... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency cash assistance to refugees. 400.52 Section 400.52 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT...
Between July 1975 and August 1977, telephone interview surveys were conducted to assess the socioeconomic adjustment of Vietnamese refugees to American society. Between the first and last survey, it was found that the employment situation of the refugees had improved. Most refugees who want work have been able to find jobs. The data suggest that…
Oxfam America, Boston, MA.
Definitions, statistics, and problems of world refugees are presented in this document for high school global education classes. Although various agencies have determined different definitions of the term, the authors consider as refugees all those forced to flee their native land in order to survive. For most refugees the attraction of a higher…
Gorman, Robert F.
Reviews the evolution of the Second International Conference on Assistance to Refugees in Africa, which advanced discussions on the connection between refugees and the development process. Discusses potential roles of the World Bank and the World Food Program in providing technical assistance to refugee-related development projects. (Author/GC)
This grounded theory study examined how social service providers and refugee service recipients in a city in the upper Midwestern United States described the intercultural knowledge and skills necessary for effective work with refugees. Ten refugee service recipients, 28 county service providers, and 9 "stakeholders," or noncounty service…
“It’s for us –newcomers, LGBTQ persons, and HIV-positive persons. You feel free to be”: a qualitative study exploring social support group participation among African and Caribbean lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender newcomers and refugees in Toronto, Canada
Logie, Carmen H.; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Lee-Foon, Nakia; Ryan, Shannon; Ramsay, Hope
Background Stigma and discrimination harm the wellbeing of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people and contribute to migration from contexts of sexual persecution and criminalization. Yet LGBT newcomers and refugees often face marginalization and struggles meeting the social determinants of health (SDOH) following immigration to countries such as Canada. Social isolation is a key social determinant of health that may play a significant role in shaping health disparities among LGB...
El-Bidawi, Amira; Hagström, Hampus
Today, there are many refugees living displaced and often separated from their family and loved ones. A partnership between a corporation, a United Nations function and a non-governmental organization has been formed with the goal of reuniting these refugees. The actors involved are Ericsson, Refugees United, and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. This results in an interesting and unique corporate responsibility project. The initiative is evaluated and described in this report fr...
Upadhaya Nawaraj; Luitel Nagendra P; Roberts Bayard; Thomas Fiona C; Tol Wietse A
Abstract Background Mental health and psychosocial wellbeing are key concerns in displaced populations. Despite urban refugees constituting more than half of the world's refugees, minimal attention has been paid to their psychosocial wellbeing. The purpose of this study was to assess coping behaviour and aspects of resilience amongst refugees in Kathmandu, Nepal. Methods This study examined the experiences of 16 Pakistani and 8 Somali urban refugees in Kathmandu, Nepal through in-depth indivi...
ter Heide, F. Jackie June; Smid, Geert E.
Aims and method To examine treatment response in traumatised refugees, we compared routine outcome monitoring data (Harvard Trauma Questionnaire) of two refugee populations with those of individuals experiencing profession-related trauma who were treated at a specialised psychotrauma institute. Results Asylum seekers/temporary refugees (n = 21) and resettled refugees (n = 169) showed significantly lower post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom reduction between intake and 1 year after in...
Lauring, Michael; Silva, Victor; Jensen, Ole B.;
This paper is the initial result of a cross-disciplinary attempt to encircle an answer to the question of optimal densities of sustainable settlements. Urban density is an important component in the framework of sustainable development and influences not only the character and design of cities but...
The settlement of immigrants has given rise to transnational communities based on economic interests, cultural exchanges, social relations, and political affiliations. There are increased interactions between individuals and groups settled in different countries within a global space; the cultural and political specificities of host and home countries are combined with multilevel and multinational activities, creating an institutionalisation of multiple belonging.
Hollifield, Michael; Toolson, Eric C; Verbillis-Kolp, Sasha; Farmer, Beth; Yamazaki, Junko; Woldehaimanot, Tsegaba; Holland, Annette
Screening for emotional distress is important, but not widely available. This study assesses the utility of the Refugee Health Screener 15 (RHS-15) in a public health setting. Refugee Health Screener 15 and diagnostic proxy (DP) instruments assessing anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder were administered to refugees from 3 countries at their public health examination. Properties of the RHS-15 and its components were evaluated utilizing appropriate methods. Scale Cronbach α was 0.95, and a factor analysis identified 1 factor accounting for 66% of scale variance. Refugee Health Screener 15 scores and cases discriminated between refugee groups similar to DPs. Refugee Health Screener 15 case sensitivity and specificity to DPs were acceptable (≥0.87/0.77). A shorter, 13-item component had acceptable metric properties. The RHS-15 appears to be a valid screener for emotional distress of refugees. The 13-item scale may be more efficient and as efficacious for case identification. The critical public health need and recommendations for implementation are discussed. PMID:26825376
Full Text Available The European refugee problem has grown dramatically in the last few months, putting a considerable amount of pressure on the European countries. Not only are they facing migrants from North Africa, but from the Middle East as well.In March 2011 the Arab Spring has reached Syria, causing a huge number of Syrians to flee their country and seek asylum in Turkey, and possibly going further to the EU. The refugees who fled Syria as well as those who are leaving North Africa (mostly the failed state of Libya are aiming to reach European soil, but Italy, Greece or Turkey is not ready to handle the amount of refugees. The cooperation of the Mediterranean countries and Europe has not been able to slow down the flow of refugees, and the Mediterranean and Aegean seas have become dangerous routes for the desperate migrants who attempt the sea-crossing. In my analysis I would like to highlight the role of the so-called elements of ‘soft power’ in the way of dealing with the refugee problem. According to my hypothesis, the issue can’t be successfully addressed using only the means of the ‘soft power’. No real solution for the crisis has been offered yet, and I would like to give case studies of the different ways of dealing with the problem – inside (Greece, Italy and outside (Turkey of the European Union.
..., Washington, September 30, 2011 [FR Doc. 2011-26331 Filed 10-7-11; 8:45 am] Billing code 4710-10-P ..., 2011 Fiscal Year 2012 Refugee Admissions Numbers and Authorizations of In-Country Refugee Status... Determination Pursuant to Section 2(b)(2) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act, as Amended Memorandum...
.... [FR Doc. 2012-25035 Filed 10-9-12; 8:45 am] Billing code 4710-10-P ..., 2012 Fiscal Year 2013 Refugee Admissions Numbers and Authorizations of In-Country Refugee Status... Determination Pursuant to Section 2(b)(2) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act, as Amended Memorandum...
Full Text Available The essay sheds a light on mobile individuals, the motivation behind their movement, and their experience in foreign social contexts. It is based on group analytical and interdisciplinary discourses. The focus lies on possible changings of the collective in globalized worlds- approached by the view of individuals. What could imply the loss of the primary group and the perception of this loss for the individual. What are the mobile individuals (refugees and global players looking to find abroad, what are the promises, the demands and necessities. Material: I am offering for discussion texts from an ethnopsychoanalytical study focusing on two very different groups of mobile individuals. On one hand, interviews with so-called "global players" or "job nomads" and on the other hand interviews with African refugees. The analysis of the material leads to the first hypothesis: The option offered by a globalised world to find an individual place and freedom everywhere in the world is associated with a lack of intersubjective spaces, a lack of embodiment in a group, less sharing of common meanings, rules and taboos.Keywords: Intersubjective space; Mobility; Global players; Refugees
M.G. Papazahariadou, E.G. Papadopoulos S.E. Frydas, Ch. Mavrovouniotis,T.C. Constantinidis, K. Antoniadou-Sotiriadou,
Full Text Available SUMMARY A total of 455 faecal samples from the Greek population and refugees was examined and 18.02% were found to be infected with one or more species of parasites. The prevalence of infection with intestinal parasites of the Greek (264 population was 11.36% and that of foreigners (191 originating from Europe, Africa and Asia was 27.23%. Found were a protozoan parasites: Blastocystis hominis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Entamoeba coli and Giardia lamblia (found in both groups examined and b metazoan parasites: Enterobius vermicularis, Taenia spp. and Strongyloides stercoralis (in both groups and Ancylostoma duodenale, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Schistosoma mansoni (only in foreigners. Among the parasites found in foreigners only the helminth species A. duodenale and S. mansoni are considered as imported parasites from tropical and subtropical regions to European countries. The use of the multiple logistic regression showed that the odds ratio comparing Greeks to refugees, adjusted for age and gender, was 3.8 for Africans, 3.0 for Europeans and 2.6 for Asians. No correlation was found between age, gender or symptoms (diarrhea or abdominal pain with the presence of parasites. The overall prevalence of infection with parasites was high in both the Greek population and refugees and therefore a screening for parasite infection is recommended for the prevention of further spread of the infections. Key words: parasites, immigrants, Greece
The current refugee "crisis" in Europe has created multiple forms of vulnerability and insecurity for refugee women including various forms of sexual and gender-based violence. Increasing numbers of women, either alone or with family, are attempting to reach Europe to seek protection from conflict and violence in their countries, but these women are subject to violence during their journey and/or on arrival in a destination country. The lack of adequate accommodation or reception facilities for refugees and migrants in Europe, as well as the closure of borders which has increased the need for smugglers to help them reach Europe, acts to exacerbate the violence and insecurity. PMID:27578335
This article looks at Britain’s response to the World Refugee Year (1959–60), and in particular the government’s decision to allow entry to refugees with tuberculosis and other chronic illnesses. In doing so, it broke the practice established by the 1920 Aliens’ Order which had barred entry to immigrants with a range of medical conditions. This article uses the entry of these sick refugees as an opportunity to explore whether government policy represented as much of a shift in attitude and pr...
Hadley, Craig; Patil, Crystal
The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence and predictors of discrimination among a community-based sample of refugees resettled in the USA. We sought to test whether language, gender, time in the USA and country of origin were associated with the experience of discrimination among individuals resettled in the USA as part of the refugee resettlement program. Perceived discrimination was assessed among individuals from East Africa (n = 92), West Africa (n = 74), and from Eastern Europe (n = 112) using a multi-item measure of discrimination. Bivariate associations revealed statistically significant associations between experiences of discrimination and time in the USA, language ability, and sending country. A logistic regression model revealed that refugees from African sending countries were more likely than Eastern European individuals to experience discrimination, even after controlling for potentially confounding factors. We interpret this finding as evidence of racism and discuss the implications for population health and resettlement practice. PMID:19189217
Winardi, B; Adhyatma, M
The influx of refugees from Vietnam had created some consequences especially in transmission of certain communicable diseases. During several months of their first arrival, most of illness (90%) were caused by upper respiratory tract infections, skin diseases and diarrhoeal diseases. Several efforts and measures had been done by the Government of Indonesia in collaboration with several agencies i.e. P3V, PMI, UNHCR, W.VI, etc. As a result of the activities, a reduction of diarrhoeal diseases, has been observed. There was no cholera or typhoid cases detected through routine surveillance activities or by special survey. If we examine the morbidity and mortality pattern of refugees or we are comparing with Indonesian figures, it can be concluded that diarrhoeal diseases is not a significant health problem among refugees in Indonesia. PMID:7163840
developments in communications technologies and the Internet and the proliferation of websites such as the CARFMS – Online Research and Teaching Tool and Practitioners Forum (ORTT & PF) and the Refugee Research Network (RRN), as examples, have contributed to the accessibility of information, knowledge and the...... proliferation of websites and online instruments on refugee and forced migration studies the nature of research and information gathering, analysis, and dissemination, along with advocacy, has altered fundamentally both in its range, depth and scope. This Roundtable will seek to review how the latest...... research, instruction, whether tradition, hybrid or online, and policy practice in the field of refugee and forced migration studies. The Roundtable will feature the principal collaborators of the ORTT & PF who will outline how they have utilize this new open source website in their research and courses in...
Pacione, Laura; Measham, Toby; Rousseau, Cécile
The mental health consequences of war and other forms of organized violence for children represent a serious global public health issue. Much of the research on the mental health of war-affected civilians has focused on refugees who have sought asylum in high-income countries and face the dual stress of a traumatic past and resettlement. This review will focus on the mental health of refugee children who have fled war as well as interventions to both prevent and treat adverse mental health outcomes. While war can have devastating mental health consequences, children raised in the midst of armed conflict also display resilience. Effective interventions for refugee children will be discussed both in terms of prevention and treatment of psychopathology, with a focus on recent developments in the field. PMID:23307563
Rolf Heuer, Director-General,
Dear Colleagues, In response to the current refugee and migration crisis, we are starting a collection today and we are calling on your generosity. The funds will be forwarded to the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies to respond to the humanitarian needs of the refugees and migrants, providing immediate and longer-term relief, including emergency medical care and basic health services, psychological support, temporary shelter, distribution of food & water and other urgently needed items. We hope that your contributions to the above-mentioned appeal will not prevent you from sparing a thought for them and doing whatever you can to help them. Bank account details for donations: Bank account holder: Association du personnel CERN - 1211 GENEVE 23 Account number: 279-HU106832.1 IBAN: CH85 0027 9279 HU10 6832 1 BIC: UBSWCHZH80A Please mention: Refugee and Migration Crisis
Damm, Anna Piil; Rosholm, Michael
Spatial dispersal policies may influence labour market integration of refugees through two mechanisms. First, it may affect the local job offer arrival rate, and second, it may affect place utility. We investigate the second mechanism theoretically by formulating a partial search model in which an...... individual searches simultaneously for a job and for a new residential location. The model predicts that the reservation wage for local jobs is decreasing in place utility. We argue that spatial dispersal policies decrease average place utility of refugees which decrease the transition rate into first job...
This article summarizes some of the findings and recommendations of a research project focusing on the nature and needs of refugee students in Canadian schools. The school performance of refugee students is examined under the following headings: immigration regulations; initial identification, assessment, placement and monitoring; unaccompanied youngsters; "at risk" students; academic needs; the conflict of cultures. In particular, the article discusses the changing role of the school in the light of recent immigration trends. Many of the findings are applicable to other national settings.
Terasaki, Genji; Ahrenholz, Nicole Chow; Haider, Mahri Z
Refugees share a common experience of displacement from their country of origin, migration, and resettlement in an unfamiliar country. More than 17 million people have fled their home countries due to war, generalized violence, and persecution. US primary care physicians must care for their immediate and long-term medical needs. Challenges include (1) language and cultural barriers, (2) high rates of mental health disorders, (3) higher prevalence of latent infections, and (4) different explanatory models for chronic diseases. This article discusses management strategies for common challenges that arise in the primary care of refugees. PMID:26320045
Ghosh, Flora; Juul, Søren
This article is a study of the contrast between the Danish law concerning reduced economic benefits for newly arrived refugees and immigrants (known as Start Help or as introductory benefit) and the idea of recognition as the condition for individual self-realization and justice. Our assumption is...... that Start Help both implies economic discrimination against newly arrived persons in Denmark (especially refugees and their families under family reunification rules) and symbolizes a lack of recognition. We have chosen to adopt the theories of recognition (and redistribution) propounded by Axel...
The European refugee problem has grown dramatically in the last few months, putting a considerable amount of pressure on the European countries. Not only are they facing migrants from North Africa, but from the Middle East as well.In March 2011 the Arab Spring has reached Syria, causing a huge number of Syrians to flee their country and seek asylum in Turkey, and possibly going further to the EU. The refugees who fled Syria as well as those who are leaving North Africa (mostly the failed stat...
Nilsson, Helena Marianne
This thesis aims to find out how Sudanese and South Sudanese refugee women experience their security and safety in Kakuma refugee camp, which is situated in north- western part of Kenya. Sudan and South Sudan has had two civil wars since its independence from the British colonialism. The civil wars in Sudan and South Sudan have mainly been concerning the differences between northern and southern Sudan, with the northern part predominantly Muslim and the southern is predominantly Christian. Th...
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognised as a significant problem amongst forcibly displaced communities, and great progress has been made by the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) in responding to IPV and other forms of sexual and gender based violence. However, they have not always effectively engaged refugee communities in these activities, with potentially negative consequences for the health and protection of women. This study was conducted in Kakuma refugee camp, north-west Kenya. Eighteen focus group discussions were conducted with 157 refugees from various nationalities, including Sudanese, Somali, Ethiopian, and Congolese. They focused on the nature and consequences of IPV in Kakuma. The aim of this paper is to explore how refugees in Kakuma talk about the ways that IPV is dealt with, focusing particularly on the ways that community responses are said to interact with formal response systems established by UNHCR and its implementing partners. Refugees talked about using a 'hierarchy of responses' to IPV, with only particularly serious or intransigent cases reaching UNHCR or its implementing agencies. Some male refugees described being mistrustful of agency responses, because agencies were believed to favour women and to prioritise protecting the woman at all costs, even if that means separating her from the family. Whilst community responses to IPV might often be appropriate and helpful, the findings of the current study suggest that in Kakuma they do not necessarily result in the protection of women. Yet women in Kakuma are reported to be reluctant to report their cases to UNHCR and its implementing agencies. A more effective protection response from UNHCR might involve closer co-operation with individuals and structures within the refugee communities to develop a co-ordinated response to IPV. PMID:19846247
Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September.This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,a leading Chinese wool manufacturer.
Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September. This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,aleading Chinese wool manufacturer.
Lauring, Michael; Silva, Victor; Jensen, Ole B.; Heiselberg, Per
This paper is the initial result of a cross-disciplinary attempt to encircle an answer to the question of optimal densities of sustainable settlements. Urban density is an important component in the framework of sustainable development and influences not only the character and design of cities but also the architectural and technical strategies of buildings. The paper is based on literature studies in the fields of urban mobility, urban ecology, urban design, architecture and civil engineerin...
Marotta, Sylvia A.
This article focuses on the impact of torture on refugees; multicultural principles relevant to treatment; and what sequenced models of trauma treatment can offer to the torture survivor. It concludes with suggestions for counselors to consider regarding acculturation, resilience, and the role of mind and body in the treatment of tortured…
National Council of the Churches of Christ of the United States of America, New York, NY. Church World Service.
Haitian refugees who are seeking political asylum in the United States are finding themselves unwelcome. Although various reports attest to continuing persecution in Haiti under the repressive Duvalier regime, the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service claims that the Haitians seek only greater economic opportunity and are not genuine…
Liu, William T.; Murata, Alice K.
This is the first of a series of articles on the Vietnamese who have come to the U.S. since 1975. It deals with the making of the refugees and describes how the negative motivations and regrets with which they have come may act as obstacles to their adjustment to American life. (Author/GC)
Full Text Available Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI refugees facemyriad challenges within the resettlement context. Practical initiatives– such as creating a welcoming space, ensuring confidentiality,training staff, providing critical resources and fostering inclusiveworkplaces – can promote a more humane resettlement experience.
The twentieth century witnessed major waves of emigration, exile and taking refuge abroad. In this paper, a review of the psychiatric literature published between 1990 and 2000 in English and Turkish is presented. Although refugees are considered to differ from economic migrants in a number of respects, they both experience culture and language change and may experience family disruption, social isolation, and hostility from the population of the host country. Accordingly, all refugees and immigrants go through stages of resettlement and need to integrate their past cultural experiences into their new life and culture. The process of integration depends on the subjects' age, mental integrity, and on the conditions he/she lives in. Research indicates that children acculturate more quickly and learn language faster than elders; but they may suffer from role reversal when they are expected to be linguistic and cultural translators for their parents. Young adults at the stage of identity formation can be cut off and feel alienated. Elderly persons have a higher risk of culture shock as they leave behind more memories and connections. These trigger different types of anxieties. The literature shows high levels of acculturative distress, and psychiatric disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression, and refugees are considered to be at risk for suicidal behavior. The complex social and psychological needs of refugee and immigrant families place demands on special services for children, adolescents and adults. PMID:12794656
This preliminary paper reviews the political and cultural history of the Cambodian refugees who have settled in large numbers in California communities. The kingdom of Cambodia was a major power in Southeast Asia from the ninth century A.D. until March 1970, and its Buddhist culture influenced the dance, music, architecture, and linguistic…
Damm, Anna Piil; Rosholm, Michael
Refugees subjected to a spatial dispersal tend to be assigned to a location outside the immigrant-dense cities. We argue that such locations are associated with low place utility. Our partial equilibrium search model with simultaneous job and residential location search predicts that the reservat...
Damm, Anna Piil; Rosholm, Michael
We argue that spatial dispersal influences labour market assimilation of refugees through two mechanisms: first, the local job offer arrival rate and, second, place utility. Our partial search model with simultaneous job and residential location search predicts that the reservation wage for local...... evaluating the employment effects of the Danish spatial dispersal policy carried out 1986-1998....
This article examines community sport as a site where refugee youth negotiate belonging, which is conceptualised as a dynamic dialectic of ‘seeking’ and ‘granting’. Drawing on three years of ethnographic fieldwork among Somali Australian youth at community football (soccer) clubs in Melbourne, the a
Higgitt, Nancy C.; Horne, Lena
In focus groups the experiences of 12 Kurdish and 13 Vietnamese refugees who resettled in Winnipeg, Manitoba were explored. They lacked employment skills and their education was interrupted. The transition from home ownership to subsidized rent affected their self-perception. (JOW)
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) refugees facemyriad challenges within the resettlement context. Practical initiatives– such as creating a welcoming space, ensuring confidentiality,training staff, providing critical resources and fostering inclusiveworkplaces – can promote a more humane resettlement experience.
Ajdukovic, Marina; Ajdukovic, Dean
Interviews with 183 mothers of refugee families indicated a considerable range of stress-related reactions among displaced children, including sleeping and eating disorders, separation fears, and withdrawal or aggression. Children exhibited a significantly higher incidence of stress reactions if their mothers had difficulty coping with the stress…
Rosenberg Cemazar, Anna Natalia
The refugee crisis has escalated significantly in Europe, becoming one of the main destinations for refugees. Sweden is one of the largest European recipients for asylum applications and was taking in the largest number of refugees in Europe in 2015 in terms of per capita; at 15 refugees per 1,000 inhabitants. With this large flow of refugees into Sweden, a large number of needs arise among the refugees along with a number of challenges concerning integration. These needs and challenges could...
Since the 60’s, the number of refugees and asylum seekers in Norway has increased, resulting into more specific integration policies towards refugees by the Norwegian government. One part of the integration policy is housing of refugees. The housing of refugees in Norway is organised through so called dispersal, which means that refugees are settled evenly between the municipalities. The government of Norway is arguing that the spatial scattering of refugees is necessary for two reasons: 1) i...
Despite the provincial and federal governments focus on improving employment services through the Canada-British Columbia Immigration agreement, the unemployment rate among very recent African immigrants continues to remain the highest among other ethnic groups in Canada (StatCan, 2010). As such, this study looks into the various barriers faced by very recent African immigrants in finding employment in B.C., and addresses the problem through interviews with settlement agencies and a governmen...
Elhauge, Einer Richard
Although the Google Books Settlement has been criticized as anticompetitive, I conclude that this critique is mistaken. For out-of-copyright books, the settlement procompetitively expands output by clarifying which books are in the public domain and making them digitally available for free. For claimed in-copyright books, the settlement procompetitively expands output by clarifying who holds their rights, making them digitally searchable, allowing individual digital display and sales at compe...
Wilson, O. S.
Full Text Available The African Union by its declaration is committed to the total integration of all African states and unity of action based on shared values and common, development interests and goals. To this end, the challenges facing the African Union include the problems of infrastructures and inadequate social services. The African states are plagued by political instability, ethnic conflicts, refugees/ internally displaced persons and fragile civil institutions. These problems are compounded by globalization, New World Order and heavy burden of external debts that make life difficult and the future dim and gloomy. These challenges and struggles by the African leaders to face up to them have precipitated the writing of this research paper. In doing so, the study traced the historical concept, evolution and final emergence of the union. The research project carefully looked into the act establishing the AU and compared with the charter of the Organization of African Unity (OAU and appreciated the necessity of its establishment. The study has noted that AU was modelled after the European Union (EU and therefore, efforts have been made to study the two unions so that the AU will benefit from the experience of the EU. In concluding the study, it is recommended inter alia that African Union make peace and security a priority and harmonize general policies and Infrastructural development. The hope that this study will contribute its widow's might to the development of AU is imperative. We cannot afford to fail this time, as the consequences are better imagined than experienced.
This article documents the potential for inter-state conflict in the migration of hundreds of thousands of famine refugees across international borders in West Africa. Nigeria and Ghana, for example, have to deal not only with the effects of land degradation in their northern territories but also with the influx of famine victims from Mali, Niger, Chad and Burkino Faso. These migrations put an enormous extra burden on the fragile and already overstretched social and economic infrastructures of the host countries. The construction of dams for irrigation and electricity generation in international river basins, is another cause of inter-state conflict related to land degradation. The capacity of West African states to find peaceful solutions to these problems is being undermined by the increasing impoverishment and marginalisation of their populations. A self-serving neo-colonialist governing elite is caught in the economic stranglehold of the advanced capitalist nations. While there is thus no short term solution to the problem of land degradation, immediate steps should at least be taken to give legal protection to those who are forced to cross international borders because of drought and famine. PMID:20958699
"This article examines the local socio-economic impact of the arrival of Mozambican refugees in the Eastern Province of Zambia. Previous studies of forced migration elsewhere in Africa have suggested that not only stresses, but also positive gains for local development may be felt in areas hosting significant numbers of refugees. It is suggested here that an appropriate framework from which to analyze the impact of refugees is to focus separately on the effects of population increase on the one hand, and the specific characteristics of refugees on the other. Using this distinction, a model is developed of potential beneficial changes resulting from the arrival of refugees. Key assumptions of this model are then identified to be of relevance to policies designed to promote local economic development under conditions of refugee migration." PMID:12288062
Kinzie, J David; Cheng, Keith; Tsai, Jenny; Riley, Crystal
The first 131 traumatized refugee children evaluated and treated in a child specialty clinic indicated a wide variety of trauma including war-related traumas (21%) for areas of recent conflict and domestic violence (28%) predominantly occurring in patients from Mexico and Latin America. Clinical diagnoses indicate PTSD was common (63%) in the war trauma group but was found less (25%) in the domestic violence group. Otherwise, the refugee clinic population showed a wide variety of diagnoses, including 20% having learning or cognitive disability or clear mental retardation. The traumatized refugee children had a similar prevalence of PTSD and depression to a comparable group of American child psychiatry patients. Refugee children have faced a variety of traumas and have a variety of diagnoses. All traumatized refugee children need an individualized evaluation and treatment plan. Trauma focused therapy is not appropriate for all refugee children. PMID:16840851
Silvia Menicucci Apolinário; Liliana Lyra Jubilut
Brazil is generally pointed as a model of protection to refugee population in South America, what seems reasonable if the minimum standards of the International Refugee Law are considered. However, there are still challenges to be faced in order to provide a comprehensive protection that encompasses also standards established by the International Human Rights Law. This article intends to present which are the challenges to an effective holistic protection of the human dignity of the refugee p...
Focussing on Palestine refugee camps in the Near East, this dissertation aims to shed light on the potential relevance of urban planning to refugee camp environments worldwide. In particular, there is a focus on the role architects and urban planners can play in facilitating participatory planning processes as well as providing guidance and expertise in the development of a spatial vision for Camp Cities. Part I - The Urbanisation of Refugee Camps as a Global Challenge The first part o...
F. Jackie June ter Heide
Full Text Available Background: Asylum seekers and refugees have been claimed to be at increased risk of developing complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD. Consequently, it has been recommended that refugees be treated with present-centred or phased treatment rather than stand-alone trauma-focused treatment. This recommendation has contributed to a clinical practice of delaying or waiving trauma-focused treatment in refugees with PTSD. Objective: The aim of this debate piece is to defend two theses: (1 that complex trauma leads to complex PTSD in a minority of refugees only and (2 that trauma-focused treatment should be offered to all refugees who seek treatment for PTSD. Methods: The first thesis is defended by comparing data on the prevalence of complex PTSD in refugees to those in other trauma-exposed populations, using studies derived from a systematic review. The second thesis is defended using conclusions of systematic reviews and a meta-analysis of the efficacy of psychotherapeutic treatment in refugees. Results: Research shows that refugees are more likely to meet a regular PTSD diagnosis or no diagnosis than a complex PTSD diagnosis and that prevalence of complex PTSD in refugees is relatively low compared to that in survivors of childhood trauma. Effect sizes for trauma-focused treatment in refugees, especially narrative exposure therapy (NET and culturally adapted cognitive-behaviour therapy (CA-CBT, have consistently been found to be high. Conclusions: Complex PTSD in refugees should not be assumed to be present on the basis of complex traumatic experiences but should be carefully diagnosed using a validated interview. In line with treatment guidelines for PTSD, a course of trauma-focused treatment should be offered to all refugees seeking treatment for PTSD, including asylum seekers.
Betül Dilara ŞEKER; ASLAN, ZAFER
In this article, the education of refugees’ children, discussed as the problems faced by the educational process. With this study, refugee children status, their educational needs, by drawing attention to their problems, to raise awareness about the importance of this issue and is currently non-existent national work, which aims to contribute to a small number. In this review Turkey in the concept of a refugee, refugee children's life in training, the problems encountered in this process wil...
Drennan, Vari M; Joseph, Judy
AIM: This paper reports on the perceptions of experienced health visitors working with refugee families in Inner London. BACKGROUND: Women who are refugees and asylum seekers in the United Kingdom are more likely to experience depression than either non-refugee women or male asylum seekers. Health visitors provide a universal public health service to all women on the birth of a child, or with children aged under five, and as such are well placed to identify emotional and mental health problem...
K C Saha
Full Text Available Some 65,000 Tamil refugees from conflict in SriLanka live in 133 camps in the Indian state ofTamil Nadu. As peace talks generate hope for theirrepatriation, the work of a self-help group, theOrganization for Eelam Refugees Rehabilitation(OfERR, shows how refugees can equip themselveswith skills to be used to rebuild their homeland.
Refugee camps are increasingly managed through a liberal rationality of government similar to that of many industrialized societies, with security mechanisms being used to optimize the life of particular refugee populations. This governmentality has encompassed programmes introduced by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and various non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to build and empower communities through the spatial technology of the camp. The present article argue...
Yuen, Hong-kiu; 袁康翹
Set against the backdrop of the Cold War and the declining British Empire, this thesis explores how the Hong Kong government handled the Vietnamese refugee crisis of the 1970s. The Vietnamese refugee influx started after the fall of Saigon in 1975 and temporarily stopped after the Geneva Conference on Indochinese refugees in 1979. Drawing extensively upon recently declassified files from the National Archives in London and the National Archives in Maryland, the thesis discusses several import...
Pallesen, Josefine Eva Lilly; Berglund, Amanda; Rastén, Alexander; Amakari, Bruno; Grarup, Emil; Surugiu, Catalina
The number of refugees entering the EU has exploded during the summer of 2015, and this has put the EU and its member states under great pressure as existing asylum systems failed to meet the requirements. Denmark, a known eurosceptic nation, decided in relation to the refugee crisis to accept 1,000 refugees that were to be redistributed through a common EU relocation scheme, yet later Denmark decided to withdraw the offer. This project seeks to answer the following research qu...
The North Korean refugee crisis merits significant international attention because these people are the most vulnerable group and the silent victims in our international community of the last few decades. Their government does not have the ability to protect its citizens. It is a question of State Sovereignty as to whether China recognizes North Koreans as refugees or not and provides them with humanitarian relief. China argues that North Koreans are not refugees, forcibly repatrates them,...
Chang, Alicia H; Perry, Sharon; Du, Jenny N. T.; Agunbiade, Abdulkareem; Polesky, Andrea; Parsonnet, Julie
Beginning in 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) expanded the overseas presumptive treatment of intestinal parasites with albendazole to include refugees from the Middle East. We surveyed the prevalence of helminths and protozoa in recent Middle Eastern refugees (2008–2010) in comparison with refugees from other geographical regions and from a previous survey (2001–2004) in Santa Clara County, California. Based on stool microscopy, helminth infections decreased, particu...
Del Carpio, Ximena V.; Wagner, Mathis
Civil war in Syria has resulted in more than four million refugees fleeing the country, of which 1.8 million have found refuge in Turkey, making it the largest refugee-hosting country worldwide. This paper combines newly available data on the 2014 distribution of Syrian refugees across subregions of Turkey with the Turkish Labour Force Survey, to assess the impact on Turkish labor market c...
Blanchet, K; Fouad, FM; Pherali, T
The crisis in Syria has forced more than 4 million people to find refuge outside Syria. In Lebanon, in 2015, the refugee population represented 30 % of the total population. International health assistance has been provided to refugee populations in Lebanon. However, the current humanitarian system has also contributed to increase fragmentation of the Lebanese health system. Ensuring universal health coverage to vulnerable Lebanese, Syrian and Palestinian refugees will require in Lebanon to r...
This paper examines my effort to document the experiences of a Bhutanese refugee community in a mid-western city of the United States. In particular, the essay looks at housing experiences the community encountered and my efforts to translate the events through photographs. The essay also explores how oppression operates in relation to refugee experiences. Recognizing that knowledge of recent refugees of color has been absent and perhaps may not be addressed in school curriculum in the near f...
Sang Hwang; Janet Tipton Hindman
Although many studies currently detail refugee experiences about famine, war, and frightening events like the holocaust, little research about the portrayal of the refugee experience in children’s literature exists (Hope, 2008). This lack of research or gap creates a problem of understanding for educators and students in the multicultural classroom. These refugee children have had little or no formal education and this has created a major learning block for them in American classrooms. This s...
Lamb, Cathryn E Finney; Whelan, Anna Klinken; Michaels, Cecily
Australia is one of a few countries with a resettlement program for refugees. The organisation and provision of health services for refugees pose challenges to health service managers and service providers. Some groups have experienced severe trauma and, in the case of Hazara refugees, years of persecution and displacement. This qualitative study gained access to Hazara refugees in order to gain an understanding of their oral health experiences and to seek participant views on factors that impacted on their oral health status. All participants had poor oral health status, multiple tooth extractions, and had placed a low priority on their oral health. They had experienced violence and traumatic events associated with war and looting. Participants reported that they had limited access to dental practitioners and oral education; lived for extended periods with oral pain and untreated oral problems; and treated oral pain with traditional pain remedies and tooth extractions. Service providers need to consider that elements of the refugee experience may affect health-seeking behavior and adherence to treatment. PMID:20166911
Full Text Available
2011 marks the anniversary of two important events in refugee protection. In 1951, the United Nations adopted the UN Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees. Forty years later, in 1991, the Executive Committee of the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR adopted Guidelines on the Protection of Refugee Women. Since 1991, there has been both progress and setbacks in providing equal and effective protection to both male and female refugees. The article concludes that the gap between rhetoric and reality for women and girls is still very large. Following a brief discussion of the demographic profile of refugees, the article discusses issues related to legal protection, physical security, and social and economic rights for refugee and displaced women. The article call for renewed efforts to implement fully the various legal instruments and guidelines that set out norms and standards of protection for refugees generally and women and girls specifically and to ensure that refugee and displaced women are able to participate actively in decisions that affect them and their families.
The Southeast Asian Refugee Youth Study (SARYS) is a local community study of the adaptation of refugee youth from Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. It is a follow-up study of the educational achievements of the children of the Southeast Asian refugee parents surveyed in the Indochinese Health and Adaptation Research Project (IHARP), 1982-1984 data. The project was conducted in San Diego, California and was partly funded by the U.S. Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR). The purpose of this study w...
Full Text Available Although many studies currently detail refugee experiences about famine, war, and frightening events like the holocaust, little research about the portrayal of the refugee experience in children’s literature exists (Hope, 2008. This lack of research or gap creates a problem of understanding for educators and students in the multicultural classroom. These refugee children have had little or no formal education and this has created a major learning block for them in American classrooms. This study seeks to answer the question: what are examples of refugee children’s literature and effective strategies to help children better understand and appreciate one another and their cultures? A book review of selected refugee children’s literature and an analysis of pedagogy of effective instructional strategies were the methodologies used in the study. Study findings indicate four refugee children’s books represent similarities and the uniqueness of the literature and identify effective instructional strategies and activities to enhance greater understanding of the refugee experience. Policy implications from the study suggest strategies that educators may employ to adopt children’s refugee literature in the multicultural classroom. The path to embrace, to enhance, and to celebrate the life experiences of refugee children may be accomplished through the implementation of these effective instructional strategies in the multicultural classroom to help children better understand and appreciate one another and their cultures.
Medianu, Stelian; Sutter, Alina; Esses, Victoria
News media make an essential contribution to the way in which the public processes and understands controversial issues such as the arrival of refugees in western countries. Indeed, they can have an important role in shaping the public’s responses to these issues by framing arguments to encourage a particular interpretation of an issue. The current research investigates how refugees were portrayed before and after the controversial arrival of a ship carrying Tamil refugees to Canada in August...
Being a refugee from a different culture, tradition and religion, Bhutanese refugees face difficulties in adjusting to a new country and a new environment. The objective of this research was to explore the conditions and quality of the life of Bhutanese refugees that have resettled in Norway and as important has been to make a comparison about the experience of those that first settled in Nepal and then resettled in Norway. To what degree have they been successfully integrated in Norwegian so...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Financial settlement. 96.32 Section 96.32 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Financial Management § 96.32 Financial settlement. The State must repay to the Department amounts found after...
Degryse, H.A.; van Achter, M.; Wuyts, G.
Abstract: We study the relation between liquidity in financial markets and post-trading fees (i.e. clearing and settlement fees). The clearing and settlement agent (CSD) faces different marginal costs for different types of transactions. Costs are lower for an internalized transaction, i.e. when buy
Full Text Available Abstract Previous studies about unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs showed that they are a highly vulnerable group who have greater psychiatric morbidity than the general population. This review focuses on mental health issues among URMs. Articles in databases PsycINFO, Medline and PubMed from 1998 to 2008 addressing this topic were reviewed. The literature had a considerable emphasis on the assessment of PTSD symptoms. Results revealed higher levels of PTSD symptoms in comparison to the norm populations and accompanied refugee minors. In several studies, age and female gender predicted or influenced PTSD symptoms. The existing literature only permits limited conclusions on this very hard to reach population. Future research should include the analysis of long-term outcomes, stress management and a more thorough analysis of the whole range of psychopathology. Additionally, the development of culturally sensitive norms and standardized measures for diverse ethnic groups is of great importance.
Gold, S J
Despite their impressive progress in adapting to American life, many Vietnamese still suffer from wartime experiences, culture shock, the loss of loved ones, and economic hardship. Although this trauma creates substantial mental health needs, culture, experience, and the complexity of the American resettlement system often block obtaining assistance. Vietnamese mental health needs are best understood in terms of the family unit, which is extended, collectivistic, and patriarchal. Many refugees suffer from broken family status. They also experience role reversals wherein the increased social and economic power of women and children (versus men and adults) disrupts the traditional family ethos. Finally, cultural conflicts often make communication between practitioners and clients difficult and obscure central issues in mental health treatment. Rather than treating symptoms alone, mental health workers should acknowledge the cultural, familial, and historical context of Vietnamese refugees. PMID:1413772
In this paper, the numbers of refugees travelling to the European Union are set in a global context. It is argued that the increasing restrictions placed on asylum seekers from the 1980s onwards in the UK and the associated culture of deterrence and prohibition have had the perverse effect of supporting the economic market for people smuggling. It appears that these restrictions were initially designed to deter people, most of whom would have been granted humanitarian assistance had they mana...
Sesay, Fatmata Lovetta
Many reasons have been put forward explaining the rate of economic growth in developing countries. The aim of this dissertation is to investigate whether refugees and conflict help to explain Africa and other developing regions’ rate of economic growth. Economists, especially development economists, have been long engaged with the question of what makes different countries more or less successful economically and what explains their rate of economic growth. Different authors select their...
This article examines the driving forces of the magnitude, composition and duration of refugee movements caused by conflict and persecution. The decision to seek temporary or permanent refuge in the region of origin or in a more distant asylum destination is based on inter-temporal optimization. We find that asylum seeking in Western countries is rather a phenomenon of comparatively less persecuted people. In an attempt to reduce their respective asylum burdens, Western countries and host cou...
Gold, S J
Despite their impressive progress in adapting to American life, many Vietnamese still suffer from wartime experiences, culture shock, the loss of loved ones, and economic hardship. Although this trauma creates substantial mental health needs, culture, experience, and the complexity of the American resettlement system often block obtaining assistance. Vietnamese mental health needs are best understood in terms of the family unit, which is extended, collectivistic, and patriarchal. Many refugee...
This conference paper develops three points by: Questioning the timing of and rationale for the emergence of the post-2003 'Iraq refugee crisis' paradigm; Analysing the application of the humanitarian paradigm as a framework of interpretation and intervention to respond to the situation in Jordan when placed 1/ against the back drop of the continuum of migration from Iraq and 2/ against the political economy of assistance in the Jordanian context.
The manuscript analyzes the current refugee’s crisis in Europe and the situation of the Syrian refugees in Syria’s neighboring countries such as Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey. The presented comparative analysis between the first instance decisions in asylum policies of several European countries is accompanied by additional statistics of the refugee’s influx. Several suggestions related to the necessary measures to be taken in short and long term in order to ensure more sustainable migration pat...
The manuscript analyzes the current refugee’s crisis in Europe and the situation of the Syrian refugees in Syria’s neighboring countries such as Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey. The presented comparative analysis between the first instance decisions in asylum policies of several European countries is accompanied by additional statistics of the refugee’s influx. Several suggestions related to the necessary measures to be taken in short and long term in order to ensure more sustainable migration pat...
textabstractThe paper looks at South Africa’s complex history and policies of racism, social separation and control and the impact that this has had on the nature of migration and refugee policy. The paper argues that this legacy has resulted in policy and implementation that is highly racialized, coupled with a society expressing growing levels of xenophobia. Some causes and manifestations of xenophobia in South Africa are explored. It further examines how actions of police and civil servant...
W Randall Haas
Full Text Available Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare-behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation.
Centlivres, P; Centlivres-demont, M
Although international organizations and Pakistanis expect Afghans to act like true refugees--dependent, obedient, and grateful--Afghans consider themselves as temporary exiles who, in protest against an anti-Islamic government, found temporary refuge in Pakistan; or as soldiers in the holy wars who temporarily use their Islamic neighbor as a base before returning to fight in Afghanistan. Conforming to this concept and to these objectives, the refugees seek to preserve a certain autonomy and to lean towards forms of organization which are derived either from their traditional social structure, or as is more common now, from the ideology of the Islamic movements. One can understand that this situation may cause many misunderstandings, especially with international organizations which finance and supervise aid to the Afghan refugees in Pakistan. As for anthropologists, it is necessary to go beyond known concepts, to relativize familiar models and to act on changes which have come about in the structures and ideology of the Afghan people. PMID:12315316
Full Text Available The systems through which cross-border financial transactions are being accomplished are much more complex than domestic funds transfer systems, because it involves one or more intermediate institutions, networks using different compensation from countries that have different currencies and even performed, including operations exchange. The European Community is constantly concerned about efficient cross-border payments but also about the consumer protection of these services, so as to ensure the same conditions for cross-border services, but also for national services and to stimulate cross-border investment was adopted Directive 97/5/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 January 1997 on cross-border credit transfers, repealed by Directive 2007/64/EC. Article 10 of Directive 97/5/EC established a series of minimum requirements and measures relating to cross-border credit transfers. Thus Member States shall ensure that there are adequate and effective complaints and redress procedures for the settlement of disputes between an originator and his institution or between a beneficiary and his institution in case of failure transfers. In Romania, the provisions of Directive 2007/64/EC were transposed by the adoption of Emergency Ordinance no. 113/2009 which repeals the Government Ordinance no. 6 / 2004 on cross-border transfers. This document provides that each institution must have appropriate procedures for resolving customer complaints in connection with the execution of a cross border institution or commitments in connection with such transfer. In the legal doctrine prior to the adoption of Government Ordinance no. 6 / 2004, it was proposed that the National Bank of Romania, as banking supervisory authority, in some specialized structures, ensure procedures to enforce the settlement of disputes between consumers and financial service providers of banking and insurance. The solution was acquired by the Romanian legislature, so the
With the break of the civil war in Syria, many Syrians have been displaced either internally or as refugees. Turkey, one of the leading host of Syrian refugees, has made changes to the policies to accommodate the needs of Syrians. Education is one of the most prominent needs of displaced refugee children. While 80 percent of refugee children…
...-59, Refugee Case Records (72 FR 45081) and State-60, Refugee Processing Center Records (72 FR 45084... Act; System of Records: State-59, Refugee Case Records SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Department of State proposes to consolidate two existing systems of records, Refugee Case Records,...
Agencies and personnel working with refugees increasingly view schools as a central pillar for providing vital services that assist refugees in their survival and rehabilitation. The schooling of refugees has often been suddenly and violently curtailed by the onset of the emergency situations from which the refugees have fled. Experiences of war…
... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage of refugees who spend down to State... Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Medical Assistance Conditions of Eligibility...
Ross, Tara W.
A global refugee crisis necessitates an understanding of policymaking governing the resettlement of refugees in the United States. Resettling more refugees than all other countries combined, the United States emphasizes rapid employment over post-secondary education for adult resettled refugees in order to compel their self-sufficiency. However,…
Frederiksen, Hanne W; Krasnik, Allan; Nørredam, Marie
Quota refugees coming to Denmark are mandated refugee status offshore and approximately 500 quota refugees are resettled annually. Upon arrival to Denmark, quota refugees are received directly in the municipalities and municipal caseworkers therefore have the practical responsibility for their he...
Riggs, Elisha; Block, Karen; Gibbs, Lisa; Davis, Elise; Szwarc, Josef; Casey, Sue; Duell-Piening, Philippa; Waters, Elizabeth
The importance of English language acquisition for resettlement of refugees is well established, particularly as a pathway to education, employment, health and social connections. A qualitative study was conducted in 2011 in Melbourne, Australia utilising focus groups with 87 refugee background women from Karen, Iraqi, Assyrian Chaldean, Lebanese,…
Taylor, Sandra; Sidhu, Ravinder Kaur
The worldwide rise in numbers of refugees and asylum seekers suggests the need to examine the practices of those institutions charged with their resettlement in host countries. In this paper, we investigate the role of one important institution--schooling--and its contribution to the successful resettlement of refugee children. We begin with an…
Petersen, H D; Lykke, J; Hougen, H P;
To describe exposure to human rights violations among refugees from rural Burma; to compare exposure experienced by an ethnic Burmese minority group, the Shans, with that of the rest of the study population; and to compare exposure of those who had fled Burma recently with that of refugees who had...
Ruiz, Melissa; Kabler, Brenda; Sugarman, Melissa
Refugee and immigrant children constitute one of the fastest growing groups in the United States, with numbers increasing to an estimated 9 million children by the end of 2010. The Upper Darby School District, located in the southeast corner of Pennsylvania, has witnessed the rapid growth of a diverse immigrant and refugee population during the…
... in the Federal Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, October 2, 2013 [FR Doc... Documents#0;#0; ] Presidential Determination No. 2014-01 of October 2, 2013 Refugee Admissions for Fiscal... up to 70,000 refugees to the United States during fiscal year (FY) 2014 is justified by...
Ferfolja, Tania; Vickers, Margaret
Rarely do refugee students entering Australian schools possess the multiple forms of social, linguistic and cultural capital that are taken for granted in mainstream classrooms. While refugees of high-school age are assisted initially through Intensive English Centres (IECs), the transition from IECs to mainstream classrooms presents substantial…
Passage: Journal of Refugee Education, 1987
A special issue of the Journal of Refugee Education devoted to the Galang (Indonesia), site of the Overseas Refugee Training Program, contains these articles: "Origins of the Galang Program: A Historical Perspective" (Melvin E. Frarey); "'I Can't Believe I Am Flying over the South China Sea...'" (Elizabeth Tannenbaum); "The Beginning" (Fred…
Yakushko, Oksana; Backhaus, Autumn; Watson, Megan; Ngaruiya, Katherine; Gonzalez, Jaime
The number of recent immigrants and refugees in the United States is growing dramatically. Among key reasons for migration is search for adequate employment and hope for opportunities to develop occupationally. However, recent immigrants and refugees face multiple obstacles in their career development in the United States. This article uses social…
Rogge, John R.
A significant component of modern migrants are refugees or displaced persons. Historically, most involuntary migrants readily found permanent asylum in the traditional immigrant receiving countries of the New World. This situation is changing. Source areas of refugees have shifted from the European arena to the Third World, and the causes of…
Liu, William T.; Murata, Alice K.
The experiences of Vietnamese refugees in transitional camps in the summer and fall of 1975 are described in this paper. The data show that the mental health needs of the refugees were not taken seriously and that it was assumed that assimilation would be problem-free. (Author/AM)
ter Heide, F.J.J.
Background Many refugees resettled in Western countries struggle to attain a level of psychological well-being. Heavily burdened by pre- and post-migration stressors, refugees are at considerable risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The accumulation of stressors is also what make
Rubin, Gary; And Others
A comprehensive review of current refugee policy and program issues is provided in this paper, which is intended to serve both as a status report and a guide to developing an agenda for the future. Chapter I deals with early warning as to potential refugee movements, mass asylum, and interim assistance. Chapter II discusses and analyzes four types…
For women who have escaped political crises, NGOs can provide a healing space. This study explores nonformal and informal educational processes that occur in NGOs founded and staffed by refugee women who have resettled in the United States. Interviews and documents demonstrate that the refugee women gain knowledge and skills through participation…
Kirk, Jackie; Cassity, Elizabeth
There is a growing emphasis on the right to and the benefits of education for young people within refugee camps. The benefits include physical and cognitive protection as well as the promotion of a sense of normalcy and feelings of hope. Minimum standards for refugee youth have been developed, which the authors argue should be used by not only by…
Roxas, Kevin C.
This article critically examines the reality of building community in public schools and specifically identifies the obstacles faced by teachers who try to create community with refugee students. The research in the article focuses on Ms. Patricia Engler, a teacher in a newcomer center for refugee students located in an urban setting. Engler…
McCleary, Jennifer S; Shannon, Patricia J; Cook, Tonya L
An emerging body of literature identifies substance use as a growing concern among refugees resettling in the United States. Like immigrants, refugees may face cultural, linguistic, or systems barriers to connecting with mainstream substance use treatment programs, which may be compounded by refugees' unique experiences with exposure to trauma, displacement in refugee camps, and resettlement. This qualitative study explores factors that support and prevent refugees from connecting with chemical health treatment. Fifteen participants who identified as social service or public health professionals who work with refugees responded to an online, semistructured survey about their experiences referring refugees to substance use treatment. Resulting data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Themes emerged identifying a lack of culturally informed treatment models, policy issues, and client characteristics such as motivation and past trauma as barriers to engaging with treatment. Ongoing case management and coordination were identified as important to successful linkage. Findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of how to support refugees seeking substance use treatment and suggest that developing trauma informed, culturally relevant models of treatment that are integrated with primary health care and geographically accessible may enhance treatment linkage. PMID:26667046
Mthethwa-Sommers, Shirley; Kisiara, Otieno
This article is based on a study that examined how students from refugee backgrounds cope with victimization and bullying in three urban high schools in the United States. Qualitative methods of data collection and analysis were employed. Twelve high school students from refugee backgrounds participated in the study, which involved focus group…
Gossett, Linda S.
New groups of refugees settled in apartments far from city services. Their children lacked access to organized after-school activities and the opportunity to practice English. The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) wanted to reach and teach the young refugees but lacked the staff and budget to do so. This article discusses how…
Darwish, Kareem; Magdy, Walid
The Paris attacks prompted a massive response on social media including Twitter. This paper explores the immediate response of English speakers on Twitter towards Middle Eastern refugees in Europe. We show that antagonism towards refugees is mostly coming from the United States and is mostly partisan.
This dissertation explores the creation and development of a community based language and health program for Iraqi refugees. The need for the program is contextualized by international, national and local policies of refugee resettlement, policies for language and education, and the interpretation of these policies on the ground. Ideologies…
UNRWA is the largest UN operation in the Middle East, with over 27,000 staff, almost all of whom are refugees themselves. Originally envisaged as an organisation with a temporary mandate, UNRWA’sprogrammes have evolved to meet the changing needsof the 4.3 million Palestine refugees living in the GazaStrip, the West Bank, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria.
Idemudia, Erhabor S.; Williams, John K.; Madu, Sylvester N.; Wyatt, Gail E.
Zimbabwean refugees can be considered a vulnerable group in terms of how they are displaced with many of them having lived through hardships on their way to South Africa and other African countries. Zimbabwe is known to be Africa’s most extraordinary producer of migrants and the biggest producer of refugees in Southern Africa. It is estimated that 3.4 million Zimbabweans, a quarter of the country’s population, have fled the country. Economic collapse, hunger and political repression have been blamed for the mass exodus. The present study examines the impact of trauma exposures (pre- and post-migration stressors and poor mental health) on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among homeless Zimbabwean refugees living in South Africa. Through a guided convenient sampling, in-depth interviews using questionnaires were collected from 125 homeless Zimbabwean refugees in Polokwane, Limpopo Province, South Africa. The study was anchored on the hypothesis that predictor variables (pre- and post- migration stressors, poor mental health) would significantly affect outcomes (PTSD). Participants were assessed on demographic variables, pre- and post-migration difficulties checklists, mental health using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and the PTSD Checklist (Civilian Version (PCL). Participants ranged from 18 to 48 years with a mean age of 28.3 years (SD = 6.27). The majority of the sample had at least a secondary education (76.8%) and were employed as unskilled labourers (61.6%) in South Africa. Being married was reported by 54.4% in Zimbabwe but changed to only 19.2% in South Africa. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that the overall model significantly predicted PTSD among homeless Zimbabweans (R2 = 0.17, adjusted R2 = 0.11, F (6, 124) = 2.960, p < .01). Thus, the entire set of pre- and post-migration variables (Post total stress, PreThreat to life, Presexabuse, PrePoverty, Postsexabuse, Postpoverty and two mental health symptoms (Anxiety and
Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to review the status quo of multiculturalism with regard to Muslims and new refugees in Poland. We will point to the critical stance of Poles toward refugees in a situation where there is little experience with them. We will focus on the significant role played by the media and public discussion in shaping an attitude that can be described as outright hostility towards refugees. The perception of immigrants, refugees and ethnic minorities largely depends on the image of them in the media because media has become the main source of information about the 'others'. The essay draws from first results of research conducted in 2015. It contains an exploratory content analysis of Polish media on immigrants and refugees.
Williams, Bhanu; Cassar, Christine; Siggers, Georgie; Taylor, Sebastian
In mid-2015, there were an estimated 20.2 million refugees in the world; over half of them are children. Globally, this is the highest number of refugees moving across borders in 20 years. The rights of refugee children to access healthcare and be free from arbitrary detention are enshrined in law. Unaccompanied asylum-seeking children have a statutory medical assessment, but refugee children arriving with their families do not. Paediatricians assessing both unaccompanied and accompanied refugee children must be alert to the possibilities of nutritional deficiencies, infectious diseases, dental caries and mental health disorders and be aware of the national and international health guidance available for support. PMID:27470163
Nies, Mary A; Lim, Wei Yean Alyssa; Fanning, Kelly; Tavanier, Susan
The refugee population in the United States is steadily increasing. These populations face a plethora of diseases and chronic health problems (i.e. obesity, hypertension and depression) as they resettle into their new environment. Due to the lack of understanding, minority population refugee health is scarce and minimal at best. Refugees and healthcare professionals face similar barriers when it comes to seeking treatment and treatment itself. For example, refugees might not be able to communicate efficiently and understand the referral process while healthcare professionals do not understand the culture and language of their patients. However, more data is needed to determine if interprofessional teams consisting of differing healthcare professionals such as nurses, pharmacists, and dieticians that conduct home visits might be able to bridge the health care gap between individualized treatment and refugee needs. PMID:27113932
Rasmussen, Andrew; Verkuilen, Jay; Ho, Emily; Fan, Yuyu
Despite the central role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in international humanitarian aid work, there has been little examination of the measurement invariance of PTSD measures across culturally defined refugee subgroups. This leaves mental health workers in disaster settings with little to support inferences made using the results of standard clinical assessment tools, such as the severity of symptoms and prevalence rates. We examined measurement invariance in scores from the most widely used PTSD measure in refugee populations, the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ; Mollica et al., 1992), in a multinational and multilingual sample of asylum seekers from 81 countries of origin in 11 global regions. Clustering HTQ responses to justify grouping regional groups by response patterns resulted in 3 groups for testing measurement invariance: West Africans, Himalayans, and all others. Comparing log-likelihood ratios showed that while configural invariance seemed to hold, metric and scalar invariance did not. These findings call into question the common practice of using standard cut-off scores on PTSD measures across culturally dissimilar refugee populations. In addition, high correlation between factors suggests that the construct validity of scores from North American and European measures of PTSD may not hold globally. PMID:25894706
Smith, Cameron M.
Because permanent space settlement will be multigenerational it will have to be viable on ecological timescales so far unfamiliar to those planning space exploration. Long-term viability will require evolutionary and adaptive planning. Adaptations in the natural world provide many lessons for such planning, but implementing these lessons will require a new, evolutionary paradigm for envisioning and carrying out Earth-independent space settlement. I describe some of these adaptive lessons and propose some cognitive shifts required to implement them in a genuinely evolutionary approach to human space settlement.
... Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, October 8, 2010 [FR Doc. 2010-30826 Filed 12-6... Documents#0;#0; ] Presidential Determination No. 2011-02 of October 8, 2010 Fiscal Year 2011 Refugee Admissions Numbers and Authorizations of In-Country Refugee Status Pursuant to Sections 207 and...
In today's world for countries, teaching language and communication became an important issue for making these countries' cultures spread and making them powerful and effective in the global world. A way to make Turkey effective and well known is teaching Turkish and Turkish culture refugees are important opportunity for this. This study is one of…
Marston, John, Comp.
This 578-entry annotated bibliography is intended for use by people who work with Cambodian refugees in the United States, as well as anyone interested in Cambodian history, politics, and culture. It consists primarily of books and journal articles on Cambodia and Cambodians available in the University of Minnesota library system or that are part…
Dita Liliansa; Anbar Jayadi
Being a non-party to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (“1951 Refugee Convention”) and 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees (“1967 Protocol”), Indonesia does not have legal obligations to provide permanent resettlement for asylum seeker and/or refugee. However, as a transit country for those seeking shelter in Australia, Indonesia undergoes a myriad of issues resulting from illegal entrance by asylum seeker and/or refugee. Besides having neither legal framewor...
Crista E. Johnson-Agbakwu; Allen, Jennifer; Nizigiyimana, Jeanne F.; Ramirez, Glenda; Hollifield, Michael
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression are the most common mental health disorders in the refugee population. High rates of violence, trauma, and PTSD among refugee women remain unaddressed. The process of implementing a mental health screening tool among multi-ethnic, newly-arrived refugee women receiving routine obstetric and gynecologic care in a dedicated refugee women’s health clinic is described. The Refugee Health Screener-15 (RHS-15) is a culturally-responsive, ...
Philip Verwimp; Jan Van Bavel
In the 1960s and 1990s, internal strife in Rwanda has caused a mass flow of refugees into neighbouring countries. This paper explores the cumulated fertility of Rwandan refugee women and the survival of their children. To this end, we use a national survey covering 6420 former refugee and non-refugee households conducted between 1999 and 2001. The findings support old-age security theories of reproductive behaviour: refugee women had higher fertility but their children had lower survival chan...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitation on informal settlement. 71.38 Section 71.38 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... PROCEEDINGS Compliance and Settlement Informal Settlement § 71.38 Limitation on informal settlement. Where...
Full Text Available Abstract The allowable settlement of pipelines has been mentioned rarely in design references and codes. The present paper studies the effects of differential settlement of pipeline bed on resulted forces and deformations and then determines the allowable differential settlement of pipelines in two conditions as follows: (i heterogeneous soil bed and (ii adjacent to steel tanks. To accomplish the studies, numerical simulation of pipeline is used. The pipeline bed is idealized by Winkler springs and four-element standard viscoelastic Burger model. Also, the use of geosynthetic reinforcement is studied in heterogeneous soil beds and the effect of geosynthetics on decreasing the settlement is investigated. The pipeline-tank joints in two cases of fixed and flexible joints are investigated and the results for two kinds of joints are compared.
The civil construction of the reactor building of Narora Atomic Power Project has a special problem. The stability of the structure is liable to settlement as this location falls in seismic zone. To obviate the possibility of large scale unequal settlements, the reactor building is founded on a 4 meter thick rigid raft concreted in three layers, at a depth of 13 meters below ground. Stainless steel tanks will be embedded at 17 locations to measure relative settlements. The relative elevation difference will be detected by electrical probes when the water level in any one of the tanks touches the tip of the probes. The design envisages a maximum permissible unequal settlements of about 10 mm. over a period of 20 years. (K.B.)
Daniela Russo; Terry L. Hart; Chryssa Papathanassiou
In the context of securities clearing and settlement systems, the nature of governance arrangements acquires a dimension that goes beyond their traditional function in corporate law. They constitute a tool for regulators and central banks to achieve their respective policy goals relating to market operation, market integrity, and systemic stability. In the light of the analysis of this paper, and pending a further evolution in the regulation of securities clearing and settlement in the Commun...
The ways of settlement used within international commercial relations have evolved continuously, as an effect of the evolution of the world economy, as a whole, but also as an effect of the evolution of information technology and message transmitting techniques. In the same manner, the ways of settlement which are used in tourism, have also evolved due to the necessity to meet the high volume of international payments for tourism services. Cash payments, traveller’s cheques, bank card payment...
This paper is a report on work in progress. I have recently finished my fieldwork in three refugee camps in the West Bank: Shuafat RC, which is in the Jerusalem Municipal Area, Dheisheh RC, which is in the Bethlehem Governorate, and Tulkarem RC, which is in the north of the West Bank near the Green Line. I have been recording the speech of respondents in these locations to find out whether contact with Hebrew speakers is effecting language variation and change in spoken Palestinian Arabic. So...
Full Text Available The manuscript analyzes the current refugee’s crisis in Europe and the situation of the Syrian refugees in Syria’s neighboring countries such as Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey. The presented comparative analysis between the first instance decisions in asylum policies of several European countries is accompanied by additional statistics of the refugee’s influx. Several suggestions related to the necessary measures to be taken in short and long term in order to ensure more sustainable migration patterns are discussed in detail.
Full Text Available In the process of reintegration of the urban system new settlements are emerging on theurban rim, transitional zones are reurbanised, derelict areas within the cities are being developedand degraded urban areas of derelict industrial complexes are being renaturalised. Inthe periphery combined research and production parks are being set up, in the open landscapeintegrated business, trade and recreational centres are springing up. Decentralisationand recentralisation of focal points of development accompany the contemporary processesof reurbanisation and suburbanisation – they are simultaneous and move in two-direction i.e. to and from the city. We understand them as manifestation of a dynamic balance amongcontradiction existing between the centre and the rim. Deindustrialisation and relocation ofproduction and distribution from the centres of gravity to the periphery generate extensivedegraded urban areas within cities and between the city and suburbs. The periphery is beingurbanised with the creation of new, dispersed and nonhierachical poles of development, andthe city and inner city is undergoing reurbanization. The general environmental conditionsin the city and in the countryside are being equalised, the potentials of development arebeing sought in the comparative advantages of local conditions: be it attractive urban districts,be it suburban entities or countryside areas.
... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...
The globalized world is facing increasing refugee flows over the past years, which brings challenges for the receiving countries. One important part of this challenge is the education of refugee children. Particularly unaccompanied minor refugees are often not noticed by the society and policies. Therefore they are even more vulnerable than other refugee children. Providing a quality education as stated in the Education for All Goals and the right to education given through the UN Convention ...
Handlos, Line Neerup; Olwig, Karen Fog; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian;
Elderly migrants constitute a considerable share of global return migration; nevertheless, literature on the health aspects of the return migration among these migrants is still scarce. This study explores the significance of return migration among elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees from...... Denmark and the role of health issues in their decision to return. It is based on semi-structured interviews with 33 elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees who have moved back to Bosnia and Herzegovina, and 10 elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees who have remained in Denmark. The interviews show...
Burcu Togral Koca
Turkey has followed an "open door" policy towards refugees from Syria since the March 2011 outbreak of the devastating civil war in Syria. This â€œliberalâ€ policy has been accompanied by a â€œhumanitarian discourseâ€ regarding the admission and accommodation of the refugees. In such a context, it is widely claimed that Turkey has not adopted a securitization strategy in its dealings with the refugees. However, this article argues that the stated â€œopen doorâ€ approach and its limitations ha...
Betül Dilara ŞEKER
Full Text Available In this article, the education of refugees’ children, discussed as the problems faced by the educational process. With this study, refugee children status, their educational needs, by drawing attention to their problems, to raise awareness about the importance of this issue and is currently non-existent national work, which aims to contribute to a small number. In this review Turkey in the concept of a refugee, refugee children's life in training, the problems encountered in this process will be evaluated and the process of education with social psychological concepts will be discussed and suggestions will be presented on the subject.
Achiume, E. Tendayi
The Syrian refugee crisis may soon be the largest since the Second World War. This Article is the first to analyze the devastating fallout of this crisis, and to propose a novel approach to a perennial international law problem at its center. Nearly all of the more than 4 million refugees that have fled the conflict in Syria are concentrated in five countries in the region. These countries do not have the resources to sustain these refugees and there is no principled basis for the current dis...
Rousseau, Cécile; Guzder, Jaswant
Because refugee families tend to underutilize mental health services, schools have a key mediation role in helping refugee children adapt to their host country and may become the main access point to prevention and treatment services for mental health problems. Many obstacles hamper the development of school-based prevention programs. Despite these difficulties, a review of existing school-based prevention programs points to a number of promising initiatives that are described in this article. More interdisciplinary work is needed to develop and evaluate rigorously joint school-based education and mental health initiatives that can respond to the diverse needs of refugee children. PMID:18558311
Blanchet, Karl; Fouad, Fouad M; Pherali, Tejendra
The crisis in Syria has forced more than 4 million people to find refuge outside Syria. In Lebanon, in 2015, the refugee population represented 30 % of the total population. International health assistance has been provided to refugee populations in Lebanon. However, the current humanitarian system has also contributed to increase fragmentation of the Lebanese health system. Ensuring universal health coverage to vulnerable Lebanese, Syrian and Palestinian refugees will require in Lebanon to redistribute the key functions and responsibilities of the Ministry of Health and its partners to generate more coherence and efficiency. PMID:27252775
Oucho, J O
This examination of emigration dynamics focuses on 13 countries extending from Eritrea to Zimbabwe and Mozambique on the eastern African mainland and on 5 Indian Ocean island nations. The first part of the study looks at the temporal, spatial, and structural perspectives of emigration dynamics. Part 2 considers international migration in the region according to Appleyard's typology (permanent settlers, labor migration, refugees, and illegal migrants) with the additional category of return migration. Measurement issues in emigration dynamics are discussed in part 3, and the demographic/economic setting is the topic of part 4. The demographic factors emphasized include spatial distribution, population density, population structure, population dynamics, demographic transition, and the relationship between internal and international migration. Other major topics of this section of the study are the economic base, the human resource base, population and natural resources, the sociocultural context (emigration, chain migration, return migration, and migration linkages and networks), political factors (including human rights, minority rights and security, regional integration and economic cooperation, and the impact of structural adjustment programs), and a prediction of future emigration dynamics. It is concluded that refugee flows remain a major factor in eastern African countries but the development of human resources in the northern portion of the region indicates development of potential labor migration from this area. Data constraints have limited measurement of emigration in this region and may contribute to the seeming indifference of most eastern African countries to emigration policies. Emigration in this region has been triggered by deteriorating economic and political conditions and is expected to increase. PMID:12347007
Williams, Jill; Ibisomi, Latifat; Sartorius, Benn; Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark; Tollman, Stephen; Garenne, Michel
Background Although there are significant numbers of people displaced by war in Africa, very little is known about long-term changes in the fertility of refugees. Refugees of the Mozambican civil war (1977–1992) settled in many neighbouring countries, including South Africa. A large number of Mozambican refugees settled within the Agincourt sub-district, underpinned by a Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance Site (AHDSS), established in 1992, and have remained there. The AHDSS data provide a unique opportunity to study changes in fertility over time and the role that the fertility of self-settled refugee populations plays in the overall fertility level of the host community, a highly relevant factor in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives To examine the change in fertility of former Mozambican self-settled refugees over a period of 16 years and to compare the overall fertility and fertility patterns of Mozambicans to host South Africans. Methods Prospective data from the AHDSS on births from 1993 to 2009 were used to compare fertility trends and patterns and to examine socio-economic factors that may be associated with fertility change. Results There has been a sharp decline in fertility in the Mozambican population and convergence in fertility patterns of Mozambican and local South African women. The convergence of fertility patterns coincides with a convergence in other socio-economic factors. Conclusion The fertility of Mozambicans has decreased significantly and Mozambicans are adopting the childbearing patterns of South African women. The decline in Mozambican fertility has occurred alongside socio-economic gains. There remains, however, high unemployment and endemic poverty in the area and fertility is not likely to decrease further without increased delivery of family planning to adolescents and increased education and job opportunities for women. PMID:23364078
Full Text Available Background: Although there are significant numbers of people displaced by war in Africa, very little is known about long-term changes in the fertility of refugees. Refugees of the Mozambican civil war (1977–1992 settled in many neighbouring countries, including South Africa. A large number of Mozambican refugees settled within the Agincourt sub-district, underpinned by a Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance Site (AHDSS, established in 1992, and have remained there. The AHDSS data provide a unique opportunity to study changes in fertility over time and the role that the fertility of self-settled refugee populations plays in the overall fertility level of the host community, a highly relevant factor in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives: To examine the change in fertility of former Mozambican self-settled refugees over a period of 16 years and to compare the overall fertility and fertility patterns of Mozambicans to host South Africans. Design: Prospective data from the AHDSS on births from 1993 to 2009 were used to compare fertility trends and patterns and to examine socio-economic factors that may be associated with fertility change. Results: There has been a sharp decline in fertility in the Mozambican population and convergence in fertility patterns of Mozambican and local South African women. The convergence of fertility patterns coincides with a convergence in other socio-economic factors. Conclusion: The fertility of Mozambicans has decreased significantly and Mozambicans are adopting the childbearing patterns of South African women. The decline in Mozambican fertility has occurred alongside socio-economic gains. There remains, however, high unemployment and endemic poverty in the area and fertility is not likely to decrease further without increased delivery of family planning to adolescents and increased education and job opportunities for women.
In this paper, the numbers of refugees travelling to the European Union are set in a global context. It is argued that the increasing restrictions placed on asylum seekers from the 1980s onwards in the UK and the associated culture of deterrence and prohibition have had the perverse effect of supporting the economic market for people smuggling. It appears that these restrictions were initially designed to deter people, most of whom would have been granted humanitarian assistance had they managed to arrive in the UK, so as to prevent them from accessing the decision-making process on asylum. Policy changes concerning travel, benefits, and other pressures on asylum seekers are also considered in the context of deterrence. The problems facing asylum seekers do not end with their arrival in a safe country. The current methods of determining refugee status are alarmingly weak. Indeed there is evidence suggesting that those who are most traumatised before arrival face systematic disadvantage. The focus of this paper is on the United Kingdom but its conclusions apply to most Western European countries. The paper concludes with some tentative suggestions for change. PMID:26514159
Full Text Available In this paper, the numbers of refugees travelling to the European Union are set in a global context. It is argued that the increasing restrictions placed on asylum seekers from the 1980s onwards in the UK and the associated culture of deterrence and prohibition have had the perverse effect of supporting the economic market for people smuggling. It appears that these restrictions were initially designed to deter people, most of whom would have been granted humanitarian assistance had they managed to arrive in the UK, so as to prevent them from accessing the decision-making process on asylum. Policy changes concerning travel, benefits, and other pressures on asylum seekers are also considered in the context of deterrence. The problems facing asylum seekers do not end with their arrival in a safe country. The current methods of determining refugee status are alarmingly weak. Indeed there is evidence suggesting that those who are most traumatised before arrival face systematic disadvantage. The focus of this paper is on the United Kingdom but its conclusions apply to most Western European countries. The paper concludes with some tentative suggestions for change.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Often new arrivals from refugee backgrounds have experienced poor health and limited access to healthcare services. The maternal and child health (MCH service in Victoria, Australia, is a joint local and state government operated, cost-free service available to all mothers of children aged 0–6 years. Although well-child healthcare visits are useful in identifying health issues early, there has been limited investigation in the use of these services for families from refugee backgrounds. This study aims to explore experiences of using MCH services, from the perspective of families from refugee backgrounds and service providers. Methods We used a qualitative study design informed by the socioecological model of health and a cultural competence approach. Two geographical areas of Melbourne were selected to invite participants. Seven focus groups were conducted with 87 mothers from Karen, Iraqi, Assyrian Chaldean, Lebanese, South Sudanese and Bhutanese backgrounds, who had lived an average of 4.7 years in Australia (range one month-18 years. Participants had a total of 249 children, of these 150 were born in Australia. Four focus groups and five interviews were conducted with MCH nurses, other healthcare providers and bicultural workers. Results Four themes were identified: facilitating access to MCH services; promoting continued engagement with the MCH service; language challenges; and what is working well and could be done better. Several processes were identified that facilitated initial access to the MCH service but there were implications for continued use of the service. The MCH service was not formally notified of new parents arriving with young children. Pre-arranged group appointments by MCH nurses for parents who attended playgroups worked well to increase ongoing service engagement. Barriers for parents in using MCH services included access to transportation, lack of confidence in speaking English and making
Mojca Šašek Divjak
Full Text Available The focus of the article is conditioning settlement to public transport on the regional and urban level. Similar to occurrences in Western Europe even in Slovenia strong settlement pressures and issues tied to development of suburbanisation are emerging in wider hinterlands of larger cities. In regional centres, where strong transport flows with frequent congestion happen, public transport should be the backbone of the transport system. It is important for consolidation of larger gravitation areas, especially conurbations. We can nevertheless establish that parallel to increasing use of private cars, the use of public transport is decreasing. Thus the present condition demands improvements of transport systems and suitable settlement density in conjunction with development of public transport. This can be achieved only by synergetic linking of public transport development and physical planning in a sustainable settlement system. In the Ljubljana functional region we specifically dealt with links between settlement and the regional public transport system, above all the proposed regional light-railway and tram system in the strict urban area. The decentralised denser settlement model is presented. Based on the study concerning settlement development in the railway corridors we proposed potential possibilities for denser settlement in the immediate areas of suburban railway stations in the northern part of the region, from Črnuče to Kamnik.
Disarmament is now generally accepted as the process of reduction in the size of, and expenditures on, armed forces, the destruction or dismantling of weapons, whether deployed or stockpiled, the progressive elimination of the capacity to produce new weapons and the release and integration into civilian life of military personnel. To realize this objective, the nations of the world have been advocating such measures as the establishment of nuclear weapon-free zones, non-proliferation, limitation of the arms trade, reduction of military budgets, and confidence-building measures. To ensure general and complete elimination of arms, there has been widespread recognition of the need to link the disarmament process with other political as well as socio-economic problems of the world such as the need for security, good relations between states and development of a system of peaceful settlement of disputes. Other measures that have been considered to be relevant in boosting the disarmament process include the role of the general public in putting pressure on their respective governments with a view to accelerating and realizing disarmament objectives. Africans have presented to the world a strong case for global disarmament
Full Text Available In 2007 the Women’s Refugee Commission launched a major research project to assess the situation for those living with disabilities among displaced and conflict-affected populations.
Full Text Available The Rohingya, a persecuted minority, has faced decades of harsh treatment and made stateless by the military government in Myanmar. To escape from this severe repression, most Rohingya flee to Bangladesh, Thailand or Malaysia. In Malaysia, this community has been living invisibly for more than three decades. Just like other refugees, the Rohingya are not allowed to work legally and do not have access to free healthcare and education in this country. Many of these refugee children learn in the learning centres run by the community with the help of UNHCR and local NGOs and in madrasah1 after school hours. Nevertheless there is a huge gap in education for these children, especially for girls and boys over 15 years old. This paper addresses the gap, discusses the teaching and learning provided in the refugee learning centres and the future of these refugee children in Malaysia.
Full Text Available While the international community is still working out howto identify and best serve them, refugees and IDPs in urbansettings are making their own way – often placing themselvesat considerable risk.
Lauren Heller; Dale Buscher
While the international community is still working out howto identify and best serve them, refugees and IDPs in urbansettings are making their own way – often placing themselvesat considerable risk.
Refugee advocates committed to the promotion of asylum and combating the xenophobia that has reduced possibilities for refuge in host countries should be concerned about the recent debate surrounding the issue of internally displaced people (IDPs).
Full Text Available Refugees and asylum seekers detained in Kenya risk multiple convictions and protracted detention due to poor coordination between immigration officials, police and prison officers, coupled with lack of interpreters and low levels of knowledge among government officers.
Gavin David White
Palestine refugees in Syria find themselves once more engulfed in a cycle of conflict and displacement that exacerbates their underlying vulnerability and highlights the ongoing need for durable solutions.
Gavin David White
Full Text Available Palestine refugees in Syria find themselves once more engulfed in a cycle of conflict and displacement that exacerbates their underlying vulnerability and highlights the ongoing need for durable solutions.
Full Text Available This paper examines my effort to document the experiences of a Bhutanese refugee community in a mid-western city of the United States. In particular, the essay looks at housing experiences the community encountered and my efforts to translate the events through photographs. The essay also explores how oppression operates in relation to refugee experiences. Recognizing that knowledge of recent refugees of color has been absent and perhaps may not be addressed in school curriculum in the near future, this photo essay project was created to serve as a curriculum about marginalized communities who are invisible in the curriculum. By using photographs, I explore three concepts that may help us examine the relationship between space and politics: (1 ideal spaces (2 violated spaces (3 damaged spaces. Lastly, by examining refugee experiences, the paper examines pedagogical approaches utilizing photographs to document oppression.
Chang, Jacqueline Danielle
This is the English version of Jacqueline D. Chang's June 2009 Masters Thesis, Politics of North Korean refugees and regional security implication. A Hangul translation version may be found here: http://hdl.handle.net/10945/43808
Hamid M. Mohammadi
Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to investigate mechanisms to improve marginal settlement life in Koohdasht County in Lorestan province. This research was a sort of the survey studies and a questionnaire was compiled for collection of data. Statistical population of this study was included 1560 households; also sampling method was a sort of random sampling. Number of sample size was estimated 85 households. Questionnaire's reliability was confirmed through computing Cronbach's alpha coefficient which was 0.85. Face validity of questionnaire was confirmed by some Tehran university agricultural extension and education department scientific board members. Also data analyzed by WINspss 11.5. The results of research revealed that marginal area residents had not good financial situation but they undertook great supporting burden and in point of view access to services and life conditions had not good situation. Therefore improvement of life conditions of marginal settlement life such as fundamental infrastructure include communication systems and sanitation offloading system recognized as the most important mechanisms of marginal settlement improvement according to results of priority setting of marginal settlement situation mechanisms. Also the results of factor analysis showed that 7 main mechanisms were be effective in term of marginal settlement life improvement that in order to importance were included servicing and life condition improvement, credit-economic, civil and legal, control and prevention, population and migration control, infrastructures improvement and hygiene situation.
Li, Xin; Nielsen, Jens C. O.; Pålsson, Björn A.
A methodology for the simulation of track settlement in railway turnouts (switches and crossings, S&C) is presented. The methodology predicts accumulated settlement for a given set of traffic loads using an iterative and cross-disciplinary procedure. The different modules of the procedure include (I) simulation of dynamic vehicle-track interaction in a turnout applying a validated software for multibody vehicle dynamics considering space-dependent track properties, (II) calculation of load distribution and sleeper-ballast contact pressure using a detailed finite element model of a turnout that includes all of the rails (stock rails, switch rails, closure rails, crossing nose, wing rails and check rails), rail pads, baseplates and sleepers on ballast, (III) prediction of track settlement for a given number of load cycles and (IV) calculation of accumulated track settlement at each sleeper and the resulting vertical track irregularity along the turnout which is used as input in the next step of the iteration. The iteration scheme is demonstrated by calculating the track settlement at the crossing when the studied turnout is exposed to freight traffic in the facing move of the through route.
In reviewing the scientific explorations in human settlements in the past century, as well as the new accomplishments in the study on Chinese human settlements, the author proposes that the Sciences of Human Settlements should respond to a series of new situations and chal-lenges of world development, such as global climate change and development mode transformation, in order to embody the ideal of "a Greater Science, a Greater Humanism, and a Greater Art". It is argued that the development tendencies of Sciences of Human Settlements in China should include: the concern for people’s livelihood based on the principle of people-oriented, the enhancement of strategic spatial planning for the new modes of spatial growth, the rising of ecological awareness for the Green Revolution, the balance of urban and rural development for rational urbanization, the exploration for the Third System from the perspectives of both Eastern and Western cultures, the innovations on the education of human settlements and the creation of both a better environment and a harmonious society.
Dorall, R F
This article surveys the arrivals of Muslim refugees from countries in Southeast Asia who have not only come to Malaysia for political refuge, but who have also stayed on, in many instances integrating into the local Muslim community. The author concludes that Burmese, Thai, and Filipino Muslim refugee-cum-migrants, and the estimated 500,000 illegal Indonesian migrant workers in East and Peninsular Malaysia make the presence of economic migrants in Malaysia's towns and rural sectors a far more pressing concern to Malaysians than that posed by the arrival of genuine political refugees. Only the Indonesians present in Malaysia are consistently termed by all parties as illegal migrants and some of them have been subjected to well-publicized deportation by the Malaysian immigration authorities. Sympathy for fellow-Muslims in distress explains Malaysia's open-door policy to Muslim refugees. The Koran specifically enjoins Muslims to assist Muslim refugees who have been persecuted by others. However, the necessity to maintain regional political and military alliances, principally as a bulwark against Communism, and the Malay--Non-Malay, Muslim--Non-Muslim dichotomy in Malaysia which almost evenly divides Malaysia's 16 million population into mutually antagonistic halves, results in any overt public policy in favor of Malays and Muslims to be immediately denounced by the other half of the population as a move against the Non-Malays and Non-Muslims. Without political and media attention, the refugees live wherever they can find work, as do hundreds of thousands of mainly Indonesian illegal migrant workers. They surreptitiously get their children admitted to public schools, and through bribery, can even get Malaysian identification papers. Malaysia is a relatively tranquil haven for Malaysia's Muslim refugees compared to their homelands, but their continued stay remains dependent on the ever-present struggle for more equitable sharing of political and economic power between
ter Heide, F.J.J.
Background Many refugees resettled in Western countries struggle to attain a level of psychological well-being. Heavily burdened by pre- and post-migration stressors, refugees are at considerable risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The accumulation of stressors is also what makes them, in the eyes of many clinicians, complex and difficult to treat. Although trauma-focused treatment, such as trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy (TF-CBT) and eye movement desensitisa...
... exception of the following provisions: 45 CFR 400.5(d), 400.7, 400.51(b)(2)(i), 400.58(c), 400.94(a), 400.94... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawal from the refugee program. 400.301 Section 400.301 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE...
The Rohingya, a persecuted minority, has faced decades of harsh treatment and made stateless by the military government in Myanmar. To escape from this severe repression, most Rohingya flee to Bangladesh, Thailand or Malaysia. In Malaysia, this community has been living invisibly for more than three decades. Just like other refugees, the Rohingya are not allowed to work legally and do not have access to free healthcare and education in this country. Many of these refugee children learn in the...
Laasonen, Ed.D. Raimo J
The purpose of the study was to research how the Vietnamese refugees (N was 9) behave with a Finnish school environment. Participating observation was applied because of the lack of public possibilities to study the phenomenon openly. The Markovian approach was the analysis of the data. The results indicate school environment, its interaction guides how the refugees behave in their approach-avoidance behavior. Principally, the behavior of the surrounding school environment p...
Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily; Akhu-Zaheya, Laila; Burton, Ann; Burnham, Gilbert
Background The influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan presents an immense burden to the Jordanian health system. Changing lifestyles and aging populations are shifting the global disease burden towards increased non-infectious diseases including chronic conditions, co-morbidities, and injuries which are more complicated and costly to manage. The strain placed on health systems threatens the ability to ensure the health needs of both refugees and host country populations are adequately addresse...
Full Text Available In the early stage of the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a difficult debate took place between the European governments, UNHCE, ICRC and other organisations regarding the fate of those displaced by the war. Finally the European nations reluctantly agreed to provide refuge but they warned that the refugees would have to return to Bosnia as soon as the war ended. The return of refugees planned for the coming years will be difficult for several reasons.
Einollahi, B; Noorbala, M H; Kardavani, B; Moghani-Lankarani, M; Assari, S; Simforosh, N; Bagheri, N
There are more than 8 million refugees worldwide with the Middle East bearing the brunt. Socioeconomic factors are the major obstacles that refugees encounter when seeking health care in the host country. It, therefore, comes as no surprise that refugees are denied equal opportunities for one of the most sophisticated and expensive medical procedures in the world, kidney transplantation. With respect to transplantation, refugees are caught between a rock and a hard place: as recipients they have to single-handedly clear many hurdles on the arduous road to renal transplantation and as donors they are left unprotected against human organ trafficking. It should be the moral responsibility of the host country to provide this population with a support network. The ways and means of establishing this network should be defined locally; nevertheless, enabling refugees to receive a transplant is the most basic step, which should be followed by the provision of financial support and follow-up facilities in a concerted effort to ensure the continued function of the invaluable graft. It is also necessary that refugees be protected from being an organ reservoir on the black market. There are no precise regional or international data available on kidney transplantation in refugees; among the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation countries, only Iran, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and Turkey have thus far provided data on their respective kidney transplantation regulations and models. Other countries in the region should follow suit and design models tailored to the local needs and conditions. What could, indubitably, be of enormous benefit in the long term is the establishment of an international committee on transplantation in refugees. PMID:17524843
Benage, Matthew; Greenough, P Gregg; Vinck, Patrick; Omeira, Nada; Pham, Phuong
Background After more than three years of violence in Syria, Lebanon hosts over one million Syrian refugees creating significant public health concerns. Antenatal care delivery to tens of thousands of pregnant Syrian refugee women is critical to preventing maternal and fetal mortality but is not well characterized given the multiple factors obtaining health data in a displaced population. This study describes antenatal care access, the scope of existing antenatal care, and antenatal and famil...
Full Text Available UNRWA is the largest UN operation in the Middle East, with over 27,000 staff, almost all of whom are refugees themselves. Originally envisaged as an organisation with a temporary mandate, UNRWA’sprogrammes have evolved to meet the changing needsof the 4.3 million Palestine refugees living in the GazaStrip, the West Bank, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria.
Benage, Matthew; Greenough, P Gregg; Vinck, Patrick; Omeira, Nada; Pham, Phuong
Background: After more than three years of violence in Syria, Lebanon hosts over one million Syrian refugees creating significant public health concerns. Antenatal care delivery to tens of thousands of pregnant Syrian refugee women is critical to preventing maternal and fetal mortality but is not well characterized given the multiple factors obtaining health data in a displaced population. This study describes antenatal care access, the scope of existing antenatal care, and antenatal and fami...
Refugees, as forced migrants, have suffered displacement under conditions not of their own choosing. In 2000 there were thought to be 22 million refugees of whom 6 million were HIV positive. While the New Zealand government has accepted a number of HIV positive refugees from sub-Saharan Africa, this hospitality is under threat due to negative public and political opinion. Epidemic conditions raise the social stakes attached to sexual exchanges, contagion becomes a major figure in social relationships and social production, and the fears of the contagious nature of those 'just off the plane' connect refugees to an equally deep-seated fear of racial miscegenation. Jacques Derrida's notion of unconditional hospitality is a dream of a democracy which would have a cosmopolitan form. This means that one cannot decide in advance which refugees one might choose to resettle. This paper will use Derrida's notion of unconditional hospitality to emphasise the fragility of HIV positive refugees' position, caught between becoming newly made New Zealand subjects while at the same time having that subjecthood threatened. For Derrida, both ethics and politics demand both an action and a need for a thoughtful response (a questioning without limit). PMID:17100006
Donev, Donco; Onceva, Silvana; Gligorov, Ilija
The Kosovo refugee crisis in the Macedonia in 1999 was unique in terms of its unprecedented magnitude against its short duration (sharp increase and sudden decrease in refugee population), its high visibility in the world media, and attention received by donors. In the late March 1999, after the launch of the NATO air campaign against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, refugees from Kosovo began to enter Macedonia. Within 9 weeks, the country received 344,500 refugees. Aiming to provide an emergency humanitarian relief, United Nations, and international and national organizations together with the host country, donors, and other concerned parties coordinated and provided immediate assistance to meet the needs of refugees, including shelter in collective centers (camps) and accommodation in host families, nutrition, health care, and water/sanitation. The morbidity and mortality rates remained low due to the effective action undertaken by a great number of humanitarian organizations, backed up by strong governmental support. No significant epidemics developed in the camps, and there were no epidemic outbreaks during the crisis. Mortality rate of refugees was lower than in other emergency situations. PMID:11885045
During 1990-1993, 83,000 ethnic Nepalese fled from Bhutan to refugee camps in southeast Nepal after new citizenship policies were enacted by the Bhutanese government. Although annual nutrition surveys of children aged refugees arrived in 1990. After withdrawal of a fortified cereal from their rations, the number of reported cases of angular stomatitis (AS) (i.e., thinning and/or fissuring at the angles of the mouth, a sign of possible vitamin deficiency) increased six-fold during December 1998-March 1999 (from 5.5 to 35.6 cases per 1000 refugees) (Santa Tamang, MD, Save the Children Fund, United Kingdom, personal communication, 1999). The highest rates of AS were found among children and adolescents. In October 1999, CDC was invited by the World Food Programme and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees to assess the health status of adolescent refugees. This report summarizes the investigation, which indicated a high prevalence of low body mass index (BMI), anemia, low vitamin A status, and signs of micronutrient deficiencies among adolescent refugees. PMID:11032093
Full Text Available Abstract Background Providing reproductive and sexual health services is an important and challenging aspect of caring for displaced populations, and preventive and curative sexual health services may play a role in reducing HIV transmission in complex emergencies. From 1995, the non-governmental "Reproductive Health Group" (RHG worked amongst refugees displaced by conflicts in Sierra Leone and Liberia (1989–2004. RHG recruited refugee nurses and midwives to provide reproductive and sexual health services for refugees in the Forest Region of Guinea, and trained refugee women as lay health workers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 1999 to assess sexual health needs, knowledge and practices among refugees, and the potential impact of RHG's work. Methods Trained interviewers administered a questionnaire on self-reported STI symptoms, and sexual health knowledge, attitudes and practices to 445 men and 444 women selected through multistage stratified cluster sampling. Chi-squared tests were used where appropriate. Multivariable logistic regression with robust standard errors (to adjust for the cluster sampling design was used to assess if factors such as source of information about sexually transmitted infections (STIs was associated with better knowledge. Results 30% of women and 24% of men reported at least one episode of genital discharge and/or genital ulceration within the past 12 months. Only 25% correctly named all key symptoms of STIs in both sexes. Inappropriate beliefs (e.g. that swallowing tablets before sex, avoiding public toilets, and/or washing their genitals after sex protected against STIs were prevalent. Respondents citing RHG facilitators as their information source were more likely to respond correctly about STIs; RHG facilitators were more frequently cited than non-healthcare information sources in men who correctly named the key STI symptoms (odds ratio (OR = 5.2, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.9–13.9, and in men and
The aim of the study is the multifactor statistic families analysis of ingestion dose in rural settlement. The hypothesis of the determining role of a family as of social system in dose forming in rural settlement, has been approved. The most significant social-demographic features of a family influencing dose forming, were detected: the number of members of the family, number of children, average age, education and occupational orientation of the family. Despite their being linked with similar features of the family on the whole, age, education, occupation and gender of master of the family, influence most the dose forming. Young families with many children in which the master is a worker, having frequent contact with forest, have high doses. The knowledge of social structure of families will allow to predict the ingestion dose distribution in rural settlement. (Author)
The RE Open will be shown at the Mall Gallery London and the international section was judged by major practitioners and educators, print dealers and collectors, President of RE and Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum Dr Bren Unwin, John Purcell, Deborah Roslund, Colin Harrison, Dave Ferry, and Mark Hampson. Piece selected "African Dance" print.
This thesis starts by arguing that the civil conflicts that erupted in the African Great Lakes are rooted in a continuous pursuit of power, in which ethnic, regional and political identifiers are used by the contenders for power to rally community support. In an introductory chapter, I go back to the colonial era, drawing attention to Burundi and Rwanda, and then describe in more details Burundi's refugee crisis, ex-combatants' demobilization and the 2010 elections, all of which will be addre...
The authors propose a report on the various situations of people who had to be evacuated after the Fukushima accident. Along with examples of people who left their homes with taking with them a single object, the authors describe and comment how this evacuation occurred, the problems faced by the authorities for refugee reception and accommodation. This evacuation has been either organised or spontaneous. Hospitals had to be evacuated as well. Then, local authorities faced food shortage. Some animals have been saved, other starved to death. Dead animals are covered with lime. Dead bodies are decontaminated before being given back to families. Tests are regularly performed to assess people contamination. A second article discussed the bad news concerning the different Fukushima reactors with their melted cores. The geophysical aspects of the earthquake are evoked in a last article
. Settlements of this controversy govern whether the pupil or the educational institution becomes the main point of intervention. In Denmark, the particularities of settlements can be identified by juxtaposing the introduction of intelligence testing in the 1930s with the contemporary policy agenda of inclusion....... With intelligence testing, special needs education was to service children whose needs were seen as part of their human nature. Inclusion, in turn, assumes special needs to be stigmatizing cultural labels that need to be abandoned by changing school cultures. Drawing on actor-network theory we can approach...
Venkat Rao Pulla
Full Text Available This paper is about the Tibetan people in two settlements, mainly in Nepal and India. Tibetan ref- ugees started crossing the Himalayan range in April 1959, in the wake of the Dalai Lama’s flight into exile and landed mostly in Nepal and India. Tibetans around the world do not know their fu- ture nor do they appear unduly worried. Most of them appear resilient and hopeful to see a ‘free Tibet’ a dream closer to their hearts, someday in the future. In this paper, we delve at their deep association between their philosophy of life based on the principles of ‘karma’ and their everyday economic avocation of weaving ‘carpets’. We find that these people weave their lives around kar- ma and the carpets. Karma embodies their philosophical and spiritual outlook while carpets, mats and paintings symbolise their day-to-day struggles, enterprises to cope, survive, thrive and flour- ish. The ‘karma carpet’ symbolises their journey into the future. The Tibetans although a refugee group do not have the same rights and privileges comparable to other refugees living in the world decreed under the United Nations Conventions. In this paper, we present the socio-economic situ- ation of these refugees, their enterprise and their work ethic that makes them who they are in the Nepalese and in Indian societies. For this research, we have triangulated both desk studies and personal narratives from focus groups and interviews to present a discussion centred on the Ti- betan struggle for human rights and their entrepreneurship through the carpet industry mainly in Nepal and India.
Williams, David; Kho, Adrian; Daley, Andrew [School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland (Australia)
The paper discusses the settlement and strength of clay-rich coal mine spoil material, which was sourced from Jeebropilly coal mine in south-east Queensland, Australia. The settlement consists of three components: self-weight, collapse on wetting up, and weathering-induced settlements; 80% of the self-weight settlement of initially dry spoil occurs during placement. Due to corrosion cracking at highly stressed particle contacts, collapse settlement of spoil occurs on wetting up. Weathering-induced spoil settlement occurs over a variable timeframe that depends on durability of the spoil. Laboratory tests included material characterization and geotechnical parameter testing. The characterization of testing methodologies is presented. The results of the tests have implications on the shear strength and settlement of clay-rich spoil materials such as the weathered clayrock found in the upper part of the Jeebropilly coal mine. These implications are detailed and they shed some light on the settlement and strength behavior of these materials.
<正>1.Endeavors for constructing a comprehensive science of human settlements A new science of human settlements is emerging as a result of the threats we all face as a result of excessive greenhouse gases in the atmosphere,
Wilna L. Bean
Full Text Available Disasters are becoming an unavoidable part of everyday life throughout the world, including South Africa. Even though South Africa is not a country affected by large-scale disasters such as earthquakes, the impact of disasters in South Africa is aggravated significantly by the vulnerability of people living in informal settlements. Humanitarian logistics, as a ‘new’ sub-field in the supply chain management context, has developed significantly recently to assist in disaster situations. This paper provides an overview of the South African humanitarian logistics context. Even though humanitarian logistics plays a critical role in the aftermath of disasters, it extends far beyond events that can typically be classified as ‘disasters’. Therefore the implication of the South African humanitarian logistics context on future research and collaboration opportunities in South African humanitarian logistics is also discussed. Finally, two recent case studies in the South African humanitarian logistics environment are discussed.
NordREG finds it essential for the customers that a common integrated end-user electricity market is developed and that all end-users are able to take part in the Nordic market. A common Nordic balance settlement is one important part of such a change. However, attention has to be paid to the comments that a badly designed common system is worse than well-designed national systems. It is thus important that the change to a common balance settlement is so thoroughly investigated that the common system gives a basis for a well-functioning market. An important basis for such a change is an agreed vision for the process: The present different systems for balance settlement shall by the year 2010 be replaced by a common Nordic balance settlement. This means that: It will be possible for a supplier to sell to the whole Nordic market from one legal entity and using only one system for customer management and reporting. The common Nordic balance settlement will be designed in such a way that it contributes to a well functioning market. This means for example that it will be attractive even for small suppliers and some end-users to be balance responsible parties. It is feasible that the first phase is focused on those present differences that are most decisive for fulfilment of the vision. NordREG recommends that the following issues shall be discussed and agreed in co-operation between NordREG, Nordel and relevant stakeholders in the first phase: The definition shall include how the common Nordic balance settlement shall interact with the balance control and the balance regulation of the interconnected power system and the balance settlement between countries performed by the TSOs. The definition should include the cost-base for common Nordic balance settlement in relation to other system responsibility costs. The core activities of system responsibility have also been analyzed by NordREG. It is important to find a balance between inter alia the need for simplicity and the
Tanja R. MÃ¼ller
Full Text Available By investigating contemporary refugees, this paper analyses the contradictory dynamics of a global order whereby universal rights are distributed unequally through nation-state politics. It uses an ethnographic case study of Eritrean refugees in Tel Aviv as its empirical base in order to investigate refugeeness as a condition of everyday life. The paper demonstrates how a repressive environment within Eritrea has made people refugees, and how that condition is being reinforced by the Israeli governmentâ€™s refusal to recognise these refugees as such. It further interrogates the relationship between persecution and belonging that characterises the lives of Eritreans as refugees in Israel. The paper concludes by arguing that being a refugee does not preclude feeling a strong sense of national belonging. Eritrean refugees in Tel Aviv do not aspire to gain cosmopolitan citizenship rights but are driven by the desire to be rightful citizens of Eritrea.
Olsen, Christopher; El-Bialy, Rowan; Mckelvie, Mark; Rauman, Peggy; Brunger, Fern
Canadian national identity is based on a self-image of humanitarianism and liberality governed by ethical and moral principles of social justice, universal health care and equity for all. However, recent changes to the Interim Federal Health Program (IFHP) demonstrate that the current discourse on refugee policy in Canada is built on a socially constructed image of "the refugee." Drawing on contemporary refugee literature we look at how refugees are constructed as the 'Other,' both nationally and internationally. Using the recent changes to the IFHP as a case example, we demonstrate that the construction of "the refugee" as an Other has informed the cuts to refugee care in Canada. Exposing Othering in Canadian refugee policy is necessary for providing helpful and equitable treatment to refugees in Canada. PMID:24493019
Fike, D Christopher; Androff, David K
Refugees from Burma have comprised the largest group of refugees resettling in the United States over the past decade, with nearly 90,000 people, and 19 percent of the total refugee population. However, very little literature exists that describes the cultural context and displacement experiences of this population. This article addresses that gap in the literature by examining historical, social, political, and cultural dimensions relevant to social work practice with Burmese refugees. Practice with Burmese refugees should be informed by knowledge of refugee policy, refugee resettlement, and social services delivery systems; the Burmese historical and political context; the community's specific strengths, needs, and cultural diversity; and human rights and social justice issues. Strong community partnerships between social workers and indigenous community leaders, between resettlement agencies and ethnic community-based organizations, and between different Burmese refugee groups are important to meeting short- and long-term social services needs and fostering successful adaptation and community integration. PMID:27180523
Fernández-Huertas Moraga, Jesús; Rapoport, Hillel
First online: 27 November 2015 The Syrian Civil War gave rise to the largest refugee flight reaching Europe since the Yugoslavian wars in the 1990s. The crisis evidenced the deficiencies of the European Union Asylum Policy, which struggled both to offer solutions to Syrian refugees and to efficiently allocate costs across Member States. We draw on previous theoretical work to simulate how a system of tradable refugee-admission quotas coupled with a matching mechanism assigning refugees to ...
Jarkman Björn, Gunilla
Background: There are more than 45 million refugees and displaced people in the world. Children constitute almost half of the refugee population. It is an enormous challenge and a complex situation for refugee children and families escaping from their home country, to a new system of society to which they have to adapt and where they have to recapture a sense of coherence. This thesis focuses on the psychological health of younger refugee children before and after an intervention with family ...
Murray, Kate E.; Davidson, Graham R; Schweitzer, Robert D
There are increasing numbers of refugees worldwide, with approximately 16 million refugees in 2007 and over 2.5 million refugees resettled in the United States since the start of its humanitarian program. Psychologists and other health professionals who deliver mental health services for individuals from refugee backgrounds need to have confidence that the therapeutic interventions they employ are appropriate and effective for the clients with whom they work. The current review briefly survey...
The refugee crisis in Europe should not be understood simply as a humanitarian crisis, writes Christina Boswell. Those Syrian refugees fleeing to Europe represent just a small fraction of people displaced worldwide. Instead, she argues that the significance of the crisis lies in its disruption of the European project of outsourcing migration control. The arrival of refugees at EU borders has destabilised European efforts to distance itself physically from refugee flows, and to depict the issu...
McKenzie, Erica D.; Spiegel, Paul; Khalifa, Adam; Mateen, Farrah J.
Background: The burden of neuropsychiatric disorders in refugees is likely high, but little has been reported on the neuropsychiatric disorders that affect Syrian and Iraqi refugees in a country of first asylum. This analysis aimed to study the cost and burden of neuropsychiatric disorders among refugees from Syria and Iraq requiring exceptional, United Nations-funded care in a country of first asylum. Methods: The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees works with multi-disciplinary, i...
Background: Most refugees live in low-income countries. More than one hundred thousand Bhutanese refugees have been living in Nepal for several years. The association of torture and psychiatric morbidity with disability among such refugees is unknown. It is also important to understand how they perceive mental illness and disability. Objectives: (a) To compare disability between tortured and non-tortured Bhutanese refugees living in Nepal, (b) to investigate psychiatric comorbidity and its...
Given the degraded profile of the refugee in contemporary discourse, it is tempting to seek alternatives from a rich tradition of literary tropes of exile. However, this article argues that the romanticized figure of the literary exile ends up denying, albeit in positive terms, a genuine refugee voice, as much as the current impersonal hegemonic concept of the refugee as found in law. Ultimately, the spell in which refugees find themselves trapped today can be broken only by opening up a spac...
As the main refugee-recipient country for the post-2003 Iraqi exodus, Syria is currently believed to host more than one million Iraqi refugees in a volatile region. This warrants interest for anyone concerned with the transnational security implications of refugee flows from countries experiencing internal strife. Which are the most important of pre- or post-displacement factors for Syrian domestic security? Critically applying Lischer’s theory on refugee-related political violence, this fiel...
... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Real estate settlement procedures. 1940.406 Section... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Truth in Lending-Real Estate Settlement Procedures § 1940.406 Real estate settlement procedures. (a) General. This section provides the...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the...
Beard, Kathryn H.
The Settlement House Movement in the United States was a response by progressive reformers to meet the needs of urban poor and immigrant families in the early years of the 20th century. Some settlements were outreach services of churches. There are limited accounts of the experiences of the individuals who used the settlement houses. This study…
Park, Hyun Il; Park, Borinara; Lee, Seung Rae
In this study, several existing municipal solid waste (MSW) settlement estimation methods are reviewed and applied to analyze the settlement data of nine MSW landfills. Because a biodegradation-related settlement contributes differently to a long-term total settlement depending on the age of landfills, the actual MSW landfill sites are classified into three groups to specifically address the validity of each method in its prediction of a long-term settlement for each age category. Results demonstrate that there are considerable decreases in predicted settlement potentials as fill age increases. Comparisons indicate that the individual estimation methods display a considerable variation in predicting settlements in the fresh MSW landfills. On the other hand, for the old refuse landfills, all of the estimation methods, except the extended soil model, predict low settlement potentials. PMID:17355085
Cutler, David M; Gruber, Jonathan; Hartman, Raymond S; Landrum, Mary Beth; Newhouse, Joseph P; Rosenthal, Meredith B
Recent litigation against the major tobacco companies culminated in a master settlement agreement (MSA) under which the participating companies agreed to compensate most states for Medicaid expenses. Here the terms of the settlement are outlined and its economic implications analyzed using data from Massachusetts. The financial compensation to Massachusetts (and other states) under the MSA is substantial. However, this compensation is dwarfed by the value of the health impacts induced by the settlement. Specifically, Medicaid spending will fall, but only by a modest amount. More importantly, the value of health benefits ($65 billion through 2025 in 1999 dollars) from increased longevity is an order of magnitude greater than any other impacts or payments. The net efficiency implications of the settlement turn mainly on a comparison of the value of these health benefits relative to a valuation of the foregone pleasure of smoking. To the extent that the value of the health benefits is not offset by the value of the pleasure foregone, the economic impacts of the MSA will include a share of these health benefits. PMID:11887906
Bevan, Andrew; Jobbová, Eva; Helmke, Christophe;
based on nearest neighbour bearings and successive grid offsets e in order to explore possible rectilinear organisation in settlement layouts despite the presence of uneven and irregular patterns of archaeological dating and recovery. The results suggest a grid-like distribution of houseplots and, by...
Boje Groth, N.; Hansen, K.E.; Björnberg, U.;
Notatet er et indlæg på den Europæiske Økonomiske Kommissions (ECE) konference om by- og regionforskning, tema II: "Research on the Quality of Life in Urban Settlements, Warszawa, maj 1976. I notatet opstilles en begrebsramme for livskvalitetsbegrebet, og man diskuterer hvorledes...
Květina, Petr; Hrnčíř, V.
Roč. 51, č. 2 (2013), s. 323-347. ISSN 0323-1119. [Theory and method in the prehistoric archaeology of Central Europe. Mikulov, 24.10.2012-26.10.2012] R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF12P01OVV032 Keywords : Neolithic longhouse * ethnographic analogy * settlement patterns Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology
Toole, M J; Waldman, R J
The number of refugees and internally displaced persons in need of protection and assistance has increased from 30 million in 1990 to more than 43 million today. War and civil strife have been largely responsible for this epidemic of mass migration that has affected almost every region of the world, including Europe. Since 1990, crude death rates (CDRs) during the early influx of refugees who crossed international borders have been somewhat lower than CDRs reported earlier among Cambodian and Ethiopian refugees. Nevertheless, CDRs among refugees arriving in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nepal, Malawi, and Zimbabwe since 1990 ranged from five to 12 times the baseline CDRs in the countries of origin. Among internally displaced populations in northern Iraq, Somalia, and Sudan, CDRs were extremely high, ranging from 12 to 25 times the baseline CDRs for the nondisplaced. Among both refugees and internally displaced persons, death rates among children less than 5 years of age were far higher than among older children and adults. In Bangladesh, the death rate in female Rohingya refugees was several times higher than in males. Preventable conditions such as diarrheal disease, measles, and acute respiratory infections, exacerbated often by malnutrition, caused most deaths. Although relief programs for refugees have improved since 1990, the situation among the internally displaced may have worsened. The international community should intervene earlier in the evolution of complex disasters involving civil war, human rights abuses, food shortages, and mass displacement. Relief programs need to be based on sound health and nutrition information and should focus on the provision of adequate shelter, food, water, sanitation, and public health programs that prevent mortality from diarrhea, measles, and other communicable diseases, especially among young children and women. PMID:8331759
Education is often prioritised by refugee children and families, as well as by their political representatives and international actors alike. This article explores the specificities of the Sahrawi refugee education system, focusing in particular on the nature, motivations and implications of Sahrawi refugee youths' educational migration to Cuba…
Persson, Ann L; Gard, Gunvor
Background: Refugees have often been exposed to torture in their countries of origin. Rehabilitation of tortured refugees living in Denmark is offered by the specialized Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims in Copenhagen. After an interdisciplinary assessment eligible patients are recommended rehabilitation. Objective: To explore tortured refugees' expectations of the multidisciplinary pain rehabilitation programme offered at our centre. Design: Explorative qualitative i...
... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs... Presidential Determination No. 2009-16 of March 11, 2009 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related... Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended (22 U.S.C. 2601), I hereby...
... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs... of January 27, 2009 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Gaza Memorandum for the..., including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended (22...
Shepler, Susan; Routh, Sharyn
This article draws data from an innovative research project tracing former refugee teachers who received teacher training from the International Rescue Committee (IRC) over a 17-year-long education programme in refugee camps in Guinea (1991-2008). The research traced repatriated refugee teachers who had returned to their homes in Sierra Leone and…
... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Refugee Biographic Data ACTION: Notice of request for public... with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Refugee Biographic Data. OMB... Office: Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration, PRM/A. Form Number: N/A. Respondents:...
... of Public Meeting on FY 2014 U.S. Refugee Admissions Program There will be a meeting on the President's FY 2014 U.S. Refugee Admissions Program on Wednesday, May 15, 2013 from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. The... on the appropriate size and scope of the FY 2014 U.S. Refugee Admissions Program. Persons wishing...
... of Public Meeting on FY 2013 U.S. Refugee Admissions Program There will be a meeting on the President's FY 2013 U.S. Refugee Admissions Program on Tuesday, May 1, 2012 from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. The meeting will be held at the Refugee Processing Center, 1401 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 1100, Arlington,...
... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Office of Refugee Resettlement; Urgent Single Source Grant to Survivors of Torture International (SOTI) AGENCY: Office of Refugee Resettlement, ACF... Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Services for Survivors of Torture Program. In FY 2009, a total of 3,667...
Zimbabwean economic migrants and political refugees have been given refuge and provided with shelter at the Central Methodist Church (CMC) Refugee House, in central Johannesburg. The refugees have successfully initiated learning and training programmes which resulted in the establishment of a combined school, namely "St. Albert Street Refugee…
... for Classification as Refugee; Revision of a Currently Approved Collection ACTION: 60-day notice...-590 provides a uniform method for applicants to apply for refugee status and contains the information... that have been transferred from Form G-646, Sworn Statement of Refugee Applying for Admission into...
... of Public Meeting on FY 2012 Refugee Admissions Program There will be a meeting on the President's FY 2012 U.S. Refugee Admissions Program on Thursday, May 12, 2011 from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. The meeting will be held at the Refugee Processing Center, 1401 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 700, Arlington, Virginia....
... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Refugee Biographic Data, OMB Control Number 1405-0102 ACTION... Information Collection: Refugee Biographic Data OMB Control Number: 1405-0102 Type of Request: Extension of a Currently Approved Collection Originating Office: Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration, PRM/A...
... of Public Meeting on FY 2011 Refugee Admissions Program There will be a meeting on the President's FY 2011 Refugee Admissions Program on Tuesday, May 4, 2010 from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. The meeting will be held at the Refugee Processing Center, 1401 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 700, Arlington, Virginia. The...
...-eligibility of refugees. 400.211 Section 400.211 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Federal Funding Federal Funding for Expenditures for...
... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Counting time-eligibility of refugees. 400.220 Section 400.220 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT...
Higher education (HE) is one of the routes that refugees who come to the UK from professional and highly educated backgrounds can re-establish their lives and professional identities. This research follows up a group of such refugees who were on a programme designed to support refugees gain access to HE or appropriate employment. The findings…
... refugees and nonrefugees. 400.208 Section 400.208 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Federal Funding Federal Funding for Expenditures for...
Stewart, Mary Amanda
This article details a project with students who are refugees who read and wrote about the refugee experience to give the instructor important information about their lives. The high school students first read various texts about the refugee experience that guided their class discussions, journal writing, and graphic illustrations of their…
Uptin, Jonnell; Wright, Jan; Harwood, Valerie
Educators in resettlement countries are grappling with ways to adequately engage and meet the needs of newly arrived refugee students. In this article we argue that to fully meet the needs of refugee students a deeper understanding of their educational experience as "a refugee" prior to resettlement is vital. In particular we foreground…
Collet, Bruce A.
In this article the author examines public schools in the United States as sites where immigrants and refugees express their religious identities as part of their integration processes. In particular, the author examines the schools as "sites of refuge" for refugee students. Although public schools provide refugees with opportunity for study…
Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.
A study conducted a questionnaire survey of 70 refugee women in Illinois and 2 service provider focus groups to assess the effects of welfare changes on refugee women and to identify barriers to workforce participation. Survey findings were that refugee women in the workforce are concentrated in low-wage jobs and do not earn enough income to move…
This article explores the implications of the Iraqi refugee crisis for Syria, which is believed to host up to 1.5 million Iraqi refugees. Many policy makers, activists and analysts, sometimes inspired by the conflict repercussions of refugee crises witnessed elsewhere, have warned against the region
... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee... Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 730, Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition; OMB Control No. 1615-0037.... (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition. (3) Agency form number, if...
Urša Suhadolnik Vovko
Full Text Available To study and grasp the contemporary rural areas in Slovenia, the students of the Faculty of Architecture carried out a public opinion survey on the subject of the culture of settlement areas, with a particular reference to the visual image of the experiential space of the settlements. Today, human needs and living values are an integral part of all documents, as they represent the starting-point of designing new concepts of living. Personal quality of living is explained by Mandič  through the use of Allard's classification of human needs; however, Mercer's Quality of Living ranking is often used to measure the quality of the living environmentThe paper represents the results of the study, which included two target groups: The experts in spatial management and planning employed at municipal administrative offices; and the senior years’ students at the Faculty of Architecture of the University of Ljubljana. The study represented here addressed the values of the living environment. The study was triggered by the 'colourfulness' that knows no limits in Slovenia. Putting the everyday indignation over the variety of all possible shades aside, it has become evident that the tiny elements that are also destroying the image of our settlements are all too often neglected: billboards, log cabins complementing garages and decorative elements, stalls during celebrations and fairs, fountains, monuments, mix of exotic plants, the Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs etc. The study included a survey to obtain a more objective approach to the studying of the quality from the viewpoints of the changing living culture and the use of communal external space in Slovenian settlements. The key question that resonated in most of other questions was: What would improve the quality of life in the settlement?
Schwarz, Christoph H.
We become aware of the existence of a right to have rights (and that means to live in a framework where one is judged by one’s actions and opinions) and a right to belong to some kind of organized community, only when millions of people emerge who had lost and could not regain these rights because of the new global political situation.Hannah Arendt, Origins of Totalitarianism (1951: 296-297) Introduction At the Symposium on Refugee Protection, on June 30, 2014 in Berlin, Germany’s President ...
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...
Solid Management is a concern in East African capital cities. The absence of managing solid waste is a serious problem. An ever bigger concern is the growing quantities of waste that are generatedat households level in informal settlements. In most cases proper safeguard measures are largely ineffec
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health and psychosocial wellbeing are key concerns in displaced populations. Despite urban refugees constituting more than half of the world's refugees, minimal attention has been paid to their psychosocial wellbeing. The purpose of this study was to assess coping behaviour and aspects of resilience amongst refugees in Kathmandu, Nepal. Methods This study examined the experiences of 16 Pakistani and 8 Somali urban refugees in Kathmandu, Nepal through in-depth individual interviews, focus groups, and Photovoice methodology. Such qualitative approaches enabled us to broadly discuss themes such as personal experiences of being a refugee in Kathmandu, perceived causes of psychosocial distress, and strategies and resources for coping. Thematic network analysis was used in this study to systematically interpret and code the data. Results Our findings highlight that urban refugees' active coping efforts, notwithstanding significant adversity and resulting distress, are most frequently through primary relationships. Informed by Axel Honneth's theory on the struggle for recognition, findings suggest that coping is a function beyond the individual and involves the ability to negotiate recognition. This negotiation involves not only primary relationships, but also the legal order and other social networks such as family and friends. Honneth's work was used because of its emphasis on the importance of legal recognition and larger structural factors in facilitating daily coping. Conclusions Understanding how urban refugees cope by negotiating access to various forms of recognition in the absence of legal-recognition will enable organisations working with them to leverage such strengths and develop relevant programmes. In particular, building on these existing resources will lead to culturally compelling and sustainable care for these populations.
... HUMAN SERVICES Office of Refugee Resettlement Notice of FY 2012 Refugee Social Services Formula Awards to States and Wilson/Fish Alternative Project Grantees AGENCY: Office of Refugee Resettlement, ACF, HHS. ACTION: Notice of awards. CFDA Number: 93.566. SUMMARY: The Office of Refugee...
... HUMAN SERVICES Office of Refugee Resettlement Notice of FY 2012 Refugee Targeted Assistance Formula Awards to States and Wilson/Fish Alternative Project Grantees AGENCY: Office of Refugee Resettlement, ACF, HHS. ACTION: Notice of awards. SUMMARY: The Office of Refugee Resettlement, Administration...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Being an immigrant in a high-income country is a risk factor for severe mental ill health. Studies on mental ill health among immigrants have found significant differences in mental health outcome between immigrants from high income countries and low-income countries. Being an asylum seeker or a refugee is also associated with mental ill health. This study aimed to assess if there is a difference in mental ill health problems between male and female refugee and non-refugee immigrants from six low-income countries in Sweden. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based study design was used comparing refugees with non-refugees. The study size was determined by the number of persons in Sweden fulfilling the inclusion criteria at the time of the study during 2006. Outcome: Mental ill health, as measured with the proxy variable psychotropic drugs purchased. Refugee/Non-refugee: Sweden grants asylum to refugees according to the Geneva Convention and those with a well-grounded fear of death penalty, torture or who need protection due to an internal or external armed conflict or an environmental disaster. The non-refugees were all family members of those granted asylum in Sweden. Covariates: Gender and origin. Potential confounders: Age, marital status, education and duration of stay in Sweden. Background variables were analysed using chi square tests. The association between outcome, exposure and possible confounders was analysed using logistic regression analyses. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for potential confounders. Results The study population comprised 43,168 refugees and non-refugees, of whom 20,940 (48.5% were women and 24,403 (56.5% were refugees. Gender, age, origin, marital status and education were all associated with the outcome. For female, but not male, refugees there was a significantly higher likelihood of purchasing psychotropic drugs than non-refugees (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.15 - 1
Murray, Laura K; Cohen, Judith A; Ellis, B Heidi; Mannarino, Anthony
The diverse clinical presentation of refugee children and adolescents after their traumatic experiences requires a treatment model that can mitigate a number of internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Refugee populations also require interventions that can adjust to the wide-ranging experiences likely encountered during preflight, flight, and resettlement. There is some evidence that immigration stressors or social stressors, such as discrimination, are associated with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in refugee youth. Therefore refugee youth may benefit from multiple levels of services, ideally integrated. This article focuses on the mental and behavioral health component of services for refugee youth. PMID:18558314
Mikal, Jude P; Woodfield, Braden
Post-migration stressors represent significant obstacle to refugee adjustment, and continued exposure to post-migration stressors can negatively affect mental and physical health. Communities of support maintained over the Internet may provide a sense of constancy and reliability that may insulate against the negative effects of stress. We conducted five focus group interviews with Iraqi and Sudanese refugees to understand how refugees use the Internet to access support in their daily lives. Four trends were observed: (a) Internet use was related to culture of origin, (b) refugees were reluctant to explore online, (c) children served as brokers of online knowledge, and (d) limited Internet access is associated with increased time and financial obligations. This study aims to contribute to theory on Internet-mediated social support and to refugee health by creating smoother pathways to self-sufficiency and allowing refugees to exhibit agency in constructing and maintaining online networks of support. PMID:26290542
Kousoulis, Antonis A; Ioakeim-Ioannidou, Myrsini; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P
Eastern Greek islands have been direct passageways of (mainly Syrian) refugees to the European continent over the past year. However, basic medical care has been insufficient. Despite calls for reform, the Greek healthcare system has for many years been costly and dysfunctional, lacking universal equity of access. Thus, mainly volunteers look after the refugee camps in the Greek islands under adverse conditions. Communicable diseases, trauma related injuries and mental health problems are the most common issues facing the refugees. The rapid changes in the epidemiology of multiple conditions that are seen in countries with high immigration rates, like Greece, demand pragmatic solutions. Best available knowledge should be used in delivering health interventions. So far, Greece is failed by international aid, and cross-border policies have not effectively tackled underlying reasons for ill-health in this context, like poverty, conflict and equity of access. PMID:27485633
Full Text Available This article is a study of the contrast between the Danish law concerning reduced economic benefits for newly arrived refugees and immigrants (known as Start Help or as introductory benefit and the idea of recognition as the condition for individual self-realization and justice. Our assumption is that Start Help both implies economic discrimination against newly arrived persons in Denmark (especially refugees and their families under family reunification rules and symbolizes a lack of recognition. We have chosen to adopt the theories of recognition (and redistribution propounded by Axel Honneth and Nancy Fraser to explore our queries about Start Help and the discriminatory impact on its recipients. Empirically the article is based on in-depth qualitative interviews with six refugees who all receive Start Help.
This article summarizes the findings and recommendations of a study into access to, and experience of, colleges of further education and universities by refugees in Sydney, Australia. The study sought to identify examples of institutional good practice which are potentially transferable to other major host countries for refugees in the developed world. It focuses upon the factors influencing the decision to enter college or university, sources and usefulness of information and advice, access courses and special entry schemes, the recognition of prior learning and overseas qualifications and institutional sensitivity and support. It concludes with a series of recommendations for providers of further and higher education to improve access and support for students from refugee backgrounds.
Introduction: In recent years, empirical research has documented attachment patterns as a central variable that affects treatment process and outcome in important ways. Refugees are a particular vulnerable group often met with repeated and severe interpersonal trauma that alter basic trust......, attachment systems, emotion-regulation, and personality. Attachment research on the consequences of organized violence and forced migration is sparse and research in PTSD-treatment for refugees is lacking behind. Cumulative pre-migration traumatic experiences and ongoing post-migration stressors might lead...... to chronically activated fight-flight and attachment systems. Moreover, considering the nature of traumatic events, unresolved loss and trauma would be expected among refugees. The question is to what extend this population is able to enter treatment, reflect on, and modify traumatic experiences? The...
Piwowarczyk, Linda A; Keane, Terence M
September 11, 2001 profoundly affected the American public. We share the views of a cohort of refugees and those seeking asylum from the Boston Center for Refugee Health and Human Rights. Of the 63 individuals from 18 countries interviewed, many had concerns about their personal safety following September 11, as well as fears related to deportation, arrest, detention, imprisonment, discrimination, physical violence and the destruction of property, and war. Asylum seekers were more likely than refugees to have concerns about their safety before their departure and during flight, as well as fear deportation and arrest after September 11. In the wake of September 11, most common coping strategies utilized included prayer (77.8%), speaking with friends from their own social group (47.6%), family (44.4%), and belief in fate (42.9%). PMID:18089639
This thesis is concerned with refugees and their impact on the host community. Throughout the World, the UNHCR is not only concerned with the hosting, feeding, sheltering, clothing and educating the refugees. It is also addressing their impact on the host communities that face the consequences of their presence. In the effort to host protracted refugees, many developing host communities face various forms of socio-cultural influence and economic challenges. Previous findings from researc...
Kane, Jeremy C.; Ventevogel, Peter; Spiegel, Paul; Bass, Judith K; van Ommeren, Mark; Tol, Wietse A.
Background Population-based epidemiological research has established that refugees in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) are at increased risk for a range of mental, neurological and substance use (MNS) problems. Improved knowledge of rates for MNS problems that are treated in refugee camp primary care settings is needed to identify service gaps and inform resource allocation. This study estimates contact coverage of MNS services in refugee camps by presenting rates of visits to camp pri...
Full Text Available The Harappan Civilization occupies a unique place among the early civilizations of the world with its well planned urban settlements, advanced handicraft and technology, religious and trade activities. Using a Geographical Information Systems (GIS, this study presents spatial analyses that locate urban settlements on a digital elevation model (DEM according to the three phases of early, mature and late. Understanding the relationship between the spatial distribution of Harappan sites and the change in some factors, such as topographic features, river passages or sea level changes, will lead to an understanding of the dynamism of this civilization. It will also afford a glimpse of the factors behind the formation, development, and decline of the Harappan Civilization.
For over 2 decades, until the economic crisis in mid-1997, Malaysia's rapid economic growth attracted an influx of foreign labor, mostly from Indonesia, Bangladesh, and the Philippines. In 1997 the number of registered workers was estimated at 1.2 million and undocumented ones at approximately 800,000. The influx created various problems, of which housing is one of the most serious, especially in the Kelang Valley. This paper examines the ways and means by which Indonesian workers, the largest group among foreigners, overcame their accommodation problem. Two types of settlements are identified, that is, illegal ones in the squatter areas and legal ones, which are largely in Malay Reservation Areas. The settlements, which signify Indonesians' success in finding a foothold in Malaysia, today have become a base for more in-migration. PMID:12349650
Jennifer Anne Simmelink
Full Text Available This exploratory study examines the mental health knowledge and training needs of refugee-serving community based organizations in a Midwestern state. A survey was administered to 31 staff members at 27 community based organizations (CBOs to assess the ability of staff to recognize and screen for mental health symptoms that may interfere with successful resettlement. Of the 31 respondents 93.5% (n=29 see refugees with mental health issues and 48.4% (n=15 assess refugees for mental health symptoms – primarily through informal assessment. Mainstream organizations were more likely than ethnic organizations to have received training related to the mental health needs of refugees. Results indicate that while refugee led CBOs recognize mental health symptoms of refugees they may be less likely to assess mental health symptoms and refer for treatment. Policy recommendations for improving CBO services to refugees are offered.
The article deals with proposals for directing settlement development and management in Slovenia on the national level. They should be integrated in the spatial order, a part of the national spatial plan. First a short chronology of research with similar topics and simultaneous critical analysis is presented. The methodology and possible models for structuring directives is elaborated. Based on recent research by domestic authors, European guidelines and own ideas, a manual was devised, divid...
Khoo, S; Kee, P; Dang, T; Shu, J
"This article provides a broad assessment of the settlement and adjustment of people born in the many countries of Asia who are resident in Australia, based on recently available data from the 1991 Census of Population and Housing. It examines some indicators of economic adjustment such as performance in the labor market, and some indicators of social adjustment, such as acquisition of English language proficiency." PMID:12289777
Antonescu, Mihai; Ligia ANTONESCU
As a result of the adhesion of our country to the European Union, the adaptation of the EC financial-accounting legislation has emerged as a necessity, new settlements starting to apply with the beginning of the financial exercise 2006. The improvement of the Romanian accounting system has as a main objective the harmonization of the national legislation with the European directives in the domain, in order to accomplish and answer the requests of the European Union, as well as to align its...
Malkamäki, Markku; Topi, Jukka
A common feature of major trends in securities and derivative markets is that they facilitate cross-border competition between financial institutions and markets. These trends include financial deregulation, technological developments that increase network externalities and the introduction of the single currency in Europe. This paper discusses future prospects for stock and derivative exchanges and securities settlement systems globally in the light of this analytical framework. The increase...
Emília Malcata Rebelo
This article aims to contribute to the definition and application of a methodology to support municipal decisions concerning attraction, location and distribution of immigrants in metropolitan areas. This methodology is aimed at identifying settlement patterns of specific groups of immigrants, and respective intensity, according to territorial characteristics and their own ethnic features, in relation to correspondent patterns of the whole population. It is applied, as a case study, to Oporto...
Damm, Anna Piil; Rosholm, Michael
transition rate into employment outside the local labour market, but decreases the transition rate into local employment. Thus, a decrease in current place utility decreases the overall job-finding rate if the local reservation wage effect dominates. We argue that spatial dispersal policies on refugees are...... characterised by low average values of current place utility. Hence, the model predicts that dispersal policies increase the geographical mobility rates of refugees and, for a sufficiently large local reservation wage effect, decrease their job-finding rates....
Shannon, Patricia J; Vinson, Gregory A; Cook, Tonya L; Lennon, Evelyn
In this community based participatory research study, we explored key characteristics of mental health referrals of refugees using stories of providers collected through an on-line survey. Ten coders sorted 60 stories of successful referrals and 34 stories of unsuccessful referrals into domains using the critical incident technique. Principal components analysis yielded categories of successful referrals that included: active care coordination, establishing trust, proactive resolution of barriers, and culturally responsive care. Unsuccessful referrals were characterized by cultural barriers, lack of care coordination, refusal to see refugees, and system and language barriers. Recommendations for training and policy are discussed. PMID:25735618
Traumatized refugees have often suffered severe, prolonged, repeated traumas and pose a challenge to treatment. Attachment patterns and level of mentalizing seem to work as protection mechanisms in traumatizing events and to be important for positively utilizing the therapeutic alliance which...... psychotherapy research has shown is central to change and effect. Aims: 1) To examine attachment patterns and reflective functioning in traumatised refugees with PTSD, and 2) shed light on their significance to therapeutic alliance and treatment effect. Methods: All Arabic speaking patients in the study...
Looks at the 42.3 million people,at the end of 2009, displaced globally as a result of conflict, violence, and human rights violations, of which, 27.1 million were internally displaced persons (IDPs) while 15.2 million were refugees outside their country of nationality or country of habitual residence, often living in protracted displacement situations in a host country. The largest percentage of refugees is found in countries neighboring their country of origin, most of which are middle-inco...
Kastrup, Marianne Carisius
discussed as well as postmigratory factors that further add to psychological and physical distress and contribute to social problems. The vast – and increasing – public health problem of physical and mental abuse of refugee and migrant women and in particular the problem of trafficking are analyzed in......The chapter provides a brief overview of the size of the female refugee and migrant population and describes the various reasons lying behind the decisions to leave the country of origin in relation to gender. The premigratory factors that may contribute to mental and physical health problems are...
Elo, Irma T; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan
The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America's history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000-2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants-such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas-earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants-such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees-earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes-including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate-figures prominently among important unresolved research questions. PMID:26304845
Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Numbikannu, L.; Ismail, T. N. H. T.; Bakar, I.
Observations made of two common failures of structures founded on peat/organic soil in Johor, Malaysia is presented. Critical evaluation of current lightweight fill technology to mitigate such settlement is also discussed. Lightweight technology, such as Expanded Polystyrene (EPS), has been used in construction on soft yielding ground for decades. Regrettably, some published information of EPS failures to perform on construction sites are also cited in this paper. This paper outlines some concepts leading to the development of an alternative innovative lightweight fill is that the idealised cellular structure of the GCM permit free flow of water and complemented by the mat structure which evens out any differential settlement A further highlight of this paper is the monitoring of the field performance of this lightweight fill (GCM) as a feasible alternative to fill weight reduction on yielding ground.. Hence, a prime research objective was to compare the fill settlements observed with 1m high fill of surcharge loading on peat ground (comparison of the case of using a partial 0.6m high GCM and that of a total of 1m of conventional sand backfill).
Due, Clemence; Riggs, Damien W.; Augoustinos, Martha
Previous research with adolescents with refugee backgrounds living in countries of resettlement has found that school belonging has an impact on a range of well-being and developmental outcomes, including mental health, peer relationships, self-esteem and self-efficacy, and academic achievement. However, very little research has explored school…
According to recent reports, Denmark’s notorious “jewellery bill” – which allows immigration authorities to confiscate valuables from refugees in order to cover the cost of their accommodation – has yet to actually bring in any cash and the exercise is looking more and more like an expensive PR...
Midgett, Aida; Doumas, Diana M.
This study evaluated the impact of service-learning-infused courses on multicultural competence and social justice advocacy skills among counseling students. The project, in which students acted as job coaches for refugee families, was integrated into 1st- and 2nd-year counseling courses. Results indicated an increase in multicultural knowledge…
This essay seeks to unpack some of the issues concerning representation when performing refugee stories using playback theatre. It questions the reductive influence of narrative structure and, using the framework of "artist as ethnographer," it argues that strong aesthetic production is required to overcome the dampening effect of empathy when…
Yeshigeta; Gelaw; Aemero; Abateneh
Objective:To determine the prevalence of blinding trachoma among refugees in South Western Ethiopia.Methods:A cross-sectional outreach clinic based descriptive study was conducted on 1054 refugees in Southwest Ethiopia.A basic eyelid and cornea examination for signs of trachoma was done by using 2.5× binocular magnifying loupe.The findings were classified by using the World Health Digitization simplified trachoma grading system and data were analyzed by using SPSS version 16.0.Results:A total of 1054 refugee patients were examined for trachoma.179(16.98%) of them had clinical signs of trachoma.About 6(3.35%) patients had active trachoma with trachomatous trichiasis(TT),47(26.26%) patients had TT only and the rest 126(70.39%)patients had TT with trachomatous corneal opacity.All of the trachoma patients had blinding trachoma(TT with or without trachomatous corneal opacity),and about 60.89% of them had visual impairment.Blinding trachoma was significantly more common among females.patients in age group of 16-59 years,married patients,illiterates and Fugnido camp settlers(P<0.05).Conclusions:There is a very high burden of blinding trachoma among refugees.Urgent surgical intervention is needed to prevent blindness and low vision in the study subjects,and targeted regular outreach-based eye care service should be commenced.
Learning is generally viewed as a positive process bringing benefits to the individual, leading to growth and self-development. But is this always the case? This article draws on empirical research with refugees and considers the processes of transforming experience and learning that accompanies transition to life in the United Kingdom. I will…
Karen Abu Zayd
Full Text Available Serious deprivations feature regularly in the lives ofPalestinians and Palestine refugees. Among them,measures restricting or prohibiting the movement ofpeople and goods stand out as particularly severe – andare in blatant contravention of human rights provisions.
The paper aims to explore critically psychosocial family services available for the traumatized refuges in the Danish context, though the primary foci of the prevalent services are the individual refugees. A model for working with families across cultural boundaries, based on a critical......, professionals' (dis) empowering approaches. Thus critical perspectives, international collaboration and inspiration are emphasised....
Full Text Available Refugee communities are often deprived of their customary means of musical expression,either because they have become separated from their musicians or from their traditional musical instruments, or due to alack of opportunity in the host country.
Rousseau, Cecile; Drapeau, Aline
Central American and Cambodian students in six Canadian high schools and their parents were interviewed to assess the students' emotional problems and pre- and postmigration family environment. Findings indicate that the relationship between the emotional problems and scholastic achievement of teenaged refugees was tenuous. (Author/MKA)
The main aim of this study is to produce a solution to improve the refugee and asylum seeker students' adaptation to the Turkish schools and classrooms by using action research approach which is often preferred for solving the problems encountered by the educators. The sample of the study consists of selected students at a primary school in…
Ben-Porath, Yossef S.
The refugee experience--migrating against one's will--is a source of immense psychological stress. This paper therefore draws on empirical findings and theoretical discussions from the psychological, psychiatric, nursing, social work, sociological, and anthropological literature in order to identify the major stressors encountered in the…
Kinzie, J David
Refugees are a highly traumatized and culturally diverse group of patients who present many clinical challenges. Refugees have a high prevalence of traumas from torture, ethnic cleansing, and the effects of long civil wars. The most common diagnoses associated with the effects of such traumas are posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or PTSD with comorbid depression; however, psychosis and neurocognitive disorders are also common. For those with PTSD, a suggested treatment approach is long-term supportive psychotherapy with drug treatment directed at reducing the most disruptive symptoms, such as insomnia, nightmares, and irritability or psychosis. The author recommends a sedative tricyclic antidepressant, clonidine or prazosin, and aripiprazole as a useful combination of medications to provide rapid relief. In addition to PTSD, long-term studies indicate a high prevalence of diabetes and hypertension in traumatized refugees. It is therefore important to perform a thorough evaluation for these disorders that includes the measurement of blood pressure and a blood test for diabetes. When managed with such a medical approach, refugees are generally accepting of psychiatric treatment and can obtain relief from the symptoms associated with the massive trauma and losses they have experienced. PMID:27138076
The experiences of immigrant and refugee students in schools have been explored by two primary frameworks. The first is informed by sociology and attends to the macro-level adaptation of students in schools and in the host country. The second framework is informed by linguistics and attends to one micro-aspect of the students' adaptation in…
Georgakopoulou, T; Mandilara, G; Mellou, K; Tryfinopoulou, K; Chrisostomou, A; Lillakou, H; Hadjichristodoulou, C; Vatopoulos, A
Shigellosis is endemic in most developing countries and thus a known risk in refugees and internally displaced persons. In 2015, a massive influx of refugees into Greece, due to the political crisis in the Middle East, led to the development of appropriate conditions for outbreaks of communicable diseases as shigellosis. We present a cluster of 16 shigellosis cases in refugees, detected by the implementation of a syndromic notification system in one transit centre in Athens, between 20 August and 7 October 2015. Both Shigella flexneri (n = 8) and S. sonnei (n = 8) were identified, distributed in various serotypes. All tested isolates (n = 13) were multidrug resistant; seven were CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers. Our results indicate lack of a potential common source, although pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing results revealed small clusters in isolates of the same serotype indicating possible limited person-to-person transmission without identifying secondary community cases related to the refugees. To prevent the spread of shigellosis, empirical antibiotic treatment as well as environmental hygiene measures were implemented. The detection of multi-drug resistance is important for determining the appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment for the more severe cases, while at the same time real-time typing is useful for epidemiological investigation and control measures. PMID:27180973