WorldWideScience

Sample records for african refugee settlement

  1. Trauma, poverty and mental health among Somali and Rwandese refugees living in an African refugee settlement – an epidemiological study

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    Ertl Verena

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression among Rwandese and Somali refugees resident in a Ugandan refugee settlement, as a measure of the mental health consequences of armed conflict, as well as to inform a subsequent mental health outreach program. The study population comprised a sample from 14400 (n = 519 Somali and n = 906 Rwandese refugees resident in Nakivale refugee settlement in South Western Uganda during the year 2003. Methods The Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 25 were used to screen for posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. Results Thirty two percent of the Rwandese and 48.1% of the Somali refugees were found to suffer from PTSD. The Somalis refugees had a mean of 11.95 (SD = 6.17 separate traumatic event types while the Rwandese had 8.86 (SD = 5.05. The Somalis scored a mean sum score of 21.17 (SD = 16.19 on the PDS while the Rwandese had a mean sum score of 10.05 (SD = 9.7. Conclusion Mental health consequences of conflict remain long after the events are over, and therefore mental health intervention is as urgent for post-conflict migrant populations as physical health and other emergency interventions. A mental health outreach program was initiated based on this study.

  2. A Comparison of Narrative Exposure Therapy, Supportive Counseling, and Psychoeducation for Treating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in an African Refugee Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Frank; Schauer, Margarete; Klaschik, Christine; Karunakara, Unni; Elbert, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the usefulness of psychotherapeutic approaches for traumatized refugees who continue to live in dangerous conditions. Narrative exposure therapy (NET) is a short-term approach based on cognitive-behavioral therapy and testimony therapy. The efficacy of narrative exposure therapy was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial.…

  3. Fragile states and protection under the 1969 African Refugee Convention

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    Tamara Wood

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Current practice in African states highlights both the potential andthe limitations of the 1969 African Refugee Convention in providingprotection to persons displaced from fragile states.

  4. African refugee migration: a model and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayongo-male, D

    1989-01-01

    "This article elaborates upon the problems of the refugee crisis in Africa. With around 4 million refugees, heavily concentrated in particular African nations like Sudan and Somalia, the impacts on the host country can be severe. A model, dealing with the process of refugee migration, with particular reference to impacts on host countries, is developed. Negative impacts include military attacks on communities in the host country. One positive impact is the increase in the number of development-type projects which go beyond the mandate of the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees. A tentative research agenda on African refugee migration is put forward." PMID:12316228

  5. Educational Needs and Barriers for African Refugee Students in Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanu, Yatta

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the educational needs and barriers for diverse African refugee students in two inner-city high schools in Manitoba. Forty African refugee students, two principals, eight teachers, four parents, and four community leaders participated in the study. Five focus groups, individual interviews, and school and classroom…

  6. African Refugees in Egypt: Trauma, Loss, and Cultural Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Hani M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pre-immigration trauma on the acculturation process of refugees, as reflected in the manifestations of their continuing bonds with native cultures. Six African refugees who sought refuge in Egypt because of wars and political persecution were interviewed about the circumstances of their departure from their…

  7. Psychopathology in African Unaccompanied Refugee Minors in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Julia; Karnik, Niranjan; Voelkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Steiner, Hans

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of a range of psychopathology among African unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) in Austria. Additionally, the predictive value of war exposure on PTSD symptoms was examined. Forty-one URMs were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents, the Youth Self-Report, the UCLA…

  8. Structures for the Displaced: Service and Identity in Refugee Settlements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, J.

    2008-01-01

    The design of refugee camps presents an extreme form of urban architectural practise. Despite the large numbers of those who are forced to live in such camps, their vulnerability, and the emergency nature of the camps’ construction, relatively few texts to date have been focused upon camp design, an

  9. Structures for the Displaced: Service and Identity in Refugee Settlements

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, J.

    2008-01-01

    The design of refugee camps presents an extreme form of urban architectural practise. Despite the large numbers of those who are forced to live in such camps, their vulnerability, and the emergency nature of the camps’ construction, relatively few texts to date have been focused upon camp design, and the state-of-the-art type commonly used by humanitarian organisations reveals an emphasis upon short-term rather than long-term solutions, and an emphasis upon camps being a delivered collection ...

  10. The Acculturation of Adult African Refugees Language Learners in Israel: An Ethnographic Study

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    Blake, Charles Carlos, III

    2012-01-01

    The number of refugees from Africa seeking asylum in Israel has recently skyrocketed, raising issues as to how to integrate them into Israeli society. Education is one of the mediums being used to encourage the cultural integration and inclusion of the refugees into Israeli society; very little is known, however, about how Africans are…

  11. Social identity management and integration amongst indigenous African refugee minorities in Norway : the case of Kvæfjord kommune

    OpenAIRE

    Marambanyika, Ocean

    2008-01-01

    This thesis principally deals with issues of social identity management and integration amongst African refugee minorities in Norway. Employing an analytical strategy, the thesis explores varying complex and inter-related situations faced by indigenous African refugees in Norway and how these situations presents challenges in social identity management by the refugees. This piece of work specifically focuses on analyzing how the refugees in question employ social identity management variables...

  12. From protracted situations to protracted separations: Acehnese-Canadian refugee settlement in Vancouver, BC

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, Lisa Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Between 2004 and 2006, the Canadian government resettled 154 refugees originally from Aceh, Indonesia in Metro Vancouver, British Columbia. Their resettlement was unique for three reasons: (1) they were the first group of refugees resettled entirely in one Canadian metropolitan area; (2) they were the first Acehnese refugees ever resettled in Canada; and (3) among adults, the gender ratio was disproportionately skewed towards (young, single) men. This thesis probes the meanings of refugee ‘in...

  13. Using a Household Food Inventory to Assess the Availability of Traditional Vegetables among Resettled African Refugees.

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    Gichunge, Catherine; Somerset, Shawn; Harris, Neil

    2016-01-18

    A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availability were less likely to consume the recommended number of vegetable servings. Barriers faced in the food environment included language, lack of availability of traditional vegetables and lack of transport. All of these aspects contributed to the study findings that both individual and food environment characteristics may play a role in access to and availability of food and vegetable consumption of resettled refugees. Consumption of traditional foods among the resettled refugees continues post resettlement.

  14. Using a Household Food Inventory to Assess the Availability of Traditional Vegetables among Resettled African Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gichunge, Catherine; Somerset, Shawn; Harris, Neil

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availability were less likely to consume the recommended number of vegetable servings. Barriers faced in the food environment included language, lack of availability of traditional vegetables and lack of transport. All of these aspects contributed to the study findings that both individual and food environment characteristics may play a role in access to and availability of food and vegetable consumption of resettled refugees. Consumption of traditional foods among the resettled refugees continues post resettlement. PMID:26797623

  15. Using a Household Food Inventory to Assess the Availability of Traditional Vegetables among Resettled African Refugees

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Gichunge; Shawn Somerset; Neil Harris

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availabili...

  16. Evaluating the implementation of article 22 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child in Uganda - Nakivale Refugee Settlement: duty bearers’ and children’s voices

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandri, Greta

    2015-01-01

    European Master in Social Work with Families and Children The aim of this study was to evaluate how the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) article (art.) 22, has been operationalized in the Ugandan Legislation, and implemented in the local context of Nakivale Refugee Settlement. The researcher tried to comprehend specifically how the refugee children themselves perceive the implementation of CRC art.22 through their own voice. Hence, an important approach when pr...

  17. Perceptions of Settlement Workers in Schools (SWIS) Working with Refugees in a Large Urban School District: An Exploratory Study of Program Successes and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, Tara Ann Marie

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is based on a qualitative case study that examined the experiences of Settlement Workers in Schools (SWIS) when working with refugee students and their families. Based on a written questionnaire of all SWIS workers in a large urban school district thirteen participants were interviewed to explore the SWIS workers’ narratives to develop descriptions and interpretations of their experiences with refugee families with the intent of providing relevant insight into the program. T...

  18. How do Australian maternity and early childhood health services identify and respond to the settlement experience and social context of refugee background families?

    OpenAIRE

    Yelland, Jane; Riggs, Elisha; Wahidi, Sayed; Fouladi, Fatema; Casey, Sue; Szwarc, Josef; Duell-Piening, Philippa; Chesters, Donna; Brown, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Background Refugees have poor mental, social and physical health related to experiences of trauma and stresses associated with settlement, however little is known about how refugee families experience maternity and early childhood services. The aim of this study was to explore the responsiveness of health services to the social and mental health of Afghan women and men at the time of having a baby. Method Participatory methods including community engagement and consultation with the Afghan co...

  19. African Women and Apartheid: Migration and Settlement in Urban South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Rebekah

    2009-01-01

    Set within the changing political geography of Cape Town, South Africa, this study constructs a social history of African women through an examination of the complex process and consequences of settlement during the apartheid (1948-1994) and post-apartheid years. Africans began flowing into the city in increasing numbers at mid-twentieth century. However, they encountered coercive and effective resistance to their settlement endeavors, in part due to Cape Town’s historical association as th...

  20. Sudanese Young People of Refugee Background in Rural and Regional Australia: Social Capital and Education Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Jae; Wilkinson, Jane; Langat, Kip; Santoro, Ninetta

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses literature pertaining to the settlement of African refugees in regional and rural Australia, particularly focusing on the specific challenges and opportunities faced by Sudanese young people of refugee background in education. Drawing on a pilot study of the out-of-school resources of regionally located young Sudanese…

  1. Louseborne Relapsing Fever among East African Refugees, Italy, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, Anna; Lipani, Filippo; Costa, Cecilia; Scarvaglieri, Mariaelisabetta; Balbiano, Rosanna; Carosella, Sinibaldo; Calcagno, Andrea; Audagnotto, Sabrina; Barbui, Anna Maria; Brossa, Silvia; Ghisetti, Valeria; Dal Conte, Ivano; Caramello, Pietro; Di Perri, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    During June 9-September 30, 2015, five cases of louseborne relapsing fever were identified in Turin, Italy. All 5 cases were in young refugees from Somalia, 2 of whom had lived in Italy since 2011. Our report seems to confirm the possibility of local transmission of louse-borne relapsing fever.

  2. A critical review of the literature: engendering the discourse of masculinities matter for parenting African refugee men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nombasa

    2011-03-01

    According to the literature on culturally and linguistically diverse parenting, refugee parenting practices and styles that are normative in countries of origin may not be sanctioned in Australia. In the case of refugee parenting, beliefs, practices, and values may be decentered in pre-resettlement contexts where survival becomes the primary concern. Engendering the discourse of masculinities to reflect a relationship between child protection and the experience of refugee parenting for African men in both pre- and post-resettlement contexts will inform culturally competent practice, intervention, and community development that is inclusive of their gender-specific needs. This article brings an expanded masculinities perspective to the ecology of refugee parenting for resettled African men resulting from larger research findings with focus group participants. Incorporating notions of masculinity into the child protection discourse is an attempt not only to reduce existing gender under- and misrepresentation among South Australian refugees but also to ensure greater visibility and increase the role of refugee men in the process of developing culturally relevant and appropriate policies, practices, and services to assist successful resettlement transitions while strengthening family well-being. The concept of masculinities, this article argues, must be treated as integral to any approach to working with refugees, particularly in areas that penetrate and may define the quality of their life experiences, expectations, and aspirations. Masculinities matter. Exploring refugee male perceptions, interpretations, and enactment of masculinity may unmask the differential experiences of refugee women from men and ensure the integration and operationalization of these differences into child protection services and practice.

  3. Settlement

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    John Frow

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the idea of settlement in each of its three major senses: as a place of human habitation; as a fixed and stable order of habitation; and as a political consensus reconciling fractious groups. Arguing that traditional accounts of settlement depend, with a kind of pastoral nostalgia, upon a view of abstraction and social complexity as in themselves  harmful, it follows through the implications of the concept for ways of dealing with the stranger, and it uses a drawing by the nineteenth-century indigenous Australian artist Tommy McRae, done about 1890 and entitled Corroboree, or William Buckley and dancers from the Wathaurong people, to propose a counterfactual model through which a settlement with the stranger might be imagined.

  4. Communication Disorders and the Inclusion of Newcomer African Refugees in Rural Primary Schools of British Columbia, Canada

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    Usman, Lantana M.

    2012-01-01

    In Canadian public primary schools, newcomer West African refugees like other ethnic immigrant students are a visible minority group, often referred as Linguistic and Culturally Different (LCD) students. In the province of British Columbia, newcomer immigrant students are subjected to a battery of tests, as soon as they enroll in the primary…

  5. The hopes of West African refugees during resettlement in northern Sweden: a 6-year prospective qualitative study of pathways and agency thoughts

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    Anjum Tanvir M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how positive phenomena can support resettlement of refugees in a new country. The aim of this study was to examine the hopeful thinking in a group of West African quota refugees at arrival and after 6 years in Sweden and compare these thoughts to the views of resettlement support professionals. Method The primary study population comprised 56 adult refugees and 13 resettlement professionals. Qualitative data were collected from the refugees by questionnaires on arrival and 6 years later. Data were collected from the resettlement professionals by interview about 3 years after arrival of the refugees. Snyder's cognitive model of hope was used to inform the comparative data analyses. Results Hopes regarding education were in focus for the refugees shortly after arrival, but thoughts on family reunion were central later in the resettlement process. During the later stages of the resettlement process, the unresponsiveness of the support organization to the family reunion problem became as issue for the refugees. The professionals reported a complex mix of "silent agency thoughts" underlying the local resettlement process as a contributing reason for this unresponsiveness. Conclusion Hopes regarding education and family reunion were central in the resettlement of West African refugees in Sweden. These thoughts were not systematically followed up by the support organization; possibly the resources for refugees were not fully released. More studies are needed to further investigate the motivational factors underpinning host community support of refugees' hopes and plans.

  6. An Ever-Changing Meaning: A Career Constructivist Application to Working with African Refugees

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    Pierce, L. Marinn; Gibbons, Melinda M.

    2012-01-01

    Refugees are expected to determine how to integrate past experiences into their lives in a new culture. Constructivist approaches to counseling allow refugees opportunities to determine how to integrate these experiences into their future career choices. Refugee experiences throughout the resettlement process and a constructivist career counseling…

  7. 'Just talking about it opens your heart': meaning-making among Black African migrants and refugees living with HIV.

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    Henrickson, Mark; Brown, Derek Brian; Fouché, Christa; Poindexter, Cynthia C; Scott, Kay

    2013-01-01

    Meaning-making has emerged as a core construct in addressing trauma, loss or crisis. This paper considers how diasporic Black Africans living with HIV, who come from interdependent collectivist cultures where the norm is one of implicit support, extend their meaning-making strategies when faced with a diagnosis of HIV. In this qualitative study, 13 Black African migrants and refugees living with HIV in New Zealand were interviewed and the transcripts analysed. After their diagnosis, participants began a journey of reconceptualising situational and global meaning. They extended their meaning-making strategies to include a community of like others to gain explicit support. Caregivers in host countries must understand the meaning-making processes of HIV-positive Black African migrants in order to provide competent services that lead to good social and health outcomes. All healthcare and social services workers should regularly assess Black African migrants and refugees living with HIV for positive social connectedness as well as medication adherence and more specific health concerns. PMID:23651201

  8. Exploring the Special Needs of African Refugee Children in U.S. Schools

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    Tadesse, Selamawit; Hoot, James; Watson-Thompson, Ocie

    2009-01-01

    Unlike most immigrants, who come to host countries after being granted legal permanent residency, refugees are forced to leave their homelands, often abruptly, due to threats to their personal safety. Refugees enter their host countries with no prior arrangements in place (e.g., housing, financial support of relatives, opportunities to start…

  9. A longitudinal study of demographic factors associated with stressors and symptoms in African refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Sulani; Gavian, Margaret; Frazier, Patricia; Johnson, David; Spring, Marline; Westermeyer, Joseph; Butcher, James; Halcon, Linda; Robertson, Cheryl; Savik, Kay; Jaranson, James

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess differences in premigration, transit, and resettlement stressor exposure and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as a function of demographic characteristics (i.e., gender, ethnicity, age, time in United States) and to examine the concurrent and longitudinal relations between stressor exposure and PTSD symptoms. The sample consisted of adult (18-78 years) Somali and Oromo refugee men and women (N = 437). Qualitative data regarding participants' self-nominated worst stressors collected at Time 2 (T2) informed the development of quantitative scales assessing premigration, transit, and resettlement stress created using items collected at Time 1 (T1). PTSD symptoms were measured at both T1 and T2. Quantitative analyses showed that levels of stressor exposure and PTSD symptoms differed as a function of refugee demographic characteristics. For example, Oromo, more recent, women, and older refugees reported more premigration and resettlement stressors. Oromo refugees and refugee men reported more PTSD symptoms in regression analyses with other factors controlled. Premigration, transit, and resettlement stressor exposure generally was associated with higher PTSD symptom levels. Results underscore the importance of assessing stress exposure comprehensively throughout the refugee experience and caution against overgeneralizing between and within refugee groups.

  10. Satisfaction with personal and environmental quality of life: a black South African informal settlement perspective

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    MS Westaway

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted with 487 black adult residents of a South African informal settlement (151 men and 336 women to ascertain satisfaction with personal and environmental quality of life. It was hypothesised that: (1 health status and life satisfaction were the underlying dimensions of personal quality of life (PQOL; (2 health status and life satisfaction were more strongly associated with PQOL than environmental quality of life (EQOL; and (3 life satisfaction and satisfaction with EQOL were positively related. Seventy per cent of respondents rated their health as good or better. Age, schooling and employment status were significantly related to health, life satisfaction and PQOL. Reliability (internal consistency coefficients were 0.77 for the 5-item life satisfaction scale and 0.82 for the 12-item EQOL measure. Factor analysis showed that safety and security was the major unmet service need. Health status and life satisfaction explained 38% of the variance in PQOL; health status explained only 4% of the variance in EQOL. Life satisfaction was significantly related to EQOL (r = 0.16, p = 0.01. The results provided support for all three hypotheses. It was concluded that the life satisfaction and EQOL measures had good reliability; there was a definite need for a safety and security programme; and good health was a more important predictor of PQOL than EQOL.

  11. Personality and Psychopathology in African Unaccompanied Refugee Minors: Repression, Resilience and Vulnerability

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    Huemer, Julia; Volkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Karnik, Niranjan; Denny, Katherine G.; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Mitterer, Michaela; Humphreys, Keith; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Shaw, Richard J.; Steiner, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Examining personality and psychopathological symptoms among unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs), we measured intra-individual dimensions (repression and correlates thereof) usually associated with resilience. Forty-one URMs completed the Weinberger Adjustment Inventory (WAI), assessing personality, and the Youth Self-Report (YSR), describing…

  12. Parent Involvement: Perceived Encouragement and Barriers to African Refugee Parent and Teacher Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Selamawit

    2014-01-01

    Children coming from refugee families have special psychological, social, and academic needs, and their success greatly depends on the positive support they receive from the host community. Teachers and peers at the school can provide cumulative support to help these children and their families overcome major socio-cultural and educational…

  13. Louse-borne relapsing fever among East African refugees in Europe.

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    Antinori, Spinello; Mediannikov, Oleg; Corbellino, Mario; Raoult, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Louse-borne relapsing fever a neglected and forgotten disease by western physicians has recently re-emerged among East African migrants seeking asylum in Europe. We review here the cases observed so far together with a critical reappraisal of several issues regarding clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment.

  14. Intergenerational relations and the settlement experiences of African migrants in northern England

    OpenAIRE

    Waite, LJ; Cook, J; Aigner, P

    2009-01-01

    Aims The report looks at how the migration and integration experiences of African migrants living in Yorkshire vary across family generations. The study was funded by the British Academy under its Research Development Scheme. Methodology Data was obtained over an 18 month period during 2008-09 through 40 biographical interviews with 20 families of African origin [Sudanese, Somali, Kenyan and Zimbabwean] living in Yorkshire. Interviews were also conducted with other key individuals including c...

  15. Norovirus diversity in diarrheic children from an African-descendant settlement in Belem, Northern Brazil.

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    Glicélia Cruz Aragão

    Full Text Available Norovirus (NoV, sapovirus (SaV and human astrovirus (HAstV are viral pathogens that are associated with outbreaks and sporadic cases of gastroenteritis. However, little is known about the occurrence of these pathogens in relatively isolated communities, such as the remnants of African-descendant villages ("Quilombola". The objective of this study was the frequency determination of these viruses in children under 10 years, with and without gastroenteritis, from a "Quilombola" Community, Northern Brazil. A total of 159 stool samples were obtained from April/2008 to July/2010 and tested by an enzyme immunoassay (EIA and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR to detect NoV, SaV and HAstV, and further molecular characterization was performed. These viruses were detected only in the diarrheic group. NoV was the most frequent viral agent detected (19.7%-16/81, followed by SaV (2.5%-2/81 and HAstV (1.2%-1/81. Of the 16 NoV-positive samples, 14 were sequenced with primers targeting the B region of the polymerase (ORF1 and the D region of the capsid (ORF2. The results showed a broad genetic diversity of NoV, with 12 strains being classified as GII-4 (5-41.7%, GII-6 (3-25%, GII-7 (2-16.7%, GII-17 (1-8.3% and GI-2 (1-8.3%, as based on the polymerase region; 12 samples were classified, based on the capsid region, as GII-4 (6-50%, being 3-2006b variant and 3-2010 variant, GII-6 (3-25%, GII-17 (2-16.7% and GII-20 (1-8.3%. One NoV-strain showed dual genotype specificity, based on the polymerase and capsid region (GII-7/GII-20. This study provides, for the first time, epidemiological and molecular information on the circulation of NoV, SaV and HAstV in African-descendant communities in Northern Brazil and identifies NoV genotypes that were different from those detected previously in studies conducted in the urban area of Belém. It remains to be determined why a broader NoV diversity was observed in such a semi-isolated community.

  16. Kafkasya Muhacirlerinin Suriye Vilayetine İskânı ve Karşılaşılan Zorluklar The Settlement of Caucasian Refugees to Syria Province and the Hardships Encountered

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    Oktay KIZILKAYA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Russia invaded the Caucasian region completely in the secondhalf of 19th century. The Muslim nations of the Caucasia, who rejectedthe domination of Russia, decided to emigrate Ottoman Empire. The oppression and the cruelty that Russia carried out had an importantrole in the decision of emigration. The first refugees, who came fromCaucasia, were settled in Anatolia, Rumelia and partly Syria province.The Ottoman Empire lost war at the result of 1877–1878 Ottoman-Russia war. As the result of the war, Ottoman Empire lost a great dealof land in Balkan geography. Therefore, the Caucasian refugees, whowere settled in Balkans before, became refugee again. Syria provincewas approved as the new settlement region both for Caucasian andRumelian refugees. These refugees, who had been sent to Syriaprovince, encountered, great problems. They experienced the problem ofadapting to natural conditions of Syria such as water and air. Besides,when the epidemic illnesses, which caused due to squalor, were addednearly half of the refugees died. Apart from that, the refugees facedtroubles with Druse and Bedouins in social aspect, thus, theyencountered great problems. After nearly thirty years that emigrantssettle in Syria province, they adapted to its socio-cultural structure andclimate conditions. After emigrants adapted to Syria province, theybecame strong towards Druse and Bedouins that attack them.Ottoman Empire mobilized all its opportunities for the settlementof refugees. However, it could not prevent the unwanted events. XIX yüzyılın ikinci yarısında Rusya Kafkasya Bölgesini tamamenistila etti. İstila neticesinde Rus hâkimiyetini kabul etmeyenKafkasya’nın Müslüman milletleri, Osmanlı Ülkesine göç etme kararıaldı. Bu göç kararında Rusların uyguladıkları baskı ve şiddet büyük birrol oynadı. Kafkasya’dan ilk gelen göçmenler Anadolu ve Rumeli’ye çokaz da olsa Suriye Vilayetine iskân edildi. 1877–1878 Osmanl

  17. Post-literacy for refugees and IDPs in Sudan

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    Rashida Abdel Mutalib

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of Eritreans, many of them second- orthird-generation exiles, live in refugee camps in thenortheast of Sudan. Millions of southern Sudanesehave fled to the north where IDP settlements arescattered around urban outskirts.

  18. Supporting Schools to Create an Inclusive Environment for Refugee Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Karen; Cross, Suzanne; Riggs, Elisha; Gibbs, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    In a context of increasing numbers of refugees and asylum seekers globally, recognition of the importance of the school environment for promoting successful settlement outcomes and inclusion for refugee-background young people is growing. Yet schools may be poorly equipped to recognise and respond to the multiple challenges faced by children and…

  19. STATE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE RIGHTS OF REFUGEES : A Critical Analysis on the Security of Refugees in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    When refugees flee their countries and cross the border, security ranks high among the priorities of those seeking asylum. Maintaining the purely civilian and humanitarian character of refugee camps and settlements is essential for effective protection of refugees, including safeguarding their personal security. This paper will discuss the aspect of physical and legal security as a fundamental right while highlighting the obligation of the state to take all necessary measures to ensure the sa...

  20. What does the literature say about resilience in refugee people? Implications for practice

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Hutchinson; Pat Dorsett

    2012-01-01

    Refugee people experience many trials prior to arriving in Australia and face ongoing challenges associated with re-settlement. Despite facing such difficulties many refugee people demonstrate enormous strength and resilience that facilitates their re-settlement process. The authors’ experience however suggests that professionals working with refugee people tend to focus on the trauma story to the neglect of their strengths. At times this means resilience is overshadowed by a dominant Western...

  1. Through the Fear: A Study of Xenophobia in South Africa’s Refugee System

    OpenAIRE

    Janet McKnight

    2008-01-01

    In light of the May 2008 xenophobic attacks in Gauteng and Western Cape Provinces, this paper explains the process of refugee law in South Africa as stated in theory and as implemented in practice. Research was compiled through visits to refugee camps, townships, South African Parliament, regional prisons, judicial inspectorates, universities, and community events in and near Cape Town during June 2008. The South African Refugees Act guarantees protection to refugees and asylum seekers in con...

  2. The Danish Dispersal Policy on Refugee Immigrants 1986-1998: A Natural Experiment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This paper investigates whether the Danish Dispersal Policy on new refugee immigrants carried out from 1986 to 1998 can be regarded as a natural experiment. Were refugees randomly assigned to a location? The main findings are as follows. First, around 90% of new refugees were assigned to a location....... Second, the dispersal policy successfully distributed new refugees equally across locations relative to the number of inhabitants in a location. Third, the actual settlement may have been influenced by six refugee characteristics. I conclude that the initial location of new refugees 1986-1998 may...

  3. Khat use, PTSD and psychotic symptoms among Somali refugees in Nairobi - a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina eWidmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In East-African and Arab countries, khat leaves are traditionally chewed in social settings. They contain the amphetamine-like alkaloid cathinone. Especially among Somali refugees khat use has been associated with psychiatric symptoms. We assessed khat use patterns and psychiatric symptoms among male Somali refugees living in a disadvantaged urban settlement area in Kenya, a large group that has not yet received scientific attention. We wanted to explore consume patterns and study the associations between khat use, traumatic experiences and psychotic symptoms.Using privileged access sampling we recruited 33 healthy male khat chewers and 15 comparable non-chewers. Based on extensive preparatory work, we assessed khat use, khat dependence according to DSM-IV, traumatic experiences, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and psychotic symptoms using standardized diagnostic instruments that had been adapted to the Somali language and culture.Hazardous use patterns like chewing for more than 24 hours without interruption were frequently reported. All khat users fulfilled the DSM-IV-criteria for dependence and eighty-five percent reported functional khat-use, i.e. that khat helps them to forget painful experiences. We found that the studied group was heavily burdened by traumatic events and posttraumatic symptoms. Khat users had experienced more traumatic events and had more often PTSD than non-users. Most khat users experience khat-related psychotic symptoms and in a quarter of them we found true psychotic symptoms. In contrast, among control group members no psychotic symptoms could be detected.We found first evidence for the existence and high prevalence of severely hazardous use patterns, comorbid psychiatric symptoms and khat use as a self-medication of trauma-consequences among male Somali refugees in urban Kenyan refugee settlements. There is a high burden by psychopathology and adequate community-based interventions urgently need to be developed.

  4. Trauma and Second Language Learning Among Laotian Refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Unprecedented numbers of adult refugee learners are entering ESL classes, many of whom escaped war-torn countries and endured long stays in refugee camps. Research in public health and psychology has documented high levels of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder in refugee populations. Drawing on ethnographic research with Laotian refugee women who experienced pre-settlement trauma during the Vietnam War and interviews with bilingual mental health professionals, this article examines current second language acquisition theories to consider how they elucidate the effect of trauma on second language learning. The article offers cross-cultural perspectives about the impact of trauma on learning and recommendations for working with adult refugee learners who have experienced trauma. Findings have implications for ESL instructors and second language researchers concerned with the impact of pre- settlement experiences on second language acquisition and implications for classroom instruction.

  5. Refugees Connecting with a New Country through Community Food Gardening

    OpenAIRE

    Neil Harris; Fiona Rowe Minniss; Shawn Somerset

    2014-01-01

    Refugees are a particularly vulnerable population who undergo nutrition transition as a result of forced migration. This paper explores how involvement in a community food garden supports African humanitarian migrant connectedness with their new country. A cross-sectional study of a purposive sample of African refugees participating in a campus-based community food garden was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with twelve African humanitarian migrants who tended established...

  6. Enduring crisis : refugee problems in eastern Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, H.J.; Kuhlman, T.

    1990-01-01

    The Free University in Amsterdam has undertaken several research projects in the Sudan. One programme (1983-1986) was aimed at comparing spontaneous and organized settlement of refugees as roads towards integration; the locations studied were in the region of Gedaref, in the southern part of the Eas

  7. Collective Mobilization and the Struggle for Squatter Citizenship: Rereading “Xenophobic” Violence in a South African Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamlyn Jane Monson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the association between informal residence and the occurrence of “xenophobic” violence in South Africa, this article examines “xenophobic violence” through a political account of two squatter settlements across the transition to democracy: Jeffsville and Brazzaville on the informal periphery of Atteridgeville, Gauteng. Using the concepts of political identity, living politics and insurgent citizenship, the paper mines past and present to explore identities, collective practices and expertise whose legacy can be traced in contemporary mobilization against foreigners, particularly at times of popular protest. I suggest that the category of the “surplus person”, which originated in the apartheid era, lives on in the unfinished transition of squatter citizens to formal urban inclusion in contemporary South Africa. The political salience of this legacy of superfluity is magnified at times of protest, not only through the claims made on the state, but also through the techniques for protest mobilization, which both activate and manufacture identities based on common suffering and civic labour. In the informal settlements of Jeffsville and Brazzaville, these identities polarised insurgent citizens from non-citizen newcomers, particularly those traders whose business-as-usual practices during times of protest appeared as evidence of their indifference and lack of reciprocity precisely at times when shared suffering and commitment were produced as defining qualities of the squatter community.

  8. Selected Bibliography: Refugees and Refugee Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council of the Churches of Christ of the United States of America, New York, NY. Church World Service.

    This is a partially annotated bibliography of books, journal articles, and other materials on refugees and refugee issues from an international perspective and from the perspective of several countries around the world. The materials cover a range of topics including general theories on refugees; the refugee experience before 1960 and the…

  9. Refugees: asset or burden?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A Ongpin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Studying the impact that a refugee population has on itshost country’s economy is important when assessing anddeveloping government refugee strategies, particularly inprotracted refugee situations.

  10. Refugee Action Support: An Interventionist Pedagogy for Supporting Refugee Students' Learning in Greater Western Sydney Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Loshini

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of community, non-government organisations and universities in assisting secondary schools meet the needs of refugee students. On arrival in Australia, many African refugee communities experience high levels of stress particularly in adjusting to their new environment. The parents and students unfamiliarity with the…

  11. What does the literature say about resilience in refugee people? Implications for practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Hutchinson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Refugee people experience many trials prior to arriving in Australia and face ongoing challenges associated with re-settlement. Despite facing such difficulties many refugee people demonstrate enormous strength and resilience that facilitates their re-settlement process. The authors’ experience however suggests that professionals working with refugee people tend to focus on the trauma story to the neglect of their strengths. At times this means resilience is overshadowed by a dominant Western deficits model that defines refugee people as traumatised victims. Pathologising the trauma story of refugee people may further alienate refugee people from full inclusion into Australian life by denying their inherent resilience in the face of extraordinary life experiences. This article reviews Australian and International literature to explore factors that contribute to refugee resilience such as personal qualities, support and religion. The review also identifies elements that may impede resilience including; language barriers, racism, discrimination, and labelling the trauma story. The literature suggests refugee resilience moves beyond the Western individualised notion of resilience to a more communal construction of resilience that includes refugee people’s broader social context. The literature highlights important practice implications and the authors respond to the findings by reflecting on their own practice experience and considering implications for a more inclusive anti-oppressive strengths-based approach to work with refugee people. Keywords: refugee, resilience, strengths, trauma

  12. Asylum seekers and refugees in Indonesia: Problems and potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Muzafar; Briskman, Linda Ruth; Fiske, Lucy Imogen

    2016-01-01

     Asylum seekers and refugees in Indonesia increasingly experience protracted waiting times for permanent settlement in other countries. They have few, if any, legal rights, coupled with extremely limited financial resources and no access to government provided services. In response to the prospect of living for many years in this difficult and liminal space, a small community of refugees in the West Java town of Cisarua has built relationships, skills and confidence among themselves and with ...

  13. Dependency, Partiality and the Generation of Research Questions in Refugee Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Marianne; Fozdar, Farida

    2010-01-01

    From the late 1990s to the mid 2000s refugees who gained entry to Australia came mainly from the African region, in particular Sudan. This contrasts with earlier intakes from Asia, the Middle East and the former Yugoslavia. The change in regional focus sparked research into the resettlement of African refugees in Australia, but it is a new field…

  14. Trauma and Second Language Learning among Laotian Refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Unprecedented numbers of adult refugee learners are entering ESL classes, many of whom escaped war-torn countries and endured long stays in refugee camps. Research in public health and psychology has documented high levels of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder in refugee populations. Drawing on ethnographic research with Laotian refugee women who experienced pre-settlement trauma during the Vietnam War and interviews with bilingual mental health professionals, this article examines current second language acquisition theories to consider how they elucidate the effect of trauma on second language learning. The article offers cross-cultural perspectives about the impact of trauma and recommendations for working with adult refugee learners who have experienced trauma. Research findings have implications for ESL instructors and second language researchers concerned with the impact of pre-resettlement experiences on second language acquisition and implications for classroom instruction.

  15. Sustainable Refugee Return

    OpenAIRE

    Harild, Niels; Christensen, Asger; Zetter, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Refugee return is one of the three so-called durable solutions to refugee displacement envisaged by United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the international community. The objective of this study is to identify the conditions that influence the decisions by refugees in protracted displacement regarding return to their home country - when, why, and by whom are decisions o...

  16. The state, refugees and migration in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akokpari, J K

    1998-01-01

    Migration and refugee movements could significantly decline in sub-Saharan African countries. However, countries must redistribute meager resources equitably and engage in environmental protection. Refugee and migrant populations have increased in sub-Saharan Africa during 1969-95, from 700,000 to 6.8 million. This study examined the causes of migration and the implications for host countries. Doornbos (1990) identifies the root problem as the partisan nature of African politics and the incapacity to manage ecological degradation. The African state is wholly or partially responsible for the creation of conflicts. Examples abound in Zaire, South Africa, Sudan, Rwanda, Burundi, Somalia, Ethiopia, Liberia, Congo, and Chad. State partisanship is also evident in Angola, Mozambique, Uganda, and Sierra Leone. An estimated 10 million Africans, in 1985, left their homes due to wars, government repression, or the inability of land to support them. In 1994, USAID estimated that 11.6 million Africans in 10 countries were threatened by famine from drought. Environmental degradation has generated conflicts. Africa's marginalized economy results in recession, unemployment, inflation, and distributional conflicts. Democratization has brought conflicts between the state, civil society, and exiles. Refugees face homelessness, poverty, emotional distress, inadequate food, and disease. Host countries face security threats, pressure on limited resources, rebellions from refugees and their involvement with foreign mercenaries, local conflicts between native and refugee populations, and environmental degradation from refugees. PMID:12293796

  17. Economic impact of refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. Edward; Filipski, Mateusz J.; Alloush, Mohamad; Gupta, Anubhab; Rojas Valdes, Ruben Irvin; Gonzalez-Estrada, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, the United Nations High Commission for Refugees accommodated over 15 million refugees, mostly in refugee camps in developing countries. The World Food Program provided these refugees with food aid, in cash or in kind. Refugees’ impacts on host countries are controversial and little understood. This unique study analyzes the economic impacts of refugees on host-country economies within a 10-km radius of three Congolese refugee camps in Rwanda. Simulations using Monte Carlo methods reveal that cash aid to refugees creates significant positive income spillovers to host-country businesses and households. An additional adult refugee receiving cash aid increases annual real income in the local economy by $205 to $253, significantly more than the $120–$126 in aid each refugee receives. Trade between the local economy and the rest of Rwanda increases by $49 to $55. The impacts are lower for in-kind food aid, a finding relevant to development aid generally. PMID:27325782

  18. Refugees connecting with a new country through community food gardening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Neil; Minniss, Fiona Rowe; Somerset, Shawn

    2014-09-01

    Refugees are a particularly vulnerable population who undergo nutrition transition as a result of forced migration. This paper explores how involvement in a community food garden supports African humanitarian migrant connectedness with their new country. A cross-sectional study of a purposive sample of African refugees participating in a campus-based community food garden was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with twelve African humanitarian migrants who tended established garden plots within the garden. Interview data were thematically analysed revealing three factors which participants identified as important benefits in relation to community garden participation: land tenure, reconnecting with agri-culture, and community belonging. Community food gardens offer a tangible means for African refugees, and other vulnerable or marginalised populations, to build community and community connections. This is significant given the increasing recognition of the importance of social connectedness for wellbeing. PMID:25198684

  19. Refugees Connecting with a New Country through Community Food Gardening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Harris

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Refugees are a particularly vulnerable population who undergo nutrition transition as a result of forced migration. This paper explores how involvement in a community food garden supports African humanitarian migrant connectedness with their new country. A cross-sectional study of a purposive sample of African refugees participating in a campus-based community food garden was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with twelve African humanitarian migrants who tended established garden plots within the garden. Interview data were thematically analysed revealing three factors which participants identified as important benefits in relation to community garden participation: land tenure, reconnecting with agri-culture, and community belonging. Community food gardens offer a tangible means for African refugees, and other vulnerable or marginalised populations, to build community and community connections. This is significant given the increasing recognition of the importance of social connectedness for wellbeing.

  20. Asian Refugee Students: Innovative Programming for America's Newest Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoen, Gail Ann

    An experimental course on Asian American women, offered by the Department of Family life at the University of Minnesota is described. The curriculum innovation was designed in response to the Asian refugee settlement in the St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minnesota, area. The undergraduate course used a 1982 anthology containing works focusing on Asian…

  1. The Rights of Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Jennifer Truran

    1998-01-01

    Traces the development of the idea of refugees as distinct from other immigrants. Elaborates on the evolution of a definition of "refugee;" the impact of World War I, World War II, and subsequent population movements; codification of refugee rights by the United Nations; and the process of seeking asylum. (DSK)

  2. 1981 World Refugee Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sherbinin, Michael J., Ed.

    This report presents an update and analysis of refugee and/or resettlement situations in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Europe and Canada, and Latin America. Described are activities undertaken by the following refugee organizations: (1) the Office of United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); (2) the Intergovernmental Committee for…

  3. Forced migration: health and human rights issues among refugee populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori, Jody R; Boyle, Joyceen S

    2015-01-01

    Undocumented migration is a global phenomenon that is manifest in diverse contexts. In this article, we examine the situations that precipitate the movement of large numbers of people across several African countries, producing a unique type of undocumented migrant--the refugee. These refugee movements impact already fragile African health care systems and often involve human rights violations that are of particular concern, such as gender-based violence and child soldiers. We use examples from several countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Mozambique. Drawing on key documents from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, current research, and our personal international experiences, we provide an overview of forced migration and discuss implications and opportunities for nurses to impact research, practice, and policy related to refugee health.

  4. Forced migration: health and human rights issues among refugee populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori, Jody R; Boyle, Joyceen S

    2015-01-01

    Undocumented migration is a global phenomenon that is manifest in diverse contexts. In this article, we examine the situations that precipitate the movement of large numbers of people across several African countries, producing a unique type of undocumented migrant--the refugee. These refugee movements impact already fragile African health care systems and often involve human rights violations that are of particular concern, such as gender-based violence and child soldiers. We use examples from several countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Mozambique. Drawing on key documents from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, current research, and our personal international experiences, we provide an overview of forced migration and discuss implications and opportunities for nurses to impact research, practice, and policy related to refugee health. PMID:25645484

  5. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig;

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice......Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  6. Nutritional status of refugee children entering DeKalb County, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ankoor Y; Suchdev, Parminder S; Mitchell, Tarissa; Shetty, Sharmila; Warner, Catherine; Oladele, Alawode; Reines, Susan

    2014-10-01

    This study determines the nutritional status among refugee children entering one of the largest resettlement counties in the United States and identifies differences between incoming populations. Medical records of all newly arriving pediatric refugees (0-18 years) entering DeKalb County, Georgia between October 2010 and July 2011 were reviewed. Refugee children were grouped as African, Bhutanese, or Burmese (resettling from either Thailand or Malaysia) for comparative analysis. Approximately one in five refugees were anemic or malnourished, while a quarter had stool parasites, and nearly half had dental caries. African refugees had the highest anemia but the lowest underweight prevalence (p Malaysia, Burmese children from Thailand had a higher prevalence of anemia, underweight, and stool parasites (p refugees, as well as ensure proper nutritional support and follow-up care. PMID:23828627

  7. United States refugee and asylum policy: history and current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, B N

    1986-01-01

    For most of the 4 decades since World War II, US refugee and asylum policy has been generous but ad hoc, discretionary, and highly variable favoring some refugee groups and discriminating against or ignoring others. This paper: 1) tries to clarify some of the terminology of the refugee field and explains the distinctions between asylum and resettlement, 2) provides some of the historical background that has brought the US to its present condition and chronicles the US overseas refugee admission policy, and 3) examines some asylum issues and other refugee issues. Asylum is far more difficult to control than refugee resettlement. As a result of what is perceived to be abuse of the asylum system, the US has joined the growing tendency of states to treat asylum-seekers as illegal migrants. The greatest problem with American asylum policy is its lack of fairness of application; many critics believe that foreign policy factors dominate asylum hearings rather than the individual merits of the case. The 3 classic solutions to this problem are resettlement, voluntary repatriation, and settlement in a country of 1st asylum. Only in the Indochinese refugee crisis has resettlement been widely used as a solution for 3rd World refugees. Nationalism and nation-building conflicts are at the root of many refugee movements; hosts are often no less nationalistic than source countries, thus many non-integrated refugees live in peril. Developed country political will and statesmanship are needed to revive resettlement as a durable solution. Resettlement may be difficult and costly, but the pluralistic western societies do offer an integrated new life. PMID:12178938

  8. Suicidal ideation: Are refugees more at risk compared to host population? Findings from a preliminary assessment in a refugee community in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, O O; Atilola, O; Soyannwo, T

    2015-12-01

    Among the serious mental health problems that may be associated with being a refugee is suicidal behavior. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among African refugees in Oru-Ijebu Nigeria. Suicidal ideation was assessed using appropriate section in the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview while the brief version of the WHO Quality of Life was used to assess quality of life as a clinical variable. Study involved 444 refugees and 527 non-refugee member of host community. Result showed that the prevalence of suicidal ideation was significantly higher among the refugees than the non-refugee comparison group (27.3% vs. 17.3%; prefugees compared with their non-refugee members of same community. Quality of life was the only factor independently associated with suicidal ideations among refugees. In conclusion, the study shows that the prevalence of suicidal ideation is significantly higher among the refugees than the non-refugee members of the host community and calls for innovative ways of extending mental health services to refugees at the study site.

  9. Changing cultures: enhancing mental health and wellbeing of refugee young people through education and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Lyndal; Giddens, Anne; Cosentino, Anne; Cook, Margaret; Hoban, Paul; Haynes, Ann; Scaffidi, Louise; Dimovski, Mary; Cini, Eileen; Glover, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Many refugee people and others entering Australia under the Humanitarian Program, have experienced extremely stressful and disrupted lives prior to arrival. A major difficulty experienced by a significant number of refugee young people is their lack of formal education before arrival. It directly affects their ability to start connecting to their new society and constructing a new life. The level of ease with which young people can move into the education and training system and begin to establish a meaningful career pathway has a huge impact on their successful settlement and stable mental health. This paper describes the Changing Cultures Project, a three-year project, which explored models of appropriate and accessible education and training for refugee and newly arrived young people that would enhance their mental health. The Changing Cultures Project was a partnership between the education, health and settlement sectors. This paper describes the program and system response to the health, settlement, education and vocational issues facing refugee young people using a mental health promotion framework and reflective practice. We discuss how the refugee youth programs met a broad range of needs as well as providing language, literacy and basic education to newly arrived young people. While working in an environment of changing policy and public opinion regarding refugee issues, the Project delivered successful outcomes at the program and organisational levels for refugee young people by addressing issues of program development and delivery, organisational development and capacity building and community development and evaluation. PMID:18154223

  10. Refugees in and out North Africa: a study of the Choucha refugee camp in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourgnon, Paul; Kassar, Hassène

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, North African (NA) countries ceased to be emigration-only countries and are now on the verge of becoming immigration as well as transit countries for economic migrants and refugees. Contextual as well as structural long-term factors are driving these changes. The ongoing crises in Africa and the Middle East are prompting strong outflows of refugees, which are likely to induce NA countries to share some common public policy and public health concerns with European countries in a near future. This article highlights some aspects of these changes, from the study of the consequences of the 2011 Libyan crisis in Tunisia. It addresses individual trajectories and health concerns of refugees in and out North Africa from a study of the Choucha camp in Tunisia. The camp opened to immigrants from Libya during the 2011 crisis and accommodated the bulk of the refugees flow to Tunisia until July 2012. The study includes a monographic approach and a qualitative survey in the Choucha camp refugees. We describe the crisis history and the health response with a focus on the camp. We then address refugees' trajectories, and health needs and concerns from the interviews we collected in the camp in April 2012.

  11. Refugees in and out North Africa: a study of the Choucha refugee camp in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourgnon, Paul; Kassar, Hassène

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, North African (NA) countries ceased to be emigration-only countries and are now on the verge of becoming immigration as well as transit countries for economic migrants and refugees. Contextual as well as structural long-term factors are driving these changes. The ongoing crises in Africa and the Middle East are prompting strong outflows of refugees, which are likely to induce NA countries to share some common public policy and public health concerns with European countries in a near future. This article highlights some aspects of these changes, from the study of the consequences of the 2011 Libyan crisis in Tunisia. It addresses individual trajectories and health concerns of refugees in and out North Africa from a study of the Choucha camp in Tunisia. The camp opened to immigrants from Libya during the 2011 crisis and accommodated the bulk of the refugees flow to Tunisia until July 2012. The study includes a monographic approach and a qualitative survey in the Choucha camp refugees. We describe the crisis history and the health response with a focus on the camp. We then address refugees' trajectories, and health needs and concerns from the interviews we collected in the camp in April 2012. PMID:25107992

  12. Refugee movements and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirisci, K

    1991-12-01

    There has been a long tradition in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic of receiving refugees. There were Jewish refugees from the Spanish Inquisition, Hungarians and Poles fleeing revolts in 1848-9, and those of Turkish descent and usually from the Balkans. Concurrent with this trend is the history of refugees and immigrants leaving Turkey, such as many Armenians, Greeks and Jews leaving at the turn of the century, and after 1923 and the Treaty of Lausanne. Little is currently published on the topic. This article defines a refugee; provides an overview of the refugee problems of the 1980's due to Bulgarian, Kurdish, and Turkish refugees; and the legal and political aspects. As a country of origin, there is discussion of the political and economic aspects of Turkish asylum seekers in Europe. The potential refugee flows to and from Turkey are also examined. I) For this study, refugees are victims of political violence and are persecuted for political or religious beliefs, ethnic or racial background, or war. In Turkey, there are national refugees, international refugees outside the Convention, and UNHCR Convention refugees. During the 1980's all 3 groups were arriving: from eastern Europe, Iranian Kurds, Iraqis, and ethnic Turks from Bulgaria and Afghanistan. The Turkish restricted acceptance of the 1951 Convention on Refugees creates serious humanitarian and security consequences for refugees other than those from eastern Europe and of Turkish ethnicity. Political considerations play an important role in treatment where security threats outweigh humanitarian need. The case is given for Kurdish refugees. II) Asylum seekers from Turkey in Western Europe was determined between 1986-90 to be 185,000 from applications. These figures have risen steadily due to the political instability and military activity of areas bordering Iraq and Syria, the Emergency Region. In addition there are economic and employment problems, and there has been a suspension of human

  13. Through the Fear: A Study of Xenophobia in South Africa’s Refugee System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet McKnight

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In light of the May 2008 xenophobic attacks in Gauteng and Western Cape Provinces, this paper explains the process of refugee law in South Africa as stated in theory and as implemented in practice. Research was compiled through visits to refugee camps, townships, South African Parliament, regional prisons, judicial inspectorates, universities, and community events in and near Cape Town during June 2008. The South African Refugees Act guarantees protection to refugees and asylum seekers in conformity with international treaties and the South African Constitution. However, these rights are seldom realized due to a delay processing of asylum applications by the Department of Home Affairs, corruption in immigration enforcement, and a lack of education in civil society as to the difference between refugees and voluntary migrants. Refugees are left vulnerable to the violence of those South African citizens that believe all immigrants are illegally present to take advantage of employment and social opportunities. In an attempt to eliminate the fearfulness towards foreigners and bring the plight of refugees further to the forefront of international dialogue, general recommendations are made to the South African Government, its departments, and the citizens of South Africa.

  14. Hurdles to health: immigrant and refugee health care in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Sally B; Skull, Sue A

    2005-02-01

    Refugees and asylum seekers face a number of barriers to accessing health care and improved health status. These include language difficulties, financial need and unemployment, cultural differences, legal barriers and a health workforce with generally low awareness of issues specific to refugees. Importantly, current Australian government migration and settlement policy also impacts on access to health and health status. An adequate understanding of these 'hurdles to health' is a prerequisite for health providers and health service managers if they are to tailor health care and services appropriately. We include tables of available resources and entitlements to health care according to visa category to assist providers and managers. PMID:15683352

  15. The Civil and Commercial Disputes Arising from the China- African Business Relations and Their Settlements%中国与非洲民商事法律纠纷及其解决

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱伟东

    2012-01-01

    目前中国与非洲之间民商事法律纠纷主要有合同纠纷、信用证或保函纠纷、劳资纠纷、海事纠纷和侵权纠纷等类型。这些纠纷大都发生在非洲国家,且主要是在非洲国家法院或仲裁机构解决的。由于非洲国家在涉外民商事诉讼解决机制方面存在的一些不足,中非双方通过仲裁方式解决争议具有诸多好处。在现阶段通过仲裁方式解决争议时,中国企业应该特别注意几个现实问题。中非双方政府和民间机构在今后应分阶段逐步构建并完善具有中非特色的民商事纠纷解决机制。%Currently, the civil and commercial disputes arising from the China - African business relations are mainly the contractual disputes, letter of credit or guar- antee disputes, labor disputes, marine disputes and delictual disputes. These dis- putes often occur in African countries and are often settled in African courts or arbi- tral institutions. It is not a satisfactory choice to settle such disputes in African courts due to the defects in the legal system and inefficiency in legal practice. The author suggests that the parties should settle their disputes through arbitration taking into ac- count the fact that many African countries have comparably sound arbitral facilities, and arbitration is encouraged from both sides either at the governmental level or at non -governmental level. The Chinese parties must pay attention to several prac- tical problems when making resort to arbitration in Africa. In the long run, the gov- ernments and the non- governmental institutions such as the business councils from both sides should put more efforts in constructing and improving the civil and com- mercial dispute settlement mechanism with the China- African characteristics.

  16. The rights of refugee children in South Africa / van Baalen C.H.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Baalen, Christina Henriëtta

    2012-01-01

    Refugee children are a specific vulnerable group in the South African society. In terms of the South African Constitution, refugee children are equally entitled to the right to basic nutrition, shelter, basic health care services, and social services in section 28(1)(c) and basic education in section 29(1)(a). It is unclear from jurisprudence whether indigent children under parental or family care have a direct entitlement to these rights. In Government of the Republic of South...

  17. Refugee Business Start-ups in the North East of England: An Impossible Dream?

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Hilary; Fitzgerald, Ian; Hudson, Lucinda

    2013-01-01

    Objectives and prior work - For many asylum seekers just getting to the UK is an achievement, let alone obtaining refugee status. When ‘equality’ is achieved with other immigrant workers then the settlement process begins. For some this includes starting a business but there are a number of well documented barriers to business start-up for refugees as well as black minority ethic entrepreneurs, which have been highlighted in the North East region (BRKN, 2007). Given this Northumbria Universit...

  18. Postemergency health services for refugee and host populations in Uganda, 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orach, Christopher Garimoi; De Brouwere, Vincent

    Since 1990, Uganda has hosted an estimated 200?000 refugees in postemergency settlements interspersed within host communities. We investigated the extent to which obstetric needs were met in the refugee and host populations during 1999-2002. Between September and December, 2000, we retrospectively collected data from 1999 and 2000 on major obstetric interventions for absolute maternal indications from all five hospitals in Arua, Adjumani, and Moyo districts, Uganda. The same data were collected prospectively for 2001. We did community-based maternal mortality surveys on refugee and host populations in Adjumani district in 2002. Rates of major obstetric interventions were significantly higher for refugees than for the host population who live in the same rural areas as refugees (1.01% [95% CI 0.77-1.25] vs 0.45% [0.38-0.52]; pinterventions were also significantly higher for refugees than for the host population who live in rural areas without refugees (1.01% [0.77-1.25] vs 0.40% [0.36-0.44]; pMaternal mortality was 2.5 times higher in the host population than in refugees in the Adjumani district (322 per 100000 births [247-396] vs 130 [81-179]. Refugees had better access to health services than did the rural host population in the northern Ugandan communities that we surveyed. PMID:15313362

  19. The Relationship Between Post-Migration Stress and Psychological Disorders in Refugees and Asylum Seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Susan S Y; Liddell, Belinda J; Nickerson, Angela

    2016-09-01

    Refugees demonstrate high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychological disorders. The recent increase in forcible displacement internationally necessitates the understanding of factors associated with refugee mental health. While pre-migration trauma is recognized as a key predictor of mental health outcomes in refugees and asylum seekers, research has increasingly focused on the psychological effects of post-migration stressors in the settlement environment. This article reviews the research evidence linking post-migration factors and mental health outcomes in refugees and asylum seekers. Findings indicate that socioeconomic, social, and interpersonal factors, as well as factors relating to the asylum process and immigration policy affect the psychological functioning of refugees. Limitations of the existing literature and future directions for research are discussed, along with implications for treatment and policy. PMID:27436307

  20. Psychological Interventions with Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, James N.; And Others

    Psychotherapy is an alien concept to many refugees from traditional cultures, since much of psychotherapy is tied to Western thoughts, practices, and belief systems. However, a variety of therapeutic strategies can be effective with refugees if modified to account for cultural factors. Four clinical intervention strategies are discussed with…

  1. Urban asylum seekers and refugees in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Vera den Otter

    2007-01-01

    The difficulties faced by urban refugees are often different from those faced by refugees in camps but are no less serious. The Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS ) in Bangkok is struggling to support growing numbers of urban refugees in Thailand.

  2. Refugee women's health: collaborative inquiry with refugee women in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlish, Carol

    2005-01-01

    A collaborative capacity building experience in a Rwandan refugee camp with refugee women from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is described in this article. In service to the American Refugee Committee, I taught 13 refugee women how to plan and facilitate focus group sessions with the larger community of refugee women. The facilitators then conducted 18 focus group sessions gathering data from 100 refugee women. Thematic results included the health implications of poverty, the struggle to survive, the overburden of daily work, ambivalence about family planning, and the lack of freedom to express themselves. PMID:16263661

  3. Primary care for refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Barbara

    2011-02-15

    Over the past decade, at least 600,000 refugees from more than 60 different countries have been resettled in the United States. The personal history of a refugee is often marked by physical and emotional trauma. Although refugees come from many different countries and cultures, their shared pattern of experiences allows for some generalizations to be made about their health care needs and challenges. Before being accepted for resettlement in the United States, all refugees must pass an overseas medical screening examination, the purpose of which is to identify conditions that could result in ineligibility for admission to the United States. Primary care physicians have the opportunity to care for members of this unique population once they resettle. Refugees present to primary care physicians with a variety of health problems, including musculoskeletal and pain issues, mental and social health problems, infectious diseases, and longstanding undiagnosed chronic illnesses. Important infectious diseases to consider in the symptomatic patient include tuberculosis, parasites, and malaria. Health maintenance and immunizations should also be addressed. Language barriers, cross-cultural medicine issues, and low levels of health literacy provide additional challenges to caring for this population. The purpose of this article is to provide primary care physicians with a guide to some of the common issues that arise when caring for refugee patients.

  4. Settlement Policies and the Economic Success of Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Edin, Per-Anders; Fredriksson, Peter; Åslund, Olof

    2001-01-01

    Many developed countries, e.g. the UK, Germany, and Sweden, use or have used settlement policies to direct the inflow of new immigrants away from immigrant dense metropolitan areas. We evaluate a reform of Swedish immigration policy that featured dispersion of refugee immigrants across the country, but also a change in the approach to labour market integration. We focus exclusively on how immigrants fared because of the policy. The results indicate that immigrants experienced fairly substanti...

  5. Informal settlements in post-communist cities: Diversity factors and patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Sasha Tsenkova

    2010-01-01

    In some post-communist cities, the formation of informal settlements is a phenomenon associated with the wave of urbanisation of the 1960s and 1970s. In others, the phenomenon is connected with the influx of immigrants and refugees in the 1990s. Informal settlement areas are the result of various factors: inadequate spatial planning, outdated and complex legislation, housing policies that do not ensure the provision of affordable housing and outdated public administration structures. Illegal ...

  6. Food shortages and gender relations in Ikafe settlement, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, L

    1998-03-01

    In 1996, an 18-month-old settlement created for 55,000 Sudanese refugees in northern Uganda came under attack by Ugandan rebels. By March 1997, the entire population of the settlement had migrated in search of safety. Because the refugees lost their livelihoods and cultivated fields, they had to adopt short-term coping strategies to acquire food. Two Oxfam researchers gathering information during this period for use in program planning and monitoring found that coping strategies included 1) hazarding dangerous journeys (women risked rape or abduction; men risked beating, looting, killing, or abduction) to harvest crops; 2) seeking piece-work employment; 3) exchanging sex for food; and 4) depleting assets. The crisis was particularly severe for single people (especially those with children). In families where the women but not the men could find employment, some men took on household responsibilities. As malnutrition increased, health declined. Observed changes to household gender relations included new sexual divisions of labor, assumption by females of decision-making power, increased domestic quarreling, and marital break-down (especially in cases where women had been raped). On the community level, women assumed more responsibility as men withdrew socially or left the settlement. These findings point to the importance of providing refugees with seeds, with small loans to stimulate business, and with the means to rebuild their sense of community. PMID:12321534

  7. Refugees and mental health interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Guribye, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    This thesis focuses on refugees and mental health interventions. A literature review and 24 months of participant observation among Tamil refugee parents in Norway form the basis of the findings presented here. The first study is concerned with refugees and public mental health services in Norway. Many refugees may have difficulties trusting professional helpers within the bureaucratically organized public health care system, replacing these services with relationships to other...

  8. The Welfare of Syrian Refugees

    OpenAIRE

    Verme, Paolo; Gigliarano, Chiara; Wieser, Christina; Hedlund, Kerren; Petzoldt, Marc; Santacroce, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The book focuses on the largest refugee crisis of our time: the Syrian refugee crisis. It exploits a wealth of survey and registry data on Syrian refugees living in Jordan and Lebanon to assess their poverty and vulnerability status, understand the predictors of these statuses, evaluate the performance of existing policies toward refugees, and determine the potential for alternative policies. Findings point to a complex situation. In the absence of humanitarian assistance, poverty is extremel...

  9. Childhood lead poisoning in a Somali refugee resettlement community in New Hampshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Rosemary M; Tshabangu-Soko, Thandi; Finefrock, Krysten

    2013-08-01

    Despite the gradual decrease in childhood lead poisoning in the United States, the risk for lead poisoning among African refugee children who resettle in the United States remains elevated. Communication methods implemented by resettlement agencies in the public health system for preventing childhood lead poisoning in this at-risk population warrant further investigation. We utilized structured interviews with key stakeholders (resettlement agencies, social service agencies developed by African refugees and resettled Somali refugees) involved in the refugee resettlement process to (1) describe the agency's role in the refugee resettlement process; (2) examine communication methods utilized and barriers experienced by the public health system in reference to childhood lead poisoning; (3) describe the refugee population's perception of childhood lead poisoning; (4) examine general challenges experienced by the public health system and the refugee population during the resettlement process; and (5) describe stakeholders' recommendations to improve health communication efforts. Based on our findings, we propose that communities are important determinants in health-related problems for refugee populations. Each community has its own environment and public health system that interacts with each other to influence health risks and risk perceptions of its populations. We advocate that understanding a community's ecology and implementing a culture-centered approach is essential for the public health system to help educate and prevent communication inequalities and health disparities among an at-risk African refugee population. This action can reduce a population's resistance to communication and help build a community's capacity to address a persistent public health problem, such as childhood lead poisoning.

  10. [Combined nutritional indicators and associated factors in the Quilombo population (hinterland settlements founded by people of African origin) in southwestern Bahia, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Daniela Arruda; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-03-01

    This study sought to estimate the prevalence of the combination of Body Mass Index (BMI) plus Waist Circumference (WC) and of BMI plus Waist to Height Ratio (WHR) and to investigate associated factors. A two-stage random sample of adults (>20 years) living in former African slaves communities (Quilombos) was taken in Vitória da Conquista in the State of Bahia in 2011. Combined BMI+WHR nutritional risk was defined by the simultaneous presence of BMI > 25.0Kg/m2 or > 27.0Kg/m2, if aged > 60 years and WHR > 0.5. BMI + WC nutritional risk was defined by elevated BMI in addition to WC > 80cm for women, or > 94cm for men. Among the 739 participants, the prevalence of combined nutritional indicators were 35.3% (BMI + WHR) and 26.8% (BMI + WC). Female sex and hypertension increased the chances of a combination of both indicators, while being unmarried decreased the chances. The prevalence of BMI + WHR was higher in the 40-59 year age range and the prevalence of BMI + WC was higher in the 40-49 year age range. Less schooling increased the chances of the combined BMI + WHR indicator and watching television for more than two hours/day increased the chances of the BMI + WC indicator. The high prevalence of combined nutritional indicators indicate the need of diet promotion actions to prevent obesity.

  11. Refugee warriors or war refugees? Iraqi refugees' predicament in Syria, Jordan and Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Leenders

    2009-01-01

    This essay attempts to disentangle a debate within the study of refugee crises and their security implications involving 'refugee warriors'. It situates the debate in the context of the Iraqi refugee crisis and its purported and real manifestations in three main host countries: Syria, Jordan and Leb

  12. Resilience of refugee families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batić Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to find a correlation between the trauma of family members of war and exile, and the characteristics of family functioning and lasted from 1992-1995. The term “family resilience” refers to the processes of adaptation and coping in the family as a functional unit. This paper presents a study of refugee families from Bosnia, who lived in refugee camps in Macedonia during the war of 1992- 1995. Data were obtained by interviews, observations, and a number of psychological instruments especially for children and parents, which measured the effects of psychological stress and family relationships. Based on the results obtained by quantitative and qualitative analysis, and application of theoretical models of systemic theory and family therapy, existence for four types of refugee families has been found and described, depending on the structure and the level of functionality.

  13. Refugees and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerim Hakan Altintas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (1951 defines refugee as "A person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country; or who, not having a nationality and being outside the country of his former habitual residence as a result of such events, is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to it.” Factors such as difficult living conditions, housing problems, nutritional problems, poor access to health and social services and violence cause refugees and asylum seekers to be among the most vulnerable groups with respect to health. Although some variations exist between countries, health care services for refugees and asylum seekers are insufficient throughout the world. They encounter significant problems with counseling services, primary health care and preventive services as well as diagnosis and treatment options and access to essential medicines. In spite of legal improvements, issues concerning refugees and asylum seekers have been and will continue to be significant challenges as a consequence of increasing inequalities, conflicts and climate changes both in Turkey and the world. Therefore, governments, non-governmental organizations and universities need to scale up their efforts both at the country and global level, for refugees to benefit from services related to nutrition, housing and health care until their final destinations are determined. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(1.000: 55-62

  14. Alarming increase in refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Over the past decade and half there has been an alarming worldwide increase in refugees. The total rose form 2.8 million in 1976 to 8.2 million in 1980, to 17.3 million in 1990. Africa's refugees rose from 1.2 million in 1976 to 5.6 million in 1990. Asia's increase over this period was much more rapid--from a mere 180,000 to 8 million. In the Americas the numbers more than trebled, from 770,000 to 2.7 million. Europe was the smallest increase, from 570,000 to 894,000. International law defines a refugee as someone outside of their own country, who has a well-founded fear of persecution because of their political or religious beliefs or ethnic origin, and who cannot turn to their own country for protection. Most refugees are genuine by this definition. The increase reflects, in part, fallout from the cold war. Ethiopia, Mozambique and Angola accounted for almost 1/2 of Africa's refugees; Afghanistan alone for 3/4 of Asia's total. They fled, for the most part, from 1 poor country into another, where they added to shortages of land and fuelwood, and intensified environmental pressure. Malawi, 1 of the poorest countries in the world, is sheltering perhaps as many as 750,000 refugees from the war in Mozambique. But among these refugees--especially among those who turned to the rich countries for asylum--were an increasing number of people who were not suffering political persecution. Driven out of their homes by the collapse of their environment or economic despair, and ready to take any means to get across borders, they are a new category: economic and environmental refugees. The most spectacular attempts hit the television screens: the Vietnamese boat people, ships festooned with Albanians. Behind the headlines there was a growing tide of asylum seekers. The numbers rose 10-fold in Germany from 1983 to 1990. In Switzerland they multiplied by 4 times. In Europe, as a whole, they grew from 71,000 in 1983 to an estimated 550,000 in 1990. In 1990 the numbers threatened to

  15. THE BADAGAS SOMETIME REFUGEES IN A NEW LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL HOCKINGS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It seems that hardly a week passes without the news media reporting another harrowing account of the movement of refugees somewhere: Afghan boat people heading for Australia, Africans trying to get to a better life in Italy, Ethiopians living in Moscow Airport. Their stories are often horrifying, their health and sheer numbers mind-boggling, and their futures inconceivable. Yet most of these people do survive, long beyond the day's news headlines. Some finally get the chance to return home, while others settle down in another land.Sociologists have developed three categories to help explain the motivations which may lead people unwillingly into refugee status. Some "majority-identified" refugees, people who continue to identify with their homeland but not with its current government or social conditions: they fondly expect to return home at a later date. Secondly, there are "events-alienated" refugees who have been driven from their homeland by force or intolerable conditions, and who doubt they will ever set eyes on it again. Third, there are "self-alienated" refugees who move away for ideological or other personal reasons, including work or educational opportunities.

  16. The politics of protection: aid, human rights discourse, and power relations in Kyaka II settlement, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Kazak, Christina R

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the conceptualisation and application of 'protection' by the United Nations High Commissioner (UNHCR), Ugandan government, and Congolese refugees in Kyaka II refugee settlement, Uganda. Analysing the origins and consequences of a demonstration against school fees, and drawing on other ethnographic data, it explores how different interpretations of this incident reflect different conceptions of, and approaches to, protection. Ugandan government officials viewed the demonstration as a security incident; Congolese and Ugandan adults responded with increased monitoring and 'sheltering' of children and young people; students justified the demonstration as a legitimate manifestation of their rights; while UNHCR promoted assistance and resettlement. The paper argues that prevailing protection responses, including 'sensitisation', sheltering, and resettlement, are de-contextualised from daily realities and fail to address the underlying power relations that undermine protection. It concludes with recommendations on how international refugee agencies can reorient assistance to address protection concerns in refugee contexts.

  17. Resettlement for Bhutanese refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christer Lænkholm

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The US offer to resettle 60,000 of the 106,000 Bhutaneserefugees in Nepal might offer a solution to this protractedrefugee situation. Resettlement may not be a perfect solutionbut after 16 years of exile refugees may well choose it as thebest option available.

  18. Iraqi refugees in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal al-Miqdad

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Since spring 2003 the region has seen a massive migratory movement from Iraq into its neighbouring countries. Syria is the primary destination of refugees due to the historical relations between the two countries, and because the regulations in force do not require them to obtain anentrance visa.

  19. Iraqi refugees in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Yoshikawa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Egypt is host to an estimated 150,000 Iraqi refugees. Initiallyarriving with high hopes of resettlement, their resources arenow depleted, they are unable to work, their children are outof school and their community is fractured by divisions

  20. Regionalizing Immigration, Health and Inequality: Iraqi Refugees in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenore Manderson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Humanitarian immigrants and refugees face multiple adjustment tasks and post-settlement support services concentrated in metropolitan areas play an important role. As part of an ongoing commitment, the Australian Government has increasingly supported resettlement in rural and regional areas of the country. Drawing on the experience of Iraqi migrants in Victoria, Australia, we examine some of the conditions that characterize regional resettlement and raise key questions for public health policy. Structural vulnerabilities and discriminations impact upon physical, mental and social wellbeing, leading to further exclusion, with negative long-term implications. The discussion throws light on the issues that migrants and refugees may encounter in other parts within Australia, but are also germane in many countries and highlight the resulting complexity for policy-making.

  1. The refugee crisis in Africa and implications for health and disease: a political ecology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalipeni, E; Oppong, J

    1998-06-01

    Political violence in civil war and ethnic conflicts has generated millions of refugees across the African continent with unbelievable pictures of suffering and unnecessary death. Using a political ecology framework, this paper examines the geographies of exile and refugee movements and the associated implications for re-emerging and newly emerging infectious diseases in great detail. It examines how the political ecologic circumstances underlying the refugee crisis influences health services delivery and the problems of disease and health in refugee camps. It has four main themes, namely, an examination of the geography of the refugee crisis: the disruption of health services due to political ecologic forces that produce refugees; the breeding of disease in refugee camps due to the prevailing desperation and destitution; and the creation of an optimal environment for emergence and spread of disease due to the chaotic nature of war and violence that produces refugees. We argue in this paper that there is great potential of something more virulent than cholera and Ebola emerging and taking a big toll before being identified and controlled. We conclude by noting that once such a disease is out in the public rapid diffusion despite political boundaries is likely, a fact that has a direct bearing on global health. The extensive evidence presented in this paper of the overriding role of political factors in the refugee health problem calls for political reform and peace accords, engagement and empowerment of Pan-African organizations, foreign policy changes by Western governments and greater vigilance of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the allocation and distribution of relief aid.

  2. The refugee crisis in Africa and implications for health and disease: a political ecology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalipeni, E; Oppong, J

    1998-06-01

    Political violence in civil war and ethnic conflicts has generated millions of refugees across the African continent with unbelievable pictures of suffering and unnecessary death. Using a political ecology framework, this paper examines the geographies of exile and refugee movements and the associated implications for re-emerging and newly emerging infectious diseases in great detail. It examines how the political ecologic circumstances underlying the refugee crisis influences health services delivery and the problems of disease and health in refugee camps. It has four main themes, namely, an examination of the geography of the refugee crisis: the disruption of health services due to political ecologic forces that produce refugees; the breeding of disease in refugee camps due to the prevailing desperation and destitution; and the creation of an optimal environment for emergence and spread of disease due to the chaotic nature of war and violence that produces refugees. We argue in this paper that there is great potential of something more virulent than cholera and Ebola emerging and taking a big toll before being identified and controlled. We conclude by noting that once such a disease is out in the public rapid diffusion despite political boundaries is likely, a fact that has a direct bearing on global health. The extensive evidence presented in this paper of the overriding role of political factors in the refugee health problem calls for political reform and peace accords, engagement and empowerment of Pan-African organizations, foreign policy changes by Western governments and greater vigilance of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the allocation and distribution of relief aid. PMID:9672401

  3. Environmental Refugees - Justice and Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Julie Fogt; Jein, Marie Amailie Rosentoft; Murray, Tamsin Sureka Parfitt

    2013-01-01

    Climate change has and will have a tremendous effect on humanity. One of the consequences is people being forced to move - fleeing from the changes in climate and environment. This new group of refugees are known as environmental refugees. Scientific evidence (produced amongst others by the IPPC) suggests that environmental refugees will challenge our globalized world in growing numbers, warning our international political and legal system to take serious considerations of the future of these...

  4. Youth in Tanzania's urbanizing mining settlements: Prospecting a mineralized future

    OpenAIRE

    Bryceson, Deborah Fahy.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last fifteen years many African countries have experienced a mining take-off. Mining activities have bifurcated into two sectors: large-scale, capital-intensive production generating the bulk of the exported minerals, and small-scale, labour-intensive artisanal mining, which, at present, is catalyzing far greater immediate primary, secondary and tertiary employment opportunities for unskilled African labourers. Youth residing in mining settlements, have a large vested interest in the...

  5. The Researcher : The Refugee Documentation Centre Newsletter

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Elisabeth; Goggins, David

    2014-01-01

    Contents: Subsidiary Protection – a distinct and autonomous form of complementary protection / Enda O’Neill, Jennifer Higgins, UNHCR Ireland; Recent Changes at the Refugee Appeals Tribunal / Barry Magee, Refugee Appeals Tribunal; The Use of Decision Templates for Refugee Status Determination / Seán O’Connell, Refugee Appeals Tribunal; Forced Marriage in Afghanistan / David Goggins, Refugee Documentation Centre; Houses of the Holy: Iraq and the last days of the Mandeans / Patrick Dowling, R...

  6. Responding to the Challenges of Providing Mental Health Services to Refugees: An Australian Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Ida; Stow, Hardy David; Szwarc, Josef

    2016-01-01

    There has been a growing recognition of the mental health needs of refugees in countries of settlement, as many are survivors of torture and other traumatic events experienced in countries of origin, during flight, and in places of temporary refuge. The challenges in providing access to services and quality mental health care arise not only from the fact that refugees generally come from cultures very different to the societies in which they settle and are not proficient in the languages of their new homes. Other significant barriers relate to the impact of the trauma and psychosocial stressors they experience despite finding apparent security. In response to the challenges, specialist agencies have developed ways of providing services that are trauma-informed, culture-informed, and holistic. This paper describes an Australian example of a mental health clinic as part of a community-based service for refugees who are survivors of torture and other traumatic events. PMID:27524758

  7. Becoming Qualified to Teach Low-literate Refugees: A Case Study of One Volunteer Instructor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Kristen H.

    2013-01-01

    This case study investigates Carolyn, an effective volunteer ESL and literacy instructor of adult African refugees, in order to understand both what it means to be a qualified instructor, and also how community-based volunteer instructors may become more qualified. The study's findings suggest that Carolyn's qualifications are a…

  8. Foreign Workers, Refugees and Prospects for an Israeli-Palestinian Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    David Bartram

    2000-01-01

    David Bartram argues that Israel's recent acquisition of a sizable foreign labour force carries the potential to complicate negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians, especially concerning Palestinian refugees. Though officially temporary, many foreign workers in Israel show signs of long-term settlement, recalling foreign worker experiences in Western Europe and elsewhere. As the Israeli government attempts to manage foreign workers' demands for proper treatment and respect for human ...

  9. Surgery and refugee populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, A L; Groen, R S; Kingham, T P

    2009-01-01

    Although infectious diseases, malnutrition and diarrhea account for the vast majority of deaths in many crisis situations, many individuals also suffer from traumatic injuries and other surgically treatable conditions. Understanding the determinants involved in surgical interventions is facilitated by defining baseline, emergent and chronic phases for refugees and internally displaced populations. International aid organizations often expend vast resources on surgical interventions. More detailed assessments and further study may help provide insight into optimizing the success and minimizing the cost of such interventions. This article is a review of the surgical and disaster literature and defines issues for further study. PMID:19447737

  10. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2016. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  11. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2015. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  12. Stability of settlement space

    OpenAIRE

    Fikfak, Alenka

    2015-01-01

    Characteristics of settlements patterns and forms are encompassed between stability and instability. We evaluate them according to their historical value, but their image, as perceived today after centuries of changing, adapting and transformation, cannot be recognised in its original form. Time is the "super-factor" that balances, determines and transforms internal forces of settlement structures, and is decisively conditioned by social links. Instability can change to stability and vice ver...

  13. What do young black South Africans think about AIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, D

    1992-07-01

    In South Africa, a fatalistic attitude prevails among young black youth toward prevention of HIV transmission. Many of the 3 million black migrant laborers in single-sex hostels have many partners who are prostitutes. Due to culture, race, and class, black women are so oppressed that they cannot even require sex partners to wear condoms. Blacks perceive condoms as a governmental means to control population growth. The Centre for Health and Social Studies has learned that 14-17 year old blacks have been sexually active for a long time, so it has decided to also market its AIDS prevention program to 11-13 year olds. AIDS has not yet reached epidemic proportions in South Africa, however, and a full scale intervention program implemented between the end of 1992 and mid-1993 could stem the epidemic. The Health and Refugee Trust has developed a data base about the attitudes of South African refugees toward AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. It plans to distribute educational materials to hostels, squatter settlements, and rural communities. The Transport and General Workers Union has also set up an AIDS prevention program since truckers are at high risk of HIV infection. At the end of 1991, 445,000 people in South Africa have been infected with HIV. Heterosexuality is the predominate mode of HIV transmission among blacks, but among whites, it is homosexuality. Educated, affluent whites tend to be knowledge about AIDS and practice safer sex. Among the working class whites, however, knowledge levels are high, but they do not necessarily practice safer sex. Awareness tends to be quite high among blacks, but they do not generally practice safer sex. South Africa and the US are the only 2 developed countries that do not provide health care for all. This weak system limits AIDS prevention efforts. 80% of whites have health insurance compared with only 7% of blacks. PMID:12317691

  14. Mental Health of Young Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Teena M; Durand, Simone C

    2015-12-01

    Children and adolescents exposed to violence and upheaval of war and relocation are at high risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Rates of PTSD among refugee children may exceed 50%. Additional stressors encountered while adjusting to host cultures add another layer of difficulty. Most refugee children struggling with symptoms of PTSD or depression are never linked with appropriate mental health care resources. Psychiatric nurses can serve a critical function in the identification and treatment of refugee children experiencing PTSD and depression. PMID:26653091

  15. Longing to belong: social inclusion and wellbeing among youth with refugee backgrounds in the first three years in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Velez, Ignacio; Gifford, Sandra M; Barnett, Adrian G

    2010-10-01

    For young people with refugee backgrounds, establishing a sense of belonging to their family and community, and to their country of resettlement is essential for wellbeing. This paper describes the psychosocial factors associated with subjective health and wellbeing outcomes among a cohort of 97 refugee youth (aged 11-19) during their first three years in Melbourne, Australia. The findings reported here are drawn from the Good Starts Study, a longitudinal investigation of settlement and wellbeing among refugee youth conducted between 2004 and 2008. The overall aim of Good Starts was to identify the psychosocial factors that assist youth with refugee backgrounds in making a good start in their new country. A particular focus was on key transitions: from pre-arrival to Australia, from the language school to mainstream school, and from mainstream school to higher education or to the workforce. Good Starts used a mix of both method and theory from anthropology and social epidemiology. Using standardized measures of wellbeing and generalised estimating equations to model the predictors of wellbeing over time, this paper reports that key factors strongly associated with wellbeing outcomes are those that can be described as indicators of belonging - the most important being subjective social status in the broader Australian community, perceived discrimination and bullying. We argue that settlement specific policies and programs can ultimately be effective if embedded within a broader socially inclusive society - one that offers real opportunities for youth with refugee backgrounds to flourish. PMID:20822841

  16. Post-arrival health screening in Karen refugees in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia A Paxton

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To document the prevalence of nutritional deficiencies, infectious diseases and susceptibility to vaccine preventable diseases in Karen refugees in Australia. DESIGN: Retrospective audit of pathology results. SETTING: Community based cohort in Melbourne over the period July 2006-October 2009. PARTICIPANTS: 1136 Karen refugee children and adults, representing almost complete local area settlement and 48% of total Victorian Karen humanitarian intake for the time period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of positive test results for refugee health screening, with breakdown by age group (<6 years, 6-11 years, 12-17 years, 18 years and older. RESULTS: Overall prevalence figures were: anaemia 9.2%, microcytosis 19.1%, iron deficiency 13.1%, low vitamin B(12 1.5%, low folate 1.5%, abnormal thyroid function tests 4.4%, vitamin D<50 nmol/L 33.3%, hypocalcaemia 7.4%, raised alkaline phosphatase 5.2%, abnormal liver transaminases 16.1%, hepatitis B surface antigen positive 9.7%, hepatitis B surface antibody positive 49.5%, isolated hepatitis B core antibody positive 9.0%, hepatitis C positive 1.9%, eosinophilia 14.4%, Schistosoma infection 7%, Strongyloides infection 20.8%, malaria 0.2%, faecal parasites 43.4%. Quantiferon-gold screening was positive in 20.9%. No cases of syphilis or HIV were identified. Serological immunity to vaccine preventable diseases was 87.1% for measles, 95% for mumps and 66.4% for rubella; 56.9% of those tested had seroimmunity to all three. CONCLUSIONS: Karen refugees have high rates of nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases and may be susceptible to vaccine preventable diseases. These data support the need for post-arrival health screening and accessible, funded catch-up immunisation.

  17. Refugee status determination: three challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Jones

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Refugee status determination (RSD, which is vital to the protection of so many asylum seekers worldwide, is at best an imperfect, haphazard and challenging process. It merits greater attention and appropriate reform.

  18. Attachment Narratives in Refugee Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Haene, L.; Dalgård, Nina Thorup; Montgomery, E.;

    2013-01-01

    J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study.......J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study....

  19. Palestinian Refugees: A Gendered Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nof Nasser Eddin

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that the situation of Palestinian refugees is still relevant till this day. There are around five million refugees living in neighbouring Arab countries, such as Lebanon, Jordan, Syria and Egypt, as well as neighbouring areas in Palestine itself, like the West Bank and Gaza Strip, under very precarious conditions. Their situation is extremely unstable as any changes in the region can influence them directly.The need to address this issue is particularly important because P...

  20. 'He always thinks he is nothing': The psychosocial impact of discrimination on adolescent refugees in urban Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Lindsay; DeCormier Plosky, Willyanne; Horn, Rebecca; Canavera, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Armed conflict causes massive displacement, erodes the social fabric of communities, and threatens the healthy development of a nation's future - its youth. Although more than half of the world's registered refugees under the age of eighteen currently reside in urban areas, research on the unique needs of and realities experienced by this population remain limited. In Uganda, as in many refugee-receiving countries, most regulated refugee protections and entitlements fail to extend beyond the confines of official settlements or camps. This dearth of support, in combination with few material resources, uncertain local connections, and little knowledge of the language, leaves refugee families vulnerable to the added burden of an unwelcome reception in cities. Drawing on qualitative data from a study conducted in March and April 2013 with Congolese and Somali adolescents, caregivers, and service providers in refugee settlements in Kampala, this manuscript explores the pervasive nature of discrimination against urban refugees and its effects upon adolescent well-being. Findings suggest that discrimination not only negatively impacts acculturation as youth pursue social recognition in the classroom and among neighborhood peers, but it also impedes help-seeking behavior by caregivers and restricts their ability to ameliorate protection concerns, thereby lowering adolescents' psychosocial well-being. Youth reported low self-worth, withdrawal from school, and an adverse turn toward street connections. Targeted and innovative strategies along with reformed policies that address the unique challenges facing urban refugees are paramount to ensuring that young people in this population experience greater protection, well-being, and future success. PMID:26517294

  1. 'He always thinks he is nothing': The psychosocial impact of discrimination on adolescent refugees in urban Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Lindsay; DeCormier Plosky, Willyanne; Horn, Rebecca; Canavera, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Armed conflict causes massive displacement, erodes the social fabric of communities, and threatens the healthy development of a nation's future - its youth. Although more than half of the world's registered refugees under the age of eighteen currently reside in urban areas, research on the unique needs of and realities experienced by this population remain limited. In Uganda, as in many refugee-receiving countries, most regulated refugee protections and entitlements fail to extend beyond the confines of official settlements or camps. This dearth of support, in combination with few material resources, uncertain local connections, and little knowledge of the language, leaves refugee families vulnerable to the added burden of an unwelcome reception in cities. Drawing on qualitative data from a study conducted in March and April 2013 with Congolese and Somali adolescents, caregivers, and service providers in refugee settlements in Kampala, this manuscript explores the pervasive nature of discrimination against urban refugees and its effects upon adolescent well-being. Findings suggest that discrimination not only negatively impacts acculturation as youth pursue social recognition in the classroom and among neighborhood peers, but it also impedes help-seeking behavior by caregivers and restricts their ability to ameliorate protection concerns, thereby lowering adolescents' psychosocial well-being. Youth reported low self-worth, withdrawal from school, and an adverse turn toward street connections. Targeted and innovative strategies along with reformed policies that address the unique challenges facing urban refugees are paramount to ensuring that young people in this population experience greater protection, well-being, and future success.

  2. Long-Term Refugee Health: Health Behaviors and Outcomes of Cambodian Refugee and Immigrant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Peterman, Jerusha L.; Toof, Robin; Liang, Sidney L.; Grigg-Saito, Dorcas C.

    2015-01-01

    Refugees in the United States have high rates of chronic disease. Both long-term effects of the refugee experience and adjustment to the U.S. health environment may contribute. While there is significant research on health outcomes of newly resettled refugees and long-term mental health experiences of established refugees, there is currently…

  3. Reflections on Refugee Students' Major Perceptions of Education in Kakuma Refugee Camp, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareng, Chuei D.

    2010-01-01

    This reflective study explores refugee students' perceptions of the educational approach used in Kakuma Refugee Camp in Kenya. The study focuses on my personal reflections as a teacher and a student in this camp, and as a refugee. My goal of writing this narrative is to reflect fully on the refugee students' life in a camp and then contribute to…

  4. The nuclear refugees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors propose a report on the various situations of people who had to be evacuated after the Fukushima accident. Along with examples of people who left their homes with taking with them a single object, the authors describe and comment how this evacuation occurred, the problems faced by the authorities for refugee reception and accommodation. This evacuation has been either organised or spontaneous. Hospitals had to be evacuated as well. Then, local authorities faced food shortage. Some animals have been saved, other starved to death. Dead animals are covered with lime. Dead bodies are decontaminated before being given back to families. Tests are regularly performed to assess people contamination. A second article discussed the bad news concerning the different Fukushima reactors with their melted cores. The geophysical aspects of the earthquake are evoked in a last article

  5. 'We Are Not Here to Claim Better Services than Any Other': Social Exclusion among Men from Refugee Backgrounds in Urban and Regional Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Correa-Velez; R. Spaaij; S. Upham

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a mixed-methods study of social exclusion experiences among 233 resettled refugees living in urban and regional Queensland, Australia. The findings reported here are drawn from the SettleMEN project, a longitudinal investigation of health and settlement experiences among rece

  6. For Refugee Children, Support Breeds Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159196.html For Refugee Children, Support Breeds Success Study sees 'potential to ... June 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- With adequate support, refugee children do as well in school as other ...

  7. Local integration: a durable solution for refugees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Low

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available UNHCR supports local integration as one possiblesolution for refugees who cannot return home. Experiencein Mexico, Uganda and Zambia indicates that integrationcan benefi t refugee-hosting communities as well asrefugees.

  8. Marketing refugee skills: an Oxford success story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Wiggans

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 2001 Access First, a project of the Oxford based charity Refugee Resource, has been working in partnership with other organisations to support refugees and asylum seekers into work and training that match their abilities and aspirations.

  9. Marketing refugee skills: an Oxford success story

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel Wiggans

    2004-01-01

    Since 2001 Access First, a project of the Oxford based charity Refugee Resource, has been working in partnership with other organisations to support refugees and asylum seekers into work and training that match their abilities and aspirations.

  10. Selecting instruments for assessing psychological wellbeing in Afghan and Kurdish refugee groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman-Hill Cheryl MR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Afghan and Iraqi refugees comprise nearly half of all those currently under United Nations protection. As many of them will eventually be resettled in countries outside the region of origin, their long term health and settlement concerns are of relevance to host societies, and will be a likely focus for future research. Since Australia and New Zealand have both accepted refugees for many years and have dedicated, but different settlement and immigration policies, a study comparing the resettlement of two different refugee groups in these countries was undertaken. The purpose of this article is to describe the instrument selection for this study assessing mental health and psychological well being with Afghan and Kurdish former refugees, in particular to address linguistic considerations and translated instrument availability. A summary of instruments previously used with refugee and migrant groups from the Middle East region is presented to assist other researchers, before describing the three instruments ultimately selected for the quantitative component of our study. Findings The Kessler-10 Psychological Distress Scale (K10, General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale (GPSE, and Personal Well-Being Index (PWI all showed good reliability (Cronbach's alphas of 0.86, 0.89 and 0.83 respectively for combined language versions and ease of use even for pre-literate participants, with the sample of 193 refugees, although some concepts in the GPSE proved problematic for a small number of respondents. Farsi was the language of choice for the majority of Afghan participants, while most of the Kurds chose to complete English versions in addition to Farsi. No one used Arabic or Turkish translations. Participants settled less than ten years were more likely to complete questionnaires in Farsi. Descriptive summary statistics are presented for each instrument with results split by gender, refugee group and language version completed. Conclusion

  11. Model for mapping settlements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatsavai, Ranga Raju; Graesser, Jordan B.; Bhaduri, Budhendra L.

    2016-07-05

    A programmable media includes a graphical processing unit in communication with a memory element. The graphical processing unit is configured to detect one or more settlement regions from a high resolution remote sensed image based on the execution of programming code. The graphical processing unit identifies one or more settlements through the execution of the programming code that executes a multi-instance learning algorithm that models portions of the high resolution remote sensed image. The identification is based on spectral bands transmitted by a satellite and on selected designations of the image patches.

  12. Healthcare barriers of refugees post-resettlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Meghan D; Popper, Steve T; Rodwell, Timothy C; Brodine, Stephanie K; Brouwer, Kimberly C

    2009-12-01

    The majority of refugees spend the greater part of their lives in refugee camps before repatriation or resettlement to a host country. Limited resources and stress during residence in refugee camps can lead to a variety of acute and chronic diseases which often persist upon resettlement. However, for most resettled refugees little is known about their health needs beyond a health assessment completed upon entry. We conducted a qualitative pilot-study in San Diego County, the third largest area in California, USA for resettling refugees, to explore health care access issues of refugees after governmental assistance has ended. A total of 40 guided in-depth interviews were conducted with a targeted sample of informants (health care practitioners, employees of refugee serving organizations, and recent refugee arrivals) familiar with the health needs of refugees. Interviews revealed that the majority of refugees do not regularly access health services. Beyond individual issues, emerging themes indicated that language and communication affect all stages of health care access--from making an appointment to filling out a prescription. Acculturation presented increased stress, isolation, and new responsibilities. Additionally, cultural beliefs about health care directly affected refugees' expectation of care. These barriers contribute to delayed care and may directly influence refugee short- and long-term health. Our findings suggest the need for additional research into contextual factors surrounding health care access barriers, and the best avenues to reduce such barriers and facilitate access to existing services.

  13. A Citizen's guide to climate refugees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friends of the Earth Australia is commemorating World Refugee Day in 2005 by publishing a 'Citizens Guide to Climate Refugees'. This publication gives the basic facts on climate change, greenhouse gas emissions; why people could become climate refugees, how many and where are they likely to come from; and what can be done about it

  14. A New Look at America's Refugee Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhrke, Astri

    1980-01-01

    Implications of recent developments in refugee outflow from Indochina demand a reexamination of American policy on Indochinese refugees. These developments include patterns of increased Vietnamese and Laotian refugee outflow despite Vietnam's disapproval of departure and Laos' liberalizing economic policies; the greater influx of "low risk" or…

  15. Prevention Programs for Refugee Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Carolyn L.

    Refugee movements impose tremendous psychological and physical trauma on survivors, making refugees a high risk group for psychopathology and psychosocial adjustment problems. This paper explores the traditional impediments to developing prevention programs for refugees and describes public mental health strategies that could be used for different…

  16. The Acculturation of Former Yugoslavian Refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuraskovic, Ivana; Arthur, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Although the displacement of people from their home countries is of growing concern, little attention has been paid to refugees in the counselling literature. Experiences of refugees are more complex and difficult than those of voluntary immigrants because refugees are typically pushed out of their countries. Using heuristic inquiry, four main…

  17. The Settlement Utopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Kaspar

    2016-01-01

    arrangements. Contradictions and ambiguities arose when utopian ideas were confronted with what could be done. The Settlement became a highly ambiguous space, a ‘heterotopia’. The roots of the contradictions cannot simply be identified in the external pressure of legal requirements and funding criteria...

  18. Arbitration versus settlement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Dari-Mattiacci

    2007-01-01

    Incomplete contracts and laws often lead to disputes. Before a dispute arises, parties can commit to arbitration. If they choose to do so, future disputes are resolved before an arbiter. Otherwise, parties will choose between settlement and litigation after a dispute has arisen. We analyze variables

  19. TARGET 2 and Settlement Finality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan MANGATCHEV

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how TARGET 2 as system implements the idea of settlement finality regulated by Directive 98/26 EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 19 May 1998 on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems (Settlement Finality Directive and Directive 2009/44/EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 amending Directive 98/26/EC on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems and Directive 2002/47/EC on financial collateral arrangements as regards linked systems and credit claims (Directive 2009/44/EC. As the title of the arti and finality of the settlement in this system.

  20. 8 CFR 207.6 - Control over approved refugee numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control over approved refugee numbers. 207... ADMISSION OF REFUGEES § 207.6 Control over approved refugee numbers. Current numerical accounting of approved refugees is maintained for each special group designated by the President. As refugee status...

  1. 8 CFR 207.9 - Termination of refugee status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of refugee status. 207.9... REFUGEES § 207.9 Termination of refugee status. The refugee status of any alien (and of the spouse or child... district director in whose district the alien is found if the alien was not a refugee within the meaning...

  2. Refugees, nationalism, and political membership

    OpenAIRE

    Signe Larsen

    2012-01-01

    This essay aims to understand how refugees present a problem for liberal nation-states. The point of departure is Arendt’s The Origins of Totalitarianism where she argues that the continual existence of refugees within liberal nation-states threatens to break down the principle of equality before the law thereby enabling the rise of police-states and totalitarianism. In light of this diagnosis, three of Arendt’s philosophical heirs—Giorgio Agamben, Seyla Benhabib and Peg Birmingham—argue that...

  3. Refugees, nationalism, and political membership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Larsen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims to understand how refugees present a problem for liberal nation-states. The point of departure is Arendt’s The Origins of Totalitarianism where she argues that the continual existence of refugees within liberal nation-states threatens to break down the principle of equality before the law thereby enabling the rise of police-states and totalitarianism. In light of this diagnosis, three of Arendt’s philosophical heirs—Giorgio Agamben, Seyla Benhabib and Peg Birmingham—argue that it is necessary to think political membership in different and broader terms than national citizenship if we are to avoid a new rise of totalitarianism.

  4. Settlement patterns and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre

    This paper discusses settlement patterns and sustainability. Generally urbanization is recognised as an inevitable development driven by job opportunities, better service supply, education, and health services, and it is argued that this is the main driver for centralisation. Research based...... on economic and demographic studies and a large series of interviews problematize this. In Greenland the historical correlation between settlement pattern and livelihood has been decoupled, so that distributions of jobs and potential earnings to a growing extend is a consequence of political and....../or administrative decisions. Based on traditional economic approaches centralization has been implemented to reap the rewards of expected large-scale benefits. However the positive effects on the island economy are limited. The centralization has left regions with limited livelihood and resulted in a lack...

  5. Immigrant Settlement Services Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Mambo Tabu Masinda

    2014-01-01

    The global migration is transforming the social fabric of modern societies around the world. As a result, countries hosting large number of immigrants have developed a range of services to help immigrants adjust to their new countries. Many studies have investigated immigrant services, however, there is no discussion looking at immigrant services under what I call ¡°Immigrant settlement services literacy¡± (ISSL). This paper aims to close this gap. The discussion proposes some implications fo...

  6. Urbanisation and its discontents: urban refugees in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Sommers

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the different labels under which refugees in Dar es Salaam may be categorised. It identifies and profiles differentgroups of urban refugee in Dar es Salaam and considers some common assumptions about urban refugees.

  7. Refugee families during asylum seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourander, Andre

    2003-01-01

    The mental health of refugee families with children during the asylum period is a neglected research area in psychiatry. The present paper describes the situation of 10 refugee families residing at an asylum centre in Finland. Case vignettes are presented to illustrate the situations of these families. The study shows a high rate of depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder-related symptoms among adult refugees. The case vignettes suggest that during the asylum period, many children and adult members of the family are not in a post-traumatic situation, but they live constantly in a distressing situation. The foremost distress amongst the asylum seekers appeared to be fear of deportation and separation from family members. Most of the adults and all children had not received any psychiatric or psychotherapeutic assessment or treatment. It is likely that current procedures for dealing with the asylum seekers contributes to the level of stress, family confusion and psychiatric problems in already traumatized refugee families. PMID:12775295

  8. Refugees from Central American gangs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G Kennedy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras are among the world’s mostfragile nations, yet they are largely ignored by refugee agencies whounderestimate transnational criminal organisations’ abuses andpowers of control, while overestimating national governments’ abilityand willingness to protect their citizens.

  9. Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2001 sorted by country of origin and state of initial resettlement in the United States.

  10. Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2011 sorted by country of origin and state of initial resettlement in the United States.

  11. Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2004 sorted by country of origin and state of initial resettlement in the United States.

  12. Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2009 sorted by country of origin and state of initial resettlement in the United States.

  13. Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2005 sorted by country of origin and state of initial resettlement in the United States.

  14. Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2000 sorted by country of origin and state of initial resettlement in the United States.

  15. Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2003 sorted by country of origin and state of initial resettlement in the United States.

  16. Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2006 sorted by country of origin and state of initial resettlement in the United States.

  17. Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2002 sorted by country of origin and state of initial resettlement in the United States.

  18. Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2008 sorted by country of origin and state of initial resettlement in the United States.

  19. Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2010 sorted by country of origin and state of initial resettlement in the United States

  20. Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2007 sorted by country of origin and state of initial resettlement in the United States.

  1. Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Overseas Refugee Arrival Data FY 2012 sorted by country of origin and state of initial resettlement in the United States.

  2. The persistence of predictors of wellbeing among refugee youth eight years after resettlement in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Velez, Ignacio; Gifford, Sandra M; McMichael, Celia

    2015-10-01

    This short report assesses the predictors of subjective health and happiness among a cohort of refugee youth over their first eight years in Australia. Five waves of data collection were conducted between 2004 (n = 120) and 2012-13 (n = 51) using mixed methods. Previous schooling, self-esteem, moving house in the previous year, a supportive social environment, stronger ethnic identity and perceived discrimination were significant predictors of wellbeing after adjusting for demographic and pre-migration factors. When compared with a previous analysis of this cohort over their first three years of settlement, experiences of social exclusion still have a significant impact on wellbeing eight years after arriving in Australia. This study contributes to mounting evidence in support of policies that discourage discrimination and promote social inclusion and cultural diversity and which underpin the wellbeing of resettled refugee youth. PMID:26310592

  3. 33 CFR 20.502 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlements. 20.502 Section 20... Settlements § 20.502 Settlements. (a) The parties may submit a proposed settlement to the ALJ. (b) The proposed settlement must be in the form of a proposed decision, accompanied by a motion for its entry....

  4. 17 CFR 10.108 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlements. 10.108 Section 10... to the Commission; Settlements § 10.108 Settlements. (a) When offers may be made. Parties may at any time during the course of the proceeding propose offers of settlement. All offers of settlement...

  5. Refugees: do not forget the basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malé, S

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the main challenges faced by relief workers in meeting the needs of refugees in terms of their health and nutritional status. The main causes of refugee deaths in "emergencies" have been documented and identified. This has allowed the definition of technical principles for health interventions in refugee settings: a multi-sectoral approach; involving the refugees; meeting specific needs of refugee children and women; instituting a simple and reliable health information system; and ensuring proper management and coordination among all partners. Two examples selected from UNHCR field operations illustrate how important it is to adhere to the basic technical principles. Finally, the article also emphasizes that health assistance in refugee situations takes place in a context which is complex and comprises many variables. In addition to their qualifications and experience, health professionals must also be aware of the global dynamics of a conflict situation. Their leading principle should be that all human beings have the right to appropriate health care.

  6. BEING A REFUGEE IN THE LAND OF ANCESTORS: A Case study of Bhutanese Refugee Youths of Sanischare BhutaneseRefugee Camp, Eastern Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Thapa, Selina

    2009-01-01

    The refugee problem is one of the unsolved problems of SAARC countries who have not ratified the 1951 UN Refugee Convention. Nepal despite being a developing country has been hosting the refugees since 1960s with the arrival of Tibetan refugee. Influx of Bhutanese refugees in 1990 once again made Nepal a host country providing asylum to Bhutanese refugees.This study has presented the socio-economic life of Bhutanese refugees living in Sanischare Camp of eastern Nepal for the last 18 years. Mo...

  7. Educational Assessment of Syrian Refugees in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Tuba Bircan; Ulaş Sunata

    2015-01-01

    In political, social and economical terms, Turkey is the most affected country of the Syrian crisis. More importantly, Turkey as a host country of Syrian refugees has been living a dramatic demographic change. The most marginalized group living in Turkey is children. Refugee education has hence become of top priority. The global report in refugee education is below the critical level, but Turkish report is even worse in the contexts of not only accessibility and quality. This work refers to u...

  8. Refugee community organisations: a social capital analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kellow, Alexa

    2011-01-01

    This thesis considers how refugee-led community organisations generate social capital for their service users. The concept of social capital has become popular in policy debates in recent years, and previous research has attributed social capital creation for their service users to refugee community organisations (RCOs). This research aimed to analyse the process by which social capital is created by refugee community organisations, and what this means for the members of these organisations i...

  9. The Palestine refugee problem: Role of UNRWA

    OpenAIRE

    Hurajová, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis gives insight into the functioning of UNRWA Agency, which was established as a response to Palestine refugee problem. It unique within its operational context, providing government style services to Palestine refugees. The work is aimed examine the impact of its operation on Palestine refugees while emphasis is put on the provision of education and health care services. Besides are described historical but also contemporary events related to the Israeli-Palestinian confli...

  10. Analysis of the Refugees and Urban Development of Amman%难民与安曼城市发展探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车效梅; 常芳瑜

    2012-01-01

    The refugee is the development of Amman has refugees. Owing to the relatively the hot topic around the world. After world war I1 , been constantly affected by the periodical wave of easing policy the government of Jordan made on refugee settlement and protection, a lot of refugees from neighbouring countries, especially Palestine and Iraq, came here to seek refuge. And Amman, the capital of Jor dan, became the first place for refugees to gather. Refugees are not only closely associated with the urban development security and economic security but also have great influence on the urban demographic structure, urban planning and living con- ditions. The settlement of refugees in Amman goes hand in hand with the policies of Jordan government and international community.%难民是国际热点问题。第二次世界大战后,安曼城市发展常常遭遇周边国家周期性的难民潮影响。由于约旦政府在难民安置和保护上的相对宽松政策,使其周边国家特别是巴勒斯坦、伊拉克的许多难民来此寻求保护,约旦首都安曼首当其冲成为难民的积聚地。难民不仅与城市发展安全、经济安全密不可分,而且在很大程度上影响着城市人口结构、城市规划与城市生活状况。安曼难民的走向与约旦政府、国际社会政策紧密相连。

  11. Child health outcomes among Central American refugees and immigrants in Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, N; Stone, M C; Smith, J B

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of international migration, including refugee status, upon child health outcomes. Data were drawn from a survey conducted in 1989 in three settlements in Belize, Central America, that have a high proportion of refugees and economic immigrants living side-by-side with the local population. In two of the settlements, the entire population of mothers with children under 6 was interviewed; in the third settlement a two-thirds random sample was interviewed. Health history data were obtained for 255 children of 134 mothers, from whom sociodemographic data were also collected. The majority of children were born to Salvadoran or Guatemalan mothers, but native and naturalized Belizeans in the survey communities were included for comparison purposes. Migration, the exposure variable, was characterized by mother's residency/refugee legal status, nationality, and duration of time in country. Socioeconomic and proximate control variables were included as suggested by the Mosley-Chen framework. Despite normal birthweight averaging 3374 g, a large proportion of children are at the lowest percentiles of the weight-for-age curves (44% below the tenth percentile for the international reference population). A high incidence of diarrheal and respiratory illnesses (30% and 47% of children, respectively, having frequent episodes), and 50% of children with measles vaccination appropriate for age, indicate a population with high potential morbidity. Logistic regression was used to model the effects of migration on weight-for-age and frequency of diarrheal and respiratory tract episodes independent of socioeconomic and proximate factors, as suggested by the Mosley-Chen framework.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Reflections of the Nationalist Expressions to the Social Media That Grows in Europe during the Refugee Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    SEÇİM, Mustafa Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    Europe is facing one of the biggest refugee crisis since the World War II. According to the official numbers almost 1 million people from the North African countries have reached to the European Union countries such as Italy, Malta and Spain. When the refugee crisis first appeared, citizens of the countries that accept these people firstly helped these people with mercy and peace. As the time goes on, people started to feel anxiety due to the situation of this crisis. Because as the period of...

  13. Ethiopian and Eritrean immigrants in Britain. Refugee Organising, Transnational Connections and Identity, 1950-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, John; Afework, Solomon

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores key aspects of the immigrant experience of 50,000-plus Ethiopians and Eritreans who live in the United Kingdom. We seek to understand the extent to which immigrant life in the UK has acted ‘as a kind of pivot’ between integrating in their country of settlement and enduring forms of connection with their country of origin. This question is explored by an examination of immigrant organising in the UK – in Refugee Community Organisations – and through interviews about their l...

  14. Payment system settlement and bank incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Charles M. Kahn; Roberds, William

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we consider the relative merits of net versus gross settlement of interbank payments. Net settlement economizes on the costs of holding non-interest-bearing reserves, but increases moral hazard problems. The "put option" value of default under net settlement can also distort banks' investment incentives. Absent these distortions, net settlement dominates gross, although the optimal net settlement scheme may involve a positive probability of default. Net settlement becomes more a...

  15. [Psychosomatic posttraumatic resonances in refugees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottino, Saskia von Overbeck

    2016-06-22

    The recent flow of refugees in our countries connects the clinician to new challenges: posttraumatic consequences, exile pathologies, cultural differences. Moreover, the psychic pains express themselves often through the body in more or less qualified ways, making a clear understanding of them difficult. From the therapist's side, the confrontation to war violences and cultural differences might create difficulties in establishing an empathic and fruitful therapeutic alliance.

  16. [Psychosomatic posttraumatic resonances in refugees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottino, Saskia von Overbeck

    2016-06-22

    The recent flow of refugees in our countries connects the clinician to new challenges: posttraumatic consequences, exile pathologies, cultural differences. Moreover, the psychic pains express themselves often through the body in more or less qualified ways, making a clear understanding of them difficult. From the therapist's side, the confrontation to war violences and cultural differences might create difficulties in establishing an empathic and fruitful therapeutic alliance. PMID:27506069

  17. The South African Woman and the Immigrant Lover: Myths and Dynamics of Cross-Border Love Relationships in a Post-Apartheid South African Community

    OpenAIRE

    Tafira, Chimusoro Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Love relationships between black South African women and immigrant men have not been given adequate attention by researchers of migration, refugee studies, and those concerned with anti-immigrant attitudes and violence. In this paper, based on ethnographicr esearch conducted in the Alexandra township of Johannesburg, South Africa, in 2009, I argue that cross-border love relationships provoke sexual and racial jealousies between the two sets of manhood: South African and black African immigran...

  18. Of special humanitarian concern: U.S. refugee admissions since passage of the Refugee Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, D; Forbes, S; Fagan, P W

    1986-01-01

    The Refugee Act of 1980 is the 1st comprehensive legislation on the admission of refugees to the US; in the 5+ years since its enactment, over 500,000 refugees from more than 25 countries have been admitted to the US. This report assesses the effectiveness of the law in achieving its objectives in making and implementing decisions about the admission of refugees. The objectives of the Act include 1) a desire for a humanitarian response to refugee emergencies and a desire for control over that response, 2) a concern that ideological and geographic restrictions on refugee admissions be removed, and 3) a desire to balance international concerns and domestic impacts in making decisions on refugee admissions. The authors conclude that the refugee program does not serve the broad humanitarian purposes of previous parole programs, due to its stringent review requirements. The formal Congressional Consultations on refugee numbers should be rescheduled to allow regular Congressional input. The program needs a contingency budget for changing situations. The program needs more input from nongovernmental agencies and information sources. Recommendations on refugee admission numbers and allocations have not been well substantiated. Determinations as to which refugees are of "special humanitarian concern" are made solely on the basis of nationality; these decisions should also incorporate other factors. Admissions priorities are generally based on ties to this country, but this makes the refugee program a surrogate immigration program. Although the application of the refugee definition is difficult in practice, it forms the essence of the admission process. US staff must be trained to make these decisions; indecisiveness must not be allowed to jeopardize refugees.

  19. Refugees: The New International Politics of Displacement. Worldwatch Paper 43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Kathleen

    Separate sections of this document deal with refugee concerns in terms of a global approach, definitions of a refugee, alternatives for refugees, the international response, and long-term prospects. The booklet states that the present number of 16 million refugees is bound to increase given increasing rivalry over land and resources. The global…

  20. Supporting Preschoolers and Their Families Who Are Recently Resettled Refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Jennifer J.; Medici, Andrea; Stewart, Emily; Cohen, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    According to the United Nations High Commission for Refugees, the number of refugees worldwide was 10.5 million in 2009 and this number continues to grow (United Nations Refugee Agency, 2010). There is a shortage of evidence based practices and information regarding the state of service provision for young refugee children and their families in…

  1. Building Bridges between Refugee Parents and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Yeonjai; Choi, Shangmin; Nguyen, Thu Suong Thi

    2009-01-01

    This interview study examines the way practitioners in Wisconsin public schools created conditions to facilitate refugee parent involvement. Practitioners' perceptions of barriers to refugee parents' school involvement are explored as well as the strategies used to promote meaningful parent involvement. Interviewees included nine school…

  2. 75 FR 35951 - World Refugee Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-15404 Filed 6-22-10; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8538 of June 18, 2010 World Refugee Day, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation On World Refugee Day, we honor the contributions and resilience of...

  3. Reducing Income Transfers to Refugee Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    2010-01-01

    We estimate the effect of lowering income transfers to refugee immigrants in Denmark - labeled start-help - using a competing risk framework. Refugee immigrants obtaining residence permit before July 2002 received larger income transfers than those who obtained their residence permit later...

  4. Refugee and Forced Migration Studies Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Vibeke

    in refugee and forced migration studies at the undergraduate and graduate levels. The Roundtable discussants will feature: Professors James C. Simeon, Centre for Refugee Studies, York University; Giorgia Dona, School of Law and Social Sciences, University of East London, Vibeke Andersson, Co...

  5. Handbook for Sponsors of Indochinese Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Joseph Jay; Koschmann, Nancy Lee

    This handbook provides information for the prospective sponsors of Indochinese refugees. The refugees' general background, experiences, and reasons for coming to the United States are discussed. The sponsor's importance and role in the resettlement program are examined. The handbook also outlines problems of adjustment to life in America and what…

  6. The Calvary Hospital Refugee Mentoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Dianne; King, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 the Calvary Refugee Mentoring Program (CRMP) was initiated at Calvary Hospital, Canberra, to provide an affirmative and individualised learning placement in workplaces for individuals with a refugee background. This work placement was designed to enhance the participants' knowledge of workplaces and to prepare them for future career and…

  7. Deposited sediment settlement and consolidation mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai-jie Guo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study deposited sediment settlement and consolidation mechanisms, sediment settlement experiments were conducted using a settlement column. Based on the experimental results, sediment settlement stage definition, excessive pore pressure (EPP dissipation, and consolidation constitutive equations are discussed. Three stages, including the free settlement, hindered settlement, and self-weight consolidation settlement stages, are defined. The results of this study show that sediment settlement is mainly affected by the initial sediment concentration and initial settlement height, and the interface settlement rate is attenuated linearly with time on bilogarithmic scales during the hindered settlement and self-weight consolidation settlement stages. Moreover, the deposited sediment layer in the self-weight consolidation settlement stage experiences large strains, and the settlement amount in this stage is about 32% to 59% of the initial height of deposited sediment. EPP is nonlinearly distributed in the settlement direction, and consolidation settlement is faster than EPP dissipation in the self-weight consolidation settlement stage. Consolidation constitutive equations for the hydraulic conductivity and effective stress, applicable to large-strain consolidation calculation, were also determined and fitted in the power function form.

  8. Afghan refugees in California: mental health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, J G

    1993-01-01

    Refugees are a particularly vulnerable population that is at risk for mental health problems for a variety of reasons: traumatic experiences in and escapes from their countries of origin, difficult camp or transit experiences, culture conflict and adjustment problems in the country of resettlement, and multiple losses--family members, country, and way of life. Afghan refugees comprise the largest refugee population in the world, at its peak numbering more than 6 million, living mainly in Pakistan and Iran. Based on an ethnographic study of Afghan refugees in Northern California, this article describes common antecedents to and examples of mental health problems in this population, such as depression, somatic symptoms, and posttraumatic stress disorder. It reviews some of the literature on traumatized refugees and makes some suggestions to mental health providers.

  9. Group therapy for refugees and torture survivors: treatment model innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kira, Ibrahim A; Ahmed, Asha; Wasim, Fatima; Mahmoud, Vanessa; Colrain, Joanna; Rai, Dhan

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses varieties of group therapies with refugees and torture survivors and the logic behind enhancing traditional group therapies to fit the unique experiences of refugees and torture survivors. It discusses some lessons learned from practice and from empirical research and some recommended adaptations. Finally, it discusses the Center for Torture and Trauma Survivors' therapy group model for torture survivors and describes two of its variants: The Bashal group for African and Somali women and the Bhutanese multi-family therapy group. Group therapies, in this model, extend to community healing. One of the essential and innovative features of the model is that it focuses not only on treating individual psychopathology but also extends to community healing by promoting the development of social clubs and organizations that promote the values and culture of the graduates of the therapy group and the continuation of social support. New graduates from the group join the club and become part of the social advocacy process and of group and community support and healing. This model adds an ecological dimension to the traditional group therapy. PMID:22229369

  10. [The new migration of the Pontic Greeks toward Salonika: geographical origin and settlement process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darques, R

    1997-01-01

    "From 1988 to 1994, 20,000 to 25,000 Pontic Greeks coming from the ex-USSR went to settle in Salonika. Although this exodus presents all the characteristics of an economic migratory movement, the conflicts and tensions which affect the Russian peripheral territories, and an undoubted cultural connivance, make the ¿Rossopondi' the direct heirs of the Asia Minor refugees. The files compiled by a Pontic association of the Macedonian metropolis allow us to analyse the geographical origin and the settlement conditions of the migrants." (EXCERPT)

  11. 14 CFR 15.109 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlements. 15.109 Section 15.109... Act of 1958 § 15.109 Settlements. (a) A publisher may not settle a claim with another party, for which... publisher submits a copy of the proposed settlement, and a statement justifying the settlement, to the...

  12. 16 CFR 1025.26 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlements. 1025.26 Section 1025.26... PROCEEDINGS Prehearing Procedures, Motions, Interlocutory Appeals, Summary Judgments, Settlements § 1025.26 Settlements. (a) Availability. Any party shall have the opportunity to submit an offer of settlement to...

  13. 10 CFR 590.309 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlements. 590.309 Section 590.309 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.309 Settlements. The parties may conduct settlement negotiations. If settlement negotiations are conducted during a conference, at the request of...

  14. The Impact of Refugee Crises on Host Labor Markets: The Case of the Syrian Refugee Crisis in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Akgündüz, Yusuf Emre; VAN DEN BERG Marcel; Hassink, Wolter

    2015-01-01

    The civil war in Syria has culminated into major refugee crises in its neighboring countries. By the end of 2013 more than half a million people were seeking shelter in cities and refugee camps in Turkey. We analyze how the Syrian refugee influx in Turkey has affected food and housing prices, employment rates and internal migration patterns in regions of Turkey where refugees are being accommodated. Refugee camps are geographically concentrated near the Syrian border, which enables us to empl...

  15. Refugee resettlement from Pakistan : findings from Afghan refugee camps in the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP)

    OpenAIRE

    CHATTHA, Ilyas

    2013-01-01

    KNOW RESET - Building Knowledge for a Concerted and Sustainable Approach to Refugee Resettlement in the EU and its Member States This report surveys Afghan refugee resettlement from Pakistan for the Know Reset Project in order to better understand the processes and practices of the refugee populations’ resettlement in EU member states. This involved interviews with various agencies working with refugees as well as with individual refugees. The collected source material explains how the Afg...

  16. Modern Settlements in Special Needs Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene

    2016-01-01

    . Settlements of this controversy govern whether the pupil or the educational institution becomes the main point of intervention. In Denmark, the particularities of settlements can be identified by juxtaposing the introduction of intelligence testing in the 1930s with the contemporary policy agenda of inclusion...... such settlements as a product of a modern division between human nature and social environment. Although both these settlements depend on a distinction between human nature and social environment, this distinction generates practical tensions for each settlement....

  17. Resettling refugees and safeguarding their mental health: lessons learned from the Canadian Refugee Resettlement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiser, Morton

    2009-12-01

    The Ryerson University Refugee Resettlement Project (RRP), a decade-long study of 1348 Southeast Asian refugees who came to Canada between 1979 and 1981, is one of the largest, most comprehensive and longest-lived investigations of refugee resettlement ever carried out. Knowledge gleaned from the RRP about research methodology, about the resettlement experience, about the social costs of resettling refugees, about factors that promote or hinder integration, about risk and protective factors for refugee mental health, and about the refugees' consumption of mental health and social services is summarized in the form of 18 "Lessons." The lessons are offered in order to encourage and stimulate further research, as well to suggest policy and practice innovations that could help make resettlement easier, less costly, more effective, and more humane.

  18. Vicarious resilience and vicarious traumatisation: Experiences of working with refugees and asylum seekers in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvimanasinghe, Teresa; Denson, Linley A; Augoustinos, Martha; Somasundaram, Daya

    2015-12-01

    The negative psychological impacts of working with traumatised people are well documented and include vicarious traumatisation (VT): the cumulative effect of identifying with clients' trauma stories that negatively impacts on service providers' memory, emotions, thoughts, and worldviews. More recently, the concept of vicarious resilience (VR) has been also identified: the strength, growth, and empowerment experienced by trauma workers as a consequence of their work. VR includes service providers' awareness and appreciation of their clients' capacity to grow, maintaining hope for change, as well as learning from and reassessing personal problems in the light of clients' stories of perseverance, strength, and growth. This study aimed at exploring the experiences of mental health, physical healthcare, and settlement workers caring for refugees and asylum seekers in South Australia. Using a qualitative method (data-based thematic analysis) to collect and analyse 26 semi-structured face-to-face interviews, we identified four prominent and recurring themes emanating from the data: VT, VR, work satisfaction, and cultural flexibility. These findings-among the first to describe both VT and VR in Australians working with refugee people-have important implications for policy, service quality, service providers' wellbeing, and refugee clients' lives. PMID:25795221

  19. Vicarious resilience and vicarious traumatisation: Experiences of working with refugees and asylum seekers in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvimanasinghe, Teresa; Denson, Linley A; Augoustinos, Martha; Somasundaram, Daya

    2015-12-01

    The negative psychological impacts of working with traumatised people are well documented and include vicarious traumatisation (VT): the cumulative effect of identifying with clients' trauma stories that negatively impacts on service providers' memory, emotions, thoughts, and worldviews. More recently, the concept of vicarious resilience (VR) has been also identified: the strength, growth, and empowerment experienced by trauma workers as a consequence of their work. VR includes service providers' awareness and appreciation of their clients' capacity to grow, maintaining hope for change, as well as learning from and reassessing personal problems in the light of clients' stories of perseverance, strength, and growth. This study aimed at exploring the experiences of mental health, physical healthcare, and settlement workers caring for refugees and asylum seekers in South Australia. Using a qualitative method (data-based thematic analysis) to collect and analyse 26 semi-structured face-to-face interviews, we identified four prominent and recurring themes emanating from the data: VT, VR, work satisfaction, and cultural flexibility. These findings-among the first to describe both VT and VR in Australians working with refugee people-have important implications for policy, service quality, service providers' wellbeing, and refugee clients' lives.

  20. Reproductive health for refugees by refugees in Guinea III: maternal health.

    OpenAIRE

    Blankhart David; Kollie Sarah; Souare Yaya; Woodward Aniek; Howard Natasha; von Roenne Anna; Borchert Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Maternal mortality can be particularly high in conflict and chronic emergency settings, partly due to inaccessible maternal care. This paper examines associations of refugee-led health education, formal education, age, and parity on maternal knowledge, attitudes, and practices among reproductive-age women in refugee camps in Guinea. Methods Data comes from a 1999 cross-sectional survey of 444 female refugees in 23 camps. Associations of reported maternal health outcomes wi...

  1. Welfare work addressing immigrants and refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øland, Trine

    In this presentation I will discuss the ways in which welfare workers addressing immigrants and refugees (re)produce integrationist visions, symbolizing society as an integrated whole and immigrants/refugees as a distraction to that whole. Paradoxically, welfare workers also oppose...... these integrationist visions in their quest to protect immigrants’ and refugees’ fundamental wellbeing and status as human beings with equal rights, group life and history. These opposing elements generate ambiguity and contradiction within integrationist welfare work. The ambition of the presentation is to enquire......, nurses and more) addressing immigrants and refugees and their families and descendants in the Danish welfare nation-state....

  2. Epidemiological patterns of scurvy among Ethiopian refugees.

    OpenAIRE

    Desenclos, J.C.; Berry, A M; Padt, R.; B. Farah; C. Segala; Nabil, A. M.

    1989-01-01

    In the Horn of Africa, scurvy is a serious public health problem for refugees who are dependent on standard relief food (cereals, legumes, and oil). To assess the risk factors and to quantify the potential magnitude of scurvy among these displaced communities, we reviewed data collected from 1985 to 1987 by relief programmes in five refugee camps in Somalia and one in the Sudan. Outbreaks of clinical scurvy occurred among refugees in all the camps from 3 to 4 months after their arrival. The i...

  3. ‘Men value their dignity’: securing respect and identity construction in urban informal settlements in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbs, Andrew; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Jewkes, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Urban informal settlements remain sites of high HIV incidence and prevalence, as well as violence. Increasing attention is paid on how configurations of young men’s masculinities shape these practices through exploring how men build respect and identity. In this paper, we explore how young Black South Africans in two urban informal settlements construct respect and a masculine identity.Methods: Data are drawn from three focus groups and 19 in-depth interviews.Results: We suggest t...

  4. Does Integrated Care Affect Healthcare Utilization in Multi-problem Refugees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Carol C; Solid, Craig A; Hodges, James S; Boehm, Deborah H

    2015-10-01

    A history of trauma is common in refugee populations and appropriate treatment is frequently avoided. Using a convenience sample of 64 patients in a Somali primary care clinic, a culture and trauma specific intervention was developed to address retention into appropriate treatment. One goal of the intervention was to improve the rate of engagement in psychotherapy after a mental health referral and to test the effect of psychotherapy on health care utilization using a staged primary care clinical tool. Forty-eight percent of patients given a mental health referral engaged in psychotherapy. Patients engaging in psychotherapy had higher baseline utilization and over 12 months trended towards less emergency room use and more primary care. Our findings suggest that the intervention improved referral and retention in mental health therapy for East African refugee women. PMID:25150558

  5. Informal settlements in post-communist cities: Diversity factors and patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha Tsenkova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In some post-communist cities, the formation of informal settlements is a phenomenon associated with the wave of urbanisation of the 1960s and 1970s. In others, the phenomenon is connected with the influx of immigrants and refugees in the 1990s. Informal settlement areas are the result of various factors: inadequate spatial planning, outdated and complex legislation, housing policies that do not ensure the provision of affordable housing and outdated public administration structures. Illegal construction practices in urban areas, often due to the lack of a clear system of property rights and urban poverty, have created significant challenges in many cities such as Tirana, Belgrade, Tbilisi and Bucharest. This paper presents a typology of informal settlements in post-communist cities and discusses the interrelated economic, social and environmental challenges associated with this phenomenon. Various types of informal settlements, as well as the evolution of those types, demonstrate the complexity of the problem as well as the need to develop contextually sensitive and diverse solutions. This study presents the emerging related policy responses, including legalisation and inclusion in formal urban planning, the provision of essential social services (e.g., schools and medical clinics, the construction of technical infrastructure (e.g., safe roads, public transit, water and sewage systems and resettlement programmes as part of social housing. Although these solutions represent various aspects of the policy continuum, they also require significant political will and the financial commitment of central and local institutions to ensure effective implementation.

  6. Health issues of Afghan refugees in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, J G; Omidian, P A

    1992-09-01

    Since the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, more than 6 million Afghan refugees have become the world's largest refugee population. Although refugees in Pakistan and Iran are now beginning to repatriate, continuing political turmoil in Afghanistan and children's acculturation and educational opportunities will keep many Afghans in the United States permanently. Although there are no accurate statistics, local resettlement agencies and Afghan community leaders estimate that there are 10,000 to 35,000 Afghans in northern California. They suffer from a variety of problems common to refugees: language, economic and occupational problems, and substantial challenges in psychological, family, social, and cultural adjustment to the United States. Although many Afghans are doing well, many others have depression, psychosomatic symptoms, and posttraumatic stress disorder.

  7. Evaluation and psychotherapy of Indochinese refugee patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzie, J D

    1981-04-01

    Based on clinical experience with 70 Indochinese refugees, specific approaches to diagnosis and treatment of these patients were developed. The psychiatrist/patient relationship was supported and improved by well-trained, empathetic interpreters who assisted with the evaluation which stressed thorough history-taking and a mental status exam. Cultural differences and the psychiatrist's attitudes about refugees and the Indochinese war influenced the therapeutic process. Treatment consisted of appropriate medication, involvement with the social agencies when necessary, and the warmth, empathy, and support of the physician. In particular, it was helpful to understand the symptoms as the patient perceived them and to relate them to possible stresses in the past. Problem areas of therapy were the patient's concentration on physical symptoms, the horror stories, and taboo subjects difficult for the refugee to discuss. Case histories point out the conflict of values and cultural attitudes about mental illness among refugees due to their changed environment and life style. PMID:7258422

  8. The vulnerability of Palestinian refugees from Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Morrison

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available While Syrian nationals may eventually return to their home country, the future for Palestinians from Syria is increasingly uncertain. Meanwhile they are more vulnerable than, and treated worse than, most other refugees from the Syrian conflict.

  9. For Refugee Children, Support Breeds Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of them children. Major risk factors for poorer school performance among refugee children include: history of trauma; low ... poorly, the study found. Factors associated with better school performance include: high levels of academic and life ambition; ...

  10. Rohingyas and refugee status in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Prytz Phiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Rohingya refugees from northern Rakhine Statein Myanmar are living in a precarious situation in theircountry of asylum, Bangladesh, but have seen significantimprovements in recent times.

  11. Leishmaniasis in refugee and local Pakistani populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Simon; Mohammed, Nasir; Adil, Khaksar; Agha, Said; Reithinger, Richard; Rowland, Mark; Ali, Iftikhar; Kolaczinski, Jan

    2004-09-01

    The epidemiology of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis was investigated in northwest Pakistan. Results suggested similar patterns of endemicity in both Afghan refugee and Pakistani populations and highlighted risk factors and household clustering of disease. PMID:15498178

  12. Towards a fairer distribution of refugees

    OpenAIRE

    van Basshuysen, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    With the current refugee crisis showing no sign of abating, a fair and efficient method for distributing people to different countries is urgently needed. In this post, Philippe van Basshuysen looks at matching systems.

  13. Environmental Refugees: Ethical Issues Involving Overpopulation

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, John

    2010-01-01

    Environmental refugees are produced when the human population exceeds the carrying capacity of a particular region and its inhabitants are forced to search for a more hospitable area. Since not much has been done to reduce greenhouse gas emissions or other issues of global warming, there will continue to be more environmental refugees for the next decade or more. Considering that the biosphere is made up of finite resources and finite space per capita, an increasing population will cause mor...

  14. German public opinion on admitting refugees

    OpenAIRE

    Gerhards, Jürgen; Hans, Silke; Schupp, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of 2016, the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) study has been conducting a monthly survey of German attitudes, expectations, and fears concerning migration. The third wave of the survey,-the Barometer of Public Opinion on Refugees in Germany (Stimmungsbarometer zu Geflüchteten in Deutschland)-, conductedin March 2016, shows that more than half of all respondents still associate the influx of refugees with more risks than opportunities. Nonetheless, a clear majority (81 percent o...

  15. [Health for refugees - the Bremen model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Zahra; Jung, Felicitas; Lelgemann, Monika

    2016-05-01

    The Bremen model recognizes that refugee health care has to go beyond merely checking for the prevalence of contagious diseases. Elementary health care offered in the reception centre and transitory facilities is based on voluntary acceptance by the refugees. At the same time, legal requirements for the medical reception of refugees are observed. In addition, doctors performing the initial medical examination are enabled to cover acute care on the spot. During the preliminary phase of immigration refugees are allowed to see a doctor in their facility repeatedly. After a certain time, they are provided with a health card permitting limited access to regular care outside of their facility. The current rise of refugee numbers affects the situation of Bremen health care for adult as well as juvenile refugees. In spite of the increase, health care standards are maintained by means of the health card. From 2011 to 2014, "Factors influencing health status and contact with health services" averaged 29.6 % in the health check data. Diseases of the respiratory system (18.1 %) and "symptoms, signs and abnormal findings not elsewhere classified" (16.9 %) ranked second and third, respectively. Diseases of the digestive system (6.1 %) of the musculoskeletal system (6 %) and of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (3.6 %) followed. Infectious diseases such as HIV infections, hepatitis or tuberculosis were seldom. PMID:27098974

  16. 3 CFR - Fiscal Year 2010 Refugee Admissions Numbers and Authorizations of In-country Refugee Status...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal Year 2010 Refugee Admissions Numbers and Authorizations of In-country Refugee Status Pursuant to Sections 207 and 101(A)(42), Respectively, of the Immigration and Nationality Act, and Determination Pursuant to Section 2(B)(2) of the Migration and...

  17. Negotiating knowledges and expertise in refugee resettlement organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Steimel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Interviews with both refugees and organizational staff in two nonprofit refugee resettlement organizations in the United States reveal the ways in which knowledge(s and expertise are crafted, threatened, and understood in refugee organizations. Refugee-participants described the need for knowledgeable communication, barriers to the communication of knowledge, and processes of negotiating whose expertise is involved. Organizational staff participants described the duty of communicating expert knowledge, the limits of knowledge as expertise, and alternative communications of expertise. These tensions surrounding “knowing” in refugee resettlement organizations highlights the need for a more complex theoretical understanding of the processes of knowing present in refugee resettlement. These tensions also suggest areas in which refugee resettlement agencies and other nonprofit staff can make on-the-ground changes to better facilitate refugee resettlement processes.

  18. Neurological disorders in Iraqi refugees in Jordan: data from the United Nations Refugee Assistance Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateen, Farrah J; Carone, Marco; Nyce, Sayre; Ghosn, Jad; Mutuerandu, Timothy; Al-Saedy, Huda; Lowenstein, Daniel H; Burnham, Gilbert

    2012-04-01

    The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) recognizes 43.7 million forcibly displaced persons and asylum seekers due to conflict and persecution worldwide. Neurological disorders have rarely been described in displaced persons but likely pose a significant burden of disease. We describe the disease spectrum and health service utilization of Iraqi refugees and asylum seekers with neurological disorders using an information system developed by the UNHCR. Neurological disorders were actively monitored among the 7,642 UNHCR-registered Iraqi refugees and asylum seekers who received health and humanitarian assistance using a pilot, centralized, database called the Refugee Assistance Information System (RAIS) in the Kingdom of Jordan in 2010. There were 122 neurological diagnoses reported in 1,328 refugees (mean age 41 years, 49% female, 10% disabled, 43% with pending resettlement applications) in 2,659 health visits, accounting for 17% of all refugees who sought health assistance in RAIS. Referral to a neurologist occurred in 178 cases (13.4%). The most frequent ICD-10 neurological diagnoses were dorsalgia (back pain) (29.7% of individuals with neurological disorders), headache (13.1%), and epilepsy (12.6%). Approximately 1 in 20 Iraqi refugees with a neurological diagnosis self-reported a history of torture, which was higher than Iraqi refugees without a history of torture [66/1,328 versus 196/6,314, odds ratio (OR) = 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-2.18]. Neurological disease affects a high proportion of Iraqi refugees, including victims of torture and the disabled. Refugees require dedicated care for treatment of neurological disease with a focus on pain disorders and epilepsy.

  19. Employment Effects of Dispersal Policies on Refugee Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil; Rosholm, Michael

    Do spatial dispersal policies on refugees promote their labour market outcomes? To investigate this we estimate the effects of location characteristics and the average effect of geographical mobility on the hazard rate into first job of refugees subjected to the Danish spatial dispersal policy 1986....... These findings support dispersal policies. Second, on average geographical mobility had large, positive effects on the hazard rate into first job, suggesting that restrictions on placed refugees' subsequent out-migration would hamper labour market integration of refugees....

  20. PROTECTION OF REFUGEES: A HUMANITARIAN CRISIS IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Prafulla Kumar Nayak

    2013-01-01

    India has seen large influx of refugee population throughout history but does not have specific domestic law governing the treatment of refugees and asylum-seekers. Despite being a non-signatory to refugee convention, India has an obligation under international law to protect asylum-seekers which it has traditionally honored. Though India does not have a national framework in refugee law, yet in 2006 the Supreme Court ruled that the right to life and personal liberty as enshrined in Indian co...

  1. World War II refugees in Lithuania 1939 – 1940

    OpenAIRE

    Strelcovas, Simonas

    2007-01-01

    The object of the dissertation covers World War II refugee in Lithuania, their coming, staying and leaving Lithuania in 1939 – 1940. The first chapter of dissertation discusses similarities and differences of terms foreigner and refugee according to domestic legislation. Furthermore, the peculiarities of foreigners in pre war Lithuania and World War II refugees are analyzed and the features of refugee integration are depicted. The following aspects have been under discussion as well: the circ...

  2. Dilemmas of Citizenship and Education in Refugee Resettlement

    OpenAIRE

    Way, Winmar

    2015-01-01

    This study concerns the uprooting experiences of forced migration, particularly how refugees consider citizenship in the process of losing and regaining this status. I carried out fieldwork in an area in California where refugees from around the world are “resettled” or brought to live in relative safety, in order to answer the following research questions: How do refugees and their social workers experience citizenship? How are non-formal education programs in refugee resettlement used to co...

  3. Barriers to health care access for Cache County refugees

    OpenAIRE

    Hoggard, Michael; Gast, Julie

    2016-01-01

    There are over 300 refugees resettled in Cache County, Utah (figure 2). Despite coming from different cultural and ethnic backgrounds, the Cache County refugee population shares similar circumstances in regards to access to health care: (a)96% of working adults are employed at the same job (b)Refugees have access to the same social services (c)None of the refugee populations speak English as a native language. The purpose of this study is to understand key physical, structural and cultu...

  4. 17 CFR 9.7 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement. 9.7 Section 9.7... DISCIPLINARY, ACCESS DENIAL OR OTHER ADVERSE ACTIONS General Provisions § 9.7 Settlement. At any time before... accordance with § 9.20, the parties may file a stipulation for dismissal based on a settlement...

  5. 24 CFR 28.45 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlements. 28.45 Section 28.45... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 28.45 Settlements. (a) HUD and the respondent may enter into a settlement agreement at any time prior to the issuing of a notice of...

  6. 45 CFR 13.24 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlements. 13.24 Section 13.24 Public Welfare... ACT IN AGENCY PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 13.24 Settlements. The applicant and the agency's litigating party may agree on a proposed settlement of the award at any time prior...

  7. 24 CFR 1720.180 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlements. 1720.180 Section 1720... Proceedings General Provisions § 1720.180 Settlements. Parties may propose in writing, at any time during the course of a proceeding, offers of settlement which shall be submitted to the Secretary. If determined...

  8. 24 CFR 3800.60 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlements. 3800.60 Section 3800... DEVELOPMENT INVESTIGATIONS IN CONSUMER REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 3800.60 Settlements. (a) At any time during an investigation, the Department and the parties subject to an investigation may conduct settlement...

  9. 32 CFR 536.55 - Structured settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Structured settlements. 536.55 Section 536.55... AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.55 Structured settlements. (a) The... of this part, structured settlements cannot be required but are encouraged in situations listed...

  10. 29 CFR 101.7 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlements. 101.7 Section 101.7 Labor Regulations Relating... Section 10 (a) to (i) of the Act and Telegraph Merger Act Cases § 101.7 Settlements. Before any complaint... for the submission and consideration of facts, argument, offers of settlement, or proposals...

  11. 15 CFR 904.213 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlements. 904.213 Section 904.213 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC... and Appeal Procedures General § 904.213 Settlements. If settlement is reached before the Judge...

  12. 76 FR 42625 - International Settlements Policy Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... settlement rate adopted for that country in IB Docket No. 96-261, Report and Order, 12 FCC Rcd 19,806, 62 FR... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 0, 43 and 64 International Settlements Policy Reform AGENCY: Federal Communications... remove the International Settlements Policy (ISP) from all U.S. international routes except...

  13. “It’s for us –newcomers, LGBTQ persons, and HIV-positive persons. You feel free to be”: a qualitative study exploring social support group participation among African and Caribbean lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender newcomers and refugees in Toronto, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Logie, Carmen H.; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Lee-Foon, Nakia; Ryan, Shannon; Ramsay, Hope

    2016-01-01

    Background Stigma and discrimination harm the wellbeing of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people and contribute to migration from contexts of sexual persecution and criminalization. Yet LGBT newcomers and refugees often face marginalization and struggles meeting the social determinants of health (SDOH) following immigration to countries such as Canada. Social isolation is a key social determinant of health that may play a significant role in shaping health disparities among LGB...

  14. World Refugee Crisis: Winning the Game. Facts for Action #6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxfam America, Boston, MA.

    Definitions, statistics, and problems of world refugees are presented in this document for high school global education classes. Although various agencies have determined different definitions of the term, the authors consider as refugees all those forced to flee their native land in order to survive. For most refugees the attraction of a higher…

  15. Issues in Teaching Refugees in U.S. Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarr, Karla Giuliano; Mosselson, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    The schooling experience of refugee students in the United States is inherently complex and demonstrates tensions between students' high aspirations and true opportunities present within the host culture. The majority of refugees view education as the key to economic mobility and hope for the future. However, the literature on refugee achievement…

  16. Comprehensive health assessment for newly arrived refugee children in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, N; Skull, S; Chaney, G; Frydenberg, A; Isaacs, D; Kelly, P; Lampropoulos, B; Raman, S; Silove, D; Buttery, J; Smith, M; Steel, Z; Burgner, D

    2004-01-01

    Providing appropriate and responsive care to refugees from diverse backgrounds and with unique health needs is challenging. Refugee children may present with a wide range of conditions, which may be unfamiliar to health professionals in developed countries. Additionally, refugees may experience unfa

  17. A Citizen's guide to climate refugees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T. (ed.)

    2005-06-15

    Friends of the Earth Australia is commemorating World Refugee Day in 2005 by publishing a 'Citizens Guide to Climate Refugees'. This publication gives the basic facts on climate change, greenhouse gas emissions; why people could become climate refugees, how many and where are they likely to come from; and what can be done about it.

  18. Beyond ICARA II: Implementing Refugee-Related Development Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Robert F.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of the Second International Conference on Assistance to Refugees in Africa, which advanced discussions on the connection between refugees and the development process. Discusses potential roles of the World Bank and the World Food Program in providing technical assistance to refugee-related development projects. (Author/GC)

  19. The Vietnamese Refugees in America: Patterns of Socioeconomic Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Darrel

    Between July 1975 and August 1977, telephone interview surveys were conducted to assess the socioeconomic adjustment of Vietnamese refugees to American society. Between the first and last survey, it was found that the employment situation of the refugees had improved. Most refugees who want work have been able to find jobs. The data suggest that…

  20. 8 CFR 1209.1 - Adjustment of status of refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment of status of refugees. 1209.1... IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS OF REFUGEES AND ALIENS GRANTED ASYLUM § 1209.1 Adjustment of status of refugees. The provisions of this section shall provide the sole and exclusive procedure...

  1. 8 CFR 207.7 - Derivatives of refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... unmarried, minor child as set forth in 8 CFR part 204 must be submitted with the request for accompanying or... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivatives of refugees. 207.7 Section 207... REFUGEES § 207.7 Derivatives of refugees. (a) Eligibility. A spouse, as defined in section 101(a)(35)...

  2. 8 CFR 209.1 - Adjustment of status of refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment of status of refugees. 209.1... STATUS OF REFUGEES AND ALIENS GRANTED ASYLUM § 209.1 Adjustment of status of refugees. The provisions of this section shall provide the sole and exclusive procedure for adjustment of status by a...

  3. 45 CFR 400.52 - Emergency cash assistance to refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency cash assistance to refugees. 400.52 Section 400.52 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT...

  4. Determinants of Second Language Proficiency among Refugees in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tubergen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the language acquisition of refugees in Western countries. This study examines how pre- and post-migration characteristics of refugees are related to their second language proficiency. Data are from a survey of 3,500 refugees, who were born in Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, former Yugoslavia and Somalia, and who resided in the…

  5. General health assessment in refugees claiming to have been tortured

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draminsky Petersen, Hans; Christensen, Maria Elisabeth; Kastrup, Marianne;

    1994-01-01

    General health assessment of refugees claiming to have been previously exposed to torture takes place in a psychological atmosphere affected by the difficult situation of the refugee. Thirty-one refugees, mainly from the Middle East and Africa, were assessed as regards their physical and mental...

  6. Intercultural Knowledge and Skills in Social Service Work with Refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Amy

    2009-01-01

    This grounded theory study examined how social service providers and refugee service recipients in a city in the upper Midwestern United States described the intercultural knowledge and skills necessary for effective work with refugees. Ten refugee service recipients, 28 county service providers, and 9 "stakeholders," or noncounty service…

  7. International Factors in the Formation of Refugee Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolberg, Aristide R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Drawing on theoretical framework that addresses the transnational character of refugee problems, analyzes the causes of refugee movements. Holds that despite the common perception that refugees flee danger that emanates from an agent within the country of origin, the danger often results from international conflicts. (GC)

  8. Uniting through Technology : A case study of the collaboration between Ericsson, Refugees United and UNHCR for uniting refugees

    OpenAIRE

    El-Bidawi, Amira; Hagström, Hampus

    2012-01-01

    Today, there are many refugees living displaced and often separated from their family and loved ones. A partnership between a corporation, a United Nations function and a non-governmental organization has been formed with the goal of reuniting these refugees. The actors involved are Ericsson, Refugees United, and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. This results in an interesting and unique corporate responsibility project. The initiative is evaluated and described in this report fr...

  9. Resilience of refugees displaced in the developing world: a qualitative analysis of strengths and struggles of urban refugees in Nepal.

    OpenAIRE

    Upadhaya Nawaraj; Luitel Nagendra P; Roberts Bayard; Thomas Fiona C; Tol Wietse A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Mental health and psychosocial wellbeing are key concerns in displaced populations. Despite urban refugees constituting more than half of the world's refugees, minimal attention has been paid to their psychosocial wellbeing. The purpose of this study was to assess coping behaviour and aspects of resilience amongst refugees in Kathmandu, Nepal. Methods This study examined the experiences of 16 Pakistani and 8 Somali urban refugees in Kathmandu, Nepal through in-depth indivi...

  10. Effective Screening for Emotional Distress in Refugees: The Refugee Health Screener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollifield, Michael; Toolson, Eric C; Verbillis-Kolp, Sasha; Farmer, Beth; Yamazaki, Junko; Woldehaimanot, Tsegaba; Holland, Annette

    2016-04-01

    Screening for emotional distress is important, but not widely available. This study assesses the utility of the Refugee Health Screener 15 (RHS-15) in a public health setting. Refugee Health Screener 15 and diagnostic proxy (DP) instruments assessing anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder were administered to refugees from 3 countries at their public health examination. Properties of the RHS-15 and its components were evaluated utilizing appropriate methods. Scale Cronbach α was 0.95, and a factor analysis identified 1 factor accounting for 66% of scale variance. Refugee Health Screener 15 scores and cases discriminated between refugee groups similar to DPs. Refugee Health Screener 15 case sensitivity and specificity to DPs were acceptable (≥0.87/0.77). A shorter, 13-item component had acceptable metric properties. The RHS-15 appears to be a valid screener for emotional distress of refugees. The 13-item scale may be more efficient and as efficacious for case identification. The critical public health need and recommendations for implementation are discussed. PMID:26825376

  11. Effective Screening for Emotional Distress in Refugees: The Refugee Health Screener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollifield, Michael; Toolson, Eric C; Verbillis-Kolp, Sasha; Farmer, Beth; Yamazaki, Junko; Woldehaimanot, Tsegaba; Holland, Annette

    2016-04-01

    Screening for emotional distress is important, but not widely available. This study assesses the utility of the Refugee Health Screener 15 (RHS-15) in a public health setting. Refugee Health Screener 15 and diagnostic proxy (DP) instruments assessing anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder were administered to refugees from 3 countries at their public health examination. Properties of the RHS-15 and its components were evaluated utilizing appropriate methods. Scale Cronbach α was 0.95, and a factor analysis identified 1 factor accounting for 66% of scale variance. Refugee Health Screener 15 scores and cases discriminated between refugee groups similar to DPs. Refugee Health Screener 15 case sensitivity and specificity to DPs were acceptable (≥0.87/0.77). A shorter, 13-item component had acceptable metric properties. The RHS-15 appears to be a valid screener for emotional distress of refugees. The 13-item scale may be more efficient and as efficacious for case identification. The critical public health need and recommendations for implementation are discussed.

  12. Notes from the field: mortality among refugees fleeing Somalia--Dadaab refugee camps, Kenya, July-August 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    Refugee camps in Dadaab, Kenya, currently are receiving Somali refugees fleeing famine and armed conflict at a rate of approximately 1,400 refugees per day. New arrivals are at an elevated risk for mortality because of severe famine in Somalia, the dangerous journey, and overcrowding in the camps.

  13. 76 FR 62597 - Fiscal Year 2012 Refugee Admissions Numbers and Authorizations of In-Country Refugee Status...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ..., Washington, September 30, 2011 [FR Doc. 2011-26331 Filed 10-7-11; 8:45 am] Billing code 4710-10-P ..., 2011 Fiscal Year 2012 Refugee Admissions Numbers and Authorizations of In-Country Refugee Status... Determination Pursuant to Section 2(b)(2) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act, as Amended Memorandum...

  14. 77 FR 61507 - Fiscal Year 2013 Refugee Admissions Numbers and Authorizations of In-Country Refugee Status...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    .... [FR Doc. 2012-25035 Filed 10-9-12; 8:45 am] Billing code 4710-10-P ..., 2012 Fiscal Year 2013 Refugee Admissions Numbers and Authorizations of In-Country Refugee Status... Determination Pursuant to Section 2(b)(2) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act, as Amended Memorandum...

  15. Refugee Problem in Europe – Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esztella Varga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The European refugee problem has grown dramatically in the last few months, putting a considerable amount of pressure on the European countries. Not only are they facing migrants from North Africa, but from the Middle East as well.In March 2011 the Arab Spring has reached Syria, causing a huge number of Syrians to flee their country and seek asylum in Turkey, and possibly going further to the EU. The refugees who fled Syria as well as those who are leaving North Africa (mostly the failed state of Libya are aiming to reach European soil, but Italy, Greece or Turkey is not ready to handle the amount of refugees. The cooperation of the Mediterranean countries and Europe has not been able to slow down the flow of refugees, and the Mediterranean and Aegean seas have become dangerous routes for the desperate migrants who attempt the sea-crossing. In my analysis I would like to highlight the role of the so-called elements of ‘soft power’ in the way of dealing with the refugee problem. According to my hypothesis, the issue can’t be successfully addressed using only the means of the ‘soft power’. No real solution for the crisis has been offered yet, and I would like to give case studies of the different ways of dealing with the problem – inside (Greece, Italy and outside (Turkey of the European Union.

  16. Globalized mobility and the loss of the collective? Refugees and global palyers: An ethnopsychoanlaytical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestine Wohlfart

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The essay sheds a light on mobile individuals, the motivation behind their movement, and their experience in foreign social contexts. It is based on group analytical and interdisciplinary discourses. The focus lies on possible changings of the collective in globalized worlds- approached by the view of individuals. What could imply the loss of the primary group and the perception of this loss for the individual. What are the mobile individuals (refugees and global players looking to find abroad, what are the promises, the demands and necessities. Material: I am offering for discussion texts from an ethnopsychoanalytical study focusing on two very different groups of mobile individuals. On one hand, interviews with so-called "global players" or "job nomads" and on the other hand interviews with African refugees. The analysis of the material leads to the first hypothesis: The option offered by a globalised world to find an individual place and freedom everywhere in the world is associated with a lack of intersubjective spaces, a lack of embodiment in a group, less sharing of common meanings, rules and taboos.Keywords: Intersubjective space; Mobility; Global players; Refugees

  17. Globalized mobility and the loss of the collective? Refugees and global palyers: An ethnopsychoanlaytical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestine Wohlfart

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The essay sheds a light on mobile individuals, the motivation behind their movement, and their experience in foreign social contexts. It is based on group analytical and interdisciplinary discourses. The focus lies on possible changings of the collective in globalized worlds- approached by the view of individuals. What could imply the loss of the primary group and the perception of this loss for the individual. What are the mobile individuals (refugees and global players looking to find abroad, what are the promises, the demands and necessities. Material: I am offering for discussion texts from an ethnopsychoanalytical study focusing on two very different groups of mobile individuals. On one hand, interviews with so-called "global players" or "job nomads" and on the other hand interviews with African refugees. The analysis of the material leads to the first hypothesis: The option offered by a globalised world to find an individual place and freedom everywhere in the world is associated with a lack of intersubjective spaces, a lack of embodiment in a group, less sharing of common meanings, rules and taboos.Keywords: Intersubjective space; Mobility; Global players; Refugees

  18. Sexual and gender-based violence against refugee women: a hidden aspect of the refugee "crisis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Jane

    2016-05-01

    The current refugee "crisis" in Europe has created multiple forms of vulnerability and insecurity for refugee women including various forms of sexual and gender-based violence. Increasing numbers of women, either alone or with family, are attempting to reach Europe to seek protection from conflict and violence in their countries, but these women are subject to violence during their journey and/or on arrival in a destination country. The lack of adequate accommodation or reception facilities for refugees and migrants in Europe, as well as the closure of borders which has increased the need for smugglers to help them reach Europe, acts to exacerbate the violence and insecurity. PMID:27578335

  19. A change of heart? British policies towards tubercular refugees during 1959 World Refugee Year

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Becky

    2015-01-01

    This article looks at Britain’s response to the World Refugee Year (1959–60), and in particular the government’s decision to allow entry to refugees with tuberculosis and other chronic illnesses. In doing so, it broke the practice established by the 1920 Aliens’ Order which had barred entry to immigrants with a range of medical conditions. This article uses the entry of these sick refugees as an opportunity to explore whether government policy represented as much of a shift in attitude and pr...

  20. Medical and social issues of child refugees in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bhanu; Cassar, Christine; Siggers, Georgie; Taylor, Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    In mid-2015, there were an estimated 20.2 million refugees in the world; over half of them are children. Globally, this is the highest number of refugees moving across borders in 20 years. The rights of refugee children to access healthcare and be free from arbitrary detention are enshrined in law. Unaccompanied asylum-seeking children have a statutory medical assessment, but refugee children arriving with their families do not. Paediatricians assessing both unaccompanied and accompanied refugee children must be alert to the possibilities of nutritional deficiencies, infectious diseases, dental caries and mental health disorders and be aware of the national and international health guidance available for support.

  1. Diarrhoeal diseases among refugees in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winardi, B; Adhyatma, M

    1982-09-01

    The influx of refugees from Vietnam had created some consequences especially in transmission of certain communicable diseases. During several months of their first arrival, most of illness (90%) were caused by upper respiratory tract infections, skin diseases and diarrhoeal diseases. Several efforts and measures had been done by the Government of Indonesia in collaboration with several agencies i.e. P3V, PMI, UNHCR, W.VI, etc. As a result of the activities, a reduction of diarrhoeal diseases, has been observed. There was no cholera or typhoid cases detected through routine surveillance activities or by special survey. If we examine the morbidity and mortality pattern of refugees or we are comparing with Indonesian figures, it can be concluded that diarrhoeal diseases is not a significant health problem among refugees in Indonesia. PMID:7163840

  2. Refugee children: mental health and effective interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacione, Laura; Measham, Toby; Rousseau, Cécile

    2013-02-01

    The mental health consequences of war and other forms of organized violence for children represent a serious global public health issue. Much of the research on the mental health of war-affected civilians has focused on refugees who have sought asylum in high-income countries and face the dual stress of a traumatic past and resettlement. This review will focus on the mental health of refugee children who have fled war as well as interventions to both prevent and treat adverse mental health outcomes. While war can have devastating mental health consequences, children raised in the midst of armed conflict also display resilience. Effective interventions for refugee children will be discussed both in terms of prevention and treatment of psychopathology, with a focus on recent developments in the field. PMID:23307563

  3. Employment effects of spatial dispersal of refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil; Rosholm, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Refugees subjected to a spatial dispersal tend to be assigned to a location outside the immigrant-dense cities. We argue that such locations are associated with low place utility. Our partial equilibrium search model with simultaneous job and residential location search predicts that the reservat......Refugees subjected to a spatial dispersal tend to be assigned to a location outside the immigrant-dense cities. We argue that such locations are associated with low place utility. Our partial equilibrium search model with simultaneous job and residential location search predicts...... that the reservation wage for local jobs decreases with place utility. We test the theoretical prediction by estimating the effects of characteristics of the location of assignment on the transition rate into the first job. Our sample is male refugees aged 30-59 who were subjected to the Danish spatial dispersal...

  4. Collection for Refugee and Migration Crisis

    CERN Multimedia

    Rolf Heuer, Director-General,

    2015-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, In response to the current refugee and migration crisis, we are starting a collection today and we are calling on your generosity. The funds will be forwarded to the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies to respond to the humanitarian needs of the refugees and migrants, providing immediate and longer-term relief, including emergency medical care and basic health services, psychological support, temporary shelter, distribution of food & water and other urgently needed items. We hope that your contributions to the above-mentioned appeal will not prevent you from sparing a thought for them and doing whatever you can to help them. Bank account details for donations: Bank account holder: Association du personnel CERN - 1211 GENEVE 23 Account number: 279-HU106832.1 IBAN: CH85 0027 9279 HU10 6832 1 BIC:  UBSWCHZH80A Please mention: Refugee and Migration Crisis

  5. Refugee children have fewer contacts to psychiatric healthcare services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barghadouch, Amina; Kristiansen, Maria; Jervelund, Signe Smith;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Studies show a high level of mental health problems among refugee children. This study examined whether a subset of refugee children living in Denmark accessed psychiatric healthcare services more than those born in the country. METHODS: This study compared 24,427 refugee children from...... and psychiatrists in private practice. RESULTS: Between 1 January 1996 and 30 June 2012, 3.5 % of the refugee children accessed psychiatric healthcare services compared to 7.7 % of the Danish-born children. The rate ratio of having any first-time psychiatric contact was 0.42 (95 % CI 0.40-0.45) among refugee boys...... and 0.35 (95 % CI 0.33-0.37) among refugee girls, compared to Danish-born children. Figures were similar for those accessing private psychologists or psychiatrists, emergency room, inpatient and outpatient services. CONCLUSIONS: Refugee children used fewer psychiatric healthcare services than Danish...

  6. The Density of Sustainable Settlements

    OpenAIRE

    Lauring, Michael; Silva, Victor; Jensen, Ole B.; Heiselberg, Per

    2010-01-01

    This paper is the initial result of a cross-disciplinary attempt to encircle an answer to the question of optimal densities of sustainable settlements. Urban density is an important component in the framework of sustainable development and influences not only the character and design of cities but also the architectural and technical strategies of buildings. The paper is based on literature studies in the fields of urban mobility, urban ecology, urban design, architecture and civil engineerin...

  7. Employment Effects of Spatial Dispersal of Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil; Rosholm, Michael

    Spatial dispersal policies may influence labour market integration of refugees through two mechanisms. First, it may affect the local job offer arrival rate, and second, it may affect place utility. We investigate the second mechanism theoretically by formulating a partial search model in which...... an individual searches simultaneously for a job and for a new residential location. The model predicts that the reservation wage for local jobs is decreasing in place utility. We argue that spatial dispersal policies decrease average place utility of refugees which decrease the transition rate into first job...

  8. Employment Effects of Spatial Dispersal of Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil; Rosholm, Michael

    We argue that spatial dispersal influences labour market assimilation of refugees through two mechanisms: first, the local job offer arrival rate and, second, place utility. Our partial search model with simultaneous job and residential location search predicts that the reservation wage for local...... jobs decreases with place utility. We argue that spatial dispersal decreases average place utility of refugees which decreases the transition rate into first job due to large local reservation wages. We investigate both mechanisms empirically and test the predictions of the theoretical model...

  9. Care of Adult Refugees with Chronic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaki, Genji; Ahrenholz, Nicole Chow; Haider, Mahri Z

    2015-09-01

    Refugees share a common experience of displacement from their country of origin, migration, and resettlement in an unfamiliar country. More than 17 million people have fled their home countries due to war, generalized violence, and persecution. US primary care physicians must care for their immediate and long-term medical needs. Challenges include (1) language and cultural barriers, (2) high rates of mental health disorders, (3) higher prevalence of latent infections, and (4) different explanatory models for chronic diseases. This article discusses management strategies for common challenges that arise in the primary care of refugees. PMID:26320045

  10. Care of Adult Refugees with Chronic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaki, Genji; Ahrenholz, Nicole Chow; Haider, Mahri Z

    2015-09-01

    Refugees share a common experience of displacement from their country of origin, migration, and resettlement in an unfamiliar country. More than 17 million people have fled their home countries due to war, generalized violence, and persecution. US primary care physicians must care for their immediate and long-term medical needs. Challenges include (1) language and cultural barriers, (2) high rates of mental health disorders, (3) higher prevalence of latent infections, and (4) different explanatory models for chronic diseases. This article discusses management strategies for common challenges that arise in the primary care of refugees.

  11. Refugees and education in Canadian schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaprielian-Churchill, Isabel

    1996-07-01

    This article summarizes some of the findings and recommendations of a research project focusing on the nature and needs of refugee students in Canadian schools. The school performance of refugee students is examined under the following headings: immigration regulations; initial identification, assessment, placement and monitoring; unaccompanied youngsters; "at risk" students; academic needs; the conflict of cultures. In particular, the article discusses the changing role of the school in the light of recent immigration trends. Many of the findings are applicable to other national settings.

  12. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September. This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,aleading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  13. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September.This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,a leading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  14. The Trials and Tribulations of Partnerships in Refugee Settlement Services in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Ravinder Kaur; Taylor, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    The ascendency of neoliberal ideas in education and social policy in the 1980s and 1990s was succeeded in the new millennium by a "new" social democratic commitment with emphases on community empowerment, building social capital and a "whole of government" approach to partnering with civil society to meet community needs. In Australia, this…

  15. The range of symptoms in refugees of war: the New Mexico Refugee Symptom Checklist-121.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollifield, Michael; Warner, Teddy D; Krakow, Barry; Jenkins, Janis; Westermeyer, Joseph

    2009-02-01

    The range of symptoms experienced by refugees of war has not been empirically assessed. The New Mexico Refugee Symptom Checklist-121 (NMRSCL-121) was developed utilizing established guidelines and evaluated for its psychometric properties. Community-dwelling Kurdish and Vietnamese refugees reported 48 (SD = 31) persistent and bothersome somatic and psychological symptoms on the NMRSCL-121. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability for the total scale and for most subscales were acceptable, and construct and concurrent validity for the NMRSCL-121 data was shown. There were modest ethnic group differences on symptom severity and psychometric properties of NMRSCL-121 subscales. The NMRSCL-121 produces reliable and valid assessments of a wide range of symptoms in 2 broad community samples of displaced adult refugees.

  16. 77 FR 51033 - Notice of Change in Notification of Refugee Social Services and Targeted Assistance Formula Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of Refugee Resettlement Notice of Change in Notification of Refugee Social Services and Targeted Assistance Formula Grant Allocations AGENCY: Office of Refugee Resettlement, ACF, HHS. ACTION: Notification of change. SUMMARY: The Office of Refugee Resettlement, Administration for...

  17. [The psychopathology of immigrants and refugees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekşi, Aysel

    2002-01-01

    The twentieth century witnessed major waves of emigration, exile and taking refuge abroad. In this paper, a review of the psychiatric literature published between 1990 and 2000 in English and Turkish is presented. Although refugees are considered to differ from economic migrants in a number of respects, they both experience culture and language change and may experience family disruption, social isolation, and hostility from the population of the host country. Accordingly, all refugees and immigrants go through stages of resettlement and need to integrate their past cultural experiences into their new life and culture. The process of integration depends on the subjects' age, mental integrity, and on the conditions he/she lives in. Research indicates that children acculturate more quickly and learn language faster than elders; but they may suffer from role reversal when they are expected to be linguistic and cultural translators for their parents. Young adults at the stage of identity formation can be cut off and feel alienated. Elderly persons have a higher risk of culture shock as they leave behind more memories and connections. These trigger different types of anxieties. The literature shows high levels of acculturative distress, and psychiatric disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression, and refugees are considered to be at risk for suicidal behavior. The complex social and psychological needs of refugee and immigrant families place demands on special services for children, adolescents and adults. PMID:12794656

  18. Sudanese Adolescent Refugees: Acculturation and Acculturative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppitt, Gillian; Frey, Ron

    2007-01-01

    This study explored acculturation and acculturative stress in Sudanese adolescent refugees living in Brisbane. Twenty Sudanese adolescents participated in semi-structured interviews which revealed that the main source of acculturative stress was related to concern over English language proficiency, issues of parental control and conflicting…

  19. Language Acculturation among Older Vietnamese Refugee Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thanh V.

    1990-01-01

    Examined English language acculturation among older Vietnamese refugees (aged 40 and older). Found that age, sex, education in Vietnam, health, and length of residence in United States had some significant relationships with language acculturation. Older Vietnamese people had more problems with language acculturation than younger counterparts, and…

  20. Refugee youth, belonging and community sport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Spaaij

    2015-01-01

    This article examines community sport as a site where refugee youth negotiate belonging, which is conceptualised as a dynamic dialectic of ‘seeking’ and ‘granting’. Drawing on three years of ethnographic fieldwork among Somali Australian youth at community football (soccer) clubs in Melbourne, the a

  1. Teaching English to Refugees: A Family Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Elise; Brown, Dorothy S.

    The instructional program in English as a second language (ESL) followed by a family of 12 Hmong refugees in a small midwestern town is described. Eight of the younger members of the family met for one hour three times each week. Instruction was under the guidance of two teachers, thus allowing for individual help. Other volunteers assisted from…

  2. Livelihoods strategies of urban refugees in Kampala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Macchiavello

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Some 15,000 refugees – escapees from wars in Sudan, Rwanda, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia – live in the Ugandan capital, Kampala, without UNHCR assistance.Rejecting residence in rural camps, they have chosen an environment in which they can use their skills to achieve self-sufficiency and dignity.

  3. Haitian Refugees Need Asylum: A Briefing Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council of the Churches of Christ of the United States of America, New York, NY. Church World Service.

    Haitian refugees who are seeking political asylum in the United States are finding themselves unwelcome. Although various reports attest to continuing persecution in Haiti under the repressive Duvalier regime, the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service claims that the Haitians seek only greater economic opportunity and are not genuine…

  4. The Vietnamese in America: Refugees or Immigrants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, William T.; Murata, Alice K.

    1977-01-01

    This is the first of a series of articles on the Vietnamese who have come to the U.S. since 1975. It deals with the making of the refugees and describes how the negative motivations and regrets with which they have come may act as obstacles to their adjustment to American life. (Author/GC)

  5. Towards inclusive resettlement for LGBTI refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Rumbach

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI refugees facemyriad challenges within the resettlement context. Practical initiatives– such as creating a welcoming space, ensuring confidentiality,training staff, providing critical resources and fostering inclusiveworkplaces – can promote a more humane resettlement experience.

  6. Group Intervention With Adolescent Vietnamese Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Alice M.; Sammons, Morgan T.

    1988-01-01

    Describes group intervention model, based on primary prevention schemes, for work with adolescent Vietnamese refugees. Addresses special cultural and therapeutic issues and concerns. Notes that while group therapies are generally difficult to implement with Vietnamese participants, group intervention work is feasible if clinicians modify…

  7. Lower benefits to refugees in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghosh, Flora; Juul, Søren

    2008-01-01

    This article is a study of the contrast between the Danish law concerning reduced economic benefits for newly arrived refugees and immigrants (known as Start Help or as introductory benefit) and the idea of recognition as the condition for individual self-realization and justice. Our assumption i...

  8. Resettlement Experiences: Refugees from Kurdistan and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgitt, Nancy C.; Horne, Lena

    1999-01-01

    In focus groups the experiences of 12 Kurdish and 13 Vietnamese refugees who resettled in Winnipeg, Manitoba were explored. They lacked employment skills and their education was interrupted. The transition from home ownership to subsidized rent affected their self-perception. (JOW)

  9. Refugees and Homeless: Nomads of the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Stanley F.; Cobiskey, Lane

    1998-01-01

    The United States has the most homeless people of the industrialized nations, and children are the fastest growing segment of the homeless. This article discusses refugees and homeless persons and presents an annotated bibliography of picture books, fiction, and nonfiction for grades K-12. Suggests class activities in drama, language arts, and…

  10. Why the Google Books Settlement is Procompetitive

    OpenAIRE

    Elhauge, Einer Richard

    2010-01-01

    Although the Google Books Settlement has been criticized as anticompetitive, I conclude that this critique is mistaken. For out-of-copyright books, the settlement procompetitively expands output by clarifying which books are in the public domain and making them digitally available for free. For claimed in-copyright books, the settlement procompetitively expands output by clarifying who holds their rights, making them digitally searchable, allowing individual digital display and sales at compe...

  11. Very recent African immigrants and unemployment in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Rameshni, Farnaz

    2012-01-01

    Despite the provincial and federal governments focus on improving employment services through the Canada-British Columbia Immigration agreement, the unemployment rate among very recent African immigrants continues to remain the highest among other ethnic groups in Canada (StatCan, 2010). As such, this study looks into the various barriers faced by very recent African immigrants in finding employment in B.C., and addresses the problem through interviews with settlement agencies and a governmen...

  12. 26 CFR 301.6224(c)-3 - Consistent settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consistent settlements. 301.6224(c)-3 Section... settlements. (a) In general. If the Internal Revenue Service enters into a settlement agreement with any..., settlement terms consistent with those contained in the settlement agreement entered into. (b)...

  13. Barriers to the Entrepreneurial Process during the Refugee Crisis : Focus on Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg Cemazar, Anna Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The refugee crisis has escalated significantly in Europe, becoming one of the main destinations for refugees. Sweden is one of the largest European recipients for asylum applications and was taking in the largest number of refugees in Europe in 2015 in terms of per capita; at 15 refugees per 1,000 inhabitants. With this large flow of refugees into Sweden, a large number of needs arise among the refugees along with a number of challenges concerning integration. These needs and challenges could...

  14. Air Quality, Energy Budget, and Offset Policy in South Africa's Low-Income Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, S. P.; Piketh, S.; Burger, R.

    2014-12-01

    Urban and exurban residential populations in South Africa reside primarily in low-income settlements, including many townships remaining from Apartheid. Over 3 million free government homes have been built in the last 20 years, but the number of people living in informal settlements is the same as at the end of Apartheid in 1994 - a consequence of rapid urbanization. Despite availability of electricity to the vast majority of South Africans, ~80% of electrified homes in low-income areas also burn coal and/or wood as supplementary fuels for cooking and heating. These domestic burning activities represent 70-85% of total PM10mass during winter in South Africa's low-income settlements. Here we analyze data from observations of human-atmosphere systems in: 1) 19 ground monitoring sites in Gauteng Province (Johannesburg and Pretoria), and 2) an intensive sampling campaign in a township in Mpumalanga Province (Industrial Highveld). From ground monitoring, we quantitatively describe seasonal and diurnal trends in PM10 and PM2.5 typical in low-income settlements as compared with industrial and developed suburban areas, and demonstrate the impact of low-income settlements on regional air quality. We also explore the implications of economic development in townships (increased household income, expanded commercialization and widespread electricity usage) on local and regional air quality. Data from the intensive township sampling study provides a seasonal energy budget for domestic burning in low-income settlements and suggests that indoor and ambient air quality are independent systems requiring unique interventions. We conclude with a preview of innovative strategies being developed by industry, government, and academic stakeholders for a not-like-for-like emissions offset policy in South Africa, focused on investments directly into low-income settlements that are aimed at reducing PM exposure.

  15. The Density of Sustainable Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Michael; Silva, Victor; Jensen, Ole B.;

    2010-01-01

    This paper is the initial result of a cross-disciplinary attempt to encircle an answer to the question of optimal densities of sustainable settlements. Urban density is an important component in the framework of sustainable development and influences not only the character and design of cities...... but also the architectural and technical strategies of buildings. The paper is based on literature studies in the fields of urban mobility, urban ecology, urban design, architecture and civil engineering. It concludes that neither detached houses nor extremely dense cities are optimal answers...... to the sustainable challenge....

  16. Differences in HIV-related behaviors at Lugufu refugee camp and surrounding host villages, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbaruku Godfrey

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An HIV behavioral surveillance survey was undertaken in November 2005 at Lugufu refugee camp and surrounding host villages, located near western Tanzania's border with the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. Methods The sample size was 1,743 persons based on cluster survey methodology. All members of selected households between 15–49 years old were eligible respondents. Questions included HIV-related behaviors, population displacement, mobility, networking and forced sex. Data was analyzed using Stata to measure differences in proportions (chi-square and differences in means (t-test between gender, age groups, and settlement location for variables of interest. Results Study results reflect the complexity of factors that may promote or inhibit HIV transmission in conflict-affected and displaced populations. Within this setting, factors that may increase the risk of HIV infections among refugees compared to the population in surrounding villages include young age of sexual initiation among males (15.9 years vs. 19.8 years, p = .000, high-risk sex partners in the 15–24 year age group (40% vs. 21%, χ2 33.83, p = .000, limited access to income (16% vs. 51% χ2 222.94, p = .000, and the vulnerability of refugee women, especially widowed, divorced and never-married women, to transactional sex (married vs. never married, divorced, widowed: for 15–24 age group, 4% and 18% respectively, χ2 8.07, p = .004; for 25–49 age group, 4% and 23% respectively, χ2 21.46, p = .000. A majority of both refugee and host village respondents who experienced forced sex in the past 12 months identified their partner as perpetrator (64% camp and 87% in villages. Although restrictions on movements in and out of the camp exist, there was regular interaction between communities. Condom use was found to be below 50%, and expanded population networks may also increase opportunities for HIV transmission. Availability of refugee health services may be

  17. Desertification, refugees and regional conflict in west Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnoli, O

    1990-06-01

    This article documents the potential for inter-state conflict in the migration of hundreds of thousands of famine refugees across international borders in West Africa. Nigeria and Ghana, for example, have to deal not only with the effects of land degradation in their northern territories but also with the influx of famine victims from Mali, Niger, Chad and Burkino Faso. These migrations put an enormous extra burden on the fragile and already overstretched social and economic infrastructures of the host countries. The construction of dams for irrigation and electricity generation in international river basins, is another cause of inter-state conflict related to land degradation. The capacity of West African states to find peaceful solutions to these problems is being undermined by the increasing impoverishment and marginalisation of their populations. A self-serving neo-colonialist governing elite is caught in the economic stranglehold of the advanced capitalist nations. While there is thus no short term solution to the problem of land degradation, immediate steps should at least be taken to give legal protection to those who are forced to cross international borders because of drought and famine. PMID:20958699

  18. Clinical issues in mental health service delivery to refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong-Guy, E; Cravens, R B; Patterson, T E

    1991-06-01

    Serious limitations exist in the delivery of mental health services to refugees throughout the resettlement process. Having survived harrowing physical and psychological traumas prior to reaching refugee camps, many refugees encounter mental health services in overseas camps that are characterized by fragmentation, instability, language barriers, and severe staff shortages. Refugees requiring mental health intervention after resettlement in the United States confront additional barriers, including frequent misdiagnosis, inappropriate use of interpreters and paraprofessionals, and culturally inappropriate treatment methods. Suggestions for improving mental health services for refugee populations emphasize modifying diagnostic assumptions and treatment approaches, recognizing potential problems associated with using interpreters and paraprofessionals, and examining the role of consultation, prevention, and outreach services in addressing refugee mental health concerns.

  19. Traumatized refugee children: the case for individualized diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzie, J David; Cheng, Keith; Tsai, Jenny; Riley, Crystal

    2006-07-01

    The first 131 traumatized refugee children evaluated and treated in a child specialty clinic indicated a wide variety of trauma including war-related traumas (21%) for areas of recent conflict and domestic violence (28%) predominantly occurring in patients from Mexico and Latin America. Clinical diagnoses indicate PTSD was common (63%) in the war trauma group but was found less (25%) in the domestic violence group. Otherwise, the refugee clinic population showed a wide variety of diagnoses, including 20% having learning or cognitive disability or clear mental retardation. The traumatized refugee children had a similar prevalence of PTSD and depression to a comparable group of American child psychiatry patients. Refugee children have faced a variety of traumas and have a variety of diagnoses. All traumatized refugee children need an individualized evaluation and treatment plan. Trauma focused therapy is not appropriate for all refugee children. PMID:16840851

  20. Refugee migration and local economic development in Eastern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, R

    1994-01-01

    "This article examines the local socio-economic impact of the arrival of Mozambican refugees in the Eastern Province of Zambia. Previous studies of forced migration elsewhere in Africa have suggested that not only stresses, but also positive gains for local development may be felt in areas hosting significant numbers of refugees. It is suggested here that an appropriate framework from which to analyze the impact of refugees is to focus separately on the effects of population increase on the one hand, and the specific characteristics of refugees on the other. Using this distinction, a model is developed of potential beneficial changes resulting from the arrival of refugees. Key assumptions of this model are then identified to be of relevance to policies designed to promote local economic development under conditions of refugee migration." PMID:12288062

  1. Rehabilitating camp cities : community driven planning for urbanised refugee camps

    OpenAIRE

    Misselwitz, Philipp

    2009-01-01

    Focussing on Palestine refugee camps in the Near East, this dissertation aims to shed light on the potential relevance of urban planning to refugee camp environments worldwide. In particular, there is a focus on the role architects and urban planners can play in facilitating participatory planning processes as well as providing guidance and expertise in the development of a spatial vision for Camp Cities. Part I - The Urbanisation of Refugee Camps as a Global Challenge The first part o...

  2. Photographic Images of Refugee Spatial Encounters: Pedagogy of Displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Binaya Subedi

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines my effort to document the experiences of a Bhutanese refugee community in a mid-western city of the United States. In particular, the essay looks at housing experiences the community encountered and my efforts to translate the events through photographs. The essay also explores how oppression operates in relation to refugee experiences. Recognizing that knowledge of recent refugees of color has been absent and perhaps may not be addressed in school curriculum in the near f...

  3. Discrimination, mental problems and social adaptation in young refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Edith; Foldspang, Anders

    2008-01-01

    of associations and pathways between discrimination, mental problems and social adaptation in young refugees. Methods: Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used for the analysis of cross-sectional data from interviews with 131 young Middle Eastern refugees residing in Denmark. Results: Participants reported...... social adaptation correlated negatively with discrimination and with externalizing and internalizing behaviour. Conclusion: Perceived discrimination among young refugees from the Middle East is associated with mental problems and social adaptation. Discrimination seems to provoke internalizing...

  4. Proxy humanitarianism : Hong Kong's Vietnamese refugee crisis, 1975-79

    OpenAIRE

    Yuen, Hong-kiu; 袁康翹

    2014-01-01

    Set against the backdrop of the Cold War and the declining British Empire, this thesis explores how the Hong Kong government handled the Vietnamese refugee crisis of the 1970s. The Vietnamese refugee influx started after the fall of Saigon in 1975 and temporarily stopped after the Geneva Conference on Indochinese refugees in 1979. Drawing extensively upon recently declassified files from the National Archives in London and the National Archives in Maryland, the thesis discusses several import...

  5. The Refugee crisis in a Danish and European Union persective

    OpenAIRE

    Pallesen, Josefine Eva Lilly; Berglund, Amanda; Rastén, Alexander; Amakari, Bruno; Grarup, Emil; Surugiu, Catalina

    2015-01-01

    The number of refugees entering the EU has exploded during the summer of 2015, and this has put the EU and its member states under great pressure as existing asylum systems failed to meet the requirements. Denmark, a known eurosceptic nation, decided in relation to the refugee crisis to accept 1,000 refugees that were to be redistributed through a common EU relocation scheme, yet later Denmark decided to withdraw the offer. This project seeks to answer the following research qu...

  6. THE STATE RESPONSIBILITY OF CHINA FOR THE NORTH KOREAN REFUGEES

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The North Korean refugee crisis merits significant international attention because these people are the most vulnerable group and the silent victims in our international community of the last few decades. Their government does not have the ability to protect its citizens. It is a question of State Sovereignty as to whether China recognizes North Koreans as refugees or not and provides them with humanitarian relief. China argues that North Koreans are not refugees, forcibly repatrates them,...

  7. Refugee Children in the Educational Process: An Social Psychological Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Betül Dilara ŞEKER; ASLAN, ZAFER

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the education of refugees’ children, discussed as the problems faced by the educational process. With this study, refugee children status, their educational needs, by drawing attention to their problems, to raise awareness about the importance of this issue and is currently non-existent national work, which aims to contribute to a small number. In this review Turkey in the concept of a refugee, refugee children's life in training, the problems encountered in this process wil...

  8. Health visiting and refugee families: issues in professional practice

    OpenAIRE

    Drennan, Vari M; Joseph, Judy

    2005-01-01

    AIM: This paper reports on the perceptions of experienced health visitors working with refugee families in Inner London. BACKGROUND: Women who are refugees and asylum seekers in the United Kingdom are more likely to experience depression than either non-refugee women or male asylum seekers. Health visitors provide a universal public health service to all women on the birth of a child, or with children aged under five, and as such are well placed to identify emotional and mental health problem...

  9. Learning from empowerment of Sri Lankan refugees in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K C Saha

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Some 65,000 Tamil refugees from conflict in SriLanka live in 133 camps in the Indian state ofTamil Nadu. As peace talks generate hope for theirrepatriation, the work of a self-help group, theOrganization for Eelam Refugees Rehabilitation(OfERR, shows how refugees can equip themselveswith skills to be used to rebuild their homeland.

  10. Inside the tent: Community and government in refugee camps

    OpenAIRE

    Bulley, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Refugee camps are increasingly managed through a liberal rationality of government similar to that of many industrialized societies, with security mechanisms being used to optimize the life of particular refugee populations. This governmentality has encompassed programmes introduced by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and various non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to build and empower communities through the spatial technology of the camp. The present article argue...

  11. Complex PTSD and phased treatment in refugees: a debate piece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jackie June ter Heide

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asylum seekers and refugees have been claimed to be at increased risk of developing complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD. Consequently, it has been recommended that refugees be treated with present-centred or phased treatment rather than stand-alone trauma-focused treatment. This recommendation has contributed to a clinical practice of delaying or waiving trauma-focused treatment in refugees with PTSD. Objective: The aim of this debate piece is to defend two theses: (1 that complex trauma leads to complex PTSD in a minority of refugees only and (2 that trauma-focused treatment should be offered to all refugees who seek treatment for PTSD. Methods: The first thesis is defended by comparing data on the prevalence of complex PTSD in refugees to those in other trauma-exposed populations, using studies derived from a systematic review. The second thesis is defended using conclusions of systematic reviews and a meta-analysis of the efficacy of psychotherapeutic treatment in refugees. Results: Research shows that refugees are more likely to meet a regular PTSD diagnosis or no diagnosis than a complex PTSD diagnosis and that prevalence of complex PTSD in refugees is relatively low compared to that in survivors of childhood trauma. Effect sizes for trauma-focused treatment in refugees, especially narrative exposure therapy (NET and culturally adapted cognitive-behaviour therapy (CA-CBT, have consistently been found to be high. Conclusions: Complex PTSD in refugees should not be assumed to be present on the basis of complex traumatic experiences but should be carefully diagnosed using a validated interview. In line with treatment guidelines for PTSD, a course of trauma-focused treatment should be offered to all refugees seeking treatment for PTSD, including asylum seekers.

  12. 15 CFR 990.25 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Authorities § 990.25 Settlement. Trustees may settle claims for natural resource... the injured natural resources and services. Sums recovered in settlement of such claims, other...

  13. Internalization, Clearing and Settlement, and Liquidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; van Achter, M.; Wuyts, G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We study the relation between liquidity in financial markets and post-trading fees (i.e. clearing and settlement fees). The clearing and settlement agent (CSD) faces different marginal costs for different types of transactions. Costs are lower for an internalized transaction, i.e. when buy

  14. 5 CFR 838.135 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlements. 838.135 Section 838.135 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT... § 838.135 Settlements. (a) OPM must comply with the terms of a properly filed court order acceptable...

  15. 5 CFR 838.1018 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlements. 838.1018 Section 838.1018 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT... Settlements. The former spouse may request that an amount be withheld from the retirement benefits that...

  16. 29 CFR 2200.120 - Settlement procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Equal Access to Justice Act and 29 CFR Part 2204. (ii) Upon motion of any party after the docketing of... section. (ii) Discovery proceedings to be followed by settlement proceedings. The Settlement Judge shall issue a discovery scheduling order and supervise all discovery proceedings. At the conclusion...

  17. Refugees and oral health: lessons learned from stories of Hazara refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Cathryn E Finney; Whelan, Anna Klinken; Michaels, Cecily

    2009-11-01

    Australia is one of a few countries with a resettlement program for refugees. The organisation and provision of health services for refugees pose challenges to health service managers and service providers. Some groups have experienced severe trauma and, in the case of Hazara refugees, years of persecution and displacement. This qualitative study gained access to Hazara refugees in order to gain an understanding of their oral health experiences and to seek participant views on factors that impacted on their oral health status. All participants had poor oral health status, multiple tooth extractions, and had placed a low priority on their oral health. They had experienced violence and traumatic events associated with war and looting. Participants reported that they had limited access to dental practitioners and oral education; lived for extended periods with oral pain and untreated oral problems; and treated oral pain with traditional pain remedies and tooth extractions. Service providers need to consider that elements of the refugee experience may affect health-seeking behavior and adherence to treatment. PMID:20166911

  18. Refugee and displaced women: 60 years of progress and setbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Martin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available

    2011 marks the anniversary of two important events in refugee protection. In 1951, the United Nations adopted the UN Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees. Forty years later, in 1991, the Executive Committee of the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR adopted Guidelines on the Protection of Refugee Women. Since 1991, there has been both progress and setbacks in providing equal and effective protection to both male and female refugees.  The article concludes that the gap between rhetoric and reality for women and girls is still very large. Following a brief discussion of the demographic profile of refugees, the article discusses issues related to legal protection, physical security, and social and economic rights for refugee and displaced women. The article call for renewed efforts to implement fully the various legal instruments and guidelines that set out norms and standards of protection for refugees generally and women and girls specifically and to ensure that refugee and displaced women are able to participate actively in decisions that affect them and their families.

  19. Music Therapy with Traumatized Refugees in a Clinical Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap Orth

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available As music therapists now deal more often with traumatized refugees, and the demand for documentation, research, and a methodical description has grown, in this article I would like to make a contribution to the development of a methodology in music therapy with traumatized refugees. Various methods used by music therapists in trauma treatment will be described. An overview of the development of a set of methods at Phoenix, a highly specialized inpatient treatment facility for refugees and asylum seekers, will be presented and I will focus on four approaches I developed in my work with traumatized refugees.

  20. Southeast Asian Refugee Youth: A Comparative Study (SARYS)

    OpenAIRE

    Rumbaut, RG

    2001-01-01

    The Southeast Asian Refugee Youth Study (SARYS) is a local community study of the adaptation of refugee youth from Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. It is a follow-up study of the educational achievements of the children of the Southeast Asian refugee parents surveyed in the Indochinese Health and Adaptation Research Project (IHARP), 1982-1984 data. The project was conducted in San Diego, California and was partly funded by the U.S. Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR). The purpose of this study w...

  1. Resettlement of Bhutanese refugees: a misery or solution, a case study of Bhutanese refugees from Rogaland and Alta

    OpenAIRE

    Gharti, Sanjiwani

    2011-01-01

    Being a refugee from a different culture, tradition and religion, Bhutanese refugees face difficulties in adjusting to a new country and a new environment. The objective of this research was to explore the conditions and quality of the life of Bhutanese refugees that have resettled in Norway and as important has been to make a comparison about the experience of those that first settled in Nepal and then resettled in Norway. To what degree have they been successfully integrated in Norwegian so...

  2. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Randall Haas

    Full Text Available Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare-behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation.

  3. Dispute Settlement through Banking Mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica ROSU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The systems through which cross-border financial transactions are being accomplished are much more complex than domestic funds transfer systems, because it involves one or more intermediate institutions, networks using different compensation from countries that have different currencies and even performed, including operations exchange. The European Community is constantly concerned about efficient cross-border payments but also about the consumer protection of these services, so as to ensure the same conditions for cross-border services, but also for national services and to stimulate cross-border investment was adopted Directive 97/5/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 January 1997 on cross-border credit transfers, repealed by Directive 2007/64/EC. Article 10 of Directive 97/5/EC established a series of minimum requirements and measures relating to cross-border credit transfers. Thus Member States shall ensure that there are adequate and effective complaints and redress procedures for the settlement of disputes between an originator and his institution or between a beneficiary and his institution in case of failure transfers. In Romania, the provisions of Directive 2007/64/EC were transposed by the adoption of Emergency Ordinance no. 113/2009 which repeals the Government Ordinance no. 6 / 2004 on cross-border transfers. This document provides that each institution must have appropriate procedures for resolving customer complaints in connection with the execution of a cross border institution or commitments in connection with such transfer. In the legal doctrine prior to the adoption of Government Ordinance no. 6 / 2004, it was proposed that the National Bank of Romania, as banking supervisory authority, in some specialized structures, ensure procedures to enforce the settlement of disputes between consumers and financial service providers of banking and insurance. The solution was acquired by the Romanian legislature, so the

  4. Mental health and illness in Vietnamese refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, S J

    1992-09-01

    Despite their impressive progress in adapting to American life, many Vietnamese still suffer from wartime experiences, culture shock, the loss of loved ones, and economic hardship. Although this trauma creates substantial mental health needs, culture, experience, and the complexity of the American resettlement system often block obtaining assistance. Vietnamese mental health needs are best understood in terms of the family unit, which is extended, collectivistic, and patriarchal. Many refugees suffer from broken family status. They also experience role reversals wherein the increased social and economic power of women and children (versus men and adults) disrupts the traditional family ethos. Finally, cultural conflicts often make communication between practitioners and clients difficult and obscure central issues in mental health treatment. Rather than treating symptoms alone, mental health workers should acknowledge the cultural, familial, and historical context of Vietnamese refugees. PMID:1413772

  5. Mental health issues in unaccompanied refugee minors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huemer Julia

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous studies about unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs showed that they are a highly vulnerable group who have greater psychiatric morbidity than the general population. This review focuses on mental health issues among URMs. Articles in databases PsycINFO, Medline and PubMed from 1998 to 2008 addressing this topic were reviewed. The literature had a considerable emphasis on the assessment of PTSD symptoms. Results revealed higher levels of PTSD symptoms in comparison to the norm populations and accompanied refugee minors. In several studies, age and female gender predicted or influenced PTSD symptoms. The existing literature only permits limited conclusions on this very hard to reach population. Future research should include the analysis of long-term outcomes, stress management and a more thorough analysis of the whole range of psychopathology. Additionally, the development of culturally sensitive norms and standardized measures for diverse ethnic groups is of great importance.

  6. The Political Economy of Refugee Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Czaika, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the driving forces of the magnitude, composition and duration of refugee movements caused by conflict and persecution. The decision to seek temporary or permanent refuge in the region of origin or in a more distant asylum destination is based on inter-temporal optimization. We find that asylum seeking in Western countries is rather a phenomenon of comparatively less persecuted people. In an attempt to reduce their respective asylum burdens, Western countries and host cou...

  7. Conflicts and refugees in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sesay, Fatmata Lovetta

    2004-01-01

    Many reasons have been put forward explaining the rate of economic growth in developing countries. The aim of this dissertation is to investigate whether refugees and conflict help to explain Africa and other developing regions’ rate of economic growth. Economists, especially development economists, have been long engaged with the question of what makes different countries more or less successful economically and what explains their rate of economic growth. Different authors select their...

  8. Constructing and deconstructing 'the Iraq refugee crisis'

    OpenAIRE

    Chatelard, Géraldine

    2008-01-01

    This conference paper develops three points by: Questioning the timing of and rationale for the emergence of the post-2003 'Iraq refugee crisis' paradigm; Analysing the application of the humanitarian paradigm as a framework of interpretation and intervention to respond to the situation in Jordan when placed 1/ against the back drop of the continuum of migration from Iraq and 2/ against the political economy of assistance in the Jordanian context.

  9. THE SYRIAN REFUGEE CRISIS IN EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    Rossen Koroutchev

    2016-01-01

    The manuscript analyzes the current refugee’s crisis in Europe and the situation of the Syrian refugees in Syria’s neighboring countries such as Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey. The presented comparative analysis between the first instance decisions in asylum policies of several European countries is accompanied by additional statistics of the refugee’s influx. Several suggestions related to the necessary measures to be taken in short and long term in order to ensure more sustainable migration pat...

  10. Migration, Refugees, and Racism in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Handmaker, Jeff

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe paper looks at South Africa’s complex history and policies of racism, social separation and control and the impact that this has had on the nature of migration and refugee policy. The paper argues that this legacy has resulted in policy and implementation that is highly racialized, coupled with a society expressing growing levels of xenophobia. Some causes and manifestations of xenophobia in South Africa are explored. It further examines how actions of police and civil servant...

  11. Tax Information for Refugees and Their Sponsors: Questions and Answers. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internal Revenue Service (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.

    This guide provides Federal income tax information for refugees and their sponsors. Issues covered in a question and answer format include: (1) the tax status of refugees; (2) the criteria for declaring a refugee a dependent; (3) deductions for contributions to refugees or organizations that support them; (4) the distinction between resident and…

  12. Education in Emergencies: Case of a Community School for Syrian Refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hos, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    With the break of the civil war in Syria, many Syrians have been displaced either internally or as refugees. Turkey, one of the leading host of Syrian refugees, has made changes to the policies to accommodate the needs of Syrians. Education is one of the most prominent needs of displaced refugee children. While 80 percent of refugee children…

  13. 77 FR 5865 - Privacy Act; System of Records: State-59, Refugee Case Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ...-59, Refugee Case Records (72 FR 45081) and State-60, Refugee Processing Center Records (72 FR 45084... Act; System of Records: State-59, Refugee Case Records SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Department of State proposes to consolidate two existing systems of records, Refugee Case Records,...

  14. Post-Secondary Educational Experiences in the Acculturation of Resettled Refugees in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Tara W.

    2013-01-01

    A global refugee crisis necessitates an understanding of policymaking governing the resettlement of refugees in the United States. Resettling more refugees than all other countries combined, the United States emphasizes rapid employment over post-secondary education for adult resettled refugees in order to compel their self-sufficiency. However,…

  15. Masks of Achievement: An Experiential Study of Bosnian Female Refugees in New York City Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosselson, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Agencies and personnel working with refugees increasingly view schools as a central pillar for providing vital services that assist refugees in their survival and rehabilitation. The schooling of refugees has often been suddenly and violently curtailed by the onset of the emergency situations from which the refugees have fled. Experiences of war…

  16. 45 CFR 400.103 - Coverage of refugees who spend down to State financial eligibility standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage of refugees who spend down to State... Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Medical Assistance Conditions of Eligibility...

  17. The rights of refugee women and children in Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Rahaei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Faith and religious beliefs play an undeniable role in defending the rights of refugees and asylum seekers. Respect for refugees and asylum seekers and appreciation of those who provide refuge have a particular place in sharia, and Islam pays special attention to the suffering of forced migrants.

  18. Refugees and Forced Migration: Need for New Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, John R.

    A significant component of modern migrants are refugees or displaced persons. Historically, most involuntary migrants readily found permanent asylum in the traditional immigrant receiving countries of the New World. This situation is changing. Source areas of refugees have shifted from the European arena to the Third World, and the causes of…

  19. KANERE: a refugee-run free press in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial staff of the Kakuma News Reflector

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A refugee-led news service in Kakuma camp has had to addressvarious challenges – including physical threats – in its attempt toprovide a voice for refugees and to tackle issues such as insecurityand corruption in the camp.

  20. Engaging the Refugee Community of Greater Western Sydney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Loshini

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the community engagement program, "Refugee Action Support" (RAS) at the University of Western Sydney. RAS is a partnership program between the Australian Literacy and Numeracy Foundation, The NSW Department of Education and Training and the university. The Refugee Action Support program prepares pre-service teachers to teach…

  1. Nutrition for refugee children: risks, screening, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabio, Mary

    2014-08-01

    Pediatric refugees are at an increased risk for growth and nutritional deficits. As more children are resettled to the United States, it is important to screen appropriately in order to identify any growth or nutritional issues. Resettled refugee children continue to be at risk for both over- and undernutrition, therefore culturally appropriate education and counseling should be provided to improve long-term health.

  2. Connecting Refugees to Substance Use Treatment: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Jennifer S; Shannon, Patricia J; Cook, Tonya L

    2016-01-01

    An emerging body of literature identifies substance use as a growing concern among refugees resettling in the United States. Like immigrants, refugees may face cultural, linguistic, or systems barriers to connecting with mainstream substance use treatment programs, which may be compounded by refugees' unique experiences with exposure to trauma, displacement in refugee camps, and resettlement. This qualitative study explores factors that support and prevent refugees from connecting with chemical health treatment. Fifteen participants who identified as social service or public health professionals who work with refugees responded to an online, semistructured survey about their experiences referring refugees to substance use treatment. Resulting data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Themes emerged identifying a lack of culturally informed treatment models, policy issues, and client characteristics such as motivation and past trauma as barriers to engaging with treatment. Ongoing case management and coordination were identified as important to successful linkage. Findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of how to support refugees seeking substance use treatment and suggest that developing trauma informed, culturally relevant models of treatment that are integrated with primary health care and geographically accessible may enhance treatment linkage.

  3. Special Galang Issue. Passage: A Journal of Refugee Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passage: Journal of Refugee Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    A special issue of the Journal of Refugee Education devoted to the Galang (Indonesia), site of the Overseas Refugee Training Program, contains these articles: "Origins of the Galang Program: A Historical Perspective" (Melvin E. Frarey); "'I Can't Believe I Am Flying over the South China Sea...'" (Elizabeth Tannenbaum); "The Beginning" (Fred…

  4. "Finding a Life" among Undocumented Congolese Refugee Children in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    The majority of undocumented Congolese refugee children living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, experience extreme poverty and social exclusion, harassment and discrimination. Their fear of deportation, forcible removal to refugee camps and imprisonment is coupled with a strong feeling that they are unwelcome in Tanzania. These realities require that…

  5. Understanding the Plight of Immigrant and Refugee Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Melissa; Kabler, Brenda; Sugarman, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Refugee and immigrant children constitute one of the fastest growing groups in the United States, with numbers increasing to an estimated 9 million children by the end of 2010. The Upper Darby School District, located in the southeast corner of Pennsylvania, has witnessed the rapid growth of a diverse immigrant and refugee population during the…

  6. 78 FR 62415 - Refugee Admissions for Fiscal Year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-21

    ... in the Federal Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, October 2, 2013 [FR Doc... Documents#0;#0; ] Presidential Determination No. 2014-01 of October 2, 2013 Refugee Admissions for Fiscal... up to 70,000 refugees to the United States during fiscal year (FY) 2014 is justified by...

  7. Effects of Psychiatric Symptoms on Attention in North Korean Refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Jin; Jun, Jin Yong; Park, Juhyun; Kim, Soohyun; Gwak, Ah Reum; Lee, So Hee; Yoo, So Young

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the performance of North Korean refugees on attention tasks, and the relationship between that performance and psychiatric symptoms. Methods Sustained and divided attention was assessed using the computerized Comprehensive Attention Test in North Korean refugees and in South Koreans. All participants also completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II). Results The North Korean refugees showed slower reaction times (RTs) on the visual sustained attention task compared to the South Koreans after controlling for age and sex. North Korean refugees had a greater number of omission errors (OEs) on the divided attention task and a higher standard deviation (SD) of RT. Total DES-II scores of the North Korean refugees were associated with the number of OEs and the SD of RT on the sustained attention task, and with the number of OEs on the divided attention task. Conclusion North Korean refugees showed poorer performance on computerized attention tasks. In addition, attention deficit among North Korean refugees was associated with their dissociative experiences. Our results suggest that refugees may have attention deficits, which may be related to their psychiatric symptoms, particularly dissociation. PMID:27757125

  8. Autism and Reading: Teaching a Sudanese Refugee Boy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Dalhouse, Doris; Dalhouse, A. Derick

    2015-01-01

    Refugee families in the United States face numerous challenges in becoming acculturated. School-age children of refugees face the additional challenges of acquiring academic language and meeting school expectations for behavior and social interactions while attempting to navigate the school curriculum. This case study examines the school and home…

  9. Supporting Refugee Students in Schools: What Constitutes Inclusive Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sandra; Sidhu, Ravinder Kaur

    2012-01-01

    The worldwide rise in numbers of refugees and asylum seekers suggests the need to examine the practices of those institutions charged with their resettlement in host countries. In this paper, we investigate the role of one important institution--schooling--and its contribution to the successful resettlement of refugee children. We begin with an…

  10. Supporting Refugee Students in School Education in Greater Western Sydney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferfolja, Tania; Vickers, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Rarely do refugee students entering Australian schools possess the multiple forms of social, linguistic and cultural capital that are taken for granted in mainstream classrooms. While refugees of high-school age are assisted initially through Intensive English Centres (IECs), the transition from IECs to mainstream classrooms presents substantial…

  11. Flexible Models for Learning English Are Needed for Refugee Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Elisha; Block, Karen; Gibbs, Lisa; Davis, Elise; Szwarc, Josef; Casey, Sue; Duell-Piening, Philippa; Waters, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The importance of English language acquisition for resettlement of refugees is well established, particularly as a pathway to education, employment, health and social connections. A qualitative study was conducted in 2011 in Melbourne, Australia utilising focus groups with 87 refugee background women from Karen, Iraqi, Assyrian Chaldean, Lebanese,…

  12. Refugee Issues: Current Status and Directions for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Gary; And Others

    A comprehensive review of current refugee policy and program issues is provided in this paper, which is intended to serve both as a status report and a guide to developing an agenda for the future. Chapter I deals with early warning as to potential refugee movements, mass asylum, and interim assistance. Chapter II discusses and analyzes four types…

  13. Vietnamese in America, Part Four: Life in the Refugee Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, William T.; Murata, Alice K.

    1978-01-01

    The experiences of Vietnamese refugees in transitional camps in the summer and fall of 1975 are described in this paper. The data show that the mental health needs of the refugees were not taken seriously and that it was assumed that assimilation would be problem-free. (Author/AM)

  14. Refuge from Crisis: Refugee Women Build Political Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magno, Cathryn

    2008-01-01

    For women who have escaped political crises, NGOs can provide a healing space. This study explores nonformal and informal educational processes that occur in NGOs founded and staffed by refugee women who have resettled in the United States. Interviews and documents demonstrate that the refugee women gain knowledge and skills through participation…

  15. Career Development Concerns of Recent Immigrants and Refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushko, Oksana; Backhaus, Autumn; Watson, Megan; Ngaruiya, Katherine; Gonzalez, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    The number of recent immigrants and refugees in the United States is growing dramatically. Among key reasons for migration is search for adequate employment and hope for opportunities to develop occupationally. However, recent immigrants and refugees face multiple obstacles in their career development in the United States. This article uses social…

  16. Results of medical examination of refugees from Burma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H D; Lykke, J; Hougen, H P;

    1998-01-01

    To describe exposure to human rights violations among refugees from rural Burma; to compare exposure experienced by an ethnic Burmese minority group, the Shans, with that of the rest of the study population; and to compare exposure of those who had fled Burma recently with that of refugees who had...

  17. An eye for complexity : EMDR versus stabilisation in traumatised refugees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Heide, F.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many refugees resettled in Western countries struggle to attain a level of psychological well-being. Heavily burdened by pre- and post-migration stressors, refugees are at considerable risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The accumulation of stressors is also what make

  18. Creating Communities: Working with Refugee Students in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxas, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    This article critically examines the reality of building community in public schools and specifically identifies the obstacles faced by teachers who try to create community with refugee students. The research in the article focuses on Ms. Patricia Engler, a teacher in a newcomer center for refugee students located in an urban setting. Engler…

  19. Connecting Refugees to Substance Use Treatment: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Jennifer S; Shannon, Patricia J; Cook, Tonya L

    2016-01-01

    An emerging body of literature identifies substance use as a growing concern among refugees resettling in the United States. Like immigrants, refugees may face cultural, linguistic, or systems barriers to connecting with mainstream substance use treatment programs, which may be compounded by refugees' unique experiences with exposure to trauma, displacement in refugee camps, and resettlement. This qualitative study explores factors that support and prevent refugees from connecting with chemical health treatment. Fifteen participants who identified as social service or public health professionals who work with refugees responded to an online, semistructured survey about their experiences referring refugees to substance use treatment. Resulting data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Themes emerged identifying a lack of culturally informed treatment models, policy issues, and client characteristics such as motivation and past trauma as barriers to engaging with treatment. Ongoing case management and coordination were identified as important to successful linkage. Findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of how to support refugees seeking substance use treatment and suggest that developing trauma informed, culturally relevant models of treatment that are integrated with primary health care and geographically accessible may enhance treatment linkage. PMID:26667046

  20. Listening to Students from Refugee Backgrounds: Lessons for Education Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mthethwa-Sommers, Shirley; Kisiara, Otieno

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on a study that examined how students from refugee backgrounds cope with victimization and bullying in three urban high schools in the United States. Qualitative methods of data collection and analysis were employed. Twelve high school students from refugee backgrounds participated in the study, which involved focus group…

  1. An adaptive paradigm for human space settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cameron M.

    2016-02-01

    Because permanent space settlement will be multigenerational it will have to be viable on ecological timescales so far unfamiliar to those planning space exploration. Long-term viability will require evolutionary and adaptive planning. Adaptations in the natural world provide many lessons for such planning, but implementing these lessons will require a new, evolutionary paradigm for envisioning and carrying out Earth-independent space settlement. I describe some of these adaptive lessons and propose some cognitive shifts required to implement them in a genuinely evolutionary approach to human space settlement.

  2. Trauma Exposures and Posttraumatic Stress among Zimbabwean refugees in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idemudia, Erhabor S; Williams, John K; Madu, Sylvester N; Wyatt, Gail E

    2013-09-25

    Zimbabwean refugees can be considered a vulnerable group in terms of how they are displaced with many of them having lived through hardships on their way to South Africa and other African countries. Zimbabwe is known to be Africa's most extraordinary producer of migrants and the biggest producer of refugees in Southern Africa. It is estimated that 3.4 million Zimbabweans, a quarter of the country's population, have fled the country. Economic collapse, hunger and political repression have been blamed for the mass exodus. The present study examines the impact of trauma exposures (pre- and post-migration stressors and poor mental health) on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among homeless Zimbabwean refugees living in South Africa. Through a guided convenient sampling, in-depth interviews using questionnaires were collected from 125 homeless Zimbabwean refugees in Polokwane, Limpopo Province, South Africa. The study was anchored on the hypothesis that predictor variables (pre- and post- migration stressors, poor mental health) would significantly affect outcomes (PTSD). Participants were assessed on demographic variables, pre- and post-migration difficulties checklists, mental health using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and the PTSD Checklist (Civilian Version (PCL). Participants ranged from 18 to 48 years with a mean age of 28.3 years (SD = 6.27). The majority of the sample had at least a secondary education (76.8%) and were employed as unskilled labourers (61.6%) in South Africa. Being married was reported by 54.4% in Zimbabwe but changed to only 19.2% in South Africa. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that the overall model significantly predicted PTSD among homeless Zimbabweans (R(2) = 0.17, adjusted R(2) = 0.11, F (6, 124) = 2.960, p < .01). Thus, the entire set of pre- and post-migration variables (Post total stress, PreThreat to life, Presexabuse, PrePoverty, Postsexabuse, Postpoverty and two mental health symptoms (Anxiety and

  3. Posttraumatic stress disorder among refugees: Measurement invariance of Harvard Trauma Questionnaire scores across global regions and response patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Andrew; Verkuilen, Jay; Ho, Emily; Fan, Yuyu

    2015-12-01

    Despite the central role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in international humanitarian aid work, there has been little examination of the measurement invariance of PTSD measures across culturally defined refugee subgroups. This leaves mental health workers in disaster settings with little to support inferences made using the results of standard clinical assessment tools, such as the severity of symptoms and prevalence rates. We examined measurement invariance in scores from the most widely used PTSD measure in refugee populations, the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ; Mollica et al., 1992), in a multinational and multilingual sample of asylum seekers from 81 countries of origin in 11 global regions. Clustering HTQ responses to justify grouping regional groups by response patterns resulted in 3 groups for testing measurement invariance: West Africans, Himalayans, and all others. Comparing log-likelihood ratios showed that while configural invariance seemed to hold, metric and scalar invariance did not. These findings call into question the common practice of using standard cut-off scores on PTSD measures across culturally dissimilar refugee populations. In addition, high correlation between factors suggests that the construct validity of scores from North American and European measures of PTSD may not hold globally.

  4. Posttraumatic stress disorder among refugees: Measurement invariance of Harvard Trauma Questionnaire scores across global regions and response patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Andrew; Verkuilen, Jay; Ho, Emily; Fan, Yuyu

    2015-12-01

    Despite the central role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in international humanitarian aid work, there has been little examination of the measurement invariance of PTSD measures across culturally defined refugee subgroups. This leaves mental health workers in disaster settings with little to support inferences made using the results of standard clinical assessment tools, such as the severity of symptoms and prevalence rates. We examined measurement invariance in scores from the most widely used PTSD measure in refugee populations, the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ; Mollica et al., 1992), in a multinational and multilingual sample of asylum seekers from 81 countries of origin in 11 global regions. Clustering HTQ responses to justify grouping regional groups by response patterns resulted in 3 groups for testing measurement invariance: West Africans, Himalayans, and all others. Comparing log-likelihood ratios showed that while configural invariance seemed to hold, metric and scalar invariance did not. These findings call into question the common practice of using standard cut-off scores on PTSD measures across culturally dissimilar refugee populations. In addition, high correlation between factors suggests that the construct validity of scores from North American and European measures of PTSD may not hold globally. PMID:25894706

  5. Sustainable Refugee Migration: A Rethink towards a Positive Capability Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Husban

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge facing many countries around the world is how to sustainably address the issues of increased numbers of refugee migrants. The refugee migrant “issue” is often heavily political as a high density of migrants in local areas impacts communities (e.g., disrupting local employment, service and culture. Different migrants come with different “baggage” and needs which can be a significant draw on the hosting communities’ resources. This paper argues that sustainable long-term solutions to refugee migrants will require a rethink to the existing dominant models of containment and charity. The paper draws upon insights from a study of a large refugee camp in Jordan over a three-and-a-half-year period, and historical cases of refugee migration. The paper presents a sustainable model that develops long-term capability for the various stakeholder groups.

  6. Muslims and Refugees in the Media in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Ratajczak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to review the status quo of multiculturalism with regard to Muslims and new refugees in Poland. We will point to the critical stance of Poles toward refugees in a situation where there is little experience with them. We will focus on the significant role played by the media and public discussion in shaping an attitude that can be described as outright hostility towards refugees. The perception of immigrants, refugees and ethnic minorities largely depends on the image of them in the media because media has become the main source of information about the 'others'. The essay draws from first results of research conducted in 2015. It contains an exploratory content analysis of Polish media on immigrants and refugees.

  7. Importance of Interprofessional Healthcare for Vulnerable Refugee Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nies, Mary A; Lim, Wei Yean Alyssa; Fanning, Kelly; Tavanier, Susan

    2016-10-01

    The refugee population in the United States is steadily increasing. These populations face a plethora of diseases and chronic health problems (i.e. obesity, hypertension and depression) as they resettle into their new environment. Due to the lack of understanding, minority population refugee health is scarce and minimal at best. Refugees and healthcare professionals face similar barriers when it comes to seeking treatment and treatment itself. For example, refugees might not be able to communicate efficiently and understand the referral process while healthcare professionals do not understand the culture and language of their patients. However, more data is needed to determine if interprofessional teams consisting of differing healthcare professionals such as nurses, pharmacists, and dieticians that conduct home visits might be able to bridge the health care gap between individualized treatment and refugee needs. PMID:27113932

  8. Medical and social issues of child refugees in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bhanu; Cassar, Christine; Siggers, Georgie; Taylor, Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    In mid-2015, there were an estimated 20.2 million refugees in the world; over half of them are children. Globally, this is the highest number of refugees moving across borders in 20 years. The rights of refugee children to access healthcare and be free from arbitrary detention are enshrined in law. Unaccompanied asylum-seeking children have a statutory medical assessment, but refugee children arriving with their families do not. Paediatricians assessing both unaccompanied and accompanied refugee children must be alert to the possibilities of nutritional deficiencies, infectious diseases, dental caries and mental health disorders and be aware of the national and international health guidance available for support. PMID:27470163

  9. 48 CFR 49.109-5 - Partial settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Partial settlements. 49... MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.109-5 Partial settlements. The TCO should attempt... settlements covering particular items of the prime contractor's settlement proposal. However, when a...

  10. 75 FR 75851 - Fiscal Year 2011 Refugee Admissions Numbers and Authorizations of In-Country Refugee Status...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, October 8, 2010 [FR Doc. 2010-30826 Filed 12-6... Documents#0;#0; ] Presidential Determination No. 2011-02 of October 8, 2010 Fiscal Year 2011 Refugee Admissions Numbers and Authorizations of In-Country Refugee Status Pursuant to Sections 207 and...

  11. The needs of refugee women: a human-rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyani, C

    1995-06-01

    While the issue of giving women their human rights has been firmly placed on the agendas of international conferences, the plight of refugee women has gone largely unrecognized. Refugee women face rape, sexual abuse, sexual extortion, and physical insecurity. Such violations precipitate their flight, characterize their attempts to gain refugee status, and continue during their tenure in refugee camps, where they are excluded from positions of authority. Because the definition of refugees in the 1951 UN Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees omits sex as a grounds for determining refugee status or as a grounds on which it prohibits discrimination based on sex, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees decided in 1985 that such claims must fall under the classification of membership of a particular group. Unfortunately, agreement with this is discretionary for states. It has been argued that states which protect aliens from discrimination based on sex must afford the same privilege to refugees, but, again, such behavior is subject to debate. Concerns about the human rights of refugee women should be strengthened by being addressed in the existing framework of human rights conventions in international law, such as the Commission on the Status of Women and the Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). One recent advance in this area was the establishment of the Yugoslav and Rwanda War Crimes Tribunals which will investigate the sexual abuse of women during the armed conflicts. The issue of violence against women in every situation must remain on CEDAW's agenda. In addition, the Fourth World Conference on Women provides a welcome opportunity to place these issues in the forefront of global efforts to protect women.

  12. Baseline health care for refugees in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondius, A J; van Willigen, L H

    1989-01-01

    In the Netherlands there are some 20,000 refugees from different parts of the world (e.g. Vietnam, Latin America). Most of them have experienced a form of organized violence. The somatic and psychosocial complaints of the refugees are comparable to those of Dutch war victims. They are mostly of an aspecific kind and making a diagnosis can be difficult because of the culturally different presentation of ill being. In order to help general practitioners in making a diagnosis the Refugee Health Centre (CGV) has made a classification of complaints according to whether or not they have a specific cause. It is clear from the literature that there are different opinions about the causes of the somatic complaints. As far as the psychic complaints are concerned it is remarkable that in our pilot study (n = 135) only 6% of the examined refugees suffer from a classical picture of the post-traumatic stress disorder; in a number of cases the picture is limited to some components only. Psychosocial complaints of refugees are subdivided and described. The philosophy of the CGV-treatment is to give assistance as much as possible in the refugee's neighbourhood; so that the clinician(s) will become part of the refugee's new social network. Another very important aspect of the assistance given is preventing medicalization of psychological problems. The basis of help is a recognition of the problems and complaints of the refugee. The structure of the Dutch health care, built up in 'lines', is very often very confusing for a refugee; this confusion can cause communication difficulties between refugee and clinician. To develop methods of treatment, definition and registration of complaints and problems can be a first step.

  13. Effects of a refugee elective on medical student perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dussán Kathleen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are growing numbers of refugees throughout the world. Refugee health is a relatively unstudied and rarely taught component of medical education. In response to this need, a Refugee Health Elective was begun. Medical student perceptions toward cultural aspects of medicine and refugee health before and after participation in the elective were measured. Methods Preliminary questionnaires were given to all preclinical students at the academic year commencement with follow-up questionnaires at the refugee elective's conclusion. Both questionnaires examined students' comfort in interacting with patients and familiarity with refugee medical issues, alternative medical practices, and social hindrances to medical care. The preliminary answers served as a control and follow-up questionnaire data were separated into participant/non-participant categories. All preclinical medical students at two Midwestern medical schools were provided the opportunity to participate in the Refugee Health Elective and surveys. The 3 data groups were compared using unadjusted and adjusted analysis techniques with the Kruskall-Wallis, Bonferroni and ANCOVA adjustment. P-values Results 408 and 403 students filled out the preliminary and follow-up questionnaires, respectfully, 42 of whom participated in the elective. Students considering themselves minorities or multilingual were more likely to participate. Elective participants were more likely to be able to recognize the medical/mental health issues common to refugees, to feel comfortable interacting with foreign-born patients, and to identify cultural differences in understanding medical/mental health conditions, after adjusting for minority or multilingual status. Conclusion As medical schools integrate a more multicultural curriculum, a Refugee Health Elective for preclinical students can enhance awareness and promote change in attitude toward medical/mental health issues common to refugees. This

  14. A New Group about Teaching Turkish to Foreigners: Refugees and Refugee Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Akif

    2011-01-01

    In today's world for countries, teaching language and communication became an important issue for making these countries' cultures spread and making them powerful and effective in the global world. A way to make Turkey effective and well known is teaching Turkish and Turkish culture refugees are important opportunity for this. This study is one of…

  15. Allowable Differential Settlement of Oil Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Faeli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The allowable settlement of pipelines has been mentioned rarely in design references and codes. The present paper studies the effects of differential settlement of pipeline bed on resulted forces and deformations and then determines the allowable differential settlement of pipelines in two conditions as follows: (i heterogeneous soil bed and (ii adjacent to steel tanks. To accomplish the studies, numerical simulation of pipeline is used. The pipeline bed is idealized by Winkler springs and four-element standard viscoelastic Burger model. Also, the use of geosynthetic reinforcement is studied in heterogeneous soil beds and the effect of geosynthetics on decreasing the settlement is investigated. The pipeline-tank joints in two cases of fixed and flexible joints are investigated and the results for two kinds of joints are compared.

  16. Measurement of Narora reactor building relative settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The civil construction of the reactor building of Narora Atomic Power Project has a special problem. The stability of the structure is liable to settlement as this location falls in seismic zone. To obviate the possibility of large scale unequal settlements, the reactor building is founded on a 4 meter thick rigid raft concreted in three layers, at a depth of 13 meters below ground. Stainless steel tanks will be embedded at 17 locations to measure relative settlements. The relative elevation difference will be detected by electrical probes when the water level in any one of the tanks touches the tip of the probes. The design envisages a maximum permissible unequal settlements of about 10 mm. over a period of 20 years. (K.B.)

  17. Should Indonesia Accede to The 1951 Refugee Convention and Its 1967 Protocol?

    OpenAIRE

    Dita Liliansa; Anbar Jayadi

    2015-01-01

    Being a non-party to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (“1951 Refugee Convention”) and 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees (“1967 Protocol”), Indonesia does not have legal obligations to provide permanent resettlement for asylum seeker and/or refugee. However, as a transit country for those seeking shelter in Australia, Indonesia undergoes a myriad of issues resulting from illegal entrance by asylum seeker and/or refugee. Besides having neither legal framewor...

  18. Psychological difficulties among children and adolescents with ethnic Danish, immigrant or refugee background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Ingrid; Niclasen, Janni; Ryding, Else;

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated and compared the prevalence of psychological difficulties among Danish, immigrant, and refugee children. Methods: We enrolled 332 children between the ages of 8 and 18 years (148 Danish children, 81 immigrant children, and 67 children with refugee backgrounds...... reporting lower levels of conduct problems than both immigrant children (P refugee children (P Refugee children also reported more peer problems (P ..., refugee children were at higher risk for psychological difficulties associated with both externalizing and internalizing....

  19. Policies and practices in the health-related reception of quota refugees in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne W; Krasnik, Allan; Nørredam, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Quota refugees coming to Denmark are mandated refugee status offshore and approximately 500 quota refugees are resettled annually. Upon arrival to Denmark, quota refugees are received directly in the municipalities and municipal caseworkers therefore have the practical responsibility...... for their health-related reception. The aim of this study was to investigate the health-related reception of quota refugees in Denmark by focusing on the presence of municipal policies and practices, and to test for possible associations with these policies and practices....

  20. Child Survival and the Fertility of Refugees in Rwanda after the Genocide

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Verwimp; Jan Van Bavel

    2004-01-01

    In the 1960s and 1990s, internal strife in Rwanda has caused a mass flow of refugees into neighbouring countries. This paper explores the cumulated fertility of Rwandan refugee women and the survival of their children. To this end, we use a national survey covering 6420 former refugee and non-refugee households conducted between 1999 and 2001. The findings support old-age security theories of reproductive behaviour: refugee women had higher fertility but their children had lower survival chan...

  1. Governance of securities clearing and settlement systems

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Russo; Terry L. Hart; Chryssa Papathanassiou

    2004-01-01

    In the context of securities clearing and settlement systems, the nature of governance arrangements acquires a dimension that goes beyond their traditional function in corporate law. They constitute a tool for regulators and central banks to achieve their respective policy goals relating to market operation, market integrity, and systemic stability. In the light of the analysis of this paper, and pending a further evolution in the regulation of securities clearing and settlement in the Commun...

  2. Reproductive health for refugees by refugees in Guinea III: maternal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blankhart David

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality can be particularly high in conflict and chronic emergency settings, partly due to inaccessible maternal care. This paper examines associations of refugee-led health education, formal education, age, and parity on maternal knowledge, attitudes, and practices among reproductive-age women in refugee camps in Guinea. Methods Data comes from a 1999 cross-sectional survey of 444 female refugees in 23 camps. Associations of reported maternal health outcomes with exposure to health education (exposed versus unexposed, formal education (none versus some, age (adolescent versus adult, or parity (nulliparous, parous, grand multiparous, were analysed using logistic regression. Results No significant differences were found in maternal knowledge or attitudes. Virtually all respondents said pregnant women should attend antenatal care and knew the importance of tetanus vaccination. Most recognised abdominal pain (75% and headaches (24% as maternal danger signs and recommended facility attendance for danger signs. Most had last delivered at a facility (67%, mainly for safety reasons (99%. Higher odds of facility delivery were found for those exposed to RHG health education (adjusted odds ratio 2.03, 95%CI 1.23-3.01, formally educated (adjusted OR 1.93, 95%CI 1.05-3.92, or grand multipara (adjusted OR 2.13, 95%CI 1.21-3.75. Main reasons for delivering at home were distance to a facility (94% and privacy (55%. Conclusions Refugee-led maternal health education appeared to increase facility delivery for these refugee women. Improved knowledge of danger signs and the importance of skilled birth attendance, while vital, may be less important in chronic emergency settings than improving facility access where quality of care is acceptable.

  3. Dispersed and decentralised settlement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Černe

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of reintegration of the urban system new settlements are emerging on theurban rim, transitional zones are reurbanised, derelict areas within the cities are being developedand degraded urban areas of derelict industrial complexes are being renaturalised. Inthe periphery combined research and production parks are being set up, in the open landscapeintegrated business, trade and recreational centres are springing up. Decentralisationand recentralisation of focal points of development accompany the contemporary processesof reurbanisation and suburbanisation – they are simultaneous and move in two-direction i.e. to and from the city. We understand them as manifestation of a dynamic balance amongcontradiction existing between the centre and the rim. Deindustrialisation and relocation ofproduction and distribution from the centres of gravity to the periphery generate extensivedegraded urban areas within cities and between the city and suburbs. The periphery is beingurbanised with the creation of new, dispersed and nonhierachical poles of development, andthe city and inner city is undergoing reurbanization. The general environmental conditionsin the city and in the countryside are being equalised, the potentials of development arebeing sought in the comparative advantages of local conditions: be it attractive urban districts,be it suburban entities or countryside areas.

  4. Reframing vulnerability: Mozambican refugees' access to state-funded pensions in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Enid J

    2009-09-01

    Researchers at the South African Medical Research Council/University of the Witwatersrand Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt) fieldsite in rural South Africa consider Mozambican residents more vulnerable than others in the local population. These self-settled refugees, many of whom are still not South African citizens, primarily came to South Africa in the 1980s during the Mozambican Civil War. This perceived economic vulnerability is rooted in their difficulties in accessing social grants, until recently legally available only to those with South African citizenship documentation. This paper focuses on semi-structured interviews with 30 'older' women of Mozambican-descent living in the Agincourt area. These interviews highlight three important aspects of vulnerability; the respondents: (1) perceive a risk of deportation despite their having lived in the country for 20 years, (2) are unable to easily access social grants, namely the state-funded old-age pension, and (3) struggle to make ends meet when faced with daily needs and crisis situations. All three of these vulnerabilities were mediated to some extent by these women's resourcefulness. They generated ties to South Africa through obtaining identification-documents, used these documents to access pensions, and used the pensions to help them sustain their multigenerational households. PMID:19142721

  5. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  6. THE SYRIAN REFUGEE CRISIS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossen Koroutchev

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The manuscript analyzes the current refugee’s crisis in Europe and the situation of the Syrian refugees in Syria’s neighboring countries such as Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey. The presented comparative analysis between the first instance decisions in asylum policies of several European countries is accompanied by additional statistics of the refugee’s influx. Several suggestions related to the necessary measures to be taken in short and long term in order to ensure more sustainable migration patterns are discussed in detail.

  7. Complexities of speech in Palestinian refugee camps

    OpenAIRE

    Hawker, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a report on work in progress. I have recently finished my fieldwork in three refugee camps in the West Bank: Shuafat RC, which is in the Jerusalem Municipal Area, Dheisheh RC, which is in the Bethlehem Governorate, and Tulkarem RC, which is in the north of the West Bank near the Green Line. I have been recording the speech of respondents in these locations to find out whether contact with Hebrew speakers is effecting language variation and change in spoken Palestinian Arabic. So...

  8. Emigration dynamics of eastern African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oucho, J O

    1995-01-01

    This examination of emigration dynamics focuses on 13 countries extending from Eritrea to Zimbabwe and Mozambique on the eastern African mainland and on 5 Indian Ocean island nations. The first part of the study looks at the temporal, spatial, and structural perspectives of emigration dynamics. Part 2 considers international migration in the region according to Appleyard's typology (permanent settlers, labor migration, refugees, and illegal migrants) with the additional category of return migration. Measurement issues in emigration dynamics are discussed in part 3, and the demographic/economic setting is the topic of part 4. The demographic factors emphasized include spatial distribution, population density, population structure, population dynamics, demographic transition, and the relationship between internal and international migration. Other major topics of this section of the study are the economic base, the human resource base, population and natural resources, the sociocultural context (emigration, chain migration, return migration, and migration linkages and networks), political factors (including human rights, minority rights and security, regional integration and economic cooperation, and the impact of structural adjustment programs), and a prediction of future emigration dynamics. It is concluded that refugee flows remain a major factor in eastern African countries but the development of human resources in the northern portion of the region indicates development of potential labor migration from this area. Data constraints have limited measurement of emigration in this region and may contribute to the seeming indifference of most eastern African countries to emigration policies. Emigration in this region has been triggered by deteriorating economic and political conditions and is expected to increase. PMID:12347007

  9. Convergence in fertility of South Africans and Mozambicans in rural South Africa, 1993–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Garenne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there are significant numbers of people displaced by war in Africa, very little is known about long-term changes in the fertility of refugees. Refugees of the Mozambican civil war (1977–1992 settled in many neighbouring countries, including South Africa. A large number of Mozambican refugees settled within the Agincourt sub-district, underpinned by a Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance Site (AHDSS, established in 1992, and have remained there. The AHDSS data provide a unique opportunity to study changes in fertility over time and the role that the fertility of self-settled refugee populations plays in the overall fertility level of the host community, a highly relevant factor in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives: To examine the change in fertility of former Mozambican self-settled refugees over a period of 16 years and to compare the overall fertility and fertility patterns of Mozambicans to host South Africans. Design: Prospective data from the AHDSS on births from 1993 to 2009 were used to compare fertility trends and patterns and to examine socio-economic factors that may be associated with fertility change. Results: There has been a sharp decline in fertility in the Mozambican population and convergence in fertility patterns of Mozambican and local South African women. The convergence of fertility patterns coincides with a convergence in other socio-economic factors. Conclusion: The fertility of Mozambicans has decreased significantly and Mozambicans are adopting the childbearing patterns of South African women. The decline in Mozambican fertility has occurred alongside socio-economic gains. There remains, however, high unemployment and endemic poverty in the area and fertility is not likely to decrease further without increased delivery of family planning to adolescents and increased education and job opportunities for women.

  10. Prospects for Responsibility Sharing in the Refugee Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Türk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The current state of forced displacement today, with record numbers and rising levels of need, poses challenges of a scope and complexity that we have not had to face since the Second World War. Yet, if we make every effort to place refugee protection at the heart of our response, these challenges are not insurmountable. The international refugee regime provides us with tried and tested tools to address them. What is needed now is to put our collective resources and capacities to their most effective use. We are already seeing this in the recent move towards creating a proposed Global Compact on Responsibility Sharing for Refugees, as set out in the UN secretary-general’s report, In Safety and Dignity: Addressing Large Movements of Refugees and Migrants. We are also seeing this with innovative directions in protection, assistance, and solutions for refugees that are helping us to operationalize long-standing principles of protection, transforming them into tangible results for refugees. New forms of group determination, combined with community-based protection and other measures, can help to ensure an appropriate legal status while at the same time identifying specific protection needs. Protection strategies can inform frameworks for governing migration and meeting the needs of the most vulnerable migrants. The integration of services to refugees within national systems and the expansion of cash-based programming can meet essential needs for assistance more effectively. Finally, the humanitarian-development nexus, the progressive realization of rights — including the right to work, and the creation of complementary pathways for admission — can provide the building blocks for achieving longer-term solutions, which remain, as ever, the ultimate aspiration of the international refugee protection regime.Volker Türk is the Assistant High Commissioner for Protection, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR.

  11. Transport corridors and settlements in a region. Linking settlements to public transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Šašek Divjak

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the article is conditioning settlement to public transport on the regional and urban level. Similar to occurrences in Western Europe even in Slovenia strong settlement pressures and issues tied to development of suburbanisation are emerging in wider hinterlands of larger cities. In regional centres, where strong transport flows with frequent congestion happen, public transport should be the backbone of the transport system. It is important for consolidation of larger gravitation areas, especially conurbations. We can nevertheless establish that parallel to increasing use of private cars, the use of public transport is decreasing. Thus the present condition demands improvements of transport systems and suitable settlement density in conjunction with development of public transport. This can be achieved only by synergetic linking of public transport development and physical planning in a sustainable settlement system. In the Ljubljana functional region we specifically dealt with links between settlement and the regional public transport system, above all the proposed regional light-railway and tram system in the strict urban area. The decentralised denser settlement model is presented. Based on the study concerning settlement development in the railway corridors we proposed potential possibilities for denser settlement in the immediate areas of suburban railway stations in the northern part of the region, from Črnuče to Kamnik.

  12. Is the degree of demoralization found among refugee and migrant populations a social-political problem or a psychological one?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Briggs

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Many international studies point to the negative impact of migration on refugee mental health while others consider the social and political aspects of resettlement are more important. This paper presents the findings from studies examining the degree of demoralization and the impact of other factors on resettlement among three cohorts of resettled refugees and migrant people residing in Australia, Canada and New Zealand. The aims were to determine: participant levels of demoralization; ascertain if the goals contained in the New Zealand Immigration Settlement Strategy are achievable and whether the lack of such goals impacted on participant levels of demoralization. Methods: Study questionnaires, standardized inventories, focus groups, individual semi-structured interviews, and a demoralisation scale were completed by three different cohorts of refugee and migrant people attending mental health and resettlement services in Australia, Canada and New Zealand. The data was analyzed using statistical and thematic analysis. Results: While a degree of demoralization was evident across all cohorts significant differences (p < 0.01 were found between mental health participant scores in comparison to non-clinical cohorts. Factors such as an ability to speak English (p < 0.01 and unemployment (p < 0.001 also significantly impacted on the demoralization mean scores. Conclusions: The findings support the view that social and cultural issues play a role in understanding the degree of psychological distress among culturally diverse clients. Thus, in order to reduce the risk, additional factors associated with migration that may impact on resettlement need to be taken into account.

  13. The Cultural and Social Capital of Unaccompanied Refugee Children : A Policy study of the education of unaccompanied refugee children in Sweden and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Niemeyer, Maya

    2015-01-01

    The globalized world is facing increasing refugee flows over the past years, which brings challenges for the receiving countries. One important part of this challenge is the education of refugee children. Particularly unaccompanied minor refugees are often not noticed by the society and policies. Therefore they are even more vulnerable than other refugee children. Providing a quality education as stated in the Education for All Goals and the right to education given through the UN Convention ...

  14. School-based prevention programs for refugee children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Cécile; Guzder, Jaswant

    2008-07-01

    Because refugee families tend to underutilize mental health services, schools have a key mediation role in helping refugee children adapt to their host country and may become the main access point to prevention and treatment services for mental health problems. Many obstacles hamper the development of school-based prevention programs. Despite these difficulties, a review of existing school-based prevention programs points to a number of promising initiatives that are described in this article. More interdisciplinary work is needed to develop and evaluate rigorously joint school-based education and mental health initiatives that can respond to the diverse needs of refugee children. PMID:18558311

  15. Deconstructing Turkey's "Open Door" Policy towards Refugees from Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Burcu Togral Koca

    2015-01-01

    Turkey has followed an "open door" policy towards refugees from Syria since the March 2011 outbreak of the devastating civil war in Syria. This “liberal†policy has been accompanied by a “humanitarian discourse†regarding the admission and accommodation of the refugees. In such a context, it is widely claimed that Turkey has not adopted a securitization strategy in its dealings with the refugees. However, this article argues that the stated “open door†approach and its limitations ha...

  16. Syrian refugees in Lebanon: the search for universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Karl; Fouad, Fouad M; Pherali, Tejendra

    2016-01-01

    The crisis in Syria has forced more than 4 million people to find refuge outside Syria. In Lebanon, in 2015, the refugee population represented 30 % of the total population. International health assistance has been provided to refugee populations in Lebanon. However, the current humanitarian system has also contributed to increase fragmentation of the Lebanese health system. Ensuring universal health coverage to vulnerable Lebanese, Syrian and Palestinian refugees will require in Lebanon to redistribute the key functions and responsibilities of the Ministry of Health and its partners to generate more coherence and efficiency. PMID:27252775

  17. Return Migration among Elderly, Chronically Ill Bosnian Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Olwig, Karen Fog; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian;

    2015-01-01

    Elderly migrants constitute a considerable share of global return migration; nevertheless, literature on the health aspects of the return migration among these migrants is still scarce. This study explores the significance of return migration among elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees from...... Denmark and the role of health issues in their decision to return. It is based on semi-structured interviews with 33 elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees who have moved back to Bosnia and Herzegovina, and 10 elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees who have remained in Denmark. The interviews show...

  18. Syria, Cost-sharing, and the Responsibility to Protect Refugees

    OpenAIRE

    Achiume, E. Tendayi

    2016-01-01

    The Syrian refugee crisis may soon be the largest since the Second World War. This Article is the first to analyze the devastating fallout of this crisis, and to propose a novel approach to a perennial international law problem at its center. Nearly all of the more than 4 million refugees that have fled the conflict in Syria are concentrated in five countries in the region. These countries do not have the resources to sustain these refugees and there is no principled basis for the current dis...

  19. Refugee Children in the Educational Process: An Social Psychological Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Dilara ŞEKER

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the education of refugees’ children, discussed as the problems faced by the educational process. With this study, refugee children status, their educational needs, by drawing attention to their problems, to raise awareness about the importance of this issue and is currently non-existent national work, which aims to contribute to a small number. In this review Turkey in the concept of a refugee, refugee children's life in training, the problems encountered in this process will be evaluated and the process of education with social psychological concepts will be discussed and suggestions will be presented on the subject.

  20. Refugee blues: a UK and European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the numbers of refugees travelling to the European Union are set in a global context. It is argued that the increasing restrictions placed on asylum seekers from the 1980s onwards in the UK and the associated culture of deterrence and prohibition have had the perverse effect of supporting the economic market for people smuggling. It appears that these restrictions were initially designed to deter people, most of whom would have been granted humanitarian assistance had they managed to arrive in the UK, so as to prevent them from accessing the decision-making process on asylum. Policy changes concerning travel, benefits, and other pressures on asylum seekers are also considered in the context of deterrence. The problems facing asylum seekers do not end with their arrival in a safe country. The current methods of determining refugee status are alarmingly weak. Indeed there is evidence suggesting that those who are most traumatised before arrival face systematic disadvantage. The focus of this paper is on the United Kingdom but its conclusions apply to most Western European countries. The paper concludes with some tentative suggestions for change.

  1. Refugee blues: a UK and European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Turner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the numbers of refugees travelling to the European Union are set in a global context. It is argued that the increasing restrictions placed on asylum seekers from the 1980s onwards in the UK and the associated culture of deterrence and prohibition have had the perverse effect of supporting the economic market for people smuggling. It appears that these restrictions were initially designed to deter people, most of whom would have been granted humanitarian assistance had they managed to arrive in the UK, so as to prevent them from accessing the decision-making process on asylum. Policy changes concerning travel, benefits, and other pressures on asylum seekers are also considered in the context of deterrence. The problems facing asylum seekers do not end with their arrival in a safe country. The current methods of determining refugee status are alarmingly weak. Indeed there is evidence suggesting that those who are most traumatised before arrival face systematic disadvantage. The focus of this paper is on the United Kingdom but its conclusions apply to most Western European countries. The paper concludes with some tentative suggestions for change.

  2. Accessing maternal and child health services in Melbourne, Australia: Reflections from refugee families and service providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs Elisha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Often new arrivals from refugee backgrounds have experienced poor health and limited access to healthcare services. The maternal and child health (MCH service in Victoria, Australia, is a joint local and state government operated, cost-free service available to all mothers of children aged 0–6 years. Although well-child healthcare visits are useful in identifying health issues early, there has been limited investigation in the use of these services for families from refugee backgrounds. This study aims to explore experiences of using MCH services, from the perspective of families from refugee backgrounds and service providers. Methods We used a qualitative study design informed by the socioecological model of health and a cultural competence approach. Two geographical areas of Melbourne were selected to invite participants. Seven focus groups were conducted with 87 mothers from Karen, Iraqi, Assyrian Chaldean, Lebanese, South Sudanese and Bhutanese backgrounds, who had lived an average of 4.7 years in Australia (range one month-18 years. Participants had a total of 249 children, of these 150 were born in Australia. Four focus groups and five interviews were conducted with MCH nurses, other healthcare providers and bicultural workers. Results Four themes were identified: facilitating access to MCH services; promoting continued engagement with the MCH service; language challenges; and what is working well and could be done better. Several processes were identified that facilitated initial access to the MCH service but there were implications for continued use of the service. The MCH service was not formally notified of new parents arriving with young children. Pre-arranged group appointments by MCH nurses for parents who attended playgroups worked well to increase ongoing service engagement. Barriers for parents in using MCH services included access to transportation, lack of confidence in speaking English and making

  3. Disarmament: the African perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disarmament is now generally accepted as the process of reduction in the size of, and expenditures on, armed forces, the destruction or dismantling of weapons, whether deployed or stockpiled, the progressive elimination of the capacity to produce new weapons and the release and integration into civilian life of military personnel. To realize this objective, the nations of the world have been advocating such measures as the establishment of nuclear weapon-free zones, non-proliferation, limitation of the arms trade, reduction of military budgets, and confidence-building measures. To ensure general and complete elimination of arms, there has been widespread recognition of the need to link the disarmament process with other political as well as socio-economic problems of the world such as the need for security, good relations between states and development of a system of peaceful settlement of disputes. Other measures that have been considered to be relevant in boosting the disarmament process include the role of the general public in putting pressure on their respective governments with a view to accelerating and realizing disarmament objectives. Africans have presented to the world a strong case for global disarmament

  4. Key aspects about education for refugee children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Jesús Vega Pascual

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This presentation entitled «Key Aspects about Education for Refugee Children:Refugee Camp Situation», is based on the 2003 UNHCR Guidelines on Education and highlights the relevance of the education even in situations of emergency and crisis, interms of protection and psychosocial well-being of children. It also mentions key issues to consider when working with refugees, internally displaced people, asylum-seekers,stateless and other populations of concen to UNHCR. Aspects such as refugee children’s rights, UNHCR policy commitments to education, participation of refugees and their communities in the design, establishement and implementation of education programmes, specially in emergencies, will be dealt with in this presentation. It will alsomentions topics such as the school drop out, education for vulnerable groups and the need for promoting a gender sentitive approach, bearing in mind that the hard experience of exile, the changes of family structure, the ethnic, cultural, religious and legal differences are key when working with this populationEsta presentación titulada "Consideraciones esenciales sobre la educación de los niños refugiados: la situación en los campos de refugiados", está basada en las Directrices del ACNUR sobre Eduación de 2003, y pretende resaltar la importancia de la educación en las situaciones de refugiados, incluso en situaciones de emergencia o crisis, y cómo ésta juega en favor de la protección y del bienestar psicosocial de los niños. Se mencionan las peculiaridades más relevantes que deben tenerse en cuenta cuando se trabaja con refugiados, desplazados internos, solicitantes de asilo, apátridas y otras poblaciones de las que se ocupa el ACNUR. Se verán aspectos como los derechos de los niños refugiados, los compromisos del Alto Comisionado en materia de Educación, la participación de los refugiados y sus comunidades para diseñar, establecer e impartir programas de educación especialmente

  5. Investigating Mechanisms of Marginal Settlement Life Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid M. Mohammadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to investigate mechanisms to improve marginal settlement life in Koohdasht County in Lorestan province. This research was a sort of the survey studies and a questionnaire was compiled for collection of data. Statistical population of this study was included 1560 households; also sampling method was a sort of random sampling. Number of sample size was estimated 85 households. Questionnaire's reliability was confirmed through computing Cronbach's alpha coefficient which was 0.85. Face validity of questionnaire was confirmed by some Tehran university agricultural extension and education department scientific board members. Also data analyzed by WINspss 11.5. The results of research revealed that marginal area residents had not good financial situation but they undertook great supporting burden and in point of view access to services and life conditions had not good situation. Therefore improvement of life conditions of marginal settlement life such as fundamental infrastructure include communication systems and sanitation offloading system recognized as the most important mechanisms of marginal settlement improvement according to results of priority setting of marginal settlement situation mechanisms. Also the results of factor analysis showed that 7 main mechanisms were be effective in term of marginal settlement life improvement that in order to importance were included servicing and life condition improvement, credit-economic, civil and legal, control and prevention, population and migration control, infrastructures improvement and hygiene situation.

  6. Development Tendencies of Sciences of Human Settlements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In reviewing the scientific explorations in human settlements in the past century, as well as the new accomplishments in the study on Chinese human settlements, the author proposes that the Sciences of Human Settlements should respond to a series of new situations and chal-lenges of world development, such as global climate change and development mode transformation, in order to embody the ideal of "a Greater Science, a Greater Humanism, and a Greater Art". It is argued that the development tendencies of Sciences of Human Settlements in China should include: the concern for people’s livelihood based on the principle of people-oriented, the enhancement of strategic spatial planning for the new modes of spatial growth, the rising of ecological awareness for the Green Revolution, the balance of urban and rural development for rational urbanization, the exploration for the Third System from the perspectives of both Eastern and Western cultures, the innovations on the education of human settlements and the creation of both a better environment and a harmonious society.

  7. Nonlinear calculating method of pile settlement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺炜; 王桂尧; 王泓华

    2008-01-01

    To study calculating method of settlement on top of extra-long large-diameter pile, the relevant research results were summarized. The hyperbola model, a nonlinear load transfer function, was introduced to establish the basic differential equation with load transfer method. Assumed that the displacement of pile shaft was the high order power series of buried depth, through merging the same orthometric items and arranging the relevant coefficients, the solution which could take the nonlinear pile-soil interaction and stratum properties of soil into account was solved by power series. On the basis of the solution, by determining the load transfer depth with criterion of settlement on pile tip, the method by making boundary conditions compatible was advised to solve the load-settlement curve of pile. The relevant flow chart and mathematic expressions of boundary conditions were also listed. Lastly, the load transfer methods based on both two-broken-line model and hyperbola model were applied to analyzing a real project. The related coefficients of fitting curves by hyperbola were not less than 0.96, which shows that the hyperbola model is truthfulness, and is propitious to avoid personal error. The calculating value of load-settlement curve agrees well with the measured one, which indicates that it can be applied in engineering practice and making the theory that limits the design bearing capacity by settlement on pile top comes true.

  8. Simulation of track settlement in railway turnouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Nielsen, Jens C. O.; Pålsson, Björn A.

    2014-05-01

    A methodology for the simulation of track settlement in railway turnouts (switches and crossings, S&C) is presented. The methodology predicts accumulated settlement for a given set of traffic loads using an iterative and cross-disciplinary procedure. The different modules of the procedure include (I) simulation of dynamic vehicle-track interaction in a turnout applying a validated software for multibody vehicle dynamics considering space-dependent track properties, (II) calculation of load distribution and sleeper-ballast contact pressure using a detailed finite element model of a turnout that includes all of the rails (stock rails, switch rails, closure rails, crossing nose, wing rails and check rails), rail pads, baseplates and sleepers on ballast, (III) prediction of track settlement for a given number of load cycles and (IV) calculation of accumulated track settlement at each sleeper and the resulting vertical track irregularity along the turnout which is used as input in the next step of the iteration. The iteration scheme is demonstrated by calculating the track settlement at the crossing when the studied turnout is exposed to freight traffic in the facing move of the through route.

  9. Toward a new definition of 'refugee': is the 1951 convention out of date?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, L W

    2011-02-01

    Definitions, by necessity, may change or need to be changed to accommodate situations that arise. The United Nations recognized that the emergence of new refugee situations required changes in the Convention. These changes were codified in the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees. The issue of what constitutes a 'refugee' has been changing over time. As new classifications of refugees develop, there needs to be changes in the definition of what is a refugee. There has been a growing consensus in the international arena to recognize those displaced by environmental causes. We need to take steps to develop an inclusive definition of refugee that includes those displaced by environmental causes.

  10. Myanmar's Rohingya Refugees in Malaysia: Education and the Way Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Letchamanan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Rohingya, a persecuted minority, has faced decades of harsh treatment and made stateless by the military government in Myanmar. To escape from this severe repression, most Rohingya flee to Bangladesh, Thailand or Malaysia. In Malaysia, this community has been living invisibly for more than three decades. Just like other refugees, the Rohingya are not allowed to work legally and do not have access to free healthcare and education in this country. Many of these refugee children learn in the learning centres run by the community with the help of UNHCR and local NGOs and in madrasah1 after school hours. Nevertheless there is a huge gap in education for these children, especially for girls and boys over 15 years old. This paper addresses the gap, discusses the teaching and learning provided in the refugee learning centres and the future of these refugee children in Malaysia.

  11. Desperate lives: urban refugee women in Malaysia and Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Heller

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available While the international community is still working out howto identify and best serve them, refugees and IDPs in urbansettings are making their own way – often placing themselvesat considerable risk.

  12. Desperate lives: urban refugee women in Malaysia and Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren Heller; Dale Buscher

    2010-01-01

    While the international community is still working out howto identify and best serve them, refugees and IDPs in urbansettings are making their own way – often placing themselvesat considerable risk.

  13. Detention in Kenya: risks for refugees and asylum seekers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Kiama

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Refugees and asylum seekers detained in Kenya risk multiple convictions and protracted detention due to poor coordination between immigration officials, police and prison officers, coupled with lack of interpreters and low levels of knowledge among government officers.

  14. Disabilities among refugees and conflict-affected populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Reilly

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 the Women’s Refugee Commission launched a major research project to assess the situation for those living with disabilities among displaced and conflict-affected populations.

  15. Photographic Images of Refugee Spatial Encounters: Pedagogy of Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binaya Subedi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines my effort to document the experiences of a Bhutanese refugee community in a mid-western city of the United States. In particular, the essay looks at housing experiences the community encountered and my efforts to translate the events through photographs. The essay also explores how oppression operates in relation to refugee experiences. Recognizing that knowledge of recent refugees of color has been absent and perhaps may not be addressed in school curriculum in the near future, this photo essay project was created to serve as a curriculum about marginalized communities who are invisible in the curriculum. By using photographs, I explore three concepts that may help us examine the relationship between space and politics: (1 ideal spaces (2 violated spaces (3 damaged spaces. Lastly, by examining refugee experiences, the paper examines pedagogical approaches utilizing photographs to document oppression.

  16. Politics of North Korean refugees and regional security implications

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jacqueline Danielle

    2009-01-01

    This is the English version of Jacqueline D. Chang's June 2009 Masters Thesis, Politics of North Korean refugees and regional security implication. A Hangul translation version may be found here: http://hdl.handle.net/10945/43808

  17. Tensions between the refugee concept and the IDP debate

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Barutciski

    1998-01-01

    Refugee advocates committed to the promotion of asylum and combating the xenophobia that has reduced possibilities for refuge in host countries should be concerned about the recent debate surrounding the issue of internally displaced people (IDPs).

  18. Trauma-focused therapy for refugees: meta-analytic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Jessica E; Alhassoon, Omar M

    2015-01-01

    High levels of trauma-related psychological distress have been documented among ethnically diverse refugees. As the number of refugees worldwide continues to grow, determining the efficacy of established methods of trauma-focused therapy for this population is crucial. This meta-analysis examined the results of randomized controlled trials of psychotherapeutic intervention for traumatized adult refugees. Comparisons of 13 trauma-focused therapies to control groups from 12 studies were included in the analysis. The aggregate effect size for the primary outcome, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), was large in magnitude, Hedge's g = .91, p interpreter was used to facilitate sessions and those where no interpreter was used. There also was no difference in outcome based on type of PTSD assessment. Results provide evidence in the efficacy of trauma-focused models for treating refugees, and also shed light on important areas for future research. PMID:25485547

  19. Directional layouts in central lowland Maya settlement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bevan, Andrew; Jobbová, Eva; Helmke, Christophe;

    2013-01-01

    This paper suggests the existence of non-random, directional patterns in the location of housemounds across the Late Classic Maya settlement landscape at Baking Pot, Belize, and then explores the wider implications of this patterning in the central Maya lowlands. It introduces an anisotropic method......, by implication, also a set of routes running throughout the housemound landscape and local Maya neighbourhoods during the site’s Late and Terminal Classic history. Furthermore, different possible alignments in different parts of the site are tentatively regarded as an indication of shifting orientations...... to localised grids, following the shift in alignment of monumental architecture, as the settlement landscape expanded over time. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings with respect to the broader interpretation of Maya settlement patterns....

  20. Dose forming in rural settlement: family analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study is the multifactor statistic families analysis of ingestion dose in rural settlement. The hypothesis of the determining role of a family as of social system in dose forming in rural settlement, has been approved. The most significant social-demographic features of a family influencing dose forming, were detected: the number of members of the family, number of children, average age, education and occupational orientation of the family. Despite their being linked with similar features of the family on the whole, age, education, occupation and gender of master of the family, influence most the dose forming. Young families with many children in which the master is a worker, having frequent contact with forest, have high doses. The knowledge of social structure of families will allow to predict the ingestion dose distribution in rural settlement. (Author)

  1. Voices of dialogue and directivity in family therapy with refugees: evolving ideas about dialogical refugee care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Haene, Lucia; Rober, Peter; Adriaenssens, Peter; Verschueren, Karine

    2012-09-01

    In this article, we reflect on our evolving ideas regarding a dialogical approach to refugee care. Broadening the predominant phased trauma care model and its engaging of directive expertise in symptom reduction, meaning making, and rebuilding connectedness, these developing dialogical notions involve the negotiation of silencing and disclosure, meaning and absurdity, hope and hopelessness in a therapeutic dialogue that accepts its encounter of cultural and social difference. In locating therapeutic practice within these divergent approaches, we argue an orientation on collaborative dialogue may operate together with notions from the phased trauma care model as heuristic background in engaging a polyphonic understanding of coping with individual and family sequelae of forced displacement. This locating of therapeutic practice, as informed by each perspective, invites us to remain present to fragments of therapeutic positioning that resonate power imbalance or appropriation in a therapeutic encounter imbued with a social context that silences refugees' suffering. In a clinical case analysis, we further explore these relational complexities of negotiating directive expertise and collaborative dialogue in the therapeutic encounter with refugee clients.

  2. African dance

    OpenAIRE

    Mumberson, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The RE Open will be shown at the Mall Gallery London and the international section was judged by major practitioners and educators, print dealers and collectors, President of RE and Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum Dr Bren Unwin, John Purcell, Deborah Roslund, Colin Harrison, Dave Ferry, and Mark Hampson. Piece selected "African Dance" print.

  3. "African Connection."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Cathy; And Others

    This interdisciplinary unit provides students in grades kindergarten through seventh grade an opportunity to understand diversity through a study of Africa as a diverse continent. The project is designed to provide all elementary students with cultural enrichment by exposing them to African music, art, storytelling, and movement. This project can…

  4. Muslim refugees in Southeast Asia, the Malaysian response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorall, R F

    1988-01-01

    This article surveys the arrivals of Muslim refugees from countries in Southeast Asia who have not only come to Malaysia for political refuge, but who have also stayed on, in many instances integrating into the local Muslim community. The author concludes that Burmese, Thai, and Filipino Muslim refugee-cum-migrants, and the estimated 500,000 illegal Indonesian migrant workers in East and Peninsular Malaysia make the presence of economic migrants in Malaysia's towns and rural sectors a far more pressing concern to Malaysians than that posed by the arrival of genuine political refugees. Only the Indonesians present in Malaysia are consistently termed by all parties as illegal migrants and some of them have been subjected to well-publicized deportation by the Malaysian immigration authorities. Sympathy for fellow-Muslims in distress explains Malaysia's open-door policy to Muslim refugees. The Koran specifically enjoins Muslims to assist Muslim refugees who have been persecuted by others. However, the necessity to maintain regional political and military alliances, principally as a bulwark against Communism, and the Malay--Non-Malay, Muslim--Non-Muslim dichotomy in Malaysia which almost evenly divides Malaysia's 16 million population into mutually antagonistic halves, results in any overt public policy in favor of Malays and Muslims to be immediately denounced by the other half of the population as a move against the Non-Malays and Non-Muslims. Without political and media attention, the refugees live wherever they can find work, as do hundreds of thousands of mainly Indonesian illegal migrant workers. They surreptitiously get their children admitted to public schools, and through bribery, can even get Malaysian identification papers. Malaysia is a relatively tranquil haven for Malaysia's Muslim refugees compared to their homelands, but their continued stay remains dependent on the ever-present struggle for more equitable sharing of political and economic power between

  5. Muslim refugees in Southeast Asia, the Malaysian response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorall, R F

    1988-01-01

    This article surveys the arrivals of Muslim refugees from countries in Southeast Asia who have not only come to Malaysia for political refuge, but who have also stayed on, in many instances integrating into the local Muslim community. The author concludes that Burmese, Thai, and Filipino Muslim refugee-cum-migrants, and the estimated 500,000 illegal Indonesian migrant workers in East and Peninsular Malaysia make the presence of economic migrants in Malaysia's towns and rural sectors a far more pressing concern to Malaysians than that posed by the arrival of genuine political refugees. Only the Indonesians present in Malaysia are consistently termed by all parties as illegal migrants and some of them have been subjected to well-publicized deportation by the Malaysian immigration authorities. Sympathy for fellow-Muslims in distress explains Malaysia's open-door policy to Muslim refugees. The Koran specifically enjoins Muslims to assist Muslim refugees who have been persecuted by others. However, the necessity to maintain regional political and military alliances, principally as a bulwark against Communism, and the Malay--Non-Malay, Muslim--Non-Muslim dichotomy in Malaysia which almost evenly divides Malaysia's 16 million population into mutually antagonistic halves, results in any overt public policy in favor of Malays and Muslims to be immediately denounced by the other half of the population as a move against the Non-Malays and Non-Muslims. Without political and media attention, the refugees live wherever they can find work, as do hundreds of thousands of mainly Indonesian illegal migrant workers. They surreptitiously get their children admitted to public schools, and through bribery, can even get Malaysian identification papers. Malaysia is a relatively tranquil haven for Malaysia's Muslim refugees compared to their homelands, but their continued stay remains dependent on the ever-present struggle for more equitable sharing of political and economic power between

  6. An eye for complexity : EMDR versus stabilisation in traumatised refugees

    OpenAIRE

    ter Heide, F.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many refugees resettled in Western countries struggle to attain a level of psychological well-being. Heavily burdened by pre- and post-migration stressors, refugees are at considerable risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The accumulation of stressors is also what makes them, in the eyes of many clinicians, complex and difficult to treat. Although trauma-focused treatment, such as trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy (TF-CBT) and eye movement desensitisa...

  7. Myanmar's Rohingya Refugees in Malaysia: Education and the Way Forward

    OpenAIRE

    Hema Letchamanan

    2013-01-01

    The Rohingya, a persecuted minority, has faced decades of harsh treatment and made stateless by the military government in Myanmar. To escape from this severe repression, most Rohingya flee to Bangladesh, Thailand or Malaysia. In Malaysia, this community has been living invisibly for more than three decades. Just like other refugees, the Rohingya are not allowed to work legally and do not have access to free healthcare and education in this country. Many of these refugee children learn in the...

  8. 45 CFR 400.301 - Withdrawal from the refugee program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... exception of the following provisions: 45 CFR 400.5(d), 400.7, 400.51(b)(2)(i), 400.58(c), 400.94(a), 400.94... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawal from the refugee program. 400.301 Section 400.301 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE...

  9. Health service access and utilization among Syrian refugees in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily; Akhu-Zaheya, Laila; Burton, Ann; Burnham, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    Background The influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan presents an immense burden to the Jordanian health system. Changing lifestyles and aging populations are shifting the global disease burden towards increased non-infectious diseases including chronic conditions, co-morbidities, and injuries which are more complicated and costly to manage. The strain placed on health systems threatens the ability to ensure the health needs of both refugees and host country populations are adequately addresse...

  10. Approach-Avoidance Behavior of Refugees in a Finnish School

    OpenAIRE

    Laasonen, Ed.D. Raimo J

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to research how the Vietnamese refugees (N was 9) behave with a Finnish school environment. Participating observation was applied because of the lack of public possibilities to study the phenomenon openly. The Markovian approach was the analysis of the data. The results indicate school environment, its interaction guides how the refugees behave in their approach-avoidance behavior. Principally, the behavior of the surrounding school environment p...

  11. Kidney transplantation: is there any place for refugees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einollahi, B; Noorbala, M H; Kardavani, B; Moghani-Lankarani, M; Assari, S; Simforosh, N; Bagheri, N

    2007-05-01

    There are more than 8 million refugees worldwide with the Middle East bearing the brunt. Socioeconomic factors are the major obstacles that refugees encounter when seeking health care in the host country. It, therefore, comes as no surprise that refugees are denied equal opportunities for one of the most sophisticated and expensive medical procedures in the world, kidney transplantation. With respect to transplantation, refugees are caught between a rock and a hard place: as recipients they have to single-handedly clear many hurdles on the arduous road to renal transplantation and as donors they are left unprotected against human organ trafficking. It should be the moral responsibility of the host country to provide this population with a support network. The ways and means of establishing this network should be defined locally; nevertheless, enabling refugees to receive a transplant is the most basic step, which should be followed by the provision of financial support and follow-up facilities in a concerted effort to ensure the continued function of the invaluable graft. It is also necessary that refugees be protected from being an organ reservoir on the black market. There are no precise regional or international data available on kidney transplantation in refugees; among the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation countries, only Iran, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and Turkey have thus far provided data on their respective kidney transplantation regulations and models. Other countries in the region should follow suit and design models tailored to the local needs and conditions. What could, indubitably, be of enormous benefit in the long term is the establishment of an international committee on transplantation in refugees. PMID:17524843

  12. Post-War Economics. Micro-Level Evidence from the African Great Lakes Region

    OpenAIRE

    D'Aoust, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    This thesis starts by arguing that the civil conflicts that erupted in the African Great Lakes are rooted in a continuous pursuit of power, in which ethnic, regional and political identifiers are used by the contenders for power to rally community support. In an introductory chapter, I go back to the colonial era, drawing attention to Burundi and Rwanda, and then describe in more details Burundi's refugee crisis, ex-combatants' demobilization and the 2010 elections, all of which will be addre...

  13. Unconditional hospitality: HIV, ethics and the refugee 'problem'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Heather

    2006-09-01

    Refugees, as forced migrants, have suffered displacement under conditions not of their own choosing. In 2000 there were thought to be 22 million refugees of whom 6 million were HIV positive. While the New Zealand government has accepted a number of HIV positive refugees from sub-Saharan Africa, this hospitality is under threat due to negative public and political opinion. Epidemic conditions raise the social stakes attached to sexual exchanges, contagion becomes a major figure in social relationships and social production, and the fears of the contagious nature of those 'just off the plane' connect refugees to an equally deep-seated fear of racial miscegenation. Jacques Derrida's notion of unconditional hospitality is a dream of a democracy which would have a cosmopolitan form. This means that one cannot decide in advance which refugees one might choose to resettle. This paper will use Derrida's notion of unconditional hospitality to emphasise the fragility of HIV positive refugees' position, caught between becoming newly made New Zealand subjects while at the same time having that subjecthood threatened. For Derrida, both ethics and politics demand both an action and a need for a thoughtful response (a questioning without limit). PMID:17100006

  14. Nutritional assessment of adolescent refugees--Nepal, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-29

    During 1990-1993, 83,000 ethnic Nepalese fled from Bhutan to refugee camps in southeast Nepal after new citizenship policies were enacted by the Bhutanese government. Although annual nutrition surveys of children aged refugees arrived in 1990. After withdrawal of a fortified cereal from their rations, the number of reported cases of angular stomatitis (AS) (i.e., thinning and/or fissuring at the angles of the mouth, a sign of possible vitamin deficiency) increased six-fold during December 1998-March 1999 (from 5.5 to 35.6 cases per 1000 refugees) (Santa Tamang, MD, Save the Children Fund, United Kingdom, personal communication, 1999). The highest rates of AS were found among children and adolescents. In October 1999, CDC was invited by the World Food Programme and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees to assess the health status of adolescent refugees. This report summarizes the investigation, which indicated a high prevalence of low body mass index (BMI), anemia, low vitamin A status, and signs of micronutrient deficiencies among adolescent refugees. PMID:11032093

  15. 'Halfway people': refugee views of reproductive health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, A; Blogg, J

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that facilitate or hinder access to, use of, and satisfaction with reproductive health services in refugee settings, from the perspective of beneficiaries. Rapid appraisal methods included 46 focus group discussions and interviews with over 800 refugees, audits of 14 health facilities, referral hospital reviews, exit interviews with clients, and interviews with health workers. The study was conducted between February and April 2004 in 11 sites in Uganda, Republic of Congo, and Yemen. Reproductive health was clearly on the policy agenda in all countries with stable refugee sites, but problems with implementation and resources were identified. The quality of services was variable, with high staff turnover in some areas affecting relationships with refugee clients. Referral hospitals in host countries were not all equipped to deal with obstetric and other emergencies of either local or refugee populations, including deficiencies in safe blood supplies and antibiotics. Diagnosis and treatment of STIs and HIV/AIDS was frequently inadequate. Gender based violence was the least well addressed aspect of reproductive health. Interest and knowledge about family planning was high, but acceptance was low. It was concluded that progress has been made in reproductive health services for refugees since 1994, however, urgent advocacy and action is required to sustain and improve the situation. Local implementing partners need more support and supervision to develop appropriate service models and to maintain an acceptable standard of care. PMID:19283634

  16. Refugee crisis in Macedonia during the Kosovo conflict in 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donev, Donco; Onceva, Silvana; Gligorov, Ilija

    2002-04-01

    The Kosovo refugee crisis in the Macedonia in 1999 was unique in terms of its unprecedented magnitude against its short duration (sharp increase and sudden decrease in refugee population), its high visibility in the world media, and attention received by donors. In the late March 1999, after the launch of the NATO air campaign against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, refugees from Kosovo began to enter Macedonia. Within 9 weeks, the country received 344,500 refugees. Aiming to provide an emergency humanitarian relief, United Nations, and international and national organizations together with the host country, donors, and other concerned parties coordinated and provided immediate assistance to meet the needs of refugees, including shelter in collective centers (camps) and accommodation in host families, nutrition, health care, and water/sanitation. The morbidity and mortality rates remained low due to the effective action undertaken by a great number of humanitarian organizations, backed up by strong governmental support. No significant epidemics developed in the camps, and there were no epidemic outbreaks during the crisis. Mortality rate of refugees was lower than in other emergency situations. PMID:11885045

  17. Reproductive health for refugees by refugees in Guinea II: sexually transmitted infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekirapa Akaco

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Providing reproductive and sexual health services is an important and challenging aspect of caring for displaced populations, and preventive and curative sexual health services may play a role in reducing HIV transmission in complex emergencies. From 1995, the non-governmental "Reproductive Health Group" (RHG worked amongst refugees displaced by conflicts in Sierra Leone and Liberia (1989–2004. RHG recruited refugee nurses and midwives to provide reproductive and sexual health services for refugees in the Forest Region of Guinea, and trained refugee women as lay health workers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 1999 to assess sexual health needs, knowledge and practices among refugees, and the potential impact of RHG's work. Methods Trained interviewers administered a questionnaire on self-reported STI symptoms, and sexual health knowledge, attitudes and practices to 445 men and 444 women selected through multistage stratified cluster sampling. Chi-squared tests were used where appropriate. Multivariable logistic regression with robust standard errors (to adjust for the cluster sampling design was used to assess if factors such as source of information about sexually transmitted infections (STIs was associated with better knowledge. Results 30% of women and 24% of men reported at least one episode of genital discharge and/or genital ulceration within the past 12 months. Only 25% correctly named all key symptoms of STIs in both sexes. Inappropriate beliefs (e.g. that swallowing tablets before sex, avoiding public toilets, and/or washing their genitals after sex protected against STIs were prevalent. Respondents citing RHG facilitators as their information source were more likely to respond correctly about STIs; RHG facilitators were more frequently cited than non-healthcare information sources in men who correctly named the key STI symptoms (odds ratio (OR = 5.2, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.9–13.9, and in men and

  18. The Carpets and Karma: The Resilient Story of the Tibetan Community in Two Settlements in India and Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkat Rao Pulla

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the Tibetan people in two settlements, mainly in Nepal and India. Tibetan ref- ugees started crossing the Himalayan range in April 1959, in the wake of the Dalai Lama’s flight into exile and landed mostly in Nepal and India. Tibetans around the world do not know their fu- ture nor do they appear unduly worried. Most of them appear resilient and hopeful to see a ‘free Tibet’ a dream closer to their hearts, someday in the future. In this paper, we delve at their deep association between their philosophy of life based on the principles of ‘karma’ and their everyday economic avocation of weaving ‘carpets’. We find that these people weave their lives around kar- ma and the carpets. Karma embodies their philosophical and spiritual outlook while carpets, mats and paintings symbolise their day-to-day struggles, enterprises to cope, survive, thrive and flour- ish. The ‘karma carpet’ symbolises their journey into the future. The Tibetans although a refugee group do not have the same rights and privileges comparable to other refugees living in the world decreed under the United Nations Conventions. In this paper, we present the socio-economic situ- ation of these refugees, their enterprise and their work ethic that makes them who they are in the Nepalese and in Indian societies. For this research, we have triangulated both desk studies and personal narratives from focus groups and interviews to present a discussion centred on the Ti- betan struggle for human rights and their entrepreneurship through the carpet industry mainly in Nepal and India.

  19. Climate Change and the Science of Human Settlements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary; Hack

    2011-01-01

    <正>1.Endeavors for constructing a comprehensive science of human settlements A new science of human settlements is emerging as a result of the threats we all face as a result of excessive greenhouse gases in the atmosphere,

  20. The role of households in solid waste management in East African capital cities

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, A.O.

    2011-01-01

    Solid Management is a concern in East African capital cities. The absence of managing solid waste is a serious problem. An ever bigger concern is the growing quantities of waste that are generatedat households level in informal settlements. In most cases proper safeguard measures are largely ineffective or not in place at all. Moreover, unsafe disposal of waste in the region is coupled with poor hygiene. There is no doubt that East African capital cities need to formulate effective ways to ma...

  1. Development of a Common Nordic Balance Settlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    NordREG finds it essential for the customers that a common integrated end-user electricity market is developed and that all end-users are able to take part in the Nordic market. A common Nordic balance settlement is one important part of such a change. However, attention has to be paid to the comments that a badly designed common system is worse than well-designed national systems. It is thus important that the change to a common balance settlement is so thoroughly investigated that the common system gives a basis for a well-functioning market. An important basis for such a change is an agreed vision for the process: The present different systems for balance settlement shall by the year 2010 be replaced by a common Nordic balance settlement. This means that: It will be possible for a supplier to sell to the whole Nordic market from one legal entity and using only one system for customer management and reporting. The common Nordic balance settlement will be designed in such a way that it contributes to a well functioning market. This means for example that it will be attractive even for small suppliers and some end-users to be balance responsible parties. It is feasible that the first phase is focused on those present differences that are most decisive for fulfilment of the vision. NordREG recommends that the following issues shall be discussed and agreed in co-operation between NordREG, Nordel and relevant stakeholders in the first phase: The definition shall include how the common Nordic balance settlement shall interact with the balance control and the balance regulation of the interconnected power system and the balance settlement between countries performed by the TSOs. The definition should include the cost-base for common Nordic balance settlement in relation to other system responsibility costs. The core activities of system responsibility have also been analyzed by NordREG. It is important to find a balance between inter alia the need for simplicity and the

  2. Health issues of asylum seekers and refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisely, Stephen; Stevens, Margaret; Hart, Bret; Douglas, Charles

    2002-02-01

    This paper is written on behalf of the West Australian Branch of the Australasian Faculty of Public Health Medicine. As public health physicians, we feel it is important that public health professionals should contribute constructively to address the needs of a socially deprived, marginalised group with high rates of physical and psychiatric morbidity. Depending on the definition, there are between 18 and 48 million asylum seekers and refugees in the world. Most seek protection in neighbouring countries, largely in Africa and Asia, rather than coming to North America, Europe and Australasia. Contrary to popular belief, numbers of successful applications to Australia's humanitarian program have actually fallen. This article attempts to correct misperceptions and misapprehensions about the effect of asylum seekers on the public health. Public health professionals should lobby for changes to Govemment policy that at present leave asylum seekers vulnerable to a cycle of poverty, ill-health and limited access to health services.

  3. The nuclear refugees; Les refugies du nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linton, M.

    2011-06-15

    The authors propose a report on the various situations of people who had to be evacuated after the Fukushima accident. Along with examples of people who left their homes with taking with them a single object, the authors describe and comment how this evacuation occurred, the problems faced by the authorities for refugee reception and accommodation. This evacuation has been either organised or spontaneous. Hospitals had to be evacuated as well. Then, local authorities faced food shortage. Some animals have been saved, other starved to death. Dead animals are covered with lime. Dead bodies are decontaminated before being given back to families. Tests are regularly performed to assess people contamination. A second article discussed the bad news concerning the different Fukushima reactors with their melted cores. The geophysical aspects of the earthquake are evoked in a last article

  4. Disaster management and humanitarian logistics – A South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilna L. Bean

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Disasters are becoming an unavoidable part of everyday life throughout the world, including South Africa. Even though South Africa is not a country affected by large-scale disasters such as earthquakes, the impact of disasters in South Africa is aggravated significantly by the vulnerability of people living in informal settlements. Humanitarian logistics, as a ‘new’ sub-field in the supply chain management context, has developed significantly recently to assist in disaster situations. This paper provides an overview of the South African humanitarian logistics context. Even though humanitarian logistics plays a critical role in the aftermath of disasters, it extends far beyond events that can typically be classified as ‘disasters’. Therefore the implication of the South African humanitarian logistics context on future research and collaboration opportunities in South African humanitarian logistics is also discussed. Finally, two recent case studies in the South African humanitarian logistics environment are discussed.

  5. Public health equity in refugee situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisp Jeff

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Addressing increasing concerns about public health equity in the context of violent conflict and the consequent forced displacement of populations is complex. Important operational questions now faced by humanitarian agencies can to some extent be clarified by reference to relevant ethical theory. Priorities of service delivery, the allocation choices, and the processes by which they are arrived at are now coming under renewed scrutiny in the light of the estimated two million refugees who fled from Iraq since 2003. Operational questions that need to be addressed include health as a relative priority, allocations between and within different populations, and transition and exit strategies. Public health equity issues faced by the humanitarian community can be framed as issues of resource allocation and issues of decision-making. The ethical approach to resource allocation in health requires taking adequate steps to reduce suffering and promote wellbeing, with the upper bound being to avoid harming those at the lower end of the welfare continuum. Deliberations in the realm of international justice have not provided a legal or implementation platform for reducing health disparities across the world, although norms and expectations, including within the humanitarian community, may be moving in that direction. Despite the limitations of applying ethical theory in the fluid, complex and highly political environment of refugee settings, this article explores how this theory could be used in these contexts and provides practical examples. The intent is to encourage professionals in the field, such as aid workers, health care providers, policy makers, and academics, to consider these ethical principles when making decisions.

  6. The role of refugee-established churches in integrating forced migrants: A case study of Word of Life Assembly in Yeoville, Johannesburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedaste Nzayabino

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing embeddedness of religious issues within contemporary global phenomena has increased the role religion plays in migrants’ spiritual, social, and economic lives. Drawing on the findings of the study, conducted within one of the Pentecostal migrant churches in Johannesburg, this paper explored ways in which a (migrant church shapes a refugee’s motivation to integrate and his resultant quest for a transient alternative belonging and inclusion within diasporic communities through church affiliation. Through interviews with members of the Word of Life Assembly (WOLA, one of the independent churches established by forced migrants in Yeoville, the study revealed that refugees tend to integrate themselves within their own churches, while the refugee church itself – labelled a ‘foreign’ entity by South African community members – works to garner approval and acceptance from South Africans and faith-based institutions. Cultural and linguistic problems were identified as major barriers to a refugee’s attempts to integrate into local churches, thereby becoming important issues that need to be considered in the establishment of migrant churches within the South African host community.

  7. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement statements. 3500.9 Section 3500.9 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  8. 22 CFR 1423.11 - Settlement or adjustment of issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Settlement or adjustment of issues. 1423.11... LABOR PRACTICE PROCEEDINGS § 1423.11 Settlement or adjustment of issues. general settlement policy (a... shall decline to issue a complaint. The charging party may obtain a review of the Regional...

  9. Marie Russo: An Oral History of the Italian Settlement House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Kathryn H.

    2010-01-01

    The Settlement House Movement in the United States was a response by progressive reformers to meet the needs of urban poor and immigrant families in the early years of the 20th century. Some settlements were outreach services of churches. There are limited accounts of the experiences of the individuals who used the settlement houses. This study…

  10. 29 CFR 2700.31 - Penalty settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., except for discrimination proceedings arising under section 105(c) of the Mine Act, 30 U.S.C. 815(c), or... the proposed order approving settlement. (2) Appearance by CLR. If a motion has been filed by a... the Secretary in accordance with the notice of either limited or unlimited appearance previously...

  11. Researching Entrepreneurship in Low-income Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gough, Katherine V.; Langevang, Thilde; Namatovu, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    of entrepreneurship conducted in a low-income settlement, which combined participatory quantitative and qualitative approaches, highlighting the strengths and challenges of using participatory methods. The paper demonstrates how drawing on a range of participatory methods can contribute to creating more engaging...

  12. Planning urban settlements for quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje Groth, N.; Hansen, K.E.; Björnberg, U.;

    Notatet er et indlæg på den Europæiske Økonomiske Kommissions (ECE) konference om by- og regionforskning, tema II: "Research on the Quality of Life in Urban Settlements, Warszawa, maj 1976. I notatet opstilles en begrebsramme for livskvalitetsbegrebet, og man diskuterer hvorledes...

  13. Black Frontier Settlements in Spanish Colonial Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Jane

    1988-01-01

    Addresses the much neglected area of Black frontier experience in the Spanish colonies. Concentrates on the role played by Black settlers and one Black township in defending the Spanish frontier in colonial Florida against the threat of growing English settlements to the north. Provides an introduction to the 18th century Southeastern Spanish…

  14. "The Pain of Exile": What Social Workers Need to Know about Burmese Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, D Christopher; Androff, David K

    2016-04-01

    Refugees from Burma have comprised the largest group of refugees resettling in the United States over the past decade, with nearly 90,000 people, and 19 percent of the total refugee population. However, very little literature exists that describes the cultural context and displacement experiences of this population. This article addresses that gap in the literature by examining historical, social, political, and cultural dimensions relevant to social work practice with Burmese refugees. Practice with Burmese refugees should be informed by knowledge of refugee policy, refugee resettlement, and social services delivery systems; the Burmese historical and political context; the community's specific strengths, needs, and cultural diversity; and human rights and social justice issues. Strong community partnerships between social workers and indigenous community leaders, between resettlement agencies and ethnic community-based organizations, and between different Burmese refugee groups are important to meeting short- and long-term social services needs and fostering successful adaptation and community integration.

  15. Universal Rights versus Exclusionary Politics: Aspirations and Despair among Eritrean Refugees in Tel Aviv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja R. Müller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By investigating contemporary refugees, this paper analyses the contradictory dynamics of a global order whereby universal rights are distributed unequally through nation-state politics. It uses an ethnographic case study of Eritrean refugees in Tel Aviv as its empirical base in order to investigate refugeeness as a condition of everyday life. The paper demonstrates how a repressive environment within Eritrea has made people refugees, and how that condition is being reinforced by the Israeli government’s refusal to recognise these refugees as such. It further interrogates the relationship between persecution and belonging that characterises the lives of Eritreans as refugees in Israel. The paper concludes by arguing that being a refugee does not preclude feeling a strong sense of national belonging. Eritrean refugees in Tel Aviv do not aspire to gain cosmopolitan citizenship rights but are driven by the desire to be rightful citizens of Eritrea.

  16. "The Pain of Exile": What Social Workers Need to Know about Burmese Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, D Christopher; Androff, David K

    2016-04-01

    Refugees from Burma have comprised the largest group of refugees resettling in the United States over the past decade, with nearly 90,000 people, and 19 percent of the total refugee population. However, very little literature exists that describes the cultural context and displacement experiences of this population. This article addresses that gap in the literature by examining historical, social, political, and cultural dimensions relevant to social work practice with Burmese refugees. Practice with Burmese refugees should be informed by knowledge of refugee policy, refugee resettlement, and social services delivery systems; the Burmese historical and political context; the community's specific strengths, needs, and cultural diversity; and human rights and social justice issues. Strong community partnerships between social workers and indigenous community leaders, between resettlement agencies and ethnic community-based organizations, and between different Burmese refugee groups are important to meeting short- and long-term social services needs and fostering successful adaptation and community integration. PMID:27180523

  17. Scleractinian settlement patterns to natural cleared reef substrata and artificial settlement panels on an Indonesian coral reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-de-León, Pelayo; Costales-Carrera, Alba; Zeljkovic, Stephen; Smith, David J.; Bell, James J.

    2011-05-01

    Recruitment is a key factor driving the population dynamics of scleractinian corals, but despite its importance, we still have a poor understanding of recruitment processes in the Coral triangle region, which contains the most biodiverse marine ecosystems in the world. This study aimed to compare settlement rates to artificial settlement panels with cleared areas of natural reef in order to assess whether panels are a suitable indicator of natural coral settlement rates. We recorded coral settlement rates to panels made of two different materials (concrete and terracotta), attached to the reef at two different orientations (vertical and horizontal), and compared these settlement rates to those on cleared areas of natural reef positioned on vertical reef walls, over a 12 month period. We examined settlement rates at four sites in the Wakatobi National Marine Park, south-east Sulawesi, Indonesia; two reefs were light-limited, highly sedimented sites with low coral cover (coral cover (approx. 40%) and lower sedimentation rates. Panels were directly attached to the reef at 6-7 m depth. The number of coral spat per tile ranged from 0 to 34 and no significant differences were reported between the settlement rates to cleared natural reef areas and settlement panels. Significantly higher numbers of spat settled on the cryptic (back) side of the panels, while no significant difference was found between settlement rates to the different panel materials, or between the different orientations or any combination of these two factors. There is, however, a significant difference in the settlement rates between sites, for both settlement panels and permanent cleared areas, with higher settlement rates at the sites with higher live coral cover. We conclude that both concrete and terracotta panels yield similar settlement rates, and orientation makes no difference to settlement rates when panels are directly attached to the reef. Our results demonstrate that artificial substrata

  18. THE CULTURE OF SETTLEMENT AREAS IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urša Suhadolnik Vovko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To study and grasp the contemporary rural areas in Slovenia, the students of the Faculty of Architecture carried out a public opinion survey on the subject of the culture of settlement areas, with a particular reference to the visual image of the experiential space of the settlements. Today, human needs and living values are an integral part of all documents, as they represent the starting-point of designing new concepts of living. Personal quality of living is explained by Mandič [1999] through the use of Allard's classification of human needs; however, Mercer's Quality of Living ranking is often used to measure the quality of the living environmentThe paper represents the results of the study, which included two target groups: The experts in spatial management and planning employed at municipal administrative offices; and the senior years’ students at the Faculty of Architecture of the University of Ljubljana. The study represented here addressed the values of the living environment. The study was triggered by the 'colourfulness' that knows no limits in Slovenia. Putting the everyday indignation over the variety of all possible shades aside, it has become evident that the tiny elements that are also destroying the image of our settlements are all too often neglected: billboards, log cabins complementing garages and decorative elements, stalls during celebrations and fairs, fountains, monuments, mix of exotic plants, the Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs etc. The study included a survey to obtain a more objective approach to the studying of the quality from the viewpoints of the changing living culture and the use of communal external space in Slovenian settlements. The key question that resonated in most of other questions was: What would improve the quality of life in the settlement?

  19. Psychiatric disability among Bhutanese refugees living in Nepal and their perception of mental illness and disability

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Background: Most refugees live in low-income countries. More than one hundred thousand Bhutanese refugees have been living in Nepal for several years. The association of torture and psychiatric morbidity with disability among such refugees is unknown. It is also important to understand how they perceive mental illness and disability. Objectives: (a) To compare disability between tortured and non-tortured Bhutanese refugees living in Nepal, (b) to investigate psychiatric comorbidity and its...

  20. Between law and the nation state:Novel representations of the refugee

    OpenAIRE

    Behrman, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Given the degraded profile of the refugee in contemporary discourse, it is tempting to seek alternatives from a rich tradition of literary tropes of exile. However, this article argues that the romanticized figure of the literary exile ends up denying, albeit in positive terms, a genuine refugee voice, as much as the current impersonal hegemonic concept of the refugee as found in law. Ultimately, the spell in which refugees find themselves trapped today can be broken only by opening up a spac...

  1. The Refugee Crisis Has Challenged Europe’s Outsourcing of Migration Control

    OpenAIRE

    Boswell, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The refugee crisis in Europe should not be understood simply as a humanitarian crisis, writes Christina Boswell. Those Syrian refugees fleeing to Europe represent just a small fraction of people displaced worldwide. Instead, she argues that the significance of the crisis lies in its disruption of the European project of outsourcing migration control. The arrival of refugees at EU borders has destabilised European efforts to distance itself physically from refugee flows, and to depict the issu...

  2. Tradable Refugee-Admission Quotas (TRAQs), the Syrian crisis and the new European agenda on migration

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Huertas Moraga, Jesús; Rapoport, Hillel

    2015-01-01

    First online: 27 November 2015 The Syrian Civil War gave rise to the largest refugee flight reaching Europe since the Yugoslavian wars in the 1990s. The crisis evidenced the deficiencies of the European Union Asylum Policy, which struggled both to offer solutions to Syrian refugees and to efficiently allocate costs across Member States. We draw on previous theoretical work to simulate how a system of tradable refugee-admission quotas coupled with a matching mechanism assigning refugees to ...

  3. Refugee Children and Families : Psychological Health, Brief Family Intervention and Ethical Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Jarkman Björn, Gunilla

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are more than 45 million refugees and displaced people in the world. Children constitute almost half of the refugee population. It is an enormous challenge and a complex situation for refugee children and families escaping from their home country, to a new system of society to which they have to adapt and where they have to recapture a sense of coherence. This thesis focuses on the psychological health of younger refugee children before and after an intervention with family ...

  4. Review of Refugee Mental Health Interventions Following Resettlement: Best Practices and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Kate E.; Davidson, Graham R; Schweitzer, Robert D

    2010-01-01

    There are increasing numbers of refugees worldwide, with approximately 16 million refugees in 2007 and over 2.5 million refugees resettled in the United States since the start of its humanitarian program. Psychologists and other health professionals who deliver mental health services for individuals from refugee backgrounds need to have confidence that the therapeutic interventions they employ are appropriate and effective for the clients with whom they work. The current review briefly survey...

  5. Refugees and displaced persons. War, hunger, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toole, M J; Waldman, R J

    1993-08-01

    The number of refugees and internally displaced persons in need of protection and assistance has increased from 30 million in 1990 to more than 43 million today. War and civil strife have been largely responsible for this epidemic of mass migration that has affected almost every region of the world, including Europe. Since 1990, crude death rates (CDRs) during the early influx of refugees who crossed international borders have been somewhat lower than CDRs reported earlier among Cambodian and Ethiopian refugees. Nevertheless, CDRs among refugees arriving in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nepal, Malawi, and Zimbabwe since 1990 ranged from five to 12 times the baseline CDRs in the countries of origin. Among internally displaced populations in northern Iraq, Somalia, and Sudan, CDRs were extremely high, ranging from 12 to 25 times the baseline CDRs for the nondisplaced. Among both refugees and internally displaced persons, death rates among children less than 5 years of age were far higher than among older children and adults. In Bangladesh, the death rate in female Rohingya refugees was several times higher than in males. Preventable conditions such as diarrheal disease, measles, and acute respiratory infections, exacerbated often by malnutrition, caused most deaths. Although relief programs for refugees have improved since 1990, the situation among the internally displaced may have worsened. The international community should intervene earlier in the evolution of complex disasters involving civil war, human rights abuses, food shortages, and mass displacement. Relief programs need to be based on sound health and nutrition information and should focus on the provision of adequate shelter, food, water, sanitation, and public health programs that prevent mortality from diarrhea, measles, and other communicable diseases, especially among young children and women. PMID:8331759

  6. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  7. Encouraging Refugee Awareness in the Classroom: A Guide for Teachers. Issue Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarlo, Jacqueline; Hamilton, Virginia, Ed.

    This lesson packet focuses on the growing situation of refugees and cultural awareness. In the document are definitions of terms, suggestions for infusing lessons on the refugees into the curriculum, and resource information. One of the purposes of working to create refugee awareness is to help ordinary students become extraordinary citizens of…

  8. 77 FR 38650 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee Adjusting Status, OMB Control Number...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee... Services Statistical Data for Refugee/Asylee Adjusting Status; OMB Control No.1615-0070. The Department of.../Collection: Refugee/Asylee Adjusting Status. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component...

  9. 77 FR 19408 - Notice of Public Meeting on FY 2013 U.S. Refugee Admissions Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... of Public Meeting on FY 2013 U.S. Refugee Admissions Program There will be a meeting on the President's FY 2013 U.S. Refugee Admissions Program on Tuesday, May 1, 2012 from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. The meeting will be held at the Refugee Processing Center, 1401 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 1100, Arlington,...

  10. 76 FR 9849 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Refugee Biographic Data, OMB Control Number...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Refugee Biographic Data, OMB Control Number 1405-0102 ACTION... Information Collection: Refugee Biographic Data OMB Control Number: 1405-0102 Type of Request: Extension of a Currently Approved Collection Originating Office: Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration, PRM/A...

  11. 76 FR 19176 - Notice of Public Meeting on FY 2012 Refugee Admissions Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... of Public Meeting on FY 2012 Refugee Admissions Program There will be a meeting on the President's FY 2012 U.S. Refugee Admissions Program on Thursday, May 12, 2011 from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. The meeting will be held at the Refugee Processing Center, 1401 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 700, Arlington, Virginia....

  12. Effects in Post-Conflict West Africa of Teacher Training for Refugee Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepler, Susan; Routh, Sharyn

    2012-01-01

    This article draws data from an innovative research project tracing former refugee teachers who received teacher training from the International Rescue Committee (IRC) over a 17-year-long education programme in refugee camps in Guinea (1991-2008). The research traced repatriated refugee teachers who had returned to their homes in Sierra Leone and…

  13. 75 FR 57542 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Refugee Biographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Refugee Biographic Data ACTION: Notice of request for public... with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Refugee Biographic Data. OMB... Office: Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration, PRM/A. Form Number: N/A. Respondents:...

  14. 75 FR 20031 - Notice of Public Meeting on FY 2011 Refugee Admissions Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... of Public Meeting on FY 2011 Refugee Admissions Program There will be a meeting on the President's FY 2011 Refugee Admissions Program on Tuesday, May 4, 2010 from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. The meeting will be held at the Refugee Processing Center, 1401 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 700, Arlington, Virginia. The...

  15. 3 CFR - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Continuing Conflict in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs... Presidential Determination No. 2009-16 of March 11, 2009 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related... Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended (22 U.S.C. 2601), I hereby...

  16. 76 FR 70149 - Office of Refugee Resettlement; Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ...: Chapter KR, the Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) (73 FR 5199), as last amended January 29, 2008. Under... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Office of Refugee Resettlement; Statement of... Administration for Children and Families has reorganized the Office of Refugee Resettlement. This...

  17. 77 FR 38307 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition, Extension, Without...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee... Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 730, Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition; OMB Control No. 1615-0037.... (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition. (3) Agency form number, if...

  18. 3 CFR - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Gaza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs... of January 27, 2009 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Gaza Memorandum for the..., including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended (22...

  19. 75 FR 25271 - Office of Refugee Resettlement; Urgent Single Source Grant to Survivors of Torture International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Office of Refugee Resettlement; Urgent Single Source Grant to Survivors of Torture International (SOTI) AGENCY: Office of Refugee Resettlement, ACF... Refugee Resettlement (ORR) Services for Survivors of Torture Program. In FY 2009, a total of 3,667...

  20. 78 FR 17281 - Notice of Public Meeting on FY 2014 U.S. Refugee Admissions Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... of Public Meeting on FY 2014 U.S. Refugee Admissions Program There will be a meeting on the President's FY 2014 U.S. Refugee Admissions Program on Wednesday, May 15, 2013 from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. The... on the appropriate size and scope of the FY 2014 U.S. Refugee Admissions Program. Persons wishing...

  1. 78 FR 57870 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Registration for Classification as Refugee; Revision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... for Classification as Refugee; Revision of a Currently Approved Collection ACTION: 60-day notice...-590 provides a uniform method for applicants to apply for refugee status and contains the information... that have been transferred from Form G-646, Sworn Statement of Refugee Applying for Admission into...

  2. Education and Training Initiatives at the Central Methodist Church Refugee House in Johannesburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausigere, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Zimbabwean economic migrants and political refugees have been given refuge and provided with shelter at the Central Methodist Church (CMC) Refugee House, in central Johannesburg. The refugees have successfully initiated learning and training programmes which resulted in the establishment of a combined school, namely "St. Albert Street Refugee…

  3. Acculturation, Partner Violence, and Psychological Distress in Refugee Women from Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Johanna E.; Brown, Chris; Russell, Emily B.; Khamphakdy-Brown, Supavan

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relations among acculturation, domestic violence, and mental health in 62 married refugee women from Somalia. Refugees from Somalia constituted the largest group of refugees entering the United States in 2005, and little is known about the presence of domestic violence in this group. The results showed that women who…

  4. Iraqi refugees in Syria: causing a spillover of the Iraqi conflict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Leenders

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the implications of the Iraqi refugee crisis for Syria, which is believed to host up to 1.5 million Iraqi refugees. Many policy makers, activists and analysts, sometimes inspired by the conflict repercussions of refugee crises witnessed elsewhere, have warned against the region

  5. "My Journey of Hope and Peace": Learning From Adolescent Refugees' Lived Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mary Amanda

    2015-01-01

    This article details a project with students who are refugees who read and wrote about the refugee experience to give the instructor important information about their lives. The high school students first read various texts about the refugee experience that guided their class discussions, journal writing, and graphic illustrations of their…

  6. 45 CFR 400.208 - Claims involving family units which include both refugees and nonrefugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... refugees and nonrefugees. 400.208 Section 400.208 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Federal Funding Federal Funding for Expenditures for...

  7. Sites of Refuge: Refugees, Religiosity, and Public Schools in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article the author examines public schools in the United States as sites where immigrants and refugees express their religious identities as part of their integration processes. In particular, the author examines the schools as "sites of refuge" for refugee students. Although public schools provide refugees with opportunity for study…

  8. Paradoxes of Sahrawi Refugees' Educational Migration: Promoting Self-Sufficiency or Renewing Dependency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Education is often prioritised by refugee children and families, as well as by their political representatives and international actors alike. This article explores the specificities of the Sahrawi refugee education system, focusing in particular on the nature, motivations and implications of Sahrawi refugee youths' educational migration to Cuba…

  9. Finding Education: Stories of How Young Former Refugees Constituted Strategic Identities in Order to Access School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uptin, Jonnell; Wright, Jan; Harwood, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Educators in resettlement countries are grappling with ways to adequately engage and meet the needs of newly arrived refugee students. In this article we argue that to fully meet the needs of refugee students a deeper understanding of their educational experience as "a refugee" prior to resettlement is vital. In particular we foreground…

  10. 45 CFR 400.211 - Methodology to be used to determine time-eligibility of refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-eligibility of refugees. 400.211 Section 400.211 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Federal Funding Federal Funding for Expenditures for...

  11. 45 CFR 400.220 - Counting time-eligibility of refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Counting time-eligibility of refugees. 400.220 Section 400.220 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT...

  12. Journeys into Higher Education: The Case of Refugees in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrice, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Higher education (HE) is one of the routes that refugees who come to the UK from professional and highly educated backgrounds can re-establish their lives and professional identities. This research follows up a group of such refugees who were on a programme designed to support refugees gain access to HE or appropriate employment. The findings…

  13. Profile of illness in Syrian refugees: A GeoSentinel analysis, 2013 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Barbre, Kira A; Jensenius, Mogens; Larsen, Carsten S; Barnett, Elizabeth D; Stauffer, William; Rothe, Camilla; Asgeirsson, Hilmir; Hamer, Davidson H; Esposito, Douglas H; Gautret, Philippe; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Screening of 488 Syrian unaccompanied minor refugees (refugees examined at GeoSentinel clinics worldwide, cutaneous leishmaniasis affected one in three patients; other noteworthy infections were active tuberculosis (11%) and chronic hepatitis B or C (9%). These data can contribute to evidence-based guidelines for infectious disease screening of Syrian refugees.

  14. Moving from Welfare to Work: The Experiences of Refugee Women in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    A study conducted a questionnaire survey of 70 refugee women in Illinois and 2 service provider focus groups to assess the effects of welfare changes on refugee women and to identify barriers to workforce participation. Survey findings were that refugee women in the workforce are concentrated in low-wage jobs and do not earn enough income to move…

  15. Coastal environments around Thule settlements in Northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroon, Aart; Jakobsen, Bjarne Holm; Pedersen, Jørn Bjarke Torp

    2010-01-01

    stable and protected conditions needed for proper winter settlements. The comprehensive study of coastal environments and Thule culture winter settlements in the Young Sound region show an accumulation of winter settlements, nearly all located either in protected pocket beaches or on stable basalt capes....... The Thule culture abandoned Northeast Greenland about 1850 AD, and apart from settlements on basalt capes, most of the winter settlement sites in pocket beach areas have been affected by erosion of local character and in some cases also affected by increasing wave erosion during recent periods of less ice...

  16. The role of households in solid waste management in East African capital cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solomon, A.O.

    2011-01-01

    Solid Management is a concern in East African capital cities. The absence of managing solid waste is a serious problem. An ever bigger concern is the growing quantities of waste that are generatedat households level in informal settlements. In most cases proper safeguard measures are largely ineffec

  17. German Refugee Policy in the Wake of the Syrian Refugee Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Christoph H.

    2016-01-01

    We become aware of the existence of a right to have rights (and that means to live in a framework where one is judged by one’s actions and opinions) and a right to belong to some kind of organized community, only when millions of people emerge who had lost and could not regain these rights because of the new global political situation.Hannah Arendt, Origins of Totalitarianism (1951: 296-297) Introduction At the Symposium on Refugee Protection, on June 30, 2014 in Berlin, Germany’s President ...

  18. Solar irradiance dictates settlement timing and intensity of marine mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Santos, Isabel; Labarta, Uxío; Álvarez-Salgado, X. Antón; Fernández-Reiriz, Mª José

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the environmental factors driving larval settlement processes is crucial to understand the population dynamics of marine invertebrates. This work aims to go a step ahead and predict larval presence and intensity. For this purpose we consider the influence of solar irradiance, wind regime and continental runoff on the settlement processes. For the first time, we conducted a 5-years weekly monitoring of Mytilus galloprovincialis settlement on artificial suspended substrates, which allowed us to search for interannual variability in the settlement patterns. Comparison between the seasonal pattern of larval settlement and solar irradiance, as well as the well-known effect of solar irradiance on water temperature and food availability, suggest that solar irradiance indirectly influences the settlement process, and support the use of this meteorological variable to predict settlement occurrence. Our results show that solar irradiance allows predicting the beginning and end of the settlement cycle a month in advance: Particularly we have observed that solar irradiance during late winter indirectly drives the timing and intensity of the settlement onset, Finally, a functional generalise additive model, which considers the influence of solar irradiance and continental runoff on the settlement process, provides an accurate prediction of settlement intensity a fortnight in advance. PMID:27384527

  19. Nutritional status of under-five children living in an informal urban settlement in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olack, Beatrice; Burke, Heather; Cosmas, Leonard; Bamrah, Sapna; Dooling, Kathleen; Feikin, Daniel R; Talley, Leisel E; Breiman, Robert F

    2011-08-01

    Malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa contributes to high rates of childhood morbidity and mortality. However, little information on the nutritional status of children is available from informal settlements. During the period of post-election violence in Kenya during December 2007-March 2008, food shortages were widespread within informal settlements in Nairobi. To investigate whether food insecurity due to post-election violence resulted in high prevalence of acute and chronic malnutrition in children, a nutritional survey was undertaken among children aged 6-59 months within two villages in Kibera, where the Kenya Medical Research Institute/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducts population-based surveillance for infectious disease syndromes. During 25 March-4 April 2008, a structured questionnaire was administered to caregivers of 1,310 children identified through surveillance system databases to obtain information on household demographics, food availability, and child-feeding practices. Anthropometric measurements were recorded on all participating children. Indices were reported in z-scores and compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) 2005 reference population to determine the nutritional status of children. Data were analyzed using the Anthro software of WHO and the SAS. Stunting was found in 47.0% of the children; 11.8% were underweight, and 2.6% were wasted. Severe stunting was found in 23.4% of the children; severe underweight in 3.1%, and severe wasting in 0.6%. Children aged 36-47 months had the highest prevalence (58.0%) of stunting while the highest prevalence (4.1%) of wasting was in children aged 6-11 months. Boys were more stunted than girls (p development during the first two years of life. Food programmes in Kenya have traditionally focused on rural areas and refugee camps. The findings of the study suggest that tackling childhood stunting is a high priority, and there should be fostered efforts to ensure that malnutrition

  20. Resilience of refugees displaced in the developing world: a qualitative analysis of strengths and struggles of urban refugees in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upadhaya Nawaraj

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health and psychosocial wellbeing are key concerns in displaced populations. Despite urban refugees constituting more than half of the world's refugees, minimal attention has been paid to their psychosocial wellbeing. The purpose of this study was to assess coping behaviour and aspects of resilience amongst refugees in Kathmandu, Nepal. Methods This study examined the experiences of 16 Pakistani and 8 Somali urban refugees in Kathmandu, Nepal through in-depth individual interviews, focus groups, and Photovoice methodology. Such qualitative approaches enabled us to broadly discuss themes such as personal experiences of being a refugee in Kathmandu, perceived causes of psychosocial distress, and strategies and resources for coping. Thematic network analysis was used in this study to systematically interpret and code the data. Results Our findings highlight that urban refugees' active coping efforts, notwithstanding significant adversity and resulting distress, are most frequently through primary relationships. Informed by Axel Honneth's theory on the struggle for recognition, findings suggest that coping is a function beyond the individual and involves the ability to negotiate recognition. This negotiation involves not only primary relationships, but also the legal order and other social networks such as family and friends. Honneth's work was used because of its emphasis on the importance of legal recognition and larger structural factors in facilitating daily coping. Conclusions Understanding how urban refugees cope by negotiating access to various forms of recognition in the absence of legal-recognition will enable organisations working with them to leverage such strengths and develop relevant programmes. In particular, building on these existing resources will lead to culturally compelling and sustainable care for these populations.