H. L. Sithole
Full Text Available Objective: There is currently very little or no research being done in South Africa on eye health promotion. Also, there is no evidence of any existing eye health promotion policy in the South African primary health care system. The purpose of this paper therefore is to highlight the lack of an integrated eye health promotion policy in the South African primary health care system.Approach: A literature review of research databases was conducted to identify research done in the previous years pertinent to eye health promotion in South Africa. Also, documents were requested from the South African National Department of Health to ascertain claims of any existing guidelines on eye care. It was found that these documents included the national guidelines on prevention of blindness, refractive error screening for persons 60 years and older, cataract surgery in South Africa, management and control of eye conditions at primary level.Although there is currently no integrated eye health promotion policy in South Africa, the fragmented national guidelines represent the existing policies on eye health promotion. The custodians of these policies are the eye care coordinators located in each of the nine provinces.Conclusion: Although there are eye care coordinators in each province, there is no evidence of any eye health promotion activities being done in those provinces. Also, only one province out of nine has dedicated health promotion personnel that are not only focusing on eye health matters. This greatly compromises the initiatives of eliminating avoidable blindness. It is therefore recommended that an integrated eye health promotion model be developed so that it may form part of the South African primary health care system. (S Afr Optom 201069(4 200-206
Gilson, L; Elloker, S; Olckers, P; Lehmann, U
Background New forms of leadership are required to bring about the fundamental health system changes demanded by primary health care (PHC). Using theory about complex adaptive systems and policy implementation, this paper considers how actors’ sensemaking and the exercise of discretionary power currently combine to challenge PHC re-orientation in the South African health system; and provides examples of leadership practices that promote sensemaking and power use in support of PHC. Methods The...
Pascalia O. Munyewende
Full Text Available Background: South Africa is on the brink of another wave of major health system reforms that underscore the centrality of primary health care (PHC. Nursing managers will play a critical role in these reforms. Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the work experiences of PHC clinic nursing managers through the use of reflective diaries, a method hitherto under-utilised in health systems research in low- and middle-income countries. Design: During 2012, a sub-set of 22 PHC nursing managers was selected randomly from a larger nurses’ survey in two South African provinces. After informed consent, participants were requested to keep individual diaries for a period of 6 weeks, using a clear set of diary entry guidelines. Reminders consisted of weekly short message service reminders and telephone calls. Diary entries were analysed using thematic content analysis. A diary feedback meeting was held with all the participants to validate the findings. Results: Fifteen diaries were received, representing a 68% response rate. The majority of respondents (14/15 were female, each with between 5 and 15 years of nursing experience. Most participants made their diary entries at home. Diaries proved to be cathartic for individual nursing managers. Although inter-related and not mutually exclusive, the main themes that emerged from the diary analysis were health system deficiencies; human resource challenges; unsupportive management environment; leadership and governance; and the emotional impact of clinic management. Conclusions: Diaries are an innovative method of capturing the work experiences of managers at the PHC level, as they allow for confidentiality and anonymity, often not possible with other qualitative research methods. The expressed concerns of nursing managers must be addressed to ensure the success of South Africa's health sector reforms, particularly at the PHC level.
Anna S. Botes
Full Text Available Background: Diabetes makes a significant contribution to the burden of disease in South Africa.This study assesses a group diabetes education programme using motivational interviewingin public sector health centres serving low socio-economic communities in Cape Town.The programme was delivered by mid-level health promotion officers (HPOs.Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore the experience of the HPOs and to observetheir fidelity to the educational programme.Methods: Three focus group interviews were held with the 14 HPOs who delivered theeducational programme in 17 health centres. Thirty-three sessions were observed directly andthe audio tapes were analysed using the motivational interviewing (MI integrity code.Results: The HPOs felt confident in their ability to deliver group education after receiving thetraining. They reported a significant shift in their communication style and skills. They feltthe new approach was feasible and better than before. The resource material was found to berelevant, understandable and useful. The HPOs struggled with poor patient attendance and alack of suitable space at the facilities. They delivered the majority of the content and achievedbeginning-level proficiency in the MI guiding style of communication and the use of openquestions. The HPOs did not demonstrate proficiency in active listening and continued to offersome unsolicited advice.Conclusion: The HPOs demonstrated their potential to deliver group diabetes education despiteissues that should be addressed in future training and the district health services. Thefindings will help with the interpretation of results from a randomised controlled trial evaluatingthe effectiveness of the education.
Robinson, Andrew Ken Lacey
This article describes the first government social franchise initiative in the world to deliver a 'brand' of quality primary healthcare (PHC) clinic services. Quality and standards of care are not uniformly and reliably delivered across government PHC clinics in North West Province, South Africa, despite government support, numerous policies, guidelines and in-service training sessions provided to staff. Currently the strongest predictor of good-quality service is the skill and dedication of the facility manager. A project utilising the social franchising business model, harvesting best practices, has been implemented with the aim of developing a system to ensure reliably excellent healthcare service provision in every facility in North West. The services of social franchising consultants have been procured to develop the business model to drive this initiative. Best practices have been benchmarked, and policies, guidelines and clinic support systems have been reviewed, evaluated and assessed, and incorporated into the business plan. A pilot clinic has been selected to refine and develop a working social franchise model. This will then be replicated in one clinic to confirm proof of concept before further scale-up. The social franchise business model can provide solutions to a reliable and recognisable 'brand' of quality universal coverage of healthcare services. PMID:26428744
Munyewende, Pascalia O.; Rispel, Laetitia C.
Background: South Africa is on the brink of another wave of major health system reforms that underscore the centrality of primary health care (PHC). Nursing managers will play a critical role in these reforms. Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the work experiences of PHC clinic nursing managers through the use of reflective diaries, a method hitherto under-utilised in health systems research in low- and middle-income countries. Design: During 2012, a sub-set of 22 PHC nursing man...
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Steve Reid; Bob Mash
Abstract This article is part of a series on African Primary Care Research and focuses on the topic of qualitative interviewing in primary care. In particular it looks at issues of study design, sample size, sampling and interviewing in relation to individual and focus group interviews. There is a particular focus on helping postgraduate students at a Masters level to write their research proposals.
Full Text Available This paper considers indications and obstacles for the development of primary mental health care practice in both developed and under-developed countries. Both are considered as this represents the South African reality. While a significant body of literature has documented the need for primary mental health care, the obstacles (especially in terms of the commodification of health to its fruition are seldom addressed.
Abstract This article is part of the series on African primary care research and focuses on participatory action research. The article gives an overview of the emancipatory-critical research paradigm, the key characteristics and different types of participatory action research. Following this it describes in detail the methodological issues involved in professional participatory action research and running a cooperative inquiry group. The article is intended to help students with writing thei...
Health inequalities exist throughout the African Diaspora and are viewed in this article as largely color-coded. In developed, developing, and undeveloped nations today, "racial" stratification is consistently reflected in an inability to provide adequate health regardless of national policy or ideology. For instance, African Americans experience less than adequate health care very similar to Blacks in Britain, in spite of each nations differing health systems. Latin America's Africana Negra communities experience poorer health similar to Blacks throughout the Caribbean. The African continent itself is arguably the poorest on earth. A common history of racism correlates with health disparities across the African Diaspora. PMID:18364304
Carthron, Dana L.; Busam, Maria Rivera
PURPOSE The purpose of this study is to compare the health of primary caregiving African American grandmothers with diabetes with African American women with diabetes who were not primary caregivers. DESIGN Using a comparative, descriptive, cross-sectional design, 34 African American primary caregiving grandmothers were compared with 34 non-caregiving women with diabetes mellitus; women aged 55–75 years were recruited for this study throughout the central Arkansas. METHODS To measure the overall health, data on blood pressure, body mass index measurements, HbA1c levels, total cholesterol, and urine protein and creatinine levels were collected from all the participants. RESULTS Statistically significant differences between the caregivers and non-caregivers groups in systolic pressure (t = −3.42, P = 0.001) and diastolic pressure (t = −3.790, P = 0.000) and urine protein (W = 294.00, P = 0.000) were noted. Additionally, a clinically significant difference in HbA1c was noted between groups. CONCLUSION Differences in systolic and diastolic pressures, urine protein, and clinically significant differences in HbA1c suggest that African American primary caregiving grandmothers with diabetes mellitus may have more difficulty in maintaining their diabetic health than non-caregiving African American women. PMID:27398044
Rispel, Laetitia C.; Chirwa, Tobias; Blaauw, Duane
Background: Staff retention and turnover have risen in prominence in the global discourse on the health workforce. Moonlighting, having a second job in addition to a primary job, has not featured in debates on turnover.Objective: This paper examines whether moonlighting is a determinant of South African nurses’ intention to leave their primary jobs.Design: During 2010, a one-stage cluster random sample of 80 hospitals was selected in four South African provinces. On the survey day, all nurses...
Clemens Michael A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The migration of doctors and nurses from Africa to developed countries has raised fears of an African medical brain drain. But empirical research on the causes and effects of the phenomenon has been hampered by a lack of systematic data on the extent of African health workers' international movements. Methods We use destination-country census data to estimate the number of African-born doctors and professional nurses working abroad in a developed country circa 2000, and compare this to the stocks of these workers in each country of origin. Results Approximately 65,000 African-born physicians and 70,000 African-born professional nurses were working overseas in a developed country in the year 2000. This represents about one fifth of African-born physicians in the world, and about one tenth of African-born professional nurses. The fraction of health professionals abroad varies enormously across African countries, from 1% to over 70% according to the occupation and country. Conclusion These numbers are the first standardized, systematic, occupation-specific measure of skilled professionals working in developed countries and born in a large number of developing countries.
Williams, Terrinieka T; Pichon, Latrice C; Campbell, Bettina
While research suggests youth prefer parents and family members to serve as the primary sources of sexual health information, fear and discomfort around discussing sex with their parents may leave youth misinformed and underinformed. This study explored sexual heath communication within religious African-American families. Thirty adolescents participated in four focus groups, and 19 adults and 30 adolescents participated in six focus groups, at two predominantly African-American Christian churches in Flint, MI. All data were analyzed inductively using a constant comparison approach. Nearly all participants reported attending church weekly. Three themes emerged and are described: initiating sex talks, using mistakes as teaching tools, and clarifying prevention messages. Participants highlighted the need for religious parents to offer both religious and practical guidance to adolescents about sexual health. Findings from this study may be used to inform future sexual health promotion interventions for religious African-American families. PMID:24901449
McCarthy, K. M.; Grant, A. D.; Chihota, V.; Ginindza, S; Mvusi, L.; Churchyard, G.J.; Fielding, K.L.
Introduction and Background: Diagnostic tests for tuberculosis (TB) using sputum have suboptimal sensitivity among HIV-positive persons. We assessed health care worker adherence to TB diagnostic algorithms after negative sputum test results. Methods: The XTEND (Xpert for TB—Evaluating a New Diagnostic) trial compared outcomes among people tested for TB in primary care clinics using Xpert MTB/RIF vs. smear microscopy as the initial test. We analyzed data from XTEND participants who were HIV po...
Dawson, J. B.; Fuge, R.
Colorimetric analyses have been made for F, Cl and I in a suite of African carbonatites specially selected for their freshness. F and Cl vary widely both in absolute and relative amounts between intrusions, but F/Cl ratios are usually consistent in samples from the same intrusion. Although samples from both the 2 b.y. Phalaborwa complex and the modern Oldoinyo Lengai lavas have low F/Cl values, there is considerable variation during geological time. Iodine (up to 1.8 ppm) has been found in the carbonatites of Phalaborwa, Sukulu and Oldoinyo Lengai; the only common factor seems to be the high sulphur content of the carbonatites at these localities.
Birru, Mehret S; Steinman, Richard A.
African Americans with low incomes and low literacy levels disproportionately suffer poor health outcomes from many preventable diseases. Low functional literacy and low health literacy impede millions of Americans from successfully accessing health information. These problems are compounded for African Americans by cultural insensitivity in health materials. The Internet could become a useful tool for providing accessible health information to low-literacy and low-income African Americans. O...
Lazarus, Jeff; Wallace, Samantha A; Liljestrand, Jerker
The issue of strengthening local research capacity in Africa is again high on the health and development agenda. The latest initiative comes from the Wellcome Trust. But when it comes to capacity development, one of the chief obstacles that health sectors in the region must confront is the migrat...... beneficial research capacity in the countries of sub-Saharan Africa, this article suggests several recommendations to both donors and governments that have broad application for general health research issues in the region.......The issue of strengthening local research capacity in Africa is again high on the health and development agenda. The latest initiative comes from the Wellcome Trust. But when it comes to capacity development, one of the chief obstacles that health sectors in the region must confront is the...... Africa conducted the bulk of their research in their own countries. However, the model was only partly successful. Several years ago, we assessed the preconditions for the renewal of Sida support for research and research training activities in the region. Based on our work to develop a critical mass of...
Goosby, Bridget J.; Heidbrink, Chelsea
Disparities in African American health remain pervasive and persist transgenerationally. There is a growing consensus that both structural and interpersonal racial discrimination are key mechanisms affecting African American health. The Biopsychosocial Model of Racism as a Stressor posits that the persistent stress of experiencing discrimination take a physical toll on the health of African Americans and is ultimately manifested in the onset of illness. However, the degree to which the health...
Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Meyer, Ilan H
Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit African American health chances and that African Americans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy-the belief that all may obtain the American Dream-and has instilled hope in African Americans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for African Americans. PMID:20724679
Thompson, Shawn N.; Chambers, John W., Jr.
Investigated three models of relationships between African self-consciousness, health consciousness, and health-promoting behaviors among African American college students. The models included the mediator model, moderator model, and independent model. Surveys of 80 students supported the independent model, suggesting that African…
Gisele Damian Antonio; Charles Dalcanele Tesser; Rodrigo Otavio Moretti-Pires
OBJECTIVE To characterize the integration of phytotherapy in primary health care in Brazil. METHODS Journal articles and theses and dissertations were searched for in the following databases: SciELO, Lilacs, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Theses Portal Capes, between January 1988 and March 2013. We analyzed 53 original studies on actions, programs, acceptance and use of phytotherapy and medicinal plants in the Brazilian Unified Health System. Bibliometric data, characteristics of the ...
Mametja, D; Jinabhai, C C; Ngwane, N; Dolan, C; Twala, J; Mackenzie, A; Gear, J; Russo, R; Tollman, S; Pugh, A
To develop an appropriate health policy agenda, the National Progressive Primary Health Care Network (NPPHC) and the South African Health and Social Services Organization (SAHSSO) conducted situational analyses in 4 areas: an informal peri-urban area within the Durban functional region in Natal, a rural area in the Mhala-Mapulaneng district in the North Eastern Transvaal, the informal settlement of Botshabelo in the Orange Free State, and a dense township dwelling in Soweto. The analyses were based on interviews with health workers and community leaders, a national survey, and a questionnaire for health service administrators. All 4 areas were characterized by poverty, unemployment, low educational levels, lack of a clean water supply or refuse removal system, housing shortages or overcrowding, and political violence. Preventable diseases, such as water-borne diarrhea and malnutrition, cause substantial morbidity, yet health services tend to be inaccessible, distributed inequitably, of poor quality, and with unclear administrative structures. Community members interviewed indicated that clinic fees were too high, especially given the low quality of care, and there was a general mistrust of the competency of doctors and nurses. There was a lack of consensus on the meaning of community participation; some viewed it as a vehicle for empowerment, while others felt the strategy would be exploited as a means to deny government assistance. Overall, respondents were supportive of a greater role for community health workers and more involvement on the part of nongovernmental organizations. A priority, at present, is attention to the many socioeconomic factors that are compromising the health of black South Africans and overshadowing the rationalization of health services. PMID:12345439
Adams, A; Vail, L; Buckingham, C D; Kidd, J; Weich, S; Roter, D
This paper explores differences in how primary care doctors process the clinical presentation of depression by African American and African-Caribbean patients compared with white patients in the US and the UK. The aim is to gain a better understanding of possible pathways by which racial disparities arise in depression care. One hundred and eight doctors described their thought processes after viewing video recorded simulated patients presenting with identical symptoms strongly suggestive of depression. These descriptions were analysed using the CliniClass system, which captures information about micro-components of clinical decision making and permits a systematic, structured and detailed analysis of how doctors arrive at diagnostic, intervention and management decisions. Video recordings of actors portraying black (both African American and African-Caribbean) and white (both White American and White British) male and female patients (aged 55 years and 75 years) were presented to doctors randomly selected from the Massachusetts Medical Society list and from Surrey/South West London and West Midlands National Health Service lists, stratified by country (US v.UK), gender, and years of clinical experience (less v. very experienced). Findings demonstrated little evidence of bias affecting doctors' decision making processes, with the exception of less attention being paid to the potential outcomes associated with different treatment options for African American compared with White American patients in the US. Instead, findings suggest greater clinical uncertainty in diagnosing depression amongst black compared with white patients, particularly in the UK. This was evident in more potential diagnoses. There was also a tendency for doctors in both countries to focus more on black patients' physical rather than psychological symptoms and to identify endocrine problems, most often diabetes, as a presenting complaint for them. This suggests that doctors in both countries
Antonio, Gisele Damian; Tesser, Charles Dalcanale; Moretti-Pires, Rodrigo Otavio
OBJECTIVE To characterize the integration of phytotherapy in primary health care in Brazil. METHODS Journal articles and theses and dissertations were searched for in the following databases: SciELO, Lilacs, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Theses Portal Capes, between January 1988 and March 2013. We analyzed 53 original studies on actions, programs, acceptance and use of phytotherapy and medicinal plants in the Brazilian Unified Health System. Bibliometric data, characteristics of the actions/programs, places and subjects involved and type and focus of the selected studies were analyzed. RESULTS Between 2003 and 2013, there was an increase in publications in different areas of knowledge, compared with the 1990-2002 period. The objectives and actions of programs involving the integration of phytotherapy into primary health care varied: including other treatment options, reduce costs, reviving traditional knowledge, preserving biodiversity, promoting social development and stimulating inter-sectorial actions. CONCLUSIONS Over the past 25 years, there was a small increase in scientific production on actions/programs developed in primary care. Including phytotherapy in primary care services encourages interaction between health care users and professionals. It also contributes to the socialization of scientific research and the development of a critical vision about the use of phytotherapy and plant medicine, not only on the part of professionals but also of the population. PMID:25119949
Daar Abdallah S
Full Text Available Abstract Background While venture funding has been applied to biotechnology and health in high-income countries, it is still nascent in these fields in developing countries, and particularly in Africa. Yet the need for implementing innovative solutions to health challenges is greatest in Africa, with its enormous burden of communicable disease. Issues such as risk, investment opportunities, return on investment requirements, and quantifying health impact are critical in assessing venture capital’s potential for supporting health innovation. This paper uses lessons learned from five venture capital firms from Kenya, South Africa, China, India, and the US to suggest design principles for African health venture funds. Discussion The case study method was used to explore relevant funds, and lessons for the African context. The health venture funds in this study included publicly-owned organizations, corporations, social enterprises, and subsidiaries of foreign venture firms. The size and type of investments varied widely. The primary investor in four funds was the International Finance Corporation. Three of the funds aimed primarily for financial returns, one aimed primarily for social and health returns, and one had mixed aims. Lessons learned include the importance of measuring and supporting both social and financial returns; the need to engage both upstream capital such as government risk-funding and downstream capital from the private sector; and the existence of many challenges including difficulty of raising capital, low human resource capacity, regulatory barriers, and risky business environments. Based on these lessons, design principles for appropriate venture funding are suggested. Summary Based on the cases studied and relevant experiences elsewhere, there is a case for venture funding as one support mechanism for science-based African health innovation, with opportunities for risk-tolerant investors to make financial as well as social
Whenever gender violence and schooling have been the topic of South African research, the investigations focus on African boys in secondary schools. In contrast, this paper focuses on the ways in which violence is mobilized by African schoolgirls in a working-class primary school context. By drawing on selected elements of an ethnographic study of…
The book Oncology in the primary health care, constitutes an important contribution to the prevention and treatment of cancer, from a very comprehensive assessment. It's a disease that is the second leading cause of death in our country, to much pain and suffering is for the patient and their family. The book has a very useful for basic health equipment approach, since it emphasizes that cancer can be prevented if achieved in the population changes in lifestyle. The book is valued not correct food as responsible for one third of all cancers. Currently important research being developed in relation to psiconeuroinmuno-Endocrinology, who is studying the association between psychological factors and the development of cancer valuing that kept stress and depression reduces the antitumor activity of the immune system; that made programs with encouraging results where the treatment of cancer has joined elements of psychotherapy, immunotherapy and the use of the biotherapy. The focus of the book fills an important place in the primary health care and is an indispensable guide for professionals at this level of care (author)
Full Text Available At a recent conference, a definition was drawn up that is most appropriate to the South African situation: “ Primary health care is essential health care made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community by means acceptable to them, through their full participation, and at a cost that the community and country can afford. It forms an integral part both of the country’s health system of which it is the nucleus, and of the overall social and economic development of the community.”
Cooper, Lisa A.; Brown, Charlotte; Thi Vu, Hong; FORD, DANIEL E.; Powe, Neil R
We used a cross-sectional survey to compare the views of African-American and white adult primary care patients (N = 76) regarding the importance of various aspects of depression care. Patients were asked to rate the importance of 126 aspects of depression care (derived from attitudinal domains identified in focus groups) on a 5-point Likert scale. The 30 most important items came from 9 domains: 1) health professionals' interpersonal skills, 2) primary care provider recognition of depression...
McCarthy Carey F
Full Text Available Abstract Background More than thirty-five sub-Saharan African countries have severe health workforce shortages. Many also struggle with a mismatch between the knowledge and competencies of health professionals and the needs of the populations they serve. Addressing these workforce challenges requires collaboration among health and education stakeholders and reform of health worker regulations. Health professional regulatory bodies, such as nursing and midwifery councils, have the mandate to reform regulations yet often do not have the resources or expertise to do so. In 2011, the United States of America Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began a four-year initiative to increase the collaboration among national stakeholders and help strengthen the capacity of health professional regulatory bodies to reform national regulatory frameworks. The initiative is called the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives. This article describes the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives and discusses its importance in implementing and sustaining national, regional, and global workforce initiatives. Discussion The African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives convenes leaders responsible for regulation from 14 countries in East, Central and Southern Africa. It provides a high profile, south-to-south collaboration to assist countries in implementing joint approaches to problems affecting the health workforce. Implemented in partnership with Emory University, the Commonwealth Secretariat, and the East, Central and Southern African College of Nursing, this initiative also supports four to five countries per year in implementing locally-designed regulation improvement projects. Over time, the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives will help to increase the regulatory capacity of health professional organizations and ultimately improve regulation and
Willcox, Merlin L; Peersman, Wim; Daou, Pierre; Diakité, Chiaka; Bajunirwe, Francis; Mubangizi, Vincent; Hassan Mahmoud, Eman; Moosa, Shabir; Phaladze, Nthabiseng; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Khogali, Mustafa; Diallo, Drissa; De Maeseneer, Jan; Mant, David
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization defines a "critical shortage" of health workers as being fewer than 2.28 health workers per 1000 population and failing to attain 80% coverage for deliveries by skilled birth attendants. We aimed to quantify the number of health workers in five African countries and the proportion of these currently working in primary health care facilities, to compare this to estimates of numbers needed and to assess how the situation has changed in recent years. ...
Marashe, Joel; Ndamba, Gamuchirai Tsitsiozashe; Chireshe, Excellent
Zimbabwe's Education Ministry recommended the teaching of African Traditional Religion in recognition of its multi-religious society. This study sought to establish the extent to which African Traditional Religion is taught in primary schools, the challenges faced by teachers, and opportunities for promoting its teaching. A descriptive survey…
Gollop, C J
This study explored the ways in which urban, older, African American women obtain health information and some of the factors that influence such activity. Among the possible determinants examined were self-perceived literacy, access to health information, and mobility. The findings suggest that respondents receive health information from their physicians, the mass media, and members of their social networks. The results of this research also indicated that members of this population have a hi...
Inyama, Davis; Williams, Allison; McCauley, Kay
While efforts have been made to understand the experiences of African students in predominantly white environments, the experiences of African students in clinical placement areas have rarely been explored. This paper is a report on a study designed to address the gap in educational research on the experiences of African health sciences students in clinical placements in predominantly white environments. Interviews adopting an open approach to conversations were conducted with nine African students from three health disciplines at one metropolitan university in Australia between 2012 and 2013. Interview transcripts were analyzed using philosophical hermeneutics, where shared meanings were arrived at by employing key Gadamerian hermeneutic components. Findings revealed a number of factors that had a direct effect on the meaning students derived from their clinical placement experiences. These, as revealed in the interlinked domains of body, space, relationships, and time included difference, acceptance, resilience, and cultural sensitivity. Insights from this study may lead to the adoption of strategies designed to improve the experiences of African students studying health sciences in predominantly white environments. PMID:24942056
Sadik, Sabah; Abdulrahman, Saad; Bradley, Marie; Jenkins, Rachel
The Ministry of Health in Iraq is undertaking a systematic programme to integrate mental health into primary care in order to increase population access to mental health care. This paper reports the evaluation of the delivery of a ten day interactive training programme to 20% of primary care centres across Iraq. The multistage evaluation included a pre- and post-test questionnaire to assess knowledge, attitudes and practice in health workers drawn from 143 health centres, a course evaluation ...
Bhana Arvin; Ssebunnya Joshua; Petersen Inge; Baillie Kim
Abstract Background While decentralized and integrated primary mental healthcare forms the core of mental health policies in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), implementation remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to understand how the use of a common implementation framework could assist in the integration of mental health into primary healthcare in Ugandan and South African district demonstration sites. The foci and form of the services developed differed across the coun...
Sabri, Bushra; Stockman, Jamila K.; Betrand, Desiree; Campbell, Doris W.; Callwood, Gloria B.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of intimate partner victimization experiences, mental health, and substance misuse problems with the risk for lethality among women of African descent. Data for this cross-sectional study were derived from a large case-control study examining the relationship between abuse status and health consequences. Women were recruited from primary care, prenatal or family planning clinics in Baltimore and the US Virgin Islands. Logistic regre...
Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Hedwig; DeLeone, Felicia Yang
This paper examines the relationship between early marriage (before age 26), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We examine three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical health, mental health, and health risk behaviors. Lagged dependent variable models are used to examine the health effects of early marriage and cohabitation accounting f...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite extensive evidence on the magnitude of intimate partner violence (IPV as a public health problem worldwide, insubstantial progress has been made in the development and implementation of sufficiently comprehensive health services. This study aimed to implement, evaluate and adapt a published protocol for the screening and management of IPV and to recommend a model of care that could be taken to scale in our underdeveloped South African primary health care system. Methods Professional action research utilised a co-operative inquiry group that consisted of four nurses, one doctor and a qualitative researcher. The inquiry group implemented the protocol in two urban and three rural primary care facilities. Over a period of 14 months the group reflected on their experience, modified the protocol and developed recommendations on a practical but comprehensive model of care. Results The original protocol had to be adapted in terms of its expectations of the primary care providers, overly forensic orientation, lack of depth in terms of mental health, validity of the danger assessment and safety planning process, and need for ongoing empowerment and support. A three-tier model resulted: case finding and clinical care provision by primary care providers; psychological, social and legal assistance by ‘IPV champions’ followed by a group empowerment process; and then ongoing community-based support groups. Conclusion The inquiry process led to a model of comprehensive and intersectoral care that is integrated at the facility level and which is now being piloted in the Western Cape, South Africa.
Laetitia C. Rispel
Full Text Available Background: Staff retention and turnover have risen in prominence in the global discourse on the health workforce. Moonlighting, having a second job in addition to a primary job, has not featured in debates on turnover. Objective: This paper examines whether moonlighting is a determinant of South African nurses’ intention to leave their primary jobs. Design: During 2010, a one-stage cluster random sample of 80 hospitals was selected in four South African provinces. On the survey day, all nurses working in critical care, theatre, emergency, maternity, and general medical and surgical wards completed a self-administered questionnaire after giving informed consent. In addition to demographic information and information on moonlighting, the questionnaire obtained information on the participants’ intention to leave their primary jobs in the 12 months following the survey. A weighted analysis of the survey data was done using STATA® 13. Results: Survey participants (n=3,784 were predominantly middle-aged with a mean age of 41.5 (SD±10.4 years. Almost one-third of survey participants (30.9% indicated that they planned to leave their jobs within 12 months. Intention to leave was higher among the moonlighters (39.5% compared to non-moonlighters (27.9%; p<0.001. Predictors of intention to leave in a multiple logistic regression were moonlighting in the preceding year, nursing category, sector of primary employment, period working at the primary job, and number of children. The odds of intention to leave was 1.40 (95% CI: 1.16–1.69 times higher for moonlighters than for non-moonlighters. The odds ratio of intention to leave was 0.53 (95% CI: 0.42–0.66 for nursing assistants compared to professional nurses and 2.09 (95% CI: 1.49–2.94 for nurses working for a commercial nursing agency compared to those working in the public sector. Conclusions: Moonlighting is a predictor of intention to leave. Both individual and organisational strategies are
Nail Ersoz; Ismail Hakki Ozerhan; Fatih Zor
Wound care starts with occuring of wound. Primary health care wound care important as to affect on quality of healing. It is given information about the types of wounds, brief wound physiopathology and presented the options of wound care to primary health care wound care proffessionals in this article. Wound care must be done in a systematic process by health care professionals. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(1.000): 71-74
Full Text Available Wound care starts with occuring of wound. Primary health care wound care important as to affect on quality of healing. It is given information about the types of wounds, brief wound physiopathology and presented the options of wound care to primary health care wound care proffessionals in this article. Wound care must be done in a systematic process by health care professionals. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(1: 71-74
Full Text Available Wound care starts with occuring of wound. Primary health care wound care important as to affect on quality of healing. It is given information about the types of wounds, brief wound physiopathology and presented the options of wound care to primary health care wound care proffessionals in this article. Wound care must be done in a systematic process by health care professionals. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(1.000: 71-74
Isabel CF da Cruz
Full Text Available Presents research reports that point out the impact of racism and discrimination to the well-being and health of the African-Brazilian people. The contributors, all well qualified and well known in their fields, are also political activists of the negro movement.
Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.
This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Population health status scores are routinely used to inform economic evaluation and evaluate the impact of disease and/or treatment on health. It is unclear whether the health status in black and minority ethnic groups are comparable to these population health status data. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-status in South Asian and African-Caribbean populations. Methods Cross-sectional study recruiting participants aged ≥ 45 years (September 2006 to July 2009 from 20 primary care centres in Birmingham, United Kingdom.10,902 eligible subjects were invited, 5,408 participated (49.6%. 5,354 participants had complete data (49.1% (3442 South Asian and 1912 African-Caribbean. Health status was assessed by interview using the EuroQoL EQ-5D. Results The mean EQ-5D score in South Asian participants was 0.91 (standard deviation (SD 0.18, median score 1 (interquartile range (IQR 0.848 to 1 and in African-Caribbean participants the mean score was 0.92 (SD 0.18, median 1 (IQR 1 to 1. Compared with normative data from the UK general population, substantially fewer African-Caribbean and South Asian participants reported problems with mobility, usual activities, pain and anxiety when stratified by age resulting in higher average health status estimates than those from the UK population. Multivariable modelling showed that decreased health-related quality of life (HRQL was associated with increased age, female gender and increased body mass index. A medical history of depression, stroke/transient ischemic attack, heart failure and arthritis were associated with substantial reductions in HRQL. Conclusions The reported HRQL of these minority ethnic groups was substantially higher than anticipated compared to UK normative data. Participants with chronic disease experienced significant reductions in HRQL and should be a target for health intervention.
Liousse, C.; Doumbia, T.; Assamoi, E.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Baeza, A.; Penner, J. E.; Val, S.; Cachier, H.; Xu, L.; Criqui, P.
Fossil fuel and biofuel emissions of particles in Africa are expected to significantly increase in the near future, particularly due to rapid growth of African cities. In addition to biomass burning emissions prevailing in these areas, air quality degradation is then expected with important consequences on population health and climatic/radiative impact. In our group, we are constructing a new integrated methodology to study the relations between emissions, air quality and their impacts. This approach includes: (1) African combustion emission characterizations; (2) joint experimental determination of aerosol chemistry from ultrafine to coarse fractions and health issues (toxicology and epidemiology). (3) integrated environmental, health and radiative modeling. In this work, we show some results illustrating our first estimates of African anthropogenic emission impacts: - a new African anthropogenic emission inventory adapted to regional specificities on traffic, biofuel and industrial emissions has been constructed for the years 2005 and 2030. Biomass burning inventories were also improved in the frame of AMMA (African Monsoon) program. - carbonaceous aerosol radiative impact in Africa has been modeled with TM5 model and Penner et al. (2011) radiative code for these inventories for 2005 and 2030 and for two scenarios of emissions : a reference scenario, with no further emission controls beyond those achieved in 2003 and a ccc* scenario including planned policies in Kyoto protocol and regulations as applied to African emission specificities. In this study we will show that enhanced heating is expected with the ccc* scenarios emissions in which the OC fraction is relatively lower than in the reference scenario. - results of short term POLCA intensive campaigns in Bamako and Dakar in terms of aerosol chemical characterization linked to specific emissions sources and their inflammatory impacts on the respiratory tract through in vitro studies. In this study, organic
Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Lydecker, Janet L; Barnes, Rachel D; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M
This study examined racial differences in eating-disorder psychopathology, eating/weight-related histories, and biopsychosocial correlates in women (n = 53 Caucasian and n = 56 African American) with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity seeking treatment in primary care settings. Caucasians reported significantly earlier onset of binge eating, dieting, and overweight, and greater number of times dieting than African American. The rate of metabolic syndrome did not differ by race. Caucasians had significantly elevated triglycerides whereas African Americans showed poorer glycaemic control (higher glycated haemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]), and significantly higher diastolic blood pressure. There were no significant racial differences in features of eating disorders, depressive symptoms, or mental and physical health functioning. The clinical presentation of eating-disorder psychopathology and associated psychosocial functioning differed little by race among obese women with BED seeking treatment in primary care settings. Clinicians should assess for and institute appropriate interventions for comorbid BED and obesity in both African American and Caucasian patients. PMID:26640009
DiCenso, Alba; Auffrey, Lucille; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Donald, Faith; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Matthews, Sue; Opsteen, Joanne
Canada, like many countries, is in the midst of primary health care reform. A key priority is to improve access to primary health care, especially in remote communities and areas with physician shortages. As a result, there is an increased emphasis on the integration of primary health care nurse practitioners. As of March 2006, legislation exists in all provinces and two territories in Canada that allows nurse practitioners (NPs) to implement their expanded nursing role. In this paper, we will briefly review the historical development of the NP role in Canada and situate it in the international context; describe the NP role, supply of NPs in the country, and the settings in which they work; propose an NP practice model framework; summarize facilitators and barriers to NP role implementation in primary health care delivery; and outline strategies to address the barriers. PMID:18041990
Armando Henrique Norman
ferramenta metodológica prática para o desenvolvimento de pesquisa usando a CIAP e formulários de papel e o artigo Assessment of pre-test probability in Primary Health Care using International Classification of Primary Care 2 (ICPC -2 refere-se à aplicação dessa metodologia em um serviço da APS brasileira. Convém ressaltar que a maioria das pesquisas realizadas na APS foram produzidas em uma era em que a coleta de dados era feita em papel, mesmo assim, pioneiros como William Pickles – em sua descrição das doenças infecciosas – são exemplos de como a pesquisa em APS auxiliou a modificar a face da medicina8. Desse modo, esses artigos visam possibilitar, mesmo em serviços de APS sem o uso de prontuários eletrônicos, o desenvolvimento de pesquisas que possam contribuir para o entendimento da realidade local de saúde. Como afirmou Bentsen9, [...] na prática médica, um diagnóstico é um rótulo que anexamos às pessoas enfermas. Usamos esses rótulos como a base prática para o tratamento e, se possível, para o diagnóstico. Se as terminologias diagnósticas estão relacionadas com a necessidade de pesquisa, então elas adquirem uma outra dimensão. Elas passam a ser ferramentas necessárias para a análise dos problemas, ou seja, para a pesquisa em epidemiologia, na clínica, nos processos operacionais ou na medicina social. De acordo com Starfield1, no intervalo de um ano, 75% a 85% da população necessitam apenas de cuidados primários de saúde, sendo que, do remanescente, 10% a 12% precisam de cuidados secundários e 5% a 10% requerem cuidados terciários, ou seja, a grande maioria dos pacientes recebe atendimento médico em ambulatório ou clínicas da atenção primária à saúde. Entretanto, a maior parte das pesquisas ocorre fora desses cenários de prática, criando uma distorção que dificulta a boa prática em medicina de modo geral e na medicina de família em particular4. Por fim, espera-se que a leitura do conteúdo da presente edi
Garner, P; Thomason, J
Clear performance guidelines, appropriate resources, supportive supervision, and appropriate training are needed to help primary health workers to uphold high-quality care. The Ministry of Health in Papua New Guinea and authorities of provincial health divisions have developed minimum standards for all levels of the primary health service, which supervisors use to monitor the performance of workers. These levels are aidposts with 1 community health worker, aidposts with 2 community health workers, health subcenters, health centers, and urban clinics. The standards are part of the National Health Plan. They form the basis for developing a national quality assurance plan. These standards allow health workers to understand what they need to do and supervisors to know on what to focus. They also allow the monitoring of quality care and rational planning. They guard against inappropriate health infrastructure development in areas where local politicians are active in sectoral investments. Some examples of standards for the first level of primary health services are: An orderly or a community health worker at an aidpost provides basic care for a population of 500-1000 people. The community health worker provides outpatient care each working day from 8 to 1300 hours. He/she needs to be available to provide care of acute minor illnesses evenings from 18 to 2000 hours and on call for serious illness at all times. The community health worker follows up on mothers and children seen at the maternal and child health clinic. He/she promotes family planning and provides oral contraceptives an injections. Each aidpost must have an outpatient treatment area suitable for conducting child clinics and patient examinations: sink; water supply; pharmacy; and sterilizer. The community health worker's house must have a tin roof, an external tank, and a latrine. PMID:8273154
... of knowledge about the importance of tests to screen for major health problems. For some diseases, genetics ... cell anemia Smoking Stroke Tuberculosis (TB) Uterine fibroids Violence Content last updated: March 01, 2012. Print Return ...
Mwabu Germano M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies conducted in developed countries using economic models show that individual- and household- level variables are important determinants of health insurance ownership. There is however a dearth of such studies in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between health insurance ownership and the demographic, economic and educational characteristics of South African women. Methods The analysis was based on data from a cross-sectional national household sample derived from the South African Health Inequalities Survey (SANHIS. The study subjects consisted of 3,489 women, aged between 16 and 64 years. It was a non-interventional, qualitative response econometric study. The outcome measure was the probability of a respondent's ownership of a health insurance policy. Results The χ2 test for goodness of fit indicated satisfactory prediction of the estimated logit model. The coefficients of the covariates for area of residence, income, education, environment rating, age, smoking and marital status were positive, and all statistically significant at p ≤ 0.05. Women who had standard 10 education and above (secondary, high incomes and lived in affluent provinces and permanent accommodations, had a higher likelihood of being insured. Conclusion Poverty reduction programmes aimed at increasing women's incomes in poor provinces; improving living environment (e.g. potable water supplies, sanitation, electricity and housing for women in urban informal settlements; enhancing women's access to education; reducing unemployment among women; and increasing effective coverage of family planning services, will empower South African women to reach a higher standard of living and in doing so increase their economic access to health insurance policies and the associated health services.
Schmidt, R M
HEALTH WATCH, a longitudinal prospective study of healthy aging, was designed to characterize a healthy population of 2,200 men and women, ages 20-80 years in 1970. Biochemical, hematological, and physiological tests are performed annually over three weekly visits, combined with a self-administered HEALTH WATCH questionnaire to measure health status and behaviors in seven areas (with over 1,330 variables). In 1988, the HEALTH WATCH study was modified to assess characteristics of an oldest old "productive aging" cohort in Kauai, Hawaii. Nutrition, physical activity, extended family, and spirituality were found to be major health determinants. During 1989 to 1991 a controlled intervention study (ten local primary care physicians and their patients, aged 65-89 years) was completed in the Sun Cities, Arizona. These studies provide evidence that primary care physicians can promote positive health outcomes in patients of any chronological age and baseline health status through active healthy aging interventions. PMID:8341160
Booth, Mark; Hill, Graham; Moore, Michael J; Dalla, Danielle; Moore, Michael G; Messenger, Anne
On 1 July 2015, the Australian Government established 31 new Primary Health Networks (PHNs), following a review by its former Chief Medical Officer, John Horvath, of 61 Medicare Locals created under the previous Labor administration. The Horvath review recommended, among other things, that new, larger primary health organisations be established to reduce fragmentation of care by integrating and coordinating health services, supporting the role of general practice, and leveraging and administering health program funding. The two main objectives of the new PHNs, as stated on the Department of Health's website, are "increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of medical services for patients, particularly those at risk of poor health outcomes, and improving coordination of care to ensure patients receive the right care in the right place at the right time". Below are three viewpoints, commissioned for this primary health care themed issue of Public Health Research & Practice, from the Australian Government Department of Health, the Public Health Association of Australia and a Sydney-based PHN. We asked the authors to focus particularly on how the newly established networks might help to integrate public health within the primary health care landscape. Our authors have pointed out the huge overlap between public health and primary care and looked at evidence showing the great benefits for health systems of collaboration between the two. Challenges ahead include a possible government focus on delivery of 'frontline' medical services, which may come at the expense of population health, and the complexity of dealing with all primary health care stakeholders, including health professionals, Local Health Districts, nongovernment organisations, research institutions and local communities. PMID:26863166
Primary health care can be regarded as the boundary between society as a whole and the medical system. Many of the problems patients bring to doctors in primary care are concerned with their personalities and life situation, and can be considered together as problems of human behaviour. On being questioned in a waiting room, 15 per cent of patients considered their problem “psychosocial only”, and an additional 13 to 14 per cent “both somatic and psychosocial”.
Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E; Yu, Tianyi; Brody, Gene H
In the present study, we investigated associations of macro-economic conditions - the Great Recession - with cellular epigenetic aging, allostatic load, and self-reported health, in a group that experiences significant health disparities, African Americans. A sample of 330 African American adolescents in Georgia was followed from pre-recession (2007, M age=16.6) to post-recession (2010, M age=19.3). Economic data were collected in both 2007 and 2010. Three groups were formed to represent economic trajectories across the period of the Great Recession (stable low economic hardship, downward mobility, and stable high economic hardship). At age 19, measures of cellular epigenetic aging (derived from leukocyte DNA methylation profiles, reflecting the disparity between a person's biological and chronological age), allostatic load (composite of blood pressure, C reactive protein, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and body mass index), and adolescent self-report of health were obtained. Linear trend analyses documented significant differences across all outcomes. The more time adolescents spent under economic hardship, the higher their epigenetic aging [estimate=1.421, SE=0.466, p=.002] and allostatic load [estimate=1.151, SE=0.375, p=.002] scores, and the worse their self-report of health [estimate=4.957, SE=1.800, p=.006]. Specific group comparisons revealed that adolescents in the downward mobility group had higher levels of allostatic load than adolescents in the stable low hardship group [p<.05]. Overall, these findings suggest that the health profiles of African American youth may in part be shaped by environmental macro-economic societal conditions, and that effects on biological markers can be detected relatively early in life. PMID:26718449
Ogunbodede, E O; Kida, I A; Madjapa, H S; Amedari, M; Ehizele, A; Mutave, R; Sodipo, B; Temilola, S; Okoye, L
Although there have been major improvements in oral health, with remarkable advances in the prevention and management of oral diseases, globally, inequalities persist between urban and rural communities. These inequalities exist in the distribution of oral health services, accessibility, utilization, treatment outcomes, oral health knowledge and practices, health insurance coverage, oral health-related quality of life, and prevalence of oral diseases, among others. People living in rural areas are likely to be poorer, be less health literate, have more caries, have fewer teeth, have no health insurance coverage, and have less money to spend on dental care than persons living in urban areas. Rural areas are often associated with lower education levels, which in turn have been found to be related to lower levels of health literacy and poor use of health care services. These factors have an impact on oral health care, service delivery, and research. Hence, unmet dental care remains one of the most urgent health care needs in these communities. We highlight some of the conceptual issues relating to urban-rural inequalities in oral health, especially in the African and Middle East Region (AMER). Actions to reduce oral health inequalities and ameliorate rural-urban disparity are necessary both within the health sector and the wider policy environment. Recommended actions include population-specific oral health promotion programs, measures aimed at increasing access to oral health services in rural areas, integration of oral health into existing primary health care services, and support for research aimed at informing policy on the social determinants of health. Concerted efforts must be made by all stakeholders (governments, health care workforce, organizations, and communities) to reduce disparities and improve oral health outcomes in underserved populations. PMID:26101336
Rispel, Laetitia C; de Jager, Pieter; Fonn, Sharon
Recent scholarly attention has focused on weak governance and the negative effects of corruption on the provision of health services. Employing agency theory, this article discusses corruption in the South African health sector. We used a combination of research methods and triangulated data from three sources: Auditor-General of South Africa reports for each province covering a 9-year period; 13 semi-structured interviews with health sector key informants and a content analysis of print media reports covering a 3-year period. Findings from the Auditor-General reports showed a worsening trend in audit outcomes with marked variation across the nine provinces. Key-informants indicated that corruption has a negative effect on patient care and the morale of healthcare workers. The majority of the print media reports on corruption concerned the public health sector (63%) and involved provincial health departments (45%). Characteristics and complexity of the public health sector may increase its vulnerability to corruption, but the private-public binary constitutes a false dichotomy as corruption often involves agents from both sectors. Notwithstanding the lack of global validated indicators to measure corruption, our findings suggest that corruption is a problem in the South African healthcare sector. Corruption is influenced by adverse agent selection, lack of mechanisms to detect corruption and a failure to sanction those involved in corrupt activities. We conclude that appropriate legislation is a necessary, but not sufficient intervention to reduce corruption. We propose that mechanisms to reduce corruption must include the political will to run corruption-free health services, effective government to enforce laws, appropriate systems, and citizen involvement and advocacy to hold public officials accountable. Importantly, the institutionalization of a functional bureaucracy and public servants with the right skills, competencies, ethics and value systems and whose
Bauer, Amy M.; Collins, Laura; Dugdale, David C.
Abstract Depression is one of the more common diagnoses encountered in primary care, and primary care in turn provides the majority of care for patients with depression. Many approaches have been tried in efforts to improve the outcomes of depression management. This article outlines the partnership between the University of Washington (UW) Neighborhood Clinics and the UW Department of Psychiatry in implementing a collaborative care approach to integrating the management of anxiety and depression in the ambulatory primary care setting. This program was built on the chronic care model, which utilizes a team approach to caring for the patient. In addition to the patient and the primary care provider (PCP), the team included a medical social worker (MSW) as care manager and a psychiatrist as team consultant. The MSW would manage a registry of patients with depression at a clinic with several PCPs, contacting the patients on a regular basis to assess their status, and consulting with the psychiatrist on a weekly basis to discuss patients who were not achieving the goals of care. Any recommendation (eg, a change in medication dose or class) made by the psychiatrist was communicated to the PCP, who in turn would work with the patient on the new recommendation. This collaborative care approach resulted in a significant improvement in the number of patients who achieved care plan goals. The authors believe this is an effective method for health systems to integrate mental health services into primary care. (Population Health Management 2016;19:81–87) PMID:26348355
McGough, Peter M; Bauer, Amy M; Collins, Laura; Dugdale, David C
Depression is one of the more common diagnoses encountered in primary care, and primary care in turn provides the majority of care for patients with depression. Many approaches have been tried in efforts to improve the outcomes of depression management. This article outlines the partnership between the University of Washington (UW) Neighborhood Clinics and the UW Department of Psychiatry in implementing a collaborative care approach to integrating the management of anxiety and depression in the ambulatory primary care setting. This program was built on the chronic care model, which utilizes a team approach to caring for the patient. In addition to the patient and the primary care provider (PCP), the team included a medical social worker (MSW) as care manager and a psychiatrist as team consultant. The MSW would manage a registry of patients with depression at a clinic with several PCPs, contacting the patients on a regular basis to assess their status, and consulting with the psychiatrist on a weekly basis to discuss patients who were not achieving the goals of care. Any recommendation (eg, a change in medication dose or class) made by the psychiatrist was communicated to the PCP, who in turn would work with the patient on the new recommendation. This collaborative care approach resulted in a significant improvement in the number of patients who achieved care plan goals. The authors believe this is an effective method for health systems to integrate mental health services into primary care. (Population Health Management 2016;19:81-87). PMID:26348355
Makoe, Pinky; McKinney, Carolyn
The data discussed in this paper is drawn from research conducted in a multilingual urban primary school in Johannesburg, South Africa, where the official language of instruction is English and the majority of learners are African language speakers, frequently with very limited English proficiency. The paper presents a case study of one child who…
Bhana, Deevia; Nzimakwe, Thokozani; Nzimakwe, Phumzile
Understanding the ways in which young boys and girls give meaning to gender and sexuality is vital, and is especially significant in the light of South Africa's commitment to gender equality. Yet the, gendered cultures of young children in the early years of South African primary schools remains a, marginal concern in debate, research and…
Collins, David W.; Gudiseva, Harini V.; Trachtman, Benjamin; Bowman, Anita S; Sagaser, Anna; Sankar, Prithvi; Miller-Ellis, Eydie; Lehman, Amanda; Addis, Victoria; O'Brien, Joan M.
Purpose To estimate the population frequencies of all common mitochondrial variants and ancestral haplogroups among 1,999 subjects recruited for the Primary Open-Angle African American Glaucoma Genetics (POAAGG) Study, including 1,217 primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) cases and 782 controls, and to identify ancestral subpopulations and mitochondrial mutations as potential risk factors for POAG susceptibility. Methods Subject classification by characteristic glaucomatous optic nerve findings ...
Full Text Available Background: Antiretroviral treatment (ART has substantially reduced morbidity and mortality for HIV patients. In South Africa, with the largest ART programme globally, attention is needed not only on the further expansion of ART coverage, but also on factors which undermine its effectiveness, such as alcohol use.Objective: Given the decentralised approach of nurse-initiated and -sustained ART in the South African primary health sector, it is important to document key aspects of alcohol use to be conveyed to HIV-positive individuals and those at risk for HIV.Method: This study comprised a narrative review of relevant literature.Results: Alcohol acts through both behavioural and physiological pathways to impact on the acquisition, further transmission and then progression of HIV disease. Besides links to risky sex, alcohol undermines the immune system, raising susceptibility to contracting and then countering HIV and other infections. There are important drug interactions between alcohol and ART, or therapies for opportunistic infections and other co-morbidities. Moreover, alcohol undermines adherence to the medication which is essential for effective ART.Conclusion: Primary healthcare clinic attendees need evidence-based information on the detrimental effects of alcohol consumption on HIV infection, which ensue throughout the clinical course of HIV. This spans the role of alcohol consumption as a risk factor for HIV infection, HIV replication in infected individuals, a person’s response to HIV infection and HIV treatment. Primary healthcare workers, especially nurses and HIV counsellors, require training in order to screen for and provide appropriate interventions for HIV-positive patients, those on treatment and treatment-naïve patients, who will benefit from reduced alcohol consumption or the cessation thereof.
... Health of Black or African American non-Hispanic Population Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Source: Summary Health Statistics Tables for the U.S. Population: National Health Interview Survey, 2014, Table P-1c [ ...
Littlefield, Melissa B.; Edwards, Lorece; Akers, Timothy
The Internet is increasingly used to disseminate health information about diseases and prevention and to help in obtaining health services. Although technology can empower African Americans to adopt healthy lifestyles, the gap in usage between African Americans and Whites undermines the potential power of health Internet technology (IT) to…
LI Zhong-xue; LI Jia-jie; LI Cui-ping; LIU Shuang-yue
Outlined the South African mine health and safety regulatory framework, including the roles of government, tripartite council, service agencies, mine enterprises,rescue stations and workers unions, analyzed the institutional structures of South African mine health and safety standardization, including the South African standard and specification systems and standard development processes, and characterized the South African mine health and safety standardization and regulation systems. Intended to provide some suggestions for the transformation and improvement of mine health and safety standardization and regulation systems in China or in similar situations.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide practical guidance on conducting surveys and the use of questionnaires for postgraduate students at a Masters level who are undertaking primary care research. The article is intended to assist with writing the methods section of the research proposal and thinking through the relevant issues that apply to sample size calculation, sampling strategy, design of a questionnaire and administration of a questionnaire. The articleis part of a larger series on primary care research, with other articles in the series focusing on the structure of the research proposal and the literature review, as well as quantitative data analysis.
Marcell, Arik V; Jagers, Robert J; Mayden, Bronwyn; Mobley, Cynthia
Recent recommendations advocate involving young men in reproductive health programs. We know little about how young men perceive their reproductive health needs. For this study, 47 African American young men (mean age, 17.9 years) recruited from four community-based organizations completed a brief survey to explore life priorities and perceptions of health needs across 12 to 14, 15 to 19, and 20 to 25-year-olds. Participants' life priorities varied by age group with overall top categories, including education, economics, and family members. Health was listed as a salient life priority among older participants aged 15 to 25 years, though it was not highly ranked. Participants' top health concerns included sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS, with limited mention of other reproductive health concerns. Understanding where young men start from when thinking about reproductive health can better help us meet their needs. Future studies warrant examining how health needs change over time among a larger and more diverse sample of young men. PMID:19477738
Couzos, Sophia; Delaney-Thiele, Dea; Page, Priscilla
The Australian Government has established that the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples is a priority for the newly established 31 Primary Health Networks (PHNs). Efforts to reduce the high hospitalisation rates of Aboriginal people will require PHNs to build formal participatory structures with Aboriginal health organisations to support best practice service models. There are precedents as to how PHNs can build formal partnerships with Aboriginal community controlled health services (ACCHSs), establish an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander steering committee to guide strategic plan development, and work towards optimising comprehensive primary care. All health services within PHN boundaries can be supported to systematically and strategically improve their responsiveness to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people by assessing systems of care, adopting best practice models, embedding quality assurance activity, and participating in performance reporting. PHNs can be guided to adopt an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander-specific quality improvement framework, agree to local performance measures, review specialist and other outreach services to better integrate with primary health care, enhance the cultural competence of services, and measure and respond to progress in reducing potentially preventable hospitalisations. Through collaborations and capacity building, PHNs can transition certain health services towards greater Aboriginal community control. These proposals may assist policy makers to develop organisational performance reporting on PHN efforts to close the gap in Aboriginal health disparity. PMID:27031397
A. M. Kanu
Full Text Available Abstract African walnut Tetracarpidium conophorum which belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae is a perennial climber widely distributed and consumed by the inhabitants of Sub-Saharan Africa. The plant is cultivated principally for the nuts which are consumed as snacks. T. conophorum are a rich source of protein carbohydrate fats and oil vitamins and minerals that are essential for growth and overall nutritional wellbeing. T. conophorum contain wonderful plant based polyunsaturated fatty acids such as alpha linolenic acid. They also contain healthful monosaturated fats. T. conophorum carries many notable plant derived chemical compounds that are known to have disease preventing and health promoting properties. Over all T. conophorum is an important plant with a wide array of potential nutritional and health benefits which demands for development of value added products from them
Bailey, Rahn K; Fileti, Cecelia Pozo; Keith, Jeanette; Tropez-Sims, Susanne; Price, Winston; Allison-Ottey, Sharon Denise
Dairy foods contribute nine essential nutrients to the diet including calcium, potassium and vitamin D; nutrients identified by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans as being "of public health concern" within the U.S. population. Milk and milk product intake is associated with better diet quality and has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases or conditions including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and osteoporosis. Some research also indicates dairy food intake may be linked to reduced body fat, when accompanied by energy-restriction. On average, both African Americans and Hispanic Americans consume less than the recommended levels of dairy foods, and perceived or actual lactose intolerance can be a primary reason for limiting or avoiding dairy intake. True lactose intolerance prevalence is not known because healthcare providers do not routinely measure for it, and no standardized assessment method exists. Avoiding dairy may lead to shortfalls of essential nutrients and increased susceptibility to chronic disease. This updated Consensus Statement aims to provide the most current information about lactose intolerance and health, with specific relevance to the African American and Hispanic American communities. Topics covered include diagnostic considerations, actual and recommended dairy food intake and levels of consumption of key dairy nutrients among African Americans and Hispanic Americans; prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance among various racial/ethnic groups; the association between dairy food intake, lactose intolerance and chronic disease; and research-based management recommendations for those with lactose intolerance. PMID:24079212
Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Santos, José Manuel; Lapetra, José
The scientific method is capable of being applied in primary care. In this article we defend the role of the "scientific entertainer "as strategic and necessary in achieving this goal. The task has to include playful and light-hearted content. We explore some words in English that may help us to understand the concept of "scientific entertainer" from a semantic point of view (showman, master of ceremonies, entrepreneur, go-between) also in Spanish language (counsellor, mediator, methodologist) and finally in Latin and Greek (tripalium, negotium, chronos, kairos). We define the clinical, manager or research health-worker who is skilled in primary care as a "primarylogist". PMID:22018794
Indiran Govender; Mabuza, Langalibalele H.; Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A.; Bob Mash
The aim of this article is to provide practical guidance on conducting surveys and the use of questionnaires for postgraduate students at a Masters level who are undertaking primary care research. The article is intended to assist with writing the methods section of the research proposal and thinking through the relevant issues that apply to sample size calculation, sampling strategy, design of a questionnaire and administration of a questionnaire. The articleis part of a larger series on pri...
Bhakoo, O N; Kumar, R
More than 50% of infant deaths in India occur during the neonatal period. High priority therefore needs to be given to improving the survival of newborns. A large number of neonatal deaths have their origin in the perinatal period and are mainly determined by the health and nutritional status of the mother, the quality of care during pregnancy and delivery, and the immediate care of the newborn at birth. Main causes of neonatal mortality are birth asphyxia, respiratory problems, and infections, especially tetanus. Most such deaths occur among low birthweight babies. Hypothermia, undernutrition, and mismanaged breast feeding may also indirectly contribute to neonatal mortality. Community-based studies have, however, demonstrated that most neonatal mortality can be affordably prevented through primary health care. Efforts are underway to expand the health care infrastructure, but the outreach of maternal and child health care remains unsatisfactory especially in rural areas. PMID:12319228
Dookie Sunitha; Singh Shenuka
Abstract Background The rhetoric of primary health care philosophy in the district health system is widely cited as a fundamental component of the health transformation process in post-apartheid South Africa. Despite South Africa’s progress and attempts at implementing primary health care, various factors still limit its success. Discussion Inconsistencies and poor understanding of primary care and primary health care raises unrealistic expectations in service delivery and health outcomes, an...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa faces a human resources crisis in the health sector. Over the past two decades its population has increased substantially, with a significant rise in the disease burden due to HIV/AIDS and recurrent communicable diseases and an increased incidence of noncommunicable diseases. This increased demand for health services is met with a rather low supply of health workers, but this notwithstanding, sub-Saharan African countries also experience significant wastage of their human resources stock. Methods This paper is a desk review to illustrate suggestions that the way human resources for health (HRH are trained and deployed in Africa does not enhance productivity and that countries are unable to realize the full potential expected from the working life of their health workers. The paper suggests data types for use in measuring various forms of "wastage". Results "Direct" wastage – or avoidable increases in loss of staff through factors such as emigration and death – is on the rise, perhaps as a result of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. "Indirect" wastage – which is the result of losses in output and productivity from health professionals' misapplied skills, absenteeism, poor support and lack of supervision – is also common. HIV/AIDS represents a special cause of wastage in Africa. Deaths of health workers, fear of infection, burnout, absenteeism, heavy workloads and stress affect productivity. Conclusion The paper reviews strategies that have been proposed and/or implemented. It suggests areas needing further attention, including: developing and using indicators for monitoring and managing wastage; enhancing motivation and morale of health workers; protecting and valuing the health worker with enhanced occupational safety and welfare systems; and establishing the moral leadership to effectively tackle HIV/AIDS and the brain drain.
Gisele Nepomuceno de Andrade
Full Text Available Objective: Understanding the experiences of health professionals in primary care with the Child Health Booklet in child health care. Method: A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach, in which participated nurses and doctors from six teams of the Family Health Strategy (FHS in Belo Horizonte, MG. In total, were carried out 12 non-directive interviews, using two guiding questions. Results: A comprehensive analysis of the speeches enabled the construction of three categories that signal the experiences of the professionals with the booklet. The experiments revealed difficulties arising from the limitations of knowledge about the instrument; incomplete filling out of the booklet by many professionals that care for children; the daily confrontations of the process and the organization of work teams; disinterest of families with the instrument. Conclusion: The research points possible and necessary ways to improve the use of booklets as an instrument of full child health surveillance.
Solheim, Karen; McElmurry, Beverly J; Kim, Mi Ja
Primary health care (PHC) is a systems perspective for examining the provision of essential health care for all. A multidisciplinary collaborative approach to health care delivery is associated with effective delivery and care providers' enrichment. Yet data regarding multidisciplinary practice within PHC are limited. The purpose of this exploratory qualitative descriptive study was to better understand team-based PHC practice in the US. Aims included (a) describing nursing faculty involvement in PHC, (b) analyzing ways that multidisciplinary work was enacted, and (c) recommending strategies for multidisciplinary PHC practice. After institutional review board (IRB) protocol approval, data collection occurred by: (a) surveying faculty/staff in a Midwestern nursing college (N=94) about their PHC practice, and (b) interviewing a purposive sample of nursing faculty/staff identified with PHC (n=10) and their health professional collaborators (n=10). Survey results (28% return rate) were summarized, interview notes were transcribed, and a systematic process of content analysis applied. Study findings show team practice is valued because health issues are complex, requiring different types of expertise; and because teams foster comprehensive care and improved resource use. Mission, membership attributes, and leadership influence teamwork. Though PHC is not a common term, nurses and their collaborators readily associated their practice with a PHC ethos. PHC practice requires understanding community complexity and engaging with community, family, and individual viewpoints. Though supports exist for PHC in the US, participants identified discord between their view of population needs and the health care system. The following interpretations arise from this study: PHC does not explicitly frame health care activity in the US, though some practitioners are committed to its ethics; and, teamwork within PHC is associated with better health care and rewarding professional
Phillips, Robert L.; Pugno, Perry A.; Saultz, John W.; Tuggy, Michael L.; Borkan, Jeffrey M.; Hoekzema, Grant S.; DeVoe, Jennifer E.; Weida, Jane A.; Peterson, Lars E.; Hughes, Lauren S.; Kruse, Jerry E.; Puffer, James C.
PURPOSE More than a decade ago the American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Family Physicians Foundation, American Board of Family Medicine, Association of Departments of Family Medicine, Association of Family Practice Residency Directors, North American Primary Care Research Group, and Society of Teachers of Family Medicine came together in the Future of Family Medicine (FFM) to launch a series of strategic efforts to “renew the specialty to meet the needs of people and society,” some of which bore important fruit. Family Medicine for America’s Health was launched in 2013 to revisit the role of family medicine in view of these changes and to position family medicine with new strategic and communication plans to create better health, better health care, and lower cost for patients and communities (the Triple Aim). METHODS Family Medicine for America’s Health was preceded and guided by the development of a family physician role definition. A consulting group facilitated systematic strategic plan development over 9 months that included key informant interviews, formal stakeholder surveys, future scenario testing, a retreat for family medicine organizations and stakeholder representatives to review strategy options, further strategy refinement, and finally a formal strategic plan with draft tactics and design for an implementation plan. A second communications consulting group surveyed diverse stakeholders in coordination with strategic planning to develop a communication plan. The American College of Osteopathic Family Physicians joined the effort, and students, residents, and young physicians were included. RESULTS The core strategies identified include working to ensure broad access to sustained, primary care relationships; accountability for increasing primary care value in terms of cost and quality; a commitment to helping reduce health care disparities; moving to comprehensive payment and away from fee-for-service; transformation of
McCarthy, Carey F; Zuber, Alexandra; Kelley, Maureen A; Verani, Andre R; Riley, Patricia L
Background The African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative (ARC) for nurses and midwives was created in response to the increasing reliance on shifting HIV tasks to nurses and midwives without the necessary regulation supporting this enhanced professional role. ARC Approach The ARC initiative comprises regional meetings, technical assistance, and regulatory improvement grants which enhance HIV service delivery by nurses and midwives, and systematic evaluation of project impact. Results Eight of 11 countries funded by ARC advanced a full stage in regulatory capacity during their 1-year project period. Countries in ARC also demonstrated increased capacity in project management and proposal writing. Discussion The progress of country teams thus far suggests ARC is a successful model for regulation strengthening and capacity building, as well as presenting a novel approach for sustainability and country ownership. The ARC platform has been a successful vehicle for regional harmonisation of updated regulations and promises to help facilitate the enhancement of HIV service delivery by nurses and midwives. PMID:27066113
Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.
Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…
Full Text Available This is the first in a series of articles on primary care research in the African context. The aim of the series is to help build capacity for primary care research amongst the emerging departments of family medicine and primary care on the continent. Many of the departments are developing Masters of Medicine programmes in Family Medicine and their students will all be required to complete research studies as part of their degree. This series is being written with this audience in particular in mind – both the students who must conceptualise and implement a research project as well as their supervisors who must assist them.This article gives an overview of the African primary care context, followed by a typology of primary care research. The article then goes on to assist the reader with choosing a topic and defining their research question. Finally the article addresses the structure and contents of a research proposal and the ethical issues that should be considered.
This is the first in a series of articles on primary care research in the African context. The aim of the series is to help build capacity for primary care research amongst the emerging departments of family medicine and primary care on the continent. Many of the departments are developing Masters of Medicine programmes in Family Medicine and their students will all be required to complete research studies as part of their degree. This series is being written with this audience in particular in mind--both the students who must conceptualise and implement a research project as well as their supervisors who must assist them.This article gives an overview of the African primary care context, followed by a typology of primary care research. The article then goes on to assist the reader with choosing a topic and defining their research question. Finally the article addresses the structure and contents of a research proposal and the ethical issues that should be considered. PMID:26245432
Powell, Wizdom; Adams, Leslie B; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Agyemang, Amma; Upton, Rachel D
Men's tendency to delay health help-seeking is largely attributed to masculinity, but findings scarcely focus on African American men who face additional race-related, help-seeking barriers. Building principally on reactance theory, we test a hypothesized model situating racial discrimination, masculinity norms salience (MNS), everyday racism (ERD), racial identity, sense of control (SOC), and depressive symptomatology as key barriers to African American men's health help-seeking. A total of 458 African American men were recruited primarily from US barbershops in the Western and Southern regions. The primary outcome was Barriers to Help-Seeking Scale (BHSS) scores. The hypothesized model was investigated with confirmatory factor and path analysis with tests for measurement invariance. Our model fit was excellent [Formula: see text] CFI = 0.99; TLI = 1.00; RMSEA = 0.00, and 90% CI [0.00, 0.07] and operated equivalently across different age, income, and education strata. Frequent ERD and higher MNS contributed to higher BHHS scores. The relationship between ERD exposure and BHHS scores was partially mediated by diminished SOC and greater depressive symptomatology. Interventions aimed at addressing African American men's health help-seeking should not only address masculinity norms but also threats to sense of control, and negative psychological sequelae induced by everyday racism. PMID:27337619
Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Hedwig; DeLeone, Felicia Yang
This article explores the relationships among early marriage (before age 26 years), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and Whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study examines three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical…
Marcelo Rodrigues Gonçalves
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the association between primary health care (PHC quality and diabetes mellitus (DM management in adult patients living within the catchment area of PHC services in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional, population-based study of adults reporting known diabetes. Quality of PHC was assessed through the Primary Care Assesment Tool (PCATool-Brazil. Statistical analyses were performed with Poisson regression with robust variance. Results: Of the 3,014 adults interviewed, 205 (6.8% reported having diabetes; of these, 64.4% were women and 68.3% were white. Regarding PHC score of the health service attended, people with diabetes that were classified with a high PHC score, presented longer duration of disease (10.9 vs 8.4 anos, p=0.03 and greater frequency of diabetes-related complications (75.3% vs 58.8%, p=0.02. Regarding the proportion of respondents with good glycemic control, no significant difference between groups was found (31.7% vs 38%, p=0.3. In the multivariate analysis, services with a high PHC score presented a better profile of care for the prevention of the main comorbidities – greater blood pressure assessment (PR=1.07; CI95% 1.01-1.14, lipid profile request (PR=1.23; CI95% 1.09-1.39, counseling for physical activity (PR=1.50; CI95% 1.21-1.86, foot examination (PR=2.08; CI95% 1.54-2,81, and counseling for foot care (PR=1.37; CI95% 1.18-1.59. Conclusion: High PHC score services showed better performance in the management of diabetes and care for more complicated patients, but they did not differ significantly from lower PHC score services in terms of patients’ glycemic control.
Full Text Available Introduction This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of Africanized honeybees in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, and to implement a program to remove such swarms. Methods The occurrences of Africanized honeybee swarms between 2010 and 2012 were studied and strategies to prevent accidents were developed. Results We noted 1,164 cases of Africanized honeybee occurrences in the city, and 422 swarms were collected. The developed strategies to prevent accidents were disseminated to the population. Conclusions We contributed to reducing the risks represented by Africanized honeybee swarms in urban areas, by collecting swarms and disseminating strategic information for preventing accidents.
Julia Abelson; Brian Hutchison
A common element in many countries’ health system reform agenda is an emphasis on changes to the organization, financing and delivery of primary health care. Numerous objectives for primary health care reform have been cited in jurisdictions around the world with different approaches being taken toward achieving stated objectives. This paper reviews the literature which has described and evaluated experiences with different primary health care delivery models in Canadian and other jurisdictio...
Baldacchino, Marilyn; Bezzina, Glorianne; Scerri, Anne Marie; Sammut, Mario R.
A strong primary health care system is the keystone of health care and helps patients manage their health conditions in the community, whilst also providing disease prevention services. Primary care is a continuously evolving specialty, with recent exciting innovations, aiming to improve all aspects of care and to meet people’s needs and expectations. A search for articles focusing on the specific aspects of recent advances in primary health care was done using interne...
Prather, Cynthia; Fuller, Taleria R; Marshall, Khiya J; Jeffries, William L
African American women are disproportionately affected by multiple sexual and reproductive health conditions compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Research suggests that social determinants of health, including poverty, unemployment, and limited education, contribute to health disparities. However, racism is a probable underlying determinant of these social conditions. This article uses a socioecological model to describe racism and its impact on African American women's sexual and reproductive health. Although similar models have been used for specific infectious and chronic diseases, they have not described how the historical underpinnings of racism affect current sexual and reproductive health outcomes among African American women. We propose a socioecological model that demonstrates how social determinants grounded in racism affect individual behaviors and interpersonal relationships, which may contribute to sexual and reproductive health outcomes. This model provides a perspective to understand how these unique contextual experiences are intertwined with the daily lived experiences of African American women and how they are potentially linked to poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes. The model also presents an opportunity to increase dialog and research among public health practitioners and encourages them to consider the role of these contextual experiences and supportive data when developing prevention interventions. Considerations address the provision of opportunities to promote health equity by reducing the effects of racism and improving African American women's sexual and reproductive health. PMID:27227533
Barnes, Amy; Brown, Garrett W; Harman, Sophie
Partnership is a key idea in current debates about global health and development assistance, yet little is known about what partnership means to those who are responsible for operationalising it or how it is experienced in practice. This is particularly the case in the context of African health systems. This paper explores how health professionals working in global health hubs and the health systems of South Africa, Tanzania and Zambia understand and experience partnership. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 101 professionals based in each country, Washington DC and Geneva between October 2012 and June 2013, the paper makes four key arguments. First, partnership has a legitimating function in global health policy processes for international development institutions, government agencies and civil society organisations alike. Second, the practice of partnership generates idiosyncratic and complicated relationships that health professionals have to manage and navigate, often informally. Third, partnership is shaped by historical legacies, critical events, and independent consultants. Fourth, despite being an accepted part of global health policy, there is little shared understanding of what good partnership is meant to include or resemble in practice. Knowing more about the specific socio-cultural and political dynamics of partnership in different health system contexts is critical to equip health professionals with the skills to build the informal relations that are essential to effective partnership engagement. PMID:27155226
Elizabeth A. Fallon, PhD
Full Text Available Introduction Poor dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle contribute to excessive morbidity and mortality. Healthy People 2010 goals are for 85% of physicians to counsel their patients about physical activity and for 75% of physician office visits made by patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or dyslipidemia to include dietary counseling. The purpose of this study was to 1 determine the rate of participant-reported health care provider advice for healthy lifestyle changes among African Americans who do not meet recommendations for physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and healthy weight; 2 examine correlates of provider advice; and 3 assess the association between provider advice and stage of readiness for change for each of these health behaviors. Methods Data for this study were collected as part of a statewide faith-based physical activity program for African Americans. A stratified random sample of 20 African Methodist Episcopal churches in South Carolina was selected to participate in a telephone survey of members aged 18 years and older. The telephone survey, conducted over a 5-month period, asked participants a series of questions about sociodemographics, health status, physical activity, and nutrition. Analyses for moderate to vigorous physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and weight loss were conducted separately. For each of these behaviors, logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the independent association of sex, age, body mass index, education, number of diagnosed diseases, perceived health, and stage of change with health care provider advice for health behaviors. Results A total of 572 church members (407 women, 165 men; mean age, 53.9 years; range, 18–102 years completed the survey. Overall, participant-reported provider advice for lifestyle changes was 47.0% for physical activity, 38.7% for fruit and vegetable consumption, and 39.7% for weight. A greater number of diagnosed
Mays, Vickie M; Cochran, Susan D.; Barnes, Namdi W.
Persistent and vexing health disadvantages accrue to African Americans despite decades of work to erase the effects of race discrimination in this country. Participating in these efforts, psychologists and other social scientists have hypothesized that African Americans’ continuing experiences with racism and discrimination may lie at the root of the many well-documented race-based physical health disparities that affect this population. With newly emerging methodologies in both measurement o...
Toure Kadidiatou; Sankore Rotimi; Kuruvilla Shyama; Scolaro Elisa; Bustreo Flavia; Osotimehin Babatunde
Abstract Background With limited time to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, progress towards improving women's and children's health needs to be accelerated. With Africa accounting for over half of the world's maternal and child deaths, the African Union (AU) has a critical role in prioritizing related policies and catalysing required investments and action. In this paper, the authors assess the evolution of African Union policies related to women's and children's health, and analyze h...
Background: Finland has since 1972 had a primary health care system based on health centres run and funded by the local public authorities called ‘municipalities’. On the world map of primary health care systems, the Finnish solution claims to be the most health centre oriented and also the widest, both in terms of the numbers of staff and also of different professions employed. Offering integrated care through multi-professional health centres has been overshadowed by exceptional difficultie...
Mama, Scherezade K; Li, Yisheng; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W; Nguyen, Nga T; Reitzel, Lorraine R; McNeill, Lorna H
Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans. PMID:27119366
Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E.; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.
Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans. PMID:27119366
Porcerelli, John H; Hurrell, Kristen; Cogan, Rosemary; Jeffries, Keturah; Markova, Tsveti
This study assessed the relationship between psychopathology with the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS) and childhood physical and sexual abuse and adult physical and sexual partner violence in a primary care sample of 98 urban-dwelling African American women. Patients completed the PAS, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The PAS total score significantly correlated with all measures of childhood and adult abuse. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that PAS element scores of Suicidal Thinking and Hostile Control significantly predicted a history of childhood physical abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Hostile Control, and Acting Out significantly predicted a history of childhood sexual abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Negative Affect, and Alienation significantly predicted current adult partner physical violence; and Psychotic Features, Alcohol Problems, and Anger Control significantly predicted current adult sexual partner violence. The PAS appears to be a useful measure for fast-paced primary care settings for identifying patients who need a more thorough assessment for abuse. PMID:26374084
Cotter, Elizabeth W; Hamilton, Natia S; Kelly, Nichole R; Harney, Megan B; Greene, LaShaun; White, Kelly A; Mazzeo, Suzanne E
Although African American families are at particular risk for obesity and its associated health comorbidities, few interventions have directly targeted low-income members of this group living in subsidized public housing. Using a consensual qualitative research approach, we conducted 11 interviews with African American mothers living in two public housing communities to enhance understanding of their perceived barriers and facilitators to health. Five primary domains emerged, including barriers (access, financial, personal, and neighborhood concerns), resources (personal and community), current behaviors (diet, physical activity, and program participation), definition of health (mental well-being, physical well-being, and health behaviors), and needs/interests in programming (health behavior-specific programs, non-health-related programs, child-focused programming, and qualities of programs and their leaders). Results demonstrate the complex interaction among social, environmental, and personal factors on health behaviors for this priority population, and highlight the need for community members' involvement in the development of community-based obesity prevention programming. PMID:27091605
Background People who identity as lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) have specific health needs. Sexual orientation and gender identity are social determinants of health, as homophobia and heteronormativity persist as prejudices in society. LGBT patients often experience discrimination and prejudice in health care settings. While recent South African policies recognise the need for providing LGBT specific health care, no curricula for teaching about LGBT health related issues exist...
Calvert Melanie; Duffy Helen; Freemantle Nick; Davis Russell; Lip Gregory YH; Gill Paramjit
Abstract Background Population health status scores are routinely used to inform economic evaluation and evaluate the impact of disease and/or treatment on health. It is unclear whether the health status in black and minority ethnic groups are comparable to these population health status data. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-status in South Asian and African-Caribbean populations. Methods Cross-sectional study recruiting participants aged ≥ 45 years (September 2006 to July 2009) ...
Primary health care is analyzed as the alternative throughwhich health systems will recover the role they had during thelate twentieth century: working with other sectors to implementhealth promotion actions to improve the users’ quality of lifeand equity. A renewal is presented in recognition of the effortsduring the final century to establish primary care policies andprograms as the core of the health systems, emphasizing thereorientation of health services. This paper discusses the princip...
Four countries, Botswana, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Zimbabwe, were chosen as cases to study the impact of national health policies on national health status in sub-Saharan Africa. Through a conceptual framework that covers health problem identification, policy formulation and implementation procedures, the study examined national translations of Primary Health Care (PHC) and Health for All by the Year 2000 (HFA/2000) strategies. A series of government measures, taken between 1980-1986 for health policy development and implementation in these countries, were treated as policy determinants of national health outcomes for the period ending 1990. The impact of these determinants on national health status was then analyzed through a comparative description and documentation of observable patterns and trends in infant mortality rates (IMR), under-5 mortality rates (U5MR) and life expectancy. Policy guidelines from PHC and HFA/2000 were used in conjunction with the respective per capita Gross National Products to categorize the four cases. Based on these guidelines, Botswana was ranked high, both in terms of policy development and the level of economic development, while Zimbabwe ranked high in terms of policy development but relatively low in economic terms. Cote d'Ivoire ranked high on economic development but low with regard to its policy framework. Ghana was at the other end of the spectrum, ranking low both in terms of its policy development and its economic performance. The comparative analysis revealed that Botswana and Zimbabwe performed better than Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana on the three outcome indicators. Despite Cote d'Ivoire's superior level of economic development, its health status fell behind that of Zimbabwe and even Ghana. The study concluded that policies formulated and implemented in accordance with key PHC principles could account for improvements in national health status. Since the end of the study period (1990), there have been significant political
Miharti, Suwatin; Holzhacker, Ronald; Wittek, Rafael; Holzhacker, Ronald; Wittek, Rafael; Woltjer, Johan
A well-functioning primary health care system (PHCS) is a fundamental precondition for a nation’s overall health performance. PHCSs are designed to improve universal access to health care, which in turn leads to healthier communities, higher quality of care, and a more effective and efficient health
Full Text Available Stephen Thielke1, Alexander Thompson2, Richard Stuart31Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Puget Sound VA Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, WA, USA; 3Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Over the last decade, research about health psychology in primary care has reiterated its contributions to mental and physical health promotion, and its role in addressing gaps in mental health service delivery. Recent meta-analyses have generated mixed results about the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of health psychology interventions. There have been few studies of health psychology interventions in real-world treatment settings. Several key challenges exist: determining the degree of penetration of health psychology into primary care settings; clarifying the specific roles of health psychologists in integrated care; resolving reimbursement issues; and adapting to the increased prescription of psychotropic medications. Identifying and exploring these issues can help health psychologists and primary care providers to develop the most effective ways of applying psychological principles in primary care settings. In a changing health care landscape, health psychologists must continue to articulate the theories and techniques of health psychology and integrated care, to put their beliefs into practice, and to measure the outcomes of their work.Keywords: health psychology, primary care, integrated care, collaborative care, referral, colocation
The cultural values of African Americans have not been adequately incorporated as a theoretical base to develop new public health models. The major objectives of this study were to explore, with a purposive sample, via seven focus groups, 40 African American college students, the following: How do (a) ethnic culture and (b) a "minoritized" status influence perceptions of sociocultural determinants in explaining increases in the incidence of suicide among African Americans? Thematic results of focus group discussions including the following: (a) racism, discrimination, and stereotyping; (b) U.S. individualism; (c) integration and cultural assimilation; and, (d) the prison industrial complex. PMID:25350896
Manswell Butty, Jo-Anne; Richardson, Finie; Mouton, Charles P.; Royal, Charmaine D. M.; Green, Rodney D.; Munroe, Kerry-Ann
The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation and effectiveness of community education workshops to change genetics and health-related knowledge, intentions, and behavior of urban African Americans. Eight workshops were held and 183 participants consented to participate in the study. A majority of the participants were African American (97%) and female (84%) and just over half were 65 years and older (60%), and had some high school or were high school graduates (52%). The commun...
Zwi, K. J.; Zwi, A. B.; Smettanikov, E.; Söderlund, N; Logan, S.
OBJECTIVES: To describe the patterns and causes of childhood injury presenting to a South African township health centre in 1991. DESIGN: Retrospective review of clinic held case notes. SETTING: Typical South-African urban township within Greater Johannesburg. SUBJECTS: 695 subjects aged 0-19 years presenting as a direct result of injury. RESULTS: Overall rates of presentation for injury were 6297/100,000/year (95% confidence interval 5463 to 7131); 35% of injuries were caused by violence, 14...
Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L.
Researchers have suggested that health disparities in African American women, including adverse birth outcomes, lupus, obesity, and untreated depression, can be explained by stress and coping. The Strong Black Woman/Superwoman role has been highlighted as a phenomenon influencing African American women’s experiences and reports of stress. The purpose of this study was to develop a preliminary conceptual framework for Superwoman Schema (SWS) by exploring women’s descriptions of the Superwoman ...
Bains Sujeev S
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, it is estimated that 40% of adults utilize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies. Recently, national surveys report that over 90 million adults have inadequate health literacy. To date, no study has assessed health literacy and its effect on CAM use. The primary objective of this study was to assess the relationship between health literacy and CAM use independent of educational attainment. Second objective was to evaluate the differential effect of health literacy on CAM use by race. Methods 351 patients were recruited from an outpatient primary care clinic. Validated surveys assessed CAM use (I-CAM-Q, health literacy (REALM-R, and demographic information. We compared demographics by health literacy (adequate vs. inadequate and overall and individual CAM categories by health literacy using chi square statistics. We found a race by health literacy interaction and ran sequential logistic regression models stratified by race to test the association between health literacy and overall CAM use (Model 1, Model 1 + education (Model 2, and Model 2 + other demographic characteristics (Model 3. We reported the adjusted effect of health literacy on CAM use for both whites and African Americans separately. Results 75% of the participants had adequate literacy and 80% used CAM. CAM use differed by CAM category. Among whites, adequate health literacy was significantly associated with increased CAM use in both unadjusted (Model 1, OR 7.68; p = 0.001 and models adjusted for education (Model 2, OR 7.70; p = 0.002 and other sociodemographics (Model 3, OR 9.42; p = 0.01. Among African Americans, adequate health literacy was not associated with CAM use in any of the models. Conclusions We found a race by literacy interaction suggesting that the relationship between health literacy and CAM use differed significantly by race. Adequate health literacy among whites is associated with increased CAM use, but not
Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso; Santaolaya Cesteros, María; Campos Esteban, Pilar
The health system is a social determinant of health. Although not the most important determinant of health, the health system's potential contribution to reducing social inequalities in health should not be underestimated. Due to its characteristics, primary health care is well placed to attain equity in health. To make progress in achieving this goal, the main measures to be considered are the removal of barriers to access to services, the provision of care proportionate to need, and engagement in intersectoral work. This article reviews the background and framework for action to tackle social inequalities in health and provides a summary of the primary health care actions that could help to reduce social inequalities in health and are mentioned in the most important national and international documents on health policy. We hope to stimulate debate, promote research in the field and encourage implementation. The proposals are grouped in the following five intervention lines: information systems; participation; training; intersectoral work; and reorientation of health care. Each intervention is ordered according to its targets (population and civil society; primary health team; health center and health area management; and health policy decision-makers). PMID:22321945
Cornell, C. E.; Littleton, M. A.; Greene, P. G.; Pulley, L.; Brownstein, J. N.; Sanderson, B. K.; Stalker, V. G.; Matson-Koffman, D.; Struempler, B.; Raczynski, J. M.
The Uniontown, Alabama Community Health Project trained and facilitated Community Health Advisors (CHAs) in conducting a theory-based intervention designed to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among rural African-American women. The multiphased project included formative evaluation and community organization, CHA recruitment and…
Full Text Available The departure of health professionals to Europe and North America is placing an intolerable burden on public health systems in many African countries. Various retention, recall, and replacement policies to ameliorate the impact of this brain drain have been suggested, none of which have been particularly successful to date. The key question for the future is whether the brain drain of health sector skills is likely to continue and whether the investment of African countries in training health professionals will continue to be lost through emigration. This paper examines the emigration intentions of trainee health professionals in six Southern African countries. The data was collected by the Southern African Migration Program (SAMP in a survey of final-year students across the region which included 651 students training for the health professions. The data also allows for the comparison of health sector with other students. The analysis presented in this paper shows very high emigration potential amongst all final-year students. Health sector students do show a slightly higher inclination to leave than those training to work in other sectors. These findings present a considerable challenge for policy makers seeking to encourage students to stay at home and work after graduation.
Green, Kerry M.; Doherty, Elaine E.; Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.
Although previous studies have identified a protective effect of marriage on risky health behaviors, gaps remain in our understanding of how marriage improves health, particularly among African Americans. This study uses longitudinal data to take selection into account and examines whether marital trajectories that incorporate timing, stability,…
Gudiseva, Harini V.; Trachtman, Benjamin; Bowman, Anita S.; Sagaser, Anna; Sankar, Prithvi; Miller-Ellis, Eydie; Lehman, Amanda; Addis, Victoria; O'Brien, Joan M.
Purpose To estimate the population frequencies of all common mitochondrial variants and ancestral haplogroups among 1,999 subjects recruited for the Primary Open-Angle African American Glaucoma Genetics (POAAGG) Study, including 1,217 primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) cases and 782 controls, and to identify ancestral subpopulations and mitochondrial mutations as potential risk factors for POAG susceptibility. Methods Subject classification by characteristic glaucomatous optic nerve findings and corresponding visual field defects, as defined by enrolling glaucoma specialists, stereo disc photography, phlebotomy, extraction of total DNA from peripheral blood or saliva, DNA quantification and normalization, PCR amplification of whole mitochondrial genomes, Ion Torrent deep semiconductor DNA sequencing on DNA pools (“Pool-seq”), Sanger sequencing of 3,479 individual mitochondrial DNAs, and bioinformatic analysis. Results The distribution of common African haplogroups within the POAAGG study population was broadly similar to prior surveys of African Americans. However, the POAG case population was found to be enriched in L1c2 haplogroups, which are defined in part by missense mutations m.6150G>A (Val83Ile, odds ratio [OR] 1.8, p=0.01), m.6253C>T (Met117Thr, rs200165736, OR 1.6, p=0.04), and m.6480G>A (Val193Ile, rs199476128, OR 4.6, p=0.04) in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (MT-CO1) gene and by a variant, m.2220A>G (OR 2.0, p=0.01), in MT-RNR2, which encodes the mitochondrial ribosomal 16s RNA gene. L2 haplogroups were predicted to be overrepresented in the POAG case population by Pool-seq, and the difference was confirmed to be significant with Sanger sequencing, that targeted the L2-associated variants m.2416T>C (rs28358580, OR 1.2, p=0.02) and m.2332C>T (OR 1.2, p=.02) in MT-RNR2. Another variant within MT-RNR2, m.3010G>A (rs3928306), previously implicated in sensitivity to the optic neuropathy-associated antibiotic linezolid, and arising on D4 and J1
Community health practice in various forms has been recorded for over 5 000 years (Anderson, 1969). The ancient Egyptians developed a community system for water supply and sewage disposal. The Hebrews focused on the promotion of health through the Mosaic code which regulated personal hygiene, food, sanitation, maternal health, and more. The Greeks (500-100 BC) emphasised values of personal hygiene and exercise. The Romans (100 BC - 500 AD), on the other hand, were concerned with the State rat...
Full Text Available Abstract Background With limited time to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, progress towards improving women's and children's health needs to be accelerated. With Africa accounting for over half of the world's maternal and child deaths, the African Union (AU has a critical role in prioritizing related policies and catalysing required investments and action. In this paper, the authors assess the evolution of African Union policies related to women's and children's health, and analyze how these policies are prioritized and framed. Methods The main method used in this policy analysis was a document review of all African Union policies developed from 1963 to 2010, focusing specifically on policies that explicitly mention health. The findings from this document review were discussed with key actors to identify policy implications. Results With over 220 policies in total, peace and security is the most common AU policy topic. Social affairs and other development issues became more prominent in the 1990s. The number of policies that mentioned health rose steadily over the years (with 1 policy mentioning health in 1963 to 7 in 2010. This change was catalysed by factors such as: a favourable shift in AU priorities and systems towards development issues, spurred by the transition from the Organization of African Unity to the African Union; the mandate of the African Commission on Human and People's Rights; health-related advocacy initiatives, such as the Campaign for the Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA; action and accountability requirements arising from international human rights treaties, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, and new health-funding mechanisms, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Prioritization of women's and children's health issues in AU policies has been framed primarily by human rights, advocacy and accountability considerations, more by economic and health frames
Hersh, Lauren; Salzman, Brooke; Snyderman, Danielle
Health literacy includes a set of skills needed to make appropriate health decisions and successfully navigate the health care system. These skills include reading, writing, numeracy, communication, and, increasingly, the use of electronic technology. National data indicate that more than one-third of U.S. adults have limited health literacy, which contributes to poor health outcomes and affects patient safety, and health care access and quality. Although there are a number of tools that screen for limited health literacy, they are primarily used for research. Routinely screening patients for health literacy has not been shown to improve outcomes and is not recommended. Instead, multiple professional organizations recommend using universal health literacy precautions to provide understandable and accessible information to all patients, regardless of their literacy or education levels. This includes avoiding medical jargon, breaking down information or instructions into small concrete steps, limiting the focus of a visit to three key points or tasks, and assessing for comprehension. Additionally, printed information should be written at or below a fifth- to sixth-grade reading level. Visual aids, graphs, or pictures can enhance patient understanding, as can more concrete presentation of numerical information. PMID:26176370
Full Text Available Community health practice in various forms has been recorded for over 5 000 years (Anderson, 1969. The ancient Egyptians developed a community system for water supply and sewage disposal. The Hebrews focused on the promotion of health through the Mosaic code which regulated personal hygiene, food, sanitation, maternal health, and more. The Greeks (500-100 BC emphasised values of personal hygiene and exercise. The Romans (100 BC - 500 AD, on the other hand, were concerned with the State rather that the individual and set public health measures in relation to building regulations, water supply and community sanitation.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural township health centres and urban community health centres play a crucial role in the delivery of primary health care in China. Over the past two-and-a-half decades, these health institutions have not been as well developed as high-level hospitals. The limited availability and low qualifications of human resources in health are among the main challenges facing lower-level health facilities. This paper aims to analyse the mobility of health workers in township and community health centres. Methods Data used in this paper come from a nationwide survey of health facilities in 2006. Ten provinces in different locations and of varying levels of economic development were selected. From these provinces, 119 rural township health centres and 89 urban community health centres were selected to participate in a questionnaire survey. Thirty key informants were selected from these health facilities to be interviewed. Results In 2005, 8.1% and 8.9% of health workers left township and community health centres, respectively. The health workers in rural township health centres had three to 13 years of work experience and typically had received a formal medical education. The majority of the mobile health workers moved to higher-level health facilities; very few moved to other rural township health centres. The rates of workers leaving township and community health centres increased between 2000 and 2005, with the main reasons for leaving being low salaries, limited opportunities for professional development and poor living conditions. Conclusion In China, primary health workers in township health centres and community health centres move to higher-level facilities due to low salaries, limited opportunities for promotion and poor living conditions. The government already has policies in place to counteract this migration, but it must step up enforcement if rural township health centres and urban community centres are to retain health
In this paper, the ecological systems theory of child development is used as the framework for exploring research on the development of African children, especially girl children. The special problems faced by children and the challenges this raises for nurses also are described in this paper. PMID:19544126
Usman, Lantana M.
In Canadian public primary schools, newcomer West African refugees like other ethnic immigrant students are a visible minority group, often referred as Linguistic and Culturally Different (LCD) students. In the province of British Columbia, newcomer immigrant students are subjected to a battery of tests, as soon as they enroll in the primary…
Straiton, Melanie Lindsay; Reneflot, Anne; Diaz, Esperanza
Background: Equity in health care across all social groups is a major goal in health care policy. Immigrants may experience more mental health problems than natives, but we do not know the extent to which they seek help from primary health care services. This study aimed to determine a) the rate immigrants use primary health care services for mental health problems compared with Norwegians and b) the association between length of stay, reason for immigration and service use among immigrants. ...
Ganguly, Enakshi; Garg, Bishan S.
Introduction Health assistants are important functionaries of the primary health care system in India. Their role is supervision of field-based services among other things. A quality assurance mechanism for these health assistants is lacking. The present study was undertaken with the objectives of developing a tool to assess the quality of health assistants in primary health centres (PHCs) and to assess their quality using this tool. Methodology Health assistants from three PHCs in the Wardha...
Adegoke, J. O.
Fire is a key agent of change in the African savannas, which are shaped through the complex interactions between trees, C4 grasses, rainfall, temperature, CO2 and fire. These fires and their emitted smoke can have numerous direct and indirect effects on the environment, water resources, air quality, and climate. For instance, veld fires in southern Africa cause large financial losses to agriculture, livestock production and forestry on an annual basis. This study contributes to our understanding of the implications of projected surface temperature evolution in Africa for fire risk, human health and agriculture over the coming decades. We use an ensemble of high-resolution regional climate model simulations of African climate for the 21st century. Regional dowscalings and recent global circulation model projections obtained for Africa indicate that African temperatures are likely to rise at 1.5 times the global rate of temperature increase in the tropics, and at almost twice the global rate of increase in the subtropics. Warming is projected to occur during the 21st century, with increases of 4-6 °C over the subtropics and 3-5 °C over the tropics plausible by the end of the century relative to present-day climate under the A2 (low mitigation) scenario. We explore the significance of the projected warming by documenting increases in projected high fire danger days and heat-wave days. General drying is projected across the continent, even for areas (e.g. tropical Africa) where an increase in rainfall is plausible. This is due to the drastic increases in temperature that are projected, which leads to drier soils (through enhanced evaporation) despite the rainfall increases. This will likely impact negatively on crop yield, particularly on the maize crop that is of crucial importance in terms of African food security.
The nurse plays an important role in the delivery of primary health care services in South Africa. The primary purpose is to provide the public with access to safe competent basic health care and to achieve this, the nurse should be empowered to practice within legal and ethical boundaries. This paper explores and describes the limitations imposed by legislation on the nurse’s ability to prescribe treatment in the primary health care field. The focus is mainly on the Nursing Act, the Pharmacy...
Jenkins, Rachel; Kiima, David; Njenga, Frank; Okonji, Marx; Kingora, James; Kathuku, Dammas; Lock, Sarah
Integration of mental health into primary care is essential in Kenya, where there are only 75 psychiatrists for 38 million population, of whom 21 are in the universities and 28 in private practice. A partnership between the Ministry of Health, the Kenya Psychiatric Association and the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London was funded by Nuffield Foundation to train 3,000 of the 5,000 primary health care staff in the public health system across Kenya, using a sustainable general health system approach. The content of training was closely aligned to the generic tasks of the health workers. The training delivery was integrated into the normal national training delivery system, and accompanied by capacity building courses for district and provincial level staff to encourage the inclusion of mental health in the district and provincial annual operational plans, and to promote the coordination and supervision of mental health services in primary care by district psychiatric nurses and district public health nurses. The project trained 41 trainers, who have so far trained 1671 primary care staff, achieving a mean change in knowledge score of 42% to 77%. Qualitative observations of subsequent clinical practice have demonstrated improvements in assessment, diagnosis, management, record keeping, medicine supply, intersectoral liaison and public education. Around 200 supervisors (psychiatrists, psychiatric nurses and district public health nurses) have also been trained. The project experience may be useful for other countries also wishing to conduct similar sustainable training and supervision programmes. PMID:20671901
Aidam, Jude; Sombié, Issiaka
Background The West African Health Organization (WAHO) implemented a research development program in West Africa during 2009–2013 using the Knowledge for Better Health Research Capacity Development Framework, developed by Pang et al. (Bull World Health Organ 81(11):815–820, 2003), on strategies used to improve the research environment. The framework has the following components: stewardship, financing, sustainable resourcing and research utilization. This paper describes how WAHO implemented ...
This article explores the tension between African traditional medicine and orthodox medicine, and argues for a cosmopolitan and inclusive health policy that integrates ethnomedical therapies into the core framework of global health architecture. The paper argues that age-old traditional therapies in Africa are relegated to the peripheries of orthodox health policy. The paper briefly discusses the accelerating pace of globalization of intellectual property rights (patents) as a factor that would continue to perpetrate bio-piracy and threaten traditional herbal therapies with extinction. The search for an inclusive global health policy opens a new vista in the interaction of traditional and orthodox medicine. The paper concludes that a sustained relegation of African traditional medicine to the margins of orthodox health policy is a phenomenon that would likely project the globalization of public health as predatory, discriminatory and unfair. PMID:17639845
Bjerrum, Stephanie; Rose, Michala Vaaben; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian;
Background: Diagnosing tuberculosis in children remains a great challenge in developing countries. Health staff working in the front line of the health service delivery system has a major responsibility for timely identification and referral of suspected cases of childhood tuberculosis. This study...... explored primary health care staff’s perception, challenges and needs pertaining to the identification of children with tuberculosis in Muheza district in Tanzania. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study that included 13 semi-structured interviews and 3 focus group discussions with a total of 29 health...... staff purposively sampled from primary health care facilities. Analysis was performed in accordance with the principles of a phenomenological analysis. Results: Primary health care staff perceived childhood tuberculosis to be uncommon in the society and tuberculosis was rarely considered as a likely...
Yasui, Miwa; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Keenan, Kate
Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of cultural factors (ethnic identity, perceived discrimination), family relations, and child problem type on mental health service utilization in a community sample of 1,480 adolescent girls (860 African American, 620 European American) between ages 15 and 17 years enrolled in the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Results revealed ethnic identity, caregiver attachment, and conduct disorder were related to service use among African American girls. Among European American girls, correlate patterns differed by clinical need. Findings highlight the need for research on health disparities to examine racially specific influences on service utilization. PMID:25380787
Kathryn M. Magruder
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Research in the last decade has acknowledged that primary care plays a pivotal role in the delivery of mental health services. The aim of this paper is to review major accomplishments, emerging trends, and continuing gaps concerning mental health problems in primary care in North America. Methods: Literature from North America was reviewed and synthesized. Results: Major accomplishments include: the development and adoption of a number of clinical guidelines specifically for mental health conditions in primary care, the acceptance of the chronic care model as a framework for treating depression in primary care, and the clear adoption of pharmacologic approaches as the predominant mode for treating depression and anxiety. Emerging trends include: the use of non-physician facilitators as care managers in the treatment of depression in primary care, increasing use of technology in the assessment and treatment of mental health conditions in primary care, and dissemination and implementation of integrated mental health treatment approaches. Lingering issues include: the difficulty in moving beyond problem identification and initiation of treatment to sustaining evidence-based treatments, agreement on a common metric to evaluate outcomes, and the stigma still associated with mental illness. Conclusion: Though there now exists a solid and growing evidence base for the delivery of mental health services in primary care, there are still significant challenges which must be overcome in order to make further advances.
Maphuthego D. Mathibe; Stephen J.H. Hendricks; Anne-Marie Bergh
Background: Primary Health Care (PHC) clinicians and patients are major role players in the South African antiretroviral treatment programme. Understanding their perceptions and experiences of integrated care and the management of people living with HIV and AIDS in PHC facilities is necessary for successful implementation and sustainability of integration.Objective: This study explored clinician perceptions and patient experiences of integration of antiretroviral treatment in PHC clinics.Meth...
John Smallwood; Danie Venter
A large number of fatalities and injuries occur in the South African construction industry.Traditionally, the print media have dedicated editorial, published news, articles andletters, and have exposed abusive or non-conforming conditions and practices in termsof H&S. Literature also indicates that the print media can influence and has an impacton H&S.Given the level of fatalities and injuries and the potential role of the print media, a postalsurvey was conducted among editors of con...
Gathers, Raechele Cochran; Mahan, Meredith Grace
Objectives: The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hair loss among African American women; explore the psychosocial impact of hair grooming difficulties; and examine both perceptions related to physician encounters in this group and the relationship between hair grooming, physical activity, and weight maintenance. Design: An anonymous retrospective and qualitative survey, the Hair Care Assessment Survey, is an 18-question novel survey instrument designed at the Henry F...
Rima M Albalushi
Full Text Available Background: To measure clients′ satisfaction with primary health care in the capital of Oman, Muscat, and also to identify the factors affecting their satisfaction. Methods: Through a cross-sectional study in health centers, 400 participants during the period from November 2009 to February 2010 were interviewed about their satisfaction degree with the primary health care services and setting. Four urban primary health care clinics from Muscat were selected randomly. Six domains of satisfaction including accessibility to services, continuity of care, humaneness of staff, comprehensiveness of care, provision of health education, and effectiveness of services were calculated from selected variables. The mean score of each area were calculated and then divided by the number of items in each area. Finally satisfaction areas were ranked based on recent criteria. Results: Mean age was 29.5 years (SD = 9.37 for male and 26.01 years (SD = 7.12 for female participants. All the areas were suitable and only continuity of care had negative score. The ranked areas of satisfaction were as humanness of staff, effectiveness of services, access to services, provision of health educational materials, comprehensiveness of care, continuity of care. Conclusions: Primary health care were accepted as a suitable strategy for providing health care among clients of urban health centers of Muscat. It can be recommended to other countries to use this as a choice for health care provision.
Maria Vladimirovna Sklyanova
Full Text Available Gout is a systemic tophaceous disease that is becoming more and more prevalent. If untreated or poorly managed, gout can result in disability. The possible reason for inadequate gout control may be that the primary care physicians are unaware of diagnostic criteria and clinical guidelines for the management of these patients and diagnostic errors. Objective: to estimate the level of gout knowledge in primary care physicians. Subjects and methods. Fifty Irkutsk local therapists were questioned. A specially developed anonymous questionnaire included items on sex, age, work experience, and the principles of gout diagnosis and treatment. Results. Only 42% of the therapists know that the gold standard for diagnosis of gout is identification of monosodium urate crystals by polarizing microscopy. Only 6% of the therapists use the Wallace classification criteria for the early diagnosis of gout. 56 % of the physicians consider it possible to prescribe allopurinol in the acute period of the disease 26% think that allopurinol intake can be stopped after normouricemia is achieved; 10% of the physicians do not prescribe allopurinol for gout patients. These widespread errors lead to worsening arthritis and a negative attitude of patients towards allopurinol treatment in future. Conclusion. The findings suggest that the level of gout knowledge should be increased in primary care physicians.
Maria Vladimirovna Sklyanova
Full Text Available Gout is a systemic tophaceous disease that is becoming more and more prevalent. If untreated or poorly managed, gout can result in disability. The possible reason for inadequate gout control may be that the primary care physicians are unaware of diagnostic criteria and clinical guidelines for the management of these patients and diagnostic errors. Objective: to estimate the level of gout knowledge in primary care physicians. Subjects and methods. Fifty Irkutsk local therapists were questioned. A specially developed anonymous questionnaire included items on sex, age, work experience, and the principles of gout diagnosis and treatment. Results. Only 42% of the therapists know that the gold standard for diagnosis of gout is identification of monosodium urate crystals by polarizing microscopy. Only 6% of the therapists use the Wallace classification criteria for the early diagnosis of gout. 56 % of the physicians consider it possible to prescribe allopurinol in the acute period of the disease 26% think that allopurinol intake can be stopped after normouricemia is achieved; 10% of the physicians do not prescribe allopurinol for gout patients. These widespread errors lead to worsening arthritis and a negative attitude of patients towards allopurinol treatment in future. Conclusion. The findings suggest that the level of gout knowledge should be increased in primary care physicians.
Ford, D S; Goode, C R
The authors identify specific health-related behaviors of African American college students and compare them with the students' perceptions of corresponding health issues. Among students surveyed, the rate of cigarette smoking (4%) was very low compared with smoking rates found in a national survey (14%); but alcohol consumption was relatively high (63%), although lower than the national average of 91%. More men than women smoked, but more women than men reported they drank alcoholic beverages. Most students (90.2%) said they did not usually eat breakfast, 73.6% reported that their diets were not nutritionally balanced, and the majority (55.4%) were not involved in daily physical activity. More than half (63%) of the students reported satisfactorily handling stress, and 74.1% indicated that they were sexually active. Respondents perceived the most important health issues facing college students as HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), birth control, date rape, stress management, suicide, and alcohol and other drugs. PMID:8201133
Shield, T; Campbell, S; Rogers, A; Worrall, A; Chew-Graham, C; Gask, L
Objectives: To identify a generic set of face valid quality indicators for primary care mental health services which reflect a multi-stakeholder perspective and can be used for facilitating quality improvement.
Holden, Kisha B.; McGregor, Brian S.; Blanks, Starla H.; Mahaffey, Carlos
The social determinants unique to African-American men’s health contribute to limited access and utilization of health and mental health care services and can have a deleterious effect on their overall health and well-being. There is a need to examine the complex issues concerning African-American men’s help-seeking behaviors relative to mental health concerns. Current research estimates that African-American men are approximately 30% more likely to report having a mental illness compared to ...
The University of Helsinki has devised a powerful in-service training course for managers of health centres. By working together at the University and their own centres on setting objectives, analysing data and solving problems, the participants greatly enhance their management and teamwork skills. PMID:7945761
Made Gede Cahyadi Permana
Insomnia is regarded as sleep disorder that most often affects people in the world, both in primary and in the presence of comorbid conditions. Based on those facts, insomnia could be a serious problem at the level of primary health care. General Practitioner should be able to diagnose insomnia and able to perform the appropriate treatment for the patient. Psychosocial factors may related to the degree of severity of insomnia, among others are health status, depression, dysfunctional beliefs ...
Ab Rahman, Norazida; Sivasampu, Sheamini; Mohamad Noh, Kamaliah; Khoo, Ee Ming
Background The world population has become more globalised with increasing number of people residing in another country for work or other reasons. Little is known about the health profiles of foreign population in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed description of the health problems presented by foreigners attending primary care clinics in Malaysia. Methods Data were derived from the 2012 National Medical Care Survey (NMCS), a cross sectional survey of primary care enco...
Karin C. Ringsberg; Paula Bjärneman; Ronny Larsson; Elisabeth Wallström; Olle Löwhagen
Some patients with an asthma diagnosis have a poor controlled asthma. One explanation may be an incorrect diagnosis. Aim. The aim of the study was to diagnose and classify patients with non-infectious lower respiratory tract problems in primary health care using internationally applied diagnostic criteria and diagnostic tests. Patients and Methods. New adult patients visiting a primary health care centre due to lower airway problems were included. The diagnostic tests included FEV1, FVC, PEF,...
Maria Cristina Barbaro
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: evaluate prenatal care for adolescents in health units, in accordance with the attributes of Primary Health Care (PHC guidelines. METHOD: quantitative study conducted with health professionals, using the Primary Care Assessment Tool-Brazil to assess the presence and extent of PHC attributes. RESULTS: for all the participating units, the attribute Access scored =6.6; the attributes Longitudinality, Coordination (integration of care, Coordination (information systems and Integrality scored =6.6, and the Essential Score =6.6. Comparing basic units with family health units, the attribute scores were equally distributed; Accessibility scored =6.6, the others attributes scored =6.6; however, in the basic units, the Essential Score was =6.6 and, in the family health units, =6.6. CONCLUSION: expanding the coverage of family health units and the training of professionals can be considered strategies to qualify health care.
Full Text Available A large body of literature studies on the relationship between health care expenditure (HCE and GDP have been analyzed using data intensively from developed countries, but little is known for other regions. This paper considers a semiparametric panel data analysis for the study of the relationship between per capita HCE and per capita GDP for 42 African countries over the period 1995–2009. We found that infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births has a negative effect on per capita HCE, while the proportion of the population aged 65 is statistically insignificant in African countries. Furthermore, we found that the income elasticity is not constant but varies with income level, and health care is a necessity rather than a luxury for African countries.
Talmi, Ayelet; Stafford, Brian; Buchholz, Melissa
After birth, newborns and their caregivers are seen routinely and frequently in pediatric primary care settings. The close succession of visits in the first few months of life puts pediatric primary care professionals in a unique position to enhance infant mental health by developing strong relationships with caregivers, supporting babies and…
In the theoretical part of the dissertation I discuss the health of primary school teachers in general. The research goals were: find out how much teachers do sports in their free time, which are teachers' most common diseases and injuries, check their satisfaction with the working environment and establish what their opinion on teaching physical education is. 121 primary school teachers from 20 primary schools in the Central Slovenia took part in the research. The research was quantitat...
Full Text Available Primary health care is analyzed as the alternative throughwhich health systems will recover the role they had during thelate twentieth century: working with other sectors to implementhealth promotion actions to improve the users’ quality of lifeand equity. A renewal is presented in recognition of the effortsduring the final century to establish primary care policies andprograms as the core of the health systems, emphasizing thereorientation of health services. This paper discusses the principles and methods establishedby the new proposal for primary health care. This renewalproposal raises expectations regarding its return to the past,not only as a strategy but also because it raises hopes at a timeof global crisis whose impact on health services is evident.The first question posed here is: Is there really a renewal?The discussion focuses on the following topics: phc and thedeterioration of health indicators in many areas in the world,social inequalities and health inequities, the weaknesses inthe declarations of Alma Ata understood as “medicine forthe poor,” the renewal of phc as opposed to the critical healthstatus in countries and the opposing progress of the neoliberalglobalization, phc and the political conceptions of the Right,phc and the reform to the reform of the health systems;coordination of phc with health promotion and public health,the changes in the contexts and the new economic crisis in thisglobal event. The paper concludes with a call to revitalize theprocesses of the health systems from a political standpoint, andto rethink the sanitary reforms of the health systems basing thereasoning on primary health care, which is the focus of theirtransformation.
Nicholson, Caroline; Jackson, Claire L; Marley, John E; Wells, Robert
Primary health care in Australia has undergone 2 decades of change. Starting with a vision for a national health strategy with general practice at its core, Australia established local meso-level primary health care organizations--Divisions of General Practice--moving from focus on individual practitioners to a professional collective local voice. The article identifies how these meso-level organizations have helped the Australian primary health care system evolve by supporting the roll-out of initiatives including national practice accreditation, a focus on quality improvement, expansion of multidisciplinary teams into general practice, regional integration, information technology adoption, and improved access to care. Nevertheless, there are still challenges to ensuring equitable access and the supply and distribution of a primary care workforce, addressing the increasing rates of chronic disease and obesity, and overcoming the fragmentation of funding and accountability in the Australian system. PMID:22403246
Full Text Available Abstract Background The complicity of the South African health sector in apartheid and the international relevance of human rights as a professional obligation prompted moves to include human rights competencies in the curricula of health professionals in South Africa. A Train-the-Trainers course in Health and Human Rights was established in 1998 to equip faculty members from health sciences institutions nationwide with the necessary skills, attitudes and knowledge to teach human rights to their students. This study followed up participants to determine the extent of curriculum implementation, support needed as well as barriers encountered in integrating human rights into health sciences teaching and learning. Methods A survey including both quantitative and qualitative components was distributed in 2007 to past course participants from 1998-2006 via telephone, fax and electronic communication. Results Out of 162 past participants, 46 (28% completed the survey, the majority of whom were still employed in academic settings (67%. Twenty-two respondents (48% implemented a total of 33 formal human rights courses into the curricula at their institutions. Respondents were nine times more likely (relative risk 9.26; 95% CI 5.14-16.66 to implement human rights education after completing the training. Seventy-two extracurricular activities were offered by 21 respondents, many of whom had successfully implemented formal curricula. Enabling factors for implementation included: prior teaching experience in human rights, general institutional support and the presence of allies - most commonly coworkers as well as deans. Frequently cited barriers to implementation included: budget restrictions, time constraints and perceived apathy of colleagues or students. Overall, respondents noted personal enrichment and optimism in teaching human rights. Conclusion This Train-the-Trainer course provides the historical context, educational tools, and collective motivation
Rasanathan, Kumanan; Montesinos, Eugenio Villar; Matheson, Don; Etienne, Carissa; Evans, Tim
Increasing focus on health inequities has brought renewed attention to two related policy discourses - primary health care and the social determinants of health. Both prioritise health equity and also promote a broad view of health, multisectoral action and the participation of empowered communities. Differences arise in the lens each applies to the health sector, with resultant tensions around their mutual ability to reform health systems and address the social determinants. However, pitting them against each is unproductive. Health services that do not consciously address social determinants exacerbate health inequities. If a revitalised primary health care is to be the key approach to organise society to minimise health inequities, action on social determinants has to be a major constituent strategy. Success in reducing health inequities will require ensuring that the broad focus of primary health care and the social determinants is kept foremost in policy - instead of the common historical experience of efforts being limited to a part of the health sector. PMID:19933684
Vanhatalo, Joni; Sarker, Md. Abdur
This thesis deals with the observation and intervention of primary school teachers to promote mental health among their pupils. It was collaborated with KOPSY project which focuses on the mental health promotion of primary school pupils. Mental health promotion of the primary school pupils is a growing concept all over the world now days, because behavior problems among pupils are a growing concern for parents and teachers. The main purpose of this research is to find out based on their exper...
McNulty, John L.; Graham, John R.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; Stein, L. A. R.
The comparative validity of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scores for 123 African American and 561 Caucasian clients from a community mental health center was studied by contrasting mean MMPI-2 scores and correlations between these scores and therapists' ratings. Correlations were not significantly different for racial…
Turner-Musa, Jocelyn O.; Wilson, Shaunqula A.
This study examined the role of religious orientation and social support in health-promoting behaviors of African American college students. Data were collected from 211 students attending a historically Black university. Results from a 4 x 2 MANOVA revealed significant main effects for both variables. No interaction effects were observed. Post…
Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.; Liburd, Leandris
Since the release of former Secretary Margaret Heckler's "Secretary's Task Force Report on Black and Minority Health" more than two decades ago, excess death from chronic diseases and other conditions between African Americans and Whites have increased. The conclusion of that report emphasized excess death and thus clinical care, paying little…
Obeng, Cecilia S.
Purpose: The paper examines African immigrant parents' views on dental decay and whether such views affect their decision to obtain dental insurance for their children. The paper also examines the cultural underpinnings of the immigrants' oral health care practices. Design/methodology/approach: The data for the study were collected in the states…
Schäfer, W.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Hansen, J.; Black, N.
Background: All European health systems face several common challenges related to increases in lifestyle and chronic diseases, a decreasing future workforce, inequalities in health and the consequences of societal changes. Primary care, which has the potential to help meet these challenges, would be
Full Text Available The migration is a multidimensional and complex problem of modern times. The social, political, economic and cultural negative circumstances prevailing in many states and communities of the world are pushing people into new places and destinations to permanent or temporary residence. In recent years, Greece is a country of immigration destination resulting in a entrance of people with different national and racial characteristics. The installation of the population in the country and use of structures and services of the state has a big change in the political, economic and social developments affecting major systems and subsystems of the state including the health system.The use of social structures and particularly of Primary Health Care, by immigrants occurs quite reduced compared to the native people. The use of Primary Health Care limited in emergencies situations and less in health prevention. Factors such as language, the high economic cost of providing medical services and remote Primary Health Care services seems to have a negative impact on search on medical treatment and nursing care. Important seen the role of the state and health professionals to use the Primary Health Care services from the immigrant population. Actions such as removing social exclusion and implementation of specialized prevention programs, can contribute greatly to the health of immigrants
McCune, Renee L.
Patient health literacy skills are critical to effective healthcare communication and safe care delivery in primary care settings. Methods and strategies to identify patient health literacy (HL) capabilities and provider/staff knowledge, attitudes and beliefs (KAB) regarding HL must be known before addressing provider/staff communication skills.…
Maryam Amin; Pawan Nyachhyon; Maryam Elyasi; Muhammed Al-Nuaimi
Purpose. To evaluate the impact of an educational workshop on parental knowledge, attitude, and perceived behavioral control regarding their child’s oral health. Materials and Methods. A one-time oral health education workshop including audio/visual and hands-on components was conducted by a trained dentist and bilingual community workers in community locations. Participants were African parents of children who had lived in Canada for less than ten years. The impact of the workshop was evalua...
LePlatte, Dayna; Rosenblum, Katherine Lisa; Stanton, Emily; Miller, Nicole; Muzik, Maria
Mental health care is important for everyone, especially teenagers. However, seeking mental health services may be challenging for teenagers, particularly when they are also parents. Offering mental health care in a safe, attractive and easily accessible manner, such as primary care, increases the chances that teenage parents will receive help. Comprehensive care models need to be established to address the many needs that at-risk young mothers and their children face. There are a number of p...
Thielke S; Thompson A.; Stuart R
Stephen Thielke1, Alexander Thompson2, Richard Stuart31Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Puget Sound VA Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, WA, USA; 3Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Over the last decade, research about health psychology in primary care has reiterated its contributions to mental and physical health promotion, ...
Wambugu Susan W; Izugbara Chimaraoke O; Kabiru Caroline W; Ezeh Alex C
Abstract Africa's progress depends on her capacity to generate, adapt, and use scientific knowledge to meet regional health and development needs. Yet, Africa's higher education institutions that are mandated to foster this capacity lack adequate resources to generate and apply knowledge, raising the need for innovative approaches to enhance research capacity. In this paper, we describe a newly-developed program to support PhD research in health and population sciences at African universities...
Motari, Marion; Ota, Martin Okechukwu; Kirigia, Joses Muthuri
Background The increasing emphasis on research, development and innovation for health in providing solutions to the high burden of diseases in the African Region has warranted a proliferation of studies including clinical trials. This changing public health landscape requires that countries develop adequate ethics review capacities to protect and minimize risks to study participants. Therefore, this study assessed the readiness of national ethics committees to respond to challenges posed by a...
Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Green, Kerry M.; Thorpe, Roland J.; Robertson, Judy; Kasper, Judith D.; Juon, Hee-Soon
Using longitudinal data from the Woodlawn Project (N=680), this study examined how patterns of living arrangements among a community cohort of African American mothers were associated with later physical and emotional health. We identified eight patterns of stability and transition in living arrangements during the childrearing years. Health outcomes include SF-36 Physical Functioning, SF-36 Bodily Pain, depressed mood, and anxious mood. Specific patterns of living arrangements were related t...
Boutayeb Abdesslam; Helmert Uwe
Abstract Background During the last decades, North African countries have substantially improved economic, social and health conditions of their populations in average. In all countries, human development in general and life expectancy, literacy and per capita income in particular have increased. However, improvement was not equally shared between groups of different milieu, regions or level of income. Social inequalities and health inequity have persisted or even worsened. Data are generally...
Focus of this discussion is on some of the problems enountered by national immunization programs and on the technology that is available now or that will be in the near future to help solve these problems. 4 basic aspects of immunization services are examined: the safety, effectiveness, and stability of vaccines; the cold chain, i.e., the transportation, storage, and handling of heat-sensitives vaccines from manufacturer to health worker in the field; vaccination equipment and sterilization for correct administration of immunization; and program management--schedules, records, training, resource allocation. The section devoted to vaccines focuses on immunization against 6 of (diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, measles, polio, and tuberculosis) against 6 of the major killers of children in developing countries: BCG, DPT (diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus), measles and poli vaccines, and tetanus toxiod. The bacillus of Calmette and Guerline (BCG) is considered a very safe vaccine. Questions about the effectiveness of BCG in preventing tuberculosis have been raised throughout its 60-year history. Different studies have produced conflicting results, some showing BCG to be highly effective and others showing no positive effect. Diphtheria toxioid, a very safe and relatively stable vaccine, is very effective in protecting against the development of diphtheria. Live attenuated measles virus vaccine is a safe, highly effective vaccine, but it requires careful handling and storage to prevent damage due to excessive heat or light exposure. The vaccine used for pertussis (whooping cough) is a saline suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis bacteria. The vaccine usually is administered as part of the triple DPT vaccine. Concerns about its safety have led to greatly reduced levels of use in some European countries in recent years. Its effectiveness also has been questioned. 2 types of polio vaccine are available: a live, attenuated vaccine given orally (Sabin) and a killed or
This thesis seeks to create a strategic business plan for a logistics business. It aims to develop the untapped market, created by African immigrants in Scandinavia. The thesis will examines processes involve is starting a logistics business in Finland and Nigeria, and the regulation involved in doing business. The primary focus of this research will be setting up a business in Finland and Nigeria, with the hope of expanding the company to serve people in other Scandinavian countries and othe...
Moore, Erin W; Berkley-Patton, Jannette Y; Berman, Marcie; Burleson, Christine; Judah, Abigail
This study sought to identify characteristics, including religiosity, related to having received health screenings among persons who attend African-American churches or receive church-based community outreach services. A sample of 602 was recruited during two phases as part of a larger project. Blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood glucose screenings were the most frequently reported screenings ever and in the last 12 months. Although religiosity was significantly related to several of the health screenings in bivariate analysis, it is not a predictor of health screenings in multivariate analyses. Innovative strategies are needed to promote screenings such as church-based health fairs. PMID:27272330
Frostholm, Lisbeth; Oernboel, Eva; Christensen, Kaj S;
follow-up for the whole group of patients. Patients presenting with MUS had more negative illness perceptions and lower mental and physical components subscale of the SF-36 scores at all time points. CONCLUSIONS: Patients' perception of a new or recurrent health problem predicts self-reported physical......OBJECTIVE: Little is known about whether illness perceptions affect health outcomes in primary care patients. The aim of this study was to examine if patients' illness perceptions were associated with their self-rated health in a 2-year follow-up period. METHODS: One thousand seven hundred eighty......-five primary care patients presenting a new or recurrent health problem completed an adapted version of the illness perception questionnaire and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) at baseline and 3, 12, and 24 months' follow-up. Linear regressions were performed for (1) all...
This is a long awaited text within the field of mental health in South Africa, as there is very little written about culture and mental health within the specific context of South Africa. This book is very useful for students in any field of mental health like psychology, nursing, social work and medicine. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.
Harmon, Brook E; Chock, Marci; Brantley, Elizabeth; Wirth, Michael D; Hébert, James R
Using the right messaging strategies, churches can help promote behavior change. Frequencies of disease-specific messages in 21 African-American churches were compared to overall and cancer-specific mortality and morbidity rates as well as church-level variables. Disease messages were found in 1025 of 2166 items. Frequently referenced topics included cancer (n = 316), mental health conditions (n = 253), heart disease (n = 246), and infectious diseases (n = 220). Messages for lung and colorectal cancers appeared at low frequency despite high mortality rates in African-American communities. Season, church size, and denomination showed significant associations with health messages. Next steps include testing messaging strategies aimed at improving the health of churchgoing communities. PMID:26296703
Zacharenia Androulaki; Nicolaos Kontas; Theodoros Palios; Katerina Mazgala; Athanasios Tzavaras; Apostolia Marvaki; Olga Kadda
During last decades, the National Health System’s interest of many countries has been focused on primary health care (PHC), of which the main centre is the human being and it is the main pillar for promoting health and improving quality of life.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore Greek citizen’s needs and the responsiveness of health services in terms of coverage.Material-Method: The sample studied consisted of 1206 citizens of Greece. Collection of data was performed by means o...
Full Text Available Managers in health care often find themselves in the difficult position of having to make decisions regarding the purchasing of software and hardware which they are not qualified to make. The aim of this paper is to support health managers in their decision making by means of a procedure and an instrument that can be used to evaluate primary health care software. A seven step approach to the evaluation process is proposed and each step is discussed in detail. The paper concludes with a proposed software evaluation instrument that is suitable for application in the health care environment.
Background International codes of ethics play an important role in guiding professional practice in developing countries. In the occupational health setting, codes developed by international agencies have substantial import on protecting working populations from harm. This is particularly so under globalisation which has transformed processes of production in fundamental ways across the globe. As part of the process of revising the Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health, an Africa Working Group addressed key challenges for the relevance and cogency of an ethical code in occupational health for an African context through an iterative consultative process. Discussion Firstly, even in the absence of strong legal systems of enforcement, and notwithstanding the value of legal institutionalisation of ethical codes, guidelines alone may offer advantageous routes to enhancing ethical practice in occupational health. Secondly, globalisation has particularly impacted on health and safety at workplaces in Africa, challenging occupational health professionals to be sensitive to, and actively redress imbalance of power. Thirdly, the different ways in which vulnerability is exemplified in the workplace in Africa often places the occupational health professional in invidious positions of Dual Loyalty. Fourth, the particular cultural emphasis in traditional African societies on collective responsibilities within the community impacts directly on how consent should be sought in occupational health practice, and how stigma should be dealt with, balancing individual autonomy with ideas of personhood that are more collective as in the African philosophy of ubuntu. To address stigma, practitioners need to be additionally sensitive to how power imbalances at the workplace intersect with traditional cultural norms related to solidarity. Lastly, particularly in the African context, the inseparability of workplace and community means that efforts to address
Kilduff, A; McKeown, K; Crowther, A
The purpose of the paper is to place health needs assessment in its primary care context. This is a dynamic context where changes in policies, staff roles and patient expectations have all to be considered. Given this complexity and the variations between practices, it is necessary to help primary health care teams (PHCTs) to understand their stage of development and how this will directly affect any health needs assessment. The technical and methodological aspects of health needs assessment have been explored and described by others, and that work will not be duplicated here. This paper reviews the health needs assessment (HNA) work of the Ribblesdale Total Purchasing Project (RTPP) and then sets this review against the political, organisational, professional and practical pressures that currently confront primary care. Out of this analysis emerges a diagnostic and development tool which links together, and emphasises the intimate relationships between, five stages of development needed for effective primary care-oriented health needs assessment work. The emphasis is on understanding the place of health needs assessment within the general processes and systems of the primary health care team. The paper concludes by suggesting ways in which public health practitioners and specialists might approach the task of supporting and influencing the evolution of the recently proposed Primary Care Groups and Primary Care Trusts. The overall intention of the article is to stimulate debate and action. PMID:9629025
Schwartz, Mark D
To establish and sustain the high-performing health care system envisioned in the Affordable Care Act (ACA), current provisions in the law to strengthen the primary care workforce must be funded, implemented, and tested. However, the United States is heading towards a severe primary care workforce bottleneck due to ballooning demand and vanishing supply. Demand will be fueled by the “silver tsunami” of 80 million Americans retiring over the next 20 years and the expanded insurance coverage fo...
Full Text Available Resource limited countries continue to be plagued with rising prevalence of malaria, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS as well as other emerging diseases despite the huge financial support provided by bilateral and multilateral agencies to combat these diseases. While progress may have been made in reducing the global burden caused by these diseases on one hand, there has also been a weakening of the primary health care facility on the other hand which was the hallmark to the Alma Ata declaration of 1978. More attention has been placed on our global health needs while the diverse health needs of every community have been neglected. This fatal neglect at the community level highlights the need for the provision of specialize primary health care (PHC facilities which should not only be affordable, accessible and available, but be appropriate to the priority health needs of the community, especially at the rural level. Hence specialized PHC facilities will be tailored to meet the most pressing health needs of the communities it covers among other diseases. Consequently, this innovative approach will not only strengthen the primary health care system by improving wellbeing especially at the rural level but will also improve the outcome of vertical program at communities where it is most needed.
Duncan, Margaret Carlisle; Robinson, T. Tavita
This study explores the female body ideal and its implications for health and fitness practices in African-American culture. Employing Patricia Hill Collins's (1986) notion of the "outsider-within," we analyze a focus group discussion on women's body ideals, exercise, and fitness. Our group comprises 9 young, college-educated African-American…
Marahatta, Sujan B
The quest for greater efficiency, fairness and responsiveness to the expectation of the people that system serve have brought about three generations of health system reforms in the twentieth century. The first generation saw the founding of national health care systems and extension to middle income nations of social insurance systems in the 1940s and 1950s. By the late 1960s the rising costs of hospital based care, its usage by better off, inaccessibility by the poor and rural population of even the most basic services heralded second generation reforms promoting primary health care as a means of achieving the affordable universal coverage. It included the best public health strategy that is prevention and the highest ethical principle of public health that is equity. It was expected the best system for reaching households with essential and affordable care, and the best route towards universal coverage. The primary health care approach though adopted universally did not materialize its notion of translating ethos of Health for All by 2000. Overall, primary health care movement by the end of 20th century became lifeless. Since the Declaration of Alma-Ata, fundamental changes have occurred affecting health service delivery, such as economic development and financing approaches, globalization of trade and knowledge, and the shift to privatization. This is the time to develop a new vision, taking into consideration the many changes affecting global health and the strategic developments in health of recent years. With this recognition, the third generation of reforms now underway in many countries is driven by the idea of responding more to demand, assuring access for the poor and emphasizing financing rather than just provision within the public sector. The key concern is: how to translate ethos of revitalizing in the reality. Otherwise the revitalizing concept will turn into utopian goal so like HFA by 2000 strategy. PMID:22610741
Primary care in Spain has undergone a burgeoning phase in the 80's, followed by a decade of stagnation in the 90's, with little creativity, a routinisation of tasks, and the set up of service port-folios and program-contracts. On the other hand, the recent changes in the orientation of the research promoted by the health administration, in favor of basic research, at the expense of health services research and clinical epidemiology, are in contrast with the importance of primary care as a natural setting for the management of many causal agents and risk factors for health. Despite such limitations, the culture of research has become present in many primary care centres and pharmacies, and primary care research is increasingly present in scientific journals. Nevertheless, it is necessary, also for the case of primary care, to manage research, in differentiated and specific ways, favoring priorization, evaluation and responsibility through flexible organisational formulas and information systems. This should include contracting procedures allowing for at least part-time research, as well as professional career models acknowledging research and teaching activities. Scientific and professional associations in primary care face the challenge of maintaning research projects, of increasing their presence among professionals, of formulating opinions regarding the problems of their sector, as well as of reinforcing their organizational and communication capabilities. PMID:11958755
D. P. Knobel
Full Text Available The critical need for primary health care in Southern Africa with special reference to the demands of the heterogenous population is measured against the background of the declaration of Alma Ata at the WHO/UNICEF conference in 1978. In particular the provision of primary health care to the Third World communities of the RSA as an essential part of the security power base of the State is underlined and it is analised in terms of how shortcomings in this service can be exploited in a subversive revolutionary onslaught.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Facilities across Africa care for apes orphaned by the trade for "bushmeat." These facilities, called sanctuaries, provide housing for apes such as bonobos (Pan paniscus and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes who have been illegally taken from the wild and sold as pets. Although these circumstances are undoubtedly stressful for the apes, most individuals arrive at the sanctuaries as infants and are subsequently provided with rich physical and social environments that can facilitate the expression of species-typical behaviors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We tested whether bonobo and chimpanzee orphans living in sanctuaries show any behavioral, physiological, or cognitive abnormalities relative to other individuals in captivity as a result of the early-life stress they experience. Orphans showed lower levels of aberrant behaviors, similar levels of average cortisol, and highly similar performances on a broad battery of cognitive tests in comparisons with individuals of the same species who were either living at a zoo or were reared by their mothers at the sanctuaries. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results support the rehabilitation strategy used by sanctuaries in the Pan-African Sanctuary Alliance (PASA and suggest that the orphans we examined did not show long-term signs of stress as a result of their capture. Our findings also show that sanctuary apes are as psychologically healthy as apes in other captive settings and thus represent a valuable resource for non-invasive research.
Full Text Available A large number of fatalities and injuries occur in the South African construction industry.Traditionally, the print media have dedicated editorial, published news, articles andletters, and have exposed abusive or non-conforming conditions and practices in termsof H&S. Literature also indicates that the print media can influence and has an impacton H&S.Given the level of fatalities and injuries and the potential role of the print media, a postalsurvey was conducted among editors of construction and related magazines. Findingsindicate that: the print media do contribute to and play a role in construction H&S;industry has the capacity and needs to promote H&S on a wider basis; there is a needto improve construction H&S; to a degree, editors are aware of what constitutes unsafeacts and unsafe conditions, and the print media can play an increased role through thereview of articles, advertisements, advertorial, editorial and photographs to prevent thedepiction of unhealthy and unsafe practices and conditions
Gonnerman, Melvin E; Lutz, Gene M; Yehieli, Michele; Meisinger, Bruce K
The roles religious and health promoting behaviors may play in bolstering positive physical and emotional health were assessed using structured, face-to-face interviews conducted using a non-random community sample of 105 adult African American, Protestant Christians in a small city in a rural state in the Midwest. The interview measured health promotion, health locus of control beliefs, emotional health, physical health, religious practices, and demographics. Health promotion, church attendance, or both were related to decreased prevalence of loneliness, depression, trouble sleeping, and family problems. More than 80% of those interviewed ascribed healing power to God and prayer. There was an apparent lack of connection between respondents' attitudes about faith and healing and their actual experiences. PMID:18263995
Nasir, Arwa; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu; DiRenzo-Coffey, Gina
The aim of this research was to explore primary care pediatricians' experiences in delivering behavioral health services in their own practices within the Nebraska context. An online survey was sent to the 154 primary care pediatricians who are members of the Nebraska chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Questions explored their management of behavioral problems, attitudes, and perceived barriers to providing behavioral health services in their practices. Seventy pediatricians completed the survey (47%). The majority of pediatricians reported seeing substantial numbers of children with behavioral problems. Eighty-five percent believed that most emotional and behavioral complaints could be managed by the pediatrician. Eighty-eight percent believed that the parents would prefer to receive services for their children's behavioral problems in the primary care office. Most felt that their training in mental health issues was inadequate. Pediatricians in this survey feel that pediatric behavioral problems are best managed in the primary care office and perceive that parents also prefer this setting. Improving training in behavioral health in pediatrics is necessary to meet the delivery of much needed behavioral health care to children and families. PMID:25398258
Affinnih, Yahya H
This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti
Odunlami Olufemi Adeyinka
Conclusion: The outcomes of this study indicate that ocular blood flow alterations including reductions in PSV and EDV and increase in RI of the OA and CRA are present in black-skinned Africans with POAG.
Aston, Megan; Meagher-Stewart, Donna; Edwards, Nancy; Young, Linda M
Citizen participation is heralded as a critical element of community health programs that emphasize empowerment and health promotion strategies. Although there is a growing body of research on public health nurses' primary health care practice, few studies have described how public health nurses foster citizen participation. This article presents findings from an interpretive qualitative study of public health nurses' perceptions of their role in fostering citizen participation in an eastern Canadian province at a time of significant health care restructuring. The findings from this study clearly profile public health nurses as integral to the practice of fostering citizen participation. PMID:19177270
There is a growing international consensus that African health systems need to improve, but no agreement on how to accomplish this. From the perspective of modern quality improvement (QI), a central issue for low performance in these health systems is the relative neglect of health-care processes. Both health system leaders and international donors have focused their efforts elsewhere, producing noteworthy health gains. But these gains are at risk if health systems do not develop the capacity to study and improve care processes. Substantial experience with QI in Africa shows impressive potential for broad-based process improvement. But this experience also highlights the need for modifying these growing programs to incorporate a more rigorous learning component to address challenges that have emerged recently. The addition of a region-wide knowledge management program could increase the efficiency of each country's QI program by learning from the experiences of other programs. With a coordinated donor initiative, it is reasonable to project that within 5 years, evidence-based improvement will become a norm in health services, and African health systems will approach the model of a learning organization. PMID:24481053
Andréa Silvia Walter de Aguiar; Pollyanna Martins
Historically, the primary health care (PHC) has been associated with the first level of care from a health system and characterized by the kind of professional that in it operates, where is expected a predominance of specialists in this area. However, the major limitation for this type of characterization is that the profile of professionals engaged in this service may vary from country to country.Several theoretical and conceptual landmarks proposed approaches and indicators to assess and ch...
Raine, R.; Lewis, L.; Sensky, T; Hutchings, A; Hirsch, S; Black, N.
BACKGROUND: A large proportion of a general practitioner's (GP's) caseload comprises patients with mental health problems. It is important to ensure that care is provided appropriately, on the basis of clinical need. It is therefore necessary to investigate the determinants of the use of mental health care in the primary care sector and, in particular, to identify any non-clinical characteristics of patients that affect the likelihood of their receiving appropriate care. AIM: To identify and ...
Frame, P. S.; Werth, P. L.
This presentation describes a computerized health maintenance tracking system for primary care designed to be linked to the practice billing system. Providers enter health maintenance data along with billing data on an encounter form. Physician and patient reminders are generated once a year for all patients regardless of appointment status. Multiple entry options are available and the frequency of procedures can be varied for individual patients. Summary reports are generated to assist compl...
Mugisha, James; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Kigozi, Fred N.
Background There is a growing burden of mental illness in low income countries. The situation is further worsened by the high poverty levels in these countries, resulting in difficult choices for their health sectors as regards to responding to the burden of mental health problems. In Uganda, integration of mental health into primary health care (PHC) has been adopted as the most vital strategy for ensuring mental health service delivery to the general population. Objectives To identify gover...
Iana Pires do Amaral Carvalho; Cesar Gattermann Xavier Carvalho; José Mauro Ceratti Lopes
Objective: to study the association between history of depression and high use of health services (HUHS) among persons seen in Primary Health Care (PHC), and to establish the prevalence of HUHS, the average number of visits and the epidemiological profile of groups with positive and negative history of depression. Methods: we collected data from family medical records of two Health Units. In order to analyze data regarding the primary outcome and to compare the epidemiological profile of the ...
Full Text Available Background: Population ageing has become significant in South African society, increasing the need to improve understandings of health and well-being among the aged. Objective: To describe the self-reported ratings of overall health and functioning, and to identify factors associated with self-rated health among older South Africans. Design: A national population-based cross-sectional survey, with a sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years and older, was completed in South Africa in 2008. Self-reported ratings of overall health and functioning were measured using a single self-reported health state covering nine health domains (used to generate the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE composite health state score. Disability was measured using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS-II activities of daily living (ADLs, instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs, perceptions of well-being, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life index/metric (WHOQoL. Results: Overall, more than three quarters (76.8% of adults rated their health as moderate or good. On balance, men reported very good or good health more often than women (p<0.001. Older people (aged 70 years and above reported significantly poorer health status than those aged 50–59 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.00–2.30. Indians and Blacks were significantly more likely to report poorer health status at (AOR = 4.01; 95% CI 1.27–12.70 and (AOR = 0.42; 95% CI 0.18_0.98; 30 p < 0.045, respectively, compared to Whites. Respondents with primary education (AOR = 1.83; 95% CI 1.19–2.80 and less than primary education (AOR = 1.94; 95% CI 1.37–2.76 were more likely to report poorer health compared to those with secondary education. In terms of wealth status, those in low wealth quintile (AOR = 2.02; 95% CI 1.14–3.57 and medium wealth quintile (AOR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.01–2.13 were more likely to report poorer
Full Text Available Inequity and poverty are the root causes of ill health. Access to quality health services on an affordable and equitable basis in many parts of the country remains an unfulfilled aspiration. Disparity in health care is interpreted as compromise in ′Right to Life.′ It is imperative to define ′essential health care,′ which should be made available to all citizens to facilitate inclusivity in health care. The suggested methods for this include optimal utilization of public resources and increasing public spending on health care. Capacity building through training, especially training of paramedical personnel, is proposed as an essential ingredient, to reduce cost, especially in tertiary care. Another aspect which is considered very important is improvement in delivery system of health care. Increasing the role of ′family physician′ in health care delivery system will improve preventive care and reduce cost of tertiary care. These observations underlie the relevance and role of Primary health care as a key to deliver inclusive health care. The advantages of a primary health care model for health service delivery are greater access to needed services; better quality of care; a greater focus on prevention; early management of health problems; and cumulative improvements in health and lower morbidity as a result of primary health care delivery.
Wojczewski, Silvia; Poppe, Annelien; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Pentz, Stephen; Kutalek, Ruth
Background Migrant health workers fill care gaps in their destination countries, but they also actively engage in improving living conditions for people of their countries of origin through expatriate professional networks. This paper aims to explore the professional links that migrant health workers from sub-Saharan African countries living in five African and European destinations (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, and the United Kingdom) have to their countries of origin. Design Qualitative interviews were conducted with migrant doctors, nurses, and midwives from sub-Saharan Africa (N=66). A qualitative content analysis of the material was performed using the software ATLAS.ti. Results Almost all migrant health workers have professional ties with their countries of origin supporting health, education, and social structures. They work with non-governmental organizations, universities, or hospitals and travel back and forth between their destination country and country of origin. For a few respondents, professional engagement or even maintaining private contacts in their country of origin is difficult due to the political situation at home. Conclusions The results show that African migrant health workers are actively engaged in improving living conditions not only for their family members but also for the population in general in their countries of origin. Our respondents are mediators and active networkers in a globalized and transnationally connected world. The research suggests that the governments of these countries of origin could strategically use their migrant health workforce for improving education and population health in sub-Saharan Africa. Destination countries should be reminded of their need to comply with the WHO Global Code of Practice for the international recruitment of health professionals. PMID:26652910
Full Text Available Background: Migrant health workers fill care gaps in their destination countries, but they also actively engage in improving living conditions for people of their countries of origin through expatriate professional networks. This paper aims to explore the professional links that migrant health workers from sub-Saharan African countries living in five African and European destinations (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, and the United Kingdom have to their countries of origin. Design: Qualitative interviews were conducted with migrant doctors, nurses, and midwives from sub-Saharan Africa (N=66. A qualitative content analysis of the material was performed using the software ATLAS.ti. Results: Almost all migrant health workers have professional ties with their countries of origin supporting health, education, and social structures. They work with non-governmental organizations, universities, or hospitals and travel back and forth between their destination country and country of origin. For a few respondents, professional engagement or even maintaining private contacts in their country of origin is difficult due to the political situation at home. Conclusions: The results show that African migrant health workers are actively engaged in improving living conditions not only for their family members but also for the population in general in their countries of origin. Our respondents are mediators and active networkers in a globalized and transnationally connected world. The research suggests that the governments of these countries of origin could strategically use their migrant health workforce for improving education and population health in sub-Saharan Africa. Destination countries should be reminded of their need to comply with the WHO Global Code of Practice for the international recruitment of health professionals.
Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last decades, North African countries have substantially improved economic, social and health conditions of their populations in average. In all countries, human development in general and life expectancy, literacy and per capita income in particular have increased. However, improvement was not equally shared between groups of different milieu, regions or level of income. Social inequalities and health inequity have persisted or even worsened. Data are generally scarce and few studies were devoted to this topic in North Africa as a region. In this paper, we carry out a comparative study on the achievements of these countries, not only in terms of human development and its components but also in terms of inequalities' reduction and health equity. Method This study is based on data available for comparison between North African countries. The main data sources are provided by reports released by the World Health Organisation (WHO, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF, the World Bank, surveys such as Demographic Health Surveys (DHS and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS and finally recent papers published on equity in different countries of the region. Results and discussion There is no doubt that education, health and human development in general have improved in North Africa during the last decades. Improvement was, however, uneven and unequally enjoyed by different socioeconomic groups. Indeed, each country included in this study shows large urban-rural disparities, discrepancies between advantaged and disadvantaged regions and cities; and unacceptable differences between rich and poor. Health inequity is particularly seen through access to health services and infant mortality. Conclusion During the last decades, North African decision makers have endeavoured to improve social and economic conditions of their populations. Globally, health, education and living
Chastonay, Philippe; Moretti, Roberto; Zesiger, Véronique; Cremaschini, Marco; Bailey, Rebecca; Pariyo, George; Kabengele, Emmanuel Mpinga
In 2006, WHO alerted the world to a global health workforce crisis, demonstrated through critical shortages of health workers, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa (WHO in World Health Report, 2006). The objective of our study was to assess, in a participative way, the educational needs for public health and health workforce development among potential trainees and training institutions in nine French-speaking African countries. A needs assessment was conducted in the target countries according to four approaches: (1) Review at national level of health challenges. (2) Semi-directed interviews with heads of relevant training institutions. (3) Focus group discussions with key-informants. (4) A questionnaire-based study targeting health professionals identified as potential trainees. A needs assessment showed important public health challenges in the field of health workforce development among the target countries (e.g. unequal HRH distribution in the country, ageing of HRH, lack of adequate training). It also showed a demand for education and training institutions that are able to offer a training programme in health workforce development, and identified training objectives and core competencies useful to potential employers and future trainees (e.g. leadership, planning/evaluation, management, research skill). In combining various approaches our study was able to show a general demand for health managers who are able to plan, develop and manage a nation's health workforce. It also identified specific competencies that should be developed through an education and training program in public health with a focus on health workforce development. PMID:22453358
Full Text Available This paper argues that the health unit program developed in Sri Lanka in the early twentieth century was an earlier model of selective primary health care promoted by the Rockefeller Foundation in the 1980s in opposition to comprehensive primary health care advocated by the Alma-Ata Declaration of the World Health Organization. A key strategy of the health unit program was to identify the most common and serious infectious diseases in each health unit area and control them through improved sanitation, health education, immunization and treatment with the help of local communities. The health unit program was later introduced to other countries in South and Southeast Asia as part of the Rockefeller Foundation's global campaign to promote public health.
Kigozi, Fred N.; Ssebunnya, Joshua
Background Worldwide, a number of reforms have been undertaken with the intention of improving access to mental health services. Notable among these is the integration of mental health services into primary health care, which has been one of the most fundamental healthcare reform recommendations globally.
Whitley, Deborah M; Kelley, Susan J; Lamis, Dorian A
Custodial grandparents raising grandchildren experience intense levels of stress that can lead to depression and other forms of psychological distress. Drawing on a coping model of family stress, adjustment, and adaptation, we explored the relationship between depression and mental health quality of life mediated by social support and moderated by grandparent's age. The sample consisted of 667 African American custodial grandmothers, dichotomized into two age groupings, ≤55 (n = 306) and 55 + (n = 361). All grandmothers participated in a 12-month support intervention. The prospective analysis revealed social support was a mediator in the association between depressive symptoms and mental health quality of life for older African American grandmothers; however, this same relationship did not hold for their younger counterparts. Study limitations and future research directions are discussed. PMID:26798077
Grier, Sonya A.; Kumanyika, Shiriki K.
Targeted marketing of high-calorie foods and beverages to ethnic minority populations, relative to more healthful foods, may contribute to ethnic disparities in obesity and other diet-related chronic conditions. We conducted a systematic review of studies published in June 1992 through 2006 (n = 20) that permitted comparison of food and beverage marketing to African Americans versus Whites and others. Eight studies reported on product promotions, 11 on retail food outlet locations, and 3 on food prices. Although the evidence base has limitations, studies indicated that African Americans are consistently exposed to food promotion and distribution patterns with relatively greater potential adverse health effects than are Whites. The limited evidence on price disparities was inconclusive. PMID:18633097
Hutchison, Brian; Levesque, Jean-Frederic; Strumpf, Erin; Coyle, Natalie
Context: During the 1980s and 1990s, innovations in the organization, funding, and delivery of primary health care in Canada were at the periphery of the system rather than at its core. In the early 2000s, a new policy environment emerged.
Heins, M.; Schellevis, F.; Rijken, M.; Hoek, L. van der; Korevaar, J.
Purpose: The number of cancer survivors is increasing, and patients with cancer often experience long-lasting consequences of cancer and its treatment. Because of the variety of health problems and high prevalence of comorbidity, primary care physicians (PCPs) seem obvious candidates to take care of
Reijneveld, S.A.; Wiefferink, C.H.; Brugman, E.; Verhulst, F.C.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Paulussen, T.G.W.
Background: Younger children in a school class have higher rates of mental health problems if admission to primary school occurs once a year. This study examines whether this relative age effect also occurs if children are admitted to school continuously throughout the year. Methods: We assessed men
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the relationships between leadership styles of primary school principals and organizational health and bullying. Design/methodology/approach: Two hypotheses were formulated in relation to the research. Three instruments were used--a multi-level questionnaire for measuring leadership, an…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of an Australian health promoting schools (HPS) project to identify key features of the concept of resilience and how it can be used in a school setting to develop and strengthen protective factors in young people, as a mechanism for improving social functioning and reducing involvement in…
Pratt, Charlotte A.; Pratt, Cornelius B.
Examines the "Ladies' Home Journal" and two popular consumer magazines that target blacks to determine the proportions of food and beverage advertisements, nutrition advertisements and their promotional messages, and the health implications they reveal. Findings reveal these magazines had a significantly higher number of alcohol ads, limited…
Makaula, Peter; Bloch, Paul; Banda, Hastings T.;
Malawian districts without CDTi experience with a view to explore the relevance of the CDI approach. We examined health service providers' and beneficiaries' perceptions on existing PHC practices, and their perspectives on official priorities and strategies to strengthen PHC.......Primary Health Care (PHC) is a strategy endorsed for attaining equitable access to basic health care including treatment and prevention of endemic diseases. Thirty four years later, its implementation remains sub-optimal in most Sub-Saharan African countries that access to health interventions is...... still a major challenge for a large proportion of the rural population. Community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTi) and community-directed interventions (CDI) are participatory approaches to strengthen health care at community level. Both approaches are based on values and principles associated...
Claude Takenga; Rolf-Dietrich Berndt; Olivier Musongya; Joël Kitero; Remi Katoke; Kakule Molo; Basile Kazingufu; Malikwisha Meni; Mambo Vikandy; Henri Takenga
The demand for new healthcare services is growing rapidly. Improving accessibility of the African population to diabetes care seems to be a big challenge in most countries where the number of care centers and medical staff is reduced. Information and communication technologies (ICT) have great potential to address some of these challenges faced by several countries in providing accessible, cost-effective, and high-quality health care services. This paper presents the Mobil Diab system which i...
Street, Renée A.; Kabera, Gaëtan M.; Connolly, Catherine
Background Mercury is a toxic metal however its use in traditional healthcare systems remains widespread. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of mercury use by South African Traditional Health Practitioners (THP) and to document reasons for use and administration methods. Methods A cross-sectional study design was employed. A total of 201 THPs were enrolled from two main metropolitan areas of KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), and 198 were included in the final analysis. Informat...
Lewin, Amy; Horn, Ivor B; Valentine, Dawn; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy; Joseph, Jill G
Urban, minority, adolescent mothers are particularly vulnerable to violence exposure, which may increase their children’s developmental risk through maternal depression and negative parenting. The current study tests a conceptual model of the effects of community and contextual violence exposure on the mental health and parenting of young, African American mothers living in Washington DC. A path analysis revealed significant direct effects of witnessed and experienced violence on mothers’ dep...
Drought is Africa’s most prevalent natural disaster and is becoming an increasingly common source of income shocks around the world. This paper presents new evidence from Africa that droughts are an important component of long run variation in health human capital. I use Census data to estimate the effects of early childhood exposure to drought on later-life disabilities among South Africans confined to homelands during apartheid. By exploiting almost forty years of quasi-random variation in ...
Sterk, Claire E.
OBJECTIVE: This article describes the Health Intervention Project, an intervention for African American women in Atlanta, Georgia, who are crack cocaine users. METHODS:A formative phase involved ethnographic mapping of the physical and social infrastructure of the study communities and in-depth interviews with women crack cocaine users. Key findings that were incorporated into the intervention program included the exchange of sex for money or drugs, the women's experience with trauma and abus...
Full Text Available To determine some socio-demographic characteristics and to evaluate daily life behaviors of the teachers who are working in Primary Schools in Edirne with Health Promotion Life Style Profile (HPLSP, was aimed in this study. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study. A questionnaire which was prepared by the investigators and HPLSP was sent to all teachers working in 33 primary schools in Edirne. 410 teachers accepted to participate and completed the questionnaire. Data were evaluated by SPSS v 13.0. It was found that teachers participated in the study were generally at medium level at health promoting behaviors, and the highest mean score was nutrition and the lowest was exercise. The total health promoting behaviors score and inter personel relations score was significantly higher in females but exercise score was significantly higher in males. It was also found that the total score of health promoting behaviors, increased with age. For increasing and supporting health promoting behaviors of the teachers, health promotion lectures should be included in occupational education and in-service training programs, and health professionals always must be in relation with teachers. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(6: 421-426
Iverson, Katherine M.; Bauer, Margret R.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Pineles, Suzanne L.; Harrington, Ellen F.; Resick, Patricia A.
The relationship between partner violence and physical health symptoms is well-established. Although some researchers have theorized that the physical health effects of partner violence may be worse for ethnic minority women, there is little research addressing this topic. The current study examined whether African American women demonstrate a differential association in this relationship than Caucasian women. This study included 323 women (232 African American, 91 Caucasian) who participated...
Holt, Cheryl L.; Roth, David L.; Clark, Eddie M.; Debnam, Katrina
Self-esteem and self-efficacy are theorized to serve as mediators of the relationship between religious involvement and health outcomes. Studies confirming these relationships have produced mixed evidence. This study examined whether self-esteem and self-efficacy mediate the relationship between religious involvement (beliefs, behaviors) and a set of modifiable health behaviors in a national probability sample of African Americans. African Americans, in general, are relatively high in religio...
Maticka-Tyndale, E.; Mungwete, R.; Jayeoba, O.
School-based programmes to combat the spread of HIV have been demonstrated to be effective over the short-term when delivered on a small scale. The question addressed here is whether results obtained with small-scale delivery are replicable in large-scale roll-out. Primary School Action for Better Health (PSABH), a programme to train teachers to…
Full Text Available Metals are an important and essential part of our daily lives. Their ubiquitous presence and use has not been without significant consequences. Both industrial and nonindustrial exposures to metals are characterized by a variety of acute and chronic ailments. Underreporting of illnesses related to occupational and environmental exposures to chemicals including metals is of concern and presents a serious challenge. Many primary care workers rarely consider occupational and environmental exposures to chemicals in their clinical evaluation. Their knowledge and training in the evaluation of health problems related to such exposures is inadequate. This paper presents documented research findings from various studies that have examined the relationship between metal exposures and their adverse health effects both in developing and developed countries. Further, it provides some guidance on essential elements of a basic occupational and environmental evaluation to health care workers in primary care situations.
Manongi, Rachel N; Marchant, Tanya C; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian
primary health care facilities in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania, in terms of their motivation to work, satisfaction and frustration, and to identify areas for sustainable improvement to the services they provide.The primary issues arising pertain to complexities of multitasking in an environment of staff......In Tanzania access to urban and rural primary health care is relatively widespread, yet there is evidence of considerable bypassing of services; questions have been raised about how to improve functionality.The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of health workers working in the...
Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)
Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)
Anna L Okello
Full Text Available The recent emergence of zoonotic diseases such as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS have contributed to dominant Global Health narratives around health securitisation and pandemic preparedness, calling for greater co-operation between the health, veterinary and environmental sectors in the ever-evolving One Health movement. A decade later, One Health advocates face increasing pressure to translate the approach from theory into action.A qualitative case study methodology was used to examine the emerging relationships between international One Health dialogue and its practical implementation in the African health policy context. A series of Key Informant Interviews (n = 32 with policy makers, government officials and academics in Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda are presented as three separate case studies. Each case examines a significant aspect of One Health operationalisation, framed around the control of both emerging and Neglected Zoonotic Diseases including HPAI, Human African Trypanosomiasis and rabies. The research found that while there is general enthusiasm and a strong affirmative argument for adoption of One Health approaches in Africa, identifying alternative contexts away from a narrow focus on pandemics will help broaden its appeal, particularly for national or regionally significant endemic and neglected diseases not usually addressed under a "global" remit.There is no 'one size fits all' approach to achieving the intersectoral collaboration, significant resource mobilisation and political co-operation required to realise a One Health approach. Individual country requirements cannot be underestimated, dismissed or prescribed in a top down manner. This article contributes to the growing discussion regarding not whether One Health should be operationalised, but how this may be achieved.
Percival, Nikki; O'Donoghue, Lynette; Lin, Vivian; Tsey, Komla; Bailie, Ross Stewart
Although some areas of clinical health care are becoming adept at implementing continuous quality improvement (CQI) projects, there has been limited experimentation of CQI in health promotion. In this study, we examined the impact of a CQI intervention on health promotion in four Australian Indigenous primary health care centers. Our study objectives were to (a) describe the scope and quality of health promotion activities, (b) describe the status of health center system support for health promotion activities, and (c) introduce a CQI intervention and examine the impact on health promotion activities and health centers systems over 2 years. Baseline assessments showed suboptimal health center systems support for health promotion and significant evidence-practice gaps. After two annual CQI cycles, there were improvements in staff understanding of health promotion and systems for planning and documenting health promotion activities had been introduced. Actions to improve best practice health promotion, such as community engagement and intersectoral partnerships, were inhibited by the way health center systems were organized, predominately to support clinical and curative services. These findings suggest that CQI can improve the delivery of evidence-based health promotion by engaging front line health practitioners in decision-making processes about the design/redesign of health center systems to support the delivery of best practice health promotion. However, further and sustained improvements in health promotion will require broader engagement of management, senior staff, and members of the local community to address organizational and policy level barriers. PMID:27066470
In order to determine Caucasian allied health student racial attitudes towards the African American population, students and faculty of a Southern school of allied health professions were surveyed using the Racial Argument Scale (RAS). A one way ANOVA found a significant difference between allied health programs, p = .008, and post hoc testing found the Occupational Therapy Program's scores to be significantly lower (less negative towards Blacks) than the Physical Therapy and Physician Assistant Program's scores (p = .008 and p = .041 respectively). Student scores overall were significantly higher than faculty scores on the RAS (p = .014). The Speech-Language Pathology, Physician Assistant, and Physical Therapy Programs' scores as well the overall allied health student scores were found to be significantly higher than the population mean, thus indicating a higher negativity towards African Americans. The overall results of this study indicate that negative racial bias may be a serious problem in some allied health programs. Future instruction in cultural competency in allied health programs should address racial bias specifically, taking into account cognitive-perceptual errors that may perpetuate negative racial attitudes. PMID:25181786
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...
Faye, A; Bob, M; Fall, A; Fall, C
Member countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) met in Alma Ata (8-12 September 1978) to define and advocate the implementation of primary health care (PHC) worldwide, above all, in developing countries, which had a real need to review their strategies for meeting the health needs of their populations. They did not suspect that 20 years later the vision they displayed would remain undeniably relevant. Here we examine the similarities and points of convergence of their declaration about PHC with the Millennium Development Goals that seek today to reduce poverty across the world. An exhaustive and analytic literature review was conducted to collect those similarities. Further analysis of the definitions, objectives, principles and recommendations of the Alma Ata Declaration and the Millennium Declaration reveals multiple dependencies and fundamental points of similarity between these two representations. Almost all states have pledged to achieve the eight MDG by 2015: to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, promote gender equality and empower women, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensure environmental sustainability, and develop a global partnership for development. The Alma Ata conference defined primary health care as essential health care, based on practical methods and techniques that are both scientifically sound and socially acceptable, universally accessible to all individuals and all families of the community, through their full participation and at a cost that the community and countries can afford at all stages of their development in the spirit of self-reliance and self-determination. It is an integral part of economic and social development. The following principles are involved in the achievement of both primary health care and the MDG: social equity, community participation, and intersectorality. Public health is an essential condition of poverty
Buykx Penny; Kinsman Leigh; Humphreys John S; Tham Rachel; Asaid Adel; Tuohey Kathy
Abstract Background Rural communities throughout Australia are experiencing demographic ageing, increasing burden of chronic diseases, and de-population. Many are struggling to maintain viable health care services due to lack of infrastructure and workforce shortages. Hence, they face significant health disadvantages compared with urban regions. Primary health care yields the best health outcomes in situations characterised by limited resources. However, few rigorous longitudinal evaluations ...
Full Text Available The main purpose of study is to define the health behaviour profile of the personnel of primary schools as well as to define the topics to be given priority in health education activities. The research population consisted of all personnel of 564 primary schools in Ankara province. The study group (30 schools was estimated by cluster sampling method. The Health Behaviours Questionnaire, which consists of 47 items on health behaviours and demographic characteristics, was used for data collection. In the study, 849 school workers (67,5% female were interviewed. Teachers constituted the largest group (82,3% while the cleaning staff (7.0%, school administrators (6.3%, and other personnel (4.4% were sharing the rest in small proportions. Of the study group 41,7 % are cigarette smokers and of them 67.3% smoke every time and 11,9% sometime in school. Very few school personnel (14,8% do physical exercise regularly. Majority of school personnel (71,3% stated that they brush their teeth at least twice a day regularly. However, only 23,7% of school personnel go to have regular dental control. All results were discussed in details considering the effects of health behaviours of school personnel on students, and some recommendations were developed for health education activities in schools. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(2.000: 83-93
To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of media-based primary health care (i.e. Expanded Programme of Immunization, National Polio Day, oral rehydration therapy, breast feeding, contraceptive practices, modes of spread of hepatitis B, C, and HIV) among mothers with children under five years of age in an urban and a rural area of Karachi and changes in the same after community-based health education The study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase 600 mothers with children under five years of age were selected at random (300 urban and 300 rural) for the evaluation of knowledge, attitude and practice of media-based primary health care i.e. Expanded Programme of Immunization, National Polio Day, oral rehydration therapy, breast feeding, contraceptive practices and modes of spread of Hepatitis B, C and HIV. In the second phase, health education on the same components of primary health care was given by lady health workers of the area to the same community for one month. Data of 200 mothers (100 urban and 100 rural) was re-evaluated after three months, to find out if there was any change, in the same. All the three areas were given scores and grade. In this study, 58% were Sindhi speaking. The mean age of mothers was 29 years. Majority (91% urban and 45% rural mothers) had access to one or more media channels. The knowledge of media-based primary health care was poor (score=10.09) among all mothers but attitude (score=8.07) and practice (score=11.09) was good for the same in more than 70% mothers in both communities. In the second phase of the study, it was found that the knowledge of primary health care had not improved but attitude and practice was good as observed earlier in both communities. Despite the national media based health education of Primary Health Care for decades, knowledge of primary health care was poor among mothers (urban and rural) but attitude and practice was good. Age and exposure to one or more media channels was found
Full Text Available Abstract Background While decentralized and integrated primary mental healthcare forms the core of mental health policies in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs, implementation remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to understand how the use of a common implementation framework could assist in the integration of mental health into primary healthcare in Ugandan and South African district demonstration sites. The foci and form of the services developed differed across the country sites depending on the service gaps and resources available. South Africa focused on reducing the service gap for common mental disorders and Uganda, for severe mental disorders. Method A qualitative post-intervention process evaluation using focus group and individual interviews with key stakeholders was undertaken in both sites. The emergent data was analyzed using framework analysis. Results Sensitization of district management authorities and the establishment of community collaborative multi-sectoral forums assisted in improving political will to strengthen mental health services in both countries. Task shifting using community health workers emerged as a promising strategy for improving access to services and help seeking behaviour in both countries. However, in Uganda, limited application of task shifting to identification and referral, as well as limited availability of psychotropic medication and specialist mental health personnel, resulted in a referral bottleneck. To varying degrees, community-based self-help groups showed potential for empowering service users and carers to become more self sufficient and less dependent on overstretched healthcare systems. They also showed potential for promoting social inclusion and addressing stigma, discrimination and human rights abuses of people with mental disorders in both country sites. Conclusions A common implementation framework incorporating a community collaborative multi-sectoral, task shifting
Renata dos Humildes Oliveira
Full Text Available This article aims to provide means to mobilize occupational therapists towards reflections and studiesthat support and tool up Occupational Therapy (OT for its attributions, actions and technologies related toPrimary Health Care (PHC. It is the result of discussions held at the First National Seminar on OccupationalTherapy in PHC, which occurred in the Brazilian Congress of OT in Sao Paulo/2011. Its goal is to look at PHCin the sanitary international movement, its expression in Brazil and some historical reflections on the insertionof OT at such level of care. It points out that the formation of such profession, in spite of being historicallygrounded on the biomedical view of health, has contributed to a more effectual and comprehensive approachto the concept of health, for in its object of study and intervention, which includes the understanding of therelationship that individuals establish with their everyday activities, there is an expansion of awareness of the processes of illness and disabilities and also the biopsychosocial understanding of the individuals cared at thislevel. It also carries out an exercise of confrontation between the principles and propositions advocated byPrimary Care and the normative, epistemic and pragmatic precepts of this profession, suggesting possible OTattributions, actions and technologies related to Primary Health Care. It ends with the warning that, in spite ofOT progress so far, this profession is still quantitatively and qualitatively limited as to its actions, attributionsand technologies, and suggests further studies and debates on the matter to strengthen and tool up OccupationalTherapy for Primary Health Care.
Blackman, Elizabeth; Campbell, Jasmine; Bowen, Carlene; Delmoor, Ernestine; Jean-Louis, Gilda; Noumbissi, Raphiatou; O'Garro, Yvonne; Richards-Waritay, Oni; Straughter, Stanley; Tolbert, Vera; Wilson, Barbara; Ragin, Camille
This is a brief summary of the 4(th) International Meeting of the African-Caribbean Cancer Consortium (AC3), organized and sponsored by Fox Chase Cancer Center (FCCC), and held on July 21-22, 2012 at the Lincoln University Graduate Center, Lincoln Plaza, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. AC3 investigators gathered in Philadelphia, PA to present the results of our ongoing collaborative research efforts throughout the African Diaspora. The general theme addressed cancer health disparities and presentations represented all cancer types. However, there was particular emphasis on women's cancers, related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. PMID:26422007
Connell, Judith; Knight, Margaret
Twenty-first century literacy is more than being able to encode for spelling ability, decode for reading comprehension, and calculate for numeric reasoning. It demands the skills to negotiate the world of technology. Health literacy is lower than general literacy, and general literacy is lower among African American males than the overall population. The authors discuss the prospects of incorporating Game Based Learning approaches into strategies for teaching health literacy. Results of a survey administered to youth to determine their level of involvement in video game playing indicate that key elements must be in place to ensure that a game will be played. These include action, strategy, and entertainment. Future investigation will examine the knowledge level of African American adolescent males of the nexus of certain concepts of climate change and health literacy. Climate change has significant implications for human health. This understanding will produce a scientifically based foundation for curricular and instructional decisions that include GBL. Results of this study will be used to design a video game concept and will contribute to the body of knowledge concerning environmental justice and empower individuals to make informed decisions about their own health and those they influence.
Johnson, Latasha T; Ralston, Penny A; Jones, Ethel
African Americans, especially women, have low fruit and vegetable consumption, which is related to higher rates of obesity, morbidity, and mortality in comparison to whites. Community-based approaches are recommended to address this problem, including beauty salons, which are conducive environments for health information dissemination. The purpose of this pilot study, conducted in 2007, was to determine the effectiveness of a 6-week beauty salon-based health intervention, Steps for a New You, in improving diet, physical activity, and water consumption behaviors in African-American women using a quasiexperimental design. A random sample of 20 African-American women was selected from a list of regular clients at two beauty salons (n=10 each for treatment and comparison salons) located in a Southern rural community. The intervention included scripted motivational sessions between the cosmetologist and clients, information packets, and a starter kit of sample items. Data were collected using pre- and posttest questionnaires. The results showed that mean intake of fruit and vegetables was significantly higher at posttest for the treatment group but not for the comparison group. These findings suggest that the intervention may have had a positive effect on fruit and vegetable consumption by treatment group participants. However, further work is needed to refine the methodology, especially strengthening the intervention to increase physical activity and water consumption. PMID:20497787
Maghsoudloo, Mehran; Abolhassani, Farid; Lotfibakhshaiesh, Nasrin
The collection of data within the primary health care facilities in Iran is essentially paper-based. It is focused on family's health, monitoring of non-infectious and infectious diseases. Clearly due to the paper-based nature of the tasks, timely decision making at most can be difficult if not impossible. As part of an on-going electronic health record implementation project at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, for the first time in the region, based on a comprehensive pilot project, four urban healthcare facilities are connected to their headquarters and beyond, covering all aspects of primary health care, for the last four years. Without delving into the technical aspects of its software engineering processes, the progress of the implementation is reported, selection of summarized data is presented, and experience gained thus far are discussed. Four years passed and if time is any important reason to go by, then it is safe to accept that the software architecture and electronic health record structural model implemented are robust and yet extensible. Aims and duration of a pilot study should be clearly defined prior to start and managed till its completion. Resistance to change and particularly to information technology, apart from its technical aspects, is also based on human factors. PMID:27424015
van Dijken, F.; van Bronswijk, J.E.M.H.; Sundell, Jan
Dutch children are legally bound to spend 15% of their time in a school setting. The indoor environment in Dutch primary schools is known to be substandard. However, it is unclear to what extent the health of pupils is affected by the indoor school environment. The paper aims to assess the...... associations between indoor environmental quality in Dutch schools and pupils' health, also taking into account the children's home environment and personal factors. A cross-sectional study was performed in 11 classrooms in 11 different schools in the Netherlands. The study included exposure measurements...
Davis, Mary J.; Moye, Jennifer; Karel, Michele J.
In an effort to document mental health outreach in our primary care clinic, 316 veterans (mean age 72) not currently in psychiatric treatment were screened for multiple mental health symptoms. Depressed mood was reported by 18% of the sample, insomnia by 26%, and morbid/suicidal ideation by 6.9% for at least several days during the past 2 weeks. Of those who experienced a loss over the past year (43%), 36% remained affected by the loss. Also reported were anxiety symptoms (29%) and PTSD sympt...
Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aro, Arja R.; Rasch, Vibeke;
of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful for screening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan......OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA) as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values......, and histological diagnosis of positive cases of both tests. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 934 asymptomatic women living in Khartoum, Sudan, was conducted during 2009-2010. A semi-structured questionnaire containing socio-economic and reproductive variables was used to collect data from each participant...
Renata dos Humildes Oliveira; Luzianne Feijó Alexandre Paiva; Eucenir Fredini Rocha
This article aims to provide means to mobilize occupational therapists towards reflections and studiesthat support and tool up Occupational Therapy (OT) for its attributions, actions and technologies related toPrimary Health Care (PHC). It is the result of discussions held at the First National Seminar on OccupationalTherapy in PHC, which occurred in the Brazilian Congress of OT in Sao Paulo/2011. Its goal is to look at PHCin the sanitary international movement, its expression in Brazil and s...
Kumar, Pawan; Khan, Abdul Majeed; Inder, Deep; Anu
Background: The contractualization of human resource in recent years has resulted into various human resource management issues. Objective: To explore the administrative and management issues of contractual model of human resource under primary health care system in Delhi. Materials and Methods: Comparative study was conducted on randomly selected sample of 333, comprised of Medical Officers, ANMs, Pharmacist and Laboratory Assistants and Technicians, both regular and contractual cadre. The d...
Al-Amoud, Maysoon M.
Objectives: (1) To study the patterns of breastfeeding of last children, duration, factors and reasons for it. (2) To study the factors affecting breastfeeding among mothers who are breastfeeding and the reasons for continuing or failure to continue, at the primary health care centers (PHC) in Riyadh. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted by distributing 1000 questionnaires in 10 PHC centers. The breastfeeding practices were categorized on WHO terms. Results: Most of the studied last ...
Dufour, Sinéad Patricia; Lucy, S. Deborah; Brown, Judith Belle
Purpose: To understand physiotherapists' roles and how they are enacted within Ontario primary health care (PHC) teams. Methods: Following a pragmatic grounded theory approach, 12 physiotherapists practising within Ontario PHC teams participated in 18 semi-structured in-depth in-person interviews. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim, then entered into NVIVO-8. Coding followed three progressive analytic stages and was iterative in nature, guided by grounded theory. An expla...
Baffour, Tiffany D; Jones, Maurine A; Contreras, Linda K
The model of family health advocacy built firmly upon principles of empowerment theory seeks to help individuals, families, and communities to improve their circumstances by incorporating multiple levels of intervention. The goal of family health advocacy is to improve the well-being of pregnant women and mothers of children younger than 2 years by providing social support and health education about risk factors related to infant mortality and prematurity. This program primarily targets rural African American women, a group at high risk. Advocacy and referral for needed medical and social services are provided. This article presents a comprehensive model of health advocacy, including social marketing strategies, recruitment efforts, and curriculum development. PMID:16775472
Sharps, Phyllis W; Phillips, Janice; Oguntimalide, Lola; Saling, Jessica; Yun, Stephanie
The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and health practices related to menopausal health among African-American women (N= 106) from diverse SES levels, between 40 to 65 years of age. The mean age was 49 years of age, 60.7% were college graduates, 45.8% were married, 85% employed full-time and 88% had medical insurance. Two-thirds rated their health as good, and half believed their health was better than other women. Most women (58%) use hormone replacement therapy (HRT) or would consider using HRT. In general women were knowledgeable about the process of menopause. Among this diverse group of women there were significant differences (pbeauty parlors, community centers. PMID:15011939
Gamliel, S; Mullan, F; Politzer, R; Stambler, H
The adequacy of the supply of health personnel, and primary care personnel in particular, has been assessed at the aggregate national level and the disaggregate or regional/state perspective. While Federal programs have been successful in expanding the Nation's supply of health care practitioners and alleviating aggregate national shortages in some occupations and specialties, problems of geographic distribution remain. In an effort to obtain information on the adequacy of the supply of health care personnel within each state and jurisdiction, the chief executives were asked to assess their most pressing personnel supply concerns. The two occupations most often cited as being in short supply were primary care physicians and registered nurses. The state assessment of shortages of registered nurses is in concert with national assessments. In contrast, the supply of primary care physicians appears to be adequate if not in excess at the national level, implying that aggregate assessments may camouflage significant regional and state shortages. Disaggregate assessments are essential to derive an appropriate picture of national supply adequacy. PMID:1739353
Walt, G; Vaughan, P
The authors outline some of the important factors that shaped the primary health care (PHC) approach. First, theories about development changed; rather than concentrating on physical growth and industry in the belief that as the economy grew benefits would spread to poorer groups, it become politically unacceptable to tolerate large differences in health care between the rich and the poor. Second, there was increasing concern about population growth in a world of finite resources and about the political instability of rapidly growing populations. These elements led to a trend against vertical family planning services, and towards integrated maternal and child health services with a family planning component; the perspective became child spacing rather than limitation. A 3rd factor was the trend away from technological medical solutions to more concern with social, psychological, behavioral, and economic factors. There was concern about western medical models being imposed on developing countries. In the 1960s Maurice King emphasized the need to provide basic health services in the community; community involvement was the 4th factor behind PHC. China, Cuba, Vietnam, and Tanzania all had successful community based PHC programs based on the idea that health was integral to development. These successes combined with the differences between rural and urban health status gave the impulse to the PHC approach. The 5th influence was the World Health Organization (WHO) and international agencies which emphasized that health was linked to development; in 1975 WHO launched the idea of health for all by the year 2000 with the strategy of the setting of minimum targets for food consumption, clothing, housing, and provision of water, sanitation, education, health, and public transport services. WHO and UNICEF called a meeting in Alma Ata, USSR in 1978 as a culmination of all of these efforts. PMID:7179436
Snowden, Lonnie R.
Since publication of the U.S. Surgeon General's report "Mental Health: Culture, Race and Ethnicity--A Supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General" (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001), several federal initiatives signal a sustained focus on addressing African American-White American disparities in mental health…
Reiter, Jeff; Runyan, Christine
Primary care settings are particularly prone to complex relationships that can be ethically challenging. This is due in part to three of the distinctive attributes of primary care: a whole family orientation; team-based care; and a longitudinal care delivery model. In addition, the high patient volume of primary care means that the likelihood of encountering ethically challenging relationships is probably greater than in a specialty setting. This article argues that one ethical standard of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2010, Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct, www.apa.org/ethics/code) (10.02, Therapy Involving Couples or Families) should be revised to better accommodate the work of psychologists in primary care. The corresponding Principles of Medical Ethics from the American Medical Association (AMA, 2012, Code of medical ethics: Current opinions with annotations, 2012-2013, Washington, DC: Author), most notably the principle regarding a physician's duty to "respect the rights of patients, colleagues, and other health professionals as well as safeguard privacy" are also noted. In addition, the article details how the three attributes of primary care often result in complex relationships, and provides suggestions for handling such relationships ethically. PMID:23566124
Mumghamba, E G; Joury, E; Fatusi, O; Ober-Oluoch, J; Onigbanjo, R J; Honkala, S
Many low- and middle-income countries do not yet have policies to implement effective oral health programs. A reason is lack of human and financial resources. Gaps between resource needs and available health funding are widening. By building capacity, countries aim to improve oral health through actions by oral health care personnel and oral health care organizations and their communities. Capacity building involves achieving measurable and sustainable results in training, research, and provision of care. Actions include advancement of knowledge, attitudes and skills, expansion of support, and development of cohesiveness and partnerships. The aim of this critical review is to review existing knowledge and identify gaps and variations between and within different income levels in relation to the capacity building and financing oral health in the African and Middle East region (AMER). A second aim is to formulate research priorities and outline a research agenda for capacity building and financing to improve oral health and reduce oral health inequalities in the AMER. The article focuses on capacity building for oral health and oral health financing in the AMER of the IADR. In many communities in the AMER, there are clear and widening gaps between the dental needs and the existing capacity to meet these needs in terms of financial and human resources. Concerted efforts are required to improve access to oral health care through appropriate financing mechanisms, innovative health insurance schemes, and donor support and move toward universal oral health care coverage to reduce social inequality in the region. It is necessary to build capacity and incentivize the workforce to render evidence-based services as well as accessing funds to conduct research on equity and social determinants of oral health while promoting community engagement and a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:26101338
Gamble, Vanessa Northington
When the 1918 influenza epidemic began, African American communities were already beset by many public health, medical, and social problems, including racist theories of black biological inferiority, racial barriers in medicine and public health, and poor health status. To address these problems, African Americans mounted efforts such as establishing separate hospitals and professional organizations and repudiating racist scientific theories. Contradicting prevailing theories about African Am...
van Dijken, F.; van Bronswijk, J.E.M.H.; Sundell, Jan
associations between indoor environmental quality in Dutch schools and pupils' health, also taking into account the children's home environment and personal factors. A cross-sectional study was performed in 11 classrooms in 11 different schools in the Netherlands. The study included exposure measurements......Dutch children are legally bound to spend 15% of their time in a school setting. The indoor environment in Dutch primary schools is known to be substandard. However, it is unclear to what extent the health of pupils is affected by the indoor school environment. The paper aims to assess the......, building inspections, and a questionnaire survey on pupils' health and domestic exposure. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and non-parametric tests were performed to assess relationships. None of the schools complied with all indoor environmental quality standards. The importance of both the school and...
Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess factors associated with visits to GPs, orthopaedists, and non-physician practitioners of complementary medicine (alternative practitioners by primary care patients with osteoarthritis (OA. Methods Cross-sectional survey among 1250 consecutively addressed patients from 75 primary care practices in Germany. All patients suffered from OA of the knee or hip according to ACR criteria. They received questionnaires collecting sociodemographic data, data about health service utilisation, prescriptions, comorbidities. They also included established instruments as the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale (AIMS2-SF to assess disease-specific quality of life and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 to assess depression. Hierarchical stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to reveal significant factors influencing health service utilization. Results 1021 of 1250 (81.6% questionnaires were returned. Nonrespondents did not differ from participants. Factors associated with health service use (HSU varied between providers of care. Not being in a partnership, achieving a high score on the PHQ-9, increased pain severity reflected in the “symptom” scale of the AIMS2-SF, and an increased number of drug prescriptions predicted a high frequency of GP visits. The PHQ-9 score was also a predictor for visits to orthopaedists, as were previous GP contacts, a high score in the "symptom" scale as well as a high score in the "lower limb scale" of the AIMS2-SF. Regarding visits to alternative practitioners, a high score in the AIMS -"social" scale was a positive predictor as older people were less likely to visit them. Conclusion Our results emphasize the need for awareness of psychological factors contributing to the use of health care providers. Addressing the revealed factors associated with HSU appropriately may lead to decreased health care utilization. But further research is needed to assess how this can be done
Atwoli, Lukoye; Stein, Dan J.; Williams, David R.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Petukhova, Maria; Kessler, Ronald C.; Koenen, Karestan C
Background: South Africa’s unique history, characterised by apartheid, a form of constitutional racial segregation and exploitation, and a long period of political violence and state-sponsored oppression ending only in 1994, suggests a high level of trauma exposure in the general population. The aim of this study was to document the epidemiology of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the South African general population. Methods: The South African Stress and Health Study is a n...
Mixed-methods research was conducted to investigate the experiences of African American students in the school discipline system. The relationships between school discipline experiences and gender, perceptions of racial discrimination, feelings of school connectedness, and mental health were also explored. The investigation utilized survey, interview, and observational data. Findings suggest that the majority of African American participants had negative contact with the school discipline s...
Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the impact of an educational workshop on parental knowledge, attitude, and perceived behavioral control regarding their child’s oral health. Materials and Methods. A one-time oral health education workshop including audio/visual and hands-on components was conducted by a trained dentist and bilingual community workers in community locations. Participants were African parents of children who had lived in Canada for less than ten years. The impact of the workshop was evaluated by a questionnaire developed based on the theory of planned behavior. Results. A total of 105 parents participated in this study. Participants were mainly mothers (mean age 35.03±5.4 years who came to Canada as refugee (77.1% and had below high school education (70%. Paired t-test showed a significant difference in participants’ knowledge of caries, preventive measures, and benefits of regular dental visits after the workshop (P value<0.05. A significant improvement was also found in parental attitudes toward preventive measures and their perceived behavioral control (P<0.05. Parents’ intention to take their child to a dentist within six months significantly altered after the workshop (P value<0.05. Conclusions. A one-time hands-on training was effective in improving parental knowledge, attitude, perceived behavioral control, and intention with respect to their child’s oral health and preventive dental visits in African immigrants.
Buijs, P.; Dijk, F. van
The TNO review Essential interventions on Workers’ Health by Primary Health Care shows those interventions in primary, secondary and tertiary prevention are necessary and feasible but not yet satisfactorily evidence-based. Necessary, because primary or community health care covers about 80% of the w
A lack of management capacity has been identified as the key stumbling block to the transformation and reconceptualization of the public sector in South Africa into a more effective, efficient, and responsive system of health delivery. As part of the overall management development process, this research aimed to identify the skills important for public sector health management and to evaluate managers' self-assessed proficiency in each of these skills. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among hospital managers in the South African public health sector. Respondents were asked to rate the level of importance that each proposed competency had in their job and to indicate their proficiency in each skill. Self-assessment of levels of competency showed that managers felt most competent in strategic planning, people management, and self-management, and relatively less competent in the task-related skills and their ability to deliver healthcare. People management, self-management, and task-related skills were rated as being most important, followed by strategic management and health delivery skills, respectively. The largest differences between mean importance rating and mean skill rating were for people management skills, task-related and self-management skills. These findings reflect the reality of the local health service environment and the needs of health managers and will be useful in the conceptualization, design, and delivery of health management programs aimed at enhancing current and future management and leadership capacity in the public health sector in South Africa. PMID:18708881
Full Text Available During last decades, the National Health System’s interest of many countries has been focused on primary health care (PHC, of which the main centre is the human being and it is the main pillar for promoting health and improving quality of life.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore Greek citizen’s needs and the responsiveness of health services in terms of coverage.Material-Method: The sample studied consisted of 1206 citizens of Greece. Collection of data was performed by means of an anonymous questionnaire specially designed for the needs of the research. Analysis of data was performed by the SPSS version 15 statistical package and the statistical method one way anova.Results: 45% of the sample studied was men with a mean age of 65.43 years and standard deviation 10.43 years. Regarding the place of living, 29.2% of the sample was inhabitants of Athens, 11.9% of Thessalonica, 42.2% of Crete and 13.2% of the participants were living in other cities of the country. In terms of occupational status, 32.3% were working, 50.5% were retired, 13.3% were households while 4% were unemployed. According to the needs of the citizens, 62.6% reported that they preferred psychological support, whereas 37.4% reported financial support. 64.7% of the participants were willing to use the health services of Greek municipalities. In regard to their needs, 24.8% of the studied population reported their need for more time available by health care professionals, 64.7% were willing to use the health services of Greek municipalities while 80.1% declared positive attitude for help by volunteer teams. The statistical analysis showed that men and workers assessed positively the quality of health services with statistical difference compared to women and retired people, p<0.001, respectively.Conclusions: The factors that determine citizen’s needs are gender and marital status. The results of the study suggest that citizens have more need for understanding
Temu, Florence; Leonhardt, Marcus; Carter, Jane; Thiam, Sylla
Sub-Saharan African countries now face the double burden of Non Communicable and Communicable Diseases. This situation represents a major threat to fragile health systems and emphasises the need for innovative integrative approaches to health care delivery. Health services need to be reorganised to address populations’ needs holistically and effectively leverage resources in already resource-limited settings. Access and delivery of quality health care should be reinforced and implemented at p...
Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L; Gaylord, Susan A
African Americans experience a disproportionate rate of stress-related health conditions compared to European Americans. Mindfulness meditation has been shown to be effective for managing stress and various stress-related health conditions. This study explored the cultural relevance of mindfulness meditation training for African Americans adults. Fifteen African American adults with past or current experience with mindfulness meditation training were interviewed. Participants felt that mindfulness meditation helped them with enhanced stress management, direct health improvement, and enhanced self-awareness and purposefulness. They felt that they would recommend it and that other African Americans would be open to the practice but suggested that its presentation may need to be adapted. They suggested emphasizing the health benefits, connecting it to familiar spiritual ideology and cultural practices, supplementing the reading material with African American writers, increasing communication (education, instructor availability, "buddy system," etc.), and including African Americans as instructors and participants. By implementing minor adaptations that enhance cultural relevance, mindfulness meditation can be a beneficial therapeutic intervention for this population. PMID:24442592
Hussaini, Khaleel S; Hamm, Eric; Means, Toni
The article discusses Arizona's strategic implementation and evaluation of the first time motherhood initiative grant (FTMI) to understand preconception health among African American men and women in Arizona. Longitudinal focus groups assessed whether African American men and women in the targeted areas comprehended and recalled the messages related to preconception health. Matched pre and posttests assessed community members' knowledge of preconception as well as physicians' perceptions on preconception health and care. Focus-group data were transcribed and coded by independent coders to conduct content analyses. Inter-rater reliability and agreement among coders, bivariate and multivariate statistics were conducted for quantitative matched pre and posttests data using SAS v9.2 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). The social marketing campaign had limited impact in recall and comprehension of the preconception health message among African American men and women. Data from focus groups revealed that African American men and women perceived preconception health to be vital. And results from the pretest and posttests of community-based presentations, further supported this finding. Evidence from Grand Round presentations indicated that practitioners and health care providers had diverging views on preconception health. Use of community-based participatory mixed methods research can facilitate better understanding of the efficacy of strategic interventions such as FTMI and can provide valuable information on preconception health. Cost limitations often prohibit extensive evaluation of social marketing campaigns, hence, evaluators and researchers should assess the feasibility of conducting an efficacy study versus an effectiveness study in evaluating social marketing campaigns. PMID:23229170
Jones, Brittni D.; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M.
Objective: To identify individual and institutional risks and protections for hookah and cigarette smoking among African American (AA) college students. Participants: AA college students (N = 1,402; mean age = 20, range = 18-24 years; 75% female) who completed the Fall 2012 American College Health Association--National College Health Assessment…
Ng'andu, N H; Nkowane, B M; Watts, T E
In a study of 528 rural primary schoolchildren in Central Zambia, it was found that the health status of the schoolchildren was not good as indicated by inadequate nutrition, a high prevalence of S. haematobium (18%), hookworm (33%), and malaria (43%) infections. There were no statistically significant differences in prevalence of undernutrition between girls and boys and there were no significant trends with age. The treatment and control of hookworm disease, urinary schistosomiasis and malaria deserve a high priority in this area. As for malaria, until an international programme on its control can be developed, the acquisition of protective immunity is of paramount importance. This study shows how the use of 'simple' screening procedures can provide information to direct health education and other disease control measures in school health programmes. As the economic situation in Zambia is not good, the best hope for improvement of the children's health lies with environmental improvement in sanitation, water supplies and provision of basic health education. PMID:1711129
Isabel Cristina Gonçalves Leite
Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the socioeconomic conditions, perceptions, knowledge and practices with regard to oral health in a sample ofschoolchildren from the “Escola Estadual Vieira Marques”, located in the municipality of Santos Dumont - Minas Gerais, Brazil, as a mechanism for obtaining funding to develop educational actions in health suited to this population’s reality. Methods: The sample consisted of 100 primary schoolchildren in the 3rd and 4th grades, participants in the Municipal program of attention to oral health developed at the above-mentioned school. The instrument used for field research was an illustrated questionnaire composed of six multiple choice questions. Results: The results indicated that there is greater emphasis on oral health, but as a means of caries prevention, demonstrating incomplete knowledge about the role of diet.Conclusion: It was concluded that it is necessary to reformulate the Municipal program of attention to oral health (“Programa Municipalde Atenção a Saúde Bucal”, in order to extend the scope of contents it touches on to beyond tooth brushing techniques; to establishpartnerships with the school staff, schoolchildren’s parent and the community; and it is also necessary to use the largest possible numberof activities and motivating illustrations that cause greater impact on the children.
Full Text Available The concept of burnout was first introduced by Fredeunberger in 1974. Fredeunberger had stated that burnout occurred more commonly in occupations whose members directly work with people. The aim of the study is to examine the burnout status of primary health care staff. The universe of this descriptive study is 466 health staff who work in primary health care units in Kecioren. The participation of the study was 54%. A Questionnaire including Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI and some characteristics of the participants were used for data collection. Mann-whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests have been used for analizing the survey data. Seventyseven percent of the participants were female and the emotional exhaustion score of female was higher than male (p<0.01. The age of the participants effect the individual achievement scores (p<0.01. The profession or marital status of the participants didnt affect the MBI scores. Some socio-demografic characteristics of the participants such as gender and age, affect the scores of MBI. Comprehensive studies which display the causes of problems, needed in this issue. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 357-363
Full Text Available The concept of burnout was first introduced by Fredeunberger in 1974. Fredeunberger had stated that burnout occurred more commonly in occupations whose members directly work with people. The aim of the study is to examine the burnout status of primary health care staff. The universe of this descriptive study is 466 health staff who work in primary health care units in Kecioren. The participation of the study was 54%. A Questionnaire including Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI and some characteristics of the participants were used for data collection. Mann-whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests have been used for analizing the survey data. Seventyseven percent of the participants were female and the emotional exhaustion score of female was higher than male (p<0.01. The age of the participants effect the individual achievement scores (p<0.01. The profession or marital status of the participants didnt affect the MBI scores. Some socio-demografic characteristics of the participants such as gender and age, affect the scores of MBI. Comprehensive studies which display the causes of problems, needed in this issue. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 357-363
Full Text Available Background Evaluation and determination of different achievements of interventions in health care is one of the important responsibilities of the health system. Objectives The aim of present study was to evaluate the integration of mental health program in the primary health care (PHC system in rural areas of Dezful district in view of participants and health workers. Patients and Methods In this descriptive-cross sectional research, which was done in rural areas of Dezful during year 2014, the main indexes of mentioned integration such as knowledge, attitude and performance of physicians, health workers and participants were measured. The data collection instrument was valid and reliable questionnaires, which are often used by the mental health department of the health ministry. Validity and reliability of questionnaires have frequently been confirmed by researchers in different studies. The study population included all 19 rural physicians, 89 health workers and a random sample of 15 - 60 year-old participants in the health network of Dezful. Frequency of distribution and computation of central and distribution indexes were used for data analysis. Results The amount of physicians’ knowledge was about 50%, while the rate of health workers’ knowledge was 62%. The rate of health workers’ attitude was 92%, while the rate of participants’ knowledge was 50% and the rate of participants’ attitude was 19%. Consequently, the integration of mental health in primary health care system of rural areas of Dezful district has been relatively successful. Conclusions The integration of mental health into primary health care is an important priority in the Iranian health system. Monitoring and evaluation of this strategic project to remove its weaknesses is essential.
Idris, Bilqisu Jibril; Inem, Victor; Balogun, Mobolanle
Introduction The West African sub-region is currently witnessing an outbreak of EVD that began in December 2013. The first case in Nigeria was diagnosed in Lagos, at a private medical facility in July 2014. Health care workers are known amplifiers of the disease. The study aimed to determine and compare EVD knowledge, attitude and practices among HCWs in public and private primary care facilities in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods This was a comparative cross-sectional study. Seventeen public and pri...
Renaud, Adrien; Basenya, Olivier; De Borman, Nicolas; Greindl, Isaline; Meyer-Rath, Gesine
The incremental cost effectiveness of an integrated care package (i.e. medical care including antiretroviral therapy and other services such as psychological and social support) for people living with HIV/AIDS was calculated in a not-for-profit primary health care centre in Bujumbura run by Society of Women Against Aids (SWAA) - Burundi, an African non-governmental organisation (NGO). Results are expressed as cost-effectiveness ratio 2007, constant US$ per Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY)...
Abstract The incremental cost effectiveness of an integrated care package (i.e. medical care including antiretroviral therapy and other services such as psychological and social support) for people living with HIV/AIDS was calculated in a not-for-profit primary health care centre in Bujumbura run by Society of Women Against Aids (SWAA) - Burundi, an African non-governmental organisation (NGO). Results are expressed as cost-effectiveness ratio 2007, constant US$ per Disability-Ad...
Hilton Giovani Neves
Full Text Available This study was based on descriptive, exploratory and qualitative approach and aimed at analyzing scientific knowledge that was developed in the formation of Family Health (FH nurses to address Mental Health in Primary Care regarding psychosocial aspects. Research conducted in 2008 with three teams of FH nurses a municipality in the countryside of Mato Grosso, whose data were submitted to content analysis. The results were organized according to two themes "The limitations of official spaces for the training of nurses" and "The Family Health as well as the transformation praxis in Mental Health ". It was concluded that the official spaces mentioned above do not give too much importance to education on mental health, the same occurs in the context of lifelong learning. Despite the limited provision of skills for Mental Health care, we have found significant changes such as the sensitization to emotional and psychological manifestations of the population with higher awareness of health.
Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the situation of environmental health and the differences in environmental health among primary schools of county seat and rural area in Kemalpasa county, Izmir. METHODS: Fourty six primary schools in Kemalpasa county constituted the research universe this cross-sectionel study. We intended to reach all of these schools. Surrounding conditions, toilet hygene, waste materials, food and water safety of the schools were evaluated. Data were collected from school administrators by questionnaire and by measuring and observing some of the variables. RESULTS: Of the 46 primary schools found in Kemalpasa county 9 are located in the county seat and 37 are located rural area. The mean number of classrooms was 10.8±1.4 (1-38 and students was 320.1±55.9 (7-1323 in these schools. Twenty (43.5% of these schools were located on the main roads with heavy traffic, 8 (17.4% had playground features appropriate for accidents, 31 (67.4% had enviromentproffesionals, 33 (71.7% had preventive walls around them, 28 (60.9% had connection to the canalization system, 31 (67.4% had the necessary measures taken for fire. Of the 16 (34.8% schools those had canteens, 12 (75.0% of them were not licenced for sanitation, 11 (68,8% of them could not get systematic porter inspection. Among these primary schools 37 (80.4% had sufficient amount of soap and 5 (10.9% had paper towels. Fourty four (95.7% of the schools had their water analyzed at various intervals, 17 (37.0% had water tanks in case of inadequate water supply. There was a significant difference among schools in the county seat of Kemalpasa compared to schools in the countryside on being connected to canalization network (p=0.007, on having necessary fire precautions (p=0.021, on providing waste baskets in the school coridors (p=0.001 and on making porter examinations in the canteen personels (p=0.035. CONCLUSION: This study shows that the primary schools in the county of
Okorafor, Okore A; Thomas, Stephen
The introduction of fiscal federalism or decentralization of functions to lower levels of government is a reform not done primarily with health sector concerns. A major concern for the health sector is that devolution of expenditure responsibilities to sub-national levels of government can adversely affect the equitable distribution of financial resources across local jurisdictions. Since the adoption of fiscal federalism in South Africa, progress towards achieving a more equitable distribution of public sector health resources (financial) has slowed down considerably. This study attempts to identify appropriate resource allocation mechanisms under the current South African fiscal federal system that could be employed to promote equity in primary health care (PHC) allocations across provinces and districts. The study uses data from interviews with government officials involved in the budgeting and resource allocation process for PHC, literature on fiscal federalism and literature on international experience to inform analysis and recommendations. The results from the study identify historical incremental budgeting, weak managerial capacity at lower levels of government, poor accounting of PHC expenditure, and lack of protection for PHC funds as constraints to the realization of a more equitable distribution of PHC allocations. Based on interview data, no one resource allocation mechanism received unanimous support from stakeholders. However, the study highlights the particularly high level of autonomy enjoyed by provincial governments with regards to decision making for allocations to health and PHC services as the major constraint to achieving a more equitable distribution of PHC resources. The national government needs to have more involvement in decision making for resource allocation to PHC services if significant progress towards equity is to be achieved. PMID:18006526
Ada Crespo Guzmán
Full Text Available A bibliographical revision was done about in Dengue fever and the control that is carrier on against the Aedes aegypti “mosquito”, the principal agent that treatments this illness, with the objective of describing the functioning of the Control and Elimination Program of the Mosquito in the Cuban Primary Health Care System. The main objective of this program is to avoid the Dengue epidemics and the loss of human life and the negative impact that will cost to, the socioeconomic development of over country. Accomplishing the promotion, prevention and controlling actions by the basic health care team the mosquito campaign workers and our population, the vector infestation index has been diminished below 0.5 in the last five years. It is important to point out that the rapid decisions taken by our government and its consequent efforts and political willingness has made this program sustained.
Møller Pedersen, Kjeld; Andersen, John Sahl; Søndergård, Jens
challenges. Practice units are fairly small: close to 2 GPs per unit plus nurses and secretaries. The units are fully computerized, that is, with computer-based patient records and submission of prescriptions digitally to pharmacies etc. Over the past few years a decrease in solo practices has been seen and......General practice is the corner stone of Danish primary health care. General practitioners (GPs) are similar to family physicians in the United States. On average, all Danes have 6.9 contacts per year with their GP (in-person, telephone, or E-mail consultation). General practice is characterized by...... postgraduate education. The contract is (re)negotiated every 2 years. General practice is embedded in a universal tax-funded health care system in which GP and hospital services are free at the point of use. The current system has evolved over the past century and has shown an ability to adapt flexibly to new...
Matson, Christine C; Lake, Jeffrey L; Bradshaw, R Dana; Matson, David O
This article describes a public health leadership certificate curriculum developed by the Commonwealth Public Health Training Center for employees in public health and medical trainees in primary care to share didactic and experiential learning. As part of the program, trainees are involved in improving the health of their communities and thus gain a blended perspective on the effectiveness of interprofessional teams in improving population health. The certificate curriculum includes eight one-credit-hour didactic courses offered through an MPH program and a two-credit-hour, community-based participatory research project conducted by teams of trainees under the mentorship of health district directors. Fiscal sustainability is achieved by sharing didactic courses with MPH degree students, thereby enabling trainees to take advantage of a reduced, continuing education tuition rate. Public health employee and primary care trainees jointly learn knowledge and skills required for community health improvement in interprofessional teams and gain an integrated perspective through opportunities to question assumptions and broaden disciplinary approaches. At the same time, the required community projects have benefited public health in Virginia. PMID:24578368
Beck, Andrew F; Tschudy, Megan M; Coker, Tumaini R; Mistry, Kamila B; Cox, Joanne E; Gitterman, Benjamin A; Chamberlain, Lisa J; Grace, Aimee M; Hole, Michael K; Klass, Perri E; Lobach, Katherine S; Ma, Christine T; Navsaria, Dipesh; Northrip, Kimberly D; Sadof, Matthew D; Shah, Anita N; Fierman, Arthur H
More than 20% of children nationally live in poverty. Pediatric primary care practices are critical points-of-contact for these patients and their families. Practices must consider risks that are rooted in poverty as they determine how to best deliver family-centered care and move toward action on the social determinants of health. The Practice-Level Care Delivery Subgroup of the Academic Pediatric Association's Task Force on Poverty has developed a roadmap for pediatric providers and practices to use as they adopt clinical practice redesign strategies aimed at mitigating poverty's negative impact on child health and well-being. The present article describes how care structures and processes can be altered in ways that align with the needs of families living in poverty. Attention is paid to both facilitators of and barriers to successful redesign strategies. We also illustrate how such a roadmap can be adapted by practices depending on the degree of patient need and the availability of practice resources devoted to intervening on the social determinants of health. In addition, ways in which practices can advocate for families in their communities and nationally are identified. Finally, given the relative dearth of evidence for many poverty-focused interventions in primary care, areas that would benefit from more in-depth study are considered. Such a focus is especially relevant as practices consider how they can best help families mitigate the impact of poverty-related risks in ways that promote long-term health and well-being for children. PMID:26933205
Kanamori, Mariano; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Feldman, Robert; He, Xin; Lee, Sunmin
Background Africa is facing a nutritional transition where underweight and overweight coexist. Although the majority of programs for orphan and vulnerable children (OVC) focus on undernourishment, the association between OVC primary caregiving and the caregivers’ overweight status remains unclear. We investigated the association between OVC primary caregiving status with women’s overweight status in Namibia, Swaziland and Zambia. Methods Demographic Health Survey (DHS) cross-sectional data co...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural communities throughout Australia are experiencing demographic ageing, increasing burden of chronic diseases, and de-population. Many are struggling to maintain viable health care services due to lack of infrastructure and workforce shortages. Hence, they face significant health disadvantages compared with urban regions. Primary health care yields the best health outcomes in situations characterised by limited resources. However, few rigorous longitudinal evaluations have been conducted to systematise them; assess their transferability; or assess sustainability amidst dynamic health policy environments. This paper describes the study protocol of a comprehensive longitudinal evaluation of a successful primary health care service in a small rural Australian community to assess its performance, sustainability, and responsiveness to changing community needs and health system requirements. Methods/Design The evaluation framework aims to examine the health service over a six-year period in terms of: (a Structural domains (health service performance; sustainability; and quality of care; (b Process domains (health service utilisation and satisfaction; and (c Outcome domains (health behaviours, health outcomes and community viability. Significant international research guided the development of unambiguous reliable indicators for each domain that can be routinely and unobtrusively collected. Data are to be collected and analysed for trends from a range of sources: audits, community surveys, interviews and focus group discussions. Discussion This iterative evaluation framework and methodology aims to ensure the ongoing monitoring of service activity and health outcomes that allows researchers, providers and administrators to assess the extent to which health service objectives are met; the factors that helped or hindered achievements; what worked or did not work well and why; what aspects of the service could be improved and how
In the face of limited resources and an aging population with increasingly care needs, healthcare systems must identify community-dwelling older adults with mental health problems at higher risk of adverse outcomes such as institutionalization, hospitalization and death, in order to deliver timely and efficient care. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of mental health concerns and the associated perceived risk of adverse outcomes in a large sample of older patients in primary care (PC). We trained general practitioners and nurses to use the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community to rank perceived risk of mental health concerns (including neurocognitive and mood disorders) from 1 (mild) to 3 (severe). The mean age of the 4499 people assessed was 76.3 years (SD = 7.3) and 2645 (58.8%) were female. According to the PC team 1616 (35.9%) were perceived to have mental health concerns of whom 847 (52.4%) were mild, 559 (34.6%) were moderate and 210 (13%) were severe. Patients with mental health concerns had higher odds of perceived risk of adverse outcomes (OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.83-2.69 for institutionalization; OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.41-1.94 for hospitalization; OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.42-2.01 for death). These results suggest a high prevalence of mental health concerns among older adults and supports the need for early identification of patients at high-risk of adverse healthcare outcomes.
Honiball, George; Geldenhuys, Dirk; Mayer, Claude-Hélène
This article explores the concept of spirituality within selected South African managerial work contexts. The aim of the study was to determine managers' perceptions of spirituality and health-related aspects in various South African workplaces. A phenomenological research paradigm was used, applying an in-depth qualitative research approach. The sample consisted of 12 senior managers from different organizations, including, for example, an international healthcare provider, an international auditing and consulting firm, a manufacturer of paint supplies and decorations and an ecclesiastical organization. Research methods included semi-structured interviews and observation. Data was analysed through content analysis, identifying themes, categories and codes. The findings indicate that spirituality promotes the development of health-related aspects of individuals, such as self-awareness, inner peace and the management of stress and depression. Managers emphasize that spirituality also has an impact on managing teams and teamwork, engaging in competitive behaviour, encouraging honesty and reducing selfishness. Based on the findings, a conclusion is given and practical as well as scientific recommendations are emphasized. In love lies the seed of our growth. The more we love, the closer we are to the spiritual experience. (Paulo Coelho, 1994). PMID:24953148
Sjöström, M.; Ardö, J.; Arneth, A.; Veenendaal, E.M.
One of the most frequently applied methods for integrating controls on primary production through satellite data is the light use efficiency (LUE) approach, which links vegetation gross or net primary productivity (GPP or NPP) to remotely sensed estimates of absorbed photosynthetically active radiat
Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing Information and Communication Technology (ICT supported health communication in PHC could contribute to increased health literacy and empowerment, which are foundations for enabling people to increase control over their health, as a way to reduce increasing lifestyle related ill health. However, to increase the likelihood of success of implementing ICT supported health communication, it is essential to conduct a detailed analysis of the setting and context prior to the intervention. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of health communication for health promotion in PHC with emphasis on the implications for a planned ICT supported interactive health channel. Methods A qualitative case study, with a multi-methods approach was applied. Field notes, document study and focus groups were used for data collection. Data was then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Health communication is an integral part of health promotion practice in PHC in this case study. However, there was a lack of consensus among health professionals on what a health promotion approach was, causing discrepancy in approaches and practices of health communication. Two themes emerged from the data analysis: Communicating health and environment for health communication. The themes represented individual and organizational factors that affected health communication practice in PHC and thus need to be taken into consideration in the development of the planned health channel. Conclusions Health communication practiced in PHC is individual based, preventive and reactive in nature, as opposed to population based, promotive and proactive in line with a health promotion approach. The most significant challenge in developing an ICT supported health communication channel for health promotion identified in this study, is profiling a health promotion approach in PHC. Addressing health promotion values and principles in the
Stephen Martin; Nigel Rice; Peter C Smith
English programme budgeting data have yielded major new insights into the link between health care spending and health outcomes. This paper updates two recent studies that have used programme budgeting data for 295 Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) in England to examine the link between spending and outcomes for several programmes of care. We use the same economic model employed in the two previous studies. It focuses on a decision maker who must allocate a fixed budget across programmes of care so ...
Longwe, Abiba; Smits, Jeroen
We study how the availability and use of family planning services in African countries influences the family planning situation of households and through this the educational participation of young children. A district panel dataset is used for 441 urban and rural areas within 233 districts of 25 countries. Path analysis shows that a decrease in the number of births is associated with an increase in educational participation in the area. The number of births is negatively associated with acceptance, knowledge and actual use of contraceptives in the area. As reversed causality and selection bias seem unlikely, the identified relationship probably is at least partially causal. Hence, investments in family planning services in poor areas are not only important because they allow women to plan their births better, but also because they may lead to higher primary enrolment rates and thus contribute to the region's future economic growth. PMID:24069749
Buijs, P.; van Dijk, F.
The TNO review Essential interventions on Workers’ Health by Primary Health Care shows those interventions in primary, secondary and tertiary prevention are necessary and feasible but not yet satisfactorily evidence-based. Necessary, because primary or community health care covers about 80% of the world population, and can reach many of the 80 to 90% of the workers worldwide without any occupational health care at all, who nevertheless are the backbone of national economies. WHO is exploring ...
The WHO Programme on Traditional Medicine has joined WHO's global program on drug management and policies because there is a need for recognition that an adequate technological infrastructure must be in place to maximize plants for their medicinal value, especially in the context of primary health care (PHC). PHC places traditional medicine high on its list of priorities and emphasizes the availability and use of appropriate drugs. For example, countries should distribute seeds or plants to be cultivated in home or community gardens and taken as infusions. Scientists have not studied most medicinal plants which can be a rich potential resource for developing countries. Countries should apply known and effective technologies to meet health needs in a culturally acceptable manner and to promote self reliance. They must 1st strengthen data gathering and analysis capabilities needed for economic mapping of medicinal flora, then develop data centers on medicinal plants and plant derived products, such as the WHO Collaborating Center in Chicago. Clinical research should focus on the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines used by traditional health practitioners and on developing antiinfective agents. For example, 2 WHO agencies are collaborating on identifying, preparing, and testing extracts for medicinal plants for antiHIV capabilities. WHO favors developing the knowledge and skills of traditional health practitioners within the framework of PHC. Further, interregional workshops promote selection and use of traditional medicine in national PHC programs. Since there continue to be much public interest in medicinal plants, accurate information must be disseminated to the public and health professionals so they can know both the potential benefits and harmful effects of these remedies. PMID:12284333
Full Text Available Orientation: In South Africa, workplace programmes in the automotive industry focus predominantly on occupational health and safety and HIV and AIDS. The implementation of focused workplace interventions might be hampered when companies are not convinced that the condition (i.e. HIV and AIDS is the main negative health influencing factor responsible for increased production costs.Research purpose: The study investigated the health influencing conditions perceived to negatively impact company production costs and related interventions.Motivation for the study: Apart from HIV and AIDS, little information is available about the health challenges in the South African workplace and focused HIV and AIDS programmes might only partly respond to the key health challenges of workplaces. The inter-relatedness of various risky lifestyle factors linked to health conditions necessitates a comprehensive health promotion approach.Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 74 companies selected through stratified random sampling. Non-parametric tests were conducted to investigate the health influencing factors perceived to impact production costs, the monitoring thereof, extent of containment and the implementation of interventions in terms of company size and ownership.Main findings: The health factors perceived to have a moderate to large impact were HIV and AIDS, smoking, alcohol use, stress, back and neck ache and tuberculosis, also reported to be better monitored and managed by medium and large organisations. Small organisations reported a smaller impact, fewer efforts and less success. HIV and AIDS programmes were more evident in large companies and those with wellness programmes (52%. Workplace programmes enabled better monitoring and managing of impacting health conditions. Smaller organisations were not convinced of the benefits of interventions in addressing health challenges.Practical/managerial implications
Geissler, Kimberley H; Leatherman, Sheila
The simultaneous burdens of communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases cause significant morbidity and mortality in middle-income countries. The poor are at particular risk, with lower access to health care and higher rates of avoidable mortality. Integrating health-related services with microfinance has been shown to improve health knowledge, behaviors, and access to appropriate health care. However, limited evidence is available on effects of fully integrating clinical health service delivery alongside microfinance services through large scale and sustained long-term programs. Using a conceptual model of health services access, we examine supply- and demand-side factors in a microfinance client population receiving integrated services. We conduct a case study using data from 2010 to 2012 of the design of a universal screening program and primary care services provided in conjunction with microfinance loans by Pro Mujer, a women's development organization in Latin America. The program operates in Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Peru. We analyze descriptive reports and administrative data for measures related to improving access to primary health services and management of chronic diseases. We find provision of preventive care is substantial, with an average of 13% of Pro Mujer clients being screened for cervical cancer each year, 21% receiving breast exams, 16% having a blood glucose measurement, 39% receiving a blood pressure measurement, and 46% having their body mass index calculated. This population, with more than half of those screened being overweight or obese and 9% of those screened having elevated glucose measures, has major risk factors for diabetes, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease without intervention. The components of the Pro Mujer health program address four dimensions of healthcare access: geographic accessibility, availability, affordability, and acceptability. Significant progress has been made to meet basic
Kringos, D.S.; Boerma, W.; Zee, J. van der; Groenewegen, P.
Strong primary care systems are often viewed as the bedrock of health care systems that provide high-quality care, but the evidence supporting this view is somewhat limited. We analyzed comparative primary care data collected in 2009-10 as part of a European Union-funded project, the Primary Health
Cassio Batista Alves
Full Text Available In Brazil, Occupational Therapy (OT was legislated in 1969, and was introduced into the Primary Health Care (PHC in the 90s. At this level of care, the OT serves various stages of human development, including aging, in a perspective of care and active aging line, seeks to optimize opportunities for health, participation and safety, using clinical reasoning in order to plan, guide, conduct and reflect their actions in producing the line of care. This career considers human activities as part of the construction of the man himself as an expertise area and seeks to understand the relationships that the active human establishes in its life and health. This study aimed to verify the actions and identify the occupational therapy line of care with the elderly in APS. This is a qualitative study that used a semi-structured interview applied during April to May 2013 with six occupational therapists that cared for older people in the APS at Uberaba-MG. The data was analyzed using the Collective Subject Discourse (CSD technique. We observed that the OT actions to produce line of care for the elderly happen according to the general public care, whether individual or group, with the team during case discussions, referrals or work management and the territory during the territorial diagnosis and networks formation, all permeated by the principles of fairness, integrity, intersectoriality and clinical reasoning in OT.
Andréa Silvia Walter de Aguiar
Full Text Available Historically, the primary health care (PHC has been associated with the first level of care from a health system and characterized by the kind of professional that in it operates, where is expected a predominance of specialists in this area. However, the major limitation for this type of characterization is that the profile of professionals engaged in this service may vary from country to country.Several theoretical and conceptual landmarks proposed approaches and indicators to assess and characterize the APS. In 1978, the American Institute of Medicine suggested an approach in which listed its attributes such as accessibility, integrality, coordination, continuity and responsibility. This was an important landmark in an attempt to outline a normative approach to measure it. However, most indicators and specific definition was not suggested. The selected indicators required a high level of performance, were difficult to be achieved, and focused on the capacity of services and not in its concrete realization(1.A 1996 report, from the same institution, defined PHC as the provision of integrated services and accessible by clinicians who are responsible for attending a large majority of personal care needs, developing a continued partnership with patients and working within family and community. This definition does not include the first contact and focuses on individual attention.The Canadian Medical Association, in 1996, considered the APS as a front door of the health system and community interventions included in the definition of the functions of APS. In the same year was published a Charter for General Practice / Family Medicine in Europe (Letter to General Practice / Family Medicine in Europe, which describes 12 characteristics: general, accessible, integrated, continuous, as a team, holistic, personalized, targeted for the family and the community, coordinated, confidential and protectress(2.Donabedian(3 systematized a group of important
Pidano, Anne E.; Honigfeld, Lisa; Bar-Halpern, Miri; Vivian, James E.
Background: As many as 20 % of children have diagnosable mental health conditions and nearly all of them receive pediatric primary health care. However, most children with serious mental health concerns do not receive mental health services. This study tested hypotheses that pediatric primary care providers (PPCPs) in relationships with mental…
McMahon, Rosemary; And Others
Intended for middle-level health workers with managerial responsibilities, this guide aims to help improve their efficiency in the support and supervision of community health workers and in the organization and continuous support of primary health care programs. It is a sequel to "The Primary Health Worker," available separately--see note. The…
Liu, Chunyu; Liu, Yanling; Guo, Cheng; Lan, Haiying
Despite a recent focus on the mental health of students, primary and middle school mental health education in China has been hampered by a lack of resources and inadequate professional training. This study assessed the mental health education competency of primary and middle school head teachers using the Mental Health Education Competency…
... Health Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Choosing a Primary Health Care Provider (PCP): General Information Posted ... help address your problems. Why do I need a PCP? You need a PCP so that your ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Comprehensive Rural Health Services Project Ballabgarh, run by All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS, New Delhi has a computerized Health Management Information System (HMIS since 1988. The HMIS at Ballabgarh has undergone evolution and is currently in its third version which uses generic and open source software. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a computerized Health Management Information System in rural health system in India. Methods The data for evaluation were collected by in-depth interviews of the stakeholders i.e. program managers (authors and health workers. Health Workers from AIIMS and Non-AIIMS Primary Health Centers were interviewed to compare the manual with computerized HMIS. A cost comparison between the two methods was carried out based on market costs. The resource utilization for both manual and computerized HMIS was identified based on workers' interviews. Results There have been no major hardware problems in use of computerized HMIS. More than 95% of data was found to be accurate. Health workers acknowledge the usefulness of HMIS in service delivery, data storage, generation of workplans and reports. For program managers, it provides a better tool for monitoring and supervision and data management. The initial cost incurred in computerization of two Primary Health Centers was estimated to be Indian National Rupee (INR 1674,217 (USD 35,622. Equivalent annual incremental cost of capital items was estimated as INR 198,017 (USD 4213. The annual savings is around INR 894,283 (USD 11,924. Conclusion The major advantage of computerization has been in saving of time of health workers in record keeping and report generation. The initial capital costs of computerization can be recovered within two years of implementation if the system is fully operational. Computerization has enabled implementation of a good system for service delivery, monitoring and supervision.
Cornford, C S; Mason, J.; Buchanan, K.; Reeves, D; Kontopantelis, E; Sibbald, B; Thornton-Jones, H; Williamson, M; Baer, L
Background Prison health care in England, including primary care, is now incorporated into the National Health Service; the impetus for the change is in part due to concern about standards of health care within prisons. The demographic characteristics and health status of patients within prisons are relatively well understood, as are the problems faced by health care professionals. Less is known about current health care provision. Aims To describe the organisation of primary heal...
Rodrigo Da Silva Dias; Andrea De Fatima Horvath Marques; Paula Rejane Bezerra Diniz; Tatiana Araújo Bertilino Da Silva; Luciana Cofiel; Mirella Martins De Castro Mariani; Christiana Leal Salgado; Ana Emilia Figueiredo De Oliveira; Euripedes Constantino Miguel Filho; Chao Lung Wen; Magdala de Araújo Novaes; Hermano Tavares
Background Telemental Health Care has reported very good results and is included within mental health priorities by the World Health Organization. Objective To provide an overview of the current situation of the integration of Brazilian telemedicine activities into primary health care. Methods Critical review based on MEDLINE database, using the keywords “telemedicine”, “primary health care” “mental health” and “telemental health”, on websites of the Brazilian Ministry of Health and Brazilian...
Francis, J; Roche, M; Mant, D.; Jones, L.; Fullard, E.
The purpose of this study was to obtain information on the dietary knowledge of primary health care workers and on their ability to apply this knowledge in practice. A total of 128 primary health care workers (53 general practitioners and 61 nurses) in 12 practices and 14 primary care facilitators were surveyed by questionnaire between December 1987 and June 1988. All of the practices were participating in a project to promote prevention in primary care and offered health checks designed to i...
Houwink, Elisa J F; Rigter, Tessel; Swen, Jesse J; Cornel, Martina C; Kienhuis, Anne; Rodenburg, Wendy; Weda, Marjolein
Personalised medicine is a targeted approach to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disorders on the basis of the specific genetic profile of the patient. Pharmacogenetics research shows that differences in the genetic profile of patients explain the interindividual differences in efficacy and side effects of medicines. Although there are high expectations of personalised medicine and pharmacogenetics in healthcare, both are only used to a limited extent to date. Pharmacogenetics seems particularly important in diseases with a poor prognosis and treatments with potentially serious side effects. Pharmacogenetics testing is reimbursed in the case of serious side effects or unexpected ineffectiveness. 95% of patients in the Netherlands have at least one abnormality in the panel of genes for which guidance is available. The KNMP (Royal Dutch Pharmacists' Association) provides dosing advice based on genotype for 80 medicines, 27 of which are regularly prescribed in primary health care. PMID:26507063
This study explored members' perceptions of teamwork in two primary health care teams (PHCTs). It also examined the effect of a team-building intervention on members' perceptions centred around five topics: the PHCT, role perception, communication, leadership and conflict. The study used a qualitative approach with semistructured interviews before and after the intervention. It was found that members perceived each other's roles only in the light of their interactions with each other. Issues of hierarchy in leadership and interpersonal conflicts were raised. It is concluded that the team-building intervention had some positive effects on team members' perceptions and behaviour. However, further research is needed into management structures and conflict resolution in the PHCT. PMID:8732520
Kosters, Eric; van Els, Thomas J.
The increasing use of thermoplastic carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) materials in the aerospace industry for primary aircraft structures, such as wing leading-edge surfaces and fuselage sections, has led to rapid growth in the field of structural health monitoring (SHM). Impact, vibration, and load can all cause failure, such as delamination and matrix cracking, in composite materials. Moreover, the internal material damage can occur without being visible to the human eye, making inspection of and clear insight into structural integrity difficult using currently available evaluation methods. Here, we describe the detection of impact and its localization in materials and structures by high-speed interrogation of multiple-fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors mounted on a composite aircraft component.
Laetitia C. Rispel
Full Text Available Background: Globally, insufficient information exists on the costs of nursing agencies, which are temporary employment service providers that supply nurses to health establishments and/or private individuals. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the utilisation and direct costs of nursing agencies in the South African public health sector. Design: A survey of all nine provincial health departments was conducted to determine utilisation and management of nursing agencies. The costs of nursing agencies were assumed to be equivalent to expenditure. Provincial health expenditure was obtained for five financial years (2005/6–2009/10 from the national Basic Accounting System database, and analysed using Microsoft Excel. Each of the 166,466 expenditure line items was coded. The total personnel and nursing agency expenditure was calculated for each financial year and for each province. Nursing agency expenditure as a percentage of the total personnel expenditure was then calculated. The nursing agency expenditure for South Africa is the total of all provincial expenditure. The 2009/10 annual government salary scales for different categories of nurses were used to calculate the number of permanent nurses who could have been employed in lieu of agency expenditure. All expenditure is expressed in South African rands (R; US$1 ∼ R7, 2010 prices. Results: Only five provinces reported utilisation of nursing agencies, but all provinces showed agency expenditure. In the 2009/10 financial year, R1.49 billion (US$212.64 million was spent on nursing agencies in the public health sector. In the same year, agency expenditure ranged from a low of R36.45 million (US$5.20 million in Mpumalanga Province (mixed urban-rural to a high of R356.43 million (US$50.92 million in the Eastern Cape Province (mixed urban-rural. Agency expenditure as a percentage of personnel expenditure ranged from 0.96% in KwaZulu-Natal Province (mixed urban-rural to 11.96% in the
Noêmia Aragão Casais
Full Text Available Objective: To share an experience of a link between primary care and mental health by means of matrix support. Method: A survey conducted from March to December 2007, in Pernambués neighborhood, District of Cabula-beiru, in Salvador - Bahia. The shared knowledge construction was carried out by residents of the Multidisciplinary Residency Program in Health from the Nucleus of Mental Health, State University of Bahia, with Community Health Agents (ACS. Meetings, discussions and domiciliary visits were applyed as sharing technics and tools with phonographic recording, photographic register and report. The obtained information were evaluated regarding their content and were divided into stages and categories. Results: We determined the following stages by means of the technique: approach, ties’ strengthening, teamwork and conclusion. The results were analyzed based on the ACS’ everyday interactivity for cooperation, thus obtaining the development of a critical spirit in the assesment of the relationship between primary care and mental health. Final Considerations: The exchange of experiences produced significant learning, besides health promotion for all those involved in the process: ACS, families cared for and residents.
Kanyimba, A.T.; Richter, B.W.; Raath, S.P.
Environmental management systems were designed to be used by industrial organisations. However, in recent years, some educational institutions have implemented environmental management systems in appropriate administrative frameworks. The existing literature does not adequately address environmental management systems as tools for harmonising the environmental, social and economic realms of education for sustainable development at primary schools. The aim of this paper is to repor...
Alam Khurshid; Ahmed Shakil
Abstract Background Little is known about the cost recovery of primary health care facilities in Bangladesh. This study estimated the cost recovery of a primary health care facility run by Building Resources Across Community (BRAC), a large NGO in Bangladesh, for the period of July 2004 - June 2005. This health facility is one of the seven upgraded BRAC facilities providing emergency obstetric care and is typical of the government and private primary health care facilities in Bangladesh. Give...
Alsenany, Samira; Al Saif, Amer
[Purpose] This study analyzed type 2 diabetes and its role in complications among adult Saudi patients. [Subjects] Patients attending four primary health care centers in Jeddah were enrolled. [Methods] A cross-sectional design study among Saudi patients attending Ministry of Health primary health care centers in Jeddah was selected for use by the Primary Health Care administration. Patients were interviewed with structured questionnaires to determine the presence of diabetes and risk factors ...
Parker Sharon; Holdsworth Louise; Perkins David; Fuller Jeffrey D; Kelly Brian; Roberts Russell; Martinez Lee; Fragar Lyn
Abstract Background Primary care services have not generally been effective in meeting mental health care needs. There is evidence that collaboration between primary care and specialist mental health services can improve clinical and organisational outcomes. It is not clear however what factors enable or hinder effective collaboration. The objective of this study was to examine the factors that enable effective collaboration between specialist mental health services and primary mental health ...
Rose, India D.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Spencer, S. Melinda; Annang, Lucy; Lindley, Lisa L.
The current study used a qualitative, phenomenological approach to investigate the health information-seeking practices of African American young men who have sex with men (AAYMSM). Forty-two self-identified AAYMSM, aged 18 to 21, residing in a Southeastern U.S. city participated in a qualitative focus group or face-to-face interview to examine…
Bygbjerg Ib Christian
Full Text Available Abstract In Tanzania access to urban and rural primary health care is relatively widespread, yet there is evidence of considerable bypassing of services; questions have been raised about how to improve functionality. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of health workers working in the primary health care facilities in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania, in terms of their motivation to work, satisfaction and frustration, and to identify areas for sustainable improvement to the services they provide. The primary issues arising pertain to complexities of multitasking in an environment of staff shortages, a desire for more structured and supportive supervision from managers, and improved transparency in career development opportunities. Further, suggestions were made for inter-facility exchanges, particularly on commonly referred cases. The discussion highlights the context of some of the problems identified in the results and suggests that some of the preferences presented by the health workers be discussed at policy level with a view to adding value to most services with minimum additional resources.
Horowitz, C R; Abul-Husn, N S; Ellis, S; Ramos, M A; Negron, R; Suprun, M; Zinberg, R E; Sabin, T; Hauser, D; Calman, N; Bagiella, E; Bottinger, E P
People of African ancestry (Blacks) have increased risk of kidney failure due to numerous socioeconomic, environmental, and clinical factors. Two variants in the APOL1 gene are now thought to account for much of the racial disparity associated with hypertensive kidney failure in Blacks. However, this knowledge has not been translated into clinical care to help improve patient outcomes and address disparities. GUARDD is a randomized trial to evaluate the effects and challenges of incorporating genetic risk information into primary care. Hypertensive, non-diabetic, adults with self-reported African ancestry, without kidney dysfunction, are recruited from diverse clinical settings and randomized to undergo APOL1 genetic testing at baseline (intervention) or at one year (waitlist control). Providers are educated about genomics and APOL1. Guided by a genetic counselor, trained staff return APOL1 results to patients and provide low-literacy educational materials. Real-time clinical decision support tools alert clinicians of their patients' APOL1 results and associated risk status at the point of care. Our academic-community-clinical partnership designed a study to generate information about the impact of genetic risk information on patient care (blood pressure and renal surveillance) and on patient and provider knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. GUARDD will help establish the effective implementation of APOL1 risk-informed management of hypertensive patients at high risk of CKD, and will provide a robust framework for future endeavors to implement genomic medicine in diverse clinical practices. It will also add to the important dialog about factors that contribute to and may help eliminate racial disparities in kidney disease. PMID:26747051
Full Text Available When one explores the health problems of developing countries such as South Africa, the importance of primary health care becomes clear. The multiplicity of the health problems coupled with the lack of resources makes it imperative for government within the primary health care approach to call upon communities to participate in the solution thereof and community participation and development inherent in primary health care become the key objectives to realize and sustain a healthy living. However, without structures and processes to involve the community in their own health, the ideal of health for all embodied in the concept of primary health care will not be realized. One strategy for such participation is for primary health care workers to facilitate the organization of women into development-focused groups in the community.
Arnett, M J; Thorpe, R J; Gaskin, D J; Bowie, J V; LaVeist, T A
Compared to White Americans, African-Americans are less likely to use primary care (PC) as their usual source of care. This is generally attributed to race differences in socioeconomic status and in access to primary care services. Little is known about the relationship between race differences in medical mistrust and the usual source of care disparity. Using data from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities (EHDIC) study, we examined the role of medical mistrust in choosing usual source of care in 1408 black and white adults who were exposed to the same healthcare facilities and low-income racially integrated community. Multinomial logistic regression models were estimated to examine the relationship between race, medical mistrust, and usual source of care. After adjusting for demographic and health-related factors, African-Americans were more likely than whites to use the emergency department (ED) (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 1.43 (95 % confidence interval (CI) [1.06-1.94])) and hospital outpatient department (RRR1.50 (95 %CI [1.10-2.05])) versus primary care as a usual source of care. When medical mistrust was added to the model, the gap between African-Americans' and whites' risk of using the ED versus primary care as a usual source of care closed (RRR = 1.29; 95 % CI [0.91-1.83]). However, race differences in the use of the hospital outpatient department remained even after accounting for medical mistrust (RRR = 1.67; 95 % CI [1.16-2.40]). Accounting for medical mistrust eliminated the ED-as-usual-source of care disparity. This study highlights the importance of medical mistrust as an intervention point for decreasing ED use as a usual source of care by low-income, urban African-Americans. PMID:27193595
Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan; Rodrigues, Vincent
The government of Trinidad and Tobago considers that the enjoyment of the highest attainable level of health is a basic right of every citizen and has a goal to achieve health for all by 2020. Thus it lays emphasis on caring and assures standards of excellence to promote, protect and improve the health status of the people of Trinidad and Tobago. To achieve these goals it is very important to increase curative services as well as preventive services in the country. In view of this situation there is a need to overcome the challenges the public health by involving community and individuals and self-reliance to achieve Health for all at 2020. Community participation is one of the domains of community capacity building in a small island country. It is one of the mechanisms to empower people to take part in community development. In this paper, the nature, the dimensions of community participation, and its role and scope in implementation of different components of primary health care have been described. The health services in public and remedial care have been discussed. The article highlights some important milestone achievements in the health sector in Trinidad. PMID:26687151
Myers, HF; Wyatt, GE; Ullman, JB; Loeb, TB; Chin, D.; Prause, N.; Zhang, M.; Williams, JK; Slavich, GM; H. Liu
© 2014 American Psychological Association. All rights reserved. This study examined the utility of a lifetime cumulative adversities and trauma model in predicting the severity of mental health symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. We also tested whether ethnicity and gender moderate the effects of this stress exposure construct on mental health using multigroup structural equation modeling. A sample of 500 low-socioeconomic status African American and Latino men...
AMUSA, Lateef; Mohlala, Meriam; Monyeki, Makama Andries; Strydom, Gert Lukas
Leisure-time physical inactivity is a global public health concern affecting all people in different walks of life, including employees. This inactivity is associated with chronic diseases of lifestyle as well as low work capacity. The purpose of this study were twofold: to determine leisure-time physical activity- (LTPA), coronary risk-, health- and lifestyle profiles of some executive employees in selected African countries; and to determine the relationship between leisure-time physical ac...
Pinder, Leeya F.; Nelson, Brett D.; Eckardt, Melody; Goodman, Annekathryn
African-born immigrants comprise one of the fastest growing populations in the U.S., nearly doubling its population size in recent years. However, it is also one of the most underrepresented groups in health-care research, especially research focused on gynecologic and breast malignancies. While the opportunity exists for access to an advanced health-care system, as immigrants migrate to the U.S., they encounter the same health-care inequalities that are faced by the native-born population based on ethnicity and social class, potentiated by limitations of health literacy and lack of familiarity with U.S. health systems. Given the continued influx of African-born immigrants in the U.S., we sought to understand the representation of this population in cervical and breast cancer research, recognizing the population’s high risk for these diseases at baseline while residing in their native countries. We determined that there is limited research in these diseases that disproportionately affect them; yet, there are identifiable and potentially modifiable factors that contribute to this paucity of evidence. This clinical commentary seeks to underscore the clear lack of research available involving African-born immigrants with respect to gynecologic and breast malignancies in the existing literature, demonstrate the need for more robust research in this population, and provide fundamental insights into barriers and solutions critical to the continued health of this growing population. PMID:27499654
Juliana Pires Ribeiro
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate accessibility to primary health care services in the state of Goiás. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted based on secondary data from the National Program to Improve Access to and Quality of Primary Health Care. The study sample was composed of health professionals from 1,216 primary health care units. Results showed that 68.5% of the health units miss a screening room, thus considerably damaging prompt decision-making by professionals. The lack of medical offices in 2% of the sites hinders the primary health care services accessibility in Goiás. As regards opening hours and work shifts, 86% of the units are open five days a week in eight-hour shifts, which does not favor accessibility for users. This study confirms the lack of accessibility to health services and the need for additional investments to strengthen primary health care.
Karunathilake, Indika Mahesh
The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is an island in the Indian Ocean that has achieved a unique status in the world with health indicators that are comparable with those of developed countries. This is illustrated, among others, by the reduction in both child and maternal mortality in the country. This achievement is the result of a range of long-term interventions, including providing education and health care free of charge, training of health care workers, developing public health infrastructure in rural areas, and adopting steps to improve sanitation, nutrition, and immunization coverage. PMID:22815304
Bloch Gary; Rozmovits Linda; Giambrone Broden
Abstract Background Poverty is widely recognized as a major determinant of poor health, and this link has been extensively studied and verified. Despite the strong evidentiary link, little work has been done to determine what primary care health providers can do to address their patients' income as a risk to their health. This qualitative study explores the barriers to primary care responsiveness to poverty as a health issue in a well-resourced jurisdiction with near-universal health care ins...
Kapinga, Orestes Silverius; Hyera, Daniel Frans
This study explored pupils' perceptions of sex and reproductive health education in primary schools in Tanzania. Specifically, the study aimed at (i) exploring pupils' views on sex and reproductive health education in primary schools; (ii) determining opinions on the appropriateness of sex and reproductive health education for pupils in primary…
Luc E Coffeng
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Onchocerciasis causes a considerable disease burden in Africa, mainly through skin and eye disease. Since 1995, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC has coordinated annual mass treatment with ivermectin in 16 countries. In this study, we estimate the health impact of APOC and the associated costs from a program perspective up to 2010 and provide expected trends up to 2015. METHODS AND FINDINGS: With data on pre-control prevalence of infection and population coverage of mass treatment, we simulated trends in infection, blindness, visual impairment, and severe itch using the micro-simulation model ONCHOSIM, and estimated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs lost due to onchocerciasis. We assessed financial costs for APOC, beneficiary governments, and non-governmental development organizations, excluding cost of donated drugs. We estimated that between 1995 and 2010, mass treatment with ivermectin averted 8.2 million DALYs due to onchocerciasis in APOC areas, at a nominal cost of about US$257 million. We expect that APOC will avert another 9.2 million DALYs between 2011 and 2015, at a nominal cost of US$221 million. CONCLUSIONS: Our simulations suggest that APOC has had a remarkable impact on population health in Africa between 1995 and 2010. This health impact is predicted to double during the subsequent five years of the program, through to 2015. APOC is a highly cost-effective public health program. Given the anticipated elimination of onchocerciasis from some APOC areas, we expect even more health gains and a more favorable cost-effectiveness of mass treatment with ivermectin in the near future.
A cluster randomized trial of standard quality improvement versus patient-centered interventions to enhance depression care for African Americans in the primary care setting: study protocol NCT00243425
Ghods Bri K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies document disparities in access to care and quality of care for depression for African Americans. Research suggests that patient attitudes and clinician communication behaviors may contribute to these disparities. Evidence links patient-centered care to improvements in mental health outcomes; therefore, quality improvement interventions that enhance this dimension of care are promising strategies to improve treatment and outcomes of depression among African Americans. This paper describes the design of the BRIDGE (Blacks Receiving Interventions for Depression and Gaining Empowerment Study. The goal of the study is to compare the effectiveness of two interventions for African-American patients with depression--a standard quality improvement program and a patient-centered quality improvement program. The main hypothesis is that patients in the patient-centered group will have a greater reduction in their depression symptoms, higher rates of depression remission, and greater improvements in mental health functioning at six, twelve, and eighteen months than patients in the standard group. The study also examines patient ratings of care and receipt of guideline-concordant treatment for depression. Methods/Design A total of 36 primary care clinicians and 132 of their African-American patients with major depressive disorder were recruited into a cluster randomized trial. The study uses intent-to-treat analyses to compare the effectiveness of standard quality improvement interventions (academic detailing about depression guidelines for clinicians and disease-oriented care management for their patients and patient-centered quality improvement interventions (communication skills training to enhance participatory decision-making for clinicians and care management focused on explanatory models, socio-cultural barriers, and treatment preferences for their patients for improving outcomes over 12 months of follow
Santiago, Isabel De; Miguel, José Pereira; Antunes, Francisco
In this work, Health Communication is considered as an important discipline in medicine and health sciences for his role as true determinant of health. We highlight their contribution to health promotion and disease prevention. Thus, the Health Communication Plan (PCS): Preventing the spread of Ebola virus disease in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries - KISS & KEYWORDS methodology is a tool that aims to minimize the risk of infection by Ebola virus in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries and also train for a general improvement of health conditions of the local populations. In the PCS design are especially considered the social and cultural contexts of the target populations, especially the customs, traditions and religion. Health Communication is considered as an Essential Function of Public Health and its main is to provide a population-based approach. The target of communication actions are population groups in addition to the individual communication, target-audiences are people without access to the media, in Guinea Bissau, Cape Verde and Sao Tome and Principe. Under the communication plan uses the methodology, models and practices both by media professionals as health. A proximity approach and cultural mediation, previously identified key facts, are defined objectives; outlines to the Plan in concrete and its implementation methodology (target-audience and following intervention, materials to be used and key-messages and partners to mobilize) following the World Health Organisation standards. PMID:26061502
Full Text Available Background: Organisational culture is a key factor in both patient and staff experience of the healthcare services. Patient satisfaction, staff engagement and performance are related to this experience. The department of health in the Western Cape espouses a values-based culture characterised by caring, competence, accountability, integrity, responsiveness and respect. However, transformation of the existing culture is required to achieve this vision. Aim: To explore how to transform the organisational culture in line with the desired values. Setting: Retreat Community Health Centre, Cape Town, South Africa. Methods: Participatory action research with the leadership engaged with action and reflection over a period of 18 months. Change in the organisational culture was measured at baseline and after 18 months by means of a cultural values assessment (CVA survey. The three key leaders at the health centre also completed a 360-degree leadership values assessment (LVA and had 6 months of coaching. Results: Cultural entropy was reduced from 33 to 13% indicating significant transformation of organisational culture. The key driver of this transformation was change in the leadership style and functioning. Retreat health centre shifted from a culture that emphasised hierarchy, authority, command and control to one that established a greater sense of cohesion, shared vision, open communication, appreciation, respect, fairness and accountability. Conclusion: Transformation of organisational culture was possible through a participatory process that focused on the leadership style, communication and building relationships by means of CVA and feedback, 360-degree LVA, feedback and coaching and action learning in a co-operative inquiry group.
Romelsjö, A; Haglund, B J; Diderichsen, Finn; Hallqvist, J; Holland, S; Nordström, G; Svanström, L
The 1984/85 Stockholm Health of the Population Study (HPS) was a cross sectional study including a questionnaire and a health examination. It was conducted through the ordinary health personnel of four Primary Health Care (PHC) districts in the Stockholm County. The main objective was to broaden...
Daniel J.L. Venter
Full Text Available Increased health risks associated with physical inactivity in the Black population have been reported in recent years. Black women, suffering the highest levels of inactivity, overweight and obesity, are at greatest risk of developing chronic diseases of lifestyle. This explorativedescriptive study investigated the physical activity patterns and health status of two generations of Black professional women, reflecting pre-democracy and post-democracy age groups. Quantitative measures were used, including the ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer, the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile. Sample groups comprised teachers, nurses, social workers and public sector managers. Participants aged between 35 and 45 years were allocated to the older generation group (n = 111, whilst those aged between 18 and 21 years (students in the mentioned professional fields were allocated to the younger generation group (n = 69. The results indicated that these women displayed lower levels of health-promoting behavioural practices than expected, significantly lower levels of physical activity and significantly higher levels of overweight and obesity than the South African norms. The observation that the younger group appeared to be replicating the patterns of the older women is a cause of concern. Greater compliance to health-promoting behaviours was expected in this group owing to participants’ professional involvement in health, education and social development fields. Wide-ranging initiatives are necessary to promote physical activity and health amongst the Black female population in South Africa.
Gedurende die afgelope jare het navorsing onder die Swart bevolking ŉ toename in gesondheidsrisiko’s wat met fisieke onaktiwiteit geassosieer is, getoon. Swart vroue, wat die hoogste vlakke van onaktiwiteit, oorgewig en obesiteit toon, blyk ook die grootste risiko te loop om
Rao, K S
In India, major social discrepancies linger despite major advances since 1947 with the result of overeating by the rich and undernutrition of the poor. Anemia affected 65% of pregnant women in Hyderabad hospitals, and in Calcutta it hovered around 88.5-90/1% for males and 96.5-96.7% for females aged 15-44. Malnutrition accounted for 15% of hospitalizations often because of infant diarrhea. Parasitic infestations leading to anemia and subsequent malnutrition also resulted in premature births and low birth weight. Weaning practices including its late initiation and prolongation of breast feeding for up to 12 months (or 18 months in rural areas) led to growth retardation. About 25,000 children become blind annually because of vitamin A deficiency, and 55% of women also suffer from it. Almost 120-170 million people suffer from endemic goiter. Socio economic and socio cultural factors are also associated with nutritional problems. Some Brahmin communities in South India avoid garlic and onions because they are considered taboo foods. The Tridosha Theory holds the there are heat-producing foods, cooling foods, and gas-producing foods that have to be avoided. Some of these are brown sugar, eggs, tomatoes, oranges, cereals, and vegetables. In West Bengal they believe that milk and fish can cause leprosy. The population nearing 800 million is another factor, as smaller families have better nutrition. Education by nurses should include the use of exhibits, songs, and plays to teach women proper nutrition. Nurses also have to change their attitudes to avoid commercial foods, identify harmful practices, and promote nutritional education. The project of the National Institute of Nutrition involving 23 villages combated vitamin A deficiency successfully by laying stress on available vegetables and fruits. If nurses participate if such primary health care programs the objectives of Health for All by 2000 will be achieved. PMID:2726585
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relative absence of inquiring data internationally, with regard to the relation of woman, family and work as important sources of stress, in the professional team of district nurses, gave the spark for the planning of present study. AIM: We have conducted a study to identify levels of stress, job satisfaction, and effects of the job to the family life and reversely, among district nurses (nurses and nurse assistantsworking in primary health care settings in central Greece (Thessaly. METHODS: Data were obtained regarding altogether 92 nurses by means of self-administered questionnaires using identical methods and items, with response rate 100%. RESULTS: District nurses believe in the necessity of high educational sufficiency for the achievement of professional evolution, present high levels of satisfaction from the object and their place of work. They reported high levels of stress that exceed the corresponding levels in the Greek population. Nurses appear to be more satisfied from work than nurse assistants. The implications of the findings for further research are considered.
Jolly, John B.; Fluet, Norman R.; Reis, Michael D.; Stern, Charles H.; Thompson, Alexander W.; Jolly, Gillian A.
The integration of behavioral health services in primary care has been referred to in many ways, but ultimately refers to common structures and processes. Behavioral health is integrated into primary care because it increases the effectiveness and efficiency of providing care and reduces costs in the care of primary care patients. Reimbursement is one factor, if not the main factor, that determines the level of integration that can be achieved. The federal health reform agenda supports change...
Full Text Available In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV. However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary prevention. For example, empathy, self-esteem, compassion, emotional regulation and resilience, stress management, relationship building, and challenging problematic social norms are crucial. Furthermore, competencies such as rapport building, group processing, emotional nurturing, modelling, and the prevention of vicarious trauma among staff are important for the successful implementation of SGBV primary prevention programmes. SGBV primary prevention work would benefit from increased collaboration with mental health professionals and integration of key mental health concepts, processes, and skills in SGBV research.
Gevers, Aník; Dartnall, Elizabeth
In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary prevention. For example, empathy, self-esteem, compassion, emotional regulation and resilience, stress management, relationship building, and challenging problematic social norms are crucial. Furthermore, competencies such as rapport building, group processing, emotional nurturing, modelling, and the prevention of vicarious trauma among staff are important for the successful implementation of SGBV primary prevention programmes. SGBV primary prevention work would benefit from increased collaboration with mental health professionals and integration of key mental health concepts, processes, and skills in SGBV research. PMID:25226417
Srinivas, Sunitha C; Paphitis, Sharli Anne
A marked increase in the chronic non-communicable diseases such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus in the South African population is in concert with global trends. A health promotion activity carried out by pharmacy students for school learners during the Sasol National Festival of Science and Technology (SciFest) in South Africa was used as a service-learning opportunity. Pilot tested quizzes on hypertension and diabetes were used to determine the level of knowledge of attendees before and after taking the computer based quiz. Posters, information leaflets and interactive models on these two conditions were also used to reach out to the larger population. Of the 203 participants for the hypertension quiz, 169 completed both the pre- and post-intervention quizzes. Similarly, 86 of the 104 participants for the diabetes quiz, completed both the pre- and post-intervention quizzes. The results show that the post-intervention quiz resulted in a significant increase in the scores from 78.2 to 85.6 % in the case of Hypertension while a marginal increase from 94.2 to 95.5 % was obtained in the case of diabetes. The knowledge of the SciFest attendees with regard to both conditions is above average and improved further after the educational intervention. Health promotion activities which include interactive educational methods and culturally appropriate materials carried out by pharmacy students during service-learning courses are important for improving the awareness on the prevention of these chronic health conditions. Heath promotion service-learning courses can assist in addressing the health care gaps which arise because of a lack of co-ordinated efforts between NGO's and local Government to address the prevention and management of non-communicable diseases such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. PMID:26659854
Basu, R N
The ultimate objective of the Expanded Program on Immunication, better known as EPI, is to reduce the morbidity of the diseases for which vaccine is available. The EPI is a key component of the country effort to provide Health for All by the year 2000. It is planned that by 1990 immunization services will be available for all infants against diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, tuberculosis, and poliomyelitis and for all school children for diptheria, tetanus, and typhoid, and for all pregnant women against tetanus. The immunization services will be a part of the comprehensive health care and will be integrated with all hospitals and dispensaries in urban areas and primary health centers/subcenters in the rural areas. Outreach operations are encouraged to bring these services as close to the mother and children as possible. Steps have already been taken to make the country self-sufficient in the production of different quality vaccines to meet the program requirements. New vaccines will be added where found to be epidemiologically necessary and administratively feasible. The vaccination program is effective only if given at the right age. A national immunization schedule has been prepared which emphasizes vaccination of all infants with 1 dose of BCG, 3 doses of DPT and polio at a minimum interval of 1 month, by the 1st birthday. School entrants are given a booster dose of DT and 2 doses of typhoid vaccine at an interval of 1 month. The children leaving primary school and leaving high school are given 1 booster dose of tetanus toxoid. In case of history of tetanus toxoid immunization in the earlier preganancy, 1 booster dose is adequate. Important components of management of EPI are cold chain maintenance, record keeping and evaluation, uniform vaccination coverage standards, and communication with the public through various media. A table gives the number of children/women proposed to be covered with full course of vaccine during each year of the 6th Plan. Disease
Saegert, Susan; Fields, Desiree; Libman, Kimberly
In this paper we offer a conceptualization of mortgage foreclosure as serial displacement by highlighting the current crisis in the context of historically repeated extraction of capital-economic, social, and human-from communities defined at different scales: geographically, socially, and that of embodied individuals. We argue that serial displacement is the loss of capital, physical resources, social integration and collective capacity, and psycho-social resources at each of these scales, with losses at one level affecting other levels. The repeated extraction of resources has negative implications for the health of individuals and groups, within generations as well as across generations, through the accumulation of loss over time. Our analysis of the foreclosure crisis as serial displacement for African American households in the United States begins with the "housing niche" model. We focus on the foreclosure crisis as an example of the interconnectedness of structured inequality in health and housing. Then we briefly review the history of policies related to racial inequality in homeownership in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. We end with an analysis of the scales of displacement and the human, social, and capital asset extraction that accompany them. PMID:21643884
Srikrishna Varun Malayala
Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of different risk factors (abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol that predispose to the development of cardiovascular diseases. African American women (AAW are easily predisposed to metabolic syndrome due to higher levels of insulin resistance. Various sociodemographic factors further contribute to higher prevalence. Aim: This study evaluates the current prevalence of metabolic syndrome in AAW and identifies the related sociodemographic risk factors. Methods: The study utilized 2007–11 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data sets from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC. The sample was divided into two groups: AAW with and without metabolic syndrome. Sociodemographic, physical examination, laboratory parameters, and health perceptions were compared between the two groups. Results: Out of the available sample of 30,442 individuals, 1918 (6.4% met the inclusion criteria (AAW, age>20, non-pregnant women. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 47%. Older age, lower education level, low socioeconomic status, unmarried status, low physical activity level, and smoking were associated with higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (p<0.001. The prevalence of borderline hypertension, hypertension, diabetes, stroke, and cardiovascular diseases was significantly higher in AAW with metabolic syndrome (p<0.001. Conclusion: In spite of the focus on prevention of cardiovascular risk factors and elimination of ethnic and gender disparities, metabolic syndrome is still widely prevalent in AAW and poses a threat to the goals of Healthy People 2020.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this research paper is to study job satisfaction of physicians and general practitioners at primary health care institutions during the health care reform in Lithuania. Methods Self-administrated anonymous questionnaires were distributed to all physicians and general practitioners (N = 243, response rate – 78.6%, working at Kaunas primary health care level establishments, in October – December 2003. Results 15 men (7.9% and 176 women (92.1% participated in the research, among which 133 (69.6% were GPs and 58 (30.4% physicians. Respondents claimed to have chosen to become doctors, as other professions were of no interest to them. Total job satisfaction of the respondents was 4.74 point (on a 7 point scale. Besides 75.5% of the respondents said they would not recommend their children to choose a PHC level doctor's profession. The survey also showed that the respondents were most satisfied with the level of autonomy they get at work – 5.28, relationship with colleagues – 5.06, and management quality – 5.04, while compensation (2.09, social status (3.36, and workload (3.93 turned to be causing the highest dissatisfaction among the respondents. The strongest correlation (Spearmen's ratio was observed between total job satisfaction and such factors as the level of autonomy – 0.566, workload – 0.452, and GP's social status – 0.458. Conclusion Total job satisfaction of doctors working at primary health care establishments in Lithuania is relatively low, and compensation, social status, and workload are among the key factors that condition PHC doctors' dissatisfaction with their job.
Paula Diab; Penny Flack
Background: Community-based education (CBE) is utilised by health science facultiesworldwide to provide a relevant primary care experience for students and a service tounderserved communities and, hopefully, to affect student career choices. The benefits totraining institutions and students are well documented, but it may well be that communities,too, will be able to benefit from a more balanced partnership, where they are consulted in theplanning of such training programmes.Method: An explo...
Curtis, Leslie; Brown, Zaneta G; Gill, Jennifer E
Statistics indicate that African-American women have the highest rate of obesity among all racial groups. In response, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) developed "Sisters Together: Move More, Eat Better," a national program that encourages African-American women to maintain a healthy weight by becoming more physically active and by eating healthier foods. "Sisters Together" programs are run locally by individuals or community groups in locations such as churches and health departments. The NIDDK offers culturally relevant materials and technical assistance to program leaders, including a recently updated program guide. The guide walks leaders through program planning, promotion, implementation, and evaluation. It is based on obesity, nutrition, and physical activity research; evidence-based programs for African-American women; and proven health communication strategies. The guide is consumer friendly, using clear language and real-life examples. "Sisters Together" programs encourage African-American women and their families to improve their eating habits and their physical activity habits. PMID:19397055
... Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Choosing a Primary Health Care Provider (PCP): General Information Posted ... taking care of yourself. Why do I need a PCP? You need a PCP so that your ...
Venter, Fouche Hendrik Johannes; Wolfaardt, Jaqueline Elizabeth
South Africa (SA) has limited scope for raising income taxes, and the proposed National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme will necessitate growth in the health sector budget. The NHI White Paper suggests five funding scenarios to meet the expected shortfall. These scenarios are a mixture of a surcharge on taxable income, an increase in value-added tax and a payroll tax. Five alternative options, suggested by the World Health Organization, are interrogated as ways to decrease the general taxation proposed in the White Paper. The five mechanisms (corporate tax, financial transaction levy, and taxes on tobacco, alcohol and unhealthy foods) were chosen based on their fund-raising potential and their mandatory element. A literature review provides the information for a discussion of the potential costs of each mechanism. Within specific assumptions, potential budgetary contribution is compared with the requirement. First, raising corporate tax rates could raise enough funds, but the losses due to capital flight might be too much for the local economy to bear. Second, a levy on currency transactions is unlikely to raise the required resources, even without a probable decrease in the number of transactions. Third, the increase in the tax on tobacco and alcohol would need to be very large, even assuming that consumption patterns would remain unchanged. Lastly, a tax on unhealthy food products is a new idea and could be explored as an option - especially as the SA Treasury has announced its future implementation. Implementing only one of the mechanisms is unlikely to increase available funding sufficiently, but if they are implemented together the welfare-maximising tax rate for each mechanism may be high enough to fulfil the NHI scheme's budgetary requirement, moderating the increases in the tax burden of the SA population. PMID:27499398
McDermott Robyn; Thompson Sandra; Weeramanthri Tarun; Connors Christine; Anderson Ian; Nagel Tricia; Scrimgeour David J; Rowley Kevin; Semmens James; Shannon Cindy; Si Damin; Bailie Ross; Burke Hugh; Moore Elizabeth; Leon Dallas
Abstract Background Strengthening primary health care is critical to reducing health inequity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. The Audit and Best practice for Chronic Disease Extension (ABCDE) project has facilitated the implementation of modern Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) approaches in Indigenous community health care centres across Australia. The project demonstrated improvements in health centre systems, delivery of primary care services and in patient intermedia...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The implementation of the 58th World Health Assembly resolution on e-health will pose a major challenge for the Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO African Region due to lack of information and communications technology (ICT and mass Internet connectivity, compounded by a paucity of ICT-related knowledge and skills. The key objectives of this article are to: (i explore the key determinants of personal computers (PCs, telephone mainline and cellular and Internet penetration/connectivity in the African Region; and (ii to propose actions needed to create an enabling environment for e-health services growth and utilization in the Region. Methods The effects of school enrolment, per capita income and governance variables on the number of PCs, telephone mainlines, cellular phone subscribers and Internet users were estimated using a double-log regression model and cross-sectional data on various Member States in the African Region. The analysis was based on 45 of the 46 countries that comprise the Region. The data were obtained from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, the World Bank and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU sources. Results There were a number of main findings: (i the adult literacy and total number of Internet users had a statistically significant (at 5% level in a t-distribution test positive effect on the number of PCs in a country; (ii the combined school enrolment rate and per capita income had a statistically significant direct effect on the number of telephone mainlines and cellular telephone subscribers; (iii the regulatory quality had statistically significant negative effect on the number of telephone mainlines; (iv similarly, the combined school enrolment ratio and the number of telephone mainlines had a statistically significant positive relationship with Internet usage; and (v there were major inequalities in ICT connectivity between upper-middle, lower-middle and
Buykx Penny; Humphreys John S; Tham Rachel; Kinsman Leigh; Wakerman John; Asaid Adel; Tuohey Kathy
Abstract Background The ability to sustain comprehensive primary health care (PHC) services in the face of change is crucial to the health of rural communities. This paper illustrates how one service has proactively managed change to remain sustainable. Methods A 6-year longitudinal evaluation of the Elmore Primary Health Service (EPHS) located in rural Victoria, Australia, is currently underway, examining the performance, quality and sustainability of the service. Threats to, and enablers of...
O'Kelly, C M
BACKGROUND: In 2001, a primary care-based health needs assessment (HNA) in South Inner City of Dublin identified high levels of morbidity and widespread and frequent use of primary care and specialist hospital services as particular concerns. AIMS: This study aims to determine the primary care health needs of a local community, from the perspective of service users and service providers. METHODS: A similar methodology to our 2001 HNA was adopted, involving semi-structured interviews with a convenience sample of patients attending two general practices and key informants regarding local health issues and health service utilisation. RESULTS: High levels of morbidity and chronic illness were found. A correlation between the local environment and ill-health was identified, as well as high utilisation of primary care services in the area. CONCLUSION: The establishment of a Primary Care Team would begin to address the health needs of the community.
Booysen Frederick LR
Full Text Available Abstract Background South African households are severely affected by human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS but health and economic impacts have not been quantified in controlled cohort studies. Methods We compared households with an HIV-infected member, and unaffected neighbouring households, in one rural and one urban area in Free State province, South Africa. Interviews were conducted with one key informant in each household, at baseline and six months later. We studied 1913 members of 404 households, with 94% and 96% follow up, respectively. Household and individual level analyses were done. Results Members of affected households, compared to members of unaffected households, were independently more likely to be continuously ill (adjusted odds ratio (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3–3.4 at follow up, and to die (adjusted OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.0–11, mainly due to infectious diseases. Government clinics and hospitals were the main sources of health care. Affected households were poorer than unaffected households at baseline (relative income per person 0.61, 95% CI 0.49–0.76. Over six months expenditure and income decreased more rapidly in affected than in unaffected households (baseline-adjusted relative expenditure 0.86, 95% CI 0.75–0.99 and income 0.89, 95% CI 0.75–1.05. Baseline morbidity was independently associated with lower income and expenditure at baseline but not with changes over six months. Conclusions HIV/AIDS affects the health and wealth of households as well as infected individuals, aggravating pre-existing poverty.
Full Text Available Patients with primary antibody deficiencies (PAD are susceptible to recurrent and chronic infections and a variety of complications. This study was performed to assess quality of life (QoL of PAD patients who were under long term treatment and regular follow-up.Thirty six adults with proved diagnosis of PAD, who had received regular intravenous immunoglobulin replacement therapy, were enrolled in this study. The QoL of selected PAD patients was measured by Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form (SF-36 Health Survey questionnaire.The patients with PAD showed significantly reduced scores in physical component in comparison with healthy age-sex matched control subjects (60.2±20.1 vs. 85.5±4.7, P<0.001. Mental component score was also significantly decreased in the patient's group (59.8±19.5 vs. 72.3±3.4, P=0.002. There was a reverse association between SF-36 scores and number of infections episodes (r=-0.73 P=0.003. The patients with long delay diagnosis showed significantly lower SF-36 scores (r=-0.62, P=0.003.The patients with PAD who were diagnosed timely and managed appropriately seem to have lower complications and better QoL. However, the patients with severe phenotypes and long delay in diagnosis showed lower QoL, even in medical management.
Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki D.; Szymanski, Benjamin R.; Zivin, Kara; McCarthy, John F.; Valenstein, Marcia; Pfeiffer, Paul N.
Objective: To assess whether Primary Care–Mental Health Integration (PC-MHI) programs within the Veterans Affairs (VA) health system provide services to patient subgroups that may be underrepresented in specialty mental health care, including older patients and women, and to explore whether PC-MHI served individuals with less severe mental health disorders compared to specialty mental health clinics.
Swan, G E; Coetzer, J A W; Terblanche, H M
The globalisation of trade and food, the increased volume and speed of international travel, climate change, and the related escalation of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases mean that countries are now more interconnected and interdependent than ever before. Africa is beleaguered by a range of endemic infectious and parasitic tropical diseases which, due to its diverse wildlife populations and indigenous livestock, can serve as a reservoir of high-impact or transboundary diseases and play a role in the emergence of disease, particularly at the wildlife, domestic animal and human interfaces. It is therefore essential to integrate animal and public health issues into the veterinary curriculum. Veterinary training in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa has focused on producing veterinarians to serve the livestock sector although socio-economic changes and privatisation of Veterinary Services have caused curriculum adjustments, as have globalisation and the increased risk of the spread of transboundary diseases. In South Africa, undergraduate veterinary training is more clinically oriented than in other regions. Animal and public health issues are covered in the curriculum, although their global relevance is not emphasised. The authors describe the undergraduate veterinary curriculum and summarise post-graduate programmes in South Africa. They also discuss a more comprehensive core-elective approach to the current curriculum and the need to adapt to new challenges facing the profession. Finally, they examine the potential use of innovative technology in undergraduate and post-graduate training and professional development, the importance of regional and international collaboration and the accreditation and recognition of veterinary training. PMID:20128484
Rodrigo Da Silva Dias
Full Text Available Background Telemental Health Care has reported very good results and is included within mental health priorities by the World Health Organization. Objective To provide an overview of the current situation of the integration of Brazilian telemedicine activities into primary health care. Methods Critical review based on MEDLINE database, using the keywords “telemedicine”, “primary health care” “mental health” and “telemental health”, on websites of the Brazilian Ministry of Health and Brazilian Telehealth Network Program, and on personal communication. Results The Brazilian Telehealth Network Program is well positioned and connects primary health care with academic centers. Regulations standards allow a broader scope of activities for psychologists, however, are more restrictive for physicians. In Brazil most of telemental health activities are focused on education and second opinion consulting. A huge challenge must be overcome considering the regional differences and the telehealth implementation experience. Research initiatives have been initiated both in the implementation and evaluation of the mental health assistance into primary health care. Discussion Brazilian Telemental Health initiatives into Primary Care are aligned with other examples around the world, have a great potential for improving mental health care service delivery, and access to proper mental health care, especially if articulated in a national program and coordinated research.
Anne Karen Jenum
Full Text Available Background: Ethnic minorities in Europe have high susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2DM and, in some groups, also cardiovascular disease (CVD. Pregnancy can be considered a stress test that predicts future morbidity patterns in women and that affects future health of the child. Objective: To review ethnic differences in: 1 adiposity, hyperglycaemia, and pre-eclampsia during pregnancy; 2 future risk in the mother of obesity, T2DM and CVD; and 3 prenatal development and possible influences of maternal obesity, hyperglycaemia, and pre-eclampsia on offspring's future disease risk, as relevant for ethnic minorities in Europe of Asian and African origin. Design: Literature review. Results: Maternal health among ethnic minorities is still sparsely documented. Higher pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI is found in women of African and Middle Eastern descent, and lower BMI in women from East and South Asia compared with women from the majority population. Within study populations, risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is considerably higher in many minority groups, particularly South Asians, than in the majority population. This increased risk is apparent at lower BMI and younger ages. Women of African origin have higher risk of pre-eclampsia. A GDM pregnancy implies approximately seven-fold higher risk of T2DM than normal pregnancies, and both GDM and pre-eclampsia increase later risk of CVD. Asian neonates have lower birth weights, and mostly also African neonates. This may translate into increased risks of later obesity, T2DM, and CVD. Foetal overgrowth can promote the same conditions. Breastfeeding represents a possible strategy to reduce risk of T2DM in both the mother and the child. Conclusions: Ethnic minority women in Europe with Asian and African origin and their offspring seem to be at increased risk of T2DM and CVD, both currently and in the future. Pregnancy is an important window of opportunity for short and long-term disease prevention.
Johnson, Leigh F.; Dorrington, Rob E; Ria Laubscher; Christopher Hoffmann; Robin Wood; Fox, Matthew P; Morna Cornell; Michael Schomaker; Hans Prozesky; Frank Tanser; Mary-Ann Davies; Andrew Boulle
Introduction: There is uncertainty regarding the completeness of death recording by civil registration and by health centres in South Africa. This paper aims to compare death recording by the two systems, in cohorts of South African patients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART). Methods: Completeness of death recording was estimated using a capture–recapture approach. Six ART programmes linked their patient record systems to the vital registration system using civil identity document (ID)...
Atun, Rifat Ali; Menabde, Nata; Saluvere, Katrin; Jesse, Maris; Habicht, Jarno
All post-Soviet countries are trying to reform their primary health care (PHC) systems. The success to date has been uneven. We evaluated PHC reforms in Estonia, using multimethods evaluation: comprising retrospective analysis of routine health service data from Estonian Health Insurance Fund and health-related surveys; documentary analysis of policy reports, laws and regulations; key informant interviews. We analysed changes in organisational structure, regulations, financing and service provision in Estonian PHC system as well as key informant perceptions on factors influencing introduction of reforms. Estonia has successfully implemented and scaled-up multifaceted PHC reforms, including new organisational structures, user choice of family physicians (FPs), new payment methods, specialist training for family medicine, service contracts for FPs, broadened scope of services and evidence-based guidelines. These changes have been institutionalised. PHC effectiveness has been enhanced, as evidenced by improved management of key chronic conditions by FPs in PHC setting and reduced hospital admissions for these conditions. Introduction of PHC reforms - a complex innovation - was enhanced by strong leadership, good co-ordination between policy and operational level, practical approach to implementation emphasizing simplicity of interventions to be easily understood by potential adopters, an encircling strategy to roll-out which avoided direct confrontations with narrow specialists and opposing stakeholders in capital Tallinn, careful change-management strategy to avoid health reforms being politicized too early in the process, and early investment in training to establish a critical mass of health professionals to enable rapid operationalisation of policies. Most importantly, a multifaceted and coordinated approach to reform - with changes in laws; organisational restructuring; modifications to financing and provider payment systems; creation of incentives to enhance
Dorn, T.; Yzermans, J.; Kerssens, J.; Veen, P. ten
Background: Although crucial for the management of the post-disaster phase, the impact of disasters on primary health care utilization is largely unknown. Often, pre-disaster base-line data is lacking. The current study quantified primary health care utilization after a major fire disaster in The Ne
Full Text Available Abstract Background African American women have higher rates of breast cancer mortality than their white counterparts. Studies have suggested that this is partly caused by discovery of cancer at a later stage, highlighting the importance of encouraging early detection of breast cancer in this population. To guide the creation of a breast cancer education intervention and help focus other health educators' and clinicians' health promotion efforts, this study explored whether a cohort of African American women living in San Diego would demonstrate the possession of adequate baseline knowledge about breast cancer screening and adherence to widely recommended screening guidelines. Methods African American women (N = 1,055 from San Diego, California participated in a beauty salon-based survey about breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening practices. Women's ages ranged from 20 to 94 years, with average age of 42.20 (SD = 13.53 years. Thirty-four percent reported completing college and/or some graduate school training, and 52% reported having some college or post high school formal training. Seventy-five percent of the sample reported working outside their home. Participating cosmetologists and their salons were recruited to the study through word-of-mouth referral by highly respected African American community leaders. Results Salon clients reported low rates of adherence to recommended breast cancer screening guidelines. Of the 1,055 participants, 31% reporting performing breast self-exam every month. Of those participants 40 and older, 57% reported having had a clinical breast exam and 43% reported having had a mammogram in the past year. Knowledge of breast cancer was associated with adherence to screening guidelines. While women recognized the serious health threat that breast cancer poses and that early detection of breast cancer is important, only 30% of women reported feeling well informed about the disease. Many participants
Schmittdiel, Julie A.; Shortell, Stephen M.; Rundall, Thomas G; Bodenheimer, Thomas; SELBY, Joe V.
PURPOSE It has been suggested that the best way to improve chronic illness care is through a redesign of primary care emphasizing comprehensive, coordinated care as espoused by the Chronic Care Model (CCM). This study examined the relationship between primary care orientation and the implementation of the CCM in physician organizations.
Moore, Nataka; Wright, Matara; Gipson, Jessica; Jordan, Greg; Harsh, Mohit; Reed, Daniel; Murray, Marcus; Keeter, Mary Kate; Murphy, Adam
The barbershop has been used to target African American (AA) men across age groups for health screenings, health interventions, and for research. However, few studies explore the sociodemographic characteristics of barbers and their clients. Additionally, few have evaluated the client's relative comfort with receiving health information and screenings in barbershops and other non-clinical settings. Lastly, it is unknown whether barbers feel capable of influencing health-decision making of AA men. AA male clients and barbers completed a self-administered survey in barbershops in predominantly AA neighborhoods throughout Chicago, Illinois. We assessed sociodemographic characteristics and attitudes towards receiving physical and mental health education and screenings in barbershops and other settings. Barbers were also surveyed regarding their most and least common clients by age group and their perceived ability to influence the decision-making of AA males by age group. AAs surveyed in barbershops have similar rates of high school completion, poverty and unemployment as the AA residents of their neighborhood. AA males prefer to receive health education and screening in clinician offices followed by barbershops and churches. Barbers reported serving males age 18-39 years of age most frequently while men 50 years and older were the least served group. Overall, barbers did not believe they could influence the decision-making of AA men and in the best case scenario, only 33 % felt they could influence young men 18-29 years old. Barbershops reach AA men that are representative of the demographics of the neighborhood where the barbershop is located. Barbers reach a small population of men over age 49 and feel incapable of influencing the decisions of AAs over age 39. Further studies are needed to assess other locales for accessing older AA men and to evaluate the feasibility of mental health interventions and screenings within the barbershop. PMID:26831485
Altamimi, Samar; Alshoshan, Feda; Al Shaman, Ghada; Tawfeeq, Nasser; Alasmary, May; Ahmed, Anwar E.
Introduction: In recent years, several research studies have investigated health promotion practices in Saudi healthcare organizations, yet no published literature exists on health promotion practices of primary healthcare professionals working for the Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs (MNG-HA). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample of 206 primary healthcare professionals at the MNG-HA. A self-reporting questionnaire was used to investigate the attitudes, awareness, satisfaction, and methods regarding health promotion practices of primary healthcare professionals. Results: Of the 206 primary healthcare professionals surveyed, 58.1% reported awareness of health promotion programs conducted in the hospitals and 64.6% reported that the health promotion system in the hospitals needs to be improved. Language barriers and cultural beliefs were viewed as obstacles to carrying out effective health promotion by 65% and 64.6% of primary healthcare professionals, respectively. The majority (79.9%) of the primary healthcare professionals perceived themselves as having the necessary skills to promote health and 80.6% believed that printed educational materials are the most prevalent method of health promotion/education, whereas 55.8% reported that counseling was the most preferred method of health promotion. Conclusion: The awareness level of health promotion policies, strategies, and programs conducted in the hospitals was not found to be satisfactory. Therefore, widespread training programs are recommended to improve the health promotion system in the hospitals. These programs include facilitating behavioral change, introducing health promotion policies and strategies in hospitals, mandatory workshops, and systematic reminders.
Sharma, Vimal K; Lepping, Peter; Cummins, Anthony GP; Copeland, John RM; Parhee, Rashmi; Mottram, Patricia
The Global Mental Health Assessment Tool – Primary Care Version (GMHAT/PC) is a computerised clinical assessment tool developed to assess and identify a wide range of mental health problems in primary care. It generates a computer diagnosis, a symptom rating, a self-harm risk assessment, and a referral letter. Patients from primary care and community psychiatric outpatient clinics and a small sample of inpatients were interviewed for a period of two months using the GMHAT/PC...
Mota, Ankita; Oswal, Kunal C.; Sajnani, Dipti A.
Background. School teachers have an internationally recognized potential role in school-based dental education and considerable importance has therefore been attributed to their dental knowledge. The objectives of this study were to determine the oral health related knowledge, attitudes, and approaches of pre-primary and primary school teachers in the city of Mumbai. Methods. The descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in the suburban regions of Mumbai using a self-administered questionnaire and involved 511 teachers. Results. Teachers demonstrated inappropriate or incomplete knowledge regarding children's oral health. Only 53.2% knew that an individual has two sets of dentition. Moreover, only 45.4% of the teachers knew that a primary dentition consists of 20 teeth. Only 56.9% of the teachers asked their children to clean their mouth after snacking during school hours. 45.0% of the teachers were unaware of fluoridated tooth pastes whilst 78.9% of them were unaware of school water fluoridation programmes. Also, 54.8% of the teachers never discussed the oral health of children with their parents during parents meet. Conclusions. The studied school teachers demonstrated incomplete oral health knowledge, inappropriate oral practices, and unfavourable approaches to children's oral health. There is a definite and immediate need for organized training of school teachers on basic oral health knowledge. PMID:27034901
Iana Pires do Amaral Carvalho
Full Text Available Objective: to study the association between history of depression and high use of health services (HUHS among persons seen in Primary Health Care (PHC, and to establish the prevalence of HUHS, the average number of visits and the epidemiological profile of groups with positive and negative history of depression. Methods: we collected data from family medical records of two Health Units. In order to analyze data regarding the primary outcome and to compare the epidemiological profile of the groups, we used the chi-square test. To compare the difference in mean number of visits between groups, we used the Student’s t-test. Results: we included 278 patients. The prevalence of depression and HUHS in the sample were, respectively, 15.1 and 4.3%. There was a difference in the prevalence of HUHS in the group with positive history of depression, 14.3%, when compared to the group with a negative history of depression, 2.5% (PR = 5.62 , CI 95% 1.90 to 16.59, p = 0.004. The average number of visits in the group with positive history of depression was 5.25 visits / year, while in the group with negative history of depression was 2.59, with a mean difference of 2.65 (CI 95% 1.90 to 3.40; p < 0.001. We also observed higher prevalences of dyspepsia and antidepressant use among HSH. Conclusion: the results support the literature indicating that people with a history of depression tend to make more use of PHC services, with a higher prevalence of HUHS. Thus, a greater knowledge about the profile of the HSH will enable the development of more effective approaches for these users.
Full Text Available African Americans suffer from disproportionately high rates of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Psychosocial stress, lifestyle and telomere dysfunction contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. This study evaluated effects of stress reduction and lifestyle modification on blood pressure, telomerase gene expression and lifestyle factors in African Americans.Forty-eight African American men and women with stage I hypertension who participated in a larger randomized controlled trial volunteered for this substudy. These subjects participated in either stress reduction with the Transcendental Meditation technique and a basic health education course (SR or an extensive health education program (EHE for 16 weeks. Primary outcomes were telomerase gene expression (hTERT and hTR and clinic blood pressure. Secondary outcomes included lifestyle-related factors. Data were analyzed for within-group and between-group changes.Both groups showed increases in the two measures of telomerase gene expression, hTR mRNA levels (SR: p< 0.001; EHE: p< 0.001 and hTERT mRNA levels (SR: p = 0.055; EHE: p< 0.002. However, no statistically significant between-group changes were observed. Both groups showed reductions in systolic BP. Adjusted changes were SR = -5.7 mm Hg, p< 0.01; EHE = -9.0 mm Hg, p < 0.001 with no statistically significant difference between group difference. There was a significant reduction in diastolic BP in the EHE group (-5.3 mm Hg, p< 0.001 but not in SR (-1.2 mm Hg, p = 0.42; the between-group difference was significant (p = 0.04. The EHE group showed a greater number of changes in lifestyle behaviors.In this pilot trial, both stress reduction (Transcendental Meditation technique plus health education and extensive health education groups demonstrated increased telomerase gene expression and reduced BP. The association between increased telomerase gene expression and reduced BP observed in this high
Torres, Ana; Monte, Ana Paula
This work intends to evaluate the strategies that facilitate an interaction between Primary Health Care (PHC) and Public Hospitals (PH) in Portugal to maximize health benefits while rationalizing resources, taking into account that health units aim to achieve service efficiency and user satisfaction while reducing costs. The development of Communication and Information Technologies (CIT) for health sector is one of the fundamental strategies for the articulation of PHC and PH, ...
Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Krølner, Rikke; Mortensen, Laust Hvas;
. The second aim was to investigate which characteristics of schools and students that are associated with participation in many (≥3) versus few (0-2) health promoting activities during the preceding 2-3 years. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from the 2006- and 2010-survey of the Health Behaviour...... the neighborhood. Students provided information about their health-related behavior and exposure to bullying which was aggregated to the school level. A total of 74 schools were available for analyses in 2006 and 69 in 2010. We used chi-square test, t-test, and binary logistic regression to analyze...... time trends and differences between schools engaging in many versus few health promoting activities. RESULTS: The percentage of schools participating in ≥3 health promoting activities was 63% in 2006 and 61% in 2010. Also the mean number of health promoting activities was similar (3.14 vs. 3.07). The...
Ojakaa, David; Olango, Susan; Jarvis, Jordan
Background The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Government of Kenya alike identify a well-performing health workforce as key to attaining better health. Nevertheless, the motivation and retention of health care workers (HCWs) persist as challenges. This study investigated factors influencing motivation and retention of HCWs at primary health care facilities in three different settings in Kenya - the remote area of Turkana, the relatively accessible region of Machakos, and the disadvant...
Grace Angélica de Oliveira Gomes; Eduardo Kokubun; Grégore Iven Mieke; Luiz Roberto Ramos; Michael Pratt; Diana C. Parra; Eduardo Simões; Florindo, Alex A; Mario Bracco; Danielle Cruz; Deborah Malta; Felipe Lobelo; Hallal, Pedro C.
The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of programs that promote physical activity in the public primary care system by region of Brazil, subject to the presence or absence of multidisciplinary primary care teams (NASF). We conducted a cross sectional and population-based telephone survey of the health unit coordinators from 1,251 health care units. Coordinators were asked about the presence and characteristics of physical activity programs. Four out of ten health units repo...
Grill, Eva; Penger, Mathias; Kentala, Erna
Vertigo and dizziness are frequent complaints in primary care that lead to extensive health care utilization. The objective of this systematic review was to examine health care of patients with vertigo and dizziness in primary care settings. Specifically, we wanted to characterize health care utilization, therapeutic and referral behaviour and to examine the outcomes associated with this. A search of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was carried out in May 2015 using the search terms ‘vertigo’...
Al-Doghaither, Abdullah H.; Abdelrhman, Badreldin M.; Saeed, Abdalla A.W.; Al-Kamil, Abdullah A.; Majzoub, Mohieldin M.
Background: Assessment of patient satisfaction offers a way of optimizing health status and prevents waste of medical resources. The direct measurement of patient satisfaction is a new phenomenon in Kuwait. Objective: Assess patient satisfaction with respect to primary health care services and study any patterns of association of sociodemographic variables on the patient satisfaction level. Methods: The sample consisted of 301 patients selected systematically from five primary health care cen...
Rizio, Taletha A; Thomas, Wendy J; O'Brien, Anthony Paul; Collins, Veronica; Holden, Carol A
Many countries have identified a need for targeted men's health promotion within primary health care as part of broader men's health policy. Primary health care nurses are well placed to deliver such services but may lack the requisite skills. The aim of this study was to pilot the delivery phase of an education program and evaluate a train-the-trainer approach for delivering men's health education to primary health care nurses. The 8-h train-the-trainer workshop was designed to equip nurses to deliver men's health education workshops to peers. Surveys of facilitators (n = 18) and peer workshop participants (n = 98) evaluated their level of confidence in men's health and knowledge and skills in men's health promotion. After completing the train-the-trainer workshop, most facilitators expressed confidence (92%), and all indicated sufficient knowledge and access to resources to deliver a peer workshop. All agreed that the module was sufficiently flexible to suit their local setting. Following the peer education workshop, facilitators and workshop participants reported high levels of confidence and knowledge in men's health promotion. This pilot evaluation suggests train-the-trainer is an effective model to deliver men's health education across a range of settings, with a flexible approach to raising awareness and improving the skills of primary health care nurses in men's health promotion. PMID:26803801
Belgrave, Faye Z.; Johnson, Jessica; Nguyen, Anh; Hood, Kristina; Tademy, Raymond; Clark, Trenette; Nasim, Aashir
Tobacco is a leading contributor to morbidity and mortality and a primary reason for health disparities among African Americans. In this study we explore the role of stress in smoking and cultural factors that protect against stress among African-American adolescents. Our sample consisted of 239 youth who were recruited into the study while…
Lukach, Alexis J; Jedrziewski, M Kathryn; Grove, George A; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn J; Williams, Shardae S; Wollam, Mariegold E; Erickson, Kirk I
The Rhythm Experience and Africana Culture Trial (REACT!) is a multi-site randomized controlled intervention study designed to examine the efficacy of using African Dance as a form of moderate-intensity physical activity to improve cognitive function in older African Americans. African Americans are almost two times more likely than Caucasians to experience cognitive impairment in late adulthood. This increased risk may be attributed to lower level and quality of education, lower socioeconomic status, and higher prevalence of vascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and obesity, all of which are recognized as risk factors for dementia. Fortunately, interventions targeting cardiovascular health (i.e., physical activity) are associated with improved neurocognitive function and a reduced risk for dementia, so African Americans may be particularly suited for interventions targeting cardiovascular health and cognitive function. Here, we describe a randomized intervention protocol for increasing physical activity in older (65-75years) African Americans. Participants (n=80) at two study locations will be randomized into one of two groups. The treatment group will participate in African Dance three times per week for six months and the control group will receive educational training on Africana history and culture, as well as information about health behaviors, three times per week for six months. If successful, the REACT! study may transform community interventions and serve as a platform and model for testing other populations, age groups, and health outcomes, potentially identifying novel and creative methods for reducing or eliminating health disparities. PMID:27033674
Rikard, R V; Thompson, Maxine S; Head, Rachel; McNeil, Carlotta; White, Caressa
The rate of HIV infection among African Americans is disproportionately higher than for other racial groups in the United States. Previous research suggests that low level of health literacy (HL) is an underlying factor to explain racial disparities in the prevalence and incidence of HIV/AIDS. The present research describes a community and university project to develop a culturally tailored HIV/AIDS HL toolkit in the African American community. Paulo Freire's pedagogical philosophy and problem-posing methodology served as the guiding framework throughout the development process. Developing the HIV/AIDS HL toolkit occurred in a two-stage process. In Stage 1, a nonprofit organization and research team established a collaborative partnership to develop a culturally tailored HIV/AIDS HL toolkit. In Stage 2, African American community members participated in focus groups conducted as Freirian cultural circles to further refine the HIV/AIDS HL toolkit. In both stages, problem posing engaged participants' knowledge, experiences, and concerns to evaluate a working draft toolkit. The discussion and implications highlight how Freire's pedagogical philosophy and methodology enhances the development of culturally tailored health information. PMID:22102601
Brewing since the advent of South African democracy in 1994 and promises of health sector transformation, an extraordinary drug war between President Nelson Mandela's African National Congress government and U.S. pharmaceutical manufacturers took on global proportions in 1998-1999. Within months of the passage of South African legislation aimed at lowering drug prices, the U.S. government quickly applied powerful pressure points to repeal a clause allowing potential importation of generic substitutes and imposition of compulsory licensing. At stake were not only local interpretations of patent law and World Trade Organization rules on Trade in Intellectual Property, but international power relations between developing countries and the pharmaceutical industry. In reviewing the ongoing debate, this article considers post-apartheid public health policy, U.S. government pressure to change the law, and pharmaceutical industry interests and links to the U.S. government, and evaluates various kinds of resistance to U.S. corporate and government behavior. The case thus raises--not for the first time--concerns about contemporary imperialism ("globalization"), the role of the profit motive as an incentive in vital pharmaceutical products, and indeed the depth of "democracy" in a country where high-bidding international drug firms have sufficient clout to embarrass Vice President Al Gore by pitting him against the life-and-death interests of millions of consumers of essential drugs in South Africa and other developing countries. PMID:10615573
African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of t...
Fleming, D.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Paget, W.J.
BACKGROUND: The health monitoring programme of the European Commission has proposed a set of health indicators whereby the health status of member states can be measured. As part of that programme we considered how primary care might contribute relevant data. METHODS: Using a questionnaire distribut
Celia Maria Sivalli Campos
Full Text Available Objective Identify nurses’ emancipatory practices in primary care, to contribute to the improvement of health care. Method A case study type social research of qualitative nature, in which nurses of a primary health care service unit in São Paulo were interviewed. Results The home visit was identified as a nursing practice possible to be expanded in order to identify social determinants of health, triggering emancipatory practices in the service. This expansion occurred because the design of health care labour intended by the service team changed its focus from the traditional object of health services, the disease. Conclusion First, it is advocated that social policies lead projects with the purpose of improving health needs. On the other hand, the daily labour needs to provide opportunities for reflection and discussion of healthcare projects, leading workers to propose labour-processes targeted to both the social determinants of health and people’s illness.
Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Washington, Olivia G. M.; Artinian, Nancy T.; Lichtenberg, Peter
Because stress is a major factor in hypertension, research on parenting stressors and lifestyle behaviors of grandparents with hypertension is important. This study describes urban African Americans caring for grandchildren and examines effects of perceived parenting stress-ors on hypertension self-management. Hypertensive African American grandparents (N = 49) residing in a large Midwestern city participated in the study. Structured interviews collected descriptive data and the Index of Pare...
Emerson, Erin; Donenberg, Geri R.; Wilson, Helen W.
African American (AA) girls in psychiatric care are at increased risk for HIV and STI infection through sexual risk taking. Adolescent sexual behavior often reflects peer norms and behavior. Secure attachment patterns with mothers and peers might lessen the effects of negative peer influences and reduce sexual risk taking among AA girls. This study examined the relationships among mother-daughter and peer attachment, peer norms, and sexual risk behaviors in African American girls seeking outp...
Gilmour, Jean; Strong, Alison; Chan, Helen; Hanna, Sue; Huntington, Annette
Online information is a critical resource for evidence-based practice and patient education. This study aimed to establish New Zealand nurses' access and evaluation of online health information in the primary care context using a postal questionnaire survey; there were 630 respondents from a random sample of 931 nurses. The majority of respondents were satisfied with work access to online information (84.5%, n = 501) and searched for online information at least several times a week (57.5%, n = 343). The major barrier to online information seeking was insufficient time, but 68 respondents had no work online information access. The level of nursing qualification was significantly correlated with computer confidence and information quality checking. A range of information evaluation approaches was used. Most nurses in study accessed and evaluated Internet information in contrast to the findings of earlier studies, but there were barriers preventing universal integration into practice. PMID:25355072
Uys, Leana; Chirwa, Maureen; Kohi, Thecla; Greeff, Minrie; Naidoo, Joanne; Makoae, Lucia; Dlamini, Priscilla; Durrheim, Kevin; Cuca, Yvette; Holzemer, William L
The study aim is to explore the results of an HIV stigma intervention in five African health care settings. A case study approach was used. The intervention consisted of bringing together a team of approximately 10 nurses and 10 people living with HIV or AIDS (PLHA) in each setting and facilitating a process in which they planned and implemented a stigma reduction intervention, involving both information giving and empowerment. Nurses (n = 134) completed a demographic questionnaire, the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-Nurses (HASI-N), a self-efficacy scale, and a self-esteem scale, both before and after the intervention, and the team completed a similar set of instruments before and after the intervention, with the PLHA completing the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument for PLHA (HASI-P). The intervention as implemented in all five countries was inclusive, action-oriented, and well received. It led to understanding and mutual support between nurses and PLHA and created some momentum in all the settings for continued activity. PLHA involved in the intervention teams reported less stigma and increased self-esteem. Nurses in the intervention teams and those in the settings reported no reduction in stigma or increases in self- esteem and self-efficacy, but their HIV testing behavior increased significantly. This pilot study indicates that the stigma experience of PLHA can be decreased, but that the stigma experiences of nurses are less easy to change. Further evaluation research with control groups and larger samples and measuring change over longer periods of time is indicated. PMID:20025515
Full Text Available In this paper, a collaborative DSS Model for health care systems and results obtained are described. The proposed framework  embeds expert knowledge within DSS to provide intelligent decision support, and implements the intelligent DSS using collaboration technologies. The problem space contains several Hub and Spoke networks. Information about such networks is dynamically captured and represented in a Meta-data table. This master table enables collaboration between any two networks in the problem space, through load transfer, between them. In order to show the collaboration the sample database of 15 health care centers is taken assuming that there are 5 health care centers in one network.
Mwikisa Chris N
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is ample evidence in Asia and Latin America showing that past economic crises resulted in cuts in expenditures on health, lower utilization of health services, and deterioration of child and maternal nutrition and health outcomes. Evidence on the impact of past economic crises on health sector in Africa is lacking. The objectives of this article are to present the findings of a quick survey conducted among countries of the WHO African Region to monitor the effects of global financial crisis on funding for health development; and to discuss the way forward. Methods This is a descriptive study. A questionnaire was prepared and sent by email to all the 46 Member States in the WHO African Region through the WHO Country Office for facilitation and follow up. The questionnaires were completed by directors of policy and planning in ministries of health. The data were entered and analyzed in Excel spreadsheet. The main limitations of this study were that authors did not ask whether other relevant sectors were consulted in the process of completing the survey questionnaire; and that the overall response rate was low. Results The main findings were as follows: the response rate was 41.3% (19/46 countries; 36.8% (7/19 indicated they had been notified by the Ministry of Finance that the budget for health would be cut; 15.8% (3/19 had been notified by partners of their intention to cut health funding; 61.1% (11/18 indicated that the prices of medicines had increased recently; 83.3% (15/18 indicated that the prices of basic food stuffs had increased recently; 38.8% (7/18 indicated that their local currency had been devalued against the US dollar; 47.1% (8/17 affirmed that the levels of unemployment had increased since the onset of global financial crisis; and 64.7% (11/17 indicated that the ministry of health had taken some measures already, either in reaction to the global financing crisis, or in anticipation. Conclusion A rapid
Fortney, Luke; Rakel, Dave; Rindfleisch, J Adam; Mallory, Jill
Integrative medicine is healing-oriented medicine that accounts for the whole person (body, mind, and spirit), including all aspects of lifestyle. Integrative medicine emphasizes the therapeutic relationship and makes use of all appropriate therapies, both conventional and alternative. This article describes ways to bring the integrative perspective into primary care practice. Several approaches are described, including some that are routinely used in the authors' practice. Changes in practice philosophy that can (1) help inform primary care redesign, (2) facilitate the creation of patient-centered medical homes, (3) strengthen provider-patient relationships, and (4) enhance patient satisfaction are also provided. PMID:20188994
Full Text Available Carrie Ann Gakumo,1 Comfort C Enah,1 David E Vance,1,2 Efe Sahinoglu,3 Jim L Raper1,3,4 1School of Nursing, 2Center for Nursing Research, 3School of Medicine, 41917 HIV/AIDS Outpatient Clinic, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Purpose: Health literacy is lower in minorities and older adults, and has been associated with nonadherence to medications, treatment, and care in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Likewise, African Americans with HIV are more likely to be nonadherent to their HIV medications, less likely to keep their clinic appointments related to HIV treatment and care, and more likely to die during hospitalizations than their ethnic counterparts. The present study explored the preferences of older African Americans with HIV for a health literacy intervention to promote HIV management.Patients and methods: In this qualitative study, 20 older adult African Americans living with HIV were recruited from an HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome outpatient clinic in the southeastern region of the US. Using patient-centered participatory design methods, semi-structured individual interviews were conducted to determine patient preferences for intervention development and design. Health literacy was also measured using the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine – Revised (REALM-R.Results: Four major themes emerged related to intervention development and design: keep health information simple; use a team-based approach for health education; tailor teaching strategies to patients’ individual needs; and account for patients’ low experience, but high interest, in technology. Forty-five percent of the study population had low health literacy based on the revised Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine.Conclusion: Future interventions that target minorities and older adults living with HIV should consider patients’ learning needs, sex-specific and mental health needs, and delivery
Potenza, Marc N.; Fiellin, David A.; Heninger, George R.; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Mazure, Carolyn M.
Over the past several decades, and particularly during the last 10 to 15 years, there has been a rapid increase in the accessibility of legalized gambling in the United States and other parts of the world. Few studies have systematically explored the relationships between patterns of gambling and health status. Existing data support the notion that some gambling behaviors, particularly problem and pathological gambling, are associated with nongambling health problems. The purpose of this arti...
Garg, Lalit; Eze, Godson
Background Nigeria contributes only 2% to the world’s population, accounts for 10% of the global maternal death burden. Health care at primary health centers, the lowest level of public health care, is far below optimal in quality and grossly inadequate in coverage. Private primary health facilities attempt to fill this gap but at additional costs to the client. More than 65% Nigerians still pay out of pocket for health services. Meanwhile, the use of mobile phones and related services has risen geometrically in recent years in Nigeria, and their adoption into health care is an enterprise worth exploring. Objective The purpose of this study was to document costs associated with a mobile technology–supported, community-based health insurance scheme. Methods This analytic cross-sectional survey used a hybrid of mixed methods stakeholder interviews coupled with prototype throw-away software development to gather data from 50 public primary health facilities and 50 private primary care centers in Abuja, Nigeria. Data gathered documents costs relevant for a reliable and sustainable mobile-supported health insurance system. Clients and health workers were interviewed using structured questionnaires on services provided and cost of those services. Trained interviewers conducted the structured interviews, and 1 client and 1 health worker were interviewed per health facility. Clinic expenditure was analyzed to include personnel, fixed equipment, medical consumables, and operation costs. Key informant interviews included a midmanagement staff of a health-management organization, an officer-level staff member of a mobile network operator, and a mobile money agent. Results All the 200 respondents indicated willingness to use the proposed system. Differences in the cost of services between public and private facilities were analyzed at 95% confidence level (Pinformant interviews with a health management organizations and a telecom operator revealed high investment interests
Balls-Berry, Joyce E; Hayes, Sharonne; Parker, Monica; Halyard, Michele; Enders, Felicity; Albertie, Monica; Pinn, Vivian; Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen
This study examined the effect of message framing on African American women's intention to participate in health-related research and actual registration in ResearchMatch (RM), a disease-neutral, national volunteer research registry. A community-engaged approach was used involving collaboration between an academic medical center and a volunteer service organization formed by professional women of color. A self-administered survey that contained an embedded message framing manipulation was distributed to more than 2,000 African American women attending the 2012 national assembly of The Links, Incorporated. A total of 391 surveys were completed (381 after exclusion: 187 containing the gain-framed message and 194 containing the loss-framed message). The majority (57%) of women expressed favorable intentions to participate in health-related research, and 21% subsequently enrolled in RM. The effect of message framing on intention was moderated by self-efficacy. There was no effect of message framing on RM registration; however, those with high self-efficacy were more than 2 times as likely as those with low self-efficacy to register as a potential study volunteer in RM (odds ratio = 2.62, 95% confidence interval [1.29, 5.33]). This investigation makes theoretical and practical contributions to the field of health communication and informs future strategies to meaningfully and effectively include women and minorities in health-related research. PMID:27077665
Browne Annette J
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction International evidence shows that enhancement of primary health care (PHC services for disadvantaged populations is essential to reducing health and health care inequities. However, little is known about how to enhance equity at the organizational level within the PHC sector. Drawing on research conducted at two PHC Centres in Canada whose explicit mandates are to provide services to marginalized populations, the purpose of this paper is to discuss (a the key dimensions of equity-oriented services to guide PHC organizations, and (b strategies for operationalizing equity-oriented PHC services, particularly for marginalized populations. Methods The PHC Centres are located in two cities within urban neighborhoods recognized as among the poorest in Canada. Using a mixed methods ethnographic design, data were collected through intensive immersion in the Centres, and included: (a in-depth interviews with a total of 114 participants (73 patients; 41 staff, (b over 900 hours of participant observation, and (c an analysis of key organizational documents, which shed light on the policy and funding environments. Results Through our analysis, we identified four key dimensions of equity-oriented PHC services: inequity-responsive care; trauma- and violence-informed care; contextually-tailored care; and culturally-competent care. The operationalization of these key dimensions are identified as 10 strategies that intersect to optimize the effectiveness of PHC services, particularly through improvements in the quality of care, an improved 'fit' between people's needs and services, enhanced trust and engagement by patients, and a shift from crisis-oriented care to continuity of care. Using illustrative examples from the data, these strategies are discussed to illuminate their relevance at three inter-related levels: organizational, clinical programming, and patient-provider interactions. Conclusions These evidence- and theoretically
Demoures, B; Nkodo-Nkodo, E; Mbam-Mbam, L
People isolated from their families, such as prisoners, are the most vulnerable to the consequences of the economic crisis in Africa. Some non-governmental organizations are taking action to improve health care conditions in prisons. We describe herein such a project, conducted in the town of Ngaoundéré, Adamaoua Province, Cameroon. The prison houses 400 prisoners, mostly men. Catholic missionaries have been involved in improving conditions since 1988, at the request of a magistrate from the local tribunal. They have introduced a community store, handicrafts and the teaching of reading and writing, carried out by the prisoners themselves. The Catholic Health Service was asked to join the project in October 1992. Its participation was part of the provincial policy of collaboration between private and public organizations for the improvement of health institutions. Meetings between health workers and prisoners first created an opportunity for the prisoners to talk about their concerns and what they wanted. A health committee, consisting of about 10 prisoners took several initiatives related to hygiene. Access to curative care was then improved by increasing the stock of medicines to include 37 drugs, standardizing the therapeutic recommendations (including those of the national program against tuberculosis) and increasing the prisoners' access to health care by making the pharmacy self-sufficient. The pharmacy's prices are low and the wardens and their families are encouraged to use it. Any profit made goes towards a "solidarity fund" managed by the prisoners, which enables them to buy their own drugs (3 to 5 patients are seen each day by the nurse). The link between money entering the system and the supply of drugs was studied. Most of the diseases reported between July 1994 and July 1995 were infectious, including scabies infections and acute respiratory infections (mean of 5 cases per month). Fifteen cases of tuberculosis were diagnosed and treated. AIDS was not
Quanbeck, Andrew R.; Gustafson, David H.; Marsch, Lisa A.; McTavish, Fiona; Brown, Randall T.; Mares, Marie-Louise; Johnson, Roberta; Glass, Joseph E.; Atwood, Amy K.; McDowell, Helene
Background Healthcare reform in the United States is encouraging Federally Qualified Health Centers and other primary-care practices to integrate treatment for addiction and other behavioral health conditions into their practices. The potential of mobile health technologies to manage addiction and comorbidities such as HIV in these settings is substantial but largely untested. This paper describes a protocol to evaluate the implementation of an E-Health integrated communication technology del...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Men have been noted to utilise health care services less readily then women. Primary care settings provide an opportunity to engage men in health care activities because of close proximity to the target group (men in the community. Understanding attitudes towards men's health among Malaysian primary care doctors is important for the effective delivery of health services to men. We aimed to explore the opinions and attitudes of primary care doctors (PCDs relating to men's health and help-seeking behaviour. Methods A qualitative approach to explore the opinions of 52 PCDs was employed, using fourteen in-depth interviews and eight focus group discussions in public and private settings. Purposive sampling of PCDs was done to ensure maximum variation in the PCD sample. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim for analysis. Open coding with thematic analysis was used to identify key issues raised in the interview. Results The understanding of the concept of men's health among PCDs was fragmented. Although many PCDs were already managing health conditions relevant and common to men, they were not viewed by PCDs as "men's health". Less attention was paid to men's help-seeking behaviour and their gender roles as a potential determinant of the poor health status of men. There were opposing views about whether men's health should focus on men's overall health or a more focused approach to sexual health. There was also disagreement about whether special attention was warranted for men's health services. Some doctors would prioritise more common conditions such as hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolaemia. Conclusions The concept of men's health was new to PCDs in Malaysia. There was wide variation in understanding and opposing attitudes towards men's health among primary care doctors. Creating awareness and having a systematic approach would facilitate PCDs in delivering health service to men.
Siriwardena, A Niroshan
Invited keynote presentation at the 19 Annual Meeting of the European Network of Occupational Therapy in Higher Education which aimed to explore the role of primary care and occupational therapy in delivery of the EU Health 2020 targets. Health 2020, the European policy framework supporting action across government and society for health and wellbeing, was published in 2012 and led by the World Health Organization regional office in Europe. The policy sets out to enable people to achieve thei...
Chen, Alice W.; Kazanjian, Arminée
Background The utilization of health care providers who share the language and culture of their patients has been advocated as a strategy to improve access to the mental health care of immigrants. This study examines the relationship between patients receiving primary care from health care providers who speak Chinese and the rate of mental health diagnosis and consultation among Chinese immigrants in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods The study analyzed 3 linked administrative databases: ...
Abstract Background. 10 million children died in developing countries in 2002. Since the seventies Health for All was made as an attempt at a more systematic global health policy. In India mortality in girls exceed that of boys. This inequity is thought to arise from the preferential treatment of boys in health care-seeking and nutrition. Materials and methods. This paper discusses primary health care for children in Ranchi, India, and the meaning of gender when it comes to seeking a ...
Jane Y. Carter; Orgenes E. Lema; Magdaline W. Wangai; Charles G. Munafu; Philip H. Rees; Jackson A. Nyamongo
Objective: To determine if use of basic laboratory tests improves diagnosis and treatment outcomes in outpatients attending rural primary health care facilities.Setting: Six rural health centres in Kenya.Design: Cross-sectional study to observe change in diagnosis and treatment made by clinical officers after laboratory testing in outpatients attending six rural health centres in Kenya.Subject: The diagnosis and treatment of 1134 patients attending outpatient services in six rural health cent...
Mojtaba Sedaghat; Narges Tabrizchi
Although the error in health care has received attention recently, patient safety culture in health centers has been relatively neglected. To measure the patient safety culture in primary health centers. A cross-sectional study, utilizing the modified version of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC) developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and a demographic questionnaire. Healthcare staffs from health centers were participated in the survey. The pati...
Background: Financial incentives are widely used in performance-based financing (PBF) schemes, but their contribution to health workers’ incomes and job motivation is poorly understood. Cambodia undertook health sector reform from the middle of 2009 and PBF was employed as a part of the reform process.Objective: This study examines job motivation for primary health workers (PHWs) under PBF reform in Cambodia and assesses the relationship between job motivation and income.Design: A cross-secti...
Background: Financial incentives are widely used in performance-based financing (PBF) schemes, but their contribution to health workers’ incomes and job motivation is poorly understood. Cambodia undertook health sector reform from the middle of 2009 and PBF was employed as a part of the reform process. Objective: This study examines job motivation for primary health workers (PHWs) under PBF reform in Cambodia and assesses the relationship between job motivation and income. Design: A cross-sec...
Ravinder Mamtani; Penny Stern; Ismail Dawood; Sohaila Cheema
Metals are an important and essential part of our daily lives. Their ubiquitous presence and use has not been without significant consequences. Both industrial and nonindustrial exposures to metals are characterized by a variety of acute and chronic ailments. Underreporting of illnesses related to occupational and environmental exposures to chemicals including metals is of concern and presents a serious challenge. Many primary care workers rarely consider occupational and environmental exposu...
Full Text Available Cervical cancer screening is a critical health service that is often unavailable to women in under-resourced settings. In order to expand access to this and other reproductive and primary health care services, a South African non-governmental organization established a van-based mobile clinic in two rural districts in South Africa. To inform policy and budgeting, we conducted a cost evaluation of this service delivery model.The evaluation was retrospective (October 2012-September 2013 for one district and April-September 2013 for the second district and conducted from a provider cost perspective. Services evaluated included cervical cancer screening, HIV counselling and testing, syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs, breast exams, provision of condoms, contraceptives, and general health education. Fixed costs, including vehicle purchase and conversion, equipment, operating costs and mobile clinic staffing, were collected from program records and public sector pricing information. The number of women accessing different services was multiplied by ingredients-based variable costs, reflecting the consumables required. All costs are reported in 2013 USD.Fixed costs accounted for most of the total annual costs of the mobile clinics (85% and 94% for the two districts; the largest contributor to annual fixed costs was staff salaries. Average costs per patient were driven by the total number of patients seen, at $46.09 and $76.03 for the two districts. Variable costs for Pap smears were higher than for other services provided, and some services, such as breast exams and STI and tuberculosis symptoms screening, had no marginal cost.Staffing costs are the largest component of providing mobile health services to rural communities. Yet, in remote areas where patient volumes do not exceed nursing staff capacity, incorporating multiple services within a cervical cancer screening program is an approach to potentially expand access to
Salvador Comino, María Rosa; Krane, Sibylla; Schelling, Jörg; Regife García, Víctor
An efficient primary care is of particular importance for any countries' health care system. Many differences exist on how distinctive countries try to obtain the goal of an efficient, cost-effective primary care for its population. In this article we conducted a selective literature review, which includes both scientific and socio-political publications. The findings are complemented with the experience of a Spanish physician from Seville in her last year of training in family medicine, who completed a four months long rotation in the German health care system. We highlighted different features by comparing both countries, including their health care expenditure, the relation between primary and secondary care, the organization in the academic field and the training of future primary care physicians. It is clear that primary care in both countries plays a central role, have to deal with shortcomings, and in some points one system can learn from the other. PMID:26363955
Emerson, Erin; Donenberg, Geri R; Wilson, Helen W
African American girls in psychiatric care are at increased risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) through sexual risk taking. Adolescent sexual behavior often reflects peer norms and behavior. Secure attachment patterns with mothers and peers might lessen the effects of negative peer influences and reduce sexual risk taking among African American girls. This study examined the relationships among mother-daughter and peer attachment, peer norms, and sexual-risk behaviors in African American girls seeking outpatient psychiatric care. A group of 12-16-year-old African American girls (N = 262; M age = 14.45 years) reported on their attachment to their mothers and peers, peer risk-taking and dating behaviors, peer pressure, and sexual-risk behaviors (e.g., number of partners, high-risk partners, and condom use). Structural equation modeling examined whether peer attachment and peer norms mediated the relationship between mother attachment and sexual risk. Findings supported peer norms, but not peer attachment, as a mediator of mother attachment and girls' sexual-risk behaviors. Findings revealed important family and peer factors for African American girls in psychiatric care. HIV prevention programs may be strengthened by improving mother-daughter relationships, addressing the importance of peer relationships, and emphasizing how secure mother-daughter relationships can temper the impact of peer norms. PMID:22182334
Mafwiri, Milka Madaha; Jolley, Emma; Hunter, Joanna; Gilbert, Clare Elizabeth; Schmidt, Elena
Background There are 285 million people with visual impairment (VI) worldwide including 39 million who are blind; 15 % of those with VI live in Africa, and around 80 % of VI is preventable or treatable with the right equipment, information and skills. The scarcity of human resources for eye health, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, is a key challenge towards achieving this goal. Therefore training primary health workers (PHW) in providing eye-care services has been seen by some authors as a...
Chené, Roberto; García, Lorenzo (fl. 1667); Goldstrom, Margie; Pino, Mandy; Roach, Delfy Peña; Thunderchief, Wendy; Waitzkin, Howard
PURPOSE We wanted to obtain the viewpoints of a community advisory board in training junior minority faculty members and graduate students for community-based participatory research (CBPR) on mental health in primary care.
Watkins, David A.; Tulloch, Nathaniel L.; Anderson, Molly E.; Barnhart, Scott; Steyn, Krisela; Levitt, Naomi S.
Background People living with HIV (PLHIV) in African countries are living longer due to the rollout of antiretroviral drug therapy programs, but they are at increasing risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). However, there remain many gaps in detecting and treating NCDs in African health systems, and little is known about how NCDs are being managed among PLHIV. Developing integrated chronic care models that effectively prevent and treat NCDs among PLHIV requires an understanding of the curr...
Debra E. Lyon; Lathika Mohanraj; Debra Lynch Kelly; RK Elswick Jr
Background: Racial disparities in breast cancer outcomes persist, with differential adverse outcomes in African American women. Although research has examined possible genetic differences, there has been little research on potentially modifiable characteristics such as health promoting behaviors. The purpose of this article is to describe the characteristics and to compare the differences by race in lifestyle factors and inflammatory biomarkers in African American and Caucasian women with bre...
Recent research on the impact of economics on mental and physical health has raised fundamental questions about structural elements in the macro-economy and their role in creating stress. This paper reviews and integrates these sometimes conflicting findings into a cohesive model. Structural elements of our current economic system are identified…
Howie, Sarah; Venter, Elsie; van Staden, Surette
South Africa's rich multicultural society is reflected by 11 official languages. The Language in Education policy stipulates that children should start learning at school in their home language until Grade 3. In most schools, the language of instruction for all subjects changes in Grade 4 from an indigenous African language to English, which means…
Blackstock, Oni J.; Mba-Jonas, Adamma; Sacajiu, Galit M.
Disparities in the rates of unintended pregnancy have increased for low-income African American women as compared to other groups due, in part, to declining contraception use. Women obtain family planning information from diverse sources, which may ultimately influence contraceptive decision making. For this qualitative study, we conducted…
Nguyen, Ha; Snider, Jeremy; Ravishankar, Nirmala; Magvanjav, Oyunbileg
The present study provides evidence to support enhanced attention to reproductive health and comprehensive measures to increase access to quality reproductive health services. We compare and contrast the financing and utilization of reproductive health services in six sub-Saharan African countries using data from National Health Accounts and Demographic and Health Surveys. Spending on reproductive health in 2006 ranged from US$4 per woman of reproductive age in Ethiopia to US$17 in Uganda. These are below the necessary level for assuring adequate services given that an internationally recommended spending level for family planning alone was US$16 for 2006. Moreover, reproductive health spending shows signs of decline in tandem with insufficient improvement in service utilization. Public providers played a predominant role in antenatal and delivery care for institutional births, but home deliveries with unqualified attendants dominated. The private sector was a major supplier of condoms, oral pills and IUDs. Private clinics, pharmacies and drug vendors were important sources of STI treatment. The findings highlight the need to commit greatly increased funding for reproductive health services as well as more policy attention to the contribution of public, private and informal providers and the role of collaboration among them to expand access to services for under-served populations. PMID:21555087
Powell, P. V.
The single homeless are a heterogeneous population with health care needs greater than those of the general population. The Edinburgh primary health care scheme for single homeless hostel dwellers is an attempt to provide an easily accessible service for this population. Having continued for eight years it is one of the longest established of such schemes. The original aim was for house doctors to take services to the residents in the hostels but the scheme has developed to include a primary ...
Mujasi, Paschal N; Puig, Jaume
Objectives: A key policy question for the government of Uganda is how to equitably allocate primary health care pharmaceutical budgets to districts. This paper seeks to identify variables influencing current primary health care pharmaceutical expenditure and their usefulness in allocating prospective pharmaceutical budgets to districts. Methods: This was a cross sectional, retrospective observational study using secondary administrative data. We collected data on the value of pharmaceuticals ...
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between the implementation of community-based primary care clinics and improved access to general health care and/or mental health care, in both the general population and among people with disabling mental illness. STUDY SETTING: The 69 new community-based primary care clinics in underserved areas, established by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) between the last quarter of FY 1995 and the second quarter of FY 1998, including the 21 new clinics ...
Lammintakanen, Johanna; Kivinen, Tuula; Kinnunen, Juhu
Objectives. The aim of this study is to describe primary health care managers’ attitudes and views on recruitment and human resource development in general and to ascertain whether there are any differences in the views of managers in the southern and northern regions of Finland. Study design. A postal questionnaire was sent to 315 primary health care managers, of whom 55% responded. Methods. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and cross-tabulation according to the location of...
Hayward Richard A; Jordan Kelvin P; Croft Peter
Abstract Background Prevalence of insomnia symptoms in the general population is high. Insomnia is linked with high health care use and within primary care there are a number of treatment options available. The objective of this study was to determine the association of persistence and remission of insomnia with primary health care using a longitudinal study. Methods A postal survey of registered adult (over 18 years) populations of five UK general practices, repeated after 1 year, linked to ...
Lejtzén, Nadja; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina; Li, Xinjun
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and incidence of mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and stress and adjustment disorders in primary health care in Sweden and to analyse the relationship between socioeconomic and demographic factors and incidence of these disorders. Prevalence and incidence data on the study population was retrieved from a Swedish primary health care database. A cohort study design was used to examine the incidence of, and risk factors for, mood disorders, ...
Richard Hooper1, Abdullah Adam2, Nadir Kheir31Medical Services Department, 2Pharmacy Department, Medical Services, Qatar Petroleum, Doha, Qatar; 3Qatar University, College of Pharmacy, Doha, QatarObjectives: To characterize prescribing error interventions documented by pharmacists in four pharmacies in a primary health care service in Qatar.Methods: The study was conducted in a primary health care service in the State of Qatar in the period from January to March 2008. Pharmacists in four clin...
Full Text Available After numerous teething problems (1974-1994, the Department of Nursing Education of WITS University took responsibility for the Muldersdrift Health and Development Programme (MHDP. The nursing science students explored and implemented an empowerment approach to community participation. The students worked with MHDP health workers to improve health through community participation, in combination with primary health care (PHC activities and the involvement of a variety of community groups. As the PHC projects evolved overtime, the need arose to evaluate the level of community participation and how much community ownership was present over decision-making and resources. This led to the question “What was the level of community participation in PHC projects of the MHDP?” Based on the question the following objectives were set, i.e. i to evaluate the community participation in PHC initiatives; ii to provide the project partners with motivational affirmation on the level of community participation criteria thus far achieved; iii to indicate to participants the mechanisms that should still be implemented if they wanted to advance to higher levels of community participation; iv to evaluate the MHDP’s implementation of a people-centred approach to community participation in PHC; and v the evaluation of the level of community participation in PHC projects in the MHDP. An evaluative, descriptive, contextual and quantitative research design was used. Ethical standards were adhered to throughout the study. The MHDP had a study population of twentythree (N=23 PHC projects. A purposive sample of seven PHC initiatives was chosen according to specific selection criteria and evaluated according to the “Criteria to evaluate community participation in PHC projects” instrument (a quantitative tool. Structured group interviews were done with PHC projects’ executive committee members. The Joint Management Committee’s data was collected through mailed
Badenhorst, Casper Johannes
In the South African Mining Industry the Legislator has recognised the need to identify health hazards associated with any workplace or process and to assess ,the associated risks (Leon, 1994). Neither the Mine Health and Safety Act (29/1996) and its Regulations, nor the Occupational Health and Safety Act (85/1993) and its Regulations, prescribe a specific format for the systematic and holistic approach to conduct occupational health risk assessments, but do prescribe some crit...
Klein, Michael C.; Ciotoli, Carlo; Chung, Henry
Objectives: This retrospective study analyzed a primary care depression screening initiative in a large urban university health center. Depression detection, treatment status, and engagement data are presented. Participants: Participants were 3,713 graduate and undergraduate students who presented consecutively for primary care services between…
Miriam E. Meyer
Full Text Available Objective: A national survey of early hearing detection and intervention services was undertaken to describe the current status of diagnostic and intervention services in the South African private health care sector.Methods: All private hospitals with obstetric units (n = 166 were surveyed telephonically. The data was integrated with data collected from self-administered questionnaires subsequently distributed nationally to private audiology practices providing hearing screening at the respective hospitals reporting hearing screening services (n = 87. Data was analysed descriptively to yield national percentages and frequency distributions.Results: Average reported age at diagnosis was 11 months. Most participants (74% indicated that less than 20% of infants fitted with hearing aids received amplification before the age of 6 months. Most (64% participants indicated that the average period between confirmed diagnosis and hearing aid fitting was 1 month, on par with international benchmarks. Only 16%–23% of participants included all diagnostic procedures recommended by the Health Professions Council of South Africa’s 2007 position statement for minimum diagnostic test batteries for infants and young children.Conclusions: Diagnosis of hearing loss, hearing aid fitting and audiological intervention is delayed significantly in the South African private health care sector. Improved services should include integrated systematic hospital-based screening as part of birthing packages with diagnostic referral to specialist paediatric audiologists for accurate assessment and management of patients in a timely manner.
McKenzie, Fiona; Zietsman, Annelle; Galukande, Moses; Anele, Angelica; Adisa, Charles; Cubasch, Herbert; Parham, Groesbeck; Anderson, Benjamin O; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Schuz, Joachim; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; McCormack, Valerie
Introduction Sub-Saharan African (SSA) women with breast cancer (BC) have low survival rates from this potentially treatable disease. An understanding of context-specific societal, health-systems and woman-level barriers to BC early detection, diagnosis and treatment are needed. Methods The African Breast Cancer—Disparities in Outcomes (ABC-DO) is a prospective hospital-based study of overall survival, impact on quality of life (QOL) and delays along the journey to diagnosis and treatment of BC in SSA. ABC-DO is currently recruiting in Namibia, Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia. Women aged 18 years or older who present at participating secondary and tertiary hospitals with a new clinical or histocytological diagnosis of primary BC are invited to participate. For consented women, tumour characteristics, specimen and treatment data are obtained. Over a 2-year enrolment period, we aim to recruit 2000 women who, in the first instance, will be followed for between 1 and 3 years. A face-to-face baseline interview obtains information on socioeconomic, cultural and demographic factors, QOL, health and BC attitudes/knowledge, and timing of all prediagnostic contacts with caregivers in orthodox health, traditional and spiritual systems. Responses are immediately captured on mobile devices that are fed into a tailored mobile health (mHealth) study management system. This system implements the study protocol, by prompting study researchers to phone women on her mobile phone every 3 months and, failing to reach her, prompts contact with her next-of-kin. At follow-up calls, women provide updated information on QOL, care received and disease impacts on family and working life; date of death is asked of her next-of-kin when relevant. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by ethics committees of all involved institutions. All participants provide written informed consent. The findings from the study will be published in peer-reviewed scientific journals
Greicimar de Oliveira
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the knowledge of health team from Basic Health Units in the city of Coari-AM, Brazil, on the action of physical therapist in primary care. Methods: A quantitative,exploratory and descriptive study, like a field survey conducted in 11 primary care units in Coari, Amazonas state. The data were collected through a questionnaire comprising closed questions regarding the action of physical therapist in primary care. 76 professionals joinedin the survey by category: (05 physicians, (10 nurses, (08 nursing technicians and (53 community health workers. Results: 61.64% (n = 45 of the professionals working in the family health team reported knowing the action of physical therapist in primary care; 79.45%(n = 58 referred it in secondary level and 69.86% (n = 51 at the tertiary level of health care. Conclusion: This work showed some knowledge of professionals on the professional action of physical therapists in primary care; however, the knowledge for this level presents itself disadvantaged in relation to other levels of health care. We demonstrated that a share of professionals presented difficulties to consider the possibility of physiotherapeuticintervention in diseases mostly worked in primary care, but the reference to the viability of action of physical therapist for different publics was satisfactory. This conclusion does notexhaust the possibility of discussing the proposed theme.
Greicimar de Oliveira
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the knowledge of health team from Basic Health Units in the city of Coari-AM, Brazil, on the action of physical therapist in primary care. Methods: A quantitative, exploratory and descriptive study, like a field survey conducted in 11 primary care units in Coari, Amazonas state. The data were collected through a questionnaire comprising closed questions regarding the action of physical therapist in primary care. 76 professionals joined in the survey by category: (05 physicians, (10 nurses, (08 nursing technicians and (53 community health workers. Results: 61.64% (n = 45 of the professionals working in the family health team reported knowing the action of physical therapist in primary care; 79.45% (n = 58 referred it in secondary level and 69.86% (n = 51 at the tertiary level of health care. Conclusion: This work showed some knowledge of professionals on the professional action of physical therapists in primary care; however, the knowledge for this level presents itself disadvantaged in relation to other levels of health care. We demonstrated that a share of professionals presented difficulties to consider the possibility of physiotherapeutic intervention in diseases mostly worked in primary care, but the reference to the viability of action of physical therapist for different publics was satisfactory. This conclusion does not exhaust the possibility of discussing the proposed theme.
Full Text Available Objective: A critical review of articles published between 2000 and 2010 on the relation between mental health and primary care in Brazil in view of the practice of matrix support. Method: Review of virtual database in the period in question. The descriptors were “mental health”, “primary care”, “matrix support”, and the analysis categories were constructed from the reading of the articles. Results: We selected 86 articles, divided in three categories: the articulation analyzed from the Mental Health, the Primary Care Health, and experiences of matrix support. This analysis revealed the existence of different ways of describing the collaborative care. Conclusions: The Brazilian experience is in line with global recommendations towards decreasing the gap between the offer and treatment needs care. The construction of the integrated mental health network for Family Health Strategy is a new challenge for the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform.
Referring students for mental health care is a core job function for school counselors, and one that is often stressful for all parties involved. In this phenomenological study, six low-income African-American caregivers were interviewed about their experiences of having a son or grandson referred for mental health care by the school counselor.…
As part of an ongoing assessment of the physical health needs of injecting drug users during 2005, all 167 general practices in the Lambeth, Southwark & Lewisham (LSL) area were sent a questionnaire. The results indicate that the majority of IDUs visited the surgery because of DVT, pregnancy, chest infections or skin ulceration, and the GPs themselves opportunistically identified more serious problems such as BBV’s and Liver problems. Interestingly we found significant variation in the ra...
Stenager, E N; Jensen, Knud
In a study describing suicide attempters' approach to the health and social welfare authorities prior to a suicide attempt, it was found that one-fourth of the patients seeking help requested therapeutic consultations and only a few asked for medicinal treatment. Forty-four percent had taken newly...... with their general practitioner prior to the suicide attempt. Postgraduate courses for practitioners on depression diagnostics and suicidal behaviour are proposed as a measure in suicide prevention....
Petzer, I-M; Karzis, J; Watermeyer, J C; van der Schans, T J; van Reenen, R
The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse the results of milk samples obtained from South African dairy herds during the period 1996 to April 2007 in order to identify possible trends in isolates of microorganisms and their pathogenicity under field conditions. Milk samples were obtained from 7 of the 9 provinces in South Africa where there are low numbers of dairy cows. Although there is scientific limitation to a country wide survey, such as the variation in herd size, management skills, parity, milk yield, milking frequency and other parameters, the size of this database helps to give a fair indication of general udder health in South Africa. Cytology and routine bacteriology were performed on 379,000 milk samples of lactating cows and bacteriology on 11,946 samples from non-lactating cows. According to the results obtained, mastitis did not decrease in South Africa over the test period. The prevalence of mastitis and teat canal infection was lowest in 2002. Mastitis and teat canal infection increased from 2002 to 2006 from 8.1% and 24.1% to 15.4 and 30.0% respectively. The percentage of mastitogenic pathogens isolated from cows over these years also varied. Previously unknown or almost eradicated mastitogenic pathogens such as alphabeta haemolytic Staphylococcus aureus which is thought to be of human origin, Streptococcus agalactiae and Enterococcus canis were responsible for numerous mastitis outbreaks seen in the test samples. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most frequently isolated bacteria in milk samples from both lactating and dry cows, followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. Although Staphylococcus aureus remained the principal mastitogenic pathogen in South Africa, owing to its chronic nature and resultant economic losses, most cases of mastitis were caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci. This finding increases the importance of coagulase-negative staphylococci (formerly described as a minor pathogen
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse the results of milk samples obtained from South African dairy herds during the period 1996 to April 2007 in order to identify possible trends in isolates of microorganisms and their pathogenicity under field conditions. Milk samples were obtained from 7 of the 9 provinces in South Africa where there are low numbers of dairy cows. Although there is scientific limitation to a country wide survey, such as the variation in herd size, management skills, parity, milk yield, milking frequency and other parameters, the size of this database helps to give a fair indication of general udder health in South Africa. Cytology and routine bacteriology were performed on 379 000 milk samples of lactating cows and bacteriology on 11 946 samples from non-lactating cows. According to the results obtained, mastitis did not decrease in South Africa over the test period. The prevalence of mastitis and teat canal infection was lowest in 2002. Mastitis and teat canal infection increased from 2002 to 2006 from 8.1 % and 24.1 % to 15.4 and 30.0 % respectively. The percentage of mastitogenic pathogens isolated from cows over these years also varied. Previously unknown or almost eradicated mastitogenic pathogens such as αβ haemolytic Staphylococcus aureus which is thought to be of human origin, Streptococcus agalactiae and Enterococcus canis were responsible for numerous mastitis outbreaks seen in the test samples. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most frequently isolated bacteria in milk samples from both lactating and dry cows, followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. Although Staphylococcus aureus remained the principal mastitogenic pathogen in South Africa, owing to its chronic nature and resultant economic losses, most cases of mastitis were caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci. This finding increases the importance of coagulase-negative staphylococci (formerly described as a
Atun, Rifat A; Kyratsis, Ioannis; Jelic, Gordan; Rados-Malicbegovic, Drazenka; Gurol-Urganci, Ipek
Most transition countries in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia are engaged in health reform initiatives aimed at introducing primary health care (PHC) centred on family medicine to enhance performance of their health systems. But, in these countries the introduction of PHC reforms has been particularly challenging; while some have managed to introduce pilots, many have failed to these scale up. Using an innovation lens, we examine the introduction and diffusion of family-medicine-centred PHC reforms in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), which experienced bitter ethnic conflicts that destroyed much of the health systems infrastructure. The study was conducted in 2004-05 over a 18-month period and involved both qualitative and quantitative methods of inquiry. In this study we report the findings of the qualitative research, which involved in-depth interviews in three stages with key informants that were purposively sampled. In our research, we applied a proprietary analytical framework which enables simultaneous and holistic analysis of the context, the innovation, the adopters and the interactions between them over time. While many transition countries have struggled with the introduction of family-medicine-centred PHC reforms, in spite of considerable resource constraints and a challenging post-war context, within a few years, BiH has managed to scale up multifaceted reforms to cover over 25% of the country. Our analysis reveals a complex setting and bidirectional interaction between the innovation, adopters and the context, which have collectively influenced the diffusion process. Family-medicine-centred PHC reform is a complex innovation-involving organizational, financial, clinical and relational changes-within a complex adaptive system. An important factor influencing the adoption of this complex innovation in BiH was the perceived benefits of the innovation: benefits which accrue to the users, family physicians, nurses and policy makers. In the case of Bi
Andi Leny Susyanty
(GAIN UCI 2010–2014 stated that the general problems of decline in immunization coverage and quality of service were caused by several things, one of which is the lack of quantity, quality and distribution of human resources. Methods: A cross-sectional mix-method study to investigate human resources in vaccine management had been conducted in two provinces in 2012. Primary data were collected by interviewing stakeholders thoroughly, secondary data collection and observation were also carried out. Analysis was done by scoring for data concerning education, length of employment, training experience and knowledge. Result:The number of Vaccine management officers are still lacking. While the immunization guidelines required minimal two officers for each health centers. Officers’ knowledge in primary health centers is still inadequate, especially in terms of the vaccine and Coldchain (Ice Lined Refrigerators. Officers at Provincial Health Office had been trained in vaccine management, but not all officers at District Health Office and Primary Health Centers had received training yet. Suggestion: This study suggests the addition of the quantity and quality of human resources in vaccine management, because the officers can affect the quality of the vaccines, because vaccines need a special handling to maintain the quality to provide immunity and prevent the occurrence of diseases that can be prevented by immunization (PD3I.Key words: vaccine, human resources, training, knowledge
Myers, Hector F; Wyatt, Gail E; Ullman, Jodie B; Loeb, Tamra B; Chin, Dorothy; Prause, Nicole; Zhang, Muyu; Williams, John K; Slavich, George M; Liu, Honghu
This study examined the utility of a lifetime cumulative adversities and trauma model in predicting the severity of mental health symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. We also tested whether ethnicity and gender moderate the effects of this stress exposure construct on mental health using multigroup structural equation modeling. A sample of 500 low-socioeconomic status African American and Latino men and women with histories of adversities and trauma were recruited and assessed with a standard battery of self-report measures of stress and mental health. Multiple-group structural equation models indicated good overall model fit. As hypothesized, experiences of discrimination, childhood family adversities, childhood sexual abuse, other childhood trauma, and chronic stresses all loaded on the latent cumulative burden of adversities and trauma construct (CBAT). The CBAT stress exposure index in turn predicted the mental health status latent variable. Although there were several significant univariate ethnic and gender differences, and ethnic and gender differences were observed on several paths, there were no significant ethnic differences in the final model fit of the data. These findings highlight the deleterious consequences of cumulative stress and trauma for mental health and underscore a need to assess these constructs in selecting appropriate clinical interventions for reducing mental health disparities and improving human health. PMID:25961869
Møller Pedersen, Kjeld; Andersen, John Sahl; Søndergaard, Jens
postgraduate education. The contract is (re)negotiated every 2 years. General practice is embedded in a universal tax-funded health care system in which GP and hospital services are free at the point of use. The current system has evolved over the past century and has shown an ability to adapt flexibly to new...... is expected to accelerate, in part because of the GP age structure, with many GPs retiring and new GPs not wanting to practice alone. This latter workforce trend is pointing toward a new model with employed GPs, particularly in rural areas....
A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 50 women with some kind of alteration in their Pap smear results in the last triennium, and who belong to the health area of 'Jose Marti Perez' University Polyclinic from Santiago de Cuba, was carried out during the first semester of 2008 in order to determine the gynecobstetric risk factors in the cervical cancer course. Multiparity and the intergenesic period over a year, as well as the beginning of sexual intercourse in adolescence, the use of hormonal contraceptives, and history of sexually transmitted infections were predominant among them. (author)
Leurs, Mariken T. W.; Bessems, Kathelijne; Schaalma, Herman P.; de Vries, Hein
To enable improvements in school health promotion, this paper examines associations between the number of health-promotion issues addressed by primary school teachers in the Netherlands and factors thought to influence this behavior. The main factors studied are context characteristics and constructs of attitude, social influence, self-efficacy…
Conclusions: Our study highlights the availability and success of visual screening tools in early detection and mortality reduction of major neoplasia in resource-poor health care settings and recommends implementation of oral and cervical cancer screening as part of assured primary health care package in developing countries.
Stephens, Torrance; Braithwaite, Harold; Johnson, Larry; Harris, Catrell; Katkowsky, Steven; Troutman, Adewale
Objective: To examine impact of CVD risk reduction intervention for African-American men in the Atlanta Empowerment Zone (AEZ) designed to target anger management. Design: Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test was employed as a non-parametric alternative to the t-test for independent samples. This test was employed because the data used in this analysis…
Larsen, R.; Mierke-Klemeyer, S.; Maehre, H.; Schram, E.; Luten, J.B.
Ice-storage is the most common method of preserving fresh fish. The aim of this work was to study whether ice storage had an effect on contents at selenium, taurine and fatty acid composition in farmed African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Gutted fish (n = 40) were stored in melting ice for 21 days,
Moreno-Peral, Patricia; Conejo-Cerón, Sonia; Fernández, Ana; Berenguera, Anna; Martínez-Andrés, María; Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Motrico, Emma; Rodríguez-Martín, Beatriz; Bellón, Juan A.; Rubio-Valera, Maria
Background Primary care (PC) patients have difficulties in committing to and incorporating primary prevention and health promotion (PP&HP) activities into their long-term care. We aimed to re-interpret, for the first time, qualitative findings regarding factors affecting PC patients' acceptance of PP&HP activities. Methods and Findings A meta-ethnographic synthesis was generated following electronic and manual searches that retrieved 29 articles. Papers were reviewed and translated to produce a re-interpretation of the extracted concepts. The factors affecting PC patients' receptiveness to PP&HP activities were framed in a four-level ecological model (intrapersonal, interpersonal, institutional and environment and society). Intrapersonal factors (patients' beliefs/attitudes, knowledge, skills, self-concept, motivation and resources) were the most numerous, with almost 25 different factors. Public health education to modify erroneous beliefs and values regarding PP&HP could encourage a transition to healthier lifestyles. Health care professionals' abilities to communicate and involve patients in the decision-making process can act as facilitators. Biopsychosocial training (with emphasis on communication skills) for health professionals must start with undergraduates. Increased consultation time, the use of reminders, follow-up visits and tools for communicating risk and motivating patients could be applied at the intrapersonal level. Collaborative care involving other health professionals (nutritionists or psychotherapists) and family and community stakeholders (teachers or gym trainers) was important in developing healthier habits. Patients also cited barriers related to the built environment and socioeconomic difficulties that highlighted the need for policies promoting social justice and equity. Encouraging PP&HP using social marketing strategies and regulating media to control its impact on health were also cited. Only the perspectives of PC patients in the
Full Text Available Primary care (PC patients have difficulties in committing to and incorporating primary prevention and health promotion (PP&HP activities into their long-term care. We aimed to re-interpret, for the first time, qualitative findings regarding factors affecting PC patients' acceptance of PP&HP activities.A meta-ethnographic synthesis was generated following electronic and manual searches that retrieved 29 articles. Papers were reviewed and translated to produce a re-interpretation of the extracted concepts. The factors affecting PC patients' receptiveness to PP&HP activities were framed in a four-level ecological model (intrapersonal, interpersonal, institutional and environment and society. Intrapersonal factors (patients' beliefs/attitudes, knowledge, skills, self-concept, motivation and resources were the most numerous, with almost 25 different factors. Public health education to modify erroneous beliefs and values regarding PP&HP could encourage a transition to healthier lifestyles. Health care professionals' abilities to communicate and involve patients in the decision-making process can act as facilitators. Biopsychosocial training (with emphasis on communication skills for health professionals must start with undergraduates. Increased consultation time, the use of reminders, follow-up visits and tools for communicating risk and motivating patients could be applied at the intrapersonal level. Collaborative care involving other health professionals (nutritionists or psychotherapists and family and community stakeholders (teachers or gym trainers was important in developing healthier habits. Patients also cited barriers related to the built environment and socioeconomic difficulties that highlighted the need for policies promoting social justice and equity. Encouraging PP&HP using social marketing strategies and regulating media to control its impact on health were also cited. Only the perspectives of PC patients in the context of chronic
Kolbe-Alexander Tracy L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-communicable diseases (NCD accounts for more than a third (37% of all deaths in South Africa. However, this burden of disease can be reduced by addressing risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the health and risk profile of South African employees presenting for health risk assessments and to measure their readiness to change and improve lifestyle behaviour. Methods Employees (n = 1954 from 18 companies were invited to take part in a wellness day, which included a health-risk assessment. Self-reported health behaviour and health status was recorded. Clinical measures included cholesterol finger-prick test, blood pressure and Body Mass Index (BMI. Health-related age was calculated using an algorithm incorporating the relative risk for all case mortality associated with smoking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, BMI and cholesterol. Medical claims data were obtained from the health insurer. Results The mean percentage of participation was 26% (n = 1954 and ranged from 4% in transport to 81% in the consulting sector. Health-related age (38.5 ± 12.9 years was significantly higher than chronological age (34.9 ± 10.3 yrs (p Conclusion SA employees' health and lifestyle habits are placing them at increased risk for NCD's, suggesting that they may develop NCD's earlier than expected. Inter-sectoral differences for health-related age might provide insight into those companies which have the greatest need for interventions, and may also assist in predicting future medical expenditure. This study underscores the importance of determining the health and risk status of employees which could assist in identifying the appropriate interventions to reduce the risk of NCD's among employees.
Andrews, Abby; Wallis, Katharine A; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity
INTRODUCTION The Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care at the University of Auckland is considering developing a Master of Primary Health Care (MPHC) programme. Masters level study entails considerable investment of both university and student time and money. AIM To explore the views of potential students and possible employers of future graduates to discover whether there is a market for such a programme and to inform the development of the programme. METHODS Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 primary health care stakeholders. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and analysed using a general inductive approach to identify themes. FINDINGS Primary care practitioners might embark on MPHC studies to develop health management and leadership skills, to develop and/or enhance clinical skills, to enhance teaching and research skills, or for reasons of personal interest. Barriers to MPHC study were identified as cost and a lack of funding, time constraints and clinical workload. Study participants favoured inter-professional learning and a flexible delivery format. Pre-existing courses may already satisfy the post-graduate educational needs of primary care practitioners. Masters level study may be superfluous to the needs of the primary care workforce. CONCLUSIONS Any successful MPHC programme would need to provide value for PHC practitioner students and be unique. The postgraduate educational needs of New Zealand primary care practitioners may be already catered for. The international market for a MPHC programme is yet to be explored. PMID:27477552
Luz Dalia Sanchez, MD, MCP, MHA, PhD
Full Text Available Objective: to describe cultural beliefs and medication-taking-behavior about pregnancy in African-American and Latina women. Design: qualitative study using phenomenological methodology; face-to-face, semi structured interviews and focus group. Thematic analysis was done to obtain themes consistent with the research objective. Setting: Maricopa County, Arizona, Department of Public-health Programs, November 2008 through April 2009.Participants: women seeking public-health services in the greater Phoenix, Arizona.Results: fifteen adult women representing two ethnic groups (seven African-Americans and eight Latinas participated. Themes derived from the interview data included: “The Dilemma: To Become or Not to Become Pregnant;” “The Ideal Stress-free World: Support System;” “Changing Worlds: Wanting Dependency;” and “The Health care System: Disconnection from Pregnancy to Postpartum.”Conclusions: based on the cultural themes: 1. pregnancies were not planned; 2. healthy life-style changes were not likely to occur during pregnancy; 3. basic facts about the biology of sexual intercourse and pregnancy were not understood, and there was no usage of any preconceptional or prenatal medications; and 4. professional health care was not desired or considered necessary (except during delivery. These cultural beliefs can contribute to negative birth outcomes, and need to be considered by pharmacists and other health-care providers. The information gained from this study can guide the implementation of educational programs developed by pharmacists that are more sensitive to the cultural beliefs and points of view of these particular women. Such programs would thus be more likely to be favorably received and utilized.
Becker Herbst, Rachel; Margolis, Kate L; Millar, Amanda M; Muther, Emily F; Talmi, Ayelet
Although care within a medical home increases parental satisfaction with health care services and improves health care utilization, significant racial/ethnic and language disparities persist in health care settings. Integrated, team-based approaches can decrease health disparities. The current study examines medical records of 2,353 youth who received a behavioral health consultation in an urban, residency training pediatric primary care clinic. A three-phase, mixed-method approach was used to examine whether differences in clinician-identified presenting concerns and recommendations were present across English-, Spanish-, and Other-language-speaking families. Findings reveal disparities among language groups in presenting concerns and referral to behavioral health services. Factors in medical record documentation also differed across language groups and by provider type. Recommendations for further research, identification, and assessment of psychosocial concerns for families with limited English proficiency (LEP) and development of evidence-based approaches for families with LEP in primary care are discussed. PMID:26338958
Gisele Baissi; Bruno Souza Bechara Maxta
Occupational therapy is presented as the core knowledge involved in the remodeling and strengthening of Primary Health Care in the Brazilian Unified Health Care System (Sistema Único de Saúde – SUS). In this study, we aimed to describe the interventions in the process of occupational therapy in supervised family care in a primary health care service in the municipality of Várzea Paulista, São Paulo state. In this case study, the moments of care were described and analyzed in light of narrativ...
Vanessa Bertoglio Comassetto Antunes de Oliveira
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To compare the health assistance models of Basic Traditional Units (UBS with the Family Health Strategy (ESF units for presence and extent of attributes of Primary Health Care (APS, specifically in the care of children. METHOD A cross-sectional study of a quantitative approach with families of children attended by the Public Health Service of Colombo, Paraná. The Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCA-Tool was applied to parents of 482 children, 235 ESF units and 247 UBS units covering all primary care units of the municipality, between June and July 2012. The results were analyzed according to the PCA-Tool manual. RESULTS ESF units reached a borderline overall score for primary health care standards. However, they fared better in their attributes of Affiliation, Integration of care coordination, Comprehensiveness, Family Centeredness and Accessibility of use, while the attributes of Community Guidance/Orientation, Coordination of Information Systems, Longitudinality and Access attributes were rated as insufficient for APS. UBS units had low scores on all attributes. CONCLUSION The ESF units are closer to the principles of APS (Primary Health Care, but there is need to review actions of child care aimed at the attributes of APS in both care models, corroborating similar studies from other regions of Brazil.
Full Text Available An important aspect is social learning involves acquisition of knowledge, skills, abilities, habits over from friends, colleagues, social group they belong to.Purpose and research hypothesisSmall school activities is more effective if concrete terms of reference that would bring back to memory certain knowledge that to suggest solutions to solve and give him the opportunity to correct by comparing statements reality, this is why the main method of conducting educational process is observation.Working methodResearch group consisted of children of school age (7-12 years. Demographic information about the subjects covered: health, family composition and housing.Research resultsThe vast majority of children had good health, with no differences between the control group and the experimental group (p = 0.428. Regarding housing conditions, over half (57.1% in the control group and 51.4% in control group live in two rooms, no child lives in a studio and two children in the experimental group live at home with yard. In both groups, two children did not provide information regarding their housing situation. Of children included in the study, a very high percentage (82.9% in the control group and 68.6% in the experimental group is single copies: only six children in the control group and 10 in the control group have brothers or sisters. Under these conditions, more than half of the children have their own room (65.7% in the control group and 57.1% in the experimental group, the rest sharing a room with a brother or sister, or parents (in the case of two children experimental group.ConclusionsWe conclude that in terms of demographic variables (health status, family composition, housing, there are no differences between children in the two groups. Optimal integration in a social environment is based not only on the correct development of intellectual faculties, namely, the possibility of natural evolution on the moral values, scientific and so on, but
Chin, WY; Lam, CLK; Lo, SV
Objectives To review the literature regarding quality of care of nurse-led and allied health personnel-led primary care clinics with specific attention to the quality indicators for fall prevention, continence care, pulmonary rehabilitation, mental health, pharmaceutical care, and wound care services. Data sources Literature search from 1990 to 2010 including Ovid Medline, Cochrane Database, RAND (Research and Development) Corporation Health Database, the ACOVE (Assessing the Care of Vulnerab...
Manuela de Mendonça Figueirêdo Coelho; Karla Corrêa Lima Miranda; Sara Taciana Firmino Bezerra; Maria Vilaní Cavalcante Guedes; Riksberg Leite Cabral
The objective was to describe the experience of planning and performing supervision along with the Family Health teams carried out by nurses as members of the management team of the Primary Health Care of the town of Maracanaú-CE, Brazil. 86 visits were conducted in health units, from June 2010 to June 2011. The moments of data collection regarding the process and organization of work were intensified, presented as a particular moment for immediate intervention, mediation and reflection on th...
Mansyur Muchtaruddin; Pakasi Trevino A; Fuady Ahmad
Abstract Background The West Sumatra earthquake that occurred on September 30, 2009, caused severe damage in some districts, including Padang Pariaman. As Padang Pariaman is an earthquake-prone area, disaster and emergency management is necessary. Due to the limited health facilities, the health services completely rely on Puskesmas (Primary Health Centres, PHCs). This study is aimed at assessing the preparedness of PHCs to response to potential disasters in their surrounding area. Findings P...
Mirzikashvili, N; Kazakhashvili, N
This study identifies barriers to accessing primary health care among youth in Georgia to inform strategies for improving the appropriateness, quality and usage of primary health care services. The quantitative survey was conducted throughout Georgia among 1000 adolescents 11-19 years of age via interview. Multi stage probability sampling was used to administer questionnaires in the schools, universities and in the streets between March-May 2014 and September-October 2014. Young people in Georgia identified a range of problems in accessing primary health services. By far the most important issues were preventive checkups, geographical access, cost of care, and perceptions about the quality of care. The majority of respondents (78.4%) declared that they do not visit family doctor when well, and 81.9% said that no information was provided about reproductive health issues. Most (77.3%) stated that their family doctor had never talked about health promotion or life style risk factors. Access to health care is still problematic in the villages; and in some areas young people must travel more than 30 minutes by public transport. Limited access in rural areas compared to urban areas was statistically significant (p<0.05). As our survey data shows, most adolescents do not visit a health provider annually, obviating opportunities to integrate prevention into clinical encounters. Because repeated contacts with a primary care provider may occur over several years, clinicians should ideally have multiple opportunities to screen and counsel an adolescent patient for risky health behaviors. However, young people report that there is little screening or discussion about healthy lifestyles. The biggest health challenge for young people in Georgia is overcoming barriers (socioeconomic, geographic, trust, and perceived competence) to visit a doctor for regular preventive checkups and to get health behavior advice from health professional. Addressing the health and development needs
KEMI TORNIO UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES Health Care and Social Services Degree Programme in Nursing SHOBHA ADHIKARI IMMIGRANT PARENTS ROLE IN MENTAL HEALTH PROMOTION OF THEIR PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN Bachelor’s Thesis 46 pages Advisors: Arja Meinilä and Hannele Pietiläinen ________________________________________ Key words: immigrant parents, children, mental health, promotion, school, cooperation This thesis deals with the immigrant parents’ role in mental healt...
After a long history of vertical programming, specialisation and disintegration, general practitioners are now being urged to take on wider commissioning and public health responsibilities. The support structures are not in place, and integration of primary care with good public health practice is new territory. Innovation can be found in unlikely places. The Brazilian government has a 20-year history of a nationwide, integrated, comprehensive, community health programme that seamlessly bridg...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary health care is recognized as a main driver of equitable health service delivery. For it to function optimally, routine health information systems (HIS are necessary to ensure adequate provision of health care and the development of appropriate health policies. Concerns about the quality of routine administrative data have undermined their use in resource-limited settings. This evaluation was designed to describe the availability, reliability, and validity of a sample of primary health care HIS data from nine health facilities across three districts in Sofala Province, Mozambique. HIS data were also compared with results from large community-based surveys. Methodology We used a methodology similar to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria data verification bottom-up audit to assess primary health care HIS data availability and reliability. The quality of HIS data was validated by comparing three key indicators (antenatal care, institutional birth, and third diptheria, pertussis, and tetanus [DPT] immunization with population-level surveys over time. Results and discussion The data concordance from facility clinical registries to monthly facility reports on five key indicators--the number of first antenatal care visits, institutional births, third DPT immunization, HIV testing, and outpatient consults--was good (80%. When two sites were excluded from the analysis, the concordance was markedly better (92%. Of monthly facility reports for immunization and maternity services, 98% were available in paper form at district health departments and 98% of immunization and maternity services monthly facility reports matched the Ministry of Health electronic database. Population-level health survey and HIS data were strongly correlated (R = 0.73, for institutional birth, first antenatal care visit, and third DPT immunization. Conclusions Our results suggest that in this setting, HIS data are both reliable and
Full Text Available Aim: Patient satisfaction is an important indicator to evaluate the quality of primary health care service. It is also significant to improve the quality of medical care, expectation from health staff, priority of patient needs, views and feedbacks about medical services in primary health care. Our objective in this study is to determine the patient satisfaction and the factors effecting this aspect in the evaluation of primary health care quality. Material and Method: This research was carried out in one Mother and Child Health and Family Planning Centre and nine Health Centers in January 2009 at Afyonkarahisar center. The questionnaire was performed to investigate the degree of satisfaction about health services, and socio-demographic characteristics of patients admitted to primary health care by face to face interview method. The data was evaluated by SPSS 15.00.Results: 1227 patients participating in the study, 809 women and 418 were male, married 878, 290 were single.Their education level was 408 graduated from primary school. At the same time, their job distributions were 596 housewives, 133 retired. When the patients had health problems, the most preferable institutione was health center, the choice of the reasons they were satisfied with the services in general, determined as to obtain quick results and confidence in solving problems.75% of the patients waiting time for admission and registration procedures were 0-5minutes. The admission reasons were mostly physical examination and prescription. Patients who are male, aged above 50 years and low educated had much higher satisfaction levels. Discussion: As a result, decreased satisfaction with higher education level, satisfaction increased with increasing age and a short waiting period for the application-registration and examination procedures were being influenced patient satisfaction.
Wiggins, David K.; Wiggins, Brenda P.
This study analyzes the experiences of African Americans in the physical education and kinesiology profession since the late 1850s. Using a variety of primary and secondary source material, we place special emphasis on the experiences of African American physical educators in higher education and in the American Alliance for Health, Physical…
After a long history of vertical programming, specialisation and disintegration, general practitioners are now being urged to take on wider commissioning and public health responsibilities. The support structures are not in place, and integration of primary care with good public health practice is new territory. Innovation can be found in unlikely places. The Brazilian government has a 20-year history of a nationwide, integrated, comprehensive, community health programme that seamlessly bridges two important interfaces - between the community and primary care, and between primary care and public health. Some elements of this approach could be translated into the UK and would likely bring about improved clinical care, cost savings, improved understanding of local epidemiological variations and therefore commissioning. Understanding this approach is the first step to a new way of integrated commissioning, spanning and not reinforcing traditional clinical domains. PMID:26265950
Full Text Available Abstract Background For more than forty years, episodes of violence in the Mindanao conflict have recurrently led to civilian displacement. In 2008, Medecins Sans Frontieres set up a mental health program integrated into primary health care in Mindanao Region. In this article, we describe a model of mental health care and the characteristics and outcomes of patients attending mental health services. Methods Psychologists working in mobile clinics assessed patients referred by trained clinicians located at primary level. They provided psychological first aid, brief psychotherapy and referral for severe patients. Patient characteristics and outcomes in terms of Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ20 and Global Assessment of Functioning score (GAF are described. Results Among the 463 adult patients diagnosed with a common mental disorder with at least two visits, median SRQ20 score diminished from 7 to 3 (p Conclusions Brief psychotherapy sessions provided at primary level during emergencies can potentially improve patients' symptoms of distress.
Full Text Available Abstract Background After many years of sanctions and conflict, Iraq is rebuilding its health system, with a strong emphasis on the traditional hospital-based services. A network exists of public sector hospitals and clinics, as well as private clinics and a few private hospitals. Little data are available about the approximately 1400 Primary Health Care clinics (PHCCs staffed with doctors. How do Iraqis utilize primary health care services? What are their preferences and perceptions of public primary health care clinics and private primary care services in general? How does household wealth affect choice of services? Methods A 1256 household national survey was conducted in the catchment areas of randomly selected PHCCs in Iraq. A cluster of 10 households, beginning with a randomly selected start household, were interviewed in the service areas of seven public sector PHCC facilities in each of 17 of Iraq's 18 governorates. A questionnaire was developed using key informants. Teams of interviewers, including both males and females, were recruited and provided a week of training which included field practice. Teams then gathered data from households in the service areas of randomly selected clinics. Results Iraqi participants are generally satisfied with the quality of primary care services available both in the public and private sector. Private clinics are generally the most popular source of primary care, however the PHCCs are utilized more by poorer households. In spite of free services available at PHCCs many households expressed difficulty in affording health care, especially in the purchase of medications. There is no evidence of informal payments to secure health services in the public sector. Conclusions There is widespread satisfaction reported with primary health care services, and levels did not differ appreciably between public and private sectors. The public sector PHCCs are preferentially used by poorer populations where they are
Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary Health Care (PHC is a strategy endorsed for attaining equitable access to basic health care including treatment and prevention of endemic diseases. Thirty four years later, its implementation remains sub-optimal in most Sub-Saharan African countries that access to health interventions is still a major challenge for a large proportion of the rural population. Community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTi and community-directed interventions (CDI are participatory approaches to strengthen health care at community level. Both approaches are based on values and principles associated with PHC. The CDI approach has successfully been used to improve the delivery of interventions in areas that have previously used CDTi. However, little is known about the added value of community participation in areas without prior experience with CDTi. This study aimed at assessing PHC in two rural Malawian districts without CDTi experience with a view to explore the relevance of the CDI approach. We examined health service providers’ and beneficiaries’ perceptions on existing PHC practices, and their perspectives on official priorities and strategies to strengthen PHC. Methods We conducted 27 key informant interviews with health officials and partners at national, district and health centre levels; 32 focus group discussions with community members and in-depth interviews with 32 community members and 32 community leaders. Additionally, official PHC related documents were reviewed. Results The findings show that there is a functional PHC system in place in the two study districts, though its implementation is faced with various challenges related to accessibility of services and shortage of resources. Health service providers and consumers shared perceptions on the importance of intensifying community participation to strengthen PHC, particularly within the areas of provision of insecticide treated bed nets, home case management for
Fletcher, Kyla Day; Ward, L Monique; Thomas, Khia; Foust, Monica; Levin, Dana; Trinh, Sarah
Because much of the existing research examining sexual communication to African American youth focuses on demographic and parental factors predicting sexual risk behaviors, less is known about factors predicting sexual health, and little is understood about the contributions of peer communications. The current study aimed to expand existing approaches by assessing which socialization discourses communicated by parents and peers contribute to sexual risk and health outcomes (sexual assertiveness, positive sexual affect, and condom self-efficacy). Participants were 631 African American undergraduates (73% female) who indicated the extent to which they had received from their parents and peers each of 28 messages representing four cultural discourses: abstinence, relational sex, sex positive, and gendered sexual roles. As expected, parents were perceived to emphasize relational sex and abstinence messages more than peers, and peers were perceived to communicate sex-positive and gendered sex role messages more than parents. Greater exposure to abstinence messages predicted lower levels of sexual experimentation, whereas exposure to sex-positive messages predicted higher levels. In addition, exposure to relational sex and sex-positive messages predicted higher levels of sexual assertiveness and positive sexual affect. Implications are discussed concerning sexual communications that could help Black youth develop healthy sexual perspectives. PMID:24417331
Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T; Tataw, David B
This article describes the use of survey research in collaboration with the African American urban community of Georgetown, Jackson, Mississippi to identify and understand prostate cancer knowledge, resource utilization, and health education strategies considered most effective in reaching the community with prostate cancer prevention messages. The study revealed profound needs in disease identification and resources awareness and utilization. Barriers to utilization were identified by participants to include lack of self-efficacy, low self-esteem, lack of trust in the health care system, limited knowledge of prostate pathology, and limited ability to pay. Participants' recommended strategies for reaching the community with prostate cancer education include traditional and nontraditional strategies. The list of recommendations exclude modern-day outlets such as handheld devices, Twitter, Facebook, blogs, wikis, and other Internet-based outlets. The findings provide a road map for program development and an intervention research agenda custom-tailored to the Georgetown community of Jackson, Mississippi. PMID:23805806
Full Text Available Prior studies have noted significant health disadvantages experienced by LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations in the US. While several studies have identified that fears or experiences of stigma and disclosure of sexual orientation and/or gender identity to health care providers are significant barriers to health care utilization for LGBT people, these studies have concentrated almost exclusively on urban samples. Little is known about the impact of stigma specifically for rural LGBT populations, who may have less access to quality, LGBT-sensitive care than LGBT people in urban centers.LBGT individuals residing in rural areas of the United States were recruited online to participate in a survey examining the relationship between stigma, disclosure and "outness," and utilization of primary care services. Data were collected and analyzed regarding LGBT individuals' demographics, health care access, health risk factors, health status, outness to social contacts and primary care provider, and anticipated, internalized, and enacted stigmas.Higher scores on stigma scales were associated with lower utilization of health services for the transgender & non-binary group, while higher levels of disclosure of sexual orientation were associated with greater utilization of health services for cisgender men.The results demonstrate the role of stigma in shaping access to primary health care among rural LGBT people and point to the need for interventions focused towards decreasing stigma in health care settings or increasing patients' disclosure of orientation or gender identity to providers. Such interventions have the potential to increase utilization of primary and preventive health care services by LGBT people in rural areas.
Whitehead, J.; Shaver, John; Stephenson, Rob
Background Prior studies have noted significant health disadvantages experienced by LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) populations in the US. While several studies have identified that fears or experiences of stigma and disclosure of sexual orientation and/or gender identity to health care providers are significant barriers to health care utilization for LGBT people, these studies have concentrated almost exclusively on urban samples. Little is known about the impact of stigma specifically for rural LGBT populations, who may have less access to quality, LGBT-sensitive care than LGBT people in urban centers. Methodology LBGT individuals residing in rural areas of the United States were recruited online to participate in a survey examining the relationship between stigma, disclosure and “outness,” and utilization of primary care services. Data were collected and analyzed regarding LGBT individuals’ demographics, health care access, health risk factors, health status, outness to social contacts and primary care provider, and anticipated, internalized, and enacted stigmas. Results Higher scores on stigma scales were associated with lower utilization of health services for the transgender & non-binary group, while higher levels of disclosure of sexual orientation were associated with greater utilization of health services for cisgender men. Conclusions The results demonstrate the role of stigma in shaping access to primary health care among rural LGBT people and point to the need for interventions focused towards decreasing stigma in health care settings or increasing patients’ disclosure of orientation or gender identity to providers. Such interventions have the potential to increase utilization of primary and preventive health care services by LGBT people in rural areas. PMID:26731405
Patricio Cumsille; M. Camila Oda; Graciela Rojas; R. Carla Crempien
Objective. To determine the prevalence of domestic violence in a sample of pregnant women attending Primary Health Centers in Peñalolén (Peñalolén is a low income district in the Metropolitan Region in Santiago de Chile.), to explore risk facts for domestic violence during pregnancy, and to establish associations with their psychological health. Method and Materials. 256 pregnant women were assessed with a domestic violence screening and a questionnaire on mental symptoms. Frequency and corre...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosing tuberculosis in children remains a great challenge in developing countries. Health staff working in the front line of the health service delivery system has a major responsibility for timely identification and referral of suspected cases of childhood tuberculosis. This study explored primary health care staff's perception, challenges and needs pertaining to the identification of children with tuberculosis in Muheza district in Tanzania. Methods We conducted a qualitative study that included 13 semi-structured interviews and 3 focus group discussions with a total of 29 health staff purposively sampled from primary health care facilities. Analysis was performed in accordance with the principles of a phenomenological analysis. Results Primary health care staff perceived childhood tuberculosis to be uncommon in the society and tuberculosis was rarely considered as a likely differential diagnosis. Long duration and severe signs of disease together with known exposure to tuberculosis were decisive for the staff to suspect tuberculosis in children and refer them to hospital. None of the staff felt equipped to identify cases of childhood tuberculosis and they experienced lack of knowledge, applicable tools and guidelines as the main challenges. They expressed the need for more training, supervision and referral feedback to improving case identification. Conclusions Inadequate awareness of the burden of childhood tuberculosis, limited knowledge of the wide spectrum of clinical presentation and lack of clinical decision support strategies is detrimental to the health staff's central responsibility of suspecting and referring children with tuberculosis especially in the early disease stages. Activities to improve case identification should focus on skills required by primary health care staff to fulfil their responsibility and reflect primary health care level capacities and challenges.
Daniels, Kathryn Patricia
Prior research on racial disparities in maternal health reveals a relationship between racism and pregnancy health outcomes, as measured by low birth weight and preterm birth. This study examines how instances of racism experienced over the life course shape miscarriage risk for black American women. Using data from the African American Women’s Heart & Health Study (AAWHHS) and multivariate logistic regression, this study investigates the relationship between risk of pregnancy miscarriage and...
Corsi, Daniel J.; Subramanian, S V
Background: Infant and child mortality rates are among the most important indicators of child health, nutrition, implementation of key survival interventions, and the overall social and economic development of a population. In this paper, we investigate the role of coverage of maternal and child health (MNCH) interventions in contributing to declines in child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa.Design: Data are from 81 Demographic and Health Surveys from 35 sub-Saharan African countries. Using ec...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Examination of consultation data in a variety of primary care settings in Tanzania shows that, while psychoses are routinely diagnosed and treated at primary care level, depression is rarely recorded as a reason for consultation. Since, epidemiological studies elswhere show that depression is a much more common disorder than psychosis, a series of studies were undertaken to elucidate this apparent paradox in Tanzania and inform mental health policy; firstly, a household prevalence study to ascertain the prevalence of common mental disorders at community level in Tanzania; secondly, a study to ascertain the prevalence of common mental disorders in primary care attenders; and thirdly, a study to ascertain the current status of the knowledge, attitude and practice pertaining to depression among primary health care workers. This paper reports the findings of the latter study. Methods All the primary health care workers (N = 14 in four primary health care centres in Tanzania were asked to complete the Depression Attitude Questionnaire, which assesses the health worker's knowledge and attitude towards the causes, consequences and treatment of depression. Results The majority of respondents felt that rates of depression had increased in recent years, believed that life events were important in the aetiology of depression, and generally held positive views about pharmacological and psychological treatments of depression, prognosis and their own involvement in the treatment of depressed patients. However, the majority of respondents felt that becoming depressed is a way that people with poor stamina deal with life difficulties. Conclusion The findings suggest a need to strengthen the training of primary health care workers in Tanzania about the detection of depression, pharmacological and psychological treatments, and psychosocial interventions.
Hiteshree C Patel, Birender B Singh, Mahua Moitra, S L Kantharia
Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy and childbirth is associated with health risks for both the mother and child. Timely and prompt referral service has been identified as one of the effective strategies to combat related risks and adverse outcomes. In rural areas, this problem is compounded by multiple factors and referral often plays a key role to ensure favorable outcome. Objectives: Documentation of common indications & identification of constraints related to referrals in pregnancy related cases in a PHC of Gujarat. Methodology: Secondary data analysis of referral slips of referred cases from one PHC, Gujarat was done. Referral slips between 2004 and 2009 were analyzed. A total 155 pregnancy related referrals were made during this period. Results: Referral rate was 15.2%. The average age of women was 23.46±4.1 years, 12.2% women belonged to the high risk age group and 5.8% women were grand multipara. Referrals were nearly equally distributed between OPD and emergency hours highlighting the need for 24X7 services at the PHCs. Majority of referrals were during the intranatal period (64.5%, followed by antenatal cases (23.9% and postnatal cases(11.6%. The common reasons for referral were non progressive labour (14.8%, severe anemia (10.3%, pre-eclampsia (10.3%, malpresentation (9.7% and postpartum hemorrhage (9.7%. Out of 62.6% who required pre-referral treatment, 43.3% didn’t get pre-referral treatment. Majority of pre-referral treatment were not given in intranatal period (58.9%. Conclusion: This study recommends the development of a standard referral protocol, proper training in this regard and universal adherence to this in practice.
Domingos, Carolina Milena; Nunes, Elisabete de Fátima Polo de Almeida; Carvalho, Brígida Gimenez; Mendonça, Fernanda de Freitas
A reflection on Brazil's legislation for primary care helps understand the way health policy is implemented in the country. This study focuses on the legal provisions aimed at strengthening primary care, drawing on an analysis of documents from the Ministry of Health's priority actions, programs, and strategies. A total of 224 provisions were identified, in two groups of documents, so-called instituting provisions and complementary provisions. The former include the principles and guidelines of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) and also involve the expansion of actions. Financing was a quantitatively central theme, especially in the complementary provisions. The analysis led to reflection on the extent to which these strategies can induce linkage between health system managers and civil society in building a political project resulting in improvements and meeting the population's health needs. PMID:27027459
Heloisa da Veiga Coelho
Full Text Available Objective To analyze the practices of primary care focused on the harmful consumption of drugs. Method This is a qualitative study, developed with a dialectical-critical approach. Data collection was carried out through semi-structured interviews with 10 employees of a basic health unit (UBS. Results The demands are not accepted, and if they go beyond the barriers shaped by the historical absence of health care practices for drug users and moralistic and preconceived ideologies, they are not reinterpreted as health needs; practices that meet these demands and go beyond the barriers are poor; the functionalist approach, which explains drug use as a disease and considers drug users as deviants, supports the few existing practices. Conclusion primary health care is mistakenly focused on addiction; it lacks structural elements of the production process in health and internal dynamics of the working processes that would foster the development of collective practices.
Full Text Available Occupational therapy is presented as the core knowledge involved in the remodeling and strengthening of Primary Health Care in the Brazilian Unified Health Care System (Sistema Único de Saúde – SUS. In this study, we aimed to describe the interventions in the process of occupational therapy in supervised family care in a primary health care service in the municipality of Várzea Paulista, São Paulo state. In this case study, the moments of care were described and analyzed in light of narratives on the supervised practice of occupational therapy with a family. The results showed forms of intervention that characterize the process of occupational therapy focused on family health needs in favor of creativity and the role for changes in health practices in everyday life. Through the accomplishment of occupational activities directed to self-care, Occupational Therapy can aid families to cope with daily life adversity.
MUSTANSKI, BRIAN; Byck, Gayle R.; Dymnicki, Allison; Sterrett, Emma; Henry, David; Bolland, John
This study examined interdependent trajectories of sexual risk, substance use, and conduct problems among 12–18 year-old African American youth who were followed annually as part of the Mobile Youth Study (MYS). We used growth-mixture modeling (GMM) to model the development of these three outcomes in the 1406 participants who met the inclusion criteria. Results indicate that there were four distinct classes: normative low risk (74.3% of sample); increasing high risk takers (11.9%); adolescent...
I.M. Petzer; J. Karzis; J.C. Watermeyer; T.J. Van der Schans; R. Van Reenen
The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse the results of milk samples obtained from South African dairy herds during the period 1996 to April 2007 in order to identify possible trends in isolates of microorganisms and their pathogenicity under field conditions. Milk samples were obtained from 7 of the 9 provinces in South Africa where there are low numbers of dairy cows. Although there is scientific limitation to a country wide survey, such as the variation in herd size, management...
John Smallwood; Danie Venter
A large number of fatalities and injuries occur in the South African construction industry. Traditionally, the print media have dedicated editorial, published news, articles and letters, and have exposed abusive or non-conforming conditions and practices in terms of H&S. Literature also indicates that the print media can influence and has an impact on H&S.Given the level of fatalities and injuries and the potential role of the print media, a postal survey was conducted among editors o...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacists have expanded their roles and responsibilities as a result of primary health care reform. There is currently no consensus on the core competencies for pharmacists working in these evolving practices. The aim of this study was to develop and validate competencies for pharmacists' effective performance in these roles, and in so doing, document the perceived contribution of pharmacists providing collaborative primary health care services. Methods Using a modified Delphi process including assessing perception of the frequency and criticality of performing tasks, we validated competencies important to primary health care pharmacists practising across Canada. Results Ten key informants contributed to competency drafting; thirty-three expert pharmacists replied to a second round survey. The final primary health care pharmacist competencies consisted of 34 elements and 153 sub-elements organized in seven CanMeds-based domains. Highest importance rankings were allocated to the domains of care provider and professional, followed by communicator and collaborator, with the lower importance rankings relatively equally distributed across the manager, advocate and scholar domains. Conclusions Expert pharmacists working in primary health care estimated their most important responsibilities to be related to direct patient care. Competencies that underlie and are required for successful fulfillment of these patient care responsibilities, such as those related to communication, collaboration and professionalism were also highly ranked. These ranked competencies can be used to help pharmacists understand their potential roles in these evolving practices, to help other health care professionals learn about pharmacists' contributions to primary health care, to establish standards and performance indicators, and to prioritize supports and education to maximize effectiveness in this role.
Maphuthego D. Mathibe
Full Text Available Background: Primary Health Care (PHC clinicians and patients are major role players in the South African antiretroviral treatment programme. Understanding their perceptions and experiences of integrated care and the management of people living with HIV and AIDS in PHC facilities is necessary for successful implementation and sustainability of integration.Objective: This study explored clinician perceptions and patient experiences of integration of antiretroviral treatment in PHC clinics.Method: An exploratory, qualitative study was conducted in four city of Tshwane PHC facilities. Two urban and two rural facilities following different models of integration were included. A self-administered questionnaire with open-ended items was completed by 35 clinicians and four focus group interviews were conducted with HIV-positive patients. The data were coded and categories were grouped into sub-themes and themes.Results: Workload, staff development and support for integration affected clinicians’ performance and viewpoints. They perceived promotion of privacy, reduced discrimination and increased access to comprehensive care as benefits of service integration. Delays, poor patient care and patient dissatisfaction were viewed as negative aspects of integration. In three facilities patients were satisfied with integration or semi-integration and felt common queues prevented stigma and discrimination, whilst the reverse was true in the facility with separate services. Single-month issuance of antiretroviral drugs and clinic schedule organisation was viewed negatively, as well as poor staff attitudes, poor communication and long waiting times.Conclusion: Although a fully integrated service model is preferable, aspects that need further attention are management support from health authorities for health facilities, improved working conditions and appropriate staff development opportunities.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Strengthening primary health care is critical to reducing health inequity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. The Audit and Best practice for Chronic Disease Extension (ABCDE project has facilitated the implementation of modern Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI approaches in Indigenous community health care centres across Australia. The project demonstrated improvements in health centre systems, delivery of primary care services and in patient intermediate outcomes. It has also highlighted substantial variation in quality of care. Through a partnership between academic researchers, service providers and policy makers, we are now implementing a study which aims to 1 explore the factors associated with variation in clinical performance; 2 examine specific strategies that have been effective in improving primary care clinical performance; and 3 work with health service staff, management and policy makers to enhance the effective implementation of successful strategies. Methods/Design The study will be conducted in Indigenous community health centres from at least six States/Territories (Northern Territory, Western Australia, New South Wales, South Australia, Queensland and Victoria over a five year period. A research hub will be established in each region to support collection and reporting of quantitative and qualitative clinical and health centre system performance data, to investigate factors affecting variation in quality of care and to facilitate effective translation of research evidence into policy and practice. The project is supported by a web-based information system, providing automated analysis and reporting of clinical care performance to health centre staff and management. Discussion By linking researchers directly to users of research (service providers, managers and policy makers, the partnership is well placed to generate new knowledge on effective strategies for improving the quality of primary
Josephat M Chinawa
Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the factors that militate against effective implementation of a primary health care (PHC system in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at four selected PHC centers in Enugu State from November 2014 to January 2015. The primary health center was chosen by systemic sampling from about eight primary health centers in Enugu metropolis. The sixteen-item questionnaire was elaborated with the Likert scale. Data retrieved were collected with the aid of a structured study pro forma and analyzed using SPSS Version 18. Results: A total of 169 health workers were recruited from four primary health centers. The mean age of all participants was 38.42 years standard deviation (SD = 9.8, while the male: Female ratio was 2:1. Among the subjects, 59% were aged 30-39 years. Existing equipment and manpower on one hand and job security and salary on the other hand are negative factors in the implementation of PHC; the respondents believed that adequate supply of gloves, needles, bandages, good access to drugs and medications, a good cold chain system, and full implementation of immunization programs all exist in PHC centers. Adequate community participation, culture and religion, access to safe and clean water, and steady electricity, on the other hand, are nonexistent in the PHC centers in the study. Conclusions: The PHC centers studied showed that much remains to be desired, especially in terms of manpower, communication, and the remuneration of health workers.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Social environment and health status are related, and changes affecting social relations may also affect the general health state of a group. During the past few years, several events have affected the relationships between Muslim immigrants and the non-immigrant population in many countries. This study investigates whether the health status of the Moroccan and Turkish immigrants in the Netherlands has changed in four years, whether changes in health status have had any influence on primary health care use, and which socio-demographic factors might explain this relationship. Methods A cohort of 108 Turkish and 102 Moroccan respondents were interviewed in 2001 and in 2005. The questionnaire included the SF-36 and the GP contact frequency (in the past two months. Interviews were conducted in the language preferred by the respondents. Data were analysed using multivariate linear regression. Results The mental health of the Moroccan group improved between 2001 and 2005. Physical health remained unchanged for both groups. The number of GP contacts decreased with half a contact/2 months among the Turkish group. Significant predictors of physical health change were: age, educational level. For mental health change, these were: ethnicity, age, civil status, work situation in 2001, change in work situation. For change in GP contacts: ethnicity, age and change in mental and physical health. Conclusion Changes in health status concerned the mental health component. Changes in health status were paired with changes in health care utilization. Among the Turkish group, an unexpected decrease in GP contacts was noticed, whilst showing a generally unchanged health status. Further research taking perceived quality of care into account might help shedding some light on this outcome.
Nokulunga H. Cele
Full Text Available Background: Homosexual patients are affected by social factors in their environment, and as a result may not have easy access to existing health care services. Prejudice against homosexuality and homosexual patients remains a barrier to them seeking appropriate healthcare. The concern is that lesbians and gays might delay or avoid seeking health care when they need it because of past discrimination or perceived homophobia within the health care thereby putting their health at risk.Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to explore and describe the experiences of homosexual patients utilising primary health care (PHC services in Umlazi in the province ofKwaZulu-Natal (KZN.Method: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive study was conducted which was contextual innature. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 participants. The findings of this study were analysed using content analysis.Results: Two major themes emerged from the data analysis, namely, prejudice against homosexual patients by health care providers and other patients at the primary health care facilities, and, homophobic behaviour from primary health care personnel.Conclusion: Participants experienced prejudice and homophobic behaviour in the course of utilising PHC clinics in Umlazi, which created a barrier to their utilisation of health services located there. Nursing education institutions, in collaboration with the National Department of Health, should introduce homosexuality and anti-homophobia education programmes during the pre-service and in-service education period. Such programmes will help to familiarise health care providers with the health care needs of homosexual patients and may decrease homophobic attitudes.
J. Mueller; Greenwood, K.; Callanan, M.
Purpose – Stigma around mental health problems is known to emerge in middle childhood and persist into adulthood, yet almost nothing is known about the role of parents in this process. This paper aims to develop a model of parental communication to primary school-aged children around mental health and ill-health, to increase understanding about how stigma develops. Design/methodology/approach – Semi-structured interviews were performed with ten UK-based parents of children aged 7-11 years...
Background South Africa’s unique history, characterised by apartheid, a form of constitutional racial segregation and exploitation, and a long period of political violence and state-sponsored oppression ending only in 1994, suggests a high level of trauma exposure in the general population. The aim of this study was to document the epidemiology of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the South African general population. Methods The South African Stress and Health Study is a nationally representative survey of South African adults using the WHO’s Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to assess exposure to trauma and presence of DSM-IV mental disorders. Results The most common traumatic events were the unexpected death of a loved one and witnessing trauma occurring to others. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates of PTSD were 2.3% and 0.7% respectively, while the conditional prevalence of PTSD after trauma exposure was 3.5%. PTSD conditional risk after trauma exposure and probability of chronicity after PTSD onset were both highest for witnessing trauma. Socio-demographic factors such as sex, age and education were largely unrelated to PTSD risk. Conclusions The occurrence of trauma and PTSD in South Africa is not distributed according to the socio-demographic factors or trauma types observed in other countries. The dominant role of witnessing in contributing to PTSD may reflect the public settings of trauma exposure in South Africa and highlight the importance of political and social context in shaping the epidemiology of PTSD. PMID:23819543
Lanpher, Michele G; Askew, Sandy; Bennett, Gary G
In the United States, 90 million adults have low health literacy. An important public health challenge is developing obesity treatment interventions suitable for those with low health literacy. The objective of this study was to examine differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics as well as weight and intervention engagement outcomes by health literacy. We randomized 194 participants to usual care or to the Shape Program intervention, a 12-month digital health treatment aimed at preventing weight gain among overweight and Class I obese Black women in primary care practice. We administered the Newest Vital Sign instrument to assess health literacy. More than half (55%) of participants had low health literacy, which was more common among those with fewer years of education and lower income. There was no effect of health literacy on 12-month weight change or on intervention engagement outcomes (completion of coaching calls and interactive voice response self-monitoring calls). Low health literacy did not preclude successful weight gain prevention in the Shape Program intervention. Goal-focused behavior change approaches like that used in Shape may be particularly helpful for treating and engaging populations with low health literacy. PMID:27043756
Nover, Cynthia Helen
Individuals with serious mental illness are at an increased risk for developing co-morbid chronic physical illnesses, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This article is a descriptive piece about an intervention to decrease physical health risks in this population through a partnership effort between a primary care clinic and mental health agency in rural Placer County, California. The project was conducted as a part of the CalMEND Pilot Collaborative to Integrate Primary Care and Mental Health Services, which took place in five California counties in 2010-2011. A description of the program elements, conceptual models, key measures, and the process of program implementation is provided. Benefits were observed in areas of quality assurance, intra- and inter-agency teamwork, and access to adequate primary care for this population. PMID:24483334
Girão, Ana Lívia Araújo; Freitas, Consuelo Helena Aires de
Objective To assess the impacts of inclusion of care for spontaneous demands in the treatment of hypertensive patients in primary health care. Methods Third generation qualitative assessment survey conducted with 16 workers in a Primary Care Health Unit (PHCU) of the city of Fortaleza, state of Ceara, in the period between July and September of 2015. To collect data, systematic field observation and semi-structured interviews were used, and the stages of thematic content analysis were adopted for data analysis. Results Participants revealed that access, connection and care are fundamental to the treatment of hypertension. However, they said that the introduction of free access for spontaneous demands compromised the flow of care in the hypertension programs. Conclusion A dichotomy between the practice of care recommended by health policies and the one existing in the reality of PHCUs was shown, causing evident losses to the care of hypertensive patients in primary care. PMID:27253602
Full Text Available Abstract Background Poverty is widely recognized as a major determinant of poor health, and this link has been extensively studied and verified. Despite the strong evidentiary link, little work has been done to determine what primary care health providers can do to address their patients' income as a risk to their health. This qualitative study explores the barriers to primary care responsiveness to poverty as a health issue in a well-resourced jurisdiction with near-universal health care insurance coverage. Methods One to one interviews were conducted with twelve experts on poverty and health in primary care in Ontario, Canada. Participants included family physicians, specialist physicians, nurse practitioners, community workers, advocates, policy experts and researchers. The interviews were analysed for anticipated and emergent themes. Results This study reveals provider- and patient-centred structural, attitudinal, and knowledge-based barriers to addressing poverty as a risk to health. While many of its findings reinforce previous work in this area, this study's findings point to a number of areas front line primary care providers could target to address their patients' poverty. These include a lack of provider understanding of the lived reality of poverty, leading to a failure to collect adequate data about patients' social circumstances, and to the development of inappropriate care plans. Participants also pointed to prejudicial attitudes among providers, a failure of primary care disciplines to incorporate approaches to poverty as a standard of care, and a lack of knowledge of concrete steps providers can take to address patients' poverty. Conclusions While this study reinforces, in a well-resourced jurisdiction such as Ontario, the previously reported existence of significant barriers to addressing income as a health issue within primary care, the findings point to the possibility of front line primary care providers taking direct steps
Logan, V; Barclay, S; Caan, W.; McCabe, J; Reid, M.
Lymphoedema usually develops following surgery or radiotherapy for cancer, but can also occur in advanced malignant disease or be primary in origin. Lower limb lymphoedema may present particular difficulties in diagnosis, treatment and management. All types of lymphoedema can seriously impair quality of life for those affected. This study aimed to determine the level of knowledge among primary health care team members concerning the identification and management of patients at risk of develop...