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Sample records for african migrants assessed

  1. African migrants in South Africa : an interactional perspective / Shingairai Chigeza

    OpenAIRE

    Chigeza, Shingairai

    2012-01-01

    The movement of African migrants from their countries of origin to other countries in search of a better future will continue to increase. However, such movement is accompanied by many challenges. Literature indicates that African migrants in South Africa face challenges such as cultural differences, exploitation and xenophobia. In the context of migration, migrants and citizens constantly interact with one another. The relational patterns between African migrants and citizens accordingly nee...

  2. Migrants and innovation in African societies: definition of a research field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabogunje, A L

    1975-01-01

    important local opinion leaders, fostering social change and development in their areas. Possibly 1 of the most important areas of migrants' innovative activities in West Africa is in the spread of new agricultural crops. Institutional innovations due to the activities of migrants also abound in West Africa. Migrants in West Africa also have been known to influence social norms, attitudes, and behavior patterns in some of the areas to which they had migrated. Regarding research implications, it is argued that a more fruitful and insightful understanding of social change comes from the detailed examination of the role of migrants as innovators. An increasing number of studies on migrants in African countries can serve as a means of assessing the vital role of migrants in the development of different parts of a country.

  3. 'Just talking about it opens your heart': meaning-making among Black African migrants and refugees living with HIV.

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    Henrickson, Mark; Brown, Derek Brian; Fouché, Christa; Poindexter, Cynthia C; Scott, Kay

    2013-01-01

    Meaning-making has emerged as a core construct in addressing trauma, loss or crisis. This paper considers how diasporic Black Africans living with HIV, who come from interdependent collectivist cultures where the norm is one of implicit support, extend their meaning-making strategies when faced with a diagnosis of HIV. In this qualitative study, 13 Black African migrants and refugees living with HIV in New Zealand were interviewed and the transcripts analysed. After their diagnosis, participants began a journey of reconceptualising situational and global meaning. They extended their meaning-making strategies to include a community of like others to gain explicit support. Caregivers in host countries must understand the meaning-making processes of HIV-positive Black African migrants in order to provide competent services that lead to good social and health outcomes. All healthcare and social services workers should regularly assess Black African migrants and refugees living with HIV for positive social connectedness as well as medication adherence and more specific health concerns. PMID:23651201

  4. Healthcare-Seeking Practices of African and Rural-to-Urban Migrants in Guangzhou

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    Tabea Bork-Hüffer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking the examples of Chinese rural-to-urban migrant and African migrant businesspeople in Guangzhou, this article inquires into the commonalities and differences in the health status and healthcare-seeking practices of both groups. While both populations of migrants are diverse and heterogeneous, there are many commonalities with regard to the challenges they face compared to the Chinese local population. Mixed-methods research frameworks and qualitative and quantitative methods were applied. While existing publications emphasise lacking financial access to healthcare, further individual and social factors account for migrants’ healthcare choices. Their access to healthcare can be improved only by introducing insurance schemes with portable benefits, providing localised and culturally adequate health services adapted to migrants’ specific needs and health risks, and enhancing patient orientation and responsiveness by health professionals.

  5. Assessing maternal healthcare inequities among migrants: a qualitative study

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    Ligia Moreira Almeida

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering pregnancy and motherhood as periods of increased vulnerability in migrant women, to characterize the healthcare provided to this collective, we sought to identify and understand patterns of satisfaction and demand of maternal and child healthcare, assessing women’s perceptions about its quality. The study followed a qualitative methodology (semi-structured interviews for collecting and analysing data (content analysis and was conducted in Porto, the second largest city of Portugal. Participants were 25 recent immigrant mothers from Eastern European countries, Brazil, Portuguese-speaking African countries and six native Portuguese recent mothers (for comparison, contacted through social associations and institutions. Data suggests that healthcare depends not only on accessibility but especially on social opportunities. Equitable public health action must provide individuals and groups the equal opportunity to meet their needs, which may not be achieved by providing the same standard if care to all.

  6. Intergenerational relations and the settlement experiences of African migrants in northern England

    OpenAIRE

    Waite, LJ; Cook, J; Aigner, P

    2009-01-01

    Aims The report looks at how the migration and integration experiences of African migrants living in Yorkshire vary across family generations. The study was funded by the British Academy under its Research Development Scheme. Methodology Data was obtained over an 18 month period during 2008-09 through 40 biographical interviews with 20 families of African origin [Sudanese, Somali, Kenyan and Zimbabwean] living in Yorkshire. Interviews were also conducted with other key individuals including c...

  7. Help-Seeking Behavior of West African Migrants

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    Knipscheer, Jeroen W.; Kleber, Rolf J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present essential aspects of the help-seeking behavior with regard to mental health problems of Ghanaian migrants in the Netherlands. Samples of citizens in the general population (n=97) and outpatients treated in mental health care facilities (n=36) were included. Data were acquired by administering a semi-structured…

  8. Diaspora engagement of African migrant health workers – examples from five destination countries

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    Wojczewski, Silvia; Poppe, Annelien; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Pentz, Stephen; Kutalek, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Background Migrant health workers fill care gaps in their destination countries, but they also actively engage in improving living conditions for people of their countries of origin through expatriate professional networks. This paper aims to explore the professional links that migrant health workers from sub-Saharan African countries living in five African and European destinations (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, and the United Kingdom) have to their countries of origin. Design Qualitative interviews were conducted with migrant doctors, nurses, and midwives from sub-Saharan Africa (N=66). A qualitative content analysis of the material was performed using the software ATLAS.ti. Results Almost all migrant health workers have professional ties with their countries of origin supporting health, education, and social structures. They work with non-governmental organizations, universities, or hospitals and travel back and forth between their destination country and country of origin. For a few respondents, professional engagement or even maintaining private contacts in their country of origin is difficult due to the political situation at home. Conclusions The results show that African migrant health workers are actively engaged in improving living conditions not only for their family members but also for the population in general in their countries of origin. Our respondents are mediators and active networkers in a globalized and transnationally connected world. The research suggests that the governments of these countries of origin could strategically use their migrant health workforce for improving education and population health in sub-Saharan Africa. Destination countries should be reminded of their need to comply with the WHO Global Code of Practice for the international recruitment of health professionals. PMID:26652910

  9. Improving health services for African migrants in China: A health diplomacy perspective.

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    McLaughlin, Megan M; Lee, Margaret C; Hall, Brian J; Bulterys, Marc; Ling, Li; Tucker, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Global health has become an increasingly prominent component of foreign policy in the last decade. The term health diplomacy has been used to describe this growing interface between foreign policy and global health, and it encompasses both the concept of using health to further foreign policy objectives as well as the idea that diplomatic tools can be helpful for attaining public health goals. The Chinese presence in Africa has grown in the last 15 years, generating increased interest in Sino-African relations. While much has been written in recent years about the Chinese presence in Africa, the growing numbers of Africans in China have attracted considerably less attention. Many are small-scale traders and might be expected to face many of the health challenges common among foreign migrants, but their health needs have been largely unrecognised. In this paper, we consider how a health diplomacy approach could be applied to African migrants in China, and the potential advantages and limitations of this strategy. We identify areas of overlap between public health, trade and foreign policy goals that can be emphasised to generate support for improved services for African migrants in China and to engage partners from a diversity of sectors. PMID:24807820

  10. A study of HIV positive undocumented African migrants' access to health services in the UK.

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    Whyte, James; Whyte, Maria D; Hires, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Newly immigrated persons, whatever their origin, tend to fall in the lower socioeconomic levels. In fact, failure of an asylum application renders one destitute in a large proportion of cases, often resulting in a profound lack of access to basic necessities. With over a third of HIV positive failed asylum seekers reporting no income, and the remainder reporting highly limited resources, poverty is a reality for the vast majority. The purpose of the study was to determine the basic social processes that guide HIV positive undocumented migrant's efforts to gain health services in the UK. The study used the Grounded Theory Approach. Theoretical saturation occurred after 16 participants were included in the study. The data included reflections of the prominent factors related to the establishment of a safe and productive life and the ability of individuals to remain within the UK. The data reflected heavily upon the ability of migrants to enter the medical care system during their asylum period, and on an emerging pattern of service denial after loss on immigration appeal. The findings of this study are notable in that they have demonstrated sequence of events along a timeline related to the interaction between the asylum process and access to health-related services. The results reflect that African migrants maintain a degree of formal access to health services during the period that they possess legal access to services and informal access after the failure of their asylum claim. The purpose of this paper is to examine the basic social processes that characterize efforts to gain access to health services among HIV positive undocumented African migrants to the UK. The most recent estimates indicate that there are a total of 618,000 migrants who lack legal status within the UK. Other studies have placed the number of undocumented migrants within the UK in the range of 525,000-950,000. More than 442,000 are thought to dwell in the London metropolitan area. Even in

  11. The EU Migration Regime and West African Clandestine Migrants

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    Hannah M. Cross

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between the EU migration regime and clandestine migration from West Africa to Europe. A review of the development of EU border and immigration policy reveals significant and sustained moves towards securitisation of migrants and the externalisation of border controls to countries of origin and transit. This emphasis on repression limits the scope of cooperation with ‘third countries’ (those outside Europe in co-development, labour mobility, sea patrols and repatriation, which are examined separately as deterrents to uncontrolled emigration. This paper then analyses the motivations and intentions of Senegalese youth around the Cap Vert peninsula. This analysis includes the role of emigration in development and more recently, the impact of human losses and repatriations resulting from the clandestine journey by pirogue (open fishing boat to the Canary Islands. This article argues that in this case, youth are excluded both from labour and asylum policies and instead are managed as a security threat, contradicting the factors driving this journey.

  12. The inclusion of migrants in health impact assessments: A scoping review

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    Benkhalti Jandu, Maria, E-mail: mbenkhal@uottawa.ca [University of Ottawa, Institute of Population Health, 1 Stewart Street, Suite 201, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Canuto de Medeiros, Bruno, E-mail: aporo@hotmail.com [University of Ottawa, Institute of Population Health, 1 Stewart Street, Suite 201, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Bourgeault, Ivy, E-mail: Ivy.Bourgeault@uottawa.ca [University of Ottawa, Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, 1 Stewart Street, Suite 207, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Tugwell, Peter, E-mail: Tugwell.BB@uottawa.ca [University of Ottawa, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, K1H 8M5 Ottawa (Canada); Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Clinical Epidemiology Program, K1Y 4E9 Ottawa (Canada); University of Ottawa, Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, K1H 8M5 Ottawa (Canada); Institute of Population Health, University of Ottawa, K1N 6N5 Ottawa (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    This article reports the findings of a scoping review assessing the extent and ways in which migrants have been included in health impact assessments (HIAs) and HIA evaluations worldwide. A total of 117 HIAs and two HIA evaluations were included. Only 14% of hand-searched HIAs mentioned migrants, 5% analysed migrants and only 2% included them in their recommendations. Nonetheless, migrants would be expected to be part of the analysis based on the reasons for which migrants were most commonly mentioned. Although the majority of HIAs included in the review mentioned migrants in baseline conditions and impact analysis steps, migrants were seldom included in recommendations. Furthermore, the use of frameworks or tools guiding the completion of an HIA was negatively associated with the inclusion of migrants in recommendations. This is a pivotal risk of frameworks not mentioning migrants. Although workshops and stakeholder engagement were a frequent way of including migrants in HIAs, this usually involved organizations representing migrants, and only seldom included members of the migrant community themselves. The main barriers to including migrants in the HIA impact analysis were the lack of available data on migrants and the significant additional resources required to gather and analyse additional data on migrants. Guidance is needed on ways to optimally include migrants in HIAs and ensure that recommendations for mitigation measures are optimal. - Highlights: • Scoping review found 14% of hand-searched HIAs mentioned migrantsMigrants are seldom mentioned in recommendations even when analysed • Guiding frameworks can hinder the inclusion of migrants if not explicitly mentioned • Often migrants organizations are the ones included in engagement • Main barriers to including migrants are available data and resources required.

  13. The inclusion of migrants in health impact assessments: A scoping review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reports the findings of a scoping review assessing the extent and ways in which migrants have been included in health impact assessments (HIAs) and HIA evaluations worldwide. A total of 117 HIAs and two HIA evaluations were included. Only 14% of hand-searched HIAs mentioned migrants, 5% analysed migrants and only 2% included them in their recommendations. Nonetheless, migrants would be expected to be part of the analysis based on the reasons for which migrants were most commonly mentioned. Although the majority of HIAs included in the review mentioned migrants in baseline conditions and impact analysis steps, migrants were seldom included in recommendations. Furthermore, the use of frameworks or tools guiding the completion of an HIA was negatively associated with the inclusion of migrants in recommendations. This is a pivotal risk of frameworks not mentioning migrants. Although workshops and stakeholder engagement were a frequent way of including migrants in HIAs, this usually involved organizations representing migrants, and only seldom included members of the migrant community themselves. The main barriers to including migrants in the HIA impact analysis were the lack of available data on migrants and the significant additional resources required to gather and analyse additional data on migrants. Guidance is needed on ways to optimally include migrants in HIAs and ensure that recommendations for mitigation measures are optimal. - Highlights: • Scoping review found 14% of hand-searched HIAs mentioned migrantsMigrants are seldom mentioned in recommendations even when analysed • Guiding frameworks can hinder the inclusion of migrants if not explicitly mentioned • Often migrants organizations are the ones included in engagement • Main barriers to including migrants are available data and resources required

  14. Gender and Migration: The Sexual Debut of Sub-Saharan African Migrants in France

    OpenAIRE

    Élise Marsicano; Nathalie Lydié; Nathalie Bajos; Krystyna Horko

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the recomposition of gender relations in a migratory context from a specific viewpoint: the sexual debut of individuals who migrated from sub-Saharan Africa to France. It is based on a 2005 survey of 1,874 sub-Saharan African migrants in the Île-de-France region. The aim is to determine the impact of men?s and women?s migratory trajectories on their first sexual experiences, as well as any possible changes in sexual power relations after migration. The construction of mi...

  15. Assessing Oral Cancer Awareness Among Rural Latino Migrant Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Virginia J; Schenck, David P; Chaney, Elizabeth H; Padhya, Tapan

    2016-06-01

    Latino migrant farm workers suffer significant health disparities, including poor oral health. The purpose of this research was to assess Latino migrant farm workers' OC awareness, including knowledge and care-seeking behaviors. A 42-item survey was developed. Trained, bilingual researchers verbally administered the survey to migrant farm workers in Hillsborough County, Florida. Frequencies and descriptive statistics were generated to report baseline data. The sample consisted of 53.7 % female respondents. The mean age for males and females respectively was 38.7 and 39.2. Most respondents had attended grade school; 6.7 % never attended school. Perceptions of cancer susceptibility were present; knowledge of OC risk factors, signs and symptoms was low. Participants were unlikely to seek preventive care. The results contribute to the limited studies regarding Latino migrant farm workers and oral cancer risk factor awareness and knowledge. Findings highlight factors influencing motivation and care-seeking behaviors, as well as provide guidance for development of educational materials. PMID:26018959

  16. Developing a guide for community-based groups to reduce alcohol-related harm among African migrants.

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    Jaworski, Alison; Brown, Tony; Norman, Catherine; Hata, Kiri; Toohey, Mark; Vasiljevic, Dubravka; Rowe, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Alcohol-related harm is an issue of concern for African migrant communities living in Australia. However, there has been little information available to guide workers in developing culturally sensitive health promotion strategies. Methods A three-step approach, comprising a literature review, community consultations and an external review, was undertaken to develop a guide to assist organisations and health promotion groups working with African migrant communities to address alcohol-related harms. Discussion There was a high level of agreement between the three steps. Addressing alcohol harms with African migrant communities requires approaches that are sensitive to the needs, structures and experiences of communities. The process should incorporate targeted approaches that enable communities to achieve their resettlement goals as well as strengthening mainstream health promotion efforts. Conclusions The resource produced guides alcohol harm prevention coalitions and workers from the first steps of understanding the influences of acculturation and resettlement on alcohol consumption, through to planning, developing and evaluating an intervention in partnership with communities. So what? This paper advances knowledge by providing a precise summary of Australian African migrant focused alcohol and other drug research to date. It also describes a three-step approach that aimed to incorporate a diversity of community views in the creation of a health promotion and community capacity-building resource. PMID:26726816

  17. African migrant patients' trust in Chinese physicians: a social ecological approach to understanding patient-physician trust.

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    Megan M McLaughlin

    Full Text Available Patient trust in physicians is a critical determinant of health seeking behaviors, medication adherence, and health outcomes. A crisis of interpersonal trust exists in China, extending throughout multiple social spheres, including the healthcare system. At the same time, with increased migration from Africa to China in the last two decades, Chinese physicians must establish mutual trust with an increasingly diverse patient population. We undertook a qualitative study to identify factors affecting African migrants' trust in Chinese physicians and to identify potential mechanisms for promoting trust.We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 40 African migrants in Guangzhou, China. A modified version of the social ecological model was used as a theoretical framework. At the patient-physician level, interpersonal treatment, technical competence, perceived commitment and motive, and language concordance were associated with enhanced trust. At the health system level, two primary factors influenced African migrants' trust in their physicians: the fee-for-service payment system and lack of continuity with any one physician. Patients' social networks and the broader socio-cultural context of interactions between African migrants and Chinese locals also influenced patients' trust of their physicians.These findings demonstrate the importance of factors beyond the immediate patient-physician interaction and suggest opportunities to promote trust through health system interventions.

  18. African N Assessment

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    Bekunda, M.; Galford, G. L.; Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.

    2011-12-01

    Africa's smallholder agricultural systems face unique challenges in planning for reducing poverty, concurrent with adaptation and mitigation to climate change. At continental level, policy seeks to promote a uniquely African Green Revolution to increase crop yields and food production, and improve local livelihoods. However, the consequences on the environment and climate are not clear; these pro-economic development measures should be linked to climate change adaptation and mitigation measures, and research is required to help achieve these policy proposals by identifying options, and testing impacts. In particular, increased nitrogen (N) inputs are essential for increasing food production in Africa, but are accompanied by inevitable increases in losses to the environment. These losses appear to be low at input levels promoted in agricultural development programs, while the increased N inputs both increase current food production and appear to reduce the vulnerability of food production to changes in climate. We present field and remote sensing evidence from Malawi that subsidizing improved seed and fertilizers increases resilience to drought without adding excess N to the environment. In Kenya, field research identified thresholds in N2O losses, where emissions are very low at fertilization rates of less than 200 kg ha-1. Village-scale models have identified potential inefficiencies in the food production process where the largest losses of reactive N occur, and which could be targeted to reduce the amount of N released to the environment. We further review some on-going research activities and progress in Africa that compare different methods of managing resources that target resilience in food production and adaptation to climate change, using nutrient N as an indicator, while evaluating the effects of these resource management practices on ecosystems and the environment.

  19. Involving lay community researchers in epidemiological research: experiences from a seroprevalence study among sub-Saharan African migrants.

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    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Loos, Jasna

    2016-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has received considerable attention during past decades as a method to increase community ownership in research and prevention. We discuss its application to epidemiological research using the case of second-generation surveillance conducted among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in Antwerp city. To inform evidence-based prevention planning for this target group, this HIV-prevalence study used two-stage time-location sampling preceded by formative research. Extensive collaborative partnerships were built with community organizations, a Community Advisory Board provided input throughout the project, and community researchers were trained to participate in all phases of the seroprevalence study. Valid oral fluid samples for HIV testing were collected among 717 SSA migrants and linked to behavioural data assessed through an anonymous survey between December 2013 and August 2014. A qualitative content analysis of various data sources (extensive field notes, minutes of intervision, and training protocols) collected at 77 data collection visits in 51 settings was carried out to describe experiences with challenges and opportunities inherent to the CBPR approach at three crucial stages of the research process: building collaborative partnerships; implementing the study; dissemination of findings including prevention planning. The results show that CBPR is feasible in conducting scientifically sound epidemiological research, but certain requirements need to be in place. These include among others sufficient resources to train, coordinate, and supervise community researchers; continuity in the implementation; transparency about decision-taking and administrative procedures, and willingness to share power and control over the full research process. CBPR contributed to empowering community researchers on a personal level, and to create greater HIV prevention demand in the SSA communities. PMID:26885938

  20. Involving lay community researchers in epidemiological research: experiences from a seroprevalence study among sub-Saharan African migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Loos, Jasna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has received considerable attention during past decades as a method to increase community ownership in research and prevention. We discuss its application to epidemiological research using the case of second-generation surveillance conducted among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in Antwerp city. To inform evidence-based prevention planning for this target group, this HIV-prevalence study used two-stage time-location sampling preceded by formative research. Extensive collaborative partnerships were built with community organizations, a Community Advisory Board provided input throughout the project, and community researchers were trained to participate in all phases of the seroprevalence study. Valid oral fluid samples for HIV testing were collected among 717 SSA migrants and linked to behavioural data assessed through an anonymous survey between December 2013 and August 2014. A qualitative content analysis of various data sources (extensive field notes, minutes of intervision, and training protocols) collected at 77 data collection visits in 51 settings was carried out to describe experiences with challenges and opportunities inherent to the CBPR approach at three crucial stages of the research process: building collaborative partnerships; implementing the study; dissemination of findings including prevention planning. The results show that CBPR is feasible in conducting scientifically sound epidemiological research, but certain requirements need to be in place. These include among others sufficient resources to train, coordinate, and supervise community researchers; continuity in the implementation; transparency about decision-taking and administrative procedures, and willingness to share power and control over the full research process. CBPR contributed to empowering community researchers on a personal level, and to create greater HIV prevention demand in the SSA communities. PMID:26885938

  1. A comparative study to assess the knowledge and practices regarding sexual health among the migrants and non-migrants in Mumbai city

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    Purushottam A. Giri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population movements of the scale currently experienced by developing countries have significant implications on the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and HIV/AIDS. Mumbai is a large industrial city and has experienced large influx of migrants in the past two decades. The prevalence of multiple risk-traits among the migrants differs significantly by age, marital status, educational level, and living arrangements. Addressing sexual health also requires understanding and appreciation of sexuality, gender roles and power in designing and providing services.Objectives: The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge and practices regarding various aspects of sexual health among migrant & non-migrant in Mumbai city.Material and Methods: A Cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2007 to June 2007. It consists of 50 migrants and 50 non-migrants from each of the five zones of Mumbai city. A sample size of 250 migrants & 250 non-migrants from the five administrative zones of Mumbai was considered for the study were interviewed and examined. A semi structured interview schedule was piloted and used to collect necessary information such as clinical history, socio-demographic profile, sexual perceptions and practices, clinical examination and investigations were performed. Results were analysed using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS version -13.0Results: In this study, about 57% migrants perceived that masturbation affects the health & well being; while relatively more non-migrants (69.2%. There was an unrestrained fascination towards consumption of alcohol in both the groups, as 131 (52.4% migrants and 124 (49.6% non-migrants were drinking alcohol. More than half of migrants (58.0% and non-migrants (52.6% had premarital penetrative vaginal sex with multiple partners.Conclusion: In the present study, friends followed by movies and television were main source of sexual knowledge among both migrants and non-migrants

  2. Access to employment among African migrant women living with HIV in France: opportunities and constraints.

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    Gerbier-Aublanc, Marjorie; Gosselin, Anne

    2016-08-01

    HIV in France particularly affects sub-Saharan migrants as they accounted for 31% of the new diagnoses in 2013. The objective of this study is to investigate the access to and the experience of employment among migrant women living with HIV in France. We use a mixed-method approach. The quantitative data come from the ANRS Parcours study, a life-event survey conducted in 2012-2013 in 70 health centres which collected year-by-year detailed information on living conditions about 755 sub-Saharan women migrants in the greater Paris region (470 with HIV and 285 without HIV). The qualitative data have been collected independently in the same region through socio-ethnographic observations and interviews conducted in 8 HIV-positive migrant organisations and among 35 women-members from 2011 to 2013. Two main results are noteworthy. First, being HIV-positive unexpectedly gives sub-Saharan migrant women a quicker access to employment thanks to the social support they find in migrant organisations: in the third year in France in median (versus 5th year among HIV-negative group). This effect of being HIV-positive on the access to employment remains all things being equal in a discrete-time logistic regression (aOR [95% CI] HIV+: 1.4[1.1;1.8]). Second, their employment situation remains strongly shaped by the racial division of work existing in France and they develop individual strategies to negotiate this constraint: for example, temporary jobs and working as health mediators. The type of jobs they find, mainly in the care sector, force them to carefully hide their HIV status because they fear discrimination at work. Not only migrant women endure structural discrimination in a segmented labour market, but they also anticipate HIV-related discrimination related to caring activities. Thus, the design and implementation of programmes that address stigma should consider structural discrimination to improve PLWHA's working experiences. PMID:27098378

  3. Communication and Information About “Safer Sex:” Intervention Issues Within Communities of African Migrants Living in Poorer Neighbourhoods in Portugal

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    de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Gaspar, Tania; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Reis, Marta; Ramiro, Lúcia

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study are to determine the influence of migrant status on sexual behavior and communication about “safer sex” and to identify ethnic-specific prevention issues. Data were obtained from a special administration of the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Survey in a special sample of Portuguese schools located in low-income Lisbon neighborhoods with large proportions of African migrants. Survey participants included 919 6th, 8th and 10th graders (52.3% female), of whom 19.2% were migrant foreigners from African Portuguese-speaking countries, including Cape Verde (60.8%), Mozambique (1.6%), Angola (16.8%), S. Tomé (8%), and Guinea-Bissau (14.8%). Subsequently, four focus groups were held with adolescent who had participated in the survey (n = 45), three focus group with health and education professionals (n = 25), and one focus group with parents (n = 6). Compared with Portuguese adolescents, African migrant teens reported initial sexual intercourse at earlier ages, less frequent condom use, and less frequent and less comfortable communications with parents about sexual issues. Implications for selective prevention of STD are discussed and recommendations are made. PMID:19081810

  4. Assessing sanitary mixtures in East African cities

    OpenAIRE

    Letema, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The urbanisation of poverty and informality in East African cities poses a threat to environmental health, perpetuates social exclusion and inequalities, and creates service gaps (UN-Habitat, 2008). This makes conventional sanitation provision untenable citywide, giving rise to the emergence of sanitation mixtures. Sanitation mixtures have different scales, institutional arrangements, user groups, and rationalities for their establishment, location, and management. For assessing the performan...

  5. Lay Outreach Workers and the Ohio Migrant and Seasonal Farm Workers Health Education Needs Assessment.

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    Alvarez, Olga L.

    The Migrant and Seasonal Farm Workers Project sought to determine the health education needs of this indigent population in Ohio using the help of lay outreach workers. A bilingual needs assessment survey was developed containing questions on demographics, place of permanent residence, points of travel after working in Ohio, and type of work and…

  6. Assessing vulnerability of urban African communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Herslund, Lise Byskov

    2014-01-01

    East African cities are in the process of assessing their vulnerabilities to climate change, but face difficulties in capturing the complexity of the various facets of vulnerability. This holistic approach, captures four different dimensions of vulnerability to flooding - Assets, Institutions......, Attitudes and the Physical environment, with Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, as a case city. The methodology is actively involving the expertise of the stakeholders, and uses GIS to analyze and compile the data. The final output is presented as a comprehensible map, delineating the varying vulnerability to...

  7. Assessing Neuropsychological Performance in a Migrant Farm Working Colonia in Baja California, Mexico: A Feasibility Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bousman, Chad A.; Salgado, Hugo; Hendrix, Terence; Fraga, Miguel; Cherner, Mariana; ,

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychological impairments (NPI) can lead to difficulties in daily functioning and ultimately contribute to poor health outcomes. However, evidence for the feasibility of NPI assessment in resource-limited settings using tests developed in high literacy/high education cultures is sparse. The main objectives were to: (1) determine the feasibility and appropriateness of conducting neuropsychological assessments among a migrant farm worker population in Baja California, Mexico and (2) prelim...

  8. Bird ringing in Slovenia in 2014 and results of the first telemetry study of an African migrant

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    Vrezec Al

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, 162 bird species were recorded during the bird ringing activities in Slovenia. Of 155 species, 62,275 birds were ringed, and 107 recoveries of birds ringed in Slovenia and found abroad, 148 foreign recoveries in Slovenia and 1395 local recoveries were recorded. The most frequently ringed species were Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla and Great Tit Parus major. As far as ringed nestlings are concerned, Great Tits and Barn Swalllows Hirundo rustica predominated. Considering the recoveries ringed of found birds abroad, the commonest were Black-headed Gulls Chroicocephalus ridibundus and Mute Swans Cygnus olor. The farthest recovery was a Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica found in the Democratic Republic of Congo (5171 km away. Among the more interesting finds was also the so far southernmost recovery of a Sand Martin Riparia riparia found in Israel. Let us also mention the first recovery of a Corncrake Crex crex, which bred and was ringed in 2013 at Planinsko polje (central Slovenia and was found in the 2014 breeding season in the Czech Republic. Among rare species, two Little Buntings Emberiza pusilla were caught and ringed. After nine years, the Roller Coracias garrulus bred again in Slovenia in 2014 and its nestlings were ringed. The paper also brings the description of the migration route of the first African migrant, the Black Stork Ciconia nigra, marked with a GPS/GSM telemetric device, which migrated across the Adriatic Sea, Sicily and Sahara to Nigeria.

  9. Migrants, health, and happiness: Evidence that health assessments travel with migrants and predict well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljunge, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Health assessments correlate with health outcomes and subjective well-being. Immigrants offer an opportunity to study persistent social influences on health where the social conditions are not endogenous to individual outcomes. This approach provides a clear direction of causality from social conditions to health, and in a second stage to well-being. Natives and immigrants from across the world residing in 30 European countries are studied using survey data. The paper applies within country analysis using both linear regressions and two stage least squares. Natives' and immigrants' individual characteristics have similar predictive power for health, except Muslim immigrants who experience a sizeable health penalty. Average health reports in the immigrant's birth country have a significant association with the immigrant's current health. Almost a quarter of the birth country health variation is brought by the immigrants, while conditioning on socioeconomic characteristics. There is no evidence of the birth country predictive power declining neither as the immigrant spends more time in the residence country nor over the life course. The second stage estimates indicate that a one standard deviation improvement in health predicts higher happiness by 1.72 point or 0.82 of a standard deviation, more than four times the happiness difference of changing employment status from unemployed to employed. Studying life satisfaction yields similar results. Health improvements predict substantial increases in individual happiness. PMID:27015612

  10. Migrants, health, and happiness: Evidence that health assessments travel with migrants and predict well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljunge, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Health assessments correlate with health outcomes and subjective well-being. Immigrants offer an opportunity to study persistent social influences on health where the social conditions are not endogenous to individual outcomes. This approach provides a clear direction of causality from social conditions to health, and in a second stage to well-being. Natives and immigrants from across the world residing in 30 European countries are studied using survey data. The paper applies within country analysis using both linear regressions and two stage least squares. Natives' and immigrants' individual characteristics have similar predictive power for health, except Muslim immigrants who experience a sizeable health penalty. Average health reports in the immigrant's birth country have a significant association with the immigrant's current health. Almost a quarter of the birth country health variation is brought by the immigrants, while conditioning on socioeconomic characteristics. There is no evidence of the birth country predictive power declining neither as the immigrant spends more time in the residence country nor over the life course. The second stage estimates indicate that a one standard deviation improvement in health predicts higher happiness by 1.72 point or 0.82 of a standard deviation, more than four times the happiness difference of changing employment status from unemployed to employed. Studying life satisfaction yields similar results. Health improvements predict substantial increases in individual happiness.

  11. Assessing neuropsychological performance in a migrant farm working Colonia in Baja California, Mexico: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousman, Chad A; Salgado, Hugo; Hendrix, Terence; Fraga, Miguel; Cherner, Mariana

    2011-08-01

    Neuropsychological impairments (NPI) can lead to difficulties in daily functioning and ultimately contribute to poor health outcomes. However, evidence for the feasibility of NPI assessment in resource-limited settings using tests developed in high literacy/high education cultures is sparse. The main objectives were to: (1) determine the feasibility and appropriateness of conducting neuropsychological assessments among a migrant farm worker population in Baja California, Mexico and (2) preliminary describe neuropsychological test performance in this unique population. A neuropsychological test battery was administered to 21 presumably healthy adults (8 men, 13 women) during a two-day international health services and research collaboration. All but one neuropsychological test (i.e. figure learning) was feasible and appropriate to administer to the study population. Contrary to expectations, participants performed better on verbal rather than nonverbal neuropsychological tests. Results support inclusion of neuropsychological tests into future studies among migrant farm worker populations in Baja California, Mexico. PMID:21264515

  12. Assessing Disaster Preparedness among Latino Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers in Eastern North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Amber Foreman Britt; Bethel, Jeffrey W.; Sloane Burke

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters including hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, tornadoes, and fires often involve substantial physical and mental impacts on affected populations and thus are public health priorities. Limited research shows that vulnerable populations such as the low-income, socially isolated migrant and seasonal farmworkers (MSFW) are particularly susceptible to the effects of natural disasters. This research project assessed the awareness, perceived risk, and prac...

  13. Sex Differences in HIV Prevalence, Behavioral Risks and Prevention Needs Among Anglophone and Francophone Sub-Saharan African Migrants Living in Rabat, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lisa; Oumzil, Hicham; El Rhilani, Houssine; Latifi, Amina; Bennani, Aziza; Alami, Kamal

    2016-04-01

    Morocco has experienced a dramatic increase of migration from sub-Sahara Africa during the past decade. Recently included among the most vulnerable populations cited in the Morocco National Strategic Plans on HIV/TB for 2012-2016, sub-Saharan Africa migrants living in an irregular administrative situation participated in a survey to provide baseline data about their socio-demographic, sexual and HIV testing behaviors and HIV and syphilis prevalence. Two surveys using respondent driven sampling were conducted in 2013 among males and females, ≥18 years, originating from sub-Saharan African countries and living and/or working in an irregular administrative situation in Rabat and residing at least 3 months in Morocco. Analysis was conducted to evaluate differences between the two samples and between females and males within each sample using the successive sampling estimator in RDS Analyst. Roughly 3 % of francophone and anglophone migrants were infected with HIV, whereas a statistically significantly higher percentage of francophone (2.8 %), compared to anglophone (0.3 %), migrants were infected with syphilis. Females were found to have HIV infection rates three times higher and past year sexually transmitted infection signs and symptoms more than two times higher than their male counterparts. Female migrants also had statistically significantly higher percentages of ever testing for HIV and HIV testing and receiving results in the past year compared to males. We found distinct and important differences between migrants depending on whether they come from francophone versus anglophone countries and whether they were male or female. Future research should continue to explore these differences, while policies and programs should note these differences to best allocate resources in providing social and health services to these populations. PMID:26122648

  14. Validation of the Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire in 1st generation Black African-Caribbean and South Asian UK migrants: A sub-study to the Ethnic-Echocardiographic Heart of England Screening (E-ECHOES study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman Stanley

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We determined the diagnostic accuracy of the Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire (ECQ in 1st generation Black African-Caribbean UK migrants as previous diagnostic questionnaires have been found to be less accurate in this population. We also determined the diagnostic accuracy of translated versions of the ECQ in 1st generation South Asian UK migrants, as this has not been investigated before. Methods Subjects were recruited from the Ethnic-Echocardiographic Heart of England Screening (E-ECHOES study, a community based screening survey for heart failure in minority ethnic groups. Translated versions of the ECQ were prepared following a recognised protocol. All participants attending screening between October 2007 and February 2009 were asked to complete the ECQ in the language of their choice (English, Punjabi, Bengali, Urdu, Hindi or Gujarati. Subjects answering positively to experiencing leg pain or discomfort on walking were asked to return to have Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI measured. Results 154 out of 2831 subjects participating in E-ECHOES (5.4% were eligible to participate in this sub-study, for which 74.3% returned for ABPI assessment. Non-responders were younger than participants (59[9] vs. 65[11] years; p = 0.015. Punjabi, English and Bengali questionnaires identified participants with Intermittent Claudication, so these questionnaires were assessed. The sensitivities (SN, specificities (SP, positive (PPV and negative (NPV predictive values were calculated. English: SN: 50%; SP: 68%; PPV: 43%; NPV: 74%. Punjabi: SN: 50%; SP: 87%; PPV: 43%; NPV: 90%. Bengali: SN: 33%; SP: 50%; PPV: 13%; NPV: 73%. There were significant differences in diagnostic accuracy between the 3 versions (Punjabi: 83.8%; Bengali: 45%; English: 62.2%; p Conclusions Our findings suggest that the ECQ is not as sensitive or specific a diagnostic tool in 1st generation Black African-Caribbean and South Asian UK migrants than in the Edinburgh

  15. Cardiac assessment of African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Peter A; Marshall, Cecilia; Seyfried, Alice W; Bartin, Anne M

    2011-03-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a common finding in captive African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) at postmortem exam. To date, treatment attempts have been mostly empirical and unrewarding. The objective of this study was to determine reference cardiac values for captive African hedgehogs based on echocardiogram, electrocardiogram (ECG), and radiographs. Adult African hedgehogs with no clinical signs of cardiac disease (n = 13) were selected. Each animal was anesthetized with isoflurane via facemask and an echocardiogram, ECG, and radiographs were performed. Standard measurements were taken and the descriptive statistics performed. Values were comparable to limited data available in other hedgehog species and other similar-sized exotic species. Two animals were removed from consideration of reference values due to valvular defects that were considered significant. These data are the first establishing cardiac parameters in normal African hedgehogs using radiographic cardiac measurement, echocardiogram, and ECG. Evaluating animals with possible cardiomyopathy may allow for earlier diagnosis and more successful treatment. PMID:22946370

  16. Assessing disaster preparedness among latino migrant and seasonal farmworkers in eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sloane; Bethel, Jeffrey W; Britt, Amber Foreman

    2012-09-01

    Natural disasters including hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, tornadoes, and fires often involve substantial physical and mental impacts on affected populations and thus are public health priorities. Limited research shows that vulnerable populations such as the low-income, socially isolated migrant and seasonal farmworkers (MSFW) are particularly susceptible to the effects of natural disasters. This research project assessed the awareness, perceived risk, and practices regarding disaster preparedness and response resources and identified barriers to utilization of community and government services during or after a natural disaster among Latino MSFWs' and their families. Qualitative (N = 21) focus groups (3) and quantitative (N = 57) survey methodology was implemented with Latino MSFWs temporarily residing in rural eastern North Carolina to assess perceived and actual risk for natural disasters. Hurricanes were a top concern among the sample population, many participants shared they lacked proper resources for an emergency (no emergency kit in the house, no evacuation plan, no home internet, a lack of knowledge of what should be included in an emergency kit, etc.). Transportation and language were found to be additional barriers. Emergency broadcasts in Spanish and text message alerts were identified by the population to be helpful for disaster alerts. FEMA, American Red Cross, local schools and the migrant clinic were trusted places for assistance and information. In summary, tailored materials, emergency alerts, text messages, and news coverage concerning disaster threats should be provided in the population's native language and when feasible delivered in a culturally appropriate mechanism such as "charlas" (talks) and brochures. PMID:23202674

  17. Risky Sexual Behaviors: The Role of Ethnic Identity in HIV Risk in Migrant Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Shehadeh, Nancy; McCoy, H. Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Migrant workers have been shown to be at a heightened level of risk for HIV, and ethnic identity has been posited to have an impact on engagement in risky sexual behaviors. Our longitudinal study examined associations between baseline and short term changes in ethnic identity and high-risk sexual behaviors. Baseline (N = 431) and 6-month assessment (n = 270) data were obtained from a larger HIV prevention study conducted among African American and Hispanic migrant workers. Repeated measures M...

  18. Assessing sanitary mixtures in East African cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The urbanisation of poverty and informality in East African cities poses a threat to environmental
    health, perpetuates social exclusion and inequalities, and creates service gaps (UN-Habitat, 2008).
    This makes conventional sanitation provision untenable citywide, giving rise to the emerg

  19. Spirituality/Religiosity: A Cultural and Psychological Resource among Sub-Saharan African Migrant Women with HIV/AIDS in Belgium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ebotabe Arrey

    Full Text Available Spirituality/religion serves important roles in coping, survival and maintaining overall wellbeing within African cultures and communities, especially when diagnosed with a chronic disease like HIV/AIDS that can have a profound effect on physical and mental health. However, spirituality/religion can be problematic to some patients and cause caregiving difficulties. The objective of this paper was to examine the role of spirituality/religion as a source of strength, resilience and wellbeing among sub-Saharan African (SSA migrant women with HIV/AIDS. A qualitative study of SSA migrant women was conducted between April 2013 and December 2014. Participants were recruited through purposive sampling and snowball techniques from AIDS Reference Centres and AIDS workshops in Belgium, if they were 18 years and older, French or English speaking, and diagnosed HIV positive more than 3 months beforehand. We conducted semi-structured interviews with patients and did observations during consultations and support groups attendances. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. 44 women were interviewed, of whom 42 were Christians and 2 Muslims. None reported religious/spiritual alienation, though at some point in time many had felt the need to question their relationship with God by asking "why me?" A majority reported being more spiritual/religious since being diagnosed HIV positive. Participants believed that prayer, meditation, regular church services and religious activities were the main spiritual/religious resources for achieving connectedness with God. They strongly believed in the power of God in their HIV/AIDS treatment and wellbeing. Spiritual/religious resources including prayer, meditation, church services, religious activities and believing in the power of God helped them cope with HIV/AIDS. These findings highlight the importance of spirituality in physical and mental health and wellbeing among SSA women with HIV/AIDS that should be taken into

  20. Spirituality/Religiosity: A Cultural and Psychological Resource among Sub-Saharan African Migrant Women with HIV/AIDS in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrey, Agnes Ebotabe; Bilsen, Johan; Lacor, Patrick; Deschepper, Reginald

    2016-01-01

    Spirituality/religion serves important roles in coping, survival and maintaining overall wellbeing within African cultures and communities, especially when diagnosed with a chronic disease like HIV/AIDS that can have a profound effect on physical and mental health. However, spirituality/religion can be problematic to some patients and cause caregiving difficulties. The objective of this paper was to examine the role of spirituality/religion as a source of strength, resilience and wellbeing among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrant women with HIV/AIDS. A qualitative study of SSA migrant women was conducted between April 2013 and December 2014. Participants were recruited through purposive sampling and snowball techniques from AIDS Reference Centres and AIDS workshops in Belgium, if they were 18 years and older, French or English speaking, and diagnosed HIV positive more than 3 months beforehand. We conducted semi-structured interviews with patients and did observations during consultations and support groups attendances. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. 44 women were interviewed, of whom 42 were Christians and 2 Muslims. None reported religious/spiritual alienation, though at some point in time many had felt the need to question their relationship with God by asking “why me?” A majority reported being more spiritual/religious since being diagnosed HIV positive. Participants believed that prayer, meditation, regular church services and religious activities were the main spiritual/religious resources for achieving connectedness with God. They strongly believed in the power of God in their HIV/AIDS treatment and wellbeing. Spiritual/religious resources including prayer, meditation, church services, religious activities and believing in the power of God helped them cope with HIV/AIDS. These findings highlight the importance of spirituality in physical and mental health and wellbeing among SSA women with HIV/AIDS that should be taken into consideration

  1. Assessing Stigma among African Americans Living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Deepa; Molina, Yamile; Lambert, Nina; Cohn, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In the present study, we validated a culturally adapted stigma scale designed to assess stigma among African Americans living with HIV. Methods We collected data on the scale using an audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) format. We validated the scale with a sample of 62 African American participants living with HIV. Results Findings demonstrated that stigma can be measured succinctly and effectively in a 14-item scale with two subscales measuring enacted and internalized stigma. Discussion We identified many advantages to using the scale, which demonstrated good psychometric properties when used with an audio computer assisted self-interview format and with an African American sample. We recommend this scale’s use in both clinical practice and research study of HIV-stigma reduction interventions with African American populations.

  2. Assessing Disaster Preparedness among Latino Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers in Eastern North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Foreman Britt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters including hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, tornadoes, and fires often involve substantial physical and mental impacts on affected populations and thus are public health priorities. Limited research shows that vulnerable populations such as the low-income, socially isolated migrant and seasonal farmworkers (MSFW are particularly susceptible to the effects of natural disasters. This research project assessed the awareness, perceived risk, and practices regarding disaster preparedness and response resources and identified barriers to utilization of community and government services during or after a natural disaster among Latino MSFWs’ and their families. Qualitative (N = 21 focus groups (3 and quantitative (N = 57 survey methodology was implemented with Latino MSFWs temporarily residing in rural eastern North Carolina to assess perceived and actual risk for natural disasters. Hurricanes were a top concern among the sample population, many participants shared they lacked proper resources for an emergency (no emergency kit in the house, no evacuation plan, no home internet, a lack of knowledge of what should be included in an emergency kit, etc.. Transportation and language were found to be additional barriers. Emergency broadcasts in Spanish and text message alerts were identified by the population to be helpful for disaster alerts. FEMA, American Red Cross, local schools and the migrant clinic were trusted places for assistance and information. In summary, tailored materials, emergency alerts, text messages, and news coverage concerning disaster threats should be provided in the population’s native language and when feasible delivered in a culturally appropriate mechanism such as “charlas” (talks and brochures.

  3. Traumatic pasts and the historical imagination: Symptoms of loss, postcolonial suffering, and counter-memories among African migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneduce, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    This work aims to rethink the relationship between anthropology and cultural psychiatry from a historical perspective, through reflections on the dynamics of forgetting and remembering in the context of migration. While migrants' symptoms often bear cultural hallmarks of suffering, they also reveal images of a traumatic history, which resurface in moments of danger, uncertainty, and crisis. I claim these symptoms are allegories of a dispossessed past, and can be interpreted as counter-memories, as "palimpsests" of an eclipsed script. Trauma symptoms keep returning to a collective past, and thus can be considered a particular form of historical consciousness. Psychiatric diagnoses may obscure these counter-memories. In particular, the diagnostic category of posttraumatic stress disorder that is commonly attached to traumatic experiences in current clinical practice recognizes the truth of individual traumatic events, but at the same time contributes to concealing the political, racial, and historical roots of suffering. PMID:27154972

  4. Naming and exploring the causes of collective violence against African migrants in post-apartheid South Africa: Whither Ubuntu?

    OpenAIRE

    Dassah, M O

    2015-01-01

    In South Africa, attacks mainly directed at black non-South Africans, is a rampant, longstanding phenomenon notwithstanding the spirit of Ubuntu which is thought to permeate the social fabric. Assumptions have been made in various labels describing the attacks, raising concerns about their appropriateness. Further, various explanations and hypotheses have been advanced about causes of or reasons for the attacks. The root causes of the attacks need to be properly understood for ...

  5. Decitizenization of migrants in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Pajnik, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    The article addresses the social and economic conditions of migrant workers from the former Yugoslav states who form the vast majority of the migrant population in Slovenia. Based on the analysis of policies that regulate the work of "foreigners" and on the assessment of recent anti-crisis measures we argue that the current securitization approach, which aims to protect the national labour market, exacerbates the poor work and life conditions of migrants. We look into the current massive layo...

  6. Assessing the Factors Associated with Sexual Harassment among Young Female Migrant Workers in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Mahesh; Cleland, John

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the extent of, and factors associated with, sexual harassment of young female migrant workers in the carpet and garment factories in Kathmandu Valley. Information is drawn from a survey of 550 female workers aged 14 to 19 and 12 in-depth case histories. Bivariate and multivariate techniques were applied to identify the…

  7. Migrants at/as risk : Identity verification and risk assessment technologies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Fors, Karolina; Van der Ploeg, Irma; Van der Ploeg, Irma; Pridmore, Jason

    2015-01-01

    International policy discourse on migration and practices geared toward the sorting out of entitlements for migrants to enter and reside in a country mobilize a discourse that increasingly frames them as posing risks to the societies of their host countries (Leers, 2012; Leers, 2011), notwithstandin

  8. Assessing achievement of Special Routine Immunization Week among relatively immobile internal migrants in Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SP Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Yet, approximately 30% dwellers are internal migrants in India. Migrant is one who resides away from his/her native home due to variety of reasons. In Uttar Pradesh, these relatively immobile internal migrants generally comprise of Nomad, Brick kiln and Migratory construction workers. The present study was carried out with the objective of evaluating the achievements of first phase of Special Routine Immunization Week (SRI week in terms of improvement of immunization status of a community of internal migrants in Lucknow. Materials and Methods: The study was a community-based observational, which undertook relatively immobile internal migrant communities attributed to local administration of Community Development Block, Sarojininagar, Lucknow. The study was conducted during 24-30 th April 2013, covering equal numbers of households (each 100 from the three type of communities selected randomly. An attempt of in-depth interview with the adult member was made to reveal the underlying issues of the study. Results: Of the three communities, migratory construction workers outnumbered in the literacy status (7.46%. The immunization coverage in all the three communities prior to the SRI week was 24.63% while post to the first phase of SRI week was 81.12%, thereby achieving immunization by 56.49%. The present study also showed no relation between vaccination achievement during SRI week and literacy status of different communities. Conclusions: There is a need of having such sessions at regular intervals repeatedly as well as conducting focused studies on these groups to identify the various factors which are responsible for poor immunization coverage and keep them in mind while planning such special immunization activities.

  9. The Legal Position of Migrants in Denmark: Assessing the Context around the "Cartoon Crisis"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamo, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    Abstract What can we infer from the legal status of migrants living in Denmark? This article argues that understanding recent developments in Danish immigration law is essential for comprehending contemporary political tensions in this policy area, including notably the cartoon incident. The anal......Abstract What can we infer from the legal status of migrants living in Denmark? This article argues that understanding recent developments in Danish immigration law is essential for comprehending contemporary political tensions in this policy area, including notably the cartoon incident....... The analysis offered focuses on general principles and practical notions of Danish immigration and refugee law, integration policies and regulations in light of international legal obligations, rules on family reunification, and the growing importance of citizenship status and anti-terrorism measures. Keywords...

  10. Prevalence of Plasmodium spp. in malaria asymptomatic African migrants assessed by nucleic acid sequence based amplification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Marangi; R. Di Tullio; P.F. Mens; D. Martinelli; V. Fazio; G. Angarano; H.D.F.H. Schallig; A. Giangaspero; G. Scotto

    2009-01-01

    Background: Malaria is one of the most important infectious diseases in the world. Although most cases are found distributed in the tropical regions of Africa, Asia, Central and South Americas, there is in Europe a significant increase in the number of imported cases in non-endemic countries, in par

  11. The Water Suitcase of Migrants: Assessing Virtual Water Fluxes Associated to Human Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metulini, Rodolfo; Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Disentangling the relations between human migrations and water resources is relevant for food security and trade policy in water-scarce countries. It is commonly believed that human migrations are beneficial to the water endowments of origin countries for reducing the pressure on local resources. We show here that such belief is over-simplistic. We reframe the problem by considering the international food trade and the corresponding virtual water fluxes, which quantify the water used for the production of traded agricultural commodities. By means of robust analytical tools, we show that migrants strengthen the commercial links between countries, triggering trade fluxes caused by food consumption habits persisting after migration. Thus migrants significantly increase the virtual water fluxes and the use of water in the countries of origin. The flux ascribable to each migrant, i.e. the "water suitcase", is found to have increased from 321 m3/y in 1990 to 1367 m3/y in 2010. A comparison with the water footprint of individuals shows that where the water suitcase exceeds the water footprint of inhabitants, migrations turn out to be detrimental to the water endowments of origin countries, challenging the common perception that migrations tend to relieve the pressure on the local (water) resources of origin countries. PMID:27124488

  12. The Water Suitcase of Migrants: Assessing Virtual Water Fluxes Associated to Human Migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Metulini

    Full Text Available Disentangling the relations between human migrations and water resources is relevant for food security and trade policy in water-scarce countries. It is commonly believed that human migrations are beneficial to the water endowments of origin countries for reducing the pressure on local resources. We show here that such belief is over-simplistic. We reframe the problem by considering the international food trade and the corresponding virtual water fluxes, which quantify the water used for the production of traded agricultural commodities. By means of robust analytical tools, we show that migrants strengthen the commercial links between countries, triggering trade fluxes caused by food consumption habits persisting after migration. Thus migrants significantly increase the virtual water fluxes and the use of water in the countries of origin. The flux ascribable to each migrant, i.e. the "water suitcase", is found to have increased from 321 m3/y in 1990 to 1367 m3/y in 2010. A comparison with the water footprint of individuals shows that where the water suitcase exceeds the water footprint of inhabitants, migrations turn out to be detrimental to the water endowments of origin countries, challenging the common perception that migrations tend to relieve the pressure on the local (water resources of origin countries.

  13. African Diaspora Associations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vammen, Ida Marie; Trans, Lars Ove

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically on their...

  14. Migrant entrepreneurship and new urban economic opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    P. Nijkamp; Sahin, M.; Baycan, T.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, migrants form a significant share of the urban population, and their business is critical for urban economic growth. This paper addresses the key factors determining the position of migrant entrepreneurs in the urban economy in the Netherlands. In order to develop a solid assessment of CSFs for migrant entrepreneurs, and to understand business performance in a competitive urban environment, this study will investigate the entrepreneurial behaviour of migrants in Dutch cities from a ...

  15. African Americans and Mathematics Outcomes on National Assessment of Educational Progress: Parental and Individual Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Richard, III; Morton, Crystal Hill

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated within group differences between African American female and male students who participated in the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress mathematics assessment. Using results from participating states, we compare average scale scores of African American students based on home regulatory environment and interest…

  16. Assessing the Impact of ACP/EU Economic Partnership Agreement on West African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Matthias; Großmann, Harald

    2004-01-01

    The European Union is currently negotiating free trade agreements, called Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs), with African countries as part of the Cotonou Agreement between the European Union and African, Caribbean and Pacific countries. The paper empirically assesses the impact of the EPAs on trade flows and government revenue for 14 West African countries. The results indicate that the decline in import duties due to the preferential tariff elimination might be of some cause for concer...

  17. Increasing the Confidence of African Carbon Cycle Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardö, Jonas

    2016-04-01

    Scarcity of in situ measurements of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes hamper calibration and validation of assessments of carbon budgets in Africa. It limits essential studies of ecosystem function and ecosystem processes. The wide range reported net primary production (NPP) and gross primary production (GPP) for continental African is partly a function of the uncertainty originating from this data scarcity. GPP estimates, based on vegetation models and remote sensing based models, range from ~17 to ~40 Pg C yr-1 and NPP estimates roughly range from ~7 to ~20 Pg C yr-1 for continental Africa. According to the MOD17 product does Africa contribute about 23 % of the global GPP and about 25 % of the global NPP. These percentages have recently increased slightly. Differences in modeled carbon use efficiency (i.e. the NPP/GPP ratio) further enhance the uncertainty caused by low spatial resolution driver data sets when deriving NPP from GPP. Current substantial uncertainty in vegetation productivity estimates for Africa (both magnitudes and carbon use efficiency) may be reduced by increased abundance and availability of in situ collected field data including meteorology, radiation, spectral properties, GHG fluxes as well as long term ecological field experiments. Current measurements of GHGs fluxes in Africa are sparse and lacking impressive coordination. The European Fluxes Database Cluster includes ~24 African sites with carbon flux data, most of them with a small amount of data in short time series. Large and diverse biomes such as the evergreen broad leafed forest are under-represented whereas savannas are slightly better represented. USA for example, with 171 flux site listed in FLUXNET has a flux site density of 17 sites per million km2, whereas Africa has density of 0.8 sites per million km2. Increased and coordinated collection of data on fluxes of GHGs, ecosystem properties and processes, both through advanced micro meteorological measurements and through cost

  18. Increasing the Confidence of African Carbon Cycle Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardö, Jonas

    2016-04-01

    Scarcity of in situ measurements of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes hamper calibration and validation of assessments of carbon budgets in Africa. It limits essential studies of ecosystem function and ecosystem processes. The wide range reported net primary production (NPP) and gross primary production (GPP) for continental African is partly a function of the uncertainty originating from this data scarcity. GPP estimates, based on vegetation models and remote sensing based models, range from ~17 to ~40 Pg C yr‑1 and NPP estimates roughly range from ~7 to ~20 Pg C yr‑1 for continental Africa. According to the MOD17 product does Africa contribute about 23 % of the global GPP and about 25 % of the global NPP. These percentages have recently increased slightly. Differences in modeled carbon use efficiency (i.e. the NPP/GPP ratio) further enhance the uncertainty caused by low spatial resolution driver data sets when deriving NPP from GPP. Current substantial uncertainty in vegetation productivity estimates for Africa (both magnitudes and carbon use efficiency) may be reduced by increased abundance and availability of in situ collected field data including meteorology, radiation, spectral properties, GHG fluxes as well as long term ecological field experiments. Current measurements of GHGs fluxes in Africa are sparse and lacking impressive coordination. The European Fluxes Database Cluster includes ~24 African sites with carbon flux data, most of them with a small amount of data in short time series. Large and diverse biomes such as the evergreen broad leafed forest are under-represented whereas savannas are slightly better represented. USA for example, with 171 flux site listed in FLUXNET has a flux site density of 17 sites per million km2, whereas Africa has density of 0.8 sites per million km2. Increased and coordinated collection of data on fluxes of GHGs, ecosystem properties and processes, both through advanced micro meteorological measurements and through cost

  19. Alignment between South African mathematics assessment standards and the TIMSS assessment frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mdutshekelwa Ndlovu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s performance in international benchmark tests is a major cause for concern amongst educators and policymakers, raising questions about the effectiveness of the curriculum reform efforts of the democratic era. The purpose of the study reported in this article was to investigate the degree of alignment between the TIMSS 2003 Grade 8 Mathematics assessment frameworks and the Revised National Curriculum Statements (RNCS assessment standards for Grade 8 Mathematics, later revised to become the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements (CAPS. Such an investigation could help to partly shed light on why South African learners do not perform well and point out discrepancies that need to be attended to. The methodology of document analysis was adopted for the study, with the RNCS and the TIMSS 2003 Grade 8 Mathematics frameworks forming the principal documents. Porter’s moderately complex index of alignment was adopted for its simplicity. The computed index of 0.751 for the alignment between the RNCS assessment standards and the TIMSS assessment objectives was found to be significantly statistically low, at the alpha level of 0.05, according to Fulmer’s critical values for 20 cells and 90 or 120 standard points. The study suggests that inadequate attention has been paid to the alignment of the South African mathematics curriculum to the successive TIMSS assessment frameworks in terms of the cognitive level descriptions. The study recommends that participation in TIMSS should rigorously and critically inform ongoing curriculum reform efforts.

  20. Migrant workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starren, A.; Drupsteen, L.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores Health and Safety aspects related to migrants working in multi-cultural settings (heterogeneous teams, working together on one location). Several assumptions can be made related to cultural differences and safe and healthy behaviour, but research evidence on this matter is very

  1. Violence, Resilience and Solidarity: The Right to Education for Child Migrants in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlatshwayo, Mondli; Vally, Salim

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the psychology of migrant learners' resilience, their right to education, and how migrant organizations and South African civil society are supporting and reinforcing the agency of migrant learners and their parents. It is based on a year-long study conducted by researchers at the University of Johannesburg's Centre…

  2. Assessment of an undergraduate psychiatry course in an African setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leuvennink Johan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International reports recommend the improvement in the amount and quality of training for mental health workers in low and middle income countries. The Scotland-Malawi Mental Health Education Project (SMMHEP has been established to support the teaching of psychiatry to medical students in the University of Malawi. While anecdotally supportive medical educational initiatives appear of value, little quantitative evidence exists to demonstrate whether such initiatives can deliver comparable educational standards. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of an undergraduate psychiatry course given by UK psychiatrists in Malawi by studying University of Malawi and Edinburgh University medical students' performance on an MCQ examination paper. Methods An undergraduate psychiatry course followed by an MCQ exam was delivered by the SMMHEP to 57 Malawi medical students. This same MCQ exam was given to 71 Edinburgh University medical students who subsequently sat their own Edinburgh University examination. Results There were no significant differences between Edinburgh students' performance on the Malawi exam and their own Edinburgh University exam. (p = 0.65. This would suggest that the Malawi exam is a comparable standard to the Edinburgh exam. Malawi students marks ranged from 52.4%–84.6%. Importantly 84.4% of Malawi students scored above 60% on their exam which would equate to a hypothetical pass by UK university standards. Conclusion The support of an undergraduate course in an African setting by high income country specialists can attain a high percentage pass rate by UK standards. Although didactic teaching has been surpassed by more novel educational methods, in resource poor countries it remains an effective and cost effective method of gaining an important educational standard.

  3. Assessing nutritional diversity of cropping systems in African villages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseline Remans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Sub-Saharan Africa, 40% of children under five years in age are chronically undernourished. As new investments and attention galvanize action on African agriculture to reduce hunger, there is an urgent need for metrics that monitor agricultural progress beyond calories produced per capita and address nutritional diversity essential for human health. In this study we demonstrate how an ecological tool, functional diversity (FD, has potential to address this need and provide new insights on nutritional diversity of cropping systems in rural Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data on edible plant species diversity, food security and diet diversity were collected for 170 farms in three rural settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nutritional FD metrics were calculated based on farm species composition and species nutritional composition. Iron and vitamin A deficiency were determined from blood samples of 90 adult women. Nutritional FD metrics summarized the diversity of nutrients provided by the farm and showed variability between farms and villages. Regression of nutritional FD against species richness and expected FD enabled identification of key species that add nutrient diversity to the system and assessed the degree of redundancy for nutrient traits. Nutritional FD analysis demonstrated that depending on the original composition of species on farm or village, adding or removing individual species can have radically different outcomes for nutritional diversity. While correlations between nutritional FD, food and nutrition indicators were not significant at household level, associations between these variables were observed at village level. CONCLUSION: This study provides novel metrics to address nutritional diversity in farming systems and examples of how these metrics can help guide agricultural interventions towards adequate nutrient diversity. New hypotheses on the link between agro-diversity, food security and human nutrition are

  4. Assessment of religious and spiritual capital in African American communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Cheryl L; Schulz, Emily; Williams, Beverly; Clark, Eddie M; Wang, Min Qi; Southward, Penny L

    2012-12-01

    African American faith communities are an important source of social capital. The present study adapted a theory-based social capital instrument to result in religious (e.g., from organized worship) and spiritual (e.g., from relationship with higher power) capital measures. Data from a national sample of 803 African Americans suggest the instruments have high internal reliability and are distinct from general religiosity. Measurement models confirmed factor structures. Religious capital was positively associated with self-rated health status. Religious and spiritual capital were negatively associated with depressive symptoms, but these associations largely became nonsignificant in multivariate models that controlled for demographic characteristics. An exception is for spiritual capital in the form of community participation, which retained a negative association with depressive symptoms. These instruments may have applied value for health promotion research and practice in African American communities.

  5. Assessing the Value of Glyphosate in the South African Agricultural Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Gouse, Marnus

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the value of glyphosate in the South African agricultural sector with focus on the 2012/13 agricultural season. Glyphosate is the most used herbicide in South African and in 2012 more than 23 million litres of glyphosate was sold at an estimated value of R641 million. Glyphosate is a highly effective broad spectrum herbicide and the only herbicide on the market with a systemic mode of action. Glyphosate is considered to be, based on numerous scientific studies environmenta...

  6. Definitions, good practices, and global estimates on the status of social protection for international migrants

    OpenAIRE

    Avato, Johanna; Koettl, Johannes; Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the issue of social protection for migrants by looking at formal and informal social protection provisions. In particular, it presents the latest global data on the social protection status on migrants, including undocumented migrants. The paper gives special attention to lower-income countries drawing upon recent studies from the Southern African Development Community (SADC). It finds that migrants in poorer countries have very limited access to formal social protection s...

  7. Assessment of the Central African Republic Mining Sector

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This report presents recommendations to assist the promotion of socially and environmentally responsible artisanal mining practices, discusses formalization of the artisanal mining sector, and advises organization into cooperatives in the Central African Republic. Best practices are outlined to improve the working, living, and community conditions of artisanal miners. The mining sector is...

  8. Quality assessment and antiplasmodial activity of West African Cochlospermum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamien-Meda, Aline; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Compaoré, Moussa; Meda, Roland N T; Bacher, Markus; Koenig, Karin; Pacher, Thomas; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Noedl, Harald; Willcox, Merlin; Novak, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    The present study focuses on development of phytochemical methods for quality assessment of two West-African Cochlospermum species (Cochlospermum planchonii and Cochlospermum tinctorium) traditionally used for malaria treatment in Burkina Faso. Antimalarial activity of preparations from dried rhizomes (decoction) was tested against the chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium strain 3D7 using the histidine-rich protein II (HRP2) drug susceptibility assay and compared with extract preparations using organic solvents of different polarity. Two main apocarotenoids were isolated from rhizomes of C. planchonii and unambiguously identified as dihydrocochloxanthine and cochloxanthine by spectroscopic methods. Comparative HPLC analyses of thirty-nine (39) samples from markets and from collections in natural habitats of both species showed a high variability in the accumulation of cochloxanthines and related carotenoids which were proven to be characteristic for rhizomes of both species and generally absent in leaves. Furthermore, content of total phenolics and antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP) as well as haemolytic activity of various extracts was tested. The HPLC method presented here was validated and provides a good separation of both compounds including 10 minor carotenoids. Extracts from both species and pure cochloxanthine offered pronounced antioxidant activities and weak haemolytic activity while, in contrast, dihydrocochloxanthine had a strong haemolytic effect at the highest concentration analysed. However, cochloxanthine as well as dihydrocochloxanthine showed erythroprotective effects against the haemolytic activity of the reference saponin. Moderate antiplasmodial activity between 16 and 63 μg/ml were observed with all tested extracts, and lower IC50 values were obtained with pure dihydrocochloxanthine (IC50=6.9 μg/ml), cochloxanthine (IC50=6.8 μg/ml), the DCM fraction (IC50=2.4 μg/ml) and the ethyl acetate fraction (IC50=11.5μg/ml) derived from a methanolic

  9. Proyectos de Educacion Migrante (Migrant Education Projects).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ramon; Garcia, Jose D.

    Written in Spanish and English for project personnel, parents, and others interested in migrant education, the booklet summarizes general concepts and requirements behind Title I-Migrant activities in Oregon, which has been allocated $4,439,341 in Title I-Migrant funds for fiscal year 1980. Following brief definitions of important terms,…

  10. ASSESSING THE INTEGRATION OF GAYS AND LESBIANS INTO THE SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL DEFENCE FORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Canaday

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available During the apartheid era, the South African military maintained a dual policy onhomosexuality – prohibited among members of the permanent force, homosexualitywas officially tolerated among conscripts. When the regime fell, the newgovernment committed itself to human rights considerations, and after the SouthAfrican Constitution adopted a provision of non-discrimination on the basis ofsexual orientation in 1996, the South African military followed suit. In 1998, theSouth African National Defence Force (SANDF implemented the Policy on EqualOpportunity and Affirmative Action that declared that there would no longer bediscrimination against gays and lesbians. This article draws together military andgovernment documents, secondary research, press coverage and interviews withindividuals with knowledge on this topic to assess the effects of this policy change.The evidence suggests that the integration of gay and lesbian personnel has not had anegative impact on recruitment and retention, morale, unit cohesion or operationaleffectiveness in the SANDF.

  11. Assessing the contributions of East African and West Pacific warming to the 2014 boreal spring East African drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Hoell, Andrew; Livneh, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic warming contributed to the 2014 East African drought by increasing East African and west Pacific temperatures, and increasing the gradient between standardized western and central Pacific SST causing reduced rainfall, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture.

  12. A model for selecting assessment methods for evaluating medical students in African medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walubo, Andrew; Burch, Vanessa; Parmar, Paresh; Raidoo, Deshandra; Cassimjee, Mariam; Onia, Rudy; Ofei, Francis

    2003-09-01

    Introduction of more effective and standardized assessment methods for testing students' performance in Africa's medical institutions has been hampered by severe financial and personnel shortages. Nevertheless, some African institutions have recognized the problem and are now revising their medical curricula, and, therefore, their assessment methods. These institutions, and those yet to come, need guidance on selecting assessment methods so as to adopt models that can be sustained locally. The authors provide a model for selecting assessment methods for testing medical students' performance in African medical institutions. The model systematically evaluates factors that influence implementation of an assessment method. Six commonly used methods (the essay examinations, short-answer questions, multiple-choice questions, patient-based clinical examination, problem-based oral examination [POE], and objective structured clinical examination) are evaluated by scoring and weighting against performance, cost, suitability, and safety factors. In the model, the highest score identifies the most appropriate method. Selection of an assessment method is illustrated using two institutional models, one depicting an ideal situation in which the objective structured clinical examination was preferred, and a second depicting the typical African scenario in which the essay and short-answer-question examinations were best. The POE method received the highest score and could be recommended as the most appropriate for Africa's medical institutions, but POE assessments require changing the medical curricula to a problem-based learning approach. The authors' model is easy to understand and promotes change in the medical curriculum and method of student assessment. PMID:14507620

  13. Elderly African Immigrants in Minnesota: A Case Study of Needs Assessment in Eight Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darboe, Kebba; Ahmed, Lul S.

    2007-01-01

    Needs assessment is the process of identifying the gap between a target population's needs and its services. If a gap exists, a program can be designed to effectively respond to those needs. This article explores the needs of elderly African immigrants in Minnesota through the use of qualitative interviews. A convenience sampling was used to…

  14. Sexual health is dead in my body: participatory assessment of sexual health determinants in refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants in Belgium and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Keygnaert, Ines; Vettenburg, Nicole; Roelens, Kristien; Temmerman, Marleen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although migrants constitute an important proportion of the European population, little is known about migrant sexual health. Existing research mainly focuses on migrants' sexual health risks and accessibility issues while recommendations on adequate sexual health promotion are rarely provided. Hence, this paper explores how refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants in Belgium and the Netherlands define sexual health, search for sexual health information and perceive sexu...

  15. Sumario de Reglamentos Revisados de Titulo I - Educacion Migrante (Summary of Revised Title I - Migrant Regulations).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ramon

    Extracted from the April 3, 1980 Federal Register, revisions of the Migrant Education regulations are synthesized in this Spanish-English booklet. Revised regulations address program planning and evaluation; needs assessment; identification and recruitment of migrant children; and special discretionary projects for the coordination of migrant…

  16. Migrant Workers: Urban Underclass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIWUZHOU

    2004-01-01

    ACCORDING to official statistics, there are now 130 million (equivalent to half the American population) migrant workers in Chinese cities. This means that China has more migrant than urban workers, and that they constitute the main Chinese industrial workforce.

  17. Migrants' access to healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norredam, Marie

    2011-01-01

    There are strong pragmatic and moral reasons for receiving societies to address access to healthcare for migrants. Receiving societies have a pragmatic interest in sustaining migrants' health to facilitate integration; they also have a moral obligation to ensure migrants' access to healthcare...... according to international human rights principles. The intention of this thesis is to increase the understanding of migrants' access to healthcare by exploring two study aims: 1) Are there differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy I and II); and 2) Why...... are there possible differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy III and IV). The thesis builds on different methodological approaches using both register-based retrospective cohort design, cross-sectional design and survey methods. Two different measures of access were...

  18. I, Migrant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Walker

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available ‘I, Migrant?’ is a narrative poetry sequence that explores themes of language, culture, identity and belonging through the eyes of an Australian living in Den Haag, The Netherlands. The speaker in the poems faces challenges such as seeking work and making friends in a context where she does not speak the dominant language, Dutch. This proves far from easy, destabilising her sense of identity. She questions where and how she can belong. Reluctant to join what she considers “the white ghetto of Den Haag,” the speaker initially attempts to assimilate herself into Dutch culture, but later finds solace in a community of other expats. Within this community, national identities become exaggerated and people morph into stereotypes. The speaker increasingly defines herself as “Australian,” performing this identity both publicly and in private. Beneath the surface there bubbles, however, an awareness that she is acting out a myth. A more genuine sense of belonging emerges, unexpectedly, in an Asian food court, where she converses in Dutch with staff who also speak it as their second language. The speaker concludes that identity is located in language. It is therefore neither fixed nor singular, but multiple and forever changing.

  19. A preliminary study to assess the construct validity of a cultural intelligence measure on a South African sample

    OpenAIRE

    Bright Mahembe; Amos S. Engelbrecht

    2014-01-01

    Orientation: Cultural intelligence is an essential social competence for effective individual interaction in a cross-cultural context. The cultural intelligence scale (CQS) is used extensively for assessing cultural intelligence; nevertheless, its reliability and validity on a South African sample are yet to be ascertained.Research purpose: The purpose of the current study was to assess the construct validity of the CQS on a South African sample. The results of the psychometric assessment off...

  20. Development and Validation of the Body Size Scale for Assessing Body Weight Perception in African Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Cohen

    Full Text Available The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS to estimate African body weight perception.Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese were used to evaluate three criteria of adiposity: body mass index (BMI, overall percentage of fat, and endomorphy (fat component of the somatotype. To develop the BSS, the participants were photographed in full face and profile positions. Models were selected for their representativeness of the wide variability in adiposity with a progressive increase along the scale. Then, for the validation protocol, participants self-administered the BSS to assess self-perceived current body size (CBS, desired body size (DBS and provide a "body self-satisfaction index." This protocol included construct validity, test-retest reliability and convergent validity and was carried out with three independent samples of respectively 201, 103 and 1115 Cameroonians.The BSS comprises two sex-specific scales of photos of 9 models each, and ordered by increasing adiposity. Most participants were able to correctly order the BSS by increasing adiposity, using three different words to define body size. Test-retest reliability was consistent in estimating CBS, DBS and the "body self-satisfaction index." The CBS was highly correlated to the objective BMI, and two different indexes assessed with the BSS were consistent with declarations obtained in interviews.The BSS is the first scale with photos of real African models taken in both full face and profile and representing a wide and representative variability in adiposity. The validation protocol proved its reliability for estimating body weight

  1. An Assessment of Language Attitudes towards African American Vernacular English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nikole D.

    2012-01-01

    Speakers of stigmatized varieties are often judged as less educated and less competent than speakers of prestigious varieties. This can have profound effects on speakers' academic achievement and language assessment in schools. Linguists' efforts to destigmatize AAVE have included providing commentary in media outlets, publishing…

  2. Assessment in multicultural groups: The South African case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. R. Van De Vijver

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available It is argued that the 1998 Employment Equity Act, in which the onus of the proof to demonstrate the adequacy of psychometric instruments is on psychology as a profession, creates daunting tasks, but also creates unique opportunities. Recent developments in the assessment of multicultural groups are described, with an emphasis on procedures to enhance the validity of measures for all groups involved and on procedures to examine validity. Bias and equivalence are treated as key concepts in multicultural assessment. Four kinds of procedures for dealing with multicultural assessment (namely, establishing equivalence of existing instruments, defining new norms, developing new instruments, and studying validity-threatening factors in multicultural assessment are described and illustrated. Opsomming Daar word geredeneer dat die Wet op Billike Indiensneming, 1998, waarvolgens die onus om die geskiktheid van psigometriese instrumente te bewys na psigologie as professie verskuif, nie net oorweldigende take nie maar ook unieke geleenthede skep. Onlangse ontwikkelings rakende die evaluering van multikulturele groepe word beskryf, met die klem op prosedures om die geldigheid van metings vir alle groepe te verhoog en op prosedures om hierdie geldigheid te ondersoek. Sydigheid en ekwivalensie word as sleutelkonsepte in multikulturele evaluering behandel. Vier soorte prosedures om multikulturele evaluering te hanteer (te wete bepaling van die ekwivalensie van bestaande instrumente, definiëring van nuwe norme, ontwikkeling van nuwe instrumente en ‘n studie van faktore wat die geldigheid van multikulturele evaluering bedreig word beskryf en geïllustreer.

  3. A forensic assessment model for the sexually abused child in the South African context / Sufran Smith

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Sufran

    2014-01-01

    Currently no guidelines exist for South African professionals that work with sexually abused children. Professionals in this field are in desperate need of such guidelines. Section A refers to the problem statement, research objectives, research procedures and research methodology. The keywords as well as the limitations of the research are investigated. The research was conducted in two phases. In phase one the researcher compared international forensic assessment models and protocols and...

  4. Maternal Mortality Among Migrants in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Grete Skøtt; Grøntved, Anders; Mortensen, Laust Hvas;

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether an excess risk of maternal mortality exists among migrant women in Western Europe. We searched electronic databases for studies published 1970 through 2013 for all observational studies comparing maternal mortality between the host country and a defined migrant population......-analysis provides evidence that migrant women in Western European countries have an excess risk of maternal mortality........ Results were derived from a random-effects meta-analysis, and statistical heterogeneity assessed by the I (2) statistic. In sub-analyses we also calculated summary estimates stratified by direct and indirect death causes. We included 13 studies with more than 42 million women and 4,995 maternal deaths...

  5. An assessment of orthographic similarity measures for several African languages

    OpenAIRE

    Keet, C. Maria

    2016-01-01

    Natural Language Interfaces and tools such as spellcheckers and Web search in one's own language are known to be useful in ICT-mediated communication. Most languages in Southern Africa are under-resourced, however. Therefore, it would be very useful if both the generic and the few language-specific NLP tools could be reused or easily adapted across languages. This depends on the notion, and extent, of similarity between the languages. We assess this from the angle of orthography and corpora. ...

  6. Climate change and environmental assessments: Issues in an African perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dalfelt, Arne; Næss, Lars Otto

    1997-01-01

    The present study discusses the potential for integrating climate change issues into environmental assessments (EAs) of development actions, with emphasis on sub-Sahara Africa. The study is motivated by the fact that future climate change could give significant adverse impacts on the natural and socio-economic environment in Africa. Yet, global change issues – including climate change – have to date largely been overlooked in the process of improving EA procedures and methodologies. The study...

  7. Climate Change and Environmental assessments: Issues in an African Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalfelt, Arne; Naess, Lars Otto

    1997-12-31

    The present report discusses the potential for integrating climate change issues into environmental assessments of development actions, with an emphasis on sub-Sahara Africa. The study is motivated by the fact that future climate change could have significant adverse impacts on the natural and socio-economic environment in Africa. Yet, to date global change issues, including climate change, have been largely overlooked in the process of improving environmental assessment procedures and methodologies. It is argued that although emissions of greenhouse gases in Africa are negligible today, it is highly relevant to include this aspect in the planning of long-term development strategies. The report discusses potential areas of conflicts and synergies between climate change and development goals. The general conclusion is that environmental assessments could be an appropriate tool for addressing climate change issues, while there are still several obstacles to its practical implementation. Four priority areas are suggested for further work: (1) Environmental accounting, (2) harmonization and standard-setting, (3) implementation, and (4) risk management. 82 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Developing a South African pedestrian environment assessment tool: Tshwane case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Olwoch

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians, comprising approximately 60% of the population, are among the most vulnerable road users in South Africa. The roadside environment may be an important factor influencing the nature and frequency of pedestrian fatalities. While there are audit tools for assessing the pedestrian environment in other countries, no such tool exists for South Africa. This study evaluated existing audit tools in relation to South African issues and conditions and developed a South African Pedestrian Environment Assessment Tool (PEAT. PEAT was tested at five sites in the Tshwane Metropolitan Area in Gauteng to assess its applicability. PEAT was simple to use and provided valuable information, however, appropriate measures need to be taken to address fieldworker security, especially for night-time assessments when several roadside factors, such as lighting, should be evaluated. Although it was not the focus of our study, based on our results, we suggest that the lack of pavements, pedestrian crossings and pedestrian lighting are factors that, potentially, could increase pedestrian vulnerability.

  9. The Assessment Of Intellectual Capital (Ic In The South African Context – A Qualitative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius De Beer

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to report on an investigation into IC as portrayed by thought leaders and research groups, against a South African background. An attempt was made to clarify relevant terminology, develop a model and methodology for South African application, and assess the status of IC within the South Africa context through a qualitative methodology using Focus Groups. Results indicated that IC in South Africa is still in the infancy stage. However, models and methodologies developed in other continents could with changes be applied in the South African context. OpsommingDie doel van hierdie artikel is om verslag te doen oor die ondersoek na Intellektuele Kapitaal (IK soos voorgestel deur vakkundiges en navorsingsgroepe, teen die agtergrond van die Suid Afrikaanse situasie. ’n Poging is aangewend om tersaaklike terminologie te verklaar, ’n model en metodologie vir Suid Afrikaanse aanwending te ontwikkel, en dit sowel as die status van IK in die Suid Afrikaanse omgewing te ondersoek deur middel van ’n kwalitatiewe metodologie, naamlik fokusgroepe. IK in Suid Afrika is steeds in die kinderskoene. Modelle en metodologieë ontwikkel in ander lande kan egter met aanpassings aangewend word vir aanwending in die Suid Afrikaanse omgewing.

  10. Do Migrant Girls Perform Better than Migrant Boys? Deviant Gender Differences between the Reading Scores of 15-Year-Old Children of Migrants Compared to Native Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronkers, Jaap; Kornder, Nils

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the gender differences between the educational performance of 15-year-old children of migrants from specific regions of origin countries living in different destination countries with the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009 wave. We study whether this gender difference of migrant pupils deviates…

  11. Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Modified Mini Mental State Examination in African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaycee M. Sink

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sparse data limit the interpretation of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA scores, particularly in minority populations. Additionally, there are no published data on how MoCA scores compare to the widely used Modified Mini Mental State Examination (3MSE. We provide performance data on the MoCA in a large cohort of African Americans and compare 3MSE and MoCA scores, providing a “crosswalk” for interpreting scores. Methods. Five hundred and thirty African Americans with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in African American-Diabetes Heart Study-MIND, a cross-sectional study of cognition and structural and functional brain imaging. After excluding participants with possible cognitive impairment (n=115, mean (SD MoCA and 3MSE scores are presented stratified by age and education. Results. Participant mean age was 58.2 years (range: 35-83; 61% were female; and 64.9% had >12 years of education. Mean (SD 3MSE and MoCA scores were 86.9 (8.2 and 19.8 (3.8, respectively. 93.5% of the cohort had a “positive” screen on the MoCA, scoring <26 (education-adjusted, compared with 47.5% on the 3MSE (cut-point < 88. A 3MSE score of 88 corresponded to a MoCA score of 20 in this population. Conclusion. The present data suggest the need for caution when applying proposed MoCA cutoffs to African Americans.

  12. An assessment of West African seahorses in fisheries catch and trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros-Montemayor, A M; West, K; Boiro, I S; Vincent, A C J

    2016-02-01

    This study provides the first assessment of a heavily traded West African seahorse species, Hippocampus algiricus, and the first information on short-snouted seahorse Hippocampus hippocampus biology in Africa. A total of 219 seahorses were sampled from fisher catch in Senegal and The Gambia, with estimated height at reproductive activity for H. algiricus (161 mm) larger than mean ± S.D. catch height (150 ± 31 mm). Catch composition, height at reproductive activity and potential biases in fishery retention are discussed with regard to the current Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES) guidelines. PMID:26676971

  13. The current assessment of foreign direct investment in the Middle East and North African region

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Khouri, Ritab

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to assess the growth and the current status of foreign direct investment (FDI) in a sample of 16 Middle East and North African (MENA) countries over the period 1984-2011. Our goal is to give some insight on the importance of the different factors affecting foreign direct investment (FDI). To reach our goals, we will examine the growth of FDI over time in the MENA region as compared to that of other regions. Second, we will determine the most important factors that promote F...

  14. An assessment of West African seahorses in fisheries catch and trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros-Montemayor, A M; West, K; Boiro, I S; Vincent, A C J

    2016-02-01

    This study provides the first assessment of a heavily traded West African seahorse species, Hippocampus algiricus, and the first information on short-snouted seahorse Hippocampus hippocampus biology in Africa. A total of 219 seahorses were sampled from fisher catch in Senegal and The Gambia, with estimated height at reproductive activity for H. algiricus (161 mm) larger than mean ± S.D. catch height (150 ± 31 mm). Catch composition, height at reproductive activity and potential biases in fishery retention are discussed with regard to the current Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES) guidelines.

  15. Keloids: Assessment of effects and psychosocial- impacts on subjects in a black African population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaitan P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Keloids are vexatious swelling on the skin or the conjuctiva. The effects and impacts of these lesions have not been assessed in a keloid endemic environment like Nigeria. Aims: The purpose of this study is to assess the psychosocial impact as well as effects of keloids on the subjects in a black African population where lesions are commonly seen. Methods: This is a prospective study which assesses the impacts of keloid on keloid patients. Consented patients who presented to the Plastic Surgery Clinic of the Lautech Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria were recruited into the study. A set of questionnaires were administered to all consented patients. The administered questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS version 10. Results: One hundred and thirty one patients were involved in this study. They comprised of 61 males and 70 females. Most (96.8% of them had the keloid lesion for more than one year. Sixteen (12.2% of the patients felt that keloids negatively affect their works, 64 (48.9% of the patients felt stigmatized by keloids, 28 (56.0% of them who had lesions in conspicuous parts while 24 (46.2% had lesions in non-conspicuous parts. Females (59.1% felt stigmatized than males. Only 47 (35.8% of the patients believed that keloid swelling limit their social interaction. Conclusion: Keloids do not appear to have significant negative impacts on keloid patients in a keloid-endemic community like a black African population.

  16. Africans in the American Labor Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elo, Irma T; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-10-01

    The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America's history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000-2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants-such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas-earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants-such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees-earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes-including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate-figures prominently among important unresolved research questions. PMID:26304845

  17. Migrant Education Projects. Projectos de Educacion Migrante. Oregon Migrant Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Written in both English and Spanish, this booklet briefly summarizes the general concepts and requirements behind Title I Migrant activities for use by project personnel, parents, and others interested in those projects. After a brief discussion of project funding and definitions of commonly used terms, there is an outline of requirements which…

  18. Remittances | Transferts des migrants

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Major Recipients of Remittances (in Million USD, 2008) Principaux pays bénéficiaires des transferts des migrants (en millions USD, 2008) ­ Migrants’ Remittances per Capita (in USD, 2008) Transferts des migrants par habitant (en USD, 2008) Source: World Bank, migration and remittances data.

  19. Geographical assessment of body measurements and qualitative traits in West African cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, Amadou; Koudandé, Delphin Oloronto; Fernández, Iván; Soudré, Albert; Granda, Víctor; Álvarez, Isabel; Diarra, Siaka; Diarra, Fousseyni; Kaboré, Adama; Sanou, Moumouni; Tamboura, Hamidou Hamadou; Goyache, Félix

    2015-12-01

    A total of 1015 adult cows belonging to nine West African cattle breeds were assessed for 16 body measurements and 18 qualitative traits to ascertain the existence of geographical patterns of variation. Sampling was carried out in 29 different provinces of Mali, Burkina Faso and Benin. For body measurements, taurine breeds took lower average values than the zebu breeds. Sanga cattle took intermediate values. Qualitative traits did not allow to differentiate among cattle groups (taurine, zebu or sanga) or breeds. Principal component analysis identified two factors explaining 56.4 and 9.2 % of the variance for body measurements, respectively. Two correspondence analysis dimensions computed on qualitative traits explained a small proportion of the variability (20.8 and 13.5 %, respectively). Contour plots were constructed using the eigenvalues computed for each individual and either factor or dimension identified; confidence regions calculated confirmed that body measurements clearly differentiated zebu and taurine cattle breeds while qualitative traits did not. Factor 1 was projected on a geographical map, using provinces as nodes, to assess breed-free variation for body measurements. A pattern of continuous variation from the Sahel area southwards was identified. Probably, breeding decisions promoting the crosses between zebu-like and taurine cattle are underlying this geographical pattern of variation. The implementation of selection strategies aiming at the increase of the productivity of native West African taurine cattle breeds while avoiding looses in trypanotolerant ability would be highly advisable.

  20. Improving estimates of the prevalence of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting among migrants in Western countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Elisa Ortensi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C is an emerging topic in immigrant countries as a consequence of the increasing proportion of African women in overseas communities. Objective: While the prevalence of FGM/C is routinely measured in practicing countries, the prevalence of the phenomenon in western countries is substantially unknown, as no standardized methods exist yet for immigrant countries. The aim of this paper is to present an improved method of indirect estimation of the prevalence of FGM/C among first generation migrants based on a migrant selection hypothesis. A criterion to assess reliability of indirect estimates is also provided. Methods: The method is based on data from Demographic Health Surveys (DHS and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS. Migrants' Selection Hypothesis is used to correct national prevalence estimates and obtain an improved estimation of prevalence among overseas communities. Results: The application of the selection hypothesis modifies national estimates, usually predicting a lower occurrence of FGM/C among immigrants than in their respective practicing countries. A comparison of direct and indirect estimations confirms that the method correctly predicts the direction of the variation in the expected prevalence and satisfactorily approximates direct estimates. Conclusions: Given its wide applicability, this method would be a useful instrument to estimate FGM/C occurrence among first generation immigrants and provide corresponding support for policies in countries where information from ad hoc surveys is unavailable.

  1. Physical activity differences between children from migrant and native origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.W. Labree (Wim); F.J.B. Lötters (Freek); H. van de Mheen (Dike); F.F.H. Rutten (Frans); A. Rivera Chavarría; M. de Neve (Melissa); G. Rodenburg (Gerda); H. Machielsen; G.T. Koopmans (Gerrit); M.M.E. Foets (Marleen)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Background: Children from migrant origin are at higher risk for overweight and obesity. As limited physical activity is a key factor in this overweight and obesity risk, in general, the aim of this study is to assess to what degree children from migrant and native Dutch

  2. Comparative assessment of migrant farm worker health in conventional and organic horticultural systems in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul; Edwards, Rhiannon T; Hounsome, Barry; Edwards-Jones, Gareth

    2008-02-25

    This study describes the self-reported health and well-being status of field and packhouse workers in UK vegetable horticulture, and tests the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the self-reported health of workers on organic and conventional horticultural farms. The majority of those sampled were migrant workers (93%) from Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia and the Ukraine. More than 95% of the respondents were aged 18-34 and recruited through university agricultural faculties in East European or employed via UK agencies. The health of 605 farm workers (395 males and 210 females) was measured through the use of four standard health instruments. Farm workers' health was significantly poorer than published national norms for three different health instruments (Short Form 36, EuroQol EQ-5D and the Visual Analogue Scale). There were no significant differences in the health status of farm workers between conventional and organic farms for any of these three instruments. However, organic farm workers scored higher on a fourth health instrument the Short Depression Happiness Scale (SDHS) indicating that workers on organic farms were happier than their counterparts working on conventional farms. Multiple regression analysis suggested that the difference in the SDHS score for organic and conventional farms is closely related to the range and number of tasks the workers performed each day. These findings suggest that a great deal of improvement in the self-reported health of farmers will need to occur before organic farms meet the requirements of the 'Principle of Health' as described by IFOAM. Ensuring that farm workers have a varied range of tasks could be a cost effective means of improving self-reported health status in both organic and conventional farming systems.

  3. HIV-Related High-Risk Behaviors among Chinese Migrant Construction Laborers in Nantong, Jiangsu

    OpenAIRE

    Xun Zhuang; Zunyou Wu; Katharine Poundstone; Changqing Yang; Yaqin Zhong; Shengyang Jiang

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV transmission in rural areas of China is being fueled in part by migrant workers who acquire HIV outside of their hometowns. Recent surveillance statistics indicate that HIV prevalence among returning migrants has increased significantly. METHODS: We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study to assess HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors among migrant returnees in Nantong, Jiangsu Province, one of the largest exporters of migrant laborers. RESULTS: A total of ...

  4. AN EXPERT SYSTEM ON ASSESSING ROCKBURST RISKS FOR SOUTH AFRICAN DEEP GOLD MINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯夏庭; S.Webber; M.U.Ozbay; 王永嘉

    1996-01-01

    Expert systems are methods that can cope with rock engineer's expertise effectively.An expert system on assessing rockburst risks for South African deep gold mines is described.Expertise was represented by rules, frames and mathematical models integratively. About 9.50rules was built in the knowledge base, which can be learned by the suggested learning algorithm.A new uncertain reasoning algorithm was proposed. According to the features such as depth be-low surface, energy release rate (ERR), excess shear stress (ESS), geological structure, faceangle with structure, distance from structure, extent of mining, mining type, width of bracket pil-lar, stope width, local support, regional support and gully support, rockburst risk is assessed ei-ther”Low”, ”Moderate”, ”High” or ”Severe”.Turbo Prolog. The results of testing cases showA computer program system was developed byits applicability of the system.

  5. African American Patients' Psychosocial Support Needs and Barriers to Treatment: Patient Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Maureen P; Bilkins, Brianna; Diamond, Guy; Willis, Alliric I; Mitchell, Edith P; Davey, Adam; Young, Faith M

    2016-09-01

    This study assessed adult patient's psychosocial support needs and treatment barriers in an urban diverse cancer center. A needs assessment was conducted with a convenience sample of adult oncology patients (n = 113; 71.7 % African American). Most patients were parenting school-age children and worried about them (96 %); 86.7 % would attend a family support program. Among patients who were married or partnered (68 %), 63.7 % were concerned about communication, coping, and emotional support; 53.9 % would attend a couple support program. Patients identified similar treatment barriers: transportation, babysitting for younger children, convenience of time/place, and refreshments. Findings suggest that behavioral health care providers should be available to screen cancer patients and improve access to appropriate psychosocial oncology support programs. PMID:26048632

  6. Desnutrición en prescolares de familias migrantes Malnutrition in preschool children of migrant families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Mayela Núñez-Rocha

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Comparar la prevalencia de desnutrición entre prescolares migrantes y no migrantes. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron al azar 160 infantes de 1-6 años de edad, de parvularios de muy alta marginación. Se excluyeron aquellos con malformaciones congénitas o bajo alguna intervención nutricional. La migración se definió como el desplazamiento geográfico Objective. To compare malnutrition rates between migrant and non-migrant children. Material and methods. One-hundred and sixty children 1-6 years old were selected at random from schools located in highly marginated areas. Excluded were infants with congenital malformations or under nutritional intervention. Migration was defined as any geographical movement during the last 6 years. Malnutrition was assessed through the weight/height and height/age indicators, as recommended by the World Health Organization. Results. Fifty-nine percent of the infants belonged to families whose father had a non-qualified occupation, 27.5% of them did not finish elementary school. Fifty-three referred migration; malnutrition rate was 51.3% among migrant infants and 28.8%, among non-migrant infants (OR= 2.6, CI95%= 1.2, 5.2, p= 0.006. Migrant children registered a mean Z score of -2.4±.40 and non-migrant children, -2.3±.33, based on the indicator height for age. Conclusions. Chronic malnutrition among migrant infants justifies a nutritional intervention, they constitute a specific group at risk. Migration should be considered for health planning.

  7. Aligning clinical assessment with course elements in prosthodontic dentistry: a South African case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maart, Ronel Deidre; Bitzer, Elias Matthys

    2013-09-01

    Clinical tests were introduced as an additional clinical assessment tool in the prosthodontics curriculum of the fourth-year undergraduate dentistry program at one South African university. This study compared the relationship between the students' performance in the clinical tests and daily clinical grades on the one hand with their theoretical performance on the other. It also explored the perceptions of the academic staff on the validity of clinical tests as an assessment tool. The analysis of the students' test results showed insignificant relationships between their clinical daily grades and their grades for assessing theory. However, clinical assessment via tests is well accepted by the course staff, and they perceived them to be more reliable than daily clinical grades as assessment methods. The findings of the study support other studies that concluded that the daily grades of dental students poorly correlate with their competency exams module. The findings also relate well to the lecturers' views that clinical tests were more reliable as a clinical assessment tool than the students' daily clinical grade. PMID:24002850

  8. 'We get nothing from fishing' : Fishing for boat opportunities amongst Senegalese fisher migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyamnjoh, Henrietta Mambo

    2010-01-01

    The world is regularly confronted in the media with dramatic images of African boat migrants. Seemingly desperate, these Africans, most of them males, are willing to risk a perilous journey at sea, hoping for a better life in Europe. And, even worse, hundreds more are believed to die each year, swal

  9. Politicisation of migrant leisure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Sine; Michelsen la Cour, Annette; Gregersen, Martin Treumer

    2015-01-01

    a case study of an intervention that provides sporting activities in holiday periods for migrant children and adolescents living in so-called socially disadvantaged areas (DGI Playground). The analysis highlights the rationality that the leisure time of migrant youth is a potentially dangerous time slot...... for employment of welfare professionals. Furthermore, the article illustrates that in the discursive construction of subject positions for the target group, migrant youth tend to become clients and recipients of public services rather than potential members of civil sports clubs. These findings are supported...... theoretical perspectives to studies of migrants’ leisure and sports activities....

  10. Sexual Violence against Migrant Women: a Study of the Prevalence of and Responses to the Rape of Migrant Women in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine BOYD

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the prevalence of and responses to the rape of migrant women in South Africa through the analysis of legislation, secondary sources and interviews conducted by the author with migrant women raped in South Africa. The article considers the legal protections afforded to migrant women in South Africa and the extent to which these safeguard migrant women from rape. The article also assesses whether these legal protections are implemented in practise. It additionally suggests how migrant women could be better protected from rape in South Africa.

  11. Migrants caught in crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Kelly

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of new initiatives point to ways in which the internationalcommunity – particularly governments – could help reduce the vulnerabilities of migrant workers during conflict and crisis situations.

  12. Migrant Workers Fight Back

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUBO

    2005-01-01

    Zhao, aged 33, is a migrant worker in a shoe factory in Shenzhen, the prosperous southern Chinese city. He arrived there hve years ago from his home village in north Jiangsu province, a notoriously poverty struck region of China.

  13. Between talent and migrant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosneaga, Ana

    ’ agendas for internationalisation of higher education and talent attraction to boost national competitiveness. Concurrently, convergence is happening between migration management regimes, albeit with persistent variations in actual regulations, when it comes to attracting skilled migrants, while reducing...... the in-flow of ‘unwanted’ migrants. In this context, international students’ status transition to foreign workers is influenced by their simultaneous position as talents and as migrants. This PhD project analyses how the goal of attracting skilled labour is met through international student recruitment...... of the host country stakeholders and individual migrants. Through this approach, the thesis contributes to the field of migration and mobility studies by providing more nuanced insights into the interaction between declared policy goals and their effects in practice, as well as into the central causes...

  14. A new focus on assessing and treating asthma control in the African-American community: a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Michael; McGill, Cheryl Lynn Walker; Graham, Leroy M; Foggs, Michael; Robinson, Sandra; Crim, Courtney; Stempel, David A

    2008-09-01

    Asthma continues to be a highly prevalent disease characterized by significant morbidity, unnecessary mortality, and substantial cost to the health care system. After decades of increasing prevalence, the number of current asthmatics in recent years has plateaued at approximately 22 million people in the United States. An additional 10 million Americans have a past history of asthma that is not active. The burden of asthma is higher among African Americans than in any other racial or ethnic group in America. The African-American community continues to experience a disproportional increase in asthma prevalence, morbidity, and mortality. The educational initiatives stemming from the newly revised National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) guidelines provide the opportunity to address the increased burden of asthma in the African American community. These new guidelines, released in August 2007, focus on asthma control as the primary goal of therapy, routine monitoring of asthma control, and use of asthma control assessments to direct treatment. The present review discusses the following: I. The impact of health disparities on outcomes of African Americans with asthma, II. The barriers that prevent asthmatic patients from achieving optimal control, III. The unique factors that challenge practitioners and patients in achieving optimal asthma control in the African American Community, IV. The impact of good asthma control and the need for patients and clinicians to assess asthma control in with a standardized assessment tool, and V. Strategic initiatives and the role of the End The Attacks NOW program in improving outcomes for African American patients with asthma. PMID:18924317

  15. Health services for reproductive tract infections among female migrant workers in industrial zones in Ha Noi, Viet Nam: an in-depth assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Le

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural-to-urban migration involves a high proportion of females because job opportunities for female migrants have increased in urban industrial areas. Those who migrate may be healthier than those staying in the village and they may benefit from better health care services at destination, but the 'healthy' effect can be reversed at destination due to migration-related health risk factors. The study aimed to explore the need for health care services for reproductive tract infections (RTIs among female migrants working in the Sai Dong industrial zone as well as their services utilization. Methods The cross sectional study employed a mixed method approach. A cohort of 300 female migrants was interviewed to collect quantitative data. Two focus groups and 20 in-depth interviews were conducted to collect qualitative data. We have used frequency and cross-tabulation techniques to analyze the quantitative data and the qualitative data was used to triangulate and to provide more in-depth information. Results The needs for health care services for RTI were high as 25% of participants had RTI syndromes. Only 21.6% of female migrants having RTI syndromes ever seek helps for health care services. Barriers preventing migrants to access services were traditional values, long working hours, lack of information, and high cost of services. Employers had limited interests in reproductive health of female migrants, and there was ineffective collaboration between the local health system and enterprises. These barriers were partly caused by lack of health promotion programs suitable for migrants. Most respondents needed more information on RTIs and preferred to receive these from their employers since they commonly work shifts - and spend most of their day time at work. Conclusion While RTIs are a common health problem among female migrant workers in industrial zones, female migrants had many obstacles in accessing RTI care services. The findings

  16. Government Should Adopt Policies Favouring Rural Migrants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩长赋

    2007-01-01

    Based on a systematic analysis of the development trends of Chinese rural migrant workers, this article has designed a model representing the flow of migrant workers from rural to urban areas, and the patterns of urban settlement. The significant factors contributing to the problems of migrant workers are assessed and suggestions for improvement put forward. This article concludes that the rural migrant worker problem is attributable to institutional set-up and strategy and will continue for the entire process of China’s modernization. It is estimated that modernization will be realized in about 2050, at which time the rural-urban migration process will also be completed. To solve the problems of migrant workers, a comprehensive strategy of balanced development between urban and rural areas should be carried out, featuring industry’s support of agriculture and urban support of rural areas. Furthermore, the urban-rural dual structure should be gradually eliminated through institutional reform and policy innovation. The principles of equality, humanity and fair treatment for both urban and rural populations should be sought.

  17. Assessing the Acceptability and Usability of an Internet-Based Intelligent Health Assistant Developed for Use among Turkish Migrants: Results of a Study Conducted in Bremen, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Ernst, Sinja Alexandra; Klein-Ellinghaus, Funda; Brand, Tilman; Reeske-Behrens, Anna; Plumbaum, Till; Zeeb, Hajo

    2015-12-03

    The Internet offers a new chance for health professionals to reach population groups not usually reached through traditional information channels, for example, migrants. Criticism has, however, been raised that most health information on the Internet is not easy to read and lacks cultural sensitivity. We developed an Internet-based bilingual health assistant especially for Turkish migrants in Germany, tested its acceptance, and evaluated its usability in a participatory research design with families with and without Turkish migrant background. The interactive health assistant covered the following: nutrition, physical activity, overweight, diabetes, as well as pregnancy and pregnancy support. The idea of an Internet-based health assistant was generally accepted by all participants of the evaluation study, as long as it would be incorporated in existing appliances, such as smartphones. The bilingual nature of the assistant was welcomed especially by first generation migrants, but migrant participants also indicated that not all health information needed to be made available in a culture-specific way. The participants were least satisfied with the nutrition component, which they felt should include recipes and ingredients from the culture of origin, as well as specific aspects of food preparation.

  18. Assessing the Acceptability and Usability of an Internet-Based Intelligent Health Assistant Developed for Use among Turkish Migrants: Results of a Study Conducted in Bremen, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Samkange-Zeeb

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet offers a new chance for health professionals to reach population groups not usually reached through traditional information channels, for example, migrants. Criticism has, however, been raised that most health information on the Internet is not easy to read and lacks cultural sensitivity. We developed an Internet-based bilingual health assistant especially for Turkish migrants in Germany, tested its acceptance, and evaluated its usability in a participatory research design with families with and without Turkish migrant background. The interactive health assistant covered the following: nutrition, physical activity, overweight, diabetes, as well as pregnancy and pregnancy support. The idea of an Internet-based health assistant was generally accepted by all participants of the evaluation study, as long as it would be incorporated in existing appliances, such as smartphones. The bilingual nature of the assistant was welcomed especially by first generation migrants, but migrant participants also indicated that not all health information needed to be made available in a culture-specific way. The participants were least satisfied with the nutrition component, which they felt should include recipes and ingredients from the culture of origin, as well as specific aspects of food preparation.

  19. Migrant and seasonal farm worker women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, M I

    1995-01-01

    Migrant and seasonal farm worker women are part of a population whose health care needs are underserved. This article provides some definition of this population and reviews some of the health needs specific to them. The significant need for outreach to and assessment of this population is addressed. The significance of the nurse's role is addressed. The need for health care services being delivered in a culturally sensitive manner is discussed. Resources to assist health care providers in providing more effective interventions and referrals for care of migrant and seasonal farm worker women are identified. PMID:7782960

  20. Ethnic and migrant differences in medicine use among children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantarero Arévalo, Lourdes

    Background and aims Studies examining ethnic and migrant differences in children’s medicine use are scarce. This thesis seeks to elucidate ethnic and migrant differences in use of medication for the most common health complaints and chronic conditions among children. It investigates the mediating...... role of potential explanations such as psychosocial stressors and socioeconomic characteristics of the household and the area of residence. Concretely, the aims are four: 1. To examine whether psychosocial stressors (not feeling safe at school) can explain migrant differences in medicine use for aches...... (Paper I) 2. To assess whether ethnic and migrant differences in medicine for aches are present across different ethnic minority groups (Paper II) 3. To examine whether household income explains ethnic and migrant differences in asthma medication among children (Paper III) 4. To examine whether area...

  1. First molecular assessment of the African swine fever virus status of Ornithodoros ticks from Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carin I. Boshoff

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is an economically significant haemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs. It is caused by the African swine fever virus (ASFV, a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNAarbovirus. Argasid ticks of the genus Ornithodoros, which are widely distributed throughout southern Africa, play a primary role in virus maintenance and spread within the endemic sylvatic cycle. The ASF status of Swaziland is unknown, but this land-locked country is surrounded by ASF-positive countries, has a burgeoning pig industry and sylvatic cycle hosts present within its borders. In this first assessment of ASF status, warthog burrows in seven nature reserves and game management areas in Swaziland were investigated for tick and virus presence. Tick infestation rates of between 33.3% – 88.8% were recovered for the four Ornithodoros-infested reserves. A total of 562 ticks were screened for virus genome presence using a duplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR that targets the C-terminal end of the p72 gene of the ASFV and confirms DNA integrity through amplification of the 16S rRNA tick host gene. All samples were negative for virus genome presence and positive for the tick genome target. Nucleotide sequencing of the latter confirmed that Ornithodoros ticks from Swaziland are identical to those from the Kruger National Park in South Africa across the gene region characterised. Whilst this first evaluation of ASF presence in Swaziland indicates that the virus does not appear to be present in the key virus vector, the presence of sylvatic cycle hosts, together with the country’s proximity to ASF-affected countries calls for expanded investigations and regular monitoring of the ASF status of Swaziland.

  2. First molecular assessment of the African swine fever virus status of Ornithodoros ticks from Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshoff, Carin I; Bastos, Armanda D S; Dube, Mzwandi M; Heath, Livio

    2014-12-03

    African swine fever (ASF) is an economically significant haemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs. It is caused by the African swine fever virus (ASFV), a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)arbovirus. Argasid ticks of the genus Ornithodoros, which are widely distributed throughout southern Africa, play a primary role in virus maintenance and spread within the endemic sylvatic cycle. The ASF status of Swaziland is unknown, but this land-locked country is surrounded by ASF-positive countries, has a burgeoning pig industry and sylvatic cycle hosts present within its borders. In this first assessment of ASF status, warthog burrows in seven nature reserves and game management areas in Swaziland were investigated for tick and virus presence. Tick infestation rates of between 33.3% - 88.8% were recovered for the four Ornithodoros-infested reserves. A total of 562 ticks were screened for virus genome presence using a duplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) that targets the C-terminal end of the p72 gene of the ASFV and confirms DNA integrity through amplification of the 16S rRNA tick host gene. All samples were negative for virus genome presence and positive for the tick genome target. Nucleotide sequencing of the latter confirmed that Ornithodoros ticks from Swaziland are identical to those from the Kruger National Park in South Africa across the gene region characterised. Whilst this first evaluation of ASF presence in Swaziland indicates that the virus does not appear to be present in the key virus vector, the presence of sylvatic cycle hosts, together with the country's proximity to ASF-affected countries calls for expanded investigations and regular monitoring of the ASF status of Swaziland.

  3. Assessment of Genotype Imputation Performance Using 1000 Genomes in African American Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hancock, Dana B.; Levy, Joshua L.; Gaddis, Nathan C.; Bierut, Laura J; Saccone, Nancy L.; Page, Grier P.; Johnson, Eric O.

    2012-01-01

    Genotype imputation, used in genome-wide association studies to expand coverage of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), has performed poorly in African Americans compared to less admixed populations. Overall, imputation has typically relied on HapMap reference haplotype panels from Africans (YRI), European Americans (CEU), and Asians (CHB/JPT). The 1000 Genomes project offers a wider range of reference populations, such as African Americans (ASW), but their imputation performance has had l...

  4. THE TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF DEMAND SIDE BIDDING IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN CONTEXT*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Grover

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT:South Africa is currently in the grip of a severe power supply capacity constraint. January 2007 saw blackouts throughout the country, and worse was expected in the months to come. As a measure of immediate remedy Eskom has turned to demand side bidding (DSB, a methodology whereby the demand side has an opportunity to sell back flexible load to the supply side. This paper assesses DSB with the aim of evaluating and gauging the current and potential future standing of DSB as a technology product within the South African context.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Suid-Afrika ervaar tans ’n ernstige vraagstuk in elektrisiteitsvoorsiening. Vanaf Januarie 2007 kom gereelde kragonderbrekings voor, en volgens alle aanduidings lê die ergste nog voor. As ’n korttermynmaatreël beoog ESKOM ’n strategie van aanvraagbestuur en spesifiek aanvraag-bie, ’n metodologie waarvolgens verbruikers die geleentheid kry om elektrisiteit aan die verskaffer terug te verkoop. Hierdie artikel assesseer die metodologie ten einde die huidige en toekomstige gebruikersmoontlikhede daarvan as ’n tegnologieproduk binne Suid-Afrikaanse konteks te bepaal.

  5. The challenge of language assessment for african american english-speaking children: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Harry N

    2004-02-01

    The diagnostic problem of how validly to assess the language of children who speak dialects different from Mainstream American English (MAE) has challenged the field of communication disorders for several decades. The key to its solution is to recognize differences due to dialect or development and remove them from the initial diagnosis of a disorder. A new approach to the puzzle, implemented jointly by University of Massachusetts scholars and the Psychological Corporation (TPC), takes two directions: (1) it provides new normative data on African American English (AAE) development, and (2) it proposes a level of analysis deeper than dialect for the discovery of alternate markers of a disorder. We present three objectives for a language assessment instrument designed to solve this longstanding problem: (1) to answer the problem/no problem question for a given child; (2) to provide explanatory data about the nature of the problem; and (3) to achieve objectives 1 and 2 in a way that is culturally and linguistically fair to both speakers of MAE and speakers of other dialects of English such as AAE. PMID:15088228

  6. A preliminary study to assess the construct validity of a cultural intelligence measure on a South African sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bright Mahembe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Cultural intelligence is an essential social competence for effective individual interaction in a cross-cultural context. The cultural intelligence scale (CQS is used extensively for assessing cultural intelligence; nevertheless, its reliability and validity on a South African sample are yet to be ascertained.Research purpose: The purpose of the current study was to assess the construct validity of the CQS on a South African sample. The results of the psychometric assessment offer some important insights into the factor structure of the cultural intelligence construct.Motivation for the study: The current study sought to provide some practical validity confirmation of the CQS for the effective management of cultural diversity in the South African context.Research approach, design and method: The CQS was administered on a non-probability sample of 229 young adults in South Africa. Item analysis was performed to ascertain reliability. Exploratory factor analysis was used to test the unidimensionality of CQS subscales. The first-order and second-order factor structures underlying contemporary models of cultural intelligence were tested using confirmatory factor analysis.Main findings: Results indicated that the CQS is a reliable and valid measure of cultural intelligence as evidenced by the high internal consistency coefficients in all the subscales. Good construct validity for both the first-order and second-order models was obtained via confirmatory factor analysis.Practical/managerial implications: The study finds good measurement properties of the CQS in a South African context. The CQS can be confidently used for applications such as selecting, training and developing a more culturally competent workforce.Contribution: The study extends the body of knowledge on the reliability and construct validity of the CQS in the South African milieu. It further indicates that cultural intelligence can be represented by a general cultural

  7. Wage assimilation : migrants versus natives and foreign migrants versus internal migrants

    OpenAIRE

    Strøm, Steinar; Venturini, Alessandra; Villosio, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The paper wants to understand the assimilation pattern of foreign migrants in Italy. Three novelties characterize this study. First, the research compares the wage assimilation of international migrants with both internal migrants and local natives in Italy, a country with substantial internal and international migration. This comparison, never exploited before, provides indirect evidence for the role played by language and knowledge of social capital in the assimilation of foreign migrants r...

  8. Wage assimilation: migrants versus natives and foreign migrants versus internal migrants

    OpenAIRE

    Strom, Steinar; Venturini, Alessandra; Villosio, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The paper wants to understand the assimilation pattern of foreign migrants in Italy. Three novelties characterize this study. First, the research compares the wage assimilation of international migrants with both internal migrants and local natives in Italy, a country with substantial internal and international migration. This comparison, never exploited before, provides indirect evidence for the role played by language and knowledge of social capital in the assimilation of foreign migrants r...

  9. Migrants Examined for Determinants of psychopathology through INternet Assessment ( MEDINA) study : a cross-sectional study among visitors of an Internet community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Madelien Hermina; van der Krieke, Lian; Schoevers, Robert Anton

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Migration is a risk factor for the onset of psychopathology. A range of social factors may play a role in the aetiology of psychiatric disorders in migrants. A better understanding of these associations is needed to develop preventive interventions to reduce the disease burden in the mi

  10. Perceived discrimination, schooling arrangements and psychological adjustments of rural-to-urban migrant children in Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lihua; Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Tam, Cheuk Chi; Lin, Danhua

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The global literature has revealed potential negative impacts of migration and discrimination on individual's psychological adjustments. However, the psychological adjustments among internal migrant children in developing countries are rarely assessed. This study simultaneously examines perceived discrimination and schooling arrangements in relation to psychological adjustments among rural-to-urban migrant children in China. Methods: A sample of 657 migrant children was recruited ...

  11. Development of the Migrant Friendly Maternity Care Questionnaire (MFMCQ) for migrants to Western societies: an international Delphi consensus process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Through the World Health Assembly Resolution, ‘Health of Migrants’, the international community has identified migrant health as a priority. Recommendations for general hospital care for international migrants in receiving-countries have been put forward by the Migrant Friendly Hospital Initiative; adaptations of these recommendations specific to maternity care have yet to be elucidated and validated. We aimed to develop a questionnaire measuring migrant-friendly maternity care (MFMC) which could be used in a range of maternity care settings and countries. Methods This study was conducted in four stages. First, questions related to migrant friendly maternity care were identified from existing questionnaires including the Migrant Friendliness Quality Questionnaire, developed in Europe to capture recommended general hospital care for migrants, and the Mothers In a New Country (MINC) Questionnaire, developed in Australia and revised for use in Canada to capture the maternity care experiences of migrant women, and combined to create an initial MFMC questionnaire. Second, a Delphi consensus process in three rounds with a panel of 89 experts in perinatal health and migration from 17 countries was undertaken to identify priority themes and questions as well as to clarify wording and format. Third, the draft questionnaire was translated from English to French and Spanish and back-translated and subsequently culturally validated (assessed for cultural appropriateness) by migrant women. Fourth, the questionnaire was piloted with migrant women who had recently given birth in Montreal, Canada. Results A 112-item questionnaire on maternity care from pregnancy, through labour and birth, to postpartum care, and including items on maternal socio-demographic, migration and obstetrical characteristics, and perceptions of care, has been created - the Migrant Friendly Maternity Care Questionnaire (MFMCQ) – in three languages (English, French and Spanish). It is

  12. Pharmacophore modeling and in silico toxicity assessment of potential anticancer agents from African medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Simoben, Conrad Veranso; Karaman, Berin; Ngwa, Valery Fuh; Judson, Philip Neville; Sippl, Wolfgang; Mbaze, Luc Meva'a

    2016-01-01

    Molecular modeling has been employed in the search for lead compounds of chemotherapy to fight cancer. In this study, pharmacophore models have been generated and validated for use in virtual screening protocols for eight known anticancer drug targets, including tyrosine kinase, protein kinase B β, cyclin-dependent kinase, protein farnesyltransferase, human protein kinase, glycogen synthase kinase, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1. Pharmacophore models were validated through receiver operating characteristic and Güner-Henry scoring methods, indicating that several of the models generated could be useful for the identification of potential anticancer agents from natural product databases. The validated pharmacophore models were used as three-dimensional search queries for virtual screening of the newly developed AfroCancer database (~400 compounds from African medicinal plants), along with the Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anticancer Compound-Activity-Target dataset (comprising ~1,500 published naturally occurring plant-based compounds from around the world). Additionally, an in silico assessment of toxicity of the two datasets was carried out by the use of 88 toxicity end points predicted by the Lhasa's expert knowledge-based system (Derek), showing that only an insignificant proportion of the promising anticancer agents would be likely showing high toxicity profiles. A diversity study of the two datasets, carried out using the analysis of principal components from the most important physicochemical properties often used to access drug-likeness of compound datasets, showed that the two datasets do not occupy the same chemical space. PMID:27445461

  13. Assessment of infant feeding styles among low income African American mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Lisa M.; Bentley, Margaret E.; Carby-Shields, Kenitra; Borja, Judith B.; Goldman, Barbara D.

    2007-01-01

    This study’s goal was to provide a detailed description of feeding styles adopted by a sample of African-American women in feeding their infants in North Carolina, and to examine the correspondence between reported and observed feeding styles. Cross-sectional semi-structured interview and videotaped data were gathered in the homes of 20 participating low-income mothers of infants aged 3-20 months. Feeding styles were characterized through a tailored coding scheme (the Infant Feeding Styles Video Coding Scheme, IFSVCS) applied to both interview and video-taped data. We found that the most frequent feeding styles identified for both interviews and videotaped observations was restrictive, but that mothers were roughly equally divided among predominantly controlling (pressuring or restrictive) and less controlling (laissez-faire or indulgent) styles across methods. However, for over 2/3 of the sample, there was a lack of correspondence between interview and video-taped feeding styles. This unique characterization and comparison of observed and reported infant feeding styles provides additional insights into parental feeding approaches among mothers of infants at high risk of obesity, and highlights the need for further study of feeding style assessment and potential impact on infant weight outcomes. PMID:17336423

  14. Pharmacophore modeling and in silico toxicity assessment of potential anticancer agents from African medicinal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Simoben, Conrad Veranso; Karaman, Berin; Ngwa, Valery Fuh; Judson, Philip Neville; Sippl, Wolfgang; Mbaze, Luc Meva’a

    2016-01-01

    Molecular modeling has been employed in the search for lead compounds of chemotherapy to fight cancer. In this study, pharmacophore models have been generated and validated for use in virtual screening protocols for eight known anticancer drug targets, including tyrosine kinase, protein kinase B β, cyclin-dependent kinase, protein farnesyltransferase, human protein kinase, glycogen synthase kinase, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1. Pharmacophore models were validated through receiver operating characteristic and Güner–Henry scoring methods, indicating that several of the models generated could be useful for the identification of potential anticancer agents from natural product databases. The validated pharmacophore models were used as three-dimensional search queries for virtual screening of the newly developed AfroCancer database (~400 compounds from African medicinal plants), along with the Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anticancer Compound-Activity-Target dataset (comprising ~1,500 published naturally occurring plant-based compounds from around the world). Additionally, an in silico assessment of toxicity of the two datasets was carried out by the use of 88 toxicity end points predicted by the Lhasa’s expert knowledge-based system (Derek), showing that only an insignificant proportion of the promising anticancer agents would be likely showing high toxicity profiles. A diversity study of the two datasets, carried out using the analysis of principal components from the most important physicochemical properties often used to access drug-likeness of compound datasets, showed that the two datasets do not occupy the same chemical space. PMID:27445461

  15. Migrant Workers: Urban Underclass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China has 130 million migrant workers in cities,according to official statistics. The term "farmer" carries quite different connotations in China than in the West, where farming is a profession taken up by well-educated people and involves large-scale mechanical production. In the West, farmers enjoy the same social status as urban dwellers.

  16. African Countries’ Agricultural Trade Value Chain Assessment Case study: Tanzania (Cashew nut exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Krepl

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa lost its status as a net exporter of agricultural products in the early 1980s when prices for raw commodities fell and local production stagnated. Since then, agricultural imports have grown faster than agricultural exports. In order to get to the bottom of this critical issue, UNIDO in partnership with the AU, IFAD, AfDB, FAO, and UNECA, developed the African Agribusiness and Agro-Industries Development Initiative (3ADI. The major objective of the 3ADI is to increase private sector investment flows going into the agriculture sector in Africa by mobilizing resources for agribusiness and agro-industrial development from the domestic, regional or international financial systems. This formed the basis of research with the objective of assessing the value addition chain for some vital agricultural commodities in the 3ADI focus countries. UNIDO is developing several action plans in a few African countries – one of them is Tanzania. In the case of Tanzania, the findings show the potential in cashew nuts. The paper’s main goal is to propose a plan or set of steps leading to the improvement of added value generation in the area of agricultural trade in Tanzania. The paper is focused on one commodity Cashew-nuts. Tanzania boosts high volumes of local supply of this commodity, which is the key prerequisite for the value addition chain through local processing. The results from the analysis prove significant economic losses related to the current structure of Tanzanian trade in cashew nuts. The main problem of the current cashew nut trade activities is the very low added value of exported cashew nuts. The paper analyses the structure of value added activities related to the cashew nut trade and proposes a plan for increasing the share of processed cashew nuts at a much higher unit price in comparison to raw cashew nuts. The simulated development in the cashew sector in Tanzania to the year 2030 is based on two expectations a 5

  17. Social Engagement among Migrant Youth: Attitudes and Meanings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Kirpitchenko

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores migrant young people’s engagement, participation and involvement in socially meaningful activities, events and experiences. This type of social participation is approached in the social inclusion literature using the notions of social capital and active citizenship (Bourdieu, 1986; Coleman, 1988; Putnam, 1993; Putnam, 2000. A key objective, therefore, is to explore the attitudes, values and perceptions associated with social participation for young people. They include the meanings that social engagement has for migrant young people, along with drivers and inhibitions to active participation. The article focuses on both the motives for being actively engaged as well as perceived barriers to social engagement. It is based on a large study conducted among migrant young people of African, Arabic-speaking and Pacific Islander backgrounds in Melbourne and Brisbane, and presents both quantitative and qualitative (discursive snapshots from the overall findings, based on interviews and focus groups. While many studies have centred on the management of migration and migrants, this article draws attention to the individuals’ active position in negotiating, interpreting and appropriating the conditions of social inclusion. Accounting for the multidimensional and multilayered nature of social inclusion, the paper highlights the heuristic role of social engagement in fostering the feelings of belonging and personal growth for migrant youth.

  18. The Literature Review of Information Literacy Assessment Standard for Rural-to-Urban Migrants%农转城新市民信息素养评价标准综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张必兰; 吴诗贤; 刘军

    2015-01-01

    The information literacy assessment standard is the basis of information literacy education and information literacy assessment. This paper summarizes the research results of assessment of information literacy at home and abroad, analyzes the research status, main directions and research trend of the information literacy assessment standard. Finally, the research problem about rural-to-urban migrants is emphatically summarized and analyzed.%信息素养标准是开展信息素养教育和评价的依据。论文梳理了国内外信息素养评价的研究成果,分析了国内外信息素养评价的研究现状、主要研究方向、研究趋势,并重点对新市民相关的研究进行了综述分析。

  19. Risks to birds traded for African traditional medicine: a quantitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Vivienne L; Cunningham, Anthony B; Kemp, Alan C; Bruyns, Robin K

    2014-01-01

    Few regional or continent-wide assessments of bird use for traditional medicine have been attempted anywhere in the world. Africa has the highest known diversity of bird species used for this purpose. This study assesses the vulnerability of 354 bird species used for traditional medicine in 25 African countries, from 205 genera, 70 families, and 25 orders. The orders most represented were Passeriformes (107 species), Falconiformes (45 species), and Coraciiformes (24 species), and the families Accipitridae (37 species), Ardeidae (15 species), and Bucerotidae (12 species). The Barn owl (Tyto alba) was the most widely sold species (seven countries). The similarity of avifaunal orders traded is high (analogous to "morphospecies", and using Sørensen's index), which suggests opportunities for a common understanding of cultural factors driving demand. The highest similarity was between bird orders sold in markets of Benin vs. Burkina Faso (90%), but even bird orders sold in two geographically separated countries (Benin vs. South Africa and Nigeria vs. South Africa) were 87% and 81% similar, respectively. Rabinowitz's "7 forms of rarity" model, used to group species according to commonness or rarity, indicated that 24% of traded bird species are very common, locally abundant in several habitats, and occur over a large geographical area, but 10% are rare, occur in low numbers in specific habitats, and over a small geographical area. The order with the highest proportion of rare species was the Musophagiformes. An analysis of species mass (as a proxy for size) indicated that large and/or conspicuous species tend to be targeted by harvesters for the traditional medicine trade. Furthermore, based on cluster analyses for species groups of similar risk, vultures, hornbills, and other large avifauna, such as bustards, are most threatened by selective harvesting and should be prioritised for conservation action. PMID:25162700

  20. Risks to birds traded for African traditional medicine: a quantitative assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivienne L Williams

    Full Text Available Few regional or continent-wide assessments of bird use for traditional medicine have been attempted anywhere in the world. Africa has the highest known diversity of bird species used for this purpose. This study assesses the vulnerability of 354 bird species used for traditional medicine in 25 African countries, from 205 genera, 70 families, and 25 orders. The orders most represented were Passeriformes (107 species, Falconiformes (45 species, and Coraciiformes (24 species, and the families Accipitridae (37 species, Ardeidae (15 species, and Bucerotidae (12 species. The Barn owl (Tyto alba was the most widely sold species (seven countries. The similarity of avifaunal orders traded is high (analogous to "morphospecies", and using Sørensen's index, which suggests opportunities for a common understanding of cultural factors driving demand. The highest similarity was between bird orders sold in markets of Benin vs. Burkina Faso (90%, but even bird orders sold in two geographically separated countries (Benin vs. South Africa and Nigeria vs. South Africa were 87% and 81% similar, respectively. Rabinowitz's "7 forms of rarity" model, used to group species according to commonness or rarity, indicated that 24% of traded bird species are very common, locally abundant in several habitats, and occur over a large geographical area, but 10% are rare, occur in low numbers in specific habitats, and over a small geographical area. The order with the highest proportion of rare species was the Musophagiformes. An analysis of species mass (as a proxy for size indicated that large and/or conspicuous species tend to be targeted by harvesters for the traditional medicine trade. Furthermore, based on cluster analyses for species groups of similar risk, vultures, hornbills, and other large avifauna, such as bustards, are most threatened by selective harvesting and should be prioritised for conservation action.

  1. Using a Household Food Inventory to Assess the Availability of Traditional Vegetables among Resettled African Refugees

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Gichunge; Shawn Somerset; Neil Harris

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availabili...

  2. Physical activity differences between children from migrant and native origin

    OpenAIRE

    Labree, Wim; Lötters, Freek; van de Mheen, Dike; Rutten, Frans; Rivera Chavarría, A.; Neve, Melissa; Rodenburg, Gerda; Machielsen, H.; Koopmans, Gerrit; Foets, Marleen

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Background: Children from migrant origin are at higher risk for overweight and obesity. As limited physical activity is a key factor in this overweight and obesity risk, in general, the aim of this study is to assess to what degree children from migrant and native Dutch origin differ with regard to levels of physical activity and to determine which home environment aspects contribute to these differences. Methods: A cross-sectional survey among primary caregivers ...

  3. HIV/AIDS and Croatian migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Brouillard, Pamela; Nikolić, Nebojga; Greiner, Nina

    2006-12-01

    Due to their geographical mobility and long periods of separation from intimate partners, migrant workers are at increased risk for a variety of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS. This study sought to investigate patterns in HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitudes and sexual behaviour in migrant workers in Croatia. In 2003, 566 male migrant workers were recruited during regular required medical examinations and surveyed at seven locations throughout the country. Each participant was asked to complete a self-administered KABP (sexual knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices) questionnaire. The average age of respondents was 38.2 years and the majority worked as seafarers (77.3%) and construction workers (20.5%). Only 18.5% of respondents were able to correctly answer all 13 questions assessing knowledge of HIV/AIDS. Seafarers reported higher levels of knowledge than did construction workers. The average respondent reported having had two sexual partners in the last 12 months, with slightly over half of the respondents (55.3%) reporting condom use at their last intercourse with a casual partner. One fifth of the respondents (20.3%) who reported having had intercourse with a sex worker during the last year reported not using condoms at last intercourse. The number of sexual partners was correlated with age, marital status, faith in God, and personal HIV risk assessment. Attitudes toward condom use, co-workers' HIV/AIDS concerns and the duration of migrant status (within the last two years) were shown to be significant correlates of condom use at last intercourse with a casual partner. The effect of HIV/AIDS related knowledge on analyzed behaviors did not reach statistical significance. Inadequate patterns of migrant workers' condom use, gaps in knowledge about HIV transmission and modes of protection, as well as widespread ignorance regarding available anonymous HIV testing found by this study suggest a critical need for expert intervention to

  4. HIV-Related Sexual Behaviors among Migrants and Non-migrants in Rural Ethiopia: Role of Rural to Urban Migration in HIV Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Tamiru, Melesse; Hailemariam, Damen; Mitike, Getnet; Haidar, Jemal

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare HIV-related sexual risk behavior among temporary rural to urban migrants and non-migrants and to explore the role of migration in HIV transmission in a rural area of Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in Bure Woreda, West Gojam, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. A total of 1,310 male subjects (655 rural to urban migrants and 655 non-migrants) were selected randomly and were assessed, analyzed using SPSS version 17 software for their HIV related s...

  5. Are pregnant women prioritized for bed nets? An assessment using survey data from 10 African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricotta, Emily; Koenker, Hannah; Kilian, Albert; Lynch, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Background: Malaria in pregnancy is a major public health concern, contributing to roughly 11% of neonatal deaths and to 25% of all maternal deaths in some parts of the world. The World Health Organization has recommended priority interventions for malaria during pregnancy, including use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), but net distribution has shifted recently to a universal coverage paradigm rather than one targeting vulnerable populations. Methods: To determine whether and to what extent pregnant women are prioritized within the household for ITN use, we assessed national survey data from 2009–2013 in 10 African countries. Proportion of pregnant women who slept under an ITN the previous night and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and compared between countries. Within-country logistic regression examined whether pregnancy was significantly associated with ITN use the previous night compared with other risk groups, and the predicted probability of net use for each risk group was calculated holding other covariates constant. Results: A median 58% of households reported owning at least 1 ITN. On average, across all 10 countries, 35% of pregnant women in households with at least 1 ITN used a net. Households with universal coverage (at least 1 ITN per 2 people) had higher levels of net use among all family members; for example, 79% of pregnant women, on average, used a net in such households. In all countries, the predicted probability of ITN use by pregnant women was significantly higher than the probability of net use by most other household members except non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Conclusion: These findings suggest that both pregnant women and non-pregnant women of reproductive age are being prioritized within the household for net use. However, behavior change communication strategies are needed to achieve ITN use goals for pregnant women. PMID:25276574

  6. Solute clearance measurement in the assessment of dialysis adequacy among African continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Abdu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solute clearance measurement is an objective means of quantifying the dose of peritoneal dialysis (PD. Despite continued debate on the interpretation and precise prognostic value of small solute clearance in PD patients, guidelines based on solute clearance values are common in clinical practice. There is limited information on the solute clearance indices and PD adequacy parameters among this predominantly low socioeconomic status PD population. We investigated the solute clearance among continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD patients at the Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital and its relationship with other parameters of PD adequacy. Seventy patients on CAPD were studied in this cross-sectional study. Solute clearance was assessed using urea clearance (Kt/V. Linear regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with solute clearance, while analysis of variance was used to test the influence of weekly Kt/V on blood pressure (BP, hemoglobin (Hb and other biochemical parameters. The mean age of the study population was 37.9 ± 12.4 years, 43% were females and 86% were black Africans. The mean duration on CAPD was 19.7 ± 20.8 months. Mean systolic and diastolic BP were 144 ± 28 and 92 ± 17 mm Hg, respectively. The mean Hb was 11.1 ± 2.2 g/dL and the mean weekly Kt/V was 1.7 ± 0.3. Factors like systolic BP, Hb level, serum levels of cholesterol, calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone and albumin were not significantly associated with the weekly Kt/V. We conclude that the dose of PD received by the majority of our patients in terms of the weekly Kt/V is within the recommended values and that this finding is significant considering the low socioeconomic background of our patients. There is no significant association between Kt/V and other indices of dialysis adequacy.

  7. Reliability and validity of instruments for assessing perinatal depression in African settings: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C Tsai

    Full Text Available A major barrier to improving perinatal mental health in Africa is the lack of locally validated tools for identifying probable cases of perinatal depression or for measuring changes in depression symptom severity. We systematically reviewed the evidence on the reliability and validity of instruments to assess perinatal depression in African settings.Of 1,027 records identified through searching 7 electronic databases, we reviewed 126 full-text reports. We included 25 unique studies, which were disseminated in 26 journal articles and 1 doctoral dissertation. These enrolled 12,544 women living in nine different North and sub-Saharan African countries. Only three studies (12% used instruments developed specifically for use in a given cultural setting. Most studies provided evidence of criterion-related validity (20 [80%] or reliability (15 [60%], while fewer studies provided evidence of construct validity, content validity, or internal structure. The Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS, assessed in 16 studies (64%, was the most frequently used instrument in our sample. Ten studies estimated the internal consistency of the EPDS (median estimated coefficient alpha, 0.84; interquartile range, 0.71-0.87. For the 14 studies that estimated sensitivity and specificity for the EPDS, we constructed 2 x 2 tables for each cut-off score. Using a bivariate random-effects model, we estimated a pooled sensitivity of 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68-0.99 and a pooled specificity of 0.77 (95% CI, 0.59-0.88 at a cut-off score of ≥ 9, with higher cut-off scores yielding greater specificity at the cost of lower sensitivity.The EPDS can reliably and validly measure perinatal depression symptom severity or screen for probable postnatal depression in African countries, but more validation studies on other instruments are needed. In addition, more qualitative research is needed to adequately characterize local understandings of perinatal depression

  8. Making Migrants Governable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenum, Helle

    2012-01-01

    This paper will investigate the production of knowledge regarding the number of illegalized migrants. Estimation of the number has been the common frame for production of this kind of knowledge, performed by social scientists, government officials, NGOs and others, but now biometric technology...... offers new perspectives on data, concepts and production of political numbers. Based on an analysis of various approaches to estimation of the number of irregular migration and an outline of biometric visions in the European Union on data production, the paper concludes that the changes caused...... by biometric technology will produce increased objectivity and depolitization in numbers of irregular migrants which could not be obtained in the field of estimation. The level of truth reflects the level of control and surveillance fixed as a strategy of government of mobility in the biometric technology....

  9. Migrants and educational achievement gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Entorf, Horst

    2015-01-01

    As global migration flows increase, so do the number of migrant students in host country schools. Yet migrants' achievement scores lag well behind those of their native-born schoolmates. Performance gaps are explained largely by differences in migrant parents' socio-economic background, cultural capital, and language skills. Education policy needs to focus on language teaching, parental involvement, diversity training, and beneficial social interaction between immigrant and native-born popula...

  10. China's Migrant Workers' Social Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Sifeng; Zhang Wenxue; Wang Lijian; Zhang Li

    2010-01-01

    Based on the definition of migrant workers and migrant workers'social security,systems,policies and regulations and status quo of specific safeguard project of social security have been analyzed.Authors draw following conclusions: China's social security systems of migrant workers show diversification and differentiation trend; national-level policies take on diversification and local-level regulations take on differentiation; social welfare and social assistance have deficiency; coverage rate of social insurance items is extremely low.

  11. Palaearctic-African Bird Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwajomo, Soladoye Babatola

    Bird migration has attracted a lot of interests over past centuries and the methods used for studying this phenomenon has greatly improved in terms of availability, dimension, scale and precision. In spite of the advancements, relatively more is known about the spring migration of trans......-Saharan migrants than autumn migration. Information about the behavior and interactions of migrants during the nonbreeding season in sub-Saharan Africa is also scarce for many species. Furthermore, very little is known about intra-African migration. This thesis summarizes my research on the autumn migration...... of birds from Europe to Africa and opens up the possibility of studying intra-African migration. I have used long-term, standardized autumn ringing data from southeast Sweden to investigate patterns in biometrics, phenology and population trends as inferred from annual trapping totals. In addition, I...

  12. Assessment of Flooring Renovations on African Elephant (Loxodonta africana Behavior and Glucocorticoid Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Boyle

    Full Text Available Captive African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus elephants can experience foot pathologies and arthritis. As a preventative measure against these pathologies and to alleviate the potential discomfort due to concrete substrates, some zoological institutions have renovated elephant housing to increase the amount of natural or shock-absorbent substrates. The objective of this study was to compare behavioral (diurnal and nocturnal and glucorticoid (e.g., serum cortisol responses of three female African elephants before, during, and after renovation to their indoor housing floor to assess whether renovations had short-term effects on the elephants' behavior and stress physiology. Behavioral data were collected using scan-sampling methods, and activity budgets were constructed for each of the three elephants. In addition, the duration of all lying rest activities were recorded. Weekly serum cortisol concentrations were determined with enzyme immunoassay (EIA. Overall, eating was the most prevalent behavior exhibited outdoors during the day, while resting (either in a lying or standing position were most common during the indoor, nocturnal periods. Although variation existed among the three elephants, all three females spent significantly more time walking and less time eating during the day after the completion of the renovations. The extent to which the three elephants exhibited nocturnal lying rest behavior varied among the elephants, with the oldest elephant exhibiting the least amount (an average of 13.2 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans compared to the two younger elephants (an average of 34.5 ± 2.1% and 56.6 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans. There was a significant increase in lying rest behavior for one elephant and standing rest for a second elephant following renovations. Baseline cortisol concentrations prior to renovations were 3.0 ± 0.4 ng/ml, 4.5 ± 0.5 ng/ml, and 4.9 ± 0.5 ng/ml for the three elephants

  13. Assessment of Flooring Renovations on African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) Behavior and Glucocorticoid Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Sarah A; Roberts, Beth; Pope, Brittany M; Blake, Margaret R; Leavelle, Stephen E; Marshall, Jennifer J; Smith, Andrew; Hadicke, Amanda; Falcone, Josephine F; Knott, Katrina; Kouba, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Captive African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants can experience foot pathologies and arthritis. As a preventative measure against these pathologies and to alleviate the potential discomfort due to concrete substrates, some zoological institutions have renovated elephant housing to increase the amount of natural or shock-absorbent substrates. The objective of this study was to compare behavioral (diurnal and nocturnal) and glucorticoid (e.g., serum cortisol) responses of three female African elephants before, during, and after renovation to their indoor housing floor to assess whether renovations had short-term effects on the elephants' behavior and stress physiology. Behavioral data were collected using scan-sampling methods, and activity budgets were constructed for each of the three elephants. In addition, the duration of all lying rest activities were recorded. Weekly serum cortisol concentrations were determined with enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Overall, eating was the most prevalent behavior exhibited outdoors during the day, while resting (either in a lying or standing position) were most common during the indoor, nocturnal periods. Although variation existed among the three elephants, all three females spent significantly more time walking and less time eating during the day after the completion of the renovations. The extent to which the three elephants exhibited nocturnal lying rest behavior varied among the elephants, with the oldest elephant exhibiting the least amount (an average of 13.2 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans) compared to the two younger elephants (an average of 34.5 ± 2.1% and 56.6 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans). There was a significant increase in lying rest behavior for one elephant and standing rest for a second elephant following renovations. Baseline cortisol concentrations prior to renovations were 3.0 ± 0.4 ng/ml, 4.5 ± 0.5 ng/ml, and 4.9 ± 0.5 ng/ml for the three elephants. Cortisol

  14. Case-control assessment of diet and lung cancer risk in African Americans and Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillow, P C; Hursting, S D; Duphorne, C M; Jiang, H; Honn, S E; Chang, S; Spitz, M R

    1997-01-01

    In this case-control study we determined whether dietary differences underlie some of the ethnic and sex differences in US lung cancer rates. We examined the relationship between diet and lung cancer development in 137 lung cancer cases (93 African Americans and 44 Mexican Americans) and 187 controls (78 African Americans and 109 Mexican Americans). Cases reported a higher daily mean total fat intake (p fruits (p = 0.02). Ethnic differences in diet were also observed: Mexican Americans consumed less total fat (p fruits (p lung cancer risk (p fruit consumption and lung cancer risk (p = 0.05). In conclusion, our findings support the hypothesis that diet, particularly high fat consumption and low fruit and vegetable consumption, contributes (independent of cigarette smoking) to the excess lung cancer risk in African-American men, who have the highest lung cancer rates in the United States.

  15. Women migrants in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinwa-adebusoye, P K

    1994-06-01

    The prevailing notion in Nigeria is that female migration is associational migration. This survey of the towns of Ibadan, Enugu, Lagos, and Kaduna examines the need for female paid employment and the reasons for migration based on marital status among 2316 migrant women with comparisons to 1363 nonmigrant women. A primary motivation for migration is dissatisfaction with living conditions. Families are support groups providing transportation and initial reinforcement for moves to urban areas. Remittances to families in the place of origin reinforce the investment. The expectation is that women will use migration as an option for advanced education, paid employment, and increased income. The survey found that only 8.2% of migrants made the decision to migrate alone. 82.7% make migration decisions jointly with family members: husbands, parents, and other relatives. Single women were more likely to make sole decisions or decisions with parents. 94% indicated family support for the decision to migrate. About 18% of single women paid the cost of transportation and the move themselves. 70% made the move in the company of parents and other relatives. Married women's costs were underwritten by husbands, except for 9.5% who paid for it themselves. 82.6% did not have a prearranged job before migrating. The average stay ranged from three months to several years. About 33% stayed less than a year. Most migrants with wage employment in the formal sector secured their positions with the help of relatives. 55.4% of migrants in the survey stayed with relatives on arrival, 8.6% were in rented units, and 2.5% stayed in employer housing. Slightly more than 50% of migrants staying with relatives and received free board. Female migration between 1971 and 1981 was influenced by modernization and greater advancement in education. Transportation and communication improvements made it easier to migrate. The economic recession and structural adjustment measures during the 1980s stimulated

  16. A critical assessment of the key success factors of social media as a marketing tool in the South African tourism industry / Clarise Letitia Mostert

    OpenAIRE

    Mostert, Clarise Letitia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to critically assess the key success factors of social media as a marketing tool in the South African tourism industry. Numerous studies have been done on social media, but none of them were focused on optimising the success of social media in the South African tourism industry. Relationship marketing and social media is interrelated, where relationships form the foundation of social media. Social media has become the world’s latest marketing marvel, dissemina...

  17. Migrants and Health in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bäckström

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to atain knowledge on immigrant´s health related problems and to identify their dificulties when acesing health care services. The article describes immigrant´s dificulties when acesing health care services that are visiting the health ofice at a National Immigrant Support Centre.Design: : A qualitative study was conducted, analysing available documentation and observing the health isues dealt with at the National Immigrant Support Centre’s (CNAI Health Ofice. The 148 cases are mainly immigrants coming from Portuguese speaking African countries for health purposes. Immigrants from Brazil have more restricted aces, and feel discrimination on the part of the services. Immigrants from Eastern Europe come in search of information and have communication dificulties. Obstacles are related to the lack of knowledge of the law, but also to the failure of puting the law into practice. The ofice has had a great demand of users seeking information and in acesingthe health care system.Results: The cases analysed are mainly nationals from Portuguese Speaking African Countries (PSAC, Brazil and countries in Eastern Europe. The majority of the immigrants coming from PSAC are patients receiving treatment under international Cooperation Agreements requesting financial and social support. Immigrants from Brazil have more restricted aces and feel greater discrimination on the part of the services. New Labour Migrants from Eastern Europe, on the other hand, come in search of information and are known to have communication dificulties.Conclusions: Legislation in Portugal provides aces to health care to al citizens, regardles of their legal condition and origin. However, some immigrants have had significant dificulties with aces to Portugal’s National Health Service. The obstacles are not only related to the lack of legal knowledge, but also to the failure of puting the law into practice, which requires atention by

  18. Labour market specific institutions and the working conditions of labour migrants:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnholtz, Jens; Hansen, Nana Wesley

    2013-01-01

    Based on a respondent driven sampling survey with 500 Polish migrant workers in Denmark, this article argues that specific labour market institutions and sector differences need to be taken into account when explaining the working conditions of migrant workers. Comparing the working conditions of...... such as institutionalized wage variability within sectors and the decentralized regulation of working conditions are important when assessing the potential implication of migrant workers in the labour market.......Based on a respondent driven sampling survey with 500 Polish migrant workers in Denmark, this article argues that specific labour market institutions and sector differences need to be taken into account when explaining the working conditions of migrant workers. Comparing the working conditions...... of Polish and Danish workers, it is shown that labour market institutional arrangements provide a better explanation for the differences found between the two groups than differences in individual characteristics of the migrants and the Danish workforce. In addition, the article argues that factors...

  19. Pharmacophore modeling and in silico toxicity assessment of potential anticancer agents from African medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntie-Kang F

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fidele Ntie-Kang,1,2,* Conrad Veranso Simoben,1,2,* Berin Karaman,1 Valery Fuh Ngwa,3 Philip Neville Judson,4 Wolfgang Sippl,1 Luc Meva’a Mbaze5 1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Martin-Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale, Germany; 2Department of Chemistry, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon; 3Interuniversity Institute For Biostatistics and Statistical Bioinformatics (I-BioStat, University of Hasselt, Hasselt, Belgium; 4Chemical Bioactivity Information Centre, Harrogate, UK; 5Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Molecular modeling has been employed in the search for lead compounds of chemotherapy to fight cancer. In this study, pharmacophore models have been generated and validated for use in virtual screening protocols for eight known anticancer drug targets, including tyrosine kinase, protein kinase B β, cyclin-dependent kinase, protein farnesyltransferase, human protein kinase, glycogen synthase kinase, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1. Pharmacophore models were validated through receiver operating characteristic and Güner–Henry scoring methods, indicating that several of the models generated could be useful for the identification of potential anticancer agents from natural product databases. The validated pharmacophore models were used as three-dimensional search queries for virtual screening of the newly developed AfroCancer database (~400 compounds from African medicinal plants, along with the Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anticancer Compound-Activity-Target dataset (comprising ~1,500 published naturally occurring plant-based compounds from around the world. Additionally, an in silico assessment of toxicity of the two datasets was carried out by the use of 88 toxicity end points predicted by the Lhasa’s expert knowledge-based system (Derek, showing that only an insignificant proportion of the promising

  20. BUREAU OF MIGRANT LABOR REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    YERSAK, CHARLES G.

    A GRADUAL REDUCTION IN MIGRANT LABOR HAS OCCURRED IN NEW JERSEY BECAUSE OF MECHANIZATION AND URBANIZATION. THIS REDUCTION IS REFLECTED IN FEWER ACTIVE CAMPS THAT HOUSE WORKERS. THE TREND IS AWAY FROM THE USE OF FRAME BUILDINGS AND NEW CAMPS BEING BUILT ARE CONSTRUCTED OF CINDER BLOCK. THE MIGRANT FORCE IS LARGELY COMPOSED OF NEGROES FROM THE SOUTH…

  1. Diabetes among migrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Kamper-Jørgensen, Zaza; Carstensen, Bendix;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Studies of diabetes in migrant populations have shown a higher prevalence compared to their respective countries of origin and to people natively born in the host country, but there is little population-based data on diabetes incidence and mortality in migrant populations. The aim...... of the current study was (1) to describe the incidence rates and prevalence of diabetes among first generation migrants in Denmark compared to the Danish background population, and (2) to compare standardised mortality rates (SMRs) for individuals with and without diabetes according to country of origin...... to the part of the population without diabetes were calculated based on follow up of the entire Danish population. RESULTS: Compared with native born Danes, the incidence of diabetes was about 2.5 times higher among migrants from Africa, Asia, and the Middle East, and these migrant groups also showed...

  2. THE FEASIBILITY OF FINANCING INDONESIAN MIGRANT WORKERS BY ISLAMIC BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Agus Pramuka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper identifies the profile of migrant workers located in Banyumas regency, assesses the financial feasibility of the scheme, and gauges the viability of the migrant workers financing from conventional and Islamic banks’ perspectives. The samples comprises potential migrant workers, ex-migrant workers and their relatives. The nature of the study is descriptive qualitative where both primary and secondary data were analysed during the study. The result of the study indicates that financing migrant workers to work abroad is economically desirable for both conventional and Islamic banks. Either mode of financing, Islamic and conventional, are advantageous to the Indonesian workers who want to work abroad. Keywords: Feasibility study, financing, migrant workers, Islamic banks JEL classification numbers: G21, G29AbstrakMakalah ini mengidentifikasi profil pekerja migran di kabupaten Banyumas, menaksir kelayakan keuangan dari skema tersebut, dan memperkirakan kelayakan pembiyaan para pekerja migran dari perspektif bank islam dan bank konvensional. Sampel yang digunakan terdiri dari para pekerja migran potensial, bekas pekerja migran, serta keluarga mereka. Penelitian ini bersifat deskriptif kualitatif menggunakan baik data primer dan data sekunder. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa pembiayaan terhadap para pekerja migran untuk bekerja di luar negeri secara ekonomis adalah layak baik dari pserspektif bank islam maupun bank konvensional. Baik mode pembiayaan islam maupun konvensional memberikan keuntungan bagi para pekerja Indonesia yang bekerja di luar negeri.Kata kunci: Studi kelayakan, pembiayaan, pekerja migran, bank islamJEL classification numbers: G21, G29

  3. Assessment of genotype imputation performance using 1000 Genomes in African American studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana B Hancock

    Full Text Available Genotype imputation, used in genome-wide association studies to expand coverage of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, has performed poorly in African Americans compared to less admixed populations. Overall, imputation has typically relied on HapMap reference haplotype panels from Africans (YRI, European Americans (CEU, and Asians (CHB/JPT. The 1000 Genomes project offers a wider range of reference populations, such as African Americans (ASW, but their imputation performance has had limited evaluation. Using 595 African Americans genotyped on Illumina's HumanHap550v3 BeadChip, we compared imputation results from four software programs (IMPUTE2, BEAGLE, MaCH, and MaCH-Admix and three reference panels consisting of different combinations of 1000 Genomes populations (February 2012 release: (1 3 specifically selected populations (YRI, CEU, and ASW; (2 8 populations of diverse African (AFR or European (AFR descent; and (3 all 14 available populations (ALL. Based on chromosome 22, we calculated three performance metrics: (1 concordance (percentage of masked genotyped SNPs with imputed and true genotype agreement; (2 imputation quality score (IQS; concordance adjusted for chance agreement, which is particularly informative for low minor allele frequency [MAF] SNPs; and (3 average r2hat (estimated correlation between the imputed and true genotypes, for all imputed SNPs. Across the reference panels, IMPUTE2 and MaCH had the highest concordance (91%-93%, but IMPUTE2 had the highest IQS (81%-83% and average r2hat (0.68 using YRI+ASW+CEU, 0.62 using AFR+EUR, and 0.55 using ALL. Imputation quality for most programs was reduced by the addition of more distantly related reference populations, due entirely to the introduction of low frequency SNPs (MAF≤2% that are monomorphic in the more closely related panels. While imputation was optimized by using IMPUTE2 with reference to the ALL panel (average r2hat = 0.86 for SNPs with MAF>2%, use of the ALL

  4. Remuneration Difference between Migrant Workers and Non-migrant Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changlin; DUAN; Huawei; LUO

    2013-01-01

    Through the survey of direct economic remuneration, indirect economic remuneration and non-economic remuneration of employees in flat panel furniture enterprises in Chengdu City, we conduct a comparative analysis of the problems and causes of remuneration difference between migrant workers and non-migrant workers. The results show that the wage difference between migrant workers and non-migrant workers is the biggest, and there is little difference in terms of interests safeguarding and non-economic factors. The reason for the above results lies in the difference of education level; gender, region, household registration and other issues have little impact on the above results. The following recommendations are put forward to improve the remuneration of migrant workers: increasing government’s policy advocacy efforts and eliminating subjective offense; establishing the administrative oversight bodies and effectively safeguarding the legitimate rights and interests of migrant workers; strengthening vocational training for migrant workers, so that workers have more choices on positions; improving the working environment and developing good working atmosphere.

  5. Using a Household Food Inventory to Assess the Availability of Traditional Vegetables among Resettled African Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gichunge, Catherine; Somerset, Shawn; Harris, Neil

    2016-01-18

    A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availability were less likely to consume the recommended number of vegetable servings. Barriers faced in the food environment included language, lack of availability of traditional vegetables and lack of transport. All of these aspects contributed to the study findings that both individual and food environment characteristics may play a role in access to and availability of food and vegetable consumption of resettled refugees. Consumption of traditional foods among the resettled refugees continues post resettlement.

  6. Using a Household Food Inventory to Assess the Availability of Traditional Vegetables among Resettled African Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gichunge, Catherine; Somerset, Shawn; Harris, Neil

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availability were less likely to consume the recommended number of vegetable servings. Barriers faced in the food environment included language, lack of availability of traditional vegetables and lack of transport. All of these aspects contributed to the study findings that both individual and food environment characteristics may play a role in access to and availability of food and vegetable consumption of resettled refugees. Consumption of traditional foods among the resettled refugees continues post resettlement. PMID:26797623

  7. Mapping South African farming sector vulnerability to climate change and variability: A subnational assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Gbetibouo, Glwadys Aymone; Ringler, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    "This paper analyzes the vulnerability of South African farmers to climate change and variability by developing a vulnerability index and comparing vulnerability indicators across the nine provinces of the country. Nineteen environmental and socio-economic indicators are identified to reflect the three components of vulnerability: exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. The results of the study show that the region's most vulnerable to climate change and variability also have a higher c...

  8. Assessing Social Anxiety in African American Youth using the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pina, Armando A.; LITTLE, MICHELLE; Wynne, Henry; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2014-01-01

    Examined measurement invariance and cut-off scores of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C) using data corresponding to a convenience sample of 501 African American and Caucasian youth (Mage = 11.62 years, 249 girls; 49% with social anxiety disorder) using exploratory structural equation modeling and a weighted least squares mean variance estimator. For the cut-off scores, Receiver Operator Characteristic analyses were used along with Youden’s index to evaluate the bal...

  9. Ecological momentary assessment of environmental and personal factors and snack food intake in African American women

    OpenAIRE

    Zenk, Shannon N; Horoi, Irina; McDonald, Ashley; Corte, Colleen; Riley, Barth; Odoms-Young, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined contributions of environmental and personal factors (specifically, food availability and expense, daily hassles, self-efficacy, positive and negative affect) to within-person and betweenperson variations in snack food intake in 100 African American women. Participants were signaled at random five times daily for seven days to complete a survey on a study-provided smartphone. Women reported consuming snack foods at 35.2% of signals. Easier food availability accounting for o...

  10. Drinking to cope among African American college students: an assessment of episode-specific motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Ross E; Boynton, Marcella H; Scott, Denise M; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard; Williams, Carla; Covault, Jonathan

    2014-09-01

    Despite evidence that African Americans are disproportionately affected by drinking to cope relative to European Americans, African American college students' drinking motives remain understudied. Additionally, most research has only examined between-person differences in drinking to cope as a predictor of alcohol use, ignoring within-person variability. In the current daily diary study of 462 African American undergraduates from a historically Black university, associations between episode-specific drinking to cope motives and alcohol use were tested, an approach more consistent with motivational theories of drinking. At baseline, students completed traditional global drinking motive measures; then for 30 days they reported the number of standard drinks they consumed the previous night, and, if they drank, their coping, enhancement, and social reasons for doing so. Students who reported higher mean levels of episode-specific coping motives, on average, consumed more alcohol on drinking evenings. Furthermore, mean episode-specific coping motives, but not global coping motives, predicted average levels of alcohol use. Additionally, coping motives were particularly important for predicting nonsocial (vs. social) drinking. Finally, during evenings for which students reported higher than usual episode-specific coping motives, men consumed more alcohol in both social and nonsocial contexts; in contrast, women reporting higher than usual drinking-to-cope motives only consumed more nonsocial drinks. In conclusion, drinking among African American college students was related to coping motives, particularly among men and in the context of nonsocial alcohol consumption. Moreover, motivational theories of alcohol use may be refined by measuring episode-specific drinking motives that more accurately capture the drinking-to-cope process. PMID:25134052

  11. Migrants on the move.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, S

    1988-11-01

    International migration benefits both acceptor and sender countries. Skilled migrants bring economic vitality to many of the wealthy nations facing an extreme shortage of workers while their migration helps to ease their native land's overpopulation. There are currently between 20 and 22 million economically active migrants around the world; most are Asian or Latin American and migrate to the US, Canada, Australia, or new Zealand. The US takes in the largest number of legal immigrants yearly at 600,000, Australia admits 93,000, Canada 84,000, and New Zealand 35,000. Because of the rising unemployment rates, Canada allows 37,000 fewer entrants yearly today than in 1982, while New Zealand allows 11,000 fewer. 4 million legal immigrants entered the US between 1980 and 1986, and about 3.5 million illegal immigrants in 1987 alone. Asians account for about 45% of all US immigrants, while Europeans account for only 17%. 32% of all entrants claimed to be technicians or managers compared to about 2% in 1911. About 15% of Canada's population is foreign-born, while Australia's population is about 20% foreign-born. Some poor countries like Pakistan, South Korea, and Turkey send workers abroad so that they can collect remittances. Such an opening of global immigration policy can ease demographic imbalances, skills transfers, and economic development. PMID:12281763

  12. Human rights of migrant women workers in janitorial services and night clubs: A case of North Cyprus

    OpenAIRE

    Güven - Lisaniler, Fatma; Uğural, Sevin; Rodriguez, Leopoldo

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – To discuss the gender dimension of migration and human rights, and to provide an assessment of how to improve human rights protections for migrant women workers in janitorial services and night clubs across registered and unregistered migrant women workers in North Cyprus. Design/methodology/approach – A survey is done to establish the employment conditions of migrant women workers in both sectors. The conditions are evaluated to assess the compliance with North Cyprus labor an...

  13. Factors associated with health-seeking behavior among migrant workers in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Hongpu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migrant workers are a unique phenomenon in the process of China's economic transformation. The household registration system classifies them as temporary residents in cities, putting them in a vulnerable state with an unfair share of urban infrastructure and social public welfare. The amount of pressure inflicted by migrant workers in Beijing, as one of the major migration destinations, is currently at a threshold. This study was designed to assess the factors associated with health-seeking behavior and to explore feasible solutions to the obstacles migrant workers in China faced with when accessing health-care. Methods A sample of 2,478 migrant workers in Beijing was chosen by the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method. A structured questionnaire survey was conducted via face-to-face interviews between investigators and subjects. The multilevel methodology (MLM was used to demonstrate the independent effects of the explanatory variables on health seeking behavior in migrant workers. Results The medical visitation rate of migrant workers within the past two weeks was 4.8%, which only accounted for 36.4% of those who were ill. Nearly one-third of the migrant workers chose self-medication (33.3% or no measures (30.3% while ill within the past two weeks. 19.7% of the sick migrants who should have been hospitalized failed to receive medical treatment within the past year. According to self-reported reasons, the high cost of health service was a significant obstacle to health-care access for 40.5% of the migrant workers who became sick. However, 94.0% of the migrant workers didn't have any insurance coverage in Beijing. The multilevel model analysis indicates that health-seeking behavior among migrants is significantly associated with their insurance coverage. Meanwhile, such factors as household monthly income per capita and working hours per day also affect the medical visitation rate of the migrant workers in Beijing

  14. Assessing Collectivism in Latino, Asian/Pacific Islander, and African American Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Psychometric Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauceda, John A; Paul, Jay P; Gregorich, Steven E; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2016-02-01

    The study of collectivism has implications for HIV prevention research, especially in studies that use a social networking or community mobilization approach. However, research on collectivism in race/ethnicity and sexual minority groups is limited. We psychometrically evaluated a brief version of the Individualism-Collectivism Interpersonal Assessment Inventory (ICIAI) in a chain-referral sample of 400 Latino, 393 Asian/Pacific Islander, and 403 African American men who have sex with men (MSM). Data were collected via a one-time survey on demographics, the ICIAI, acculturation, and ethnicity identity. We conducted a multiple groups confirmatory factor analysis to assess for measurement invariance across the three groups of MSM, as well as tested its reliability and validity. The ICIAI evidenced good psychometric properties and was invariant across all groups. We highlight implications for how this measure of collectivism can be applied toward the study of HIV prevention and in lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender communities. PMID:26829254

  15. Assessing Collectivism in Latino, Asian/Pacific Islander, and African American Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Psychometric Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauceda, John A; Paul, Jay P; Gregorich, Steven E; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2016-02-01

    The study of collectivism has implications for HIV prevention research, especially in studies that use a social networking or community mobilization approach. However, research on collectivism in race/ethnicity and sexual minority groups is limited. We psychometrically evaluated a brief version of the Individualism-Collectivism Interpersonal Assessment Inventory (ICIAI) in a chain-referral sample of 400 Latino, 393 Asian/Pacific Islander, and 403 African American men who have sex with men (MSM). Data were collected via a one-time survey on demographics, the ICIAI, acculturation, and ethnicity identity. We conducted a multiple groups confirmatory factor analysis to assess for measurement invariance across the three groups of MSM, as well as tested its reliability and validity. The ICIAI evidenced good psychometric properties and was invariant across all groups. We highlight implications for how this measure of collectivism can be applied toward the study of HIV prevention and in lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender communities.

  16. Migrant fertility differentials in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundquist, F; Brown, L A

    1989-01-01

    The effects of migration on fertility in Ecuador were analyzed by subdividing migrant categories into permanent-, return-, circular-, and non-migrants, and context factors into 6 socioeconomic and agrarian variables. The study is introduced with a conceptual framework that explains personal intermediate variables and their influence on fertility in terms of demographic transition theory, and then defines the influences of selection for fertility, disruption of marital unions, and socialization into fertility norms at the origin vs. assimilation of norms at the destination. Migrants are usually better educated, younger and upwardly mobile, all selecting for lower fertility. Migration disrupts formation of marital unions, and causes separation of spouses, lowering fertility. Data for this study were from the 1974 and 1982 Ecuadorian Population Censuses. The contextual variables analyzed were urban/rural; manufacturing/agricultural; mineral extraction/economic recession; long/recent agricultural settlement; domestic/export crop; and large/medium sized farm. The analysis of personal attributes showed that fertility increased over the range on non-migrants through circular-, return- to permanent-migrants, a finding explained by degrees of disruption of unions. Higher fertility was associated with less education, lower economic participation, higher prevalence of marriage, longer residence and older ages. Regression analysis also showed that personal attributes outweighed contextual factors: thus age, marriage rates, residence time, education and economic activity were significant. Contextual factors were important only for non-migrants, except for destination variables which affected return-migrants and origin variables which affected circular-migrants. Low fertility was associated with urbanization, industrialization, mineral extraction, large farms, recent farm settlement and export crops. The results indicate cear influences of modernity and place influences on

  17. An investigation into newly diagnosed HIV infection among Africans living in London

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, F. M.

    2009-01-01

    In the UK substantial numbers of new HIV diagnoses are within migrant African communities. A continuing feature of HIV in this population is the late presentation to HIV services. This dissertation sets out to explore HIV testing among Africans in the UK, the factors associated with late presentation to HIV services, and the extent of HIV acquisition within the UK in African communities. The main focus of the thesis is the ‘study of newly diagnosed HIV among Africans in London’...

  18. Age determination by back length for African savanna elephants: extending age assessment techniques for aerial-based surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan J Trimble

    Full Text Available Determining the age of individuals in a population can lead to a better understanding of population dynamics through age structure analysis and estimation of age-specific fecundity and survival rates. Shoulder height has been used to accurately assign age to free-ranging African savanna elephants. However, back length may provide an analog measurable in aerial-based surveys. We assessed the relationship between back length and age for known-age elephants in Amboseli National Park, Kenya, and Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. We also compared age- and sex-specific back lengths between these populations and compared adult female back lengths across 11 widely dispersed populations in five African countries. Sex-specific Von Bertalanffy growth curves provided a good fit to the back length data of known-age individuals. Based on back length, accurate ages could be assigned relatively precisely for females up to 23 years of age and males up to 17. The female back length curve allowed more precise age assignment to older females than the curve for shoulder height does, probably because of divergence between the respective growth curves. However, this did not appear to be the case for males, but the sample of known-age males was limited to ≤27 years. Age- and sex-specific back lengths were similar in Amboseli National Park and Addo Elephant National Park. Furthermore, while adult female back lengths in the three Zambian populations were generally shorter than in other populations, back lengths in the remaining eight populations did not differ significantly, in support of claims that growth patterns of African savanna elephants are similar over wide geographic regions. Thus, the growth curves presented here should allow researchers to use aerial-based surveys to assign ages to elephants with greater precision than previously possible and, therefore, to estimate population variables.

  19. Socioeconomic inequalities in informal payments for health care: An assessment of the 'Robin Hood' hypothesis in 33 African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankeu, Hyacinthe Tchewonpi; Ventelou, Bruno

    2016-02-01

    In almost all African countries, informal payments are frequently made when accessing health care. Some literature suggests that the informal payment system could lead to quasi-redistribution among patients, with physicians playing a 'Robin Hood' role, subsidizing the poor at the expense of the rich. We empirically tested this assumption with data from the rounds 3 and 5 of the Afrobarometer surveys conducted in 18 and 33 African countries respectively, from 2005 to 2006 for round 3 and from 2011 to 2013 for round 5. In these surveys, nationally representative samples of people aged 18 years or more were randomly selected in each country, with sizes varying between 1048 and 2400 for round 3 and between 1190 and 2407 for round 5. We used the 'normalized' concentration index, the poor/rich gap and the odds ratio to assess the level of inequality in the payment of bribes to access care at the local public health facility and implemented two decomposition techniques to identify the contributors to the observed inequalities. We obtained that: i) the socioeconomic gradient in informal payments is in favor of the rich in almost all countries, indicating a rather regressive system; ii) this is mainly due to the socioeconomic disadvantage itself, to poor/rich differences in supply side factors like lack of medicines, absence of doctors and long waiting times, as well as regional disparities. Although essentially empirical, the paper highlights the need for African health systems to undergo substantial country-specific reforms in order to better protect the worse-off from financial risk when they seek care. PMID:26808336

  20. Do Migrants Get Good Jobs? : New Migrant Settlement in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Junankar, P. N. (Raja); Mahuteau, Stéphane

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the ease with which recent immigrants to Australia from different countries and with different visa categories enter employment at an appropriate level to their prior education and experience in the source country. Unlike most of the earlier research in this field that studied the labour market status of migrants (probabilities of employment, or unemployment, or participation, or wage equation) this paper focuses on the quality of job that the migrant obtains on arriva...

  1. Chlorophyll Fluorescence as a Tool to Assess the Regeneration Potential of African Violet Leaf Explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert KEUTGEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Micropropagation of many ornamentals has enabled their efficient commercialisation and many problems have been solved by the elaboration of adequate culture protocols. Nevertheless, a non-destructive technique for monitoring the developmental progress of explants would be desirable. The present study focussed on the applicability of chlorophyll fluorescence in leaf explants of African violet (a Saintpaulia ionantha × confusa – hybrid explanted onto Murashige and Skoog basic medium. The explants that survived on the medium without additional phytohormones had the capacity to develop further into two different kinds of explants: light green explants, characterized by a non-regular size growth and stiffer appearance, and dark green explants capable of organogenesis. Compared to the source leaves of African violet plants, explants were characterized by reduced chlorophyll (Chl and carotenoid (Car contents as well as a tendency towards a higher Car/Chl ratio. The Chl a/b ratio decreased significantly in the light green explants. A reduction of maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm accompanied by a high percentage (> 50% of thermal energy dissipation as a consequence of an elevated light intensity (800 µmol m-2 s-1 quanta indicated photoinhibition in the light green explants, whereas in the dark green explants the largest percentage (> 50% of the light energy was dissipated into the fraction of photon energy trapped by ‘closed’ photosystem II reaction centres. These results suggest that the capacity of organogenesis of leaf explants of African violet can be monitored using chlorophyll fluorescence, because it is related to modifications of the photosynthetic system.

  2. An assessment of African test sites in the context of a global network of quality-assured reference standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, G.; Xiong, X.; Angal, A.; Choi, T.

    2009-01-01

    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Infrared and Visible Optical Sensors (IVOS) subgroup members established a set of CEOS-endorsed globally distributed reference standard test sites for the postlaunch calibration of space-based optical imaging sensors. This paper discusses the top five African pseudo-invariant sites (Libya 4, Mauritania 1/2, Algeria 3, Libya 1, and Algeria 5) that were identified by the IVOS subgroup. This paper focuses on monitoring the long-term radiometric stability of the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensors using near-simultaneous and cloud-free image pairs acquired from launch to December 2008 over the five African desert sites. Residual errors and coefficients of determination were also generated to support the quality assessment of the calibration differences between the two sensors. An effort was also made to evaluate the relative stability of these sites for long-term monitoring of the optical sensors. ??2009 IEEE.

  3. Health risk assessment of migrant workers' exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in air and dust in an e-waste recycling area in China: Indication for a new wealth gap in environmental rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yalin; Hu, Jinxing; Lin, Wei; Wang, Ning; Li, Cheng; Luo, Peng; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Wang, Wenbo; Su, Xiaomei; Chen, Chen; Liu, Yindong; Huang, Ronglang; Shen, Chaofeng

    2016-02-01

    Migrant workers who work and live in polluted environment are a special vulnerable group in the accelerating pace of urbanization and industrialization in China. In the electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area, for example, migrant workers' exposure to pollutants, such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), is the result of an informal e-waste recycling process. A village in an electronic waste recycling area where migrant workers gather was surveyed. The migrant workers' daily routines were simulated according to the three-space transition: work place-on the road-home. Indoor air and dust in the migrant workers' houses and workplaces and the ambient air on the roads were sampled. The PCB levels of the air and dust in the places corresponding to the migrant workers are higher than those for local residents. The migrant workers have health risks from PCBs that are 3.8 times greater than those of local residents. This is not only caused by the exposure at work but also by their activity patterns and the environmental conditions of their dwellings. These results revealed the reason for the health risk difference between the migrant workers and local residents, and it also indicated that lifestyle and economic status are important factors that are often ignored compared to occupational exposure. PMID:26641519

  4. LGBTI migrants in immigration detention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana Tabak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As states increasingly use detention as a means of controllingmigration flows, sexual minority migrants find themselves in detentionfacilities where they may face multiple violations of their human rights.

  5. PROFILE OF ROMANIAN RETURNED MIGRANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria ZAMFIR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the post-communist period, migration of the Romanians became an emergent phenomenon which went through many structural transformations. Within the context of the recent economic crisis and of some unfavourable collective attitudes regarding the immigration in some countries of destination, evidences of the reverse movement, of return of some migrants in Romania have appeared. This paper aims to examine the profile of Romanian returned migrants, with a special view on the returning motivations. Results show that the family related factors have the highest influence in the returning decision among Romanian migrants. Finally, future intentions of the returned migrants confirm the model of the circulatory migration as a strategy of life of the Romanians.

  6. The transnational strategies of migrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Connie Carøe

    Certain activities among migrants take place in a social space spanning the sending and receiving societies. Migrants who e.g. take part in activities in hometown associations or in Islamic activism tend to do so in these social spaces, increasingly conceptualized as transnational. Our...... understanding of transnational activities and why they often form part of migrants’ everyday lives even decades after the break up from the sending society, is however limited. In some cases, the off-spring of migrants is also involved in transnational activities, a fact which is even more complicated...... both these suggestions obviously have some resonance, against them goes the observation that those who take up transnational strategies are active and most capable of succeeding and managing their lives in the receiving society. In other words, the transnational engagements of migrants...

  7. Back-trajectory analysis of African dust outbreaks at a coastal city in southern Spain: Selection of starting heights and assessment of African and concurrent Mediterranean contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, M.; Orza, J. A. G.; Dueñas, C.; Liger, E.; Gordo, E.; Cañete, S.

    2016-09-01

    The present study uses a back-trajectory analysis at multiple heights for better interpretation of the impact of the African dust outbreaks in the coastal Mediterranean city of Málaga (Spain), the southernmost large city in Europe. Throughout a 3-year period, 363 days were identified as dusty days by atmospheric transport models. During these events, PM10, SO2, O3, temperature, AOD and Ångström exponent showed statistically significant differences compared to days with no African dust. It was found that under African dust events, the study site was influenced by Mediterranean air masses at the lowermost heights and by Atlantic advections at high altitudes, while African air masses mostly reached Málaga at intermediate levels. Specifically, the lowest heights at which air masses reached the study site after having resided over Africa are confined into the 1000-2000 m range. The decoupling between the lowest heights and the ones for dust transport may explain the presence of aged air masses at the time of the African outbreak. Additionally, with the aim of studying the influence of the air mass origin and history on air quality, a new procedure based on Principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to determine which altitudes are best suited as starting points for back-trajectory calculations, as they maximize the differences in residence time over different areas. Its application to Málaga identifies three altitudes (750, 2250 and 4500 m) and a subsequent analysis of back-trajectories for African dust days provided the main source areas over Africa as well as further insight on the Mediterranean contribution.

  8. Slovene migrant literature in Australia:

    OpenAIRE

    Maver, Igor

    2002-01-01

    This article on the literary creativity of Slovene migrants in Australia after the Second World War, including the most recent publications, discusses only the most artistically accomplished authors and addresses those works that have received the most enthusiastic reception by the critics and readers alike. Of course, those that are not mentioned are also important to the preservation of Slovene culture and identity among the Slovene migrants in Australia from a documentray, historical, or e...

  9. The human capital characteristics and household living standards of returning international migrants in Eastern and Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin J A

    2014-01-01

    Africa’s experience with return migration is not new. However, few empirical studies have examined the social and economic characteristics of returning migrants within the continent. In this study, the human capital endowments and household living standards of returning migrants in Uganda and South Africa are examined using recently available data. The study compares returnees in both countries with immigrants as well as the native-born population with no international migration experience. It also investigates how factors such as previous country of residence, year of arrival, and other demographic factors predict levels of education and living standards among returning migrants. In Uganda, the results show that recently arrived returning migrants had better educational endowments than both immigrants and non-migrants. Migrants who returned to Uganda following the fall of Idi Amin’s regime had the lowest educational levels and lowest living standards compared to other returnees. Furthermore, the results indicate that previous residence in countries in the West was associated with four additional years of schooling while returning migrants arriving from other African countries had the lowest levels of schooling among returning migrants. In South Africa, the study finds that returnees arriving almost immediately following the end of Apartheid had the highest levels of education compared to either immigrants or non-migrants. Returnees on average also had the highest household living standards in South Africa. Among South African immigrants, the results indicate that those arriving towards the end of the century had lower educational endowments compared to immigrants who arrived in the country two to four years after the end of Apartheid. PMID:24970950

  10. Genotypic characterization and safety assessment of lactic acid bacteria from indigenous African fermented food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adimpong David B

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous fermented food products play an essential role in the diet of millions of Africans. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are among the predominant microbial species in African indigenous fermented food products and are used for different applications in the food and biotechnology industries. Numerous studies have described antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of LAB from different parts of the world. However, there is limited information on antimicrobial resistance profiles of LAB from Africa. The aim of this study was to characterize 33 LAB previously isolated from three different African indigenous fermented food products using (GTG5-based rep-PCR, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and species-specific PCR techniques for differentiation of closely related species and further evaluate their antibiotic resistance profiles by the broth microdilution method and their haemolytic activity on sheep blood agar plates as indicators of safety traits among these bacteria. Results Using molecular biology based methods and selected phenotypic tests such as catalase reaction, CO2 production from glucose, colonies and cells morphology, the isolates were identified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus ghanensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus salivarius, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Weissella confusa. The bacteria were susceptible to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin and erythromycin but resistant to vancomycin, kanamycin and streptomycin. Variable sensitivity profiles to tetracycline and gentamicin was observed among the isolates with Lb. plantarum, Lb. salivarius, W. confusa (except strain SK9-5 and Lb. fermentum strains being susceptible to tetracycline whereas Pediococcus strains and Lb. ghanensis strains were resistant. For gentamicin, Leuc. pseudomesenteroides, Lb. ghanensis and Ped. acidilactici strains were resistant to 64

  11. Racial Bias in Personality Assessment: Using the MMPI-2 to Predict Psychiatric Diagnoses of African American and Caucasian Chemical Dependency Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnot, Matthew J.; Quirk, Stuart W.; Hoerger, Michael; Brewer, Linda

    2009-01-01

    An assessment of predictive bias was conducted on numerous scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; J. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989), including the Restructured Clinical (RC) scales, in the prediction of clinical diagnostic status for African American and Caucasian male…

  12. Comparative assessment of immunization coverage of migrant children between national immunization program vaccines and non-national immunization program vaccines in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Luo, Shuying; Tang, Xuewen; Lou, Linqiao; Chen, Yaping; Guo, Jing

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the disparities in immunization coverage between National Immunization Program (NIP) vaccines and non-NIP vaccines in Yiwu and to identify potential determinants. A face-to-face interview-based questionnaire survey among 423 migrant children born from 1 June 2010 to 31 May 2013 was conducted. Immunization coverage was estimated according to the vaccines scheduled at different age, the birth cohorts, and socio- demographic characteristics. Single-level logistic regression analysis was applied to identify the determinants of coverage of non-NIP vaccines. We found that NIP vaccines recorded higher immunization coverage compared with non-NIP vaccines (87.9100%- vs 0%-74.8%). Among the non-NIP vaccines, varicella vaccine (VarV) recorded the highest coverage of 85.4%, which was introduced in 1998; while 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine(PCV7) recorded the lowest coverage of 0% for primary series, which was introduced recently. Lower coverage rate of non-NIP vaccines was significantly associated with more siblings in household, shorter duration of living in the surveyed areas, lower family income, mother with a job, mother with poor awareness of vaccination, and mother with lower education level. We found the immunization coverage rate of non-NIP vaccines was significant lower than that of NIP vaccines. Expansion of NIP to include non-NIP vaccines can provide better protection against the vaccine preventable diseases through increased immunization coverage.

  13. Family services for migrant and seasonal farm workers: the Redlands Christian Migrant Association (RCMA) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebman, Amy K; Mainster, Barbara; Lee, Barbara C

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural employers and work supervisors strive to keep children out of worksites, but oftentimes migrating farm worker parents lack accessible or affordable options for childcare in a trusted environment. Thus, children may not have a safe, appropriate place to be while their parents are conducting agricultural work. Redlands Christian Migrant Association (RCMA) of Florida is a community development organization that creates and fosters opportunities for the children of migrant and other low-income rural families. To better understand the RCMA system, an in-depth assessment of its program was undertaken to identify both its standard and unique features. Results revealed many attributes contributing to RCMA's success. Based upon RCMA's 48-year track record, employers, agribusinesses, and communities are encouraged to adopt strategies to meet local and regional childcare needs where parents are working in agriculture.

  14. Africans and the myth of rural retirement in South Africa, ca 1900-1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Aran S

    2008-06-01

    The South African mining industry relied upon a massive African migrant workforce from the rural areas. Rural transformations in this migrant labor system form an important part of the story of developing capitalism in industrializing South Africa. Yet, recent historical studies on southern African migrant and rural wage labor have paid little attention to life adjustments made by the elderly and those 'burned out' by the mines and forced to leave formal wage employment in the urban areas. The South African segregationist state's rhetoric implied that 'retired' Africans could find economic security in their designated rural reserves. Indeed, legislation sought to prohibit Africans who were not employed from remaining in the 'white' urban areas. By the 1930s, however, the reserves were rapidly deteriorating. Many elderly Africans could not retire and were forced to seek wage labor. This raises significant questions about how retirement came to be defined and experienced by Africans in South Africa during a critical period of dramatic economic decline in the 1930s and 40s, and what the underlying material circumstances of African South Africans were with regard to adaptations to employment and ageing-related life changes. In many cases, elderly Africans were forced to forgo retirement, and find wage labor, usually in the most poorly paid, least sought-after or dangerous fields of employment. This article thus seeks to illuminate critical generational dimensions of the impact of segregation and racism in South Africa prior to the formal articulation of Apartheid. PMID:17939024

  15. Africans and the myth of rural retirement in South Africa, ca 1900-1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Aran S

    2008-06-01

    The South African mining industry relied upon a massive African migrant workforce from the rural areas. Rural transformations in this migrant labor system form an important part of the story of developing capitalism in industrializing South Africa. Yet, recent historical studies on southern African migrant and rural wage labor have paid little attention to life adjustments made by the elderly and those 'burned out' by the mines and forced to leave formal wage employment in the urban areas. The South African segregationist state's rhetoric implied that 'retired' Africans could find economic security in their designated rural reserves. Indeed, legislation sought to prohibit Africans who were not employed from remaining in the 'white' urban areas. By the 1930s, however, the reserves were rapidly deteriorating. Many elderly Africans could not retire and were forced to seek wage labor. This raises significant questions about how retirement came to be defined and experienced by Africans in South Africa during a critical period of dramatic economic decline in the 1930s and 40s, and what the underlying material circumstances of African South Africans were with regard to adaptations to employment and ageing-related life changes. In many cases, elderly Africans were forced to forgo retirement, and find wage labor, usually in the most poorly paid, least sought-after or dangerous fields of employment. This article thus seeks to illuminate critical generational dimensions of the impact of segregation and racism in South Africa prior to the formal articulation of Apartheid.

  16. Care during pregnancy and childbirth for migrant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2016-01-01

    and health-care providers. We present the Danish MAMAACT study as a strategic perspective on how to move forward, and we describe methodological steps in intervention development. Based on a mixed method needs assessment, the MAMAACT study aimed to enhance the communication between migrant women and midwives...

  17. Migrants and non-migrants in Kücükkale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Connie Carøe

    2013-01-01

    migrants and non-migrants are not least in existence when it comes to the cultural style of consumption practices, behaviour and manners. The mutual stereotyping of migrants and non-migrants seems to confirm that at least one version of the meaning made locally of migration is that it has deepened...

  18. Acculturative Stress of Chinese Rural-To-Urban Migrant Workers: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Bao-Liang; Liu, Tie-Bang; Huang, Jian-Xing; Fung, Helene H.; Chan, Sandra S. M.; Conwell, Yeates; Chiu, Helen F. K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Global literature has suggested a negative impact of acculturative stress on both physical and mental health among international migrants. In China, approximately 20 percent of its population is rural-to-urban migrant workers and there are significant cultural differences between rural and urban societies, but no data are available regarding the acculturative stress of Chinese migrant workers. This study aimed to explore the forms and contexts of acculturative stress among Chinese migrant workers. Methods Qualitative data were collected from four focus group discussions with 17 Chinese rural-to-urban migrant workers and three individual interviews with three medical professionals who provided mental health services for factory-workers in Shenzhen, China. Results The data in the current study showed that rural-to-urban migrant workers in China had experienced various forms of acculturative stress including difficulties in adapting to the environment, work-related stress, family-related stress, financial hardship, and lack of sense of belonging to cities. Conclusion Rural-to-urban migration in China is a challenging transition with significant acculturative stress and demands for major adjustments among migrant workers. The assessment and management of acculturative stress is a necessary first step in providing mental health services to migrant workers. PMID:27300005

  19. Occupational health risk assessment : overview, model and guide for the South African mining industry towards a holistic solution / Casper Johannes Badenhorst

    OpenAIRE

    Badenhorst, Casper Johannes

    2006-01-01

    In the South African Mining Industry the Legislator has recognised the need to identify health hazards associated with any workplace or process and to assess ,the associated risks (Leon, 1994). Neither the Mine Health and Safety Act (29/1996) and its Regulations, nor the Occupational Health and Safety Act (85/1993) and its Regulations, prescribe a specific format for the systematic and holistic approach to conduct occupational health risk assessments, but do prescribe some crit...

  20. Migrants and higher education in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    1. Introduction. 2. Integration Policy Context: Education and employment. 3. Experiences of Migrants in Education and Employment. 4. Education and Migrant Workers. 5. Education in Employment. 6. Recommendations and Conclusions. Higher Education Authority (SIF - Cycle 1)

  1. Mexican migrants stay in border comfort zone

    OpenAIRE

    Orrenius, Pia M.; Madeline Zavodny

    2008-01-01

    Limited access to migrant networks and strong geographic preferences may underlie border migrants' willingness to settle for lower wages on the border rather than seek higher wages by venturing into the U.S. interior.

  2. Foraging behavior and habitat selection by spring migrants in North Central Kansas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objective of this study is to assess whether some riparian areas on Kirwin National Wildlife Refuge receive more use by spring migrants than other areas...

  3. Myanmar migrant laborers in Ranong, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    FUJITA, Koichi; Endo, Tamaki; Okamoto, Ikuko; Nakanishi, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Miwa; 藤田, 幸一; 遠藤, 環; 岡本, 郁子; 中西, 嘉宏; 山田, 美和

    2010-01-01

    Thailand is the major destination for migrants in mainland Southeast Asia, and Myanmar (Burmese) migrants account for the dominant share. This paper sheds light on the actual working conditions and the life of Myanmar migrants in Thailand, based on our intensive survey in Ranong in southern Thailand in 2009. We found a wide range of serious problems that Myanmar migrants face in everyday life: very harsh working conditions, low income, heavy indebtedness, risk of being human-trafficking victi...

  4. Homonegativity among first and second generation migrants in Europe: the interplay of time trends, origin, destination and religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Bracht, Koen; Van de Putte, Bart

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies reported declining disapproval of homosexuality in Europe but have simultaneously identified the decelerating effect of religiosity and the higher disapproval of homosexuality among migrants. In this paper, we address disapproval of homosexuality among first- and second-generation migrants in Europe by assessing (1) period and cohort changes, (2) origin and destination country influences and (3) the role of religiosity. We develop a specific cross-classified multilevel design enabling us to simultaneously examine these influences. We test hypotheses using a subsample of the European Social Survey (ESS), containing 19,878 first and second generation migrants. The analyses lead to three important conclusions. Firstly, disapproval of homosexuality is declining both over time and across cohorts. Secondly, migrants conform to levels of disapproval of homosexuality among natives in the destination country, and this explains the decline among migrants over time. Thirdly, religion has a multi-faceted influence on levels of disapproval of homosexuality among migrants. PMID:25131278

  5. Personality assessment and its association with genetic factors in captive Asian and African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Saki; Konno, Akitsugu; Tanaka, Masayuki; Idani, Gen'ichi; Ludwig, Arne; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2013-01-01

    Elephants live in a complex society based on matrilineal groups. Management of captive elephants is difficult, partly because each elephant has a unique personality. For a better understanding of elephant well being in captivity, it would be helpful to systematically evaluate elephants' personalities and their underlying biological basis. We sent elephant' personality questionnaires to keepers of 75 elephants. We also used 196 elephant DNA samples to search for genetic polymorphisms in genes expressed in the brain that have been suggested to be related to personality traits. Three genes, androgen receptor (AR), fragile X related mental retardation protein interacting protein (NUFIP2), and acheate-scute homologs 1 (ASH1) contained polymorphic regions. We examined the association of personality with intraspecific genetic variation in 17 Asian and 28 African elephants. The results suggest that the ASH1 genotype was associated with neuroticism in Asian elephants. Subjects with short alleles had lower scores of neuroticism than those with long alleles. This is the first report of an association between a genetic polymorphism and personality in elephants.

  6. Assessing social vulnerability in African urban context. The challenge to cope with climate change induced hazards by communities and households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabisch, Sigrun; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie

    2013-04-01

    Social vulnerability assessment remains central in discourses on global climatic change and takes a more pertinent meaning considering that natural disasters in African countries continue to deeply affect human settlements and destroys human livelihoods. In recent years, in particular large territories and growing cities have experienced severe weather events. Among them are river and flash floods, affecting the social and economic assets of local populations. The impact of the damage related to floods is not only perceptible during seasonal events but also during unexpected larger disasters which place a particular burden on local population and institutions to adapt effectively to increasing climatic pressures. Important features for social vulnerability assessment are the increasing severity of the physical damages, the shortcoming of social and technical infrastructure, the complexity of land management/market, the limited capacity of local institutions and last but not least the restricted capacities of local population to resist these events. Understanding vulnerability implies highlighting and interlinking relevant indicators and/or perceptions encompassed in four main dimensions: social, institutional, physical and attitudinal vulnerability. Case studies in Dar es Salaam, Ouagadougou and Addis Ababa were carried out to obtain insights into the context-related conditions, behavior routines and survival networks in urban areas in west and east Africa. Using a combination of tools (e.g. focus group discussions, transect walks, interviews) we investigated in close cooperation with African partners how households and communities are being prepared to cope with, as well as to recover from floods. A comprehensive process of dealing with floods can be described based on sequential attributes concerning i) Anticipation before a flood occurs, ii) Resistance and coping activities during a flood event and, iii) Recovery and reconstruction afterwards. A participatory

  7. The traffic in voices: Contrasting experiences of migrant women in prostitution with the paradigm of "human trafficking"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Alpes

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on empirical research with West African migrant women working in prostitution in Paris. Given current migration regulations in Western Europe, as well as state policies on prostitution, the traffickers and people considered to be trafficking victims de facto form part of the sa

  8. Can migrants from high-endemic countries cause new HIV outbreaks among heterosexuals in low-endemic countries?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Xiridou; M. van der Veen; R. Coutinho; M. Prins

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate how the sexual behaviour of migrants originating from HIV-endemic countries affects the spread of HIV among heterosexuals in low-endemic countries. Methods: A mathematical model is developed describing the transmission of HIV in heterosexual partnerships between African mi

  9. Ex post facto authorisation in South African environmental assessment legislation: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Glazewski

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental tenets underlying environmental assessment both internationally and in South Africa is that it is anticipatory in nature in that it is essentially an evaluation of the effects likely to arise from a major project or other action significantly affecting the natural or artificial environment. Environmental impact assessment (EIA is therefore a systematic and integrative process for considering possible impacts prior to a decision being taken on whether or not a proposal should be given approval to proceed. This article argues that the current legislative basis for environmental assessment in South Africa, namely Part V of the Environment Conservation Act 73 of 1998 (ECA and regulations made under it, reflects this philosophy. It argues that the phenomenon of ex post facto or retrospective environmental authorisation is ultra vires and thus not permissible under the current legislative regime. Finally the article outlines and assesses the environmental assessment regime under the National Environmental Management Act 107 of 1998 (NEMA and recent amendments to it under the NEMA Amendment Act 8 of 2004, which will in future govern the environmental assessment process. The amending Act introduces a new section 24G into the anticipated environmental assessment regime which will permit ex post facto or retrospective environmental authorisation. The authors argue that this is an unwelcome development which will militate against the purposes underlying environmental assessment.

  10. Quantitative Risk Assessment for African Horse Sickness in Live Horses Exported from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Evan S; Grewar, John D; Weyer, Camilla T; Guthrie, Alan J

    2016-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a severe, often fatal, arbovirus infection of horses, transmitted by Culicoides spp. midges. AHS occurs in most of sub-Saharan Africa and is a significant impediment to export of live horses from infected countries, such as South Africa. A stochastic risk model was developed to estimate the probability of exporting an undetected AHS-infected horse through a vector protected pre-export quarantine facility, in accordance with OIE recommendations for trade from an infected country. The model also allows for additional risk management measures, including multiple PCR tests prior to and during pre-export quarantine and optionally during post-arrival quarantine, as well as for comparison of risk associated with exports from a demonstrated low-risk area for AHS and an area where AHS is endemic. If 1 million horses were exported from the low-risk area with no post-arrival quarantine we estimate the median number of infected horses to be 5.4 (95% prediction interval 0.5 to 41). This equates to an annual probability of 0.0016 (95% PI: 0.00015 to 0.012) assuming 300 horses exported per year. An additional PCR test while in vector-protected post-arrival quarantine reduced these probabilities by approximately 12-fold. Probabilities for horses exported from an area where AHS is endemic were approximately 15 to 17 times higher than for horses exported from the low-risk area under comparable scenarios. The probability of undetected AHS infection in horses exported from an infected country can be minimised by appropriate risk management measures. The final choice of risk management measures depends on the level of risk acceptable to the importing country. PMID:26986002

  11. Quantitative Risk Assessment for African Horse Sickness in Live Horses Exported from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Evan S; Grewar, John D; Weyer, Camilla T; Guthrie, Alan J

    2016-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a severe, often fatal, arbovirus infection of horses, transmitted by Culicoides spp. midges. AHS occurs in most of sub-Saharan Africa and is a significant impediment to export of live horses from infected countries, such as South Africa. A stochastic risk model was developed to estimate the probability of exporting an undetected AHS-infected horse through a vector protected pre-export quarantine facility, in accordance with OIE recommendations for trade from an infected country. The model also allows for additional risk management measures, including multiple PCR tests prior to and during pre-export quarantine and optionally during post-arrival quarantine, as well as for comparison of risk associated with exports from a demonstrated low-risk area for AHS and an area where AHS is endemic. If 1 million horses were exported from the low-risk area with no post-arrival quarantine we estimate the median number of infected horses to be 5.4 (95% prediction interval 0.5 to 41). This equates to an annual probability of 0.0016 (95% PI: 0.00015 to 0.012) assuming 300 horses exported per year. An additional PCR test while in vector-protected post-arrival quarantine reduced these probabilities by approximately 12-fold. Probabilities for horses exported from an area where AHS is endemic were approximately 15 to 17 times higher than for horses exported from the low-risk area under comparable scenarios. The probability of undetected AHS infection in horses exported from an infected country can be minimised by appropriate risk management measures. The final choice of risk management measures depends on the level of risk acceptable to the importing country.

  12. Quantitative Risk Assessment for African Horse Sickness in Live Horses Exported from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Evan S.

    2016-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a severe, often fatal, arbovirus infection of horses, transmitted by Culicoides spp. midges. AHS occurs in most of sub-Saharan Africa and is a significant impediment to export of live horses from infected countries, such as South Africa. A stochastic risk model was developed to estimate the probability of exporting an undetected AHS-infected horse through a vector protected pre-export quarantine facility, in accordance with OIE recommendations for trade from an infected country. The model also allows for additional risk management measures, including multiple PCR tests prior to and during pre-export quarantine and optionally during post-arrival quarantine, as well as for comparison of risk associated with exports from a demonstrated low-risk area for AHS and an area where AHS is endemic. If 1 million horses were exported from the low-risk area with no post-arrival quarantine we estimate the median number of infected horses to be 5.4 (95% prediction interval 0.5 to 41). This equates to an annual probability of 0.0016 (95% PI: 0.00015 to 0.012) assuming 300 horses exported per year. An additional PCR test while in vector-protected post-arrival quarantine reduced these probabilities by approximately 12-fold. Probabilities for horses exported from an area where AHS is endemic were approximately 15 to 17 times higher than for horses exported from the low-risk area under comparable scenarios. The probability of undetected AHS infection in horses exported from an infected country can be minimised by appropriate risk management measures. The final choice of risk management measures depends on the level of risk acceptable to the importing country. PMID:26986002

  13. Methods for assessing movement path recursion with application to African buffalo in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-David, S.; Bar-David, I.; Cross, P.C.; Ryan, S.J.; Knechtel, C.U.; Getz, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments of automated methods for monitoring animal movement, e.g., global positioning systems (GPS) technology, yield high-resolution spatiotemporal data. To gain insights into the processes creating movement patterns, we present two new techniques for extracting information from these data on repeated visits to a particular site or patch ("recursions"). Identification of such patches and quantification of recursion pathways, when combined with patch-related ecological data, should contribute to our understanding of the habitat requirements of large herbivores, of factors governing their space-use patterns, and their interactions with the ecosystem. We begin by presenting output from a simple spatial model that simulates movements of large-herbivore groups based on minimal parameters: resource availability and rates of resource recovery after a local depletion. We then present the details of our new techniques of analyses (recursion analysis and circle analysis) and apply them to data generated by our model, as well as two sets of empirical data on movements of African buffalo (Syncerus coffer): the first collected in Klaserie Private Nature Reserve and the second in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Our recursion analyses of model outputs provide us with a basis for inferring aspects of the processes governing the production of buffalo recursion patterns, particularly the potential influence of resource recovery rate. Although the focus of our simulations was a comparison of movement patterns produced by different resource recovery rates, we conclude our paper with a comprehensive discussion of how recursion analyses can be used when appropriate ecological data are available to elucidate various factors influencing movement. Inter alia, these include the various limiting and preferred resources, parasites, and topographical and landscape factors. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. Reproductive Health Assessment of Female Elephants in North American Zoos and Association of Husbandry Practices with Reproductive Dysfunction in African Elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Janine L; Paris, Stephen; Prado-Oviedo, Natalia A; Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jennifer N; Morfeld, Kari A; Carlstead, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    As part of a multi-institutional study of zoo elephant welfare, we evaluated female elephants managed by zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums and applied epidemiological methods to determine what factors in the zoo environment are associated with reproductive problems, including ovarian acyclicity and hyperprolactinemia. Bi-weekly blood samples were collected from 95 African (Loxodonta africana) and 75 Asian (Elephas maximus) (8-55 years of age) elephants over a 12-month period for analysis of serum progestogens and prolactin. Females were categorized as normal cycling (regular 13- to 17-week cycles), irregular cycling (cycles longer or shorter than normal) or acyclic (baseline progestogens, elephants, respectively. Rates of normal cycling, acyclicity and irregular cycling were 73.2, 22.5 and 4.2% for Asian, and 48.4, 37.9 and 13.7% for African elephants, respectively, all of which differed between species (P elephants, univariate assessment found that social isolation decreased and higher enrichment diversity increased the chance a female would cycle normally. The strongest multi-variable models included Age (positive) and Enrichment Diversity (negative) as important factors of acyclicity among African elephants. The Asian elephant data set was not robust enough to support multi-variable analyses of cyclicity status. Additionally, only 3% of Asian elephants were found to be hyperprolactinemic as compared to 28% of Africans, so predictive analyses of prolactin status were conducted on African elephants only. The strongest multi-variable model included Age (positive), Enrichment Diversity (negative), Alternate Feeding Methods (negative) and Social Group Contact (positive) as predictors of hyperprolactinemia. In summary, the incidence of ovarian cycle problems and hyperprolactinemia predominantly affects African elephants, and increases in social stability and feeding and enrichment diversity may have positive influences on hormone status. PMID

  15. Training on impact assessment. Section 1: Kenyan Team. Section 2: West African Component Mali

    OpenAIRE

    Texas A & M University

    2003-01-01

    Texas A & M University draft report for training for impact assessment for the Kenyan and Malian teams. This report describes the TAMU approach to training and the modules used, stages reaches, results and recommendations for future training.

  16. Health-reception of newly arrived documented migrants in Europe—why, whom, what and how?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne Winther

    2013-01-01

    address the existing health inequities, nor determining factors of migrant health, including barriers to access health services’.1 Two recent Danish documents highlight these aspects in relation to the health-reception of migrants. A report from the Ministry of Social Affairs and Integration concludes...... Danish health-reception model, using a more systematic approach based on a close cooperation between social and health sectors.3 With this development, we wish to initiate a European public health debate about how to assess and meet the health needs of newly arrived long-term documented migrants...

  17. Reproductive Health Assessment of Female Elephants in North American Zoos and Association of Husbandry Practices with Reproductive Dysfunction in African Elephants (Loxodonta africana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Cheryl L.; Hogan, Jennifer N.; Morfeld, Kari A.; Carlstead, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    As part of a multi-institutional study of zoo elephant welfare, we evaluated female elephants managed by zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums and applied epidemiological methods to determine what factors in the zoo environment are associated with reproductive problems, including ovarian acyclicity and hyperprolactinemia. Bi-weekly blood samples were collected from 95 African (Loxodonta africana) and 75 Asian (Elephas maximus) (8–55 years of age) elephants over a 12-month period for analysis of serum progestogens and prolactin. Females were categorized as normal cycling (regular 13- to 17-week cycles), irregular cycling (cycles longer or shorter than normal) or acyclic (baseline progestogens, <0.1 ng/ml throughout), and having Low/Normal (<14 or 18 ng/ml) or High (≥14 or 18 ng/ml) prolactin for Asian and African elephants, respectively. Rates of normal cycling, acyclicity and irregular cycling were 73.2, 22.5 and 4.2% for Asian, and 48.4, 37.9 and 13.7% for African elephants, respectively, all of which differed between species (P < 0.05). For African elephants, univariate assessment found that social isolation decreased and higher enrichment diversity increased the chance a female would cycle normally. The strongest multi-variable models included Age (positive) and Enrichment Diversity (negative) as important factors of acyclicity among African elephants. The Asian elephant data set was not robust enough to support multi-variable analyses of cyclicity status. Additionally, only 3% of Asian elephants were found to be hyperprolactinemic as compared to 28% of Africans, so predictive analyses of prolactin status were conducted on African elephants only. The strongest multi-variable model included Age (positive), Enrichment Diversity (negative), Alternate Feeding Methods (negative) and Social Group Contact (positive) as predictors of hyperprolactinemia. In summary, the incidence of ovarian cycle problems and hyperprolactinemia predominantly

  18. EDUCATION OF THE MIGRANT CHILD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    POTTS, ALFRED M.

    THE EDUCATIVE PROCESS SHOULD AID THE MIGRANT CHILDREN TO LIVE A FULLER LIFE IN RELATION TO THEIR POTENTIAL AND SHOULD CONTAIN BROADER AND LESS RESTRICTIVE PATTERNS OF CULTURAL EXPECTANCIES. ALTHOUGH ACADEMIC KNOWLEDGE IS ESSENTIAL, A MORE PROMINENT PLACE MUST BE ASSIGNED TO AREAS OF KNOWLEDGE RELATED TO COMPREHENSION OF CULTURALLY INSPIRED…

  19. Cultural Integration of Migrant Citizens:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Akora, Lydia; Panesar, Jasbir;

    2006-01-01

    Artiklen handler om prakisforskning baseret på et transnationalt EU-projekt, der sigter på at forbedre "adult migrant learners" kompetencer for aktiv deltagelse i samfundet. Projektets formål var forbedring af de voksnes forståelse af socialt ansvar på forskellige niveauer ved at gøre dem bevidst...

  20. Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Agyemang, Charles; Stronks, Karien;

    2015-01-01

    in health related to migration and ethnicity. Thereto we will first define the concepts of migration and ethnicity, briefly review the various groups of migrants and ethnic minorities in Europe, and introduce a conceptual model that specifies the link and causal pathways between ethnicity and health...

  1. Bodies Folded in Migrant Crypts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Tzokas, Spyros; Tympas, Aristotle

    2016-01-01

    and human migrants generates a dis/abled subject. In this context, dis/ability may be a cause or consequence of migration, both in physical/material (the folding of bodies in the crypt) and cultural/semiotic terms, and may become a barrier to accessing protection, to entering and/or crossing a country...

  2. Education of Migrant Children Worrisome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The plight of migrant workers in China, estimated to number in the hundreds of millions, has drawn grave concerns from top leaders and common people alike.Part of their plight is the schooling of their children that they cannot go to school on equal terms as local children.

  3. The Adaptation of Migrant Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portes, Alejandro; Rivas, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Alejandro Portes and Alejandro Rivas examine how young immigrants are adapting to life in the United States. They begin by noting the existence of two distinct pan-ethnic populations: Asian Americans, who tend to be the offspring of high-human-capital migrants, and Hispanics, many of whose parents are manual workers. Vast differences in each, both…

  4. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September. This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,aleading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  5. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September.This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,a leading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  6. Productivity assessments in small ruminants improvement programmes. A case study of the West African Dwarf Goat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, H.

    1995-01-01

    Livestock production in the tropics is characterised by a high degree of variability in terms of composition, setting and aims. A good understanding of these characteristics is a prerequisite for the planning of a successful improvement programme. A frequently used criterion to assess the suitabilit

  7. Evaluating Responses in Complex Adaptive Systems: Insights on Water Management from the Southern African Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (SAfMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Lynam

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services are embedded in complex adaptive systems. These systems are riddled with nonlinearities, uncertainties, and surprises, and are made increasingly complex by the many human responses to problems or changes arising within them. In this paper we attempt to determine whether there are certain factors that characterize effective responses in complex systems. We construct a framework for response evaluation with three interconnected scopes or spatial and temporal domains: the scope of an impact, the scope of the awareness of the impact, and the scope of the power or influence to respond. Drawing from the experience of the Southern African Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (SAfMA, we explore the applicability of this framework to the example of water management in southern Africa, where an ongoing paradigm shift in some areas has enabled a transition from supply-side to demand-side responses and the creation of new institutions to manage water across scales. We suggest that the most effective responses exhibit congruence between the impact, awareness, and power scopes; distribute impacts across space and time; expand response options; enhance social memory; and depend on power-distributing mechanisms. We conclude by stressing the need for sufficient flexibility to adapt responses to the specific, ever-evolving contexts in which they are implemented. Although our discussion focuses on water in southern Africa, we believe that the framework has broad applicability to a range of complex systems and places.

  8. Assessing the potential of multi-seasonal WorldView-2 imagery for mapping West African agroforestry tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, Martin; Ostwald, Madelene; Reese, Heather; Bazié, Hugues Roméo; Tankoano, Boalidioa

    2016-08-01

    High resolution satellite systems enable efficient and detailed mapping of tree cover, with high potential to support both natural resource monitoring and ecological research. This study investigates the capability of multi-seasonal WorldView-2 imagery to map five dominant tree species at the individual tree crown level in a parkland landscape in central Burkina Faso. The Random Forest algorithm is used for object based tree species classification and for assessing the relative importance of WorldView-2 predictors. The classification accuracies from using wet season, dry season and multi-seasonal datasets are compared to gain insights about the optimal timing for image acquisition. The multi-seasonal dataset produced the most accurate classifications, with an overall accuracy (OA) of 83.4%. For classifications based on single date imagery, the dry season (OA = 78.4%) proved to be more suitable than the wet season (OA = 68.1%). The predictors that contributed most to the classification success were based on the red edge band and visible wavelengths, in particular green and yellow. It was therefore concluded that WorldView-2, with its unique band configuration, represents a suitable data source for tree species mapping in West African parklands. These results are particularly promising when considering the recently launched WorldView-3, which provides data both at higher spatial and spectral resolution, including shortwave infrared bands.

  9. Feasibility and Acceptability of Smartphone-Based Ecological Momentary Assessment of Alcohol Use Among African American Men Who Have Sex With Men in Baltimore

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Cui; Linas, Beth; Kirk, Gregory; Bollinger, Robert; Chang, Larry; Chander, Geetanjali; Siconolfi, Daniel; Braxton, Sharif; Rudolph, Abby; Latkin, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol use is a risk factor for the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among African American men who have sex with men (MSM). Mobile phone-based ecological momentary assessments (EMA) could minimize bias due to retrospective recall and thus provide a better understanding of the social and structural context of alcohol use and its relationship with HIV-related risk behaviors in this population as well as other highly stigmatized populations. Objective We describe th...

  10. Combining detrital geochronology and sedimentology to assess basin development in the Rukwa Rift of the East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert-Wolf, Hannah; Roberts, Eric; Mtelela, Cassy; Downie, Bob

    2015-04-01

    We have employed a multifaceted approach to sedimentary provenance analysis in order to assess the timing and magnitude of tectonic events, sedimentation, and landscape development in the Western Branch of the East African Rift System. Our approach, termed 'Sedimentary Triple Dating', integrates: (1) U-Pb dating via LA-ICPMS; (2) fission track; and (3) (U-Th)/He thermochronology of detrital zircon and apatite. We integrate geochronology, thermochronology, and provenance analysis to relate the initiation of rifting events to regional dynamic uplift, sedimentation patterns, and interpret the far-reaching climatic and evolutionary effects of fluctuating rift flank topography in the Rukwa Rift, a segment of the Western Branch. This work provides additional data to support the recent concept of synchronous development of the Western and Eastern branches of the East African Rift System ~25 Ma, and better constrains the age, location and provenance of subsequent rifting and sedimentation events in the Rukwa Rift Basin. Investigation of well cuttings and outcrop samples from the Neogene-Recent Lake Beds Succession in the Rukwa Rift Basin revealed a suite of previously unrecognized tuffaceous deposits at the base of the succession. A population of euhedral, magmatic zircons from a basal Lake Beds tuff and Miocene-Pliocene detrital zircons from well cuttings suggest that Neogene rift reactivation and volcanism began ~9-10 Ma. This timing is consistent with demonstrated rifting in Uganda and Malawi, as well as with the initiation of volcanism in the Rungwe Volcanic Province at the southern end of the Rukwa Rift, and the estimated development of Lake Tanganyika to the north. Moreover, there appear to be a suite of unconformity bounded stratigraphic units that make up the Lower Lake Beds succession, and detrital zircon maximum depositional ages from these units suggests episodic sedimentation in the rift, punctuated by long hiatuses or uplift, rather than steady subsidence and

  11. New times for migrants' health in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Reyes-Uruena

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of migration can change greatly over time, with the size and composition of migrant populations reflecting both, current and historical patterns of migration flows. The recent economic crisis has caused a decrease on migration flows towards the most affected areas, as well as cut offs in health interventions addressed to migrants. The objective of this paper is to review available data about interventions on migrants' health in Europe, and to describe changes in migrant health policies across Europe after the economic crisis, that can have a negative effect in their health status. Although migrants have the right to health care under legal settlements issued by the EU, there is no a standard European approach to offer health care to migrants, since; policies in each EU Member State are developed according to specific migrant experience, political climate, and attitudes towards migration. Migrants use to face greater health problems and major health care access barriers, compared with their counterparts from the EU. Therefore, migrant health policies should focus in protects this vulnerable group, especially during economic hardship, taking into account economic and socio-demographic risk factors. There is an especial need for research in the cost-effectiveness of investing in the health care of the migrant population, demonstrating the benefit of such, even in the health of the European native population, and the need for constant intervention despite of resource constraints.

  12. Determinants of health in recently arrived young migrants and refugees: a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Pfarrwaller; Joan-Carles Suris

    2012-01-01

    Background: adolescent migrants are in a state of double vulnerability because of their age and migration experience. The purpose of this review was to identify risk and protective factors serving as a base for health promotion of young recent migrants.

    Methods: we assessed 95 papers identified through a MEDLINE search. Thirty-five papers were retained for review and analysed within the following themes: gene...

  13. South African farm workers' interpretation of risk assessment data expressed as pictograms on pesticide labels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticide companies and regulators in developing countries use the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) recommended pictograms on pesticide labels to communicate risk information based on toxicological and environmental risk assessment data. The pesticide label not only is often the only access people have to pesticide risk information, but also in many countries is a legally binding document. As a result of the crucial role pesticide labels play in protecting health and the environment and as a legal instrument, pictograms are used to overcome literacy challenges in transmitting pesticide risk information. Yet, this risk communication tool is often prone to misinterpretations of the risk information which results in hazardous exposures to pesticides for farm workers and end-users generally. In this paper, results are presented from a study with 115 farm workers on commercial vineyards in the Western Cape, South Africa, assessing their interpretations of 10 commonly used pictograms. A standardized questionnaire based on four commonly used pesticide labels was administered. Overall, 50% or more of the study farm workers had misleading, incorrect and critically confused interpretations of the label pictograms. Interpretations often reflected farm workers' social and cultural frames of reference rather than the technically intended risk information. For example, the pictogram indicating a pesticide's toxicity requires boots must be worn, evoked interpretations of 'dangerous to pedestrians' and 'don't walk through pesticides'. Furthermore, there was a gender variation in pictogram comprehension whereby males generally had more correct interpretations than females. This is a result both of a lack of training for women who are assumed to not work with pesticides, as well as a lack of pictograms relevant for female exposures. These findings challenge the viability of the United Nations current initiative to globally harmonize pictograms used on all

  14. Migrant networks, migrant selection, and high school graduation in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Alfonso

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines whether family and community migration experience affect the probability of high school graduation in Mexico once unobserved heterogeneity is accounted for. Bivariate random effects dynamic probit models for cluster data are estimated to control for the endogeneity of education and migrant network variables. Correlation of unobservables across migration and education decisions as well as within groups of individuals such as the family are explicitly controlled for. Results...

  15. Exporting by Migrants and Indigenous Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Schøtt, Thomas; Pişkinsüt Şengüler, Ece;

    2016-01-01

    Migrants may become entrepreneurs in their host countries. They may utilize their dual embeddedness in both the home country and the host country, and also use transnational links to gain a competitive advantage in exporting compared to indigenous entrepreneurs. Migrant entrepreneurs’ advantage may......, however, be contingent on attributes such as gender and education, especially among the first generation of migrants, in that being male and educated is more advantageous for migrants than for indigenous entrepreneurs. A representative sample of 50,371 entrepreneurs establishing or operating enterprises...... around the world was surveyed in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, which reports on migration and exporting. Hierarchical linear modeling shows that migrant entrepreneurs export more than indigenous entrepreneurs, especially in the first generation, and especially among educated and male migrants...

  16. Africans and Black Americans in the United States: Social Distance and Differential Acculturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emoungu, Paul-Albert

    1992-01-01

    Presents an exploratory examination of the causes of social distance characterizing the association between Africans and African Americans. African American's perceptions about Africa and Africans are assessed through anecdotes and impressions, and thoughts and criticisms of Africans about African Americans are considered. A social science…

  17. Water Quality Assessment of Streams and Wetlands in a Fast Growing East African City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels De Troyer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The combination of rapid urbanization, industrialization, population growth, and low environmental awareness poses a major threat to worldwide valuable freshwater resources, which provide important ecosystem services to humans. There is an urgent need to monitor and assess these resources, as this information is indispensable for sustainable decision-making and management. In this context, we analyzed the chemical and ecological water quality of the riverine environment of a fast growing city in Southwest Ethiopia for which we proposed possible remediation options that were evaluated with an empirical model. The chemical and ecological water quality was assessed at 53 sampling locations using the oxygen Prati index and the ETHbios, which is a biotic index based on macroinvertebrates. In addition, a microbiological analysis was performed to estimate the degree of fecal contamination. Finally, we analyzed the relationship between the oxygen content and the organic pollution to simulate the effect of organics removal from waste streams on the chemical water quality. Our results showed that the average values for dissolved oxygen (4.2 mg DO·L−1 and nutrients (0.9 mg oPO43−·L−1 and 12.8 mg TAN·L−1 exceeded international standards. Moreover, high turbidity levels revealed that land erosion is a severe problem in the region. Along the rivers, a significant increase in oxygen consumption and in nutrient concentrations was observed, indicating organic pollution originating from different diffuse and point sources of pollution. The lack of proper sanitation also led to exceedingly high abundances of fecal coliforms in the surface water (>320 MPN·mL−1. However, fecal contamination was strongly reduced (>92% after the polluted river water passed Boye wetland, indicating the purification potential of natural wetlands and the importance of conserving and protecting those ecosystems. The simulation results of the model showed that water quality

  18. Assessment of capacity for Health Policy and Systems Research and Analysis in seven African universities: results from the CHEPSAA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoev, Tolib; Lê, Gillian; Green, Andrew; Orgill, Marsha; Komba, Adalgot; Esena, Reuben K; Nyapada, Linet; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Amde, Woldekidan K; Nxumalo, Nonhlanhla; Gilson, Lucy

    2014-10-01

    The importance of health policy and systems research and analysis (HPSR+A) is widely recognized. Universities are central to strengthening and sustaining the HPSR+A capacity as they teach the next generation of decision-makers and health professionals. However, little is known about the capacity of universities, specifically, to develop the field. In this article, we report results of capacity self- assessments by seven universities within five African countries, conducted through the Consortium for Health Policy and Systems Analysis in Africa (CHEPSAA). The capacity assessments focused on both capacity 'assets' and 'needs', and covered the wider context, as well as organizational and individual capacity levels. Six thematic areas of capacity were examined: leadership and governance, organizations' resources, scope of HPSR+A teaching and research, communication, networking and getting research into policy and practice (GRIPP), demand for HPRS+A and resource environment. The self-assessments by each university used combinations of document reviews, semi-structured interviews and staff surveys, followed by comparative analysis. A framework approach, guided by the six thematic areas, was used to analyse data. We found that HPSR+A is an international priority, and an existing activity in Africa, though still neglected field with challenges including its reliance on unpredictable international funding. All universities have capacity assets, such as ongoing HPSR+A teaching and research. There are, however, varying levels of assets (such as differences in staff numbers, group sizes and amount of HPSR+A teaching and research), which, combined with different capacity needs at all three levels (such as individual training, improvement in systems for quality assurance and fostering demand for HPSR+A work), can shape a future agenda for HPSR+A capacity strengthening. Capacity assets and needs at different levels appear related. Possible integrated strategies for strengthening

  19. Use of monetary and nonmonetary incentives to increase response rates among African Americans in the Wisconsin Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykema, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Kniss, Chad; Kvale, Katherine; González, Kim; Cautley, Eleanor

    2012-05-01

    From 2009 to 2010, an experiment was conducted to increase response rates among African American mothers in the Wisconsin Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS). Sample members were randomly assigned to groups that received a prepaid, cash incentive of $5 (n = 219); a coupon for diapers valued at $6 (n = 210); or no incentive (n = 209). Incentives were included with the questionnaire, which was mailed to respondents. We examined the effects of the incentives on several outcomes, including response rates, cost effectiveness, survey response distributions, and item nonresponse. Response rates were significantly higher for the cash group than for the coupon (42.5 vs. 32.4%, P Compared to a coupon or no incentive, a small cash incentive significantly improved response rates and was cost effective among African American respondents in Wisconsin PRAMS. Incentives had only limited effects, however, on survey response distributions, and no significant effects on item nonresponse. PMID:21509432

  20. Social Impact Assessment: The lesser sibling in the South African EIA process?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, L., E-mail: Leandri.hildebrandt@nwu.ac.za [African Centre for Disaster Studies, Research Focus Area: Social Transformation, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520 (South Africa); Sandham, L.A., E-mail: luke.sandham@nwu.ac.za [Environmental Assessment Research Group, School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520 (South Africa)

    2014-09-15

    Social Impact Assessment has developed as an integral but neglected component of EIA in South Africa since it became mandatory in 1997, and has therefore been referred to as the “orphan” or “lesser sibling” of EIA, as has SIA in the UK and the US. The aim of this paper is to test this claim by reviewing the quality of a sample of SIA reports, and also to establish whether there has been any improvement in quality following the introduction of revised EIA regulations in 2006. The results confirm that SIA can be called “the lesser sibling” due to the weak grades achieved in the quality review, but also reveal that there has been a slight and consistent improvement in quality, most likely driven by best practice considerations in the absence of prescriptive regulations for SIA. Suggestions and recommendations for addressing observed weakness in SIA performance are advanced. - Highlights: • The quality of a sample of SIA reports was evaluated using a review package. • SIA reports received mostly weak grades. • Limited improvement observed from first to second regulatory regime. • Improvements most likely due to best practice considerations.

  1. Social Impact Assessment: The lesser sibling in the South African EIA process?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Social Impact Assessment has developed as an integral but neglected component of EIA in South Africa since it became mandatory in 1997, and has therefore been referred to as the “orphan” or “lesser sibling” of EIA, as has SIA in the UK and the US. The aim of this paper is to test this claim by reviewing the quality of a sample of SIA reports, and also to establish whether there has been any improvement in quality following the introduction of revised EIA regulations in 2006. The results confirm that SIA can be called “the lesser sibling” due to the weak grades achieved in the quality review, but also reveal that there has been a slight and consistent improvement in quality, most likely driven by best practice considerations in the absence of prescriptive regulations for SIA. Suggestions and recommendations for addressing observed weakness in SIA performance are advanced. - Highlights: • The quality of a sample of SIA reports was evaluated using a review package. • SIA reports received mostly weak grades. • Limited improvement observed from first to second regulatory regime. • Improvements most likely due to best practice considerations

  2. [Frequent infectious diseases in migrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, A

    2016-05-01

    The current influx of refugees and the high rate of immigration increase the rate and impact of infectious diseases in Europe. Infections can be detected at the initial examination of arriving refugees as a result of systematic screening or within the framework of general medical care. Diagnosis and treatment require special expertise and in some cases special precautions. The spectrum of infections is determined by the country of origin of migrants and the conditions experienced on fleeing to Germany. In this article the diagnostics and treatment of the most important infections are presented. As far as infections are concerned refugees and migrants do not represent a threat to the general population but instead have to be perceived as a highly vulnerable group. PMID:27142435

  3. The Social Psychological Adjustment of Migrant and Non-Migrant Puerto Rican Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Joseph O. Prewitt; Seilhamer, Emily Stella

    1987-01-01

    Reviews research literature on Puerto Rican youth and summarizes findings on factors influencing return migration and the cultural and physical adjustment of return migrants. Presents findings of a survey of Puerto Rican students, non-migrants and return migrants, which attempted to determine whether there was a relationship between reading…

  4. Who is a Migrant Farm Worker? Quien Es Un Trabajador Agricola Migrante?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, Manuel

    Concerned with varying definitions of migrants given by Federal agencies helping them, the 2 objectives of this study were to present migrant definitions utilized by these agencies and to initiate discussion on one standard definition of a migrant worker. Using standards of the Office of Economic Opportunity, the Department of Labor, the…

  5. Migrant Entrepreneurship from the Perspective of Cultural Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Sahin, M.; Nijkamp, P.; Baycan, T.

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon of migrant entrepreneurship refers to business activities undertaken by migrants with a specific socio-cultural and ethnic background or migrant origin. The studies on migrant entrepreneurship in both the US and Europe have recognized the significant share of immigrants in SME activities. In the context of migrant entrepreneurship several scholars have highlighted the impact of different migrant group cultures on entrepreneurship. They emphasize the importance of values like so...

  6. Smoking prevalence among migrants in the US compared to the US-born and the population in countries of origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizzo R Bosdriesz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Smoking among migrants is known to differ from the host population, but migrants' smoking is rarely ever compared to the prevalence of smoking in their country of origin. The goal of this study is to compare the smoking prevalence among migrants to that of both the US-born population and the countries of origin. Further analyses assess the influence of sex, age at time of entry to the US and education level. METHODS: Data of 248,726 US-born and migrants from 14 countries were obtained from the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS from 2006-2007. Data on 108,653 respondents from the corresponding countries of origin were taken from the World Health Survey (WHS from 2002-2005. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking among migrants (men: 14.2%, women: 4.1% was lower than both the US-born group (men: 21.4%, women: 18.1% and countries of origin (men: 39.4%, women: 11.0%. The gender gap among migrants was smaller than in the countries of origin. Age at time of entry to the US was not related to smoking prevalence for migrants. The risk of smoking for high-educated migrants was closer to their US counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: The smoking prevalence among migrants is consistently lower than both the country of origin levels and the US level. The theory of segmented assimilation is supported by some results of this study, but not all. Other mechanisms that might influence the smoking prevalence among migrants are the 'healthy migrant effect' or the stage of the smoking epidemic at the time of migration.

  7. Employers mexican migrants in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernández Guzmán

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available You might think that by definition the migrant labor plays in less profitable niches and meager social mobility. However, a large group of migrants in different economically developed countries have successfully launched businesses of diverse nature and volume. This is why entrepreneurship of migrants is an issue that has received increasing attention in recent years. Compared to other immigrant groups in the United States, Mexicans show low levels of entrepreneurial activity. The aim of this paper is to, through a general literature review of official statistical data, a preliminary analysis of mexican migrant entrepreneurship in the United States, that is to say in recent years has been growing in importance.

  8. Undocumented migrants have diverse health problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehmsen, Boje Kvorning; Biswas, Dan Klausholt; Jensen, Natasja Koitszch;

    2014-01-01

    on average (16+ weeks). CONCLUSION: Undocumented migrants presented with diverse health problems. Some patients presented with critical disease, and an alarming number of pregnant women did not seek medical care until a late stage, and they did not return for infant care after giving birth. FUNDING......: The study was funded by the Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.......INTRODUCTION: In 2008, 1.9-3.8 million undocumented migrants lived in Europe. We aimed to strengthen the evidence base on undocumented migrants' health problems by describing characteristics of undocumented migrant patients in a Danish non-governmental organisation (NGO) health clinic. MATERIAL...

  9. Remigration of migrants with severe disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørredam, Marie Louise; Højbjerg Hansen, Olof; Petersen, Jørgen Holm;

    2015-01-01

    study. Consequently, we studied whether migrants with severe disease were more likely to emigrate compared with migrants without severe disease. METHODS: A historic prospective cohort study was conducted based on all adult refugees and family reunification immigrants (n = 114,331) who obtained residence...... calculated for emigration among migrants with different levels of disease severity, adjusting for sex, age and income. RESULTS: Results showed progressively fewer emigrations with increasing disease severity. Migrants with low (HR = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.80-1.06), moderate (HR = 0.84; 95% CI: 0.67-1.06) and high...

  10. The Research of Cenozoic Migrant Worker Satisfaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海霞

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of Cenozoic migrant worker shortage is a realism problem of China's enterprise,and Cenozoic migrant worker has become an important force occupied the social structure.So the study of Cenozoic migrant worker's status and the demand is imperative.Understand employees"both psychological and physiological satisfaction of enterprises'environmental factors,and make some corresponding changes is of great help to reduce the employee turnover rate.This paper commenced to research from the Cenozoic migrant worker's characteristics,analyzed conditions and puts forward the corresponding countermeasures.

  11. Gaps in the 2010 measles SIA coverage among migrant children in Beijing: evidence from a parental survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaojiang; Xiao, Suowei; Chen, Binli; Sa, Zhihong

    2012-08-24

    China suffers from high incidence of measles partly due to high population mobility and low vaccination rates among migrants. In this study, we assessed the vaccination coverage of the nationwide measles supplementary immunization activity (SIA) of 2010 and its determinants among migrant children in Beijing. Information was collected through face-to-face interviews with the caregivers of 589 migrant children at train and long-distance bus stations in January 2011, when migrants were traveling home for the Chinese New Year holiday. We estimated that 83.4% of migrant children aged 8 months to 14 years received the measles vaccine during the SIA. This estimated coverage is lower than the official report of 96% among all eligible children in Beijing. Factors associated with being unvaccinated through the SIA included children being at home or in the kindergarten, living in a single-child family, and having a parent who was unaware of the SIA or who had a low level of trust in the government-administered measles campaign. We recommend more focused targeting on migrant children in future measles vaccination campaigns, improved immunization service delivery in unregulated migrant-run kindergartens and at the community level, as well as development of more effective communication methods to reach disadvantaged migrants.

  12. Country of origin and employment prospects among immigrants: An analysis of south-south and north-south migrants to South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Amos C Peters; Asha Sundaram

    2014-01-01

    We study the relationship between country of origin and employment prospects for immigrants to South Africa, an emerging host country characterized by high levels of unemployment, labour market imperfections and a scarcity of skills. Using the 2001 South African census, we estimate the probability of being employed for working-age immigrant men and South African internal migrants. We find that, conditional on individual characteristics and education levels, the probability of being employed v...

  13. Seasonality in pulmonary tuberculosis among migrant workers entering Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hameed GHH

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is paucity of data on seasonal variation in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB in developing countries contrary to recognized seasonality in the TB notification in western societies. This study examined the seasonal pattern in TB diagnosis among migrant workers from developing countries entering Kuwait. Methods Monthly aggregates of TB diagnosis results for consecutive migrants tested between January I, 1997 and December 31, 2006 were analyzed. We assessed the amplitude (α of the sinusoidal oscillation and the time at which maximum (θ° TB cases were detected using Edwards' test. The adequacy of the hypothesized sinusoidal curve was assessed by χ2 goodness-of-fit test. Results During the 10 year study period, the proportion (per 100,000 of pulmonary TB cases among the migrants was 198 (4608/2328582, (95% confidence interval: 192 – 204. The adjusted mean monthly number of pulmonary TB cases was 384. Based on the observed seasonal pattern in the data, the maximum number of TB cases was expected during the last week of April (θ° = 112°; P α = 0.204 ± 0.04 of simple harmonic curve showed 20.4% difference from the mean to maximum TB cases. The peak to low ratio of adjusted number of TB cases was 1.51 (95% CI: 1.39 – 1.65. The χ2 goodness-of-test revealed that there was no significant (P > 0.1 departure of observed frequencies from the fitted simple harmonic curve. Seasonal component explained 55% of the total variation in the proportions of TB cases (100,000 among the migrants. Conclusion This regularity of peak seasonality in TB case detection may prove useful to institute measures that warrant a better attendance of migrants. Public health authorities may consider re-allocation of resources in the period of peak seasonality to minimize the risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to close contacts in this and comparable settings in the region having similar influx of immigrants from high TB burden countries

  14. Migrant mortality from diabetes mellitus across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Deboosere, Patrick; Stirbu, Irina;

    2012-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to determine and quantify variations in diabetes mortality by migrant status in different European countries. The second objective was to investigate the hypothesis that diabetes mortality is higher in migrant groups for whom the country of residence (COR) is...

  15. Involving Migrant Families in Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Yolanda G.; Velazquez, Jose A.

    This digest describes parent involvement in their children's education from the perspective of migrant parents and educators and offers strategies to enhance the experience of schooling for migrant students and their families. Teachers often perceive parent involvement as preparing children for school, attending school events, and fulfilling…

  16. Sundhedsloven og sundhedsydelser hos udokumenterede migranter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Hallas, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Health-care workers may experience uncertainty regarding legal matters when attending to medical needs of undocumented migrants. This paper applies a pragmatic focus when addressing the legal aspects involved in providing health-care services to undocumented migrants with examples from the Danish...

  17. Miniature Marimbas: Migrant Workers' Memories of Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Jayne

    1995-01-01

    Three Mexican migrant workers attending classes at Geneseo (New York) Migrant Center used leftover art materials to represent their home village in miniature. A spontaneous artistic expression, the objects allowed the men an opportunity to reminisce and reinforce cultural and interpersonal ties, and gave insight about their background and culture…

  18. Competition for Migrants in a Federation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köthenbürger, Marko

    The paper provides an equilibrium analysis of how countries compete for migrants. The type of competition (tax or transfer competition) depends on whether the competing countries have similar policy preferences. With symmetric preferences, countries compete in taxes for migrants. With asymmetric...

  19. Informal labor and irregular migrant workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van Meeteren (Masja)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIrregular migrants, also referred to as “undocumented migrants” or “illegal migrants,” are immigrants who do not have legal permission to stay in the country they have migrated to and frequently take on informal and precarious employment. They may have entered the country legally – on a

  20. 1974 amnesty for migrants in Argentina.

    OpenAIRE

    Marmora L

    1983-01-01

    ILO pub. Working paper commenting on migration policy trends and 1974 legislation (Decree 087-74) comprising an amnesty for irregular migrants in Argentina - discusses migrant workers' legal status and impact on the labour market, and considers their geographic distribution, demographic aspects, nationality, illiteracy, labour force participation, occupational structure, etc. Bibliography and statistical tables.

  1. We Have Come to Stay and We Shall Find All Means to Live and Work in this Country: Nigerian Migrants and Life Challenges in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adediran Daniel Ikuomola

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent times many Nigerians have been singled out when it comes to criminal activities and xenophobic attacks in South Africa, which leads to disruption of the hitherto cordial relationship between South African host communities and Nigerian migrants. Nevertheless, the rate of Nigerians migrating to South Africa keeps soaring. Studies of migration between Nigeria and South Africa, have been scanty, often limited to the study of traditional economic disparity between the two countries with less emphasis on the social-cultural challenges facing Nigerian migrants in the host communities. This paper thus examined the socio-economic and cultural challenges facing Nigerian migrants in selected communities in Johannesburg, South Africa. Data for the study were collected through in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with Nigerian migrants in Hillbrow, Braamfontein and Alexandra suburbs in Johannesburg, South Africa.

  2. Universal jurisdiction under attack: an assessment of African misgivings towards international criminal justice as administered by Western states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.G. van der Wilt

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the current criticism, expressed by African states and institutions, of the exercise of universal jurisdiction by Western states, accusing the latter of overstepping their lawful powers, as well as practicing ‘legal colonialism’. In order to gauge whether this criticism is war

  3. Nutrition and Physical Activity Knowledge Assessment: Development of Questionnaires and Evaluation of Reliability in African American and Latino Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lindsay S.; Sharma, Sushma; Hudes, Mark L.; Fleming, Sharon E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: African-American and Latino children living in neighborhoods with a low-socioeconomic index are more at risk of obesity-associated metabolic disease than their higher socioeconomic index and/or white peers. Currently, consistent and reliable questionnaires to evaluate nutrition and physical activity knowledge in these children are…

  4. Third molar maturity index (I3M) for assessing age of majority in a black African population in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavrić, Jelena; Galić, Ivan; Vodanović, Marin; Brkić, Hrvoje; Gregov, Jelena; Viva, Serena; Rey, Laura; Cameriere, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    Assessment of legal age, also known as age of majority, is a controversial issue as there are few body biomarkers or evidence during late adolescence differentiating a subject from being a minor or adult. The third molar was recognized as a suitable site for age examination in late adolescence. We analyzed the development of the left mandibular third molar by the third molar maturity index (I3M) and a specific cut-off value of I3M = 0.08, established by Cameriere et al. in 2008 and used it for discriminating between minors and adult black Africans from Gaborone, Botswana. A final sample of panoramic radiographs (OPTs) of 1294 people (582 males and 712 females) aged between 13 and 23 years was evaluated. The real age decreased as I3M gradually increased. There was no statistically significant difference in the third molar development evaluated using I3M between males and females (p > 0.05) across different I3M classes. Results of 2 × 2 contingency tables for different cut-off values indicated that I3M = 0.08 was useful in discriminating between adults and minors. Precisely, for I3M = 0.08, the values of accuracy or overall fraction of correctly classified were 0.91 in males with a 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) of 0.88 to 0.93 and 0.92 (95 % CI, 0.90 to 0.93) in females. Values of sensitivity of the test or the proportion of participants being 18 years and older were 0.88 (95 % CI, 0.87 to 0.90) in males and 0.88 (95 % CI, 0.90 to 0.93) in females, while values of specificity or proportion of individuals younger than 18 who have I3M age of 18 years in Botswana. Further studies should address the usefulness of this method and specific cut-off for different adolescent populations.

  5. Barriers to lifestyle behavioral change in migrant South Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mihir; Phillips-Caesar, Erica; Boutin-Foster, Carla

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to describe and assess the cultural barriers to behavior change in migrant South Asians, given the high morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease in this population. We reviewed studies that explored the relationship between South Asian culture in the Diaspora and lifestyle behaviors. Our review produced 91 studies, of which 25 discussed the relationship between various aspects of South Asians' belief system and their approach to modifying lifestyle habits. We identify 6 specific categories of beliefs which play the largest role in the difficulties South Asians describe with behavior change: gender roles, body image, physical activity misconceptions, cultural priorities, cultural identity, and explanatory model of disease. Future research and interventions should account for these cultural factors to successfully improve dietary habits and physical activity levels in migrant South Asian populations.

  6. Healthier before they migrate, less healthy when they return? The health of returned migrants in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, S. Heidi; Goldman, Noreen; Massey, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    Over the course of the 20th century, Mexico-U.S. migration has emerged as an important facet of both countries, with far reaching economic and social impacts. The health of Mexican immigrants in the U.S. has been well studied, but relatively less is known about the health of returned migrants to Mexico. The objectives of this paper are twofold. Relying on health data pertaining to two stages of the life course, early life health (pre-migration) and adult health (post-migration) from the Mexican Migration Project gathered between 2007 and 2009, we aim to assess disparities in adult health status between male returned migrants and male non-migrants in Mexico, accounting for their potentially different early life health profiles. While we find evidence that returned migrants had more favorable early life health, the results for adult health are more complex. Returned migrants have a higher prevalence of heart disease, emotional/psychiatric disorders, obesity, and smoking than non-migrants but no differences are found in self-rated health, diabetes, or hypertension. PMID:21729820

  7. Vulnerability of wives of Nepalese labor migrants to HIV infection: Integrating quantitative and qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Subash; Bista, Nirmala; Hannes, Karin; Buve, Anne; Vermandere, Mieke; Mathei, Catharina

    2016-10-01

    HIV risk is determined by the interaction between social and individual risk factors, but information about such factors among Nepalese women is not yet understood. Therefore, to assess the risk factors and vulnerability of the wives of Nepalese labor migrants to HIV infection, the authors conducted a mixed-methods study in which a descriptive qualitative study was embedded within a case-control study. Two hundred twenty-four wives of labor migrants were interviewed in the case-control study, and two focus group discussions (n = 8 and 9) were conducted in the qualitative study. The authors found that illiteracy, low socio-economic status, and gender inequality contributed to poor knowledge and poor sexual negotiation among the wives of labor migrants and increased their risk of HIV through unprotected sex. Among male labor migrants, illiteracy, low socio-economic status, migration to India before marriage, and alcohol consumption contributed to liaisons with female sex workers, increasing the risk of HIV to the men and their wives through unprotected sex. Both labor migrants and their wives feared disclosure of positive HIV status due to HIV stigma and thus were less likely to be tested for HIV. HIV prevention programs should consider the interaction among these risk factors when targeting labor migrants and their wives.

  8. Natural Disaster Induced Losses at Household Level: A Study on the Disaster Affected Migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtiaque, A.; Nazem, N. I.; Jerin, T.

    2015-12-01

    Given its geographical location Bangladesh frequently confronts natural disasters. Disaster induced losses often obligate socio-economic dislocation from rural areas to large urban centers. After incurring what type/amount of losses people migrate is still unknown. In this paper we focus on migrants who migrated due to natural disasters. Thus, the objectives of this paper are, first, ascertaining the proportion of disaster migrants in Dhaka city; second, determining types of natural disasters which compel rural out-migration; third, assessing the resource and economic losses stem from these disasters at household level. Using the slum database (N = 4966), we select eight slums randomly with a purpose to include migrants from maximum districts available. In order to identify the proportion of disaster affected migrants a census is conducted in 407 households of those 8 slums and the result demonstrates that 18.43% of the migrants are disaster affected, which was only 5% in 1993. Out of all hydro-meteorological disasters, river bank erosion (RBE), followed by flood, drives most people out of their abode. However, unlike RBE migrants, migrants affected by flood usually return to their origin after certain period. In-depth interviews on the disaster migrants reveal that RBE claims total loss of homestead land & agricultural land while flood causes 20% and 23% loss respectively. Agricultural income decreases 96% because of RBE whereas flood victims encounter 98% decrease. People also incur 79% & 69% loss in livestock owing to RBE and flood severally. These disasters cause more than eighty percent reduction in total monthly income. Albeit RBE appears more vigorous but total economic loss is greater in flood- on average each household experiences a loss of BDT 350,555 due to flood and BDT 300,000 on account of RBE. Receiving no substantial support from community or government the affected people are compelled to migrate.

  9. HIV-related high-risk behaviors among Chinese migrant construction laborers in Nantong, Jiangsu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Zhuang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV transmission in rural areas of China is being fueled in part by migrant workers who acquire HIV outside of their hometowns. Recent surveillance statistics indicate that HIV prevalence among returning migrants has increased significantly. METHODS: We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study to assess HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors among migrant returnees in Nantong, Jiangsu Province, one of the largest exporters of migrant laborers. RESULTS: A total of 1625 subjects were enrolled with a response rate of 89%. All participants were male and of the majority Han ethnicity. The mean age was 39.0 years (SD = 6.7; range: 18 to 63, and most had a stable partner (N = 1533, 94.3%. Most correctly identified the major modes of HIV transmission (68.9%-82.0%, but fewer were able to identify ways that HIV cannot be transmitted. Nearly one-third of participants held positive attitudes toward having multiple sex partners, and nearly half believed that sex work should be legalized. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that risky sexual behavior (defined as sex with a casual or commercial sex partner was associated with no stable partner; working abroad; correct condom use; age <22 at first sex; higher coital frequency; and having a positive attitude towards multiple sex partners. CONCLUSIONS: We found high levels of reported sex with a casual or commercial sex partner and low levels of consistent condom use. HIV prevention interventions among migrant workers need to focus on younger migrants, migrants without stable partners, and migrants who travel abroad for work.

  10. Network Effects on Migrants' Remittances

    OpenAIRE

    Aparicio Fenoll, Ainhoa

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the existence of network effects in migrants' remittance behavior. In this study, networks are defined as groups of immigrants from the same country that live in the same locality. Using the National Immigrant Survey, a unique database for Spain, immigrants are found to be more likely to remit and to remit more money if they belong to high remitting country groups. This finding sheds new light on the determinants of the decision to remit, as well as on the scope of immigra...

  11. THE MIGRANT WORKER AND LEGISLATIVE PROTECTION. A DISCUSSION OF THE SOUTH AFRICA EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux G. Iwu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of this paper, a migrant is defined as an asylum seeker, a refugee, a legal and or an illegal immigrant. Labour migration in South Africa has received little attention due to concerns with immigration, which are regarded as far more immediate and pressing. This consideration and others provide the impetus for this paper, which in the opinion of the authors adds to the growing concern over the issues of xenophobia and incidences of maltreatment of African immigrants in South Africa, especially against the background of the bold posture of South Africa’s constitution as the most promising constitution in the world. One must note that South Africa’s independence in 1994 and the prospects of a booming economy in a democratic setting unleashed a floodgate for immigration into the Republic from a variety of countries in Africa including Eastern Europe. This paper finds that despite narratives that tend to argue that migrant workers are deficiently protected in South Africa, evidence suggests that their rights within and outside of the workplace are indeed under the veil of protection by the legislation and the courts. Nonetheless, we are of the opinion that more interventions need to be in place, especially with regard to mitigating the levels of exploitation of migrant workers. This and many other recommendations have been put forward considering that migrant workers are susceptible to exploitation.

  12. The Undocumented: Educating the Children of Migrant Workers in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul E.

    2003-01-01

    Partly because of mobility, but mostly because of poverty, migrant children are systematically denied their right to equal educational opportunity. This review covers migrant families' immigration and illegal immigration, migration patterns, poor living conditions, impact of migrant workers on the U.S. economy, children as migrant workers, impact…

  13. Shift in the Use of Migrant Community Languages in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karidakis, Maria; Arunachalam, Dharma

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we first explore the trends in the maintenance of migrant community languages among the first generation migrants and then the socio-economic variation in the shift in use of community languages. Our analysis showed that language shift to English among first generation migrants has not been uniform, with some migrant groups adopting…

  14. Study on Undertaking-starting of New Generation Migrant Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuang; LU; Wanzhao; LIU

    2014-01-01

    New generation migrant workers have become mainstay of China’s migrant workers and also major builders of China’s urbanization process. Compared with last generation migrant workers,new generation migrant workers have greater awareness of starting an undertaking. In the new trend,undertaking-starting is inevitable for new generation migrant workers. This study analyzed problems encountered by new generation migrant workers in the course of starting an undertaking. It reached conclusions that competent authorities should set up support mechanism in undertaking-starting training,undertaking-starting fund,service platform,and preferential policies,to encourage and support new generation migrant workers to start an undertaking.

  15. Migrant Labor in the Workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla DAHL-JØRGENSEN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We compared immigrant workers with native workers on several factors related to their perception of their work identity anchored in their psychosocial work environment, and the result of these factors on work stress and subjective health. The data for this study came from a survey among migrant laborers in the construction and cleaning business (N=125 and was compared to a native sample (N=654 we used in an earlier study. The present study showed that the migrant workers perceived more over-commitment and higher job stress than native workers. This finding was similar to the first study in relation to these two factors. In this study, however, the construction workers and cleaners did not have significant higher levels of mental health problems than native workers. The personal ambitions of the immigrants, measured as a higher level of over-commitment was seen as a driving force behind the patterns we found. In this new study, the construction workers and cleaners showed significantly lower commitment than the natives, but still a path from over-commitment to commitment was found and may function as a barrier from developing even more stress and mental health reactions over time.

  16. Development of the Migrant Friendly Maternity Care Questionnaire (MFMCQ) for migrants to Western societies: An international Delphi consensus process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gagnon, A.J.; DeBruyn, R.; Essén, B.; Gissler, M.; Heaman, M.; Jeambey, Z.; Korfker, D.; McCourt, C.; Roth, C.; Zeitlin, J.; Small, R.; Alexander, S.; Racapé, J.; Arntzen, A.; Barros, H.; Blondel, B.; Merry, L.; Glazier, R.; Kirby, R.; Mohangoo, A.; Macfarlane, A.; Dattani, N.; Nybo Andersen, A.M.; Mortensen, L.; Villadsen, S.; Davey, M.A.; Sievers, E.; Stray-Pedersen, B.; Urquia, M.; Janevic, T.; Guendelman, S.; Bolumar, F.; Río Sánchez, M.I.; Hjern, A.; Vangen, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Through the World Health Assembly Resolution, 'Health of Migrants', the international community has identified migrant health as a priority. Recommendations for general hospital care for international migrants in receiving-countries have been put forward by the Migrant Friendly Hospital

  17. DSM-defined anxiety disorders symptoms in South African youths: Their assessment and relationship with perceived parental rearing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Loxton, Helene; Neumann, Anna; du Plessis, Michelle; King, Neville; Ollendick, Thomas

    2006-06-01

    This study investigated DSM-defined anxiety symptoms in South African youths. Children and adolescents (N = 701) from various cultural groups completed the SCARED and a questionnaire measuring perceived parental rearing behaviors. Results indicated that the psychometric properties of the SCARED were satisfactory in the total sample of South African youths, and acceptable in colored and black children and adolescents. Further, colored and black youths displayed higher SCARED scores than white youths, and there were also differences in the perceived parental rearing behaviors of the cultural groups. White youths generally rated their parents' rearing behaviors as less anxious, overprotective, and rejective, but more emotionally warm than colored and black youths. Finally, positive correlations were found between anxious rearing, overprotection, and rejection and anxiety symptoms. The clinical and research implications of these findings are briefly discussed. PMID:16137645

  18. Assessing the Key Attributes of Low Utilization of Mammography Screening and Breast-self Exam among African-American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Rupak; David, Nganwa; Bogale, Asseged; Nandy, Shami; Habtemariam, T.; Tameru, Berhanu

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: African-American (AA) women living in four Black Belt Counties (BBC) of Alabama; consisting of Barbour, Macon, Green and Wilcox are known to have lower mammogram utilization and breast self-exam rates when compared to their white female counterparts. The influence of socioeconomic and demographic factors on these disparities has not been clearly defined so far. Our study was designed to determine whether these observed disparities can be predicted with the socioeconomic and other dem...

  19. An assessment of corporate entrepreneurship in the South African Broadcasting Corporation Limited (SABC Ltd.) / I. de Villiers

    OpenAIRE

    De Villiers, Ilze

    2008-01-01

    Corporate entrepreneurship is examined with specific reference to the South African Broadcasting Corporation Limited (SABC). As such, a historic overview is given of the SABC followed by a review of the present day situation. Factors which could specifically make corporate entrepreneurship a beneficial strategy should the SABC wish to adopt it, is also discussed in order to set the scene for the literature study to follow. These factors include the fierce competitive environment, the commerci...

  20. Enhanced Statistical Tests for GWAS in Admixed Populations: Assessment using African Americans from CARe and a Breast Cancer Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Zaitlen, Noah; Lettre, Guillaume; Chen, Gary K.; Tandon, Arti; Kao, W. H. Linda; Ruczinski, Ingo; Fornage, Myriam; Siscovick, David S; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Larkin, Emma; Lange, Leslie A.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Yang, Qiong; Akylbekova, Ermeg L.

    2011-01-01

    While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have primarily examined populations of European ancestry, more recent studies often involve additional populations, including admixed populations such as African Americans and Latinos. In admixed populations, linkage disequilibrium (LD) exists both at a fine scale in ancestral populations and at a coarse scale (admixture-LD) due to chromosomal segments of distinct ancestry. Disease association statistics in admixed populations have previously consi...

  1. Enhanced statistical tests for GWAS in admixed populations: assessment using African Americans from CARe and a Breast Cancer Consortium.

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Pasaniuc; Noah Zaitlen; Guillaume Lettre; Chen, Gary K.; Arti Tandon; Linda Kao, W H; Ingo Ruczinski; Myriam Fornage; Siscovick, David S; Xiaofeng Zhu; Emma Larkin; Lange, Leslie A.; L Adrienne Cupples; Qiong Yang; Akylbekova, Ermeg L.

    2011-01-01

    While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have primarily examined populations of European ancestry, more recent studies often involve additional populations, including admixed populations such as African Americans and Latinos. In admixed populations, linkage disequilibrium (LD) exists both at a fine scale in ancestral populations and at a coarse scale (admixture-LD) due to chromosomal segments of distinct ancestry. Disease association statistics in admixed populations have previously consi...

  2. Cardiovascular risk amongst migrant and non-migrant Greenland Inuit in a gender perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2007-01-01

    surveys among adult Inuit in Greenland and Inuit migrants in Denmark (n = 1542). General Linear Models adjusted for age, smoking, diet (seal, fish, and fruit), and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Blood pressure was significantly higher among Inuit migrants of either sex than among the Inuit in Greenland....... Among women, HDL-cholesterol concentrations were 1.59 mmol/l in Greenland and 1.83 among migrants (pmigrants. Blood lipids, HbA(1c), and obesity did not differ between men in Greenland and migrants. Smoking, diet, and alcohol...... consumption differed significantly among migrants and non-migrants. Adjusted for the consumption of seal meat and alcohol, the difference in HDL cholesterol for men (1.44 and 1.66 mmol/l; p = 0.002) was of a similar magnitude to that of women. CONCLUSIONS: Migration was associated with cardiovascular risk...

  3. Migrant entrepreneurship, economic activity and export performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Baklanov, Nikita; Brambini-Pedersen, Jan Vang

    revenue in the Danish context and thereby linking the challenges stemming from the transnational entrepreneurship literature to the immigration and internationalization of entrepreneurship literature. Entrepreneurial economic activity in this paper is proxied by the changing share of self-owned firms...... in across ethic categories. Export revenue is proxied by the number of firms in the different ethnic categories that exports. The Danish context provides unique data allowing for a comparison across migrants and non-migrants, across sectors and across time. The paper reveals that migrants play a decreasing...

  4. MIGRANT AND LOCAL ENTREPRENEURIAL NETWORKS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Adam

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines factors influencing migrant and local entrepreneurial business networks with particular reference to Provincial development in Indonesia. Factors of influence include market accessibility, capital accessibility, business focus or business specialisation in manufacturing, trades and services as well as economic conditions, degree of tolerance towards migrant and local entrepreneurs, support networks, business experience, educational background, and entrepreneurial personal characteristics and initiatives. The findings have significance for local development by entrepreneurs in this special case where migrant and local entrepreneurs link in networks and in many cases, joint ventures. The outcomes have significance for government in development programs, academic institutions designing training, and for local business organisation.

  5. EMPRESARIOS MIGRANTES MEXICANOS EN ESTADOS UNIDOS

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Fernández Guzmán; Eloy Mosqueda Tapia; Perla Shiomara del Carpio Ovando

    2013-01-01

    Se podría pensar que por definición el migrante se desempeña en los nichos laborales menos redituables y de exigua movilidad social. Sin embargo, un grupo nutrido de migrantes en diferentes países económicamente desarrollados han emprendido con éxito negocios de diversa naturaleza y volumen. Es por esto que el espíritu empresarial de los migrantes es un tema que ha merecido una creciente atención en los últimos años. Comparados con otros grupos de inmigrantes en Estados Unidos, los mexicanos ...

  6. The probability of return migration, migrants' work effort, and migrants' performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, O; Stark, O

    1991-04-01

    "This paper demonstrates that differences in earnings between migrants and the native population may reflect differences in incentives rather than differences in characteristics. The analysis indicates that in the presence of a positive probability of return migration, migrants' work effort is higher than that of comparable native-born workers. This differential may explain why, even if all workers are perfectly homogeneous in skills, migrants often outperform the native-born workers in the receiving economy."

  7. Differential of Insomnia Symptoms between Migrants and Non-migrants in China

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Peifeng; Mason , William M.; Song, Shige; Treiman, Donald J.; Wang, Wei

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: Insomnia is influenced by psychosocial and environment factors. This study aims to examine the differential of insomnia symptoms between rural-to-urban migrants and non-migrants in China. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: Ten townships throughout China. Patients or Participants: One hundred and ninety-seven Chinese adults aged 18 to 64 years, with an oversample of migrants. Measurements and Results: Professional interviewers and community doctors used a questio...

  8. Retirement home? France’s migrant worker hostels and the dilemma of late-in-life return.

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Alistair Pursell

    2012-01-01

    Unlike many of their North African and West African compatriots who reunified with family and settled in France in the 1970s and 80s, the decision of migrant worker hostel residents not to return definitively to places of origin at retirement is puzzling. Firstly, it calls into question the assumptions of the ‘myth of return’ literature, which explains non-return on the basis of family localisation. In the case of ‘geographically-single’ hostel residents, however, the grounds f...

  9. The adaptation of migrant children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portes, Alejandro; Rivas, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Alejandro Portes and Alejandro Rivas examine how young immigrants are adapting to life in the United States. They begin by noting the existence of two distinct pan-ethnic populations: Asian Americans, who tend to be the offspring of high-human-capital migrants, and Hispanics, many of whose parents are manual workers. Vast differences in each, both in human capital origins and in their reception in the United States, mean large disparities in resources available to the families and ethnic communities raising the new generation. Research on the assimilation of these children falls into two theoretical perspectives. Culturalist researchers emphasize the newcomers' place in the cultural and linguistic life of the host society; structuralists, their place in the socioeconomic hierarchy. Within each camp, views range from darkly pessimistic-that disadvantaged children of immigrants are simply not joining the American mainstream--to optimistic--that assimilation is taking place today just as it has in the past. A middle ground is that although poorly endowed immigrant families face distinct barriers to upward mobility, their children can overcome these obstacles through learning the language and culture of the host society while preserving their home country language, values, and customs. Empirical work shows that immigrants make much progress, on average, from the first to the second generation, both culturally and socioeconomically. The overall advancement of the immigrant population, however, is largely driven by the good performance and outcomes of youths from professional immigrant families, positively received in America. For immigrants at the other end of the spectrum, average socioeconomic outcomes are driven down by the poorer educational and economic performance of children from unskilled migrant families, who are often handicapped further by an unauthorized or insecure legal status. Racial stereotypes produce a positive self-identity for white and Asian

  10. Identifying phonological processing deficits in Northern Sotho-speaking children: The use of non-word repetition as a language assessment tool in the South African context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsenach, Carien

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic testing of speech/language skills in the African languages spoken in South Africa is a challenging task, as standardised language tests in the official languages of South Africa barely exist. Commercially available language tests are in English, and have been standardised in other parts of the world. Such tests are often translated into African languages, a practice that speech language therapists deem linguistically and culturally inappropriate. In response to the need for developing clinical language assessment instruments that could be used in South Africa, this article reports on data collected with a Northern Sotho non-word repetition task (NRT). Non-word repetition measures various aspects of phonological processing, including phonological working memory (PWM), and is used widely by speech language therapists, linguists, and educational psychologists in the Western world. The design of a novel Northern Sotho NRT is described, and it is argued that the task could be used successfully in the South African context to discriminate between children with weak and strong Northern Sotho phonological processing ability, regardless of the language of learning and teaching. The NRT was piloted with 120 third graders, and showed moderate to strong correlations with other measures of PWM, such as digit span and English non-word repetition. Furthermore, the task was positively associated with both word and fluent reading in Northern Sotho, and it reliably predicted reading outcomes in the tested population. Suggestions are made for improving the current version of the Northern Sotho NRT, whereafter it should be suitable to test learners from various age groups. PMID:27245134

  11. Identifying phonological processing deficits in Northern Sotho-speaking children: The use of non-word repetition as a language assessment tool in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carien Wilsenach

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic testing of speech/language skills in the African languages spoken in South Africa is a challenging task, as standardised language tests in the official languages of South Africa barely exist. Commercially available language tests are in English, and have been standardised in other parts of the world. Such tests are often translated into African languages, a practice that speech language therapists deem linguistically and culturally inappropriate. In response to the need for developing clinical language assessment instruments that could be used in South Africa, this article reports on data collected with a Northern Sotho non-word repetition task (NRT. Non-word repetition measures various aspects of phonological processing, including phonological working memory (PWM, and is used widely by speech language therapists, linguists, and educational psychologists in the Western world. The design of a novel Northern Sotho NRT is described, and it is argued that the task could be used successfully in the South African context to discriminate between children with weak and strong Northern Sotho phonological processing ability, regardless of the language of learning and teaching. The NRT was piloted with 120 third graders, and showed moderate to strong correlations with other measures of PWM, such as digit span and English non-word repetition. Furthermore, the task was positively associated with both word and fluent reading in Northern Sotho, and it reliably predicted reading outcomes in the tested population. Suggestions are made for improving the current version of the Northern Sotho NRT, whereafter it should be suitable to test learners from various age groups.

  12. Identifying phonological processing deficits in Northern Sotho-speaking children: The use of non-word repetition as a language assessment tool in the South African context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsenach, Carien

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic testing of speech/language skills in the African languages spoken in South Africa is a challenging task, as standardised language tests in the official languages of South Africa barely exist. Commercially available language tests are in English, and have been standardised in other parts of the world. Such tests are often translated into African languages, a practice that speech language therapists deem linguistically and culturally inappropriate. In response to the need for developing clinical language assessment instruments that could be used in South Africa, this article reports on data collected with a Northern Sotho non-word repetition task (NRT). Non-word repetition measures various aspects of phonological processing, including phonological working memory (PWM), and is used widely by speech language therapists, linguists, and educational psychologists in the Western world. The design of a novel Northern Sotho NRT is described, and it is argued that the task could be used successfully in the South African context to discriminate between children with weak and strong Northern Sotho phonological processing ability, regardless of the language of learning and teaching. The NRT was piloted with 120 third graders, and showed moderate to strong correlations with other measures of PWM, such as digit span and English non-word repetition. Furthermore, the task was positively associated with both word and fluent reading in Northern Sotho, and it reliably predicted reading outcomes in the tested population. Suggestions are made for improving the current version of the Northern Sotho NRT, whereafter it should be suitable to test learners from various age groups.

  13. Study on Practice of South African Government Performance Assessment and its Revelation%南非政府绩效考核的实践与启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯蕾; 王昱; 万硕莹

    2015-01-01

    梳理南非政府绩效考核在考核周期设立、考核领导团队组建、考核参与主体、考核方法选取以及考核结果应用等方面的独创性。针对我国政府绩效考核的现状,提出南非绩效考核对我国的启示,以期为我国政府绩效考核提供参考。%The paper introduces the practice of South African government performance assessment, founds that there are originality in its setting of assessment cycle, assessment methods, leadership group, participating subject, application of assessment results, etc. It aims to study the status quo of South Africa national government performance assessment to provide a better understanding and to narrow the gap between assessment theory and practice in China.

  14. Together we have fun: native-place networks and sexual risk behaviours among Chinese male rural-urban migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaozhao Yousef; Kelly, Brian C; Yang, Tingzhong

    2016-05-01

    Some scholars argue that the maintenance of social networks contributes to the lower prevalence of deviant behaviours and fewer adverse health effects among migrants. But others suggest that if migrants are embedded in homogeneous networks, such networks may enable the formation of a deviant subculture that promotes risk taking. Facing this dilemma, the present study investigates how native-place networks influence sexual risk behaviours (SRBs), specifically the pursuit of commercial sex and condomless sex with sex workers, for male rural-urban migrants. Using a multi-stage sample of 1,591 male rural-urban migrants from two major migrant-influx cities within China, we assessed migrants' general friend network ties and native place networks (townsmen in migrants' local networks) and tested their associations with SRBs. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicate that native-place network ties are associated with paying for sex (OR = 1.33, p youtube.com/watch?v=3Wg20I6j8XQ. PMID:26582759

  15. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  16. Elderly Turkish Migrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaakilde, Anne Leonora; Petersen, Signe Sofia Gronwald; Yazici, Suzan

    simoultaneously translated from Turkish, English and Danish by the two interviewers; a medical doctor from Turkey and an ethnologist from Denmark. Results The interviews revealed a high level of functional illiteracy, low social and economic status and little language skills except for Turkish. From their life...... histories, we learned that the interviewees had not only encountered unskilled and physical demanding work, but many of them had experienced very bad and unhealthy living conditions during their stay in Denmark. Conclusions A life course approach to the study of Elderly Turkish migrants in Denmark suggests...... that the negative health situation among this population, compared to ethnic Danes, is entailed to low socio-economic status and experiences with bad living conditions in Denmark in a life-historical perspective....

  17. Slovene migrant literature in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Maver

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This article on the literary creativity of Slovene rnigrants in Australia after the Second World War, including the most recent publications, discusses only the most artistically accomplished auth­ ors and addresses those works that have received the most enthusiastic reception by the critics and readers alike. Of course, those who are not mentioned are also important to the preservation of Slovene culture and identity among the Slovene migrants in Australia from a documentary, histori­ cal,or ethnological points of view. However, the genresfeatured here include the explicitly literary, the semi-literary fictionalized biography, the memoir and documentary fiction, and the literary journalistic text - all those fields and genres that nowadays straddle the division line between 'high' literature and so-called 'creative fiction'.

  18. Enhanced statistical tests for GWAS in admixed populations: assessment using African Americans from CARe and a Breast Cancer Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Pasaniuc

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available While genome-wide association studies (GWAS have primarily examined populations of European ancestry, more recent studies often involve additional populations, including admixed populations such as African Americans and Latinos. In admixed populations, linkage disequilibrium (LD exists both at a fine scale in ancestral populations and at a coarse scale (admixture-LD due to chromosomal segments of distinct ancestry. Disease association statistics in admixed populations have previously considered SNP association (LD mapping or admixture association (mapping by admixture-LD, but not both. Here, we introduce a new statistical framework for combining SNP and admixture association in case-control studies, as well as methods for local ancestry-aware imputation. We illustrate the gain in statistical power achieved by these methods by analyzing data of 6,209 unrelated African Americans from the CARe project genotyped on the Affymetrix 6.0 chip, in conjunction with both simulated and real phenotypes, as well as by analyzing the FGFR2 locus using breast cancer GWAS data from 5,761 African-American women. We show that, at typed SNPs, our method yields an 8% increase in statistical power for finding disease risk loci compared to the power achieved by standard methods in case-control studies. At imputed SNPs, we observe an 11% increase in statistical power for mapping disease loci when our local ancestry-aware imputation framework and the new scoring statistic are jointly employed. Finally, we show that our method increases statistical power in regions harboring the causal SNP in the case when the causal SNP is untyped and cannot be imputed. Our methods and our publicly available software are broadly applicable to GWAS in admixed populations.

  19. Migrant entrepreneurship, economic activity and export performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baklanov, Nikita; Rezaei, Shahamak; Vang, Jan;

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on transnational entrepreneurship suggest that migrant entrepreneur plays an increasingly significant role as sources of economic activities and especially export revenue. The literature is, however, biased on the US experience, lacks a comparative perspective between migrants...... and non-migrants and is primarily anecdotal in nature. This paper aims to reduce this gap by mapping the recent changes in the role of migrant entrepreneurs as a source of increased economic activity and export revenue in the Danish context and thereby linking the challenges stemming from...... the transnational entrepreneurship literature to the immigration and internationalisation of entrepreneurship literature. Entrepreneurial economic activity in this paper is proxied by the changing share of self-owned firms across ethic categories. Export revenue is proxied by the number of firms in the different...

  20. Undocumented migrants have diverse health problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehmsen, Boje Kvorning; Biswas, Dan; Jensen, Natasja Koitszch;

    2014-01-01

    on the International Classification of Primary Care, 2nd Edition (ICPC-2). RESULTS: A total of 830 patients (39.75% women and 60.25% men) visited the clinic, which led to a total of 2,088 visits and 1,384 ICPC-2 classifications. The patients seen had 94 different nationalities. The most common reasons for medical...... on average (16+ weeks). CONCLUSION: Undocumented migrants presented with diverse health problems. Some patients presented with critical disease, and an alarming number of pregnant women did not seek medical care until a late stage, and they did not return for infant care after giving birth. FUNDING......INTRODUCTION: In 2008, 1.9-3.8 million undocumented migrants lived in Europe. We aimed to strengthen the evidence base on undocumented migrants' health problems by describing characteristics of undocumented migrant patients in a Danish non-governmental organisation (NGO) health clinic. MATERIAL...

  1. Mental health challenges of LGBT forced migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Shidlo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many LGBT forced migrants have significant and sometimesincapacitating psychological scars. Mental health providers can assistin documenting the psychological impact of anti-LGBT persecutionand its impact on the ability to secure refugee status.

  2. [Migrant workers. The critical aspects of integration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berra, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    The integration of migrant poplulations with the indigeneous population is regulated by the Italian Decree, D.Lgs 9/7/2003 n. 215 in enforcement of the directive 2000/43/EC implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of racial or ethnic origin. The Italian decree, D.Lgs 215/2003, at present in force, according to regulation stipulated as to the equal treatment of diverse cohabiting populations, explicitly forbids any form of discrimination whatsoever, be it direct or indirect. A first description of today's migrant panorama is offered by the Caritas Migrantes and the CNEL (Italian National Council of the Economy of Labour). The most critical aspects on the integration of migrants are described and discussed in the text.

  3. Migranter i prostitution klemmes af lovgivning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanger, Marlene

    2008-01-01

    Kvindelige migranter, der prostituerer sig, er en potentielt udsat gruppe, der ofte kommer i klemme mellem to politikområder - myndighedernes menneskehandelsindsats og ægteskabssammenføringslovgivningen....

  4. Bibliometric Assessment of European and Sub-Saharan African Research Output on Poverty-Related and Neglected Infectious Diseases from 2003 to 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gabrielle Breugelmans

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP is a partnership of European and sub-Saharan African countries that aims to accelerate the development of medical interventions against poverty-related diseases (PRDs. A bibliometric analysis was conducted to 1 measure research output from European and African researchers on PRDs, 2 describe collaboration patterns, and 3 assess the citation impact of clinical research funded by EDCTP.Disease-specific research publications were identified in Thomson Reuters Web of Science using search terms in titles, abstracts and keywords. Publication data, including citation counts, were extracted for 2003-2011. Analyses including output, share of global papers, normalised citation impact (NCI, and geographical distribution are presented. Data are presented as five-year moving averages. European EDCTP member countries accounted for ~33% of global research output in PRDs and sub-Saharan African countries for ~10% (2007-2011. Both regions contributed more to the global research output in malaria (43.4% and 22.2%, respectively. The overall number of PRD papers from sub-Saharan Africa increased markedly (>47% since 2003, particularly for HIV/AIDS (102% and tuberculosis (TB (81%, and principally involving Southern and East Africa. For 2007-2011, European and sub-Saharan African research collaboration on PRDs was highly cited compared with the world average (NCI in brackets: HIV/AIDS 1.62 (NCI: 1.16, TB 2.11 (NCI: 1.06, malaria 1.81 (NCI: 1.22, and neglected infectious diseases 1.34 (NCI: 0.97. The NCI of EDCTP-funded papers for 2003-2011 was exceptionally high for HIV/AIDS (3.24, TB (4.08 and HIV/TB co-infection (5.10 compared with global research benchmarks (1.14, 1.05 and 1.35, respectively.The volume and citation impact of papers from sub-Saharan Africa has increased since 2003, as has collaborative research between Europe and sub-Saharan Africa. >90% of publications from EDCTP

  5. Diabetes among Inuit migrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moustgaard, Helene; Bjerregaard, Peter; Borch-Johnsen, Knut;

    2005-01-01

    The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose intolerance (IGT) among Inuit migrants living in Denmark, and to compare with findings from Greenland. Further, we analyzed determinants for diabetes and impaired glucose metabolism.......The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose intolerance (IGT) among Inuit migrants living in Denmark, and to compare with findings from Greenland. Further, we analyzed determinants for diabetes and impaired glucose metabolism....

  6. Health Condition of Migrant Women Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    WITH the deepening of economic reform, an increasingly large surplus labor force is transforming urban areas. They are flocking to areas such as Guangdong Province, which has attracted the highest number of rural migrant workers in the country. In the first six months of 1996, its registered migrant labor force from other provinces reached 5.4 million; in Zhongshan City alone, it numbers more than 400,000, among whom 240,000 are women.

  7. The role of Surinamese migrants in the transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis between Paramaribo, Suriname and Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinier J M Bom

    Full Text Available The large Surinamese migrant population in the Netherlands is a major risk group for urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Suriname, a former Dutch colony, also has a high prevalence of C. trachomatis. Surinamese migrants travel extensively between the Netherlands and Suriname. Our objective was to assess whether the Surinamese migrants in the Netherlands form a bridge population facilitating transmission of C. trachomatis between Suriname and the Netherlands. If so, joint prevention campaigns involving both countries might be required. Between March 2008 and July 2010, participants were recruited at clinics in Paramaribo, Suriname and in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants were grouped as native Surinamese, native Dutch, Surinamese migrant, Dutch migrant, or Other, based on country of residence and country of birth of the participant and of their parents. Risk behavior, such as sexual mixing between ethnic groups, was recorded and C. trachomatis positive samples were typed through multilocus sequence typing (MLST. A minimum spanning tree of samples from 426 participants showed four MLST clusters. The MLST strain distribution of Surinamese migrants differed significantly from both the native Surinamese and Dutch populations, but was not an intermediate state between these two populations. Sexual mixing between the Surinamese migrants and the Dutch and Surinamese natives occurred frequently. Yet, the MLST cluster distribution did not differ significantly between participants who mixed and those who did not. Sexual mixing occurred between Surinamese migrants in Amsterdam and the native populations of Suriname and the Netherlands. These migrants, however, did not seem to form an effective bridge population for C. trachomatis transmission between the native populations. Although our data do not seem to justify the need for joint campaigns to reduce the transmission of C. trachomatis strains between both countries, intensified preventive

  8. Migrant women: issues in organization and solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Castro, M

    1986-01-01

    To understand the situation of migrant women and their increased vulnerability, it is necessary to consider the structural factors--economic, political, and cultural--that have impelled the movement of labor, and specifically of women, from developing to developed, and also within capitalist countries. Unequal access to land and other resources has been the historic cause of rural men and women migrating, but it is the internationalization of former agrarian economies and their increased dependence on the world economic system that stand out as important new factors. In the US, about 40% of the women in domestic service work are Black women and the rest are predominantly foreigners, especially Latin Americans, Caribbeans, and to a lesser degree, Asians. Contrary to the myth that migrant women have been a passive labor force, the history of the garment industry shows that they have been in the forefront of labor issues in many developed nations. There is a need to guarantee conditions that will enable women to organize and work in labor and migrant organizations and still protect their special characteristics as women. Women migrants, because of their conditions as women and because of their status as citizens without citizenship, especially when they are undocumented, are greatly in need of a solidarity group to educate national populations of migrant worker's rights. It is essential to guarantee the autonomy of migrant women's organization without interfering with their specific demands, considering their race, nationality, and social class.

  9. The role of refugee-established churches in integrating forced migrants: A case study of Word of Life Assembly in Yeoville, Johannesburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedaste Nzayabino

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing embeddedness of religious issues within contemporary global phenomena has increased the role religion plays in migrants’ spiritual, social, and economic lives. Drawing on the findings of the study, conducted within one of the Pentecostal migrant churches in Johannesburg, this paper explored ways in which a (migrant church shapes a refugee’s motivation to integrate and his resultant quest for a transient alternative belonging and inclusion within diasporic communities through church affiliation. Through interviews with members of the Word of Life Assembly (WOLA, one of the independent churches established by forced migrants in Yeoville, the study revealed that refugees tend to integrate themselves within their own churches, while the refugee church itself – labelled a ‘foreign’ entity by South African community members – works to garner approval and acceptance from South Africans and faith-based institutions. Cultural and linguistic problems were identified as major barriers to a refugee’s attempts to integrate into local churches, thereby becoming important issues that need to be considered in the establishment of migrant churches within the South African host community.

  10. Louse-borne relapsing fever among East African refugees in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinori, Spinello; Mediannikov, Oleg; Corbellino, Mario; Raoult, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Louse-borne relapsing fever a neglected and forgotten disease by western physicians has recently re-emerged among East African migrants seeking asylum in Europe. We review here the cases observed so far together with a critical reappraisal of several issues regarding clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment.

  11. The impact of ethnic identity on changes in high risk HIV behaviors in sexually active migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehadeh, Nancy; Virginia McCoy, H; Rubens, Muni; Batra, Anamica; Renfrew, Roderick; Winter, Kelly

    2012-02-01

    Among migrant workers (MWs) in the US, HIV/AIDS prevalence may be as high as 13.5%. This serial cross-sectional study examines associations between Ethnic Identity (EI) in African American and Hispanic MWs and short-term changes in high-risk sexual behaviors. Baseline and 3-month follow-up data was collected from a larger HIV intervention study among MWs in Immokalee, Florida (n = 119) who reported unprotected sex in the past 30 days. The Multigroup Identity Measure was used to assess EI. A high EI score indicates less acculturation to one's new surroundings. Females had higher levels of positive behavior change. Lower EI was associated with higher levels of positive change in relation to HIV/AIDS risk behavior. Among Hispanics, education was negatively correlated with EI. Education was a predictor of behavior change. Future interventions should focus on reducing acculturation stress, which may prompt harmful coping behaviors, such as high-risk sex and substance abuse.

  12. Never tested for HIV in Latin-American migrants and Spaniards: prevalence and perceived barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Hoyos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increasing the uptake of HIV testing and decreasing the number of undiagnosed people is a priority for HIV prevention. Understanding the barriers that hinder people from testing is vital, particularly when working with especially vulnerable populations like migrants. Most data available on migrants are based on African migrants in the UK, while barriers to HIV testing in Latin-American migrants living in Europe remain unexplored. Still, they account for a quarter of new diagnosis in Spain and suffer higher rates of delayed diagnosis. Methods: Between May 2008 and March 2011, a mobile unit offered free rapid HIV tests in different Spanish cities. We compared the prevalence of no previous testing, adjusting for potential confounders by two multivariate logistic models, and described differences in perceived barriers to testing in Latin-American migrants living in Spain versus Spaniards. Participants included men who have sex with men (MSM, men who have sex exclusively with women (MSW, and women. Results: Of the 5920 individuals who got tested and answered a self-administered questionnaire, 36.5% were MSM (20.4% previously untested, 28.9% were MSW (49% previously untested and 34.6% were women (53% previously untested. Almost one quarter were Latin-American, of whom 30% had never been tested versus 45% of untested Spaniards. After adjusting for potential confounders, Spaniards were more likely to report no previous testing than Latin-Americans among women and MSW all together (Odds Ratio (OR=2.0; 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.7–2.4 and among MSM (OR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.2–2.0. Among the 2455 who had never undergone an HIV test before, main barriers to testing were low perceived risk (54% Spaniards vs. 47% Latin-American and concerns arising from the loss of anonymity (19.5% vs. 16.9%. Fear of rejection or discrimination and fear of legal problems were a barrier for <2%. Conclusions: Latin-American migrants living in Spain were more

  13. Advancing Migrant Access to Health Services in Europe (AMASE): Protocol for a Cross-sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-del Arco, Débora; Monge, Susana; Copas, Andrew J; Gennotte, Anne-Francoise; Volny-Anne, Alain; Göpel, Siri; Touloumi, Giota; Prins, Maria; Barros, Henrique; Staehelin, Cornelia; del Amo, Julia; Burns, Fiona M

    2016-01-01

    Background Migrants form a substantial proportion of the population affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Europe, yet HIV prevention for this population is hindered by poor understanding of access to care and of postmigration transmission dynamics. Objective We present the design and methods of the advancing Migrant Access to health Services in Europe (aMASE) study, the first European cross-cultural study focused on multiple migrant populations. It aims to identify the structural, cultural, and financial barriers to HIV prevention, diagnosis, and treatment and to determine the likely country of HIV acquisition in HIV-positive migrant populations. Methods We delivered 2 cross-sectional electronic surveys across 10 countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, and United Kingdom). A clinic survey aimed to recruit up to 2000 HIV-positive patients from 57 HIV clinics in 9 countries. A unique study number linked anonymized questionnaire data to clinical records data (viral loads, CD4 cell counts, viral clades, etc). This questionnaire was developed by expert panel consensus and cognitively tested, and a pilot study was carried out in 2 countries. A Web-based community survey (n=1000) reached those living with HIV but not currently accessing HIV clinics, as well as HIV-negative migrants. It was developed in close collaboration with a community advisory group (CAG) made up of representatives from community organizations in 9 of the participating countries. The CAG played a key role in data collection by promoting the survey to higher-risk migrant groups (sub-Saharan Africans, Latin Americans, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs). The questionnaires have considerable content overlap, allowing for comparison. Questions cover ethnicity, migration, immigration status, HIV testing and treatment, health-seeking behavior, sexual risk, and drug use. The electronic questionnaires

  14. Establishment of Evaluation Index System of Migrant Workers’ Entrepreneurial Competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Taking evaluation of migrant workers’ entrepreneurial competence as the research content,this paper first defines the migrant workers’ entrepreneurial characteristics and the connotation of migrant workers’ entrepreneurial competence;on the basis of this,from entrepreneurial thinking competence,behaviour competence,and language competence of migrant workers,this paper establishes evaluation index system of migrant workers’ entrepreneurial competence.We use Analytic Hierarchy Process,establish hierarchical structure,and construct multiple comparison matrix,to get the weight of relative importance.The method of applying this index system to evaluation of returning-home migrant workers’ entrepreneurial competence is offered.

  15. Migrant Graduation Specialists: Understanding Their Role in Supporting Secondary Migrant Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanco, Ismael

    2010-01-01

    This action research study examined the role of the Migrant Graduation Specialists in public middle schools, junior high schools, and high schools participating in a special project called HOPE (Honing in On Post-secondary Education); and analyzed the viewpoint of migrant students participating in this project in order to determine their…

  16. Migrant and Non-Migrant Families in Chengdu, China: Segregated Lives, Segregated Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study documented the experiences of Chinese rural-urban migrant children and their parents living in the host city of Chengdu, China. It was informed by previous studies but applied a theoretical lens cultural reproduction theory—to reveal deeper understanding of rural-urban migrant families’ lives in the city of Chengdu. Participants in this study were 10 families—10 migrant parents, 10 local Chengdu resident parents, 5 local Chengdu children, and 5 migrant children. Through qualitative interviews and observations the researchers created 5 family case studies, documenting differences and similarities in the lives of migrant and local resident families in Chengdu. Results indicated that children in the two groups experienced unequal childhoods. Although the Chinese central government has issued a number of proactive policies to allow migrant children to attend local urban public schools since 2003, the negative effect of the longstanding Hukou residency policy still impacts migrant families’ lives in Chengdu. In this article we discuss an entrenched urban-rural divide between urban residents and rural-urban migrant families, in work, community, and schooling.

  17. Chronologically sampled flight feathers permits recognition of individual molt-migrants due to varying protein sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sievert Rohwer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a proof of concept paper based on chronological samples of growing feathers from geese thought to be molt-migrants. When molt-migrant birds initiate molt shortly after migrating to a new isoscape, isotope values measured along the length of their feathers should change continuously. To assess long-term changes and daily cycling in δ15N and δ13C values, we serially sampled a growing primary from three presumed molt-migrant geese. Two showed changing δ15N signatures along the length of their growing primary, indicating they were molt-migrants, while the third, presumably a resident, showed no change. We then resampled these feathers at closer intervals for evidence of the predicted diel cycle in the use of exogenous and endogenous protein for feather growth, generated by the diel feeding cycle of these geese. As predicted, a periodicity of ca. 24 h in δ15N values was found along the primary of the two equilibrating geese, but not in the other goose that was probably a resident. Our results demonstrate that chronological sampling along the length of individual primaries holds great potential for identifying individuals that are molt-migrants.

  18. Factors associated with high-risk behaviour among migrants in the state of maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Neeta; Jeyaseelan, L; Joy, Anna; Kumar, V Sampath; Thenmozhi, M; Acharya, Smriti

    2013-09-01

    Studies among migrants show that they are more susceptible to HIV infection than the general population and thereby spread the epidemic from high prevalence to low prevalence areas. It is therefore critical to enhance the body of knowledge on factors associated with condom use among migrants. This study, conducted in 2009 in the State of Maharashtra, covers 4595 single in-migrants aged 15-49 years and aims at understanding the factors associated with non-use of condoms consistently. Information was collected using a Structured Interview Schedule covering demographic, socioeconomic profile, sexual history, knowledge, behaviour and stigma and discrimination indicators. Logistic regression analysis was used to understand the association between unprotected sex and various socio-demographic and environmental factors. The models were run using the Enter method. The goodness-of-fit of the model was assessed using Hosmer and Lemeshow chi-squared statistics. A significant association is observed between sex with sex workers and older migrants (>24 years), the literate, those who are mobile, unmarried, employed in the textile, quarry and construction industries, who often consume alcohol and who watch pornographic films. The factors associated with unprotected sex are age between 30 and 34 years and no literacy. Migrants who are mobile and consume alcohol show a significant association with unprotected sex. The findings suggest a need for a comprehensive HIV prevention programme including strategies to address the stressful work conditions. The prevention programmes should focus not only on skills for safer sex practices, but also on alcohol use reduction.

  19. Breast and cervical cancer screening among migrant and seasonal farmworkers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Wilson, Katherine M

    2002-01-01

    Women constitute about one in five hired farmworkers in the US. Their health may be affected by exposure to unhealthy living and working conditions, by increased exposure to health hazards, by poverty, and by poor utilization of health care and preventive services. About 69% of migrant and seasonal farmworkers were born outside the US, mostly in Mexico and central America, and many speak little English. The health concerns of women who are migrant and seasonal farmworkers include breast and cervical cancer, which can be prevented or controlled through routine screening, but cancer incidence and mortality data for migrant workers are sparse. We reviewed published studies that examined breast and cervical cancer screening in this population. These studies include cross-sectional surveys, health needs assessments, and randomized and non-randomized intervention trials. A review of published studies of cancer screening among women who are migrant and seasonal farmworkers indicates that underutilization of mammograms and Papanicolau (Pap) tests among this population may stem from their limited awareness of the importance of cancer screening and cultural beliefs. Other barriers include cost, lack of health insurance, lack of transportation and child care difficulties. The extent to which results obtained in selected localities are generalizable to other settings is uncertain, but results to date provide important information about possible approaches for increasing cancer screening among women migrant farmworkers. PMID:12269767

  20. Ethnoreligious attitudes of contemporary Russian students toward labor migrants as a social group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abakumova I. V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the role of the media in shaping the worldview of today’s youth. In Part 1, social attitudes and social stereotypes are described in the context of ethnic relations. Part 2 describes the research into social distance and ethnic and religious stereotypes conducted by I.V. Abakumova and A.V. Grishina. The study was conducted in two stages. First we analyzed various TV and radio programs, articles in the press and on the Internet, about migrant workers, published from March 2009 to March 2012, to identify the image of migrant workers in the Russian media, for further study of the perceptions of migrant workers by students in different professional fields. In the second stage, we modified E. Bogardus’s “Social Distance Scale” in order to assess respondents’ attitudes toward media images of migrant workers and, more importantly, to determine the social distance at which the respondent tolerates the images and therefore the migrants themselves. The last part of the article reports the main findings and conclusions of the study.

  1. Development of the Migrant Friendly Maternity Care Questionnaire (MFMCQ) for migrants to Western societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Anita J; DeBruyn, Rebecca; Essén, Birgitta;

    2014-01-01

    , and perceptions of care, has been created--the Migrant Friendly Maternity Care Questionnaire (MFMCQ)--in three languages (English, French and Spanish). It is completed in 45 minutes via interview administration several months post-birth. CONCLUSIONS: A 4-stage process of questionnaire development...... Initiative; adaptations of these recommendations specific to maternity care have yet to be elucidated and validated. We aimed to develop a questionnaire measuring migrant-friendly maternity care (MFMC) which could be used in a range of maternity care settings and countries. METHODS: This study was conducted...... in four stages. First, questions related to migrant friendly maternity care were identified from existing questionnaires including the Migrant Friendliness Quality Questionnaire, developed in Europe to capture recommended general hospital care for migrants, and the Mothers In a New Country (MINC...

  2. Sampling international migrants with origin-based snowballing method:: New evidence on biases and limitations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cris Beauchemin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a methodological assessment of the advantages and drawbacks of the origin-based snowballing technique as a reliable method to construct representative samples of international migrants in destination areas. Using data from the MAFE-Senegal Project, our results indicate that this is a very risky method in terms of quantitative success. Besides, it implies some clear selection biases: it over-represents migrants more strongly connected to their home country, and it tends to overestimate both poverty in households at origin and the influence of previous migration experiences of social networks on individuals' out-migration.

  3. Reproductive and Sexual Health of Chinese Migrants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-fang ZHOU; Joanna E Mantell; Xiao-mei RU

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the reproductive and sexual health situation,including knowledge,attitudes,and behaviors,among a population-based sample of internal migrant workers in China.Methods A cross-sectional survey of 4 900 rural-to-urban migrants in 6 provinces of China was conducted.Participants completed a 30-min semi-structured questionnaire about contraceptive practices,sexual behavior,and HIV-related knowledge.Results Migrants lacked knowledge of reproductive and sexual health issues.Among those who had heard any sexually transmitted infections(STIs),only 79.1%,46.2%,86.1%,14.5% and 82.2%,respectively,knew that gonorrhea,condyloma,syphilis,chancroid,and AIDS were STIs.About three-quarters of participants had not used any contraceptive method at sexual debut.Among current users of contraceptive methods,85.5% indicated that they were satisfied with the method.Before adoption of a contraceptive method,46.6% of the migrant workers were unaware of the advantages/disadvantages of the method and 75.3% had no knowledge of emergency contraception.Nearly one-quarter(23.4%)reported that they had premarital sex.Among migrants who were sexually active one month prior to the survey,only 14.0% reported that they had used condoms.Conclusion The limited sexual and reproductive health knowledge and unmet reproductive health services of migrant workers in China underscore the need for a comprehensive package of sexual and reproductive health interventions that combine cognitive and behavioral skills training and target both migrants and health care providers.

  4. Validation of the Revised BSI-18 with Latino Migrant Day Laborers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Nalini Junko; Iwamoto, Derek Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the factor structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18; Derogatis, 2001) in a hard-to-reach population of mainly undocumented migrant Latino day laborers. While, the BSI-18 has been found to be a valid and reliable measure of psychological distress, cross-cultural assessments in sub-groups of Latinos are…

  5. African dance

    OpenAIRE

    Mumberson, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The RE Open will be shown at the Mall Gallery London and the international section was judged by major practitioners and educators, print dealers and collectors, President of RE and Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum Dr Bren Unwin, John Purcell, Deborah Roslund, Colin Harrison, Dave Ferry, and Mark Hampson. Piece selected "African Dance" print.

  6. "African Connection."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Cathy; And Others

    This interdisciplinary unit provides students in grades kindergarten through seventh grade an opportunity to understand diversity through a study of Africa as a diverse continent. The project is designed to provide all elementary students with cultural enrichment by exposing them to African music, art, storytelling, and movement. This project can…

  7. Becoming less illegal: deservingness frames and undocumented migrant incorporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Chauvin; B. Garcés-Mascareñas

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, research on unauthorized migration has departed from the equation of migrant illegality with absolute exclusion, emphasizing that formal exclusion typically results in subordinate inclusion. Irregular migrants integrate through informal support networks, the underground ec

  8. Migrant Women’s Work: Intermeshing Structure and Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Pajnik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we address the question of migrant women's experiences in accessing the labour market in Slovenia and examine how welfare policies, or the lack thereof, affect migrant workers' lives. By focusing the study on migrant women and their position in the labour market, we problematise these women's perpetual de-skilling and socio-economic exclusion. Drawing on migrant women’s narratives we also point to their activity in counteracting experiences of discrimination and downward social mobility.

  9. Citizenship experiences of young migrants: Optimism and disadvantages

    OpenAIRE

    Gerritsen, D.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyses the citizenship experiences of young non-western migrants in the Netherlands. Young migrants are in a disadvantaged position in education and in the labour market and this leads to concerns about their integration in Dutch society. The focus of this study is on the participation of migrant youngsters in education, in which an analysis of the experiences and perspectives on education and future labour market participation of migrant youngsters themselves are the central obj...

  10. Migrant integration policies and health inequalities in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Giannoni, Margherita; Franzini, Luisa; Masiero, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Background Research on socio-economic determinants of migrant health inequalities has produced a large body of evidence. There is lack of evidence on the influence of structural factors on lives of fragile groups, frequently exposed to health inequalities. The role of poor socio-economic status and country level structural factors, such as migrant integration policies, in explaining migrant health inequalities is unclear. The objective of this paper is to examine the role of migrant socio-eco...

  11. POLICY STATEMENT RELATING TO THE EDUCATION OF MIGRANT CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    PURPOSES, DEFINITIONS, OBLIGATIONS, AND PRACTICES IN THE EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR AGRICULTURAL MIGRATORY CHILDREN ARE CLARIFIED IN A POLICY STATEMENT. COLORADO LAW PROVIDES EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES FOR MIGRANT CHILDREN TO DEVELOP THEIR POTENTIALITIES AND CAPACITIES. A MIGRANT CHILD IS DEFINED BY THE MIGRANT CHILDREN EDUCATIONAL ACT. COMMON USAGE AND…

  12. Delaware's Migrant Education Parent Handbook [in English and Spanish].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capital School District, Dover, DE.

    Written to help migrant parents with day-to-day concerns about their children and their children's schooling, this handbook provides a variety of reference information. A definition of migrant education services is followed by a directory of individuals responsible for migrant education in Delaware at state and local levels. Telephone numbers are…

  13. THE EDUCATION OF MIGRANT CHILDREN IN NEW JERSEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GATLIN, CURTIS

    A MIGRANT EDUCATION DEMONSTRATION PROJECT WAS UNDERTAKEN TO MARSHAL PUBLIC AND PRIVATE RESOURCES OF THE STATE TO PROVIDE MORE DAYS OF SCHOOLING IN NEW JERSEY FOR MIGRANTS. AIMS INCLUDED ESTABLISHING PUBLIC SUPPORT THROUGH STATE AND LOCAL CITIZENS' COMMITTEES, CONDUCTING SURVEYS TO CHECK POTENTIAL AND ACTUAL ENROLLMENT OF MIGRANT CHILDREN IN LOCAL…

  14. Confined mobilities: following Indonesian migrant workers on their way home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Kloppenburg; P. Peters

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the return journeys of Indonesian migrant domestic workers to their home towns. When migrant workers return home, the Indonesian government sets them apart from other travellers in order to protect the migrants from extortion in the airport environment, and assist them during the

  15. 75 FR 30047 - Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers Study AGENCY... published. To Comment on This Document, or for Further Information Contact: MigrantFederalRegister@Head... given of a plan to conduct a set of activities designed to focus on the Migrant and Seasonal...

  16. An Enrichment Program for Migrant Students: MENTE/UOP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Michael B.

    The report describes the objectives and accomplishments of a summer enrichment program, Migrantes Envueltos en Nuevos Temas de Educacion/Migrants Engaged in New Themes in Education (MENTE), for promising and talented migrant high schoolers. The program is a cooperative one with a university. Students selected by a review committee are tested for…

  17. Assessing public and private sector contributions in reproductive health financing and utilization for six sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha; Snider, Jeremy; Ravishankar, Nirmala; Magvanjav, Oyunbileg

    2011-05-01

    The present study provides evidence to support enhanced attention to reproductive health and comprehensive measures to increase access to quality reproductive health services. We compare and contrast the financing and utilization of reproductive health services in six sub-Saharan African countries using data from National Health Accounts and Demographic and Health Surveys. Spending on reproductive health in 2006 ranged from US$4 per woman of reproductive age in Ethiopia to US$17 in Uganda. These are below the necessary level for assuring adequate services given that an internationally recommended spending level for family planning alone was US$16 for 2006. Moreover, reproductive health spending shows signs of decline in tandem with insufficient improvement in service utilization. Public providers played a predominant role in antenatal and delivery care for institutional births, but home deliveries with unqualified attendants dominated. The private sector was a major supplier of condoms, oral pills and IUDs. Private clinics, pharmacies and drug vendors were important sources of STI treatment. The findings highlight the need to commit greatly increased funding for reproductive health services as well as more policy attention to the contribution of public, private and informal providers and the role of collaboration among them to expand access to services for under-served populations. PMID:21555087

  18. Migrant Labor, Unemployment and Optimal Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Viasu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the arguments against migrant labor is that it has negative ef- fect on the employment of domestic labor. The question is now if the immigration has also negative effects on the other variables of the econ- omy. To examine these effects we develop an optimal growth model with migration and unemployment and then we analyze these effects, restricting our analysis to the steady state. We introduce a simplify- ing hypothesis concerning the skill level of human capital. We assume that the average skill level of domestic employed labor differs from the average skill level of migrant labor, but the two kinds of labor grow at the same constant rate. We prove that the immigration process could have both positive and negative effects on consumption, human capital and physical capital, depending on the skill level of the migrant labor. The numerical simulations confirm our theoretical results.

  19. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Stroke Incidence Among Migrant Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agyemang, Charles; van Oeffelen, AA; Nørredam, Marie Louise;

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose—Low socioeconomic status has been linked to high incidence of stroke in industrialized countries; therefore, reducing socioeconomic disparities is an important goal of health policy. The evidence on migrant groups is, however, limited and inconsistent. We assessed socioecon......Background and Purpose—Low socioeconomic status has been linked to high incidence of stroke in industrialized countries; therefore, reducing socioeconomic disparities is an important goal of health policy. The evidence on migrant groups is, however, limited and inconsistent. We assessed...... socioeconomic inequalities in relation to stroke incidence among major ethnic groups in the Netherlands. Methods—A nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted (n=2 397 446) between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2010, among ethnic Dutch and ethnic minority groups. Standardized disposable household...... income was used as a measure of socioeconomic position. Results—Among ethnic Dutch, the incidence of stroke was higher in the low-income group than in the high-income group (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.16–1.20). Similar socioeconomic inequalities in stroke incidence were found...

  20. A "migrant friendly hospital" initiative in Geneva, Switzerland: evaluation of the effects on staff knowledge and practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Hudelson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: International migration poses important challenges to European health care systems. The development of "migrant friendly hospitals" has been identified as a priority in both Europe and Switzerland. METHODS: A multi-pronged initiative was developed at Geneva University Hospitals (HUG to improve staff knowledge and use of existing "migrant friendly" resources. A self-administered questionnaire was sent pre and post-intervention to random samples of 4 major professional groups with direct patient contact at the HUG. The questionnaire assessed staff knowledge, attitudes and reported practices regarding the care of migrant patients. RESULTS: Overall response rate was 51% (N = 1460 in 2010 but only 19% (N = 761 in 2013 owing to an institutionally imposed change in survey method. Despite these difficulties, and after adjusting for sample differences, we found that respondents in 2013 were significantly more likely to have received training in how to organize an appointment with an interpreter, how to work with an interpreter and about health and social services available for migrant patients. Respondents were also significantly more likely to have used several Migrant Friendly structures at the HUG. Use of, preference for and perceived skill at working with professional interpreters all improved, and respondents were both more likely to be encouraged by their supervisors to use professional interpreters, and less likely to be encouraged to look for alternative solutions for communicating with non francophone patients. Finally, 2013 respondents encountered fewer difficulties caring for migrant patients, although lack of time and language barriers continued to be the most important sources of difficulty. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that an institution-wide information campaign may contribute to increased awareness and use of migrant friendly resources by clinical staff. Hospital commitment and financing, along with inter

  1. Differences in mortality between different groups of older migrants and non-migrants in Belgium, 2001 to 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reus-Pons, Matias; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Janssen, Fanny; Kibele, Eva U.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: European societies are rapidly ageing and becoming multicultural, and Belgium is part of the countries ahead in this transition. Differences in mortality between migrants and non-migrants in Europe have been shown to depend on age, sex, socio-economic status, migrant background and count

  2. The Impact of the College Assistance Migrant Program on Migrant Student Academic Achievement in the California State University System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Adrian D.

    2012-01-01

    The 7-year longitudinal study examined the College Assistance Migrant Program (CAMP) impact on migrant student achievement in the California State University system. Participants included migrant students, Latinos, and general student populations from 2002-2009. The analysis of variance and chi-square test of independence were used to explore…

  3. The Impact of the College Assistance Migrant Program on Migrant Student Achievement in the California State University System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Adrian Dee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the 7-year longitudinal study was to examine the College Assistance Migrant Program (CAMP), a student services intervention, to determine its impact on migrant student achievement in the California State University (CSU) system. Participants included 336 migrant students who were enrolled as first-time, full-time freshmen in fall…

  4. Migrant Sexual Health Help-Seeking and Experiences of Stigmatization and Discrimination in Perth, Western Australia: Exploring Barriers and Enablers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agu, Josephine; Lobo, Roanna; Crawford, Gemma; Chigwada, Bethwyn

    2016-01-01

    Increasing HIV notifications amongst migrant and mobile populations to Australia is a significant public health issue. Generalizations about migrant health needs and delayed or deterred help-seeking behaviors can result from disregarding the variation between and within cultures including factors, such as drivers for migration and country of birth. This study explored barriers and enablers to accessing sexual health services, including experiences of stigma and discrimination, within a purposive sample of sub-Saharan African, Southeast Asian, and East Asian migrants. A qualitative design was employed using key informant interviews and focus group discussions. A total of 45 people with ages ranging from 18 to 50 years, participated in focus group discussions. Common barriers and enablers to help seeking behaviors were sociocultural and religious influence, financial constraints, and knowledge dissemination to reduce stigma. Additionally, common experiences of stigma and discrimination were related to employment and the social and self-isolation of people living with HIV. Overcoming barriers to accessing sexual health services, imparting sexual health knowledge, recognizing variations within cultures, and a reduction in stigma and discrimination will simultaneously accelerate help-seeking and result in better sexual health outcomes in migrant populations. PMID:27187423

  5. Radical Islamism and Migrant Integration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goli, Marco; Rezaei, Shahamak

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that alienation and failed integration may be causes of “Homegrown Radical Islamism” in Western societies. Western countries often expect that migrants and their descendants residing there as citizens will embrace or support common democratic ideals as a predicate for – or c......It has been suggested that alienation and failed integration may be causes of “Homegrown Radical Islamism” in Western societies. Western countries often expect that migrants and their descendants residing there as citizens will embrace or support common democratic ideals as a predicate...

  6. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  7. Assessment of the Vulnerability of Water Resources to Seasonal Fires Across the Northern Sub-Saharan African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles M.

    2010-01-01

    The northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, extending from the southern fringes of the Sahara to the Equator, and stretching west to east from the Atlantic to the Indian ocean coasts, plays a prominent role in the distribution of Saharan dust and other airborne matter around the region and to other parts of the world, the genesis of global atmospheric circulation, and the birth of such major (and often catastrophic) events as hurricanes. Therefore, this NSSA region represents a critical variable in the global climate change equation. Recent satellite-based studies have revealed that the NSSA region has one of the highest biomass-burning rates per unit land area among all regions of the world. Because of the high concentration and frequency of fires in this region, with the associated abundance of heat release and gaseous and particulate smoke emissions, biomass-burning activity is believed to be a major driver of the regional carbon, energy, and water cycles. We acknowledge that the rainy season in the NSSA region is from April to September while biomass burning occurs mainly during the dry season (October to March). Nevertheless, these two phenomena are indirectly coupled to each other through a chain of complex processes and conditions, including land-cover and surface-albedo changes, the carbon cycle, evapotranspiration, drought, desertification, surface water runoff, ground water recharge, and variability in atmospheric composition, heating rates, and circulation. In this presentation, we will examine the theoretical linkages between these processes, discuss the preliminary results based on satellite data analysis, and provide an overview of plans for more integrated research to be conducted over the next few years.

  8. African-American Student Achievement Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Mark; Melton, Jerry; Lawless, Brenda; Combs, Linda

    Data from the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) reveal that gains in performance for the African American student population of Region VII of the state's educational system were not keeping pace with the performance of African Americans in the rest of Texas. This study investigated practices in school districts in the region in which…

  9. Migrant domestic workers: good workers, poor slaves, new connections

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, B

    2015-01-01

    In public debates support for migrants' rights has generally taken two approaches: the migrant as “Good Worker” or the migrant as “Poor Slave”. This paper will constructively critique these approaches by considering the case of a U.K. campaign demanding a specific visa for migrant domestic workers and how they drew on the Good Worker/Poor Slave. It describes the campaign's initial focus on domestic workers as workers and how this required demanding special rights as migrant workers on the bas...

  10. Migrant Education Programs Under ESEA Title I Migrant Amendment. (Programas de Educacion Migrante bajo el Titulo I de ESEA.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkler, Elton D.

    Migrant Education Programs are designed for those students who, because of the migratory nature of their parents' employment, are required to move from one school district to another during the school year. In many instances these students, because of sporadic attendance and discontinuity of their educational experiences, have found it difficult,…

  11. Longitudinal assessment of micronutrient intake among African-American and white girls : The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Affenito, Sandra G.; Thompson, Douglas R.; Franko, Debra L.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Daniels, Stephen R.; Barton, Bruce A.; Schreiber, George B.; Schmidt, Marcia; Crawford, Patricia B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Low intakes of micronutrients among adolescents may be linked to long-term health risks, especially in African-American girls. This report describes intake of key micronutrients relative to the Dietary Reference Intakes in a sample of African-American and white girls. Design Longitudinal a

  12. The big crossing: illegal boat migrants in the Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassar, Hassène; Dourgnon, Paul

    2014-08-01

    This article explores illegal migration routes and groups across North Africa to Europe. We describe sub-Saharan and cross-Mediterranean routes, and how they changed during the years. We propose an analytical framework for the main factors for these migrations, from local to international and regulatory context. We then describe sea-migrants' nationalities and socio-economic and demographic characteristics, from studies undertook in Tunisia and Morocco. While boat migration represents only a fraction of illegal migration to Europe, it raises humanitarian as well as ethical issues for European and North African (NA) countries, as a non-negligible amount of them end up in death tolls of shipwrecks in the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, existing statistics show that illegal trans-Mediterranean migration is growing exponentially. Ongoing crises in Africa and the Middle East are likely to prompt even larger outflows of refugees in the near future. This should induce NA countries to share closer public policy concerns with European countries.

  13. Tobacco Use and Exposure among Children in Migrant and Non-migrant Households in Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukamdi; Wattie, Anna Marie

    2013-12-01

    This research note aims to understand the impact of parental migration on the children who stay behind by examining the issue of smoking. It asks whether tobacco use and exposure are higher among children in migrant households compared with those in non-migrant households in Java, Indonesia. Data were collected in 2008 in two provinces, West Java and East Java, as part of the Child Health and Migrant Parents in South-East Asia (CHAMPSEA) Project. The analytical sample used here relates to children aged 9, 10 and 11 living in both non-migrant and transnational households (N=451). The findings show that the incidence of ever having smoked among these primary school-aged children is relatively low at less than 10 percent, but that boys are much more likely to have used tobacco than girls. Findings from multivariate logistic models predicting smoking behavior show no difference between the children of migrants and non-migrants; nor does household wealth appear to influence whether or not a child has tried tobacco. Gender, child stunting (low height-for-age), carer's education, family functioning and tobacco use by friends are the four main factors found to be significantly associated with child smoking.

  14. Disease, predation and demography: Assessing the impacts of bovine tuberculosis on African buffalo by monitoring at individual and population levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, P.C.; Heisey, D.M.; Bowers, J.A.; Hay, C.T.; Wolhuter, J.; Buss, P.; Hofmeyr, M.; Michel, A.L.; Bengis, Roy G.; Bird, T.L.F.; Du Toit, J.T.; Getz, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    1. Understanding the effects of disease is critical to determining appropriate management responses, but estimating those effects in wildlife species is challenging. We used bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in the African buffalo Syncerus caffer population of Kruger National Park, South Africa, as a case study to highlight the issues associated with estimating chronic disease effects in a long-lived host. 2. We used known and radiocollared buffalo, aerial census data, and a natural gradient in pathogen prevalence to investigate if: (i) at the individual level, BTB infection reduces reproduction; (ii) BTB infection increases vulnerability to predation; and (iii) at the population level, increased BTB prevalence causes reduced population growth. 3. There was only a marginal reduction in calving success associated with BTB infection, as indexed by the probability of sighting a known adult female with or without a calf (P = 0??065). 4. Since 1991, BTB prevalence increased from 27 to 45% in the southern region and from 4 to 28% in the central region of Kruger National Park. The prevalence in the northern regions was only 1??5% in 1998. Buffalo population growth rates, however, were neither statistically different among regions nor declining over time. 5. Lions Panthera leo did not appear to preferentially kill test-positive buffalo. The best (Akaike's Information Criterion corrected for small sample size) AICc model with BTB as a covariate [exp(??) = 0??49; 95% CI = (0??24-1??02)] suggested that the mortality hazard for positive individuals was no greater than for test-negative individuals. 6. Synthesis and applications. Test accuracy, time-varying disease status, and movement among populations are some of the issues that make the detection of chronic disease impacts challenging. For these reasons, the demographic impacts of bovine tuberculosis in the Kruger National Park remain undetectable despite 6 years of study on known individuals and 40 years of population counts

  15. Gateway for migrant rescue in the Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Zarb Adami, Kris; Duca, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Malta should set up a coastal over-the-horizon radar (developed at ISSA-Institute of Space Science and Astronomy) with the capability of detecting small fast-moving vessels within a 1000km radius. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/gateway-for-migrant-rescue-in-the-mediterranean/

  16. Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers: A Forgotten Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Loida C.

    Migrant and seasonal farmworkers are the most educationally disadvantaged group in society, with over 70% high school dropouts and 15% functionally illiterate. Mobility, language barriers, and cultural differences combined with health and nutrition problems have a negative effect on school achievement. The constant interruption of the educational…

  17. Sociocritical Matters: Migrant Students' College Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Anne-Marie; Gildersleeve, Ryan Evely

    2016-01-01

    Migrant students face many educational, economic, social, and cultural challenges to college access. Anti-bilingual, anti-affirmative action, and anti-immigrant policies also constrain their postsecondary pathways. With these issues in mind, this article draws on quantitative and qualitative research to examine the influence of a residential…

  18. Looking Out for Our Country's Illegal Migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Carlos D.

    2007-01-01

    Illegal migrants are a nonentity in the United States, and, to a certain extent, many prefer it that way. They exist in society's netherworld, living under their own code of survival by whatever means they can, since the alternatives are less inviting. Mostly, they struggle. People take advantage of them at every opportunity because they are…

  19. Social Class, Identity, and Migrant Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvin, Ron; Norton, Bonny

    2014-01-01

    A necessary component of the neoliberal mechanisms of globalization, migration addresses the economic and labor needs of postindustrial countries while producing new modes of social fragmentation and inequality (Crompton, 2008). As migrant students insert themselves into segmented spaces, their countries of origin are themselves implicated in a…

  20. Problems Portraying Migrants in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a very personal attempt to explore the problematics of portraying migrants in Applied Linguistics research. I begin with a discussion of identity, in particular what we might mean when we use the term, and from there I go on to explore its fundamental imprecision through an analysis of a census question about ethnicity. I then…

  1. Migrant cap 'may damage' UK physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Scientists have expressed concern that changes to UK immigration rules - including a sharp drop in the number of visas available for the most highly skilled migrants - could make it more difficult for universities and other institutions to recruit talented researchers from overseas.

  2. Government Helps Migrant Workers Recover Unpaid Salary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    As the traditional Chinese New Year draws near,local governments in China have launched a special inspection of the country's building, services, catering and manufacturing industries and are taking complaints from the tens of thousands of migrant workers who remain unpaid.

  3. Institutional difference affects and migrant entrepreneurs' innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Jensen, Kent Wickstrøm

    Entrepreneurs who migrate may deal with new environments. This may trigger their minds for invention and innovation. On the other hand, the novel environment may also impose unknown challenges that the migrant entrepreneur needs to learn how to overcome. In this article we investigate how...

  4. Migrant differences in adolescents’ medicine use for common health problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantarero Arevalo, Lourdes; Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn Evald;

    2014-01-01

    -aged Children (HBSC). Medicine use for headache, stomach-ache, difficulties getting to sleep and nervousness and feeling safe at school were self-reported. The population included boys and girls from ages 11 to 15 who were enrolled in the cross-sectional study. Included were 8480 ethnic Danes, 508 descendants...... differences in adolescents’ medicine use for common health problems, and if feeling safe at school, as a non-exposure to discrimination, explained these differences. Methods: Data derived from the 2006 Danish contribution to the World Health Organization collaborative study Health Behaviour in School...... and 456 migrants. Logistic regression was applied to assess associations. Multi-level logistic regression was used to assess the independent effect of school cluster. Results: Immigrant girls reported the highest past-month prevalence of medicine use for the four ailments included in the analysis...

  5. Increasing numbers of migrants challenge policymakers worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P

    1996-05-01

    International migration has increased greatly in the 1990s. In the mid-1990s there were about 125 million migrants (about 2% of the world's population) not living in their country of birth or citizenship. There are 2-4 million new migrants each year. The global migrant population is concentrated in only a few countries. In many Middle Eastern countries, foreign workers make up most of the labor force (60-90%). Africa and western Asia have more than 50% of all 27 million refugees and displaced persons. Germany, France, the UK, the US, Italy, Japan, and Canada have about 33% of the migrant population. Newly arriving immigrants make up a large percentage of annual population growth in industrialized countries with low birth rates (100% in Germany and about 33% in the US). Major migration flows are from Mexico, Central America, and Asia to the US; from North Africa and eastern Europe to western Europe; and from the Philippines and India to the Middle East. Two US legalization programs contributed to a resurgence in immigration in the early 1990s. Many of the world's top economic powers are very concerned about immigration. Economic growth can cut down on economic migration. Many specialists think that freer trade, more foreign investment, and, in some cases, aid can spark economic growth. Many residents of countries receiving migrants want immigration curtailed. Many industrial democracies handle difficult migration issues by making trade-offs, particularly combine stricter immigration controls with more assistance to integrate new immigrants and liberalize trade so countries can export goods instead of people.

  6. The Application of a Resilience Assessment Approach to Promote Campus Environmental Management: A South African Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Irene; Tempelhoff, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to outline the benefits of using resilience assessment instead of command and control mechanisms to evaluate sustainable campus environments. Design/Methodology/Approach: An exploratory mixed-method design was followed for the purposes of the project. During the first qualitative phase, a historical timeline of the focal…

  7. Climate Change and Potato Production in Contrasting South African Agro-Ecosystems 2. Assessing Risks and Opportunities of Adaptation Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, A.C.; Haverkort, A.J.; Steyn, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the risks and opportunities posed by climate change to potato growers in South Africa and to evaluate adaptation measures in the form of changes in planting time growers could adopt to optimise land and water use efficiencies in potato, using a climate model of past, presen

  8. Assessment of Body Condition in African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus Elephants in North American Zoos and Management Practices Associated with High Body Condition Scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari A Morfeld

    Full Text Available Obesity has a negative effect on health and welfare of many species, and has been speculated to be a problem for zoo elephants. To address this concern, we assessed the body condition of 240 elephants housed in North American zoos based on a set of standardized photographs using a 5-point Body Condition Score index (1 = thinnest; 5 = fattest. A multi-variable regression analysis was then used to determine how demographic, management, housing, and social factors were associated with an elevated body condition score in 132 African (Loxodonta africana and 108 Asian (Elephas maximus elephants. The highest BCS of 5, suggestive of obesity, was observed in 34% of zoo elephants. In both species, the majority of elephants had elevated BCS, with 74% in the BCS 4 (40% and 5 (34% categories. Only 22% of elephants had BCS 3, and less than 5% of the population was assigned the lowest BCS categories (BCS 1 and 2. The strongest multi-variable model demonstrated that staff-directed walking exercise of 14 hours or more per week and highly unpredictable feeding schedules were associated with decreased risk of BCS 4 or 5, while increased diversity in feeding methods and being female was associated with increased risk of BCS 4 or 5. Our data suggest that high body condition is prevalent among North American zoo elephants, and management strategies that help prevent and mitigate obesity may lead to improvements in welfare of zoo elephants.

  9. Comparison of Subjective Well-Being and Personality Assessments in the Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), Snow Leopard (Panthera uncia), and African Lion (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Marieke Cassia; Powell, David M; Weiss, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The study of subjective well-being in nonhuman animals is growing in the field of psychology, but there are still only a few published studies and the focus is on primates. To consider whether the construct of subjective well-being could be found in another mammal, this study aimed to assess subjective well-being in felids and to examine its association with personality. Personality is one of the strongest and most consistent predictors of well-being in humans. This relationship could have important implications for other species, because personality has also been shown to affect health outcomes including stress, morbidity, and mortality. As in previous studies in nonhuman animals, the study results revealed that subjective well-being was related to agreeableness/openness and neuroticism in clouded leopards, neuroticism in snow leopards, and impulsiveness and neuroticism in African lions. The implications of these results for health outcomes and the welfare of animals in captivity are discussed. More research on any direct links among personality, subjective well-being, and these outcomes is important to advancing this field and adding another tool for improving captive animals' lives. PMID:26983676

  10. Assessment of Common Anaesthetic and Clinical Indices of Multimodal Therapy of Propofol, Xylazine, and Ketamine in Total Intravenous Anaesthesia in West African Dwarf Goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ukwueze Celestine Okwudili

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of anaesthetic and clinical indices of multimodal therapy of propofol, xylazine, and ketamine was done in West African Dwarf (WAD goat. Sixteen healthy male WAD goats were assigned into four treatment groups, namely, control (group A (ketamine 5 mg/kg + xylazine 0.05 mg/kg, group B (propofol 5 mg/kg + xylazine 0.05 mg/kg, group C (propofol 5 mg/kg + ketamine 5 mg/kg, and group D (propofol 2.5 mg/kg + ketamine 2.5 mg/kg + xylazine 0.05 mg/kg. All drugs were administered intravenously. The multimodal therapy decreased significantly (P<0.05 the heart rate in groups A, B, and D. Also respiratory rate significantly (P<0.05 decreased in groups A, B, and D but significantly (P<0.05 increased at 20 min after induction in group C. However, temperature significantly (P<0.05 decreased in groups A, B, and C. The induction was good and smooth in groups B and D. Surgical anaesthetic time was longer in groups B and D and shorter in group C. The quality of recovery was good in groups B and D. Side effects such as salivation and apnoea were observed in all groups. In conclusion, the multimodal therapy could be used successfully. However, group D could be the best combination considering the parameters measured.

  11. Assessment of Body Condition in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in North American Zoos and Management Practices Associated with High Body Condition Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfeld, Kari A.; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Hogan, Jennifer N.; Brown, Janine L.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has a negative effect on health and welfare of many species, and has been speculated to be a problem for zoo elephants. To address this concern, we assessed the body condition of 240 elephants housed in North American zoos based on a set of standardized photographs using a 5-point Body Condition Score index (1 = thinnest; 5 = fattest). A multi-variable regression analysis was then used to determine how demographic, management, housing, and social factors were associated with an elevated body condition score in 132 African (Loxodonta africana) and 108 Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants. The highest BCS of 5, suggestive of obesity, was observed in 34% of zoo elephants. In both species, the majority of elephants had elevated BCS, with 74% in the BCS 4 (40%) and 5 (34%) categories. Only 22% of elephants had BCS 3, and less than 5% of the population was assigned the lowest BCS categories (BCS 1 and 2). The strongest multi-variable model demonstrated that staff-directed walking exercise of 14 hours or more per week and highly unpredictable feeding schedules were associated with decreased risk of BCS 4 or 5, while increased diversity in feeding methods and being female was associated with increased risk of BCS 4 or 5. Our data suggest that high body condition is prevalent among North American zoo elephants, and management strategies that help prevent and mitigate obesity may lead to improvements in welfare of zoo elephants. PMID:27415629

  12. Study on Freshwater Macroinvertebrates of Some Tanzanian Rivers as a Basis for Developing Biomonitoring Index for Assessing Pollution in Tropical African Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius D. Elias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroinvertebrates and physicochemical parameters were assessed at 15 sites along five rivers in Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania, with the aim of understanding their ecological status and setting a base to the development of a biological index for tropical regions. Investigated rivers that occur within Pangani basin include Karanga, Rau, Lumbanga, Sere, and Umbwe. Sampling sites were categorized according to the level of water and habitat quality as follows: reference or least impacted (4 sites, moderately impacted (5 sites, and highly impacted (6 sites sites. A total of 12,527 macroinvertebrates belonging to 13 orders and 48 families were recorded. The highest total abundance of 4,110 individuals per m2 was found in Karanga river, while Umbwe river had the lowest with 1,203 individuals per m2. Chironomidae was the most abundant family (2,588 individuals per m2 and the least were Hydridae and Thiaridae, each having 5 individuals per m2. High numbers of taxa were noted among the orders: Ephemeroptera (8, Odonata (8, Diptera (7, and Trichoptera (6. In conclusion, orders with greater diversity of macroinvertebrate families offer a wide range of tolerance to pollution and, thus can potentially be used to develop a biomonitoring index for evaluating pollution in tropical African rivers.

  13. Occupational and Spatial Mobility of Temporary Mexican Migrants to the U.S.: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard C.; Murray, William Breen

    1986-01-01

    Compares U.S. job and spatial mobility for recent returnee migrants from two Mexican areas: Rio Grande; Zacatecas, in the interior; and Nueva Rosita-Muzquiz, Coahuila, near the U.S. border. Interior migrants fit a hierarchical migrant model while border migrants fit a shuttle migrant model. (Author/LHW)

  14. Analysing usefulness and applicability of EO-based long-term vegetation and rainfall trends for assessment of land degradation/recovery in the African Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensholt, R.; Rasmussen, K.; Huber, S.; Kaspersen, P.

    2011-12-01

    The relationship between rainfall and aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) in the West-African Sahel-Sudanian zone has been discussed extensively since the drought of the early seventies. Precipitation in the Sahel shows typically large inter-annual and decadal variability, and is generally assumed to be the most important determinant of vegetation growth in the Sahel-Sudanian zone. However, other factors such as human influence from over-use of vegetation caused by overgrazing or agricultural practises may play a role. If a separation of rainfall change impacts from other causes for productivity changes could be achieved, it would allow us to better assess the (non-rainfall) causes of productivity change. Land degradation (as defined by reduction of vegetation productivity) has recently been assessed from both long-term trends in vegetation greenness, represented by NDVI, while the 'rain-use efficiency' (RUE) is suggested as an indicator of non-rainfall related changes in land conditions. Here we study the relevance and use of the concept of RUE to the current discussion on land degradation not related to rainfall change in the African Sahel. The value of RUE, defined as the ratio of aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) to precipitation, has been found to be approximately stable throughout the various arid and semi-arid zones of the world. Consequently, spatio-temporal changes in RUE have been suggested as an integral measure for evaluating land degradation not related to rainfall. However, using NDVI as a proxy for ANPP in land degradation assessment is not without problems: While the relationship between ΣNDVI and ANPP may be linear, the intercept is different from zero, since NDVI>0 for bare soil, implying that the ratio of ΣNDVI to annual rainfall will decrease with increasing rainfall and thus trends in RUE will reflect trends in rainfall, violating the assumption of RUE being rainfall independent. Regressing ΣNDVI from annual rainfall and

  15. Non-adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment among internal migrants with pulmonary tuberculosis in Shenzhen, China: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Ying; Zhao, Meigui; Wang, Yunxia; Gong, Yanhong; Yin, Xiaoxv; Zhao, Angui; Zheng, Juanjuan; Liu, Zhenyang; Jian, Xiaofang; Wang, Wenxin; Wu, Chunmei; Lu, Zuxun

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-adherence to tuberculosis (TB) treatment threatens the success of treatment, increases the risk of TB spread, and leads to the development of drug resistance. The present study assessed non-adherence to anti-TB treatment among internal migrants with pulmonary TB living in Shenzhen, China, and examined risk factors for non-adherence in order to identify targets for intervention. Methods A total of 794 internal migrants with TB treated at Bao’an Hospital for Chronic Disease Preve...

  16. Management of septic shock and severe infections in migrants and returning travelers requiring critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, E; Erdem, H; Rello, J

    2016-04-01

    During the past decade, global human movement created a virtually "borderless world". Consequently, the developed world is facing "forgotten" and now imported infectious diseases. Many infections are observed upon travel and migration, and the clinical spectrum is diverse, ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe septic shock. The severity of infection depends on the etiology and timeliness of diagnosis. While assessing the etiology of severe infection in travelers and migrants, it is important to acquire a detailed clinical history; geography, dates of travel, places visited, type of transportation, lay-overs and intermediate stops, potential exposure to exotic diseases, and activities that were undertaken during travelling and prophylaxis and vaccines either taken or not before travel are all important parameters. Tuberculosis, malaria, pneumonia, visceral leishmaniasis, enteric fever and hemorrhagic fever are the most common etiologies in severely infected travelers and migrants. The management of severe sepsis and septic shock in migrants and returning travelers requires a systematic approach in the evaluation of these patients based on travel history. Early and broad-spectrum therapy is recommended for the management of septic shock comprising broad spectrum antibiotics, source control, fluid therapy and hemodynamic support, corticosteroids, tight glycemic control, and organ support and monitoring. We here review the diagnostic and therapeutic routing of severely ill travelers and migrants, stratified by the nature of the infectious agents most often encountered among them. PMID:26825315

  17. Maternal mortality among migrants in Western Europe: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Grete Skøtt; Grøntved, Anders; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Rich-Edwards, Janet

    2014-09-01

    To examine whether an excess risk of maternal mortality exists among migrant women in Western Europe. We searched electronic databases for studies published 1970 through 2013 for all observational studies comparing maternal mortality between the host country and a defined migrant population. Results were derived from a random-effects meta-analysis, and statistical heterogeneity assessed by the I (2) statistic. In sub-analyses we also calculated summary estimates stratified by direct and indirect death causes. We included 13 studies with more than 42 million women and 4,995 maternal deaths. Compared with indigenous born women, the pooled risk estimate (RR) was 2.00 with 95 % confidence interval (CI) of 1.72, 2.33. Migrant women had a non-significantly higher risk of dying from direct than indirect death causes; pooled RRs of 2.65 CI 1.88, 3.74 and 1.83 CI 1.37, 2.45. This meta-analysis provides evidence that migrant women in Western European countries have an excess risk of maternal mortality.

  18. Proxy Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life in African American and White Respondents With Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, A. Simon; Lin, Hsiang-Wen; Knight, Sara J.; Sharifi, Roohollah; Wu, Zhigang; Hung, Shih-Ying; Witt, Whitney P.; Chang, Chih-Hung; Bennett, Charles L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives An emerging issue in the proxy literature is whether specifying different proxy viewpoints contributes to different health-related quality of life (HRQL) assessments, and if so, how might each perspective be informative in medical decision making. The aims of this study were to determine if informal caregiver assessments of patients with prostate cancer differed when prompted from both the patient perspective (proxy-patient) and their own viewpoint (proxy-proxy), and to identify factors associated with differences in proxy perspectives (ie, the intraproxy gap). Research Design and Methods Using a cross-sectional design, prostate cancer patients and their informal caregivers were recruited from urology clinics in the Jesse Brown Veterans Affairs Healthcare System in Chicago. Dyads assessed HRQL using the EQ-5D visual analog scale (VAS) and EORTC QLQ-C30. Results Of 87 dyads, most caregivers were female (83%) and were spouses/partners (58%). Mean difference scores between proxy-patient and proxy-proxy perspectives were statistically significant for QLQ-C30 physical and emotional functioning, and VAS (all P < 0.05), with the proxy-patient perspective closer to patient self-report. Emotional functioning had the largest difference, mean 6.0 (SD 12.8), an effect size = 0.47. Factors weakly correlated with the intraproxy gap included relationship (spouse) and proxy gender for role functioning, and health literacy (limited/functional) for physical functioning (all P < 0.05, 0.20 < r < 0.35). Conclusions Meaningful differences between proxy-patient and proxy-proxy perspectives on mental health were consistent with a conceptual framework for understanding proxy perspectives. Prompting different proxy viewpoints on patient health could help clinicians identify patients who may benefit from clinical intervention. PMID:19169118

  19. Migrant Mexican Traditions = Tradiciones Migrantes Mexicanas. An Exhibit of Folk Art by Mexican Migrant Farmworkers (Geneseo, New York, September 22-October 4, 1990).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Juana; Gomez, Jose Luis

    This exhibit guide (in Spanish, with translation in English printed on adjoining columns on each page), describes an exhibition of folk art by Mexican migrant farmworkers presented by thre Folk Arts Program of the BOCES Geneseo Migrant Center. The exhibit is divided into four major themes that farmworkers presented by the BOCES Geneseo Migrant…

  20. The Future of the Migrant Workers: the Issue of Pensioning of the Retired Migrant Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boxia Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The first generation migrant workers contributed a lot to the construction of the cities with the lowest wages and the hardest work. On the other hand, due to flaws in the current social insurance systems, unclear responsibility of enterprises, insufficient understanding of the migrant workers themselves, there appear the dilemma that the cities refuse to care for migrant workers while the countryside cannot undertake the task and the traditional family and land-supporting model also fails to do so. And this has become an urgent problem faced the whole society. This paper, by analyzing the predicament and the issues of the care service of the retired migrant workers, presents solutions such as bettering the insurance system, quickening the law making, and popularizing the idea of responsibilities and consciousness of the enterprises and the farmer workers. It also calls for a power financial support from the government, and a way to unite the transitional system of the insurance policies, with strict supervision and management to protect the lawful interest of the migrant workers.

  1. 76 FR 69242 - Application for New Awards; College Assistance Migrant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... Application for New Awards; College Assistance Migrant Program AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice. Overview Information College Assistance Migrant Program... provide academic and financial support to help migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their...

  2. 78 FR 76136 - Application for New Awards; College Assistance Migrant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... Application for New Awards; College Assistance Migrant Program AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice. Overview Information College Assistance Migrant Program... provide academic and financial support to help migrant and seasonal farmworkers and members of...

  3. Assessing changes to South African maize production areas in 2055 using empirical and process-based crop models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, L.; Bradley, B.; Oppenheimer, M.; Beukes, H.; Schulze, R. E.; Tadross, M.

    2010-12-01

    gains and losses in maize productivity. We identify several areas-particularly along the southern and eastern boundaries of current production-with potential for increased productivity. However, larger areas, primarily in the more arid western and northern production regions, are likely to experience diminished productivity. The combination of process-based and distribution models for agricultural impacts assessments provides a useful comparison of two different crop modeling frameworks, as well as the finest scale investigation using a spatially-explicit implementation of a process-based model for South Africa. The large GCM ensemble and multiple emissions scenarios provide a broad climate risk assessment for current maize production. SOM downscaling can help improve climate impacts assessments by increasing their resolution, and by circumventing GCM precipitation schemes whose outcomes are highly divergent.

  4. Preparing rural migrant workers for new jobs amid crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张车伟; 王智勇

    2009-01-01

    Referencing statistical yearbooks and census data,we first estimate the total number of rural migrant workers in China at about 238 million in 2008,including 71.4 million working across provinces.We also estimate how many migrant workers will be affected by the financial crisis and may lose their jobs.The coastal areas are the hardest hit.We predict that China in the first half of 2009 will face the most serious employment situation since the dawn of the new century, and that structural unemployment of rural migrant workers is the main problem.We estimate that around 34.18 million rural migrant workers would be facing the risk of structural unemployment.In order to cope with the shocks to rural migrant workers’ employment,the government should put a policy emphasis on adjusting rural migrant workers to new jobs.

  5. A JOINT VENTURE MODEL FOR ASSESSMENT OF PARTNER CAPABILITIES: THE CASE OF ESKOM ENTERPRISES AND THE AFRICAN POWER SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.V. Soni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This article investigates the concept of joint ventures in the international energy sector and develops a joint venture model, as a business development and assessment tool. The joint venture model presents a systematic method that relies on modern business intelligence to assess a potential business venture by using a balanced score card technique to screen potential partners, based on their technological and financial core capabilities. The model can be used by business development managers to harness the potential of joint ventures to create economic growth and sustainable business expansion. Furthermore, partnerships with local companies can help to mitigate econo-political risk, and facilitate buy-in from the national governments that are normally the primary stakeholders in the energy sector ventures (directly or indirectly. The particular case of Eskom Enterprises (Pty Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of Eskom, is highlighted.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel ondersoek die begrip gesamentlike onderneming in die internasionale energiesektor en ontwikkel 'n gesamentlike-onderneming-model as 'n sake-ontwikkeling- en takseermodel. Die gesamentlike-onderneming-model bied 'n stelselmatige metode wat op moderne sake-intelligensie staat maak om 'n potensiële sake-onderneming op grond van die tegnologiese en finansiële kernvermoëns daarvan te takseer deur 'n gebalanseerdepuntekaart-tegniek te gebruik. Die model kan deur sake-ontwikkelingsbestuurders gebruik word om die potensiaal van gesamentlike ondernemings in te span om ekonomiese groei en volhoubare sake-uitbreiding daar te stel. Verder kan venootskappe met plaaslike maatskappye help om die ekonomiese risiko te verminder en inkoop te vergemaklik van die nasionale regerings wat gewoonlik die primêre belanghebbendes in die energiesektorondernemings is (hetsy regstreeks of onregstreeks. Die besondere geval van Eskom Enterprises (Edms Bpk, 'n vol filiaal van Eskom

  6. Future Water Resources Assessment for West African River Basins Under Climate Change, Population Growth and Irrigation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisser, D.; Ibrahim, B.; Proussevitch, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    West Africa economies rely on rain-fed agriculture and are extremely vulnerable to changes in precipitation. Results from the most recent generation of regional climate models suggest increases in rainy season rainfall variability (delayed rainy season onset, increased probability of dry spells, shorter rainy season duration) despite a moderate increase in rainy season total precipitation. These changes could potentially have detrimental effects on crop yield and food security. Additional pressures on water resources come from increased demand as a result of high population growth rates (~3% per year). Increased water storage and irrigation can help improve crop yields but future assessments of water resources are needed to prioritize irrigation development as an adaptation option. Increased water abstraction, in turn can impact water availability in downstream regions so that an integrated assessment of future water availability and demand is needed. We use a set of 15 RCM outputs from the CORDEX data archive to drive WBMplus, a hydrological model and simulate water availability under climate change. Based on estimated water constraints, we develop scenarios to expand irrigated areas (from the current 1% of all croplands) and calculate the effects on water scarcity, taking into account increased demand for domestic consumption and livestock water demand, at a spatial resolution of 10 km. Results around the 2050's indicate large potential to develop irrigated areas on ground and surface water and increase local water storage without increasing water scarcity downstream for many river basins in the region that could help alleviate pressures on the cropping systems and thereby increase food security.

  7. Migrant life stories and the Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi

    2013-01-01

    The life stories of migrants are increasingly being told, as part of the work of cultural organizations, and websites are well suited to making such life story projects accessible to the public. However, by using the lives of real people as raw material in a public forum, Web projects raise...... important questions about the terms on which participants are given a voice. This article focuses on a Danish website which depicts the life stories of migrant men through written texts, audio clips, and photographs. It presents a detailed analysis of the life story of one young man from a Muslim background...... who has openly declared himself an atheist. The article examines his experience of having this somewhat sensitive story made public. The religious aspect inevitably positioned his story in relation to broader political debates about Muslims in Denmark. Since migrants’ stories often touch on highly...

  8. The Speeds of the Migrant Mongrel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moslund, Sten Pultz

    dobbelthed og "ind-imellemhed" i den transkulturelle migrants/ romans udsyn. I The Carrier bliver den migrerende bastards dobbeltsyn åbenlyst reduceret til et enøjet teleskopisk udsyn. I Naipauls roman er der også en selvreflekterende diskurs, som fremhæver dens egen diskursive begrænsning, men hvorimod...... spørgsmålstegn ved og problematisere den formodede dobbelthed og "ind-imellemhed" i den transkulturelle migrants/ romans udsyn. I bliver den migrerende bastards dobbeltsyn åbenlyst reduceret til et enøjet teleskopisk udsyn. I Naipauls roman er der også en selvreflekterende diskurs, som fremhæver dens egen...

  9. Migrant Workers and Elimination of Risks in Chinese Modern Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Firstly, risks in Chinese modern transformation are discussed from the perspective of gap between urban and rural areas and mobility of rural laborers. Secondly, the significant role of migrant works in elimination of risks in Chinese modern transformation is analyzed from two aspects, namely rural migrant workers pursuing equal economic and political status (identity and household registration) when working in cities. Finally, it is concluded that migrant works play a key role in Chinese modern transformation.

  10. Factors associated with high-risk behaviour among migrants in the state of maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Neeta; Jeyaseelan, L; Joy, Anna; Kumar, V Sampath; Thenmozhi, M; Acharya, Smriti

    2013-09-01

    Studies among migrants show that they are more susceptible to HIV infection than the general population and thereby spread the epidemic from high prevalence to low prevalence areas. It is therefore critical to enhance the body of knowledge on factors associated with condom use among migrants. This study, conducted in 2009 in the State of Maharashtra, covers 4595 single in-migrants aged 15-49 years and aims at understanding the factors associated with non-use of condoms consistently. Information was collected using a Structured Interview Schedule covering demographic, socioeconomic profile, sexual history, knowledge, behaviour and stigma and discrimination indicators. Logistic regression analysis was used to understand the association between unprotected sex and various socio-demographic and environmental factors. The models were run using the Enter method. The goodness-of-fit of the model was assessed using Hosmer and Lemeshow chi-squared statistics. A significant association is observed between sex with sex workers and older migrants (>24 years), the literate, those who are mobile, unmarried, employed in the textile, quarry and construction industries, who often consume alcohol and who watch pornographic films. The factors associated with unprotected sex are age between 30 and 34 years and no literacy. Migrants who are mobile and consume alcohol show a significant association with unprotected sex. The findings suggest a need for a comprehensive HIV prevention programme including strategies to address the stressful work conditions. The prevention programmes should focus not only on skills for safer sex practices, but also on alcohol use reduction. PMID:23458913

  11. Wind-Related Orientation Patterns in Diurnal, Crepuscular and Nocturnal High-Altitude Insect Migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Gao; Lim, Ka Sing; Reynolds, Don R.; Reynolds, Andy M.; Chapman, Jason W.

    2016-01-01

    Most insect migrants fly at considerable altitudes (hundreds of meters above the ground) where they utilize fast-flowing winds to achieve rapid and comparatively long-distance transport. The nocturnal aerial migrant fauna has been well studied with entomological radars, and many studies have demonstrated that flight orientations are frequently grouped around a common direction in a range of nocturnal insect migrants. Common orientation typically occurs close to the downwind direction (thus ensuring that a large component of the insects’ self-powered speed is directed downstream), and in nocturnal insects at least, the downwind headings are seemingly maintained by direct detection of wind-related turbulent cues. Despite being far more abundant and speciose, the day-flying windborne migrant fauna has been much less studied by radar; thus the frequency of wind-related common orientation patterns and the sensory mechanisms involved in their formation remain to be established. Here, we analyze a large dataset of >600,000 radar-detected “medium-sized” windborne insect migrants (body mass from 10 to 70 mg), flying hundreds of meters above southern UK, during the afternoon, in the period around sunset, and in the middle of the night. We found that wind-related common orientation was almost ubiquitous during the day (present in 97% of all “migration events” analyzed), and was also frequent at sunset (85%) and at night (81%). Headings were systematically offset to the right of the flow at night-time (as predicted from the use of turbulence cues for flow assessment), but there was no directional bias in the offsets during the day or at sunset. Orientation “performance” significantly increased with increasing flight altitude throughout the day and night. We conclude by discussing sensory mechanisms which most likely play a role in the selection and maintenance of wind-related flight headings. PMID:26973481

  12. Rural-to-urban migration and risk of hypertension: Longitudinal results of the PERU MIGRANT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Sanchez, Juan F.; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M.; Gilman, Robert H; Poterico, Julio A.; Quispe, Renato; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J. Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization is a hazardous process because it affects health population due to changes in diet and physical activity patterns. This study aimed to determine the effect of migration on the incidence of hypertension. Participants of the PERU MIGRANT study, i.e. rural, urban, and rural-to-urban migrants were re-evaluated after five years from baseline. The outcome was incidence of hypertension; and the exposures were study group and other well-known risk factors. Incidence rates, relative risks (RR), and population attributable fractions were calculated. At baseline, 201 (20.4%), 589 (59.5%), and 199 (20.1%) were rural, rural-to-urban migrant and urban subjects, respectively. Overall mean age was 47.9 (SD±12.0) years, and 522 (52.9%) were females. Hypertension prevalence at baseline was 16.0% (95% CI 13.7%–18.3%), being more common in urban group; whereas pre-hypertension was more prevalent in rural participants (pyears was 94%, 895 participants were re-assessed and 33 (3.3%) deaths were recorded. Overall incidence of hypertension was 1.73 (95%CI 1.36–2.20) per 100 person-years. In multivariable model and compared to the urban group, rural group had a greater risk of developing hypertension (RR=3.58; 95%CI 1.42–9.06). Population attributable fractions showed high waist circumference as the leading risk factor for the hypertension development in rural (19.1%), migrant (27.9%), and urban (45.8%) participants. Subjects from rural settings are at higher risk to develop hypertension relative to rural-urban migrant or urban groups. Central obesity was the leading risk factor for hypertension incidence in the three population groups. PMID:26865219

  13. Wind-related orientation patterns in diurnal, crepuscular and nocturnal high-altitude insect migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao eHu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most insect migrants fly at considerable altitudes (hundreds of meters above the ground where they utilize fast-flowing winds to achieve rapid and comparatively long-distance transport. The nocturnal aerial migrant fauna has been well studied with entomological radars, and many studies have demonstrated that flight orientations are frequently grouped around a common direction in a range of nocturnal insect migrants. Common orientation typically occurs close to the downwind direction (thus ensuring that a large component of the insects’ self-powered speed is directed downstream, and in nocturnal insects at least, the downwind headings are seemingly maintained by direct detection of wind-related turbulent cues. Despite being far more abundant and speciose, the day-flying windborne migrant fauna has been much less studied by radar; thus the frequency of wind-related common orientation patterns and the sensory mechanisms involved in their formation remain to be established. Here we analyze a large dataset of >600,000 radar-detected ‘medium-sized’ windborne insect migrants (body mass from 10 to 70 mg, flying hundreds of meters above southern UK, during the afternoon, in the period around sunset, and in the middle of the night. We found that wind-related common orientation was almost ubiquitous during the day (present in 97% of all ‘migration events’ analyzed, and was also frequent at sunset (85% and at night (81%. Headings were systematically offset to the right of the flow at night-time (as predicted from the use of turbulence cues for flow assessment, but there was no directional bias in the offsets during the day or at sunset. Orientation ‘performance’ significantly increased with increasing flight altitude throughout the day and night. We conclude by discussing sensory mechanisms which most likely play a role in the selection and maintenance of wind-related flight headings.

  14. Wind-Related Orientation Patterns in Diurnal, Crepuscular and Nocturnal High-Altitude Insect Migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Gao; Lim, Ka Sing; Reynolds, Don R; Reynolds, Andy M; Chapman, Jason W

    2016-01-01

    Most insect migrants fly at considerable altitudes (hundreds of meters above the ground) where they utilize fast-flowing winds to achieve rapid and comparatively long-distance transport. The nocturnal aerial migrant fauna has been well studied with entomological radars, and many studies have demonstrated that flight orientations are frequently grouped around a common direction in a range of nocturnal insect migrants. Common orientation typically occurs close to the downwind direction (thus ensuring that a large component of the insects' self-powered speed is directed downstream), and in nocturnal insects at least, the downwind headings are seemingly maintained by direct detection of wind-related turbulent cues. Despite being far more abundant and speciose, the day-flying windborne migrant fauna has been much less studied by radar; thus the frequency of wind-related common orientation patterns and the sensory mechanisms involved in their formation remain to be established. Here, we analyze a large dataset of >600,000 radar-detected "medium-sized" windborne insect migrants (body mass from 10 to 70 mg), flying hundreds of meters above southern UK, during the afternoon, in the period around sunset, and in the middle of the night. We found that wind-related common orientation was almost ubiquitous during the day (present in 97% of all "migration events" analyzed), and was also frequent at sunset (85%) and at night (81%). Headings were systematically offset to the right of the flow at night-time (as predicted from the use of turbulence cues for flow assessment), but there was no directional bias in the offsets during the day or at sunset. Orientation "performance" significantly increased with increasing flight altitude throughout the day and night. We conclude by discussing sensory mechanisms which most likely play a role in the selection and maintenance of wind-related flight headings.

  15. The Use of Migrant Labour — Threat or Advantage for Russian Economical Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Aleksandrovna Koretskaya-Garmash

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to a relevant problem of labour migration, the potentially possible threats and advantages of attracting and using of foreign migrant labour in the framework of the Russian economy are considered. The purpose of this work is to establish the how the migration processes influence over the current state of the Russian economy, and whether it is possible to meet the demand in the labour force by attracting labour migrants. The research method is the analysis of the statistical indicators of the Russian regions’ development, of demographic, migratory and financial situations in the Russian Federation. The results of the study are presented in the form of a quantitative assessment of the potential threats to the internal market due to the use of external migrant labour, which has already led to the Russian economic disruption, the devaluation of the Russian ruble, the growth of current account deficit, the load on the pension system of Russia. Therefore, we must not forget the positive aspects — rejuvenation of the age composition of the population, occupation of vacant jobs by the workers in the disadvantaged Russian regions, the increasing size of tax revenues to the Russian budget system by filing patents on employment activity. The presented results of the study can be used by public authorities in the migration policy, labour and social work for the development of the state programme stimulating internal and external migrants for employment in the regions with a shortage of manpower. The conducted research allows to define the relationship between labour migrants and economic activity of local population, to characterize the reasons of external labour migration and to analyse the consequences of migration for the host country

  16. All-cause and cause-specific mortality of different migrant populations in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Umar Z; Mackenbach, Johan P; Harding, Seeromanie; Rey, Grégoire; Bhopal, Raj S; Regidor, Enrique; Rosato, Michael; Juel, Knud; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to examine differences in all-cause mortality and main causes of death across different migrant and local-born populations living in six European countries. We used data from population and mortality registers from Denmark, England & Wales, France, Netherlands, Scotland, and Spain. We calculated age-standardized mortality rates for men and women aged 0-69 years. Country-specific data were pooled to assess weighted mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using Poisson regression. Analyses were stratified by age group, country of destination, and main cause of death. In six countries combined, all-cause mortality was lower for men and women from East Asia (MRRs 0.66; 95 % confidence interval 0.62-0.71 and 0.76; 0.69-0.82, respectively), and Other Latin America (0.44; 0.42-0.46 and 0.56; 0.54-0.59, respectively) than local-born populations. Mortality rates were similar for those from Turkey. All-cause mortality was higher in men and women from North Africa (1.09; 1.08-1.11 and 1.19; 1.17-1.22, respectively) and Eastern Europe (1.30; 1.27-1.33 and 1.05; 1.01-1.08, respectively), and women from Sub-Saharan Africa (1.34; 1.30-1.38). The pattern differed by age group and country of destination. Most migrants had higher mortality due to infectious diseases and homicide while cancer mortality and suicide were lower. CVD mortality differed by migrant population. To conclude, mortality patterns varied across migrant populations in European countries. Future research should focus both on migrant populations with favourable and less favourable mortality pattern, in order to understand this heterogeneity and to drive policy at the European level. PMID:26362812

  17. Export stoichiometry and migrant-mediated flux of phosphorus in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannides, Cecelia C. S.; Landry, Michael R.; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R.; Styles, Renée M.; Montoya, Joseph P.; Karl, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Export processes play a major role in regulating global marine primary production by reducing the efficiency of nutrient cycling and turnover in surface waters. Most studies of euphotic zone export focus on passive fluxes, that is, sinking particles. However, active transport, the vertical transfer of material by migrating zooplankton, can also be an important component of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) removal from the surface ocean. Here we demonstrate that active transport is an especially important mechanism for phosphorus (P) removal from the euphotic zone at Station ALOHA (Hawaii Ocean Time-series program; 22°45'N, 158°W), a P-stressed site in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. Migrant excretions in this region are P-rich (C 51:N 12:P 1) relative to sinking particles (C 250:N 31:P 1), and migrant-mediated P fluxes are almost equal in magnitude (82%) to P fluxes from sediment traps. Migrant zooplankton biomass and therefore the importance of this P removal pathway relative to sinking fluxes has increased significantly over the past 12 years, suggesting that active transport may be a major driving force for enhanced P-limitation of biological production in the NPSG. We further assess the C:N:P composition of zooplankton size fractions at Station ALOHA (C 88:N 18:P 1, on average) and discuss migrant-mediated P export in light of the balance between zooplankton and suspended particle stoichiometries. We conclude that, because active transport is such a large component of the total P flux and significantly impacts ecosystem stoichiometry, export processes involving migrant zooplankton must be included in large-scale efforts to understand biogeochemical cycles.

  18. Citizens’ attitudes towards migrant workers in Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Diopa, Abdoulaye; Trung Lea, Kien; Johnstonb, Trevor; Ewersa, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Public attitudes play a critical role in shaping policies towards immigration and the status of migrant workers. Facing growing pressure from international human rights organizations, media and other groups, the Gulf Cooperation Council states have begun efforts to reform the current kafala system, which prevails throughout the region. Yet despite these efforts, relatively little is known about what citizens actually think of this policy, let alone their more general attitudes ...

  19. Temporary Migrants, Partial Citizenship and Hypermigration

    OpenAIRE

    Bauböck, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The fulltext available is a preprint version of an article submitted for consideration in the CRISPP, 2011 First published online : December 2012 Temporary migration raises two different challenges. The first is whether territorial democracies can integrate temporary migrants as equal citizens; the second is whether transnationally mobile societies can be organized democratically as communities of equal citizens. Considering both questions within a single analytical framework will revea...

  20. Trafficking in migrants: a european perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Di Nicola, Andrea

    2000-01-01

    This essay, first of all, seeks to answer questions related to the problem of the traffic of migrants in Europe: are there organised criminal groups active in the continent who concern themselves with human trafficking and if so which groups? How do they organise their traffic? Which routes are most widely used in order to perform this criminal activity? These questions will be dealt with under a particular light: while answering them, the author will try to give a framework, though very gene...

  1. Health screening of migrant workers- serological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper review the serological investigations for parasitic infection among migrant workers. The tests were performed on serum samples for parasitic infection. The serum samples were found to be positive for antibody for Ameobiasis [28%], Malaria [27 percentage], Echonococcus [18 percentage] and Schistosomiasis [12 percentage]. Female samples were positive for Ameobiasis [39 percentage], and Filariasis [W.b] 33.3 percentage. Foreign workers from Bangladesh showed the highest percentage on seropositive for most parasitic diseases. (author)

  2. Pre-acculturation among voluntary migrants

    OpenAIRE

    YijÀlÀ, Anu

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation research focused on the pre-migration stage of the migration process and, specifically, the action period, which starts from making a decision to move abroad and lasts until the actual move. The research further developed the concept of pre-acculturation, that is, the active process that voluntary migrants in particular go through during the preparatory stage of migration process. As studies on pre-acculturation are still rather scarce, the theoretical background of the rese...

  3. Cross-results on students and migrants surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Blum Le Coat, Jean-Yves

    2011-01-01

    This EuroBroadMap working paper crosses quantitative results obtained in the work package 'Mental maps of students' and the qualitative data obtained from surveys on migrants collected in the work package 'Migrants and borders'. Ce working paper issu du projet EuroBroadMap croise les résultats quantitatifs obtenus au sein du work package 'Cartes mentales des étudiants' avec les données qualitatives issues des entretiens auprès de migrants réalisés dans le work package 'Migrants et frontièr...

  4. Interactive Development of Community Education and Migrant Workers’ Continuing Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning; WANG

    2015-01-01

    Community education is an essential carrier of continuing education and plays a positive role in promoting continuing education of migrant workers. On the one hand,it can raise employment quality and labor skills of migrant workers; on the other hand,it manifests function of serving society of community education. Besides,it is also an important measure for building learning society and lifelong learning system.From the perspective of interactive development,it discusses interactive relationship between community education and migrant workers’ continuing education,analyzes their interactive mechanism,and comes up with recommendations for developing community education and migrant workers’ continuing education.

  5. Stillbirth and congenital anomalies in migrants in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Gundlund, Anna; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted

    2016-01-01

    The risk of giving birth to a stillborn child or a child with severe congenital anomaly is higher for women who have immigrated to Europe as compared to the majority population in the receiving country. The literature, however, reveals great differences between migrant groups, even within migrants...... disparity is a result of the socioeconomic disadvantage most migrants face. Consanguinity has been considered as another cause for the increased stillbirth risk and the high risk of congenital anomaly observed in many migrant groups. Utilization and quality of care during pregnancy and childbirth...

  6. On Migrant Children's Right to Equal Access to Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAN KAILIN; LIU XIAOLIANG

    2011-01-01

    @@ By "migrant children," we mean children living in cities with their parents who are migrants from the countryside.Under the current education system practiced in Chinese cities, the so-called "migrant children," as an underprivileged group, are often denied of the same right and opportunity to attend school as their counterparts in their host cities.While infringing upon a legitimate right of those "migrant children," this is adversely affecting the national endeavor to ensure fairness in education and the process of urbanization.

  7. Land use scenarios development and impacts assessment on vegetation carbon/nitrogen sequestration in the West African Sudan savanna watershed, Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabi, A.

    2015-12-01

    ackground: Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+), being developed through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) requires information on the carbon/nitrogen stocks in the plant biomass for predicting future climate under scenarios development. The development of land use scenarios in West Africa is needed to predict future impacts of change in the environment and the socio-economic status of rural communities. The study aims at developing land use scenario based on mitigation strategy to climate change as an issue of contributing for carbon and nitrogen sequestration, the condition 'food focused' as a scenario based crop production and 'financial investment' as scenario based on an economic development pathway, and to explore the possible future temporal and spatial impacts on vegetation carbon/nitrogen sequestration/emission and socio-economic status of rural communities. Preliminary results: BEN-LUDAS (Benin-Land Use DyNamic Simulator) model, carbon and nitrogen equations, remote sensing and socio-economic data were used to predict the future impacts of each scenario in the environment and human systems. The preliminary results which are under analysis will be presented soon. Conclusion: The proposed BEN-LUDAS models will help to contribute to policy decision making at the local and regional scale and to predict future impacts of change in the environment and socio-economic status of the rural communities. Keywords: Land use scenarios development, BEN-LUDAS, socio-economic status of rural communities, future impacts of change, assessment, West African Sudan savanna watershed, Benin

  8. Speech-language assessment in a linguistically diverse setting: preliminary exploration of the possible impact of informal 'solutions' within the South African context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Joanne; Khoza-Shangase, Katijah; Msimang, Kwandinjabulo

    2012-12-01

    Speech-language therapists (SLTs) working in the context of cultural and linguistic diversity face considerable challenges in providing equitable services to all clients. This is complicated by the fact that the majority ofSLTs in South Africa are English or Afrikaans speakers, while the majority of the population have a home language other than English/Afrikaans. Consequently, SLTs are often forced to call on untrained personnel to act as interpreters or translators, and to utilise informally translated materials in the assessment and management of clients with communication impairments. However, variations in translation have the potential to considerably alter intervention plans. This study explored whether the linguistic complexity conveyed in translation of the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) test changed when translated from English to isiZulu by five different first-language IsiZulu speakers. A qualitative comparative research design was adopted and results were analysed using comparative data analysis. Results revealed notable differences in the translations, with most differences relating to vocabulary and semantics. This finding holds clinical implications for the use of informal translators as well as for the utilisation of translated material in the provision of speech-language therapy services in multilingual contexts. This study highlights the need for cautious use of translators and/or translated materials that are not appropriately and systematically adapted for local usage. Further recommendations include a call for intensified efforts in the transformation of the profession within the country, specifically by attracting greater numbers of students who are fluent in African languages. PMID:23409617

  9. Speech-language assessment in a linguistically diverse setting: Preliminary exploration of the possible impact of informal ‘solutions’ within the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Barratt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Speech-language therapists (SLTs working in the context of cultural and linguistic diversity face considerable challenges in providing equitable services to all clients. This is complicated by the fact that the majority of SLTs in South Africa are English or Afrikaans speakers, while the majority of the population have a home language other than English/Afrikaans. Consequently, SLTs are often forced to call on untrained personnel to act as interpreters or translators, and to utilise informally translated materials in the assessment and management of clients with communication impairments. However, variations in translation have the potential to considerably alter intervention plans. This study explored whether the linguistic complexity conveyed in translation of the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB test changed when translated from English to isiZulu by five different first-language IsiZulu speakers. A qualitative comparative research design was adopted and results were analysed using comparative data analysis. Results revealed notable differences in the translations, with most differences relating to vocabulary and semantics. This finding holds clinical implications for the use of informal translators as well as for the utilisation of translated material in the provision of speech-language therapy services in multilingual contexts. This study highlights the need for cautious use of translators and/or translated materials that are not appropriately and systematically adapted for local usage. Further recommendations include a call for intensified efforts in the transformation of the profession within the country, specifically by attracting greater numbers of students who are fluent in African languages.

  10. Feeding potential of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peels ensiled with Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium assessed with West African dwarf goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduguwa, Bamidele Omonuwa; Oni, Adebayo Olusoji; Arigbede, Oluwasanmi Moses; Adesunbola, Julius Olukunle; Sudekum, Karl Heinz

    2013-08-01

    Cassava peels (CaPe) were ensiled in mixtures with Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, and the utilization of the mixed silages by West African dwarf (WAD) goats was assessed. Five silages were composed, comprising of 100% ensiled CaPe (control), CaPe + G. sepium 2:1 (w/w; 2CGS), CaPe + G. sepium 1:1 (w/w; CGS), CaPe + L. leucocephala 2:1 (w/w; 2CLL) and CaPe + L. leucocephala 1:1 (w/w; CLL). All diets were supplemented with molasses (40 g/kg) before ensiling which lasted 3 months. Fifteen WAD goats (8.01 ± 0.12 kg body weight) were fed one of the experimental diets (50 g/kg body weight) for 8 weeks. The control had the lowest hydrocyanic acid content (0.05 mg/kg DM), while others ranged from 6.2 to 81.3 mg/kg. Condensed tannin concentration ranged from 1.7 to 8.4 mg/kg DM, while mimosine levels were 11.6 and 12.4 mg/kg DM in 2CLL and CLL, respectively. After fermentation, all silages showed low pH (<4.5) and were different (P < 0.05) in the lactic, acetic and butyric acid concentrations. Ratio of foliage supplementation influenced DM intake (P < 0.05). Daily weight gains ranged from 17 (CLL) to 24 g/day in control. The digestibility coefficients of nutrients and fibre fractions differed (P < 0.05) among diets. The values for packed cell volume, haemoglobin, red blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were also different (P < 0.05) across the dietary treatments. Ensiling CaPe with foliages of G. sepium and L. leucocephala can be recommended for feeding WAD goats especially during the dry spells when there is little or no available forage for the animals.

  11. Health Seeking Behavior of the Bangladeshi Migrant Workers in Malaysia: Some Suggestive Recommendations in Adjustive Context

    OpenAIRE

    A.H. M. Zehadul Karim; Nurazzura Mohamad Diah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently, there have been an increasing number of literatures on health seeking behavior of different segments of society in the urban and non-urban regions but rarely have these studies emphasized the health care issues related to migrant workers. With this paucity of investigation, this research focuses on the needs and assessment of Bangladeshi workers working in Malaysia and thus contextualizes it to their health care situation.Methodology and Data Sources: This study is an ou...

  12. Characteristics and determinants of sexual behavior among adolescents of migrant workers in Shangai (China)

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Gang; Cai Yong; Huang Hong; Li Shenghui; Huang Fengrong; Shen Xiaoming

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background China is facing a critical challenge of rapid and widespread human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) increase. Rural-to-urban migration plays a crucial role in shifting the HIV/sexual transmitted infection (STI) epidemic. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of sexual behaviors and the correlates among the early adolescents of migrant workers in China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 junior high sch...

  13. Household food security among migrant and seasonal latino farmworkers in North Carolina.

    OpenAIRE

    Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Early, Julie; Tapia, Janeth; Davis, Jessie D.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Food insecurity is defined as lack of access at all times, due to economic barriers, to enough food for an active and healthy lifestyle. The objective of this study was threefold: to characterize levels of food security, food insecurity, and hunger among migrant and seasonal Latino farmworkers; to assess predictors of food insecurity for this group; and to describe the strategies farmworkers use to cope with food insecurity. METHODS: Adults from 102 farmworker households in North C...

  14. Good practice in health care for migrants: views and experiences of care professionals in 16 European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, S.; Sandhu, S.; Dias, S.; Gaddini, A.; Greacen, T.; Ioannidis, E.; Kluge, U.; Krasnik, A.; Lamkaddem, M.; Lorant, V.; Puigpinósi Riera, R.; Sarvary, A.; Soares, J.J.F.; Stankunas, M.; Straßmayr, C.; Wahlbeck, K.; Welbel, M.; Bogic, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Health services across Europe provide health care for migrant patients every day. However, little systematic research has explored the views and experiences of health care professionals in different European countries. The aim of this study was to assess the difficulties professionals ex

  15. Violence against women migrant workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyanukij, Charnchao

    2004-10-01

    A paper on "Violence against Women Migrant Workers in Thailand" will show the situation of women migrant workers in Thailand, why they have to come to Thailand, what kind of job they do, how they are abused and exploited by employer in many types of violence and how the Thai government manages to solve the problems and assist them. The term or definition of "violence against women-VAW" and "discrimination against women" is provided and based on the definition stated in the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). Readers will see that violence against women is a form of discrimination committed on a basis of sex. In other words, VAW is a clear violation of women's inherent human rights including the rights to life, liberty, and security of person, equality, equal protection under the law and freedom from all forms of discrimination. More than one hundred thousands of women illegal migrant workers work in Thailand. They come from countries in the Mekong Sub-region namely Myanmar Lao PDR, Cambodia, Vietnam and China (Yunnan province). As they come illegally and have low level of education and working skills, they are vulnerable to exploitation, abuse or face violence. In general, they work in small factories, domestic work and restaurant. They are forced begging, forced prostitution or work in a slavery-like condition. Root causes of illegal migration and VAW are interrelated and occur in both sending and receiving countries of migrant workers. Poverty, demand and supply sides of labor, level of education, no knowledge of their own rights, impact of capitalism and gender issues, are mentioned as original factors of migration and VAW. The Thai government has national policy, plan, instrument and measures to cope with in- migration of illegal workers. Not only government agencies are active to solve the problems and assist the women migrant workers, but also non

  16. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  17. Clandestine migrant workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, T

    1992-01-01

    The author assesses the problem of illegal labor migration to Japan. "Labor policies, regulations, types of immigration violations, and the role of the recruitment industry are described. Most of the estimated 200,000 illegal workers are employed in small and medium sized enterprises, especially construction and manufacturing, which pay them wages well below the normal rate. A key issue is the infringement of human rights of these illegal workers, who lack the protection of labor laws and the social security system."

  18. South African HIV/AIDS programming overlooks migration, urban livelihoods, and informal workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vearey, Jo; Richter, Marlise; Núñez, Lorena; Moyo, Khangelani

    2011-01-01

    South Africa has the largest population of people living with HIV globally and is associated with high population mobility. The majority of migrants move in search of improved livelihood opportunities, and many who migrate (both internally and across borders) move into urban areas, often through peripheral informal settlements where HIV prevalence is shown to be double that of urban formal areas. While the relationship between migration and the spread of HIV is acknowledged as complex, the context of migration may place individuals at increased risk for acquiring HIV. Studies have demonstrated the long-wave impact of HIV and AIDS on livelihood activities and, more recently, on patterns of migration. Many migrants engage in livelihood strategies situated within the urban 'informal economy'; these informal workplaces are often overlooked in global and national legislation governing workplace responses to health and HIV and AIDS. This study draws on existing research and limited primary data to explore the implications of HIV/AIDS programming for diverse migrant groups labouring in informal workplaces in Johannesburg, South Africa. We describe three case studies: waste-pickers at a dumpsite in a peripheral urban informal settlement; barmen and cleaners working in inner-city hotels where sex is also sold; and, migrants engaged in informal livelihood activities who are also members of burial societies. Given the importance of varied informal livelihood activities for diverse migrant groups, particularly in urban areas of South Africa, we propose that the national HIV/AIDS response can and should engage with internal and cross-border migrants in informal workplaces - which is in line with the principle of universal access and will strengthen the national response. Especially, we point out the potential for burial societies to provide an entry point for HIV/AIDS programming that targets migrant groups involved in the informal economy of South African cities. PMID:25865514

  19. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't ...

  20. Problemes linguistiques des enfants de travailleurs migrants (Linguistic Problems of the Children of Migrant Workers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greve, Marcel, Ed.; Rosseel, Eddy, Ed.

    Papers on language difficulties encountered by migrant workers' children include: "Anomie in Bicultural Education" (Hugo Baetens Beardsmore); "An Investigation into Bilingual Education for Children from Favoured Socio-Economic Backgrounds" (Hugo Baetens Beardsmore); "Orientations of Foreign Children Relating to Placement in Special Classes" (in…

  1. Guide for Migrants in the State of Illinois = Guia para Migrantes en el Estado de Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langemach, Sharon; Koepplinger, Jessica

    Prepared for migrant farmworkers traveling in the State of Illinois, the booklet, written in English and Spanish, provides basic information on (1) employment conditions--requirements of crew leaders and employers, deductions from wages, and laws regulating child labor; (2) housing--conditions of the camp grounds and of living units; (3)…

  2. THE HARVESTERS, THE STORY OF THE MIGRANT PEOPLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHOTWELL, LOUISA R.

    THIS BOOK DESCRIBING THE MIGRANT WORLD WAS WRITTEN TO (1) PORTRAY THE COMPLEX SETTING IN WHICH MIGRANT FAMILIES OF DIFFERENT ETHNIC BACKGROUNDS LIVE AND WORK, (2) IDENTIFY THE ISSUES THEIR MIGRANCY RAISES FOR THEMSELVES, FOR THE COMMUNITIES AND STATES THAT RECRUIT THEIR LABOR, AND FOR THE NATIONAL ECONOMY, AND (3) ATTEMPT A PREDICTION OF WHAT LIES…

  3. Subcontracting, Posted Migrants and Labour Market Segmentation in Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lillie, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Using evidence from the shipbuilding and construction industries in Finland, this article shows how trade union responses to the introduction of migrant workers can be conditioned by product markets. Growing numbers of posted workers, or intra-European Union work migrants employed via transnational

  4. Coping strategies among internal migrant students in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.K. Altinyelken

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative study that explored educational challenges and coping mechanisms of internal migrant girls whose families moved from the rural areas in the east to the western parts of Turkey. The study revealed that internal migrant girls have encountered a number of challeng

  5. Migrant Farmworkers' Perceptions of Schooling, Learning, and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Loida C.

    Migrant workers have the highest school dropout rate, larger than any other major sub-group, in the United States, and a very low rate of participation in adult basic education programs. This paper reports on an ethnographic study exploring the early schooling, education, and family support for learning in a migrant community in North Carolina.…

  6. Interactive Drawing Therapy and Chinese Migrants with Gambling Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenli; Everts, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Ethnic Chinese migrants in a country like New Zealand face a range of well-documented challenges. A proportion of such migrants find that recreational gambling turns into a pernicious gambling problem. This issue is addressed through illustrated case studies of Interactive Drawing Therapy, a drawing-based modality of therapy that facilitates…

  7. Migrant Workers in Agriculture: A View from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thetkathuek, Anamai; Daniell, William

    2016-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in the global movement of workers during the last few decades. As Thailand has developed rapidly over the past 20 years, it has attracted laborers (both authorized and unauthorized) from the neighboring countries of Myanmar, People's Democratic Republic of Lao (Lao PDR), and Cambodia. Given that agriculture has been Thailand's most important industry, its continued growth has been dependent on migrant workers. Both crop agriculture and animal-production agriculture have employed migrant labor. Migrants have been hired to plant, weed, fertilize, spray pesticides, and harvest crops such as rice, corn, sugar cane, and cassava. They have worked at rubber and coffee plantations, as well as in the production of ornamental crops. Also, migrants have labored on pig, beef, and duck farms. There have been numerous documented health problems among migrant workers, including acute diarrhea, malaria, and fever of unknown causes. Occupational illness and injury have been a significant concern, and there has been limited health and safety training. This article reviewed the demographic changes in Thailand, studied the agricultural crops and animal production that are dependent on migrant labor, discussed the health status and safety challenges pertaining to migrant workers in agriculture, and described several recommendations. Among the recommendations, the conclusions of this study have suggested that addressing the cost for health care and solutions to health care access for migrant labor are needed. PMID:26479089

  8. Nutrition and health among migrants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussaard, J.H.; Erp-Baart, M.A. van; Brants, H.A.M.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Löwik, M.R.H.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This paper aims to give a broad overview of published data on nutrition and health among migrants in the Netherlands, as well as data on determinants of health. Results and conclusions: Depending on the definition, 9 to 17% of the population belongs to the group 'migrants' and this propor

  9. Migrant women's utilization of prenatal care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaman, M; Bayrampour, H; Kingston, D; Blondel, B; Gissler, M; Roth, C; Alexander, S; Gagnon, A

    2013-07-01

    Our objectives were to determine whether migrant women in Western industrialized countries have higher odds of inadequate prenatal care (PNC) compared to receiving-country women and to summarize factors that are associated with inadequate PNC among migrant women in these countries. We conducted searches of electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO), reference lists, known experts, and an existing database of the Reproductive Outcomes And Migration international research collaboration for articles published between January, 1995 and April, 2010. Title and abstract review and quality appraisal were conducted independently by 2 reviewers using established criteria, with consensus achieved through discussion. In this systematic review of 29 studies, the majority of studies demonstrated that migrant women were more likely to receive inadequate PNC than receiving-country women, with most reporting moderate to large effect sizes. Rates of inadequate PNC among migrant women varied widely by country of birth. Only three studies explored predictors of inadequate PNC among migrant women. These studies found that inadequate PNC among migrant women was associated with being less than 20 years of age, multiparous, single, having poor or fair language proficiency, education less than 5 years, an unplanned pregnancy, and not having health insurance. We concluded that migrant women as a whole were more likely to have inadequate PNC and the magnitude of this risk differed by country of origin. Few studies addressed predictors of PNC utilization in migrant women and this limits our ability to provide effective PNC in this population.

  10. Predictors of Condom Use in Latino Migrant Day Laborers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organista, Kurt C.; Ehrlich, Samantha F.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on predictors of condom use with casual female sex partners on the part of Latino migrant day laborers in the San Francisco Bay Area. Results come from a secondary analysis of data from a cross-sectional survey using convenience sampling to interview 290 sexually active adult, male, migrant Latino day laborers. Regression…

  11. Welfare Service Professionals, Migrants, and the Question of Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fersch, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze migrants’ interpretations of their encounters with welfare service professionals in Denmark, focusing on client trust and exploring its diversity across professions. It is based on qualitative interviews with migrants. Migrants as newcomers to the welfare state...

  12. New Mexico Migrant Project Aides: Perceptions of Their Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Alma Maria Acevedo

    The doctoral dissertation focused on: the perceptions of school administrators, teachers, and aides on teacher aide functions in the New Mexico Migrant Project; comparing the results with student needs; functions not ascribed to aides within the State Department of Education and the National Migrant Project's guidelines; and making recommendations…

  13. Coping Strategies among Internal Migrant Students in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinyelken, Hulya Kosar

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative study that explored educational challenges and coping mechanisms of internal migrant girls whose families moved from the rural areas in the east to the western parts of Turkey. The study revealed that internal migrant girls have encountered a number of challenges that influence their educational achievement…

  14. Citizenship experiences of young migrants: Optimism and disadvantages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, D.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyses the citizenship experiences of young non-western migrants in the Netherlands. Young migrants are in a disadvantaged position in education and in the labour market and this leads to concerns about their integration in Dutch society. The focus of this study is on the participation

  15. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, ... 46 per 100,000. • The suicide rate for African Americans ages 10-19 was 2.98 per ...

  16. Linguistic Imperialism: African Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Responds to an article on aspects of African language policy and discusses the following issues: multilingualism and monolingualism, proposed changes in language policy from the Organization for African Unity and South African initiatives, the language of literature, bilingual education, and whose interests English-language teaching is serving.…

  17. Study on Perception of Potential Condom Use among Unmarried Migrants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan SHEN; Chao-hua LOU; Er-sheng GAO; Ye-lin XU; Ling ZHANG

    2003-01-01

    Objective To understand the perception of potential condom use and its influencing factors so as to promote condom use among unmarried migrantsMethod A survey, using self-administered structured anonymous questionnaire, was conducted among 1 092 unmarried migrants aged 15~24 years old in urban area of Shanghai.Results The unmarried migrants had some knowledge of condom. However, their knowledge level and their attitude towards condom use were not so optimistic. Subjects' knowledge of contraceptives and STD/AIDS had a positive influe, nce on their attitude toward condom use. Subjects with positive attitude to condom use were more likely to use condom in sexual activity (OR=l.61).Conclusion Unmarried migrants have lower rate of condom use if they have insufficient knowledge of condom. Therefore, it is essential to strengthen the sexual health education among unmarried sex-active migrants in order to encourage contraceptive use, especially condom use.

  18. Сoping with stress in migrant workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granskaya J.V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Migration is an objective process in Russia as worldwide. It has always existed and played an important role in human history. The problem of migrant workers is acute in Russia, because it borders on 18 countries. The collapse of the USSR severely damaged the economy of many former socialist republics. Consequently, people who cannot find employment in their country are forced to migrate to Russia to earn money. Most migrant workers face social, economic and psychological problems. Often, lack of social skills adds more problems to their everyday life difficulties. These things cause stress reactions and slow down their adaptation process. On the other hand, one of the most difficult things for migrants is negative attitudes they encounter as newcomers. People around often associate migrants with illegal work, crime and terrorism. On a regular basis, media report about crimes committed by migrants.

  19. Communicating complexity: Integrated assessment of trade-offs concerning soil fertility management within African farming systems to support innovation and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Tittonell, P.A.; Rufino, M.C.; Wijk, van M.T.; Zingore, S.; Mapfumo, P.; Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Herrero, M.; Chikowo, R.; Corbeels, M.; Rowe, E.C.; Baijukya, F.P.; Mwijage, A.; Smith, J.; Yeboah, E.; Burg, van der W.J.; Sanogo, O.; Misiko, M.; Ridder, de N.; Karanja, S.; Kaizzi, C.K.; K'ungu, J.; Mwale, M.; Nwaga, D.; Pacini, C.; Vanlauwe, B.

    2011-01-01

    African farming systems are highly heterogeneous: between agroecological and socioeconomic environments, in the wide variability in farmers’ resource endowments and in farm management. This means that single solutions (or ‘silver bullets’) for improving farm productivity do not exist. Yet to date fe

  20. Different methodological approaches to the assessment of in vivo efficacy of three artemisinin-based combination antimalarial treatments for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in African children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongo Issaka

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of different methods for assessing the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination antimalarial treatments (ACTs will result in different estimates being reported, with implications for changes in treatment policy. Methods Data from different in vivo studies of ACT treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria were combined in a single database. Efficacy at day 28 corrected by PCR genotyping was estimated using four methods. In the first two methods, failure rates were calculated as proportions with either (1a reinfections excluded from the analysis (standard WHO per-protocol analysis or (1b reinfections considered as treatment successes. In the second two methods, failure rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier product limit formula using either (2a WHO (2001 definitions of failure, or (2b failure defined using parasitological criteria only. Results Data analysed represented 2926 patients from 17 studies in nine African countries. Three ACTs were studied: artesunate-amodiaquine (AS+AQ, N = 1702, artesunate-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS+SP, N = 706 and artemether-lumefantrine (AL, N = 518. Using method (1a, the day 28 failure rates ranged from 0% to 39.3% for AS+AQ treatment, from 1.0% to 33.3% for AS+SP treatment and from 0% to 3.3% for AL treatment. The median [range] difference in point estimates between method 1a (reference and the others were: (i method 1b = 1.3% [0 to24.8], (ii method 2a = 1.1% [0 to21.5], and (iii method 2b = 0% [-38 to19.3]. The standard per-protocol method (1a tended to overestimate the risk of failure when compared to alternative methods using the same endpoint definitions (methods 1b and 2a. It either overestimated or underestimated the risk when endpoints based on parasitological rather than clinical criteria were applied. The standard method was also associated with a 34% reduction in the number of patients evaluated compared to the number of patients enrolled. Only 2% of the sample size

  1. Migrant Labor, Unemployment and Optimal Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana Viasu

    2014-01-01

    One of the arguments against migrant labor is that it has negative ef- fect on the employment of domestic labor. The question is now if the immigration has also negative effects on the other variables of the econ- omy. To examine these effects we develop an optimal growth model with migration and unemployment and then we analyze these effects, restricting our analysis to the steady state. We introduce a simplify- ing hypothesis concerning the skill level of human capital. We assume that the a...

  2. Acculturation of Iranian Migrants in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad T. Iman

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The acculturation process of Iranian immigrants to Australian society was examined. The subjects were 250 Iranian migrants who were living in Sydney during the study. Each completed a questionnaire with fourfold acculturation scales: assimilation, separation, integration and marginalization. Education appeared to be positively correlated with integration, assimilation and marginalization, suggesting that educated individuals may not only develop high integration and assimilation tendencies, but also a high tendency of marginalization. This finding goes against the findings of other studies with respect to the development of marginalization attitudes.

  3. National Migrant Education Program: Reading Skills--English (Programa Nacional de Educacion Migrante: Destrezas de Lectura--Espanol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979

    Used as an integral part of the migrant student skills system operated by the Migrant Student Record Transfer System (MSRTS), the reading skills list contains a catalog of reading skills typical of the K-12 grade range. This catalog includes a sample of the MSRTS transmittal record which permits teachers to report the reading skills being worked…

  4. California Master Plan for Migrant Education, 1976 Edition (Plan Maestro de California para Educacion Migrante, Edicion de 1976).

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Div. of Compensatory Education.

    Based on the national migrant education plan, California's master plan aims to mobilize the necessary State and Federal resources, and to unify and assist the efforts of local educational agencies to end the migrant child's failure in school. The plan includes provisions for: instructional activities on a regular and extended year basis designed…

  5. Prevalence of Chagas disease in Latin-American migrants living in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Requena-Méndez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have assessed the burden of Chagas disease in non-endemic countries and most of them are based on prevalence estimates from Latin American (LA countries that likely differ from the prevalence in migrants living in Europe. The aim of this study was to systematically review the existing data informing current understanding of the prevalence of Chagas disease in LA migrants living in European countries.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting prevalence of Chagas disease in European countries belonging to the European Union (EU before 2004 in accordance with the MOOSE guidelines and based on the database sources MEDLINE and Global Health. No restrictions were placed on study date, study design or language of publication. The pooled prevalence was estimated using random effect models based on DerSimonian & Laird method.We identified 18 studies conducted in five European countries. The random effect pooled prevalence was 4.2% (95%CI:2.2-6.7%; and the heterogeneity of Chagas disease prevalence among studies was high (I2 = 97%,p<0.001. Migrants from Bolivia had the highest prevalence of Chagas disease (18.1%, 95%CI:13.9-22.7%.Prevalence of Chagas in LA migrants living in Europe is high, particularly in migrants from Bolivia and Paraguay. Data are highly heterogeneous dependent upon country of origin and within studies of migrants from the same country of origin. Country-specific prevalence differs from the estimates available from LA countries. Our meta-analysis provides prevalence estimates of Chagas disease that should be used to estimate the burden of disease in European countries.

  6. Sediment-hosted stratabound copper assessment of the Neoproterozoic Roan Group, central African copperbelt, Katanga Basin, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia: Chapter T in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Bliss, James D.; Broughton, David W.; Christie, Michael; Denning, Paul D.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Hitzman, Murray W.; Horton, John D.; Frost-Killian, Susan; Jack, Douglas J.; Master, Sharad; Parks, Heather L.; Taylor, Cliff D.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Woodhead, Jon

    2014-01-01

    This study estimates the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered copper in stratabound deposits within the Neoproterozoic Roan Group of the Katanga Basin in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia. The study area encompasses the Central African Copperbelt, the greatest sediment-hosted copper-cobalt province in the world, containing 152 million metric tons of copper in greater than 80 deposits. This study (1) delineates permissive areas (tracts) where undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits may occur within 2 kilometers of the surface, (2) provides a database of known sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits and prospects, (3) estimates numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provides probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The assessment, conducted in January 2010 using a three-part form of mineral resource assessment, indicates that a substantial amount of undiscovered copper resources might occur in sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits within the Roan Group in the Katanga Basin. Monte Carlo simulation results that combine grade and tonnage models with estimates of undiscovered deposits indicate that the mean estimate of undiscovered copper in the study area is 168 million metric tons, which is slightly greater than the known resources at 152 million metric tons. Furthermore, significant value can be expected from associated metals, particularly cobalt. Tracts in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) have potential to contain near-surface, undiscovered deposits. Monte Carlo simulation results indicate a mean value of 37 million metric tons of undiscovered copper may be present in significant prospects.

  7. End-of-life experiences and expectations of Africans in Australia: cultural implications for palliative and hospice care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiruy, Kiros; Mwanri, Lillian

    2014-03-01

    The ageing and frail migrants who are at the end of life are an increasing share of migrants living in Australia. However, within such populations, information about end-of-life experiences is limited, particularly among Africans. This article provides some insights into the sociocultural end-of-life experiences of Africans in Australia and their interaction with the health services in general and end-of-life care in particular. It provides points for discussion to consider an ethical framework that include Afro-communitarian ethical principles to enhance the capacity of current health services to provide culturally appropriate and ethical care. This article contributes to our knowledge regarding the provision of culturally appropriate and ethical care to African patients and their families by enabling the learning of health service providers to improve the competence of palliative care systems and professionals in Australia. Additionally, it initiates the discussion to highlight the importance of paying sufficient attention to a diverse range of factors including the migration history when providing palliative and hospice care for patients from African migrant populations.

  8. Epidemiology of Substance Use among Forced Migrants: A Global Systematic Review.

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    Danielle Horyniak

    Full Text Available Forced migration is occurring at unprecedented levels. Forced migrants may be at risk for substance use for reasons including coping with traumatic experiences, co-morbid mental health disorders, acculturation challenges and social and economic inequality. This paper aimed to systematically review the literature examining substance use among forced migrants, and identify priority areas for intervention and future research.Seven medical, allied health and social science databases were searched from inception to September 2015 in accordance with PRISMA guidelines to identify original peer-reviewed articles describing any findings relating to alcohol and/or illicit drug use among refugees, internally displaced people (IDPs, asylum seekers, people displaced by disasters and deportees. A descriptive synthesis of evidence from quantitative studies was conducted, focusing primarily on studies which used validated measures of substance use. Synthesis of evidence from qualitative studies focused on identifying prominent themes relating to the contexts and consequences of substance use. Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP checklists were used to assess methodological quality of included studies.Forty-four quantitative (82% cross-sectional, 16 qualitative and three mixed-methods studies were included. Ten studies were rated as high methodological quality (16%, 39 as moderate quality (62% and 14 as low quality (22%. The majority of research was conducted among refugees, IDPs and asylum seekers (n = 55, 87%, predominantly in high-income settings. The highest-quality prevalence estimates of hazardous/harmful alcohol use ranged from 17%-36% in camp settings and 4%-7% in community settings. Few studies collected validated measures of illicit drug use. Seven studies compared substance use among forced migrants to other migrant or native-born samples. Among eight studies which conducted multivariable analysis, male sex, trauma exposure and symptoms of

  9. Characteristics and determinants of sexual behavior among adolescents of migrant workers in Shangai (China

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    Xu Gang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background China is facing a critical challenge of rapid and widespread human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS increase. Rural-to-urban migration plays a crucial role in shifting the HIV/sexual transmitted infection (STI epidemic. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of sexual behaviors and the correlates among the early adolescents of migrant workers in China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 junior high schools from April to June of 2008. A total of 2821 adolescents aged 14.06 ± 0.93 years (8.9% of migrant workers vs. 91.1% of general residents participated in the survey. A self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect information on knowledge, attitude, and behaviors associated with increased risk for HIV/STI. Results The percentage of adolescents who ever had sexual intercourse or had sexual intercourse in last three months was 7.2% and 4.3% in adolescents of migrant workers, respectively; in contrast, 4.5% and 1.8% in their peers of general residents, respectively. 47.3% adolescents of migrant workers and 34.3% of those adolescents of general residents reported no condom use in sexual intercourse during last three months. Multivariate logistic regression analyses found that migration was a independent risk factor for sexual intercourse in last three months in our sampled adolescents (odds ratio [OR] = 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01–1.72. In adolescents of migrant workers, factors such as lower family income (OR: 2.22, CI: 1.09–3.05 for low level; OR:1.25, CI: 1.04–1.59 for medium level, younger age at first sexual intercourse (OR: 1.24, CI: 1.09–1.57, lower knowledge on HIV/AIDS (OR: 0.93, CI: 0.90–0.97, and fewer communication on HIV/AIDS related issues (OR: 0.79, CI: 0.90–0.97 were related to sexual intercourse in last three months. Conclusion Based on these results, we advocated that heightened concerns targeting the

  10. Cardiovascular Disease in South Asian Migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Eshan; Razak, Fahad; Lear, Scott A; Anand, Sonia S

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents a significant cause of global mortality and morbidity. South Asians (SAs) have a particularly high burden of coronary artery disease (CAD). This review describes current literature regarding the prevalence, incidence, etiology, and prognosis of CVD in SA migrants to high-income nations. We conducted a narrative review of CVD in the SA diaspora through a search of MEDLINE and PubMed. We included observational studies, randomized clinical trials, nonsystematic reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses written in English. Of 15,231 articles identified, 827 articles were screened and 124 formed the basis for review. SA migrants have a 1.5-2 times greater prevalence of CAD than age- and sex-adjusted Europids. Increased abdominal obesity and body fat and increased burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia appear to be primary drivers of the excess CAD burden in SAs. Sedentary lifestyle and changes in diet after immigration are important contributors to weight gain and adiposity. Early life factors, physical activity patterns and, in some cases, reduced adherence to medical therapy may contribute to increased CVD risks in SAs. Novel biomarkers like leptin and adipokines may show distinct patterns in SAs and provide insights into cardiometabolic risk determinants. In conclusion, SAs have distinct CVD risk predispositions, with a complex relationship to cultural, innate, and acquired factors. Although CVD risk factor management and treatment among SAs is improving, opportunities exist for further advances. PMID:26321436

  11. International Legal Realities of Migrant Labour Rights

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    Giovanni Di Lieto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the evolutionary process of the global governance of labour migration, which has led to the progressive privatisation and commodification of international labour mobility. The focus is on the effects of such change on working conditions for migrants. In particular, the analysis is concerned with legal conceptualisations of labour mobility and their repercussions on the normative process of migration governance. For people on the move, the journey almost always entails sacrifices and uncertainty. The possible costs range from the emotional cost of separation from families and friends to high monetary fees. The stakes can include the physical dangers of working in dangerous occupations, or even a risk of death, such as in the case of illegal border crossings. Nevertheless, millions of people are still attempting movement, facing these costs or risks, in order to improve their living standards and those of their families. The implications for international human rights law are striking. Thus, attention is drawn to the human rights of all migrant workers, and more specifically to the protection and development of basic labour rights in the framework of international organisations. Ultimately, the main point of this study is to evaluate to what extent the freedom to choose where to work and to do so in decent conditions is a current legal reality at both the national and international levels.

  12. Assessing the impact of climate change on water resources in a tropical West African catchment using an ensemble of CORDEX climate simulations (Dano, Burkina Faso)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yira, Yacouba; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Steup, Gero; Yaovi Bossa, Aymar

    2016-04-01

    This study assesses the potential impact of climate change on water resources in the Dano catchment (Burkina Faso, West Africa). There is now essential consensus on the importance of performing multi (climate)-model assessments in order to estimate the response of the West African climate to global change. Taking advantage of the results of the COordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX-Africa) project, this study evaluates climate change impacts on water resources using an ensemble of six Regional Climate Models (RCMs) in a catchment that is potentially vulnerable to climate change and presents a low adaptive capacity. The ensemble of RCMs was first evaluated to get an estimate of the historical simulated rainfall for the catchment by comparing RCM-based simulated historical rainfall to the observed rainfall data provided by the National Meteorological Service (DGM). In general, the simulated historical rainfall agrees within some degree of variability with the observed rainfall in regard to the mean annual cycle of precipitation. However, significant biases such as a double-peaked rainy season as well as the timing of the rainy season were exhibited by individual RCMs. A statistical bias correction (Quantile mapping) was then applied to the RCM-based simulated daily rainfall for the overlapping period of 1971-2000. The results confirm the effectiveness of the applied bias correction method for rainfall. Temperature and bias corrected rainfall data from the ensemble of RCMs was used as input for the Water flow and balance Simulation Model (WaSiM) to simulate river discharge, soil moisture, evapotranspiration and groundwater depth. To take into account the concern of the potential alteration of the climate change signal due to bias correction, uncorrected climate data for a single RCM was also applied to the hydrological model. The simulated hydrological variables show a similar behavior under observed and bias corrected climate data for the

  13. Organochlorine pollutants and stable isotopes in resident and migrant passerine birds from northwest Michoacán, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Miguel A

    2008-10-01

    Although concentrations of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in birds from most of the United States and Canada have decreased over the last 30 years, there is still concern that migrant birds might be exposed to elevated concentrations of OCs during migration in Latin America. The Lerma-Chapala Basin in west-central Mexico is an important migration corridor and wintering area for many species. The objectives of this study were to assess if resident and migrant birds wintering in western Michoacán, Mexico accumulated elevated concentrations of OCs during fall and spring and to determine if the stable isotopes delta(15)N, delta(13)C, and deltaD could be used to predict burdens and origins of DDE accumulation. Resident and migrant passerine insectivorous birds were collected during fall and spring (2001-2002) in northwest Michoacán, near Chapala Lake, Mexico. The carcasses were analyzed for OCs and tail feathers were analyzed for stable isotopes delta(15)N, delta(13)C, and deltaD. The OCs detected in more than 50% of the samples were: oxychlordane (79%), p,p'-DDE (100%), p,p'-DDT (57%), and total PCBs (100%). p,p'-DDE was the OC detected at the highest concentrations, whereas residues of other OCs were near or below detection limits. Overall, there were no significant differences in concentrations of OCs between seasons or between resident and migrant birds. Concentrations of DDE and oxychlordane were somewhat higher in migrant and resident birds during spring than in fall; however, concentrations were significantly different only for oxychlordane. Two resident birds collected in fall and spring had DDE residues >10 microg/g wet weight in carcass. There were no significant differences in delta(13)C and delta(15)N values among species, between seasons, or between migrant and resident birds. However, deltaD values were clearly different between species and helped differentiate migrant from resident birds. deltaD values also were negatively and significantly correlated

  14. Sociodemographic characteristics of the elderly forced migrants in Serbia

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    Lukić Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the needs and rights of older migrants, migration history is particularly important where the elderly forced migrants are twice as vulnerable. Bearing in mind the intense process of population aging in Serbia which holds the attention of scientists and experts, and the large number of refugees who immigrated in the 90-ies from the former Yugoslav republics, selected sociodemographic structures of the elderly forced migrants in Serbia were analyzed as well as the relevant legal and strategic framework. The aim was to contribute to increasing knowledge of the demographic challenges of this subpopulation of forced migrants, as well as the differences relative to the domicile aging population. The data used in this study included a contingent of forced migrants aged 65 and over, on the basis of additionally processed Census data from 2011, based on questions about the place of birth of the person, year of arrival, the country in which the person lived and the reasons for migration. Hence, the category which is the subject of research, is not defined on the basis of formal refugee status. A comparison of selected sociodemographic characteristics was made in relation to the domicile population, which in the paper means the population of Serbia without forced migrants. The research results indicate that older forced migrants in Serbia have characteristics of the general population of older people in Serbia. Their age gender and marital structures are relatively similar. Most older women are widows who are heads of households, while a significant number are persons with disabilities as well. However, the process of aging of the elderly, present within the local population has not affected forced migrants yet, so this population is to some extent more vital. Data on the economic activity of the elderly forced migrants in Serbia point out to the lack of income as the main problem they are faced with. Older forced migrants are

  15. Young FSU Migrants in Germany: Educational Attainment and Early Labor Market Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Flake, Regina

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the educational attainment and early labor market outcomes of young migrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) who arrived in Germany between 1989 and 1994. The results reveal that migrants have lower educational attainments than natives, and that within the group of migrants, Jewish migrants perform better than ethnic German migrants. A decomposition analysis reveals that this competitive edge can, for the most part, be explained by a higher socioeconomic background. In ...

  16. Partnership dynamics among migrants and their descendants in Estonia

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    Leen Rahnu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extensive scholarly literature documents the decline in marriage and increase in non-marital cohabitation and divorce across regions and countries of Europe, but we know less about the extent to which these new family behaviours that have emerged in host societies are adopted by migrants. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine partnership transitions among the migrants and their descendants in Estonia, who mainly originate from the European part of Russia. By investigating an East European context, the study contributes to a more comprehensive account of migrant populations in different socio-economic and cultural settings. Methods: The study is based on the Estonian Generations and Gender Survey (2004/2005 and the Estonian Family and Fertility Survey (1994/1997, and employs proportional hazards models. Results: The results show that new family formation patterns, associated with the Second Demographic Transition, are less prevalent among migrants. The difference between migrants and native Estonians is most pronounced in the mode of partnership formation and outcomes of cohabiting unions, whereas the results pertaining to union dissolution reveal a less systematic difference between population groups. Reflecting the relatively slow integration, the second-generation migrants exhibit partnership behaviour that differs from that of the native population. The observed differences between migrants and the native population appear largely similar for both men and women. Conclusions: The results lend support to socialisation, cultural maintenance, and adaptation hypotheses, and underscore the importance of contextual factors. The analysis reveals disruption effects of migration on partnership processes.

  17. Empirical Study on Online Political Participation of Young Migrant Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; KANG; Jianbin; FANG

    2015-01-01

    Popularization of network technology and development of online political participation expand approaches of young migrant workers participating in political affairs and raise interest and ability of young migrant workers participating in political affairs. Through questionnaire of young migrant workers participating in political affairs in Xi’an,Xianyang and Yangling,the survey team found that political participation of young migrant workers takes on following characteristics: active and positive online political concern,passive and profit seeking online political expression,and claim of right. Besides,online political participation of young migrant workers is related to region,cultural level,and occupation,but not related with their political status. Based on this survey,it came up with recommendations: governments at all levels should strengthen network information construction,carry out theoretical and practical training for online political participation of young migrant workers,establish online political participation government feedback mechanism and enhance party organization construction,and bring into play the lead model role of party members of young migrant workers in online political participation.

  18. Towards a European Framework to Monitor Infectious Diseases among Migrant Populations: Design and Applicability

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    Flavia Riccardo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There are limitations in our capacity to interpret point estimates and trends of infectious diseases occurring among diverse migrant populations living in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA. The aim of this study was to design a data collection framework that could capture information on factors associated with increased risk to infectious diseases in migrant populations in the EU/EEA. The authors defined factors associated with increased risk according to a multi-dimensional framework and performed a systematic literature review in order to identify whether those factors well reflected the reported risk factors for infectious disease in these populations. Following this, the feasibility of applying this framework to relevant available EU/EEA data sources was assessed. The proposed multidimensional framework is well suited to capture the complexity and concurrence of these risk factors and in principle applicable in the EU/EEA. The authors conclude that adopting a multi-dimensional framework to monitor infectious diseases could favor the disaggregated collection and analysis of migrant health data.

  19. Impact of Postmigration Living Difficulties on the Mental Health of Afghan Migrants Residing in Istanbul

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    Qais Alemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The sociopolitical situation in Afghanistan continually pushes Afghans to seek safety and better socioeconomic prospects in neighboring and foreign countries. In this paper we examine the mental health of Afghan migrants residing in Istanbul, Turkey, an understudied population at high risk of psychopathology. Methods. We surveyed 158 Afghan migrants to assess psychological distress using a culturally grounded measure of mental health, the Afghan Symptom Checklist [ASCL], and used hierarchical regression analysis to examine the impact of postmigration living difficulties (PMLDs on mental health. Results. We found that depressive, somatoform, anxiety-like symptoms occurred often, as did a number of culturally salient idioms of distress. Regression analyses showed that while socioeconomic variables and poor physical health status significantly predicted psychological distress, PMLDs exerted the strongest negative effect. The most pressing PMLDs for Afghans in Turkey are poverty, unemployment, lack of treatment for health problems, fears of being deported and related legal challenges, and family-related stressors. Conclusion. Our results point to the importance of the critical need to create culturally sensitive interventions to remediate high levels of psychological distress by addressing related PMLD stressors in a highly vulnerable Afghan migrant population residing in Turkey.

  20. Influence of the late winter bloom on migrant zooplankton metabolism and its implications on export fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzeys, S.; Yebra, L.; Almeida, C.; Bécognée, P.; Hernández-León, S.

    2011-12-01

    Studies on carbon active fluxes due to diel migrants are scarce and critical for carbon flux models and biogeochemical estimates. We studied the temporal variability and vertical distribution of biomass, indices of feeding and respiration of the zooplanktonic community north off the Canary Islands during the end of the late winter bloom, in order to assess vertical carbon fluxes in this area. Biomass distribution during the day presented two dense layers of organisms at 0-200 m and around 500 m, whereas at night, most of the biomass concentrated in the epipelagic layer. The gut pigment flux (0.05-0.18 mgC·m - 2 ·d - 1 ) represented 0.22% of the estimated passive export flux (POC flux) while potential ingestion represented 3.91% of the POC (1.24-3.40 mgC·m - 2 ·d - 1 ). The active respiratory flux (0.50-1.36 mgC·m - 2 ·d - 1 ) was only 1.57% of the POC flux. The total carbon flux mediated by diel migrants (respiration plus potential ingestion) ranged between 3.37 and 9.22% of the POC flux; which is three-fold higher than calculating ingestion fluxes from gut pigments. Our results suggest that the fluxes by diel migrants play a small role in the downward flux of carbon in the open ocean during the post-bloom period.

  1. Determinants of health in recently arrived young migrants and refugees: a review of the literature

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    Eva Pfarrwaller

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: adolescent migrants are in a state of double vulnerability because of their age and migration experience. The purpose of this review was to identify risk and protective factors serving as a base for health promotion of young recent migrants.

    Methods: we assessed 95 papers identified through a MEDLINE search. Thirty-five papers were retained for review and analysed within the following themes: general health, mental health, cigarette smoking and sexual health.

    Results: young migrants’ health was considered good at arrival, but deteriorated with length of stay due to factors linked to migration. Mental health was determined by pre-migration factors, such as violence, and was strongly related to post-migration factors, such as asylum procedures, discrimination and low socio-economic status. Social support and family cohesion were identified as protective factors. We found a lack in epidemiologic data about tobacco use and sexual health issues. Results from North America indicated less frequent smoking in certain groups of immigrants. Some data suggested more frequent teenage pregnancies and abortions in young refugee women as compared to the host population. We also found some evidence about increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS in certain immigrant populations.

    Conclusions: migrant adolescents are generally healthy at arrival. The migration process and social inequalities after arrival influence their long-term health. A comprehensive approach to health promotion is necessary, taking into account risk and protective factors. More research is needed, in order to obtain more specific epidemiologic data about adolescent migrants, as well as longitudinal and qualitative data.

  2. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Migrants Participating in the PEP Family Heart Study, Nuremberg

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    Gerda-Maria Haas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of cardiovascularrisk factors in adults and their children from the 3 majorgroups of migrants participating in the PEP Family Heart Study 11 andto compare the cardio-metabolic risk profiles between migrants andGerman participants.Methods: In this community-based cross-sectional study, anthropometricdata, blood pressure and lipid profiles of migrants (480 children,363 adults from Turkey (TUR, Eastern Europe (EEU and Germanimmigrants from the former Soviet Union (GFSU were comparedwith age- and gender adjusted German (GER residents (3253 children,2491 adults.Results: The profile of risk factors differed considerably regardingspecificity and frequency. The prevalence of ≥3 risk factors was asfollows: in GFSU men 62%, women 36%, boys 19% and girls 17%; inTUR men 57%, women 30%, 15% boys and 6% girls; in GER men48%, women 19%, boys 4% and girls 6%; for EEU men 38%, women25% and 0% in children. No risk factor was present in GFSU men13%, women 25%, boys 38% and girls 42%; TUR men 13%, women28%, boys 27% and girls 22 %; GER men16%, women 45%, boys 46%and girls 41%; EEU men 17%, women 42 %, boys 29% and girls 27%.About 50% of the adults from Turkey and Eastern Europe were currentsmokers and one third of women and half of men from these twocountries were overweight.Conclusions: The implementation of primary care measures for theprevention of cardiovascular disease in migrants is necessary, and itshould consider the ethnic differences and the heterogeneous risk profiles

  3. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in migrants participating in the PEP family heart study, Nuremberg

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    Gerda-Maria Haas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in adults and their children from the 3 major groups of migrants participating in the PEP Family Heart Study [11] and to compare the cardio-metabolic risk profiles between migrants and German participants. Methods: In this community-based cross-sectional study, anthropometric data, blood pressure and lipid profiles of migrants (480 children, 363 adults from Turkey (TUR, Eastern Europe (EEU and German immigrants from the former Soviet Union (GFSU were compared with age and gender adjusted German (GER resi-dents (3253 children, 2491 adults. Results: The profile of risk factors differed considerably regarding specificity and frequency. The prevalence of ≥3 risk factors was as follows: in GFSU men 62%, women 36%, boys 19% and girls 17%; in TUR men 57%, women 30%, 15% boys and 6% girls; in GER men 48%, women 19%, boys 4% and girls 6%; for EEU men 38%, women 25% and 0% in children. No risk factor was present in GFSU men 13%, women 25%, boys 38% and girls 42%; TUR men 13%, women 28%, boys 27% and girls 22 %; GER men16%, women 45%, boys 46% and girls 41%; EEU men 17%, women 42 %, boys 29% and girls 27%. About 50% of the adults from Turkey and Eastern Europe were current smokers and one third of women and half of men from these two countries were over-weight. Conclusions: The implementation of primary care measures for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in migrants is necessary, and it should consider the ethnic differences and the heterogene-ous risk profiles.

  4. Overweight and obesity at school entry among migrant and German children: a cross-sectional study

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    Zeeb Hajo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity have become a global epidemic and are increasing rapidly in both childhood and adolescence. Obesity is linked both to socioeconomic status and to ethnicity among adults. It is unclear whether similar associations exist in childhood. The aim of the present study was to assess differences in overweight and obesity in migrant and German children at school entry. Methods The body mass index (BMI was calculated for 525 children attending the 2002 compulsory pre-school medical examinations in 12 schools in Bielefeld, Germany. We applied international BMI cut off points for overweight and obesity by sex and age. The migration status of children was based on sociodemographic data obtained from parents who were interviewed separately. Results The overall prevalence of overweight in children aged 6–7 was 11.9% (overweight incl. obesity, the obesity prevalence was 2.5%. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher for migrant children (14.7% and 3.1% than for German children (9.1% and 1.9%. When stratified by parental social status, migrant children had a significantly higher prevalence of overweight than German children in the highest social class. (27.6% vs. 10.0%, p = 0.032 Regression models including country/region and socioeconomic status as independent variables indicated similar results. The patterns of overweight among migrant children differed only slightly depending on duration of stay of their family in Germany. Conclusion Our data indicate that children from ethnic minorities in Germany are more frequently overweight or obese than German children. Social class as well as family duration of stay after immigration influence the pattern of overweight and obesity in children at school entry.

  5. Cape Verdean Notions of Migrant Remittances

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    Lisa Åkesson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The transfer of money from migrants to their non-migrant relatives is a key, symbol of the quality and meaning of transnational kinship relations. This article analyses how people in Cape Verde view migrant family members’ economic obligations and it examines the concomitant moral discourse. Through a detailed ethnographic study the article explores how gender and kinship positions interplay with the moral obligation to send remittances, and it also inquires into the differences between rural and urban people’s attitudes towards monetary gifts. Moreover, the importance of the receiver’s status in the local society is discussed and the role of the personal relation between the sender and the receiver. Thus the analysis goes beyond an instrumental and rationalistic approach to remittances, which is common in much research, and explores the significance of this money for emotions and social relations.Para os seus parentes não emigrantes as remessas dos emigrantes são um símbolo chave da qualidade e do significado das relações de parentesco transnacionais. Este artigo analisa como as pessoas em Cabo Verde encaram as obrigações económicas dos emigrantes membros de família e examina o discurso moral concomitante. Através de um estudo etnográfico detalhado o artigo explora como posições de género e parentesco interagem com a obrigação moral de enviar remessas e também investiga as diferenças entre as atitudes das pessoas rurais e urbanas relativamente às ofertas monetárias. Além disso, discute-se a importância do estatuto do receptor na sociedade local e o papel da relação pessoal entre remetente e receptor. Assim, a análise vai além de uma abordagem instrumental e racionalista das remessas, o que é habitual em muitas pesquisas, explorando o significado deste dinheiro em termos de emoções e relações sociais.

  6. Emigration dynamics of eastern African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oucho, J O

    1995-01-01

    This examination of emigration dynamics focuses on 13 countries extending from Eritrea to Zimbabwe and Mozambique on the eastern African mainland and on 5 Indian Ocean island nations. The first part of the study looks at the temporal, spatial, and structural perspectives of emigration dynamics. Part 2 considers international migration in the region according to Appleyard's typology (permanent settlers, labor migration, refugees, and illegal migrants) with the additional category of return migration. Measurement issues in emigration dynamics are discussed in part 3, and the demographic/economic setting is the topic of part 4. The demographic factors emphasized include spatial distribution, population density, population structure, population dynamics, demographic transition, and the relationship between internal and international migration. Other major topics of this section of the study are the economic base, the human resource base, population and natural resources, the sociocultural context (emigration, chain migration, return migration, and migration linkages and networks), political factors (including human rights, minority rights and security, regional integration and economic cooperation, and the impact of structural adjustment programs), and a prediction of future emigration dynamics. It is concluded that refugee flows remain a major factor in eastern African countries but the development of human resources in the northern portion of the region indicates development of potential labor migration from this area. Data constraints have limited measurement of emigration in this region and may contribute to the seeming indifference of most eastern African countries to emigration policies. Emigration in this region has been triggered by deteriorating economic and political conditions and is expected to increase. PMID:12347007

  7. Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Adam R; Boyko, Ryan H; Boyko, Corin M; Parker, Heidi G; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Liz; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D; Auton, Adam; Hedimbi, Marius; Kityo, Robert; Ostrander, Elaine A; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey; Todhunter, Rory J; Jones, Paul; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2009-08-18

    High genetic diversity of East Asian village dogs has recently been used to argue for an East Asian origin of the domestic dog. However, global village dog genetic diversity and the extent to which semiferal village dogs represent distinct, indigenous populations instead of admixtures of various dog breeds has not been quantified. Understanding these issues is critical to properly reconstructing the timing, number, and locations of dog domestication. To address these questions, we sampled 318 village dogs from 7 regions in Egypt, Uganda, and Namibia, measuring genetic diversity >680 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop, 300 SNPs, and 89 microsatellite markers. We also analyzed breed dogs, including putatively African breeds (Afghan hounds, Basenjis, Pharaoh hounds, Rhodesian ridgebacks, and Salukis), Puerto Rican street dogs, and mixed breed dogs from the United States. Village dogs from most African regions appear genetically distinct from non-native breed and mixed-breed dogs, although some individuals cluster genetically with Puerto Rican dogs or United States breed mixes instead of with neighboring village dogs. Thus, African village dogs are a mosaic of indigenous dogs descended from early migrants to Africa, and non-native, breed-admixed individuals. Among putatively African breeds, Pharaoh hounds, and Rhodesian ridgebacks clustered with non-native rather than indigenous African dogs, suggesting they have predominantly non-African origins. Surprisingly, we find similar mtDNA haplotype diversity in African and East Asian village dogs, potentially calling into question the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for dog domestication.

  8. Prevalence of dementia among Kashmiri migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina Sunil

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neurological diseases are common disorders resulting in the loss of productive life and disability. Dementia is becoming a major public health problem in the developing world also. Aim: To ascertain the prevalence of dementia among Kashmiri Pandit population aged 60 years and above. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the elderly population of the Kashmiris living in a migrant camp. We developed and used a Kashmiri version of the Mini-Mental State Examination as the test instrument, and a score below 24 was considered indicative of dementia. A functional ability questionnaire was also administered to the subjects. A neurologist carried out the examinations. Results: A sample comprising 200 subjects (95 males and 105 females were evaluated. The prevalence of dementia is 6.5% among the Kashmiri Pandit population aged 60 years and above, which is higher than that reported from other parts of India.

  9. Establishing a Tradition of Migrant Brides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Michael

    2015-01-01

    as prostitutes in military brothels. The specific historical situation generated conditions that fostered large scale adolescent prostitution among aborigines in the 1970s and 80s. (Rudolph 1993). The phenomenon of cross-ethnic marriage and the large-scale procurement of ethnically different women for matrimony...... 1949 assisted the development of the migrant bride phenomenon in the 1960s. Catalytic, however, was the desperate situation of the marginalized Mainlander veterans who bought ethnically different wives for matrimony. Similarly, the development of large-scale cross-border and cross-ethnic marriage as we...... observe it on the island today is enhanced by the disadvantaged position of certain marginalized groups of men in Taiwan, i.e., especially Mainlander veterans who are in need of care in their old age, as well as peasants and fishermen who live in marginalised areas and who are forced to seek their wives...

  10. Meeting the Needs of Migrant Students in Schoolwide Programs. Technical Report of the Congressionally Mandated Study of Migrant Student Participation in Schoolwide Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, Amy; Stolzberg, Simeon; von Glatz, Adrienne; Strang, William

    In response to a legislative mandate, this report examines the ways in which migrant students are served in schoolwide program schools and the involvement of migrant representatives and migrant program staff in the schoolwide process. A survey was sent to a nationally representative sample (696) of the 2,770 Title I schools that implemented the…

  11. Sistema de Transferencia de Archivos para Estudiantes Migrantes: Un Mejor Entendimiento para Padres. (Migrant Student Record Transfer System: A Better Understanding for Parents).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Senaida I.

    When migrant children are enrolled in the Migrant Education Program, they are also enrolled in the Migrant Student Record Transfer System (MSRTS), a national system which accumulates educational and health information for each child on a computer located in Little Rock, Arkansas. The system affords teachers the opportunity to review the records,…

  12. [Intercultural aspects of medical care for undocumented migrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda-Hegerl, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    In view of the cultural diversity in German society today, the time has long since come when medical care must adjust to its new clientele. This article provides an overview for doctors, medical personnel and psychologists of approaches, backgrounds and networks of migration to Germany, in particular over the little known undocumented migration. This migration has steadily increased in recent years. The author deals with the circumstances which create psychological problems for migrants and what happens when migrants living in this shadow world fall ill. In addition, the article offers an agenda for interculturally competent action in caring for documented and undocumented migrants. Dimensions of cultural differences such as collectivism versus individualism (most of the countries of origin of these migrants in Germany with or without documents are collectivistic) are explained along with differences in styles of communication. The following styles with their impact in actual practice are analyzed: indirect versus direct communication; emotional control versus expressiveness; functionalism versus relationship orientation. PMID:18421653

  13. Selective immigration policies, migrants' education and welfare at origin

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoli, Simone; Brücker, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    Destination countries are progressively shifting towards selective immigration policies. These can effectively increase migrants' average education even if one allows for endogenous schooling decisions and education policies at origin. Still, more selective immigration policies reduce social welfare at origin.

  14. The Global Crisis’ Impact upon China’s Rural Migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hsu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Towards the end of 2008, as the world economy slowed and export-demand declined due to the global financial crisis, news reports began to appear detailing the return of rural migrants in China to their provincial homes. It was reported that 20 million rural migrant workers were laid off, and social instability rose due to both economic hardship and to the withholding of the payment of wages. Over time, these circumstances have changed, due to both the Chinese government’s fiscal stimulus package and to those programmes that have been targeted specifically at assisting the country’s rural migrants. As a result, the situation for rural migrants is no longer dire; circumstances have been greatly ameliorated by proactive government policies. To confirm these results, in this paper we look both at the situation across China and briefly at a study carried out in Sichuan province.

  15. “Making Connection”: Indonesian Migrant Entrepreneurial Strategies in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf YUNIARTO

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the function of network as a tool of problem solving in Indonesian migrant entrepreneurship escaping labor market challenges and social-cultural adjustment process in Taiwan. As the essential key to social mobility of migrant, networks is considered not only used as a migrant strategic survival, but may help them get resources to spur entrepreneurship. By cohesive personal/social networks with local fellow or nationals and using social media, it facilitated the entrepreneur’s to capital, support (mentoring, knowledge (access to sufficient capital and a reliable supply and customer. In case social network Indonesian entrepreneur in Taiwan is formed through personal or group migrant ties, religion, ethnic and hometown, or group association depends home base city where they work.

  16. [Intercultural aspects of medical care for undocumented migrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda-Hegerl, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    In view of the cultural diversity in German society today, the time has long since come when medical care must adjust to its new clientele. This article provides an overview for doctors, medical personnel and psychologists of approaches, backgrounds and networks of migration to Germany, in particular over the little known undocumented migration. This migration has steadily increased in recent years. The author deals with the circumstances which create psychological problems for migrants and what happens when migrants living in this shadow world fall ill. In addition, the article offers an agenda for interculturally competent action in caring for documented and undocumented migrants. Dimensions of cultural differences such as collectivism versus individualism (most of the countries of origin of these migrants in Germany with or without documents are collectivistic) are explained along with differences in styles of communication. The following styles with their impact in actual practice are analyzed: indirect versus direct communication; emotional control versus expressiveness; functionalism versus relationship orientation.

  17. ACCOUNTING FOR GENDER IN TEACHING CHILDREN FROM MIGRANT FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ivanovna SUROVTSOVA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Training and education of children from migrant families. Accounting gender differences will help teaching em-ployees to take into account these nuances in multina-tional school collectives.

  18. Sector Organization, Governance, and the Inefficiency of African Water Utilities

    OpenAIRE

    Estache, Antonio; Kouassi, Eugene

    2002-01-01

    The authors analyze the determinants of the efficiency levels reached by twenty one African water utilities. They assess efficiency through the estimation of a production frontier for the sector in Africa. The efficiency estimates confirm much of the common perceptions from partial productivity indicators. They point to a great heterogeneity in the African water utilities' performances, th...

  19. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  20. Cancer incidence among 1st generation migrants compared to native Danes--a retrospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørredam, Marie Louise; Krasnik, A; Pipper, C;

    2007-01-01

    had a significantly lower incidence. All migrants had a significantly lower incidence of breast and colorectal cancer but male migrants from East Europe had a significantly higher incidence of lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The overall cancer incidence among migrants was lower compared to native Danes....... The cohort was linked to the Danish Cancer Register and cancer cases among migrants (n=537) and native Danes (n=2829) were identified. RESULTS: The overall cancer incidence did not differ significantly between migrants from East Europe and native Danes; whereas migrants from the Middle East and North Africa......STUDY AIMS: To investigate the incidence of cancer among 1st generation migrants compared to native Danes, including time trends in the risk of cancer among migrants. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study design. Migrants were matched 1:4 on age and sex with a Danish born reference population...

  1. Desnutrición en prescolares de familias migrantes

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez-Rocha Georgina Mayela; Bullen-Navarro Magaly; Castillo-Treviño Blanca Cecilia; Solís-Pérez Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Objetivo. Comparar la prevalencia de desnutrición entre prescolares migrantes y no migrantes. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron al azar 160 infantes de 1-6 años de edad, de parvularios de muy alta marginación. Se excluyeron aquellos con malformaciones congénitas o bajo alguna intervención nutricional. La migración se definió como el desplazamiento geográfico

  2. Socialization and residence: ethnic return migrants in Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Hill Kulu

    2002-01-01

    In this paper I study the choice of residence of ethnic Estonians from the Soviet Union in Estonia. The aim is to clarify the extent to which the differences in the current residence of ethnic return migrants stem from their childhood growth environment. First, the groups of foreign-born Estonians are compared based on 1989 Soviet census data. The ethnic return migrants' place of residence is significantly related to their level of education and language skills: two variables corresponding to...

  3. Analysis of Elderly In-Migrants In Tennessee

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xia

    2011-01-01

    The idea of elderly in-migrants as an important factor or stimulus to local economic development (Serow, 2001) has been confirmed by quite a few studies such as Bennett (1993); Carlson, Junk, Fox, Rudzitis, & Cann (1998); Day & Barlett (2000); Hodge (1991); Serow & Haas (1992); and Stallmann, Deller, & Shields (1999). Large-scale elderly in-migrants can bring several benefits to local economy. First, they can increase property and sales taxes, counties' largest source of revenues, without dir...

  4. Сoping with stress in migrant workers

    OpenAIRE

    Granskaya J.V.; Lizhenkova E.V.

    2016-01-01

    Migration is an objective process in Russia as worldwide. It has always existed and played an important role in human history. The problem of migrant workers is acute in Russia, because it borders on 18 countries. The collapse of the USSR severely damaged the economy of many former socialist republics. Consequently, people who cannot find employment in their country are forced to migrate to Russia to earn money. Most migrant workers face social, economic and psychological problems. Often, lac...

  5. Migration as social disability: Social Work with migrants in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Norma Montesino Parra

    2016-01-01

    The history of Social Work has been closely linked to the mobility of the poor. These mobilities have always been object of interventions, both the internal mobility of the national poor as well as the movements of those poor perceived as strangers in the national context. The social integration and / or social exclusion of migrants occupied the pioneers of Social Work and during the past century migrants has continued to occupy a considerable part of the work hours of social workers. However...

  6. Deported Mexican migrants: health status and access to care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Ramírez-Valdés, Carlos Jacobo; Cerecero-Garcia, Diego; Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the health status and access to care of forced-return Mexican migrants deported through the Mexico-United States border and to compare it with the situation of voluntary-return migrants. METHODS Secondary data analysis from the Survey on Migration in Mexico’s Northern Border from 2012. This is a continuous survey, designed to describe migration flows between Mexico and the United States, with a mobile-population sampling design. We analyzed indicators of health and access to care among deported migrants, and compare them with voluntary-return migrants. Our analysis sample included 2,680 voluntary-return migrants, and 6,862 deportees. We employ an ordinal multiple logistic regression model, to compare the adjusted odds of having worst self-reported health between the studied groups. RESULTS As compared to voluntary-return migrants, deportees were less likely to have medical insurance in the United States (OR = 0.05; 95%CI 0.04;0.06). In the regression model a poorer self-perceived health was found to be associated with having been deported (OR = 1.71, 95%CI 1.52;1.92), as well as age (OR = 1.03, 95%CI 1.02;1.03) and years of education (OR = 0.94 95%CI 0.93;0.95). CONCLUSIONS According to our results, deportees had less access to care while in the United States, as compared with voluntary-return migrants. Our results also showed an independent and statistically significant association between deportation and having poorer self-perceived health. To promote the health and access to care of deported Mexican migrants coming back from the United States, new health and social policies are required. PMID:25119943

  7. Migrants and Health in the Nordic welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2016-01-01

    This article probes into the health of migrants with a focus on the situation in the Nordic universal welfare states. The Nordic welfare states are further compared to each other with a comparison to the EU28 if possible, including investigation of the differences among the four Nordic countries...... socioeconomic factors, such as the impact of economic inequality. Moreover, the healthy migrant paradox cannot be confirmed....

  8. Random blood glucose may be used to assess long-term glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a rural African clinical setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon B; Nordin, Lovisa S; Rasmussen, Niclas S;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of random blood glucose (RBG) on good glycaemic control among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) in a rural African setting. METHODS: Cross-sectional study at St. Francis' Hospital in eastern Zambia. RBG and HbA1c were measured during one...... clinical review only. Other information obtained was age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, urine albumin-creatinine ratio, duration since diagnosis and medication. RESULTS: One hundred and one patients with DM (type 1 DM = 23, type 2 DM = 78) were included. Spearman's rank.......24-0.32, P control (HbA1c

  9. Injury among migrant workers in Changning district, Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Q H; Jiang, Y; Yin, N; Hu, J; Niu, C J

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterise the injury epidemic and injury prevention needs of migrant workers in Shanghai. Cluster random sampling was applied in selecting subjects in migrant gathering areas, and face-to-face interview survey was conducted in this study. In this survey, 1256 migrant workers were included, among which the injury incidence in last one year was 38.3%. The first four injuries were incised and penetrating injury (9.5%), falls (7.2%), traffic injury (6.3%) and burns (5.3%). The injury incidence of male workers was significantly higher than that of female workers (χ(2) = 22.7, P construction workers were at the highest risk of getting injured. About 60.7% of injury episodes happened at a residence. The longest period of absence from work was up to 3 months due to falls, while the highest medical expense was near 9999 CNY ($1464.2) caused by traffic injury. About 62.9% of migrant workers need services on injury prevention. It is concluded that compared with urban registered residents, migrant workers have significantly higher incidence of injury in Shanghai. Injury prevention services are in urgent demand among the migrant workers.

  10. Exposure of migrant bald eagles to lead in prairie Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M J; Wayland, M E; Bortolotti, G R

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of elevated exposure to lead was assessed in a migrant population of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) at a waterfowl staging area in the southern portion of the Canadian prairies, from September to November, 1992-1995. Of 103 eagles, 8% exhibited blood lead (PbB) concentrations suggestive of elevated exposure to lead (> or = 0.200 microgram ml-1 wet wt.). PbB concentrations in eagles from the study area ranged from or = 1.5-year-old birds) (P > 0.05). The prevalence of elevated exposure was significantly greater in November than in October (21.7 vs. 3.8%) (all years: chi 2Y = 5.75, P = 0.017). Eagles with shotshell pellets in the digestive tract did not have accompanying high PbB concentrations. The prevalence of elevated lead exposure in this study was low in comparison to other areas in North America. Potential biases in the trapping technique as they relate to interpreting the results are addressed.

  11. Are ethnic and gender specific equations needed to derive fat free mass from bioelectrical impedance in children of South asian, black african-Caribbean and white European origin? Results of the assessment of body composition in children study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M Nightingale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is a potentially valuable method for assessing lean mass and body fat levels in children from different ethnic groups. We examined the need for ethnic- and gender-specific equations for estimating fat free mass (FFM from BIA in children from different ethnic groups and examined their effects on the assessment of ethnic differences in body fat. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of children aged 8-10 years in London Primary schools including 325 South Asians, 250 black African-Caribbeans and 289 white Europeans with measurements of height, weight and arm-leg impedance (Z; Bodystat 1500. Total body water was estimated from deuterium dilution and converted to FFM. Multilevel models were used to derive three types of equation {A: FFM = linear combination(height+weight+Z; B: FFM = linear combination(height(2/Z; C: FFM = linear combination(height(2/Z+weight}. RESULTS: Ethnicity and gender were important predictors of FFM and improved model fit in all equations. The models of best fit were ethnicity and gender specific versions of equation A, followed by equation C; these provided accurate assessments of ethnic differences in FFM and FM. In contrast, the use of generic equations led to underestimation of both the negative South Asian-white European FFM difference and the positive black African-Caribbean-white European FFM difference (by 0.53 kg and by 0.73 kg respectively for equation A. The use of generic equations underestimated the positive South Asian-white European difference in fat mass (FM and overestimated the positive black African-Caribbean-white European difference in FM (by 4.7% and 10.1% respectively for equation A. Consistent results were observed when the equations were applied to a large external data set. CONCLUSIONS: Ethnic- and gender-specific equations for predicting FFM from BIA provide better estimates of ethnic differences in FFM and FM in children, while generic equations

  12. Genre et migration : l'entrée dans la sexualité des migrants d'Afrique subsaharienne en France

    OpenAIRE

    Elise Marsicano; Nathalie Lydié; Nathalie Bajos

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the recomposition of gender relations in a migratory context through a specific viewpoint: the sexual debut of individuals who migrated from sub-Saharan Africa to France. It is based on a 2005 survey of 1,874 sub-Saharan African migrants in the Île-de-France region. The aim is to determine the impact of men’s and women’s migratory trajectories on their first sexual experiences, as well as any possible changes in sexual power relationships after migration. The constructio...

  13. Study on Consumption Level and Consumption Structure of Migrant Workers in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Hai-yan; YU Wei; CHEN San-mei

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of stratified sampling, we conduct a survey of 1313 migrant workers, to analyze various factors influencing migrant workers’ consumption level and the difference in consumption structure between two generations of migrant workers, using the multivariate logistic regression and correspondence analysis method. The results show that two generations of migrant workers’ consumption level is the same, and the main factors influencing migrant workers’ consumption are income, educational level and occupation; the new generation of migrant workers’ consumer attitudes and consumption pattern are transformed significantly, being gradually integrated into the urban consumer market, and the consumption structure is steered to a reasonable direction.

  14. Myth, marula, and elephant: an assessment of voluntary ethanol intoxication of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) following feeding on the fruit of the marula tree (Sclerocarya birrea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Steve; Humphreys, David; Reynolds, Dan

    2006-01-01

    Africa can stir wild and fanciful notions in the casual visitor; one of these is the tale of inebriated wild elephants. The suggestion that the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) becomes intoxicated from eating the fruit of the marula tree (Sclerocarya birrea) is an attractive, established, and persistent tale. This idea now permeates the African tourist industry, historical travelogues, the popular press, and even scholastic works. Accounts of ethanol inebriation in animals under natural conditions appear mired in folklore. Elephants are attracted to alcohol, but there is no clear evidence of inebriation in the field. Extrapolating from human physiology, a 3,000-kg elephant would require the ingestion of between 10 and 27 L of 7% ethanol in a short period to overtly affect behavior, which is unlikely in the wild. Interpolating from ecological circumstances and assuming rather unrealistically that marula fruit contain 3% ethanol, an elephant feeding normally might attain an ethanol dose of 0.3 g kg(-1), about half that required. Physiological issues to resolve include alcohol dehydrogenase activity and ethanol clearance rates in elephants, as well as values for marula fruit alcohol content. These models were highly biased in favor of inebriation but even so failed to show that elephants can ordinarily become drunk. Such tales, it seems, may result from "humanizing" elephant behavior. PMID:16555195

  15. Barriers to migrant entry to occupations in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iredale, R

    1989-03-01

    In 1986, 21.3% of the population of Australia had been born overseas; currently, foreign born workers comprise 25% of the labor force. The level of skilled immigration has continued to increase throughout the 1980s. In the past, most English-speaking migrants gained recognition of their overseas qualifications, but about half of those from non-English speaking countries have never been able to return to their pre-migration occupations. Beginning with the medical field, occupational regulating gradually grew with state autonomy being a marked feature. Australia has 1 of the most highly regulated labor markets in the world, with hundreds of bodies to determine entry criteria. The Council of Overseas Professional Qualifications, established in 1969, guides selection and tests professionals both overseas and already resident in Australia. The Tradesmen's Rights Regulation Act recognizes acceptable tradesmen. Aside from these 2 bodies, the majority of qualifications are assessed at the state or local level. Problems skilled immigrants have encountered in attempting to gain recognition of their overseas qualifications include 1) preference for locally trained workers or discrimination against non-British/non-Australian qualifications; 2) lack of adequate information about assessment procedures; 3) inadequate use of interpreting and translating services; 4) language difficulties in tests; and 5) frequent assessment only on formal qualifications, with skills and experience not being evaluated. The 2 basic models for assessing occupational suitability are the valuation of qualifications approach and the valuation of skills approach. To illustrate the operation of various models of assessment, the author discusses these occupations: medicine, nursing, engineering, computing, and electrical trades. The major factors that are essential for an overall strategy of change include 1) less occupational regulation in the labor market; 2) national registration and licensing systems

  16. Barriers to migrant entry to occupations in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iredale, R

    1989-03-01

    In 1986, 21.3% of the population of Australia had been born overseas; currently, foreign born workers comprise 25% of the labor force. The level of skilled immigration has continued to increase throughout the 1980s. In the past, most English-speaking migrants gained recognition of their overseas qualifications, but about half of those from non-English speaking countries have never been able to return to their pre-migration occupations. Beginning with the medical field, occupational regulating gradually grew with state autonomy being a marked feature. Australia has 1 of the most highly regulated labor markets in the world, with hundreds of bodies to determine entry criteria. The Council of Overseas Professional Qualifications, established in 1969, guides selection and tests professionals both overseas and already resident in Australia. The Tradesmen's Rights Regulation Act recognizes acceptable tradesmen. Aside from these 2 bodies, the majority of qualifications are assessed at the state or local level. Problems skilled immigrants have encountered in attempting to gain recognition of their overseas qualifications include 1) preference for locally trained workers or discrimination against non-British/non-Australian qualifications; 2) lack of adequate information about assessment procedures; 3) inadequate use of interpreting and translating services; 4) language difficulties in tests; and 5) frequent assessment only on formal qualifications, with skills and experience not being evaluated. The 2 basic models for assessing occupational suitability are the valuation of qualifications approach and the valuation of skills approach. To illustrate the operation of various models of assessment, the author discusses these occupations: medicine, nursing, engineering, computing, and electrical trades. The major factors that are essential for an overall strategy of change include 1) less occupational regulation in the labor market; 2) national registration and licensing systems

  17. Keeping African Masks Real

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  18. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...

  19. African Literature as Celebration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achebe, Chinua

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Igbo tradition of "Mbari," a communal creative enterprise that celebrates the world and the life lived in it through art. Contrasts the cooperative, social dimension of pre-colonial African culture with the exclusion and denial of European colonialism, and sees new African literature again celebrating human presence and dignity. (AF)

  20. Empowering African States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China helps bring lasting peace and stability to Africa African think tanks expressed a high opinion of China’s role in helping build African peace and security at the first meeting of the China-Africa Think Tanks Forum. The