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Sample records for african migrants assessed

  1. Independent and linked migrants: determinants of African American interstate migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S W; Roseman, C C

    1997-01-01

    "Through kinship and other links to destinations, many African American interstate migrants in the United States join other people in destination households. These ¿linked' migrants contrast to ¿independent migrants' who move as individuals or intact groups and set up their own households at the destination. Using U.S. Census Public Use Micro Sample data, this paper first shows that, in the 1985-90 period, about 45 percent of all Black interstate migrants were independent, compared to 38 percent who were linked to housing at the destination and 17 percent who moved into group quarters. Second, a multinomial logit model, incorporating individual and state-level variables, is specified that contrasts the determinants of independent and linked migration.... It is concluded that the understanding of Black migration must take into account a variety of factors beyond traditional labor market conditions, including links to the destination and individual housing circumstances."

  2. Migrants and innovation in African societies: definition of a research field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabogunje, A L

    1975-01-01

    important local opinion leaders, fostering social change and development in their areas. Possibly 1 of the most important areas of migrants' innovative activities in West Africa is in the spread of new agricultural crops. Institutional innovations due to the activities of migrants also abound in West Africa. Migrants in West Africa also have been known to influence social norms, attitudes, and behavior patterns in some of the areas to which they had migrated. Regarding research implications, it is argued that a more fruitful and insightful understanding of social change comes from the detailed examination of the role of migrants as innovators. An increasing number of studies on migrants in African countries can serve as a means of assessing the vital role of migrants in the development of different parts of a country.

  3. The Healthy Migrant Families Initiative: development of a culturally competent obesity prevention intervention for African migrants

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Although obesity among immigrants remains an important area of study given the increasing migrant population in Australia and other developed countries, research on factors amenable to intervention is sparse. The aim of the study was to develop a culturally-competent obesity prevention program for sub-Saharan African (SSA) families with children aged 12–17 years using a community-partnered participatory approach. Methods A community-partnered participatory approach that allowed the...

  4. Barriers to HIV testing for migrant black Africans in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fakoya, A.; Reynolds, R.; Caswell, G.; Shiripinda, I.

    2008-01-01

    Migrant black Africans are disproportionately affected by HIV in Western Europe; we discuss the barriers to HIV testing for sub-Saharan migrants, with particular emphasis on the UK and the Netherlands. Cultural, social and structural barriers to testing, such as access to testing and care, fear of d

  5. 'Just talking about it opens your heart': meaning-making among Black African migrants and refugees living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Mark; Brown, Derek Brian; Fouché, Christa; Poindexter, Cynthia C; Scott, Kay

    2013-01-01

    Meaning-making has emerged as a core construct in addressing trauma, loss or crisis. This paper considers how diasporic Black Africans living with HIV, who come from interdependent collectivist cultures where the norm is one of implicit support, extend their meaning-making strategies when faced with a diagnosis of HIV. In this qualitative study, 13 Black African migrants and refugees living with HIV in New Zealand were interviewed and the transcripts analysed. After their diagnosis, participants began a journey of reconceptualising situational and global meaning. They extended their meaning-making strategies to include a community of like others to gain explicit support. Caregivers in host countries must understand the meaning-making processes of HIV-positive Black African migrants in order to provide competent services that lead to good social and health outcomes. All healthcare and social services workers should regularly assess Black African migrants and refugees living with HIV for positive social connectedness as well as medication adherence and more specific health concerns.

  6. Assessing maternal healthcare inequities among migrants: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Moreira Almeida

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering pregnancy and motherhood as periods of increased vulnerability in migrant women, to characterize the healthcare provided to this collective, we sought to identify and understand patterns of satisfaction and demand of maternal and child healthcare, assessing women’s perceptions about its quality. The study followed a qualitative methodology (semi-structured interviews for collecting and analysing data (content analysis and was conducted in Porto, the second largest city of Portugal. Participants were 25 recent immigrant mothers from Eastern European countries, Brazil, Portuguese-speaking African countries and six native Portuguese recent mothers (for comparison, contacted through social associations and institutions. Data suggests that healthcare depends not only on accessibility but especially on social opportunities. Equitable public health action must provide individuals and groups the equal opportunity to meet their needs, which may not be achieved by providing the same standard if care to all.

  7. Improving health services for African migrants in China: A health diplomacy perspective.

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    McLaughlin, Megan M; Lee, Margaret C; Hall, Brian J; Bulterys, Marc; Ling, Li; Tucker, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Global health has become an increasingly prominent component of foreign policy in the last decade. The term health diplomacy has been used to describe this growing interface between foreign policy and global health, and it encompasses both the concept of using health to further foreign policy objectives as well as the idea that diplomatic tools can be helpful for attaining public health goals. The Chinese presence in Africa has grown in the last 15 years, generating increased interest in Sino-African relations. While much has been written in recent years about the Chinese presence in Africa, the growing numbers of Africans in China have attracted considerably less attention. Many are small-scale traders and might be expected to face many of the health challenges common among foreign migrants, but their health needs have been largely unrecognised. In this paper, we consider how a health diplomacy approach could be applied to African migrants in China, and the potential advantages and limitations of this strategy. We identify areas of overlap between public health, trade and foreign policy goals that can be emphasised to generate support for improved services for African migrants in China and to engage partners from a diversity of sectors.

  8. "They don't want our blood": social inclusion and blood donation among African migrants in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonsky, Michael Jay; Brijnath, Bianca; Renzaho, André M N

    2011-07-01

    The current study examines how feelings of social inclusion influence migrant communities' predisposition to donate blood, focusing specifically on Sub-Saharan African communities in Australia. We begin by explicating the theoretical links between social inclusion, citizenship and blood donation before discussing local and international perspectives of blood donation among African migrant communities. Using qualitative methods comprising nine focus group discussions, held between March and April 2010, we argue that blood donation intentions are mediated by whether or not individuals feel included in their new host society. Real and perceived discrimination experienced by African migrants in their everyday social interactions or in institutional settings can act as a barrier to blood donation. We conclude that removing such barriers, thereby increasing rates of donation in migrant communities, will help to build social capital and inclusion. Strategies for how this can be achieved are outlined.

  9. The EU Migration Regime and West African Clandestine Migrants

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    Hannah M. Cross

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between the EU migration regime and clandestine migration from West Africa to Europe. A review of the development of EU border and immigration policy reveals significant and sustained moves towards securitisation of migrants and the externalisation of border controls to countries of origin and transit. This emphasis on repression limits the scope of cooperation with ‘third countries’ (those outside Europe in co-development, labour mobility, sea patrols and repatriation, which are examined separately as deterrents to uncontrolled emigration. This paper then analyses the motivations and intentions of Senegalese youth around the Cap Vert peninsula. This analysis includes the role of emigration in development and more recently, the impact of human losses and repatriations resulting from the clandestine journey by pirogue (open fishing boat to the Canary Islands. This article argues that in this case, youth are excluded both from labour and asylum policies and instead are managed as a security threat, contradicting the factors driving this journey.

  10. Guangzhou’s African Migrants: Implications for China’s Social Stability and China-Africa Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Elochukwu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently migration was treated like a footnote in the Africa-China discourse. Previously researchers and the media had focused attention on the “cost-benefit analysis” of China‘ s economic penetration of the continent. However, since 2008 when over a hundred African migrants blocked a major street in Guangzhou protesting the death of a Nigerian in an immigration raid, researchers and the media have been falling over themselves to unpack the phenomenon of migrant exchange in the relationship. There are now about one million Chinese migrants in Africa as against about two hundred and fifty thousand African migrants in China. Migration is a two-edged sword. On the credit side, migration can be a bridge between peoples as well as a major contributor to economic development. On the debit side, it can be a source of dispute between peoples and a threat to the hosts’ social stability. This paper discusses the implications of Guangzhou’s African migrants for China’s social stability and China’s relationship with Africa.

  11. African migrant patients' trust in Chinese physicians: a social ecological approach to understanding patient-physician trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M McLaughlin

    Full Text Available Patient trust in physicians is a critical determinant of health seeking behaviors, medication adherence, and health outcomes. A crisis of interpersonal trust exists in China, extending throughout multiple social spheres, including the healthcare system. At the same time, with increased migration from Africa to China in the last two decades, Chinese physicians must establish mutual trust with an increasingly diverse patient population. We undertook a qualitative study to identify factors affecting African migrants' trust in Chinese physicians and to identify potential mechanisms for promoting trust.We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 40 African migrants in Guangzhou, China. A modified version of the social ecological model was used as a theoretical framework. At the patient-physician level, interpersonal treatment, technical competence, perceived commitment and motive, and language concordance were associated with enhanced trust. At the health system level, two primary factors influenced African migrants' trust in their physicians: the fee-for-service payment system and lack of continuity with any one physician. Patients' social networks and the broader socio-cultural context of interactions between African migrants and Chinese locals also influenced patients' trust of their physicians.These findings demonstrate the importance of factors beyond the immediate patient-physician interaction and suggest opportunities to promote trust through health system interventions.

  12. Assessing Oral Cancer Awareness Among Rural Latino Migrant Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Virginia J; Schenck, David P; Chaney, Elizabeth H; Padhya, Tapan

    2016-06-01

    Latino migrant farm workers suffer significant health disparities, including poor oral health. The purpose of this research was to assess Latino migrant farm workers' OC awareness, including knowledge and care-seeking behaviors. A 42-item survey was developed. Trained, bilingual researchers verbally administered the survey to migrant farm workers in Hillsborough County, Florida. Frequencies and descriptive statistics were generated to report baseline data. The sample consisted of 53.7 % female respondents. The mean age for males and females respectively was 38.7 and 39.2. Most respondents had attended grade school; 6.7 % never attended school. Perceptions of cancer susceptibility were present; knowledge of OC risk factors, signs and symptoms was low. Participants were unlikely to seek preventive care. The results contribute to the limited studies regarding Latino migrant farm workers and oral cancer risk factor awareness and knowledge. Findings highlight factors influencing motivation and care-seeking behaviors, as well as provide guidance for development of educational materials.

  13. Suburban migration and the birth outcome of Chicago-born white and African-American women: the merit of the healthy migrant theory?

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    Collins, James W; Rankin, Kristin M; Janowiak, Christine M

    2013-11-01

    The healthy migrant theory posits that women who migrate before pregnancy are intrinsically healthier and therefore have better birth outcomes than those who don't move. Objective. To determine whether migration to the suburbs is associated with lower rates of preterm (unity. Neighborhood income underlies the protective association of suburban migration and birth outcome among Chicago-born White and African-American mothers. These findings do not support the healthy migrant hypothesis of reproductive outcome.

  14. A comparative study to assess the knowledge and practices regarding sexual health among the migrants and non-migrants in Mumbai city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purushottam A. Giri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population movements of the scale currently experienced by developing countries have significant implications on the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and HIV/AIDS. Mumbai is a large industrial city and has experienced large influx of migrants in the past two decades. The prevalence of multiple risk-traits among the migrants differs significantly by age, marital status, educational level, and living arrangements. Addressing sexual health also requires understanding and appreciation of sexuality, gender roles and power in designing and providing services.Objectives: The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge and practices regarding various aspects of sexual health among migrant & non-migrant in Mumbai city.Material and Methods: A Cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2007 to June 2007. It consists of 50 migrants and 50 non-migrants from each of the five zones of Mumbai city. A sample size of 250 migrants & 250 non-migrants from the five administrative zones of Mumbai was considered for the study were interviewed and examined. A semi structured interview schedule was piloted and used to collect necessary information such as clinical history, socio-demographic profile, sexual perceptions and practices, clinical examination and investigations were performed. Results were analysed using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS version -13.0Results: In this study, about 57% migrants perceived that masturbation affects the health & well being; while relatively more non-migrants (69.2%. There was an unrestrained fascination towards consumption of alcohol in both the groups, as 131 (52.4% migrants and 124 (49.6% non-migrants were drinking alcohol. More than half of migrants (58.0% and non-migrants (52.6% had premarital penetrative vaginal sex with multiple partners.Conclusion: In the present study, friends followed by movies and television were main source of sexual knowledge among both migrants and non-migrants

  15. Assessing vulnerability of urban African communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Herslund, Lise Byskov

    2014-01-01

    East African cities are in the process of assessing their vulnerabilities to climate change, but face difficulties in capturing the complexity of the various facets of vulnerability. This holistic approach, captures four different dimensions of vulnerability to flooding - Assets, Institutions...... to flooding across the city, at the finest administrative level....

  16. Communication and Information About “Safer Sex:” Intervention Issues Within Communities of African Migrants Living in Poorer Neighbourhoods in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Gaspar, Tania; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Reis, Marta; Ramiro, Lúcia

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study are to determine the influence of migrant status on sexual behavior and communication about “safer sex” and to identify ethnic-specific prevention issues. Data were obtained from a special administration of the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Survey in a special sample of Portuguese schools located in low-income Lisbon neighborhoods with large proportions of African migrants. Survey participants included 919 6th, 8th and 10th graders (52.3% female), of whom 19.2% were migrant foreigners from African Portuguese-speaking countries, including Cape Verde (60.8%), Mozambique (1.6%), Angola (16.8%), S. Tomé (8%), and Guinea-Bissau (14.8%). Subsequently, four focus groups were held with adolescent who had participated in the survey (n = 45), three focus group with health and education professionals (n = 25), and one focus group with parents (n = 6). Compared with Portuguese adolescents, African migrant teens reported initial sexual intercourse at earlier ages, less frequent condom use, and less frequent and less comfortable communications with parents about sexual issues. Implications for selective prevention of STD are discussed and recommendations are made. PMID:19081810

  17. Obesity and type 2 diabetes in sub-Saharan Africans - Is the burden in today's Africa similar to African migrants in Europe? : The RODAM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, Charles; Meeks, Karlijn; Beune, Erik; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Addo, Juliet; de Graft Aikins, Ama; Bahendeka, Silver; Danquah, Ina; Schulze, Matthias B; Spranger, Joachim; Burr, Tom; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Amoah, Stephen K; Galbete, Cecilia; Henneman, Peter; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Nicolaou, Mary; Adeyemo, Adebowale; van Straalen, Jan; Smeeth, Liam; Stronks, Karien

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rising rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are impending major threats to the health of African populations, but the extent to which they differ between rural and urban settings in Africa and upon migration to Europe is unknown. We assessed the burden of obesity and T2D among Ghan

  18. Lay Outreach Workers and the Ohio Migrant and Seasonal Farm Workers Health Education Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Olga L.

    The Migrant and Seasonal Farm Workers Project sought to determine the health education needs of this indigent population in Ohio using the help of lay outreach workers. A bilingual needs assessment survey was developed containing questions on demographics, place of permanent residence, points of travel after working in Ohio, and type of work and…

  19. Bird ringing in Slovenia in 2014 and results of the first telemetry study of an African migrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrezec Al

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, 162 bird species were recorded during the bird ringing activities in Slovenia. Of 155 species, 62,275 birds were ringed, and 107 recoveries of birds ringed in Slovenia and found abroad, 148 foreign recoveries in Slovenia and 1395 local recoveries were recorded. The most frequently ringed species were Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla and Great Tit Parus major. As far as ringed nestlings are concerned, Great Tits and Barn Swalllows Hirundo rustica predominated. Considering the recoveries ringed of found birds abroad, the commonest were Black-headed Gulls Chroicocephalus ridibundus and Mute Swans Cygnus olor. The farthest recovery was a Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica found in the Democratic Republic of Congo (5171 km away. Among the more interesting finds was also the so far southernmost recovery of a Sand Martin Riparia riparia found in Israel. Let us also mention the first recovery of a Corncrake Crex crex, which bred and was ringed in 2013 at Planinsko polje (central Slovenia and was found in the 2014 breeding season in the Czech Republic. Among rare species, two Little Buntings Emberiza pusilla were caught and ringed. After nine years, the Roller Coracias garrulus bred again in Slovenia in 2014 and its nestlings were ringed. The paper also brings the description of the migration route of the first African migrant, the Black Stork Ciconia nigra, marked with a GPS/GSM telemetric device, which migrated across the Adriatic Sea, Sicily and Sahara to Nigeria.

  20. "It's my secret": fear of disclosure among sub-Saharan African migrant women living with HIV/AIDS in Belgium.

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    Agnes Ebotabe Arrey

    Full Text Available Patients with HIV not only have to deal with the challenges of living with an incurable disease but also with the dilemma of whether or not to disclose their status to their partners, families and friends. This study explores the extent to which sub-Saharan African (SSA migrant women in Belgium disclose their HIV positive status, reasons for disclosure/non-disclosure and how they deal with HIV disclosure. A qualitative study consisting of interviews with twenty-eight SSA women with HIV/AIDS was conducted. Thematic content analysis was employed to identify themes as they emerged. Our study reveals that these women usually only disclose their status to healthcare professionals because of the treatment and care they need. This selective disclosure is mainly due to the taboo of HIV disease in SSA culture. Stigma, notably self-stigma, greatly impedes HIV disclosure. Techniques to systematically incorporate HIV disclosure into post-test counseling and primary care services are highly recommended.

  1. Migrants, health, and happiness: Evidence that health assessments travel with migrants and predict well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljunge, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Health assessments correlate with health outcomes and subjective well-being. Immigrants offer an opportunity to study persistent social influences on health where the social conditions are not endogenous to individual outcomes. This approach provides a clear direction of causality from social conditions to health, and in a second stage to well-being. Natives and immigrants from across the world residing in 30 European countries are studied using survey data. The paper applies within country analysis using both linear regressions and two stage least squares. Natives' and immigrants' individual characteristics have similar predictive power for health, except Muslim immigrants who experience a sizeable health penalty. Average health reports in the immigrant's birth country have a significant association with the immigrant's current health. Almost a quarter of the birth country health variation is brought by the immigrants, while conditioning on socioeconomic characteristics. There is no evidence of the birth country predictive power declining neither as the immigrant spends more time in the residence country nor over the life course. The second stage estimates indicate that a one standard deviation improvement in health predicts higher happiness by 1.72 point or 0.82 of a standard deviation, more than four times the happiness difference of changing employment status from unemployed to employed. Studying life satisfaction yields similar results. Health improvements predict substantial increases in individual happiness.

  2. Assessing neuropsychological performance in a migrant farm working Colonia in Baja California, Mexico: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousman, Chad A; Salgado, Hugo; Hendrix, Terence; Fraga, Miguel; Cherner, Mariana

    2011-08-01

    Neuropsychological impairments (NPI) can lead to difficulties in daily functioning and ultimately contribute to poor health outcomes. However, evidence for the feasibility of NPI assessment in resource-limited settings using tests developed in high literacy/high education cultures is sparse. The main objectives were to: (1) determine the feasibility and appropriateness of conducting neuropsychological assessments among a migrant farm worker population in Baja California, Mexico and (2) preliminary describe neuropsychological test performance in this unique population. A neuropsychological test battery was administered to 21 presumably healthy adults (8 men, 13 women) during a two-day international health services and research collaboration. All but one neuropsychological test (i.e. figure learning) was feasible and appropriate to administer to the study population. Contrary to expectations, participants performed better on verbal rather than nonverbal neuropsychological tests. Results support inclusion of neuropsychological tests into future studies among migrant farm worker populations in Baja California, Mexico.

  3. Assessing sanitary mixtures in East African cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The urbanisation of poverty and informality in East African cities poses a threat to environmental
    health, perpetuates social exclusion and inequalities, and creates service gaps (UN-Habitat, 2008).
    This makes conventional sanitation provision untenable citywide, giving rise to the emerg

  4. Assessing Stigma among African Americans Living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Deepa; Molina, Yamile; Lambert, Nina; Cohn, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In the present study, we validated a culturally adapted stigma scale designed to assess stigma among African Americans living with HIV. Methods We collected data on the scale using an audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) format. We validated the scale with a sample of 62 African American participants living with HIV. Results Findings demonstrated that stigma can be measured succinctly and effectively in a 14-item scale with two subscales measuring enacted and internalized stigma. Discussion We identified many advantages to using the scale, which demonstrated good psychometric properties when used with an audio computer assisted self-interview format and with an African American sample. We recommend this scale’s use in both clinical practice and research study of HIV-stigma reduction interventions with African American populations.

  5. A Needs Assessment: The Health Status of Migrant Children as They Enter Kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Mary Ellen

    This paper examines the health needs of migrant children entering kindergarten. An extensive literature review discusses Leininger's model of culture congruent care as it relates to health services for migrant children; describes California's growing Latino and migrant populations; and outlines previous studies on the specific health needs of…

  6. Assessing Disaster Preparedness among Latino Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers in Eastern North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Foreman Britt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters including hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, tornadoes, and fires often involve substantial physical and mental impacts on affected populations and thus are public health priorities. Limited research shows that vulnerable populations such as the low-income, socially isolated migrant and seasonal farmworkers (MSFW are particularly susceptible to the effects of natural disasters. This research project assessed the awareness, perceived risk, and practices regarding disaster preparedness and response resources and identified barriers to utilization of community and government services during or after a natural disaster among Latino MSFWs’ and their families. Qualitative (N = 21 focus groups (3 and quantitative (N = 57 survey methodology was implemented with Latino MSFWs temporarily residing in rural eastern North Carolina to assess perceived and actual risk for natural disasters. Hurricanes were a top concern among the sample population, many participants shared they lacked proper resources for an emergency (no emergency kit in the house, no evacuation plan, no home internet, a lack of knowledge of what should be included in an emergency kit, etc.. Transportation and language were found to be additional barriers. Emergency broadcasts in Spanish and text message alerts were identified by the population to be helpful for disaster alerts. FEMA, American Red Cross, local schools and the migrant clinic were trusted places for assistance and information. In summary, tailored materials, emergency alerts, text messages, and news coverage concerning disaster threats should be provided in the population’s native language and when feasible delivered in a culturally appropriate mechanism such as “charlas” (talks and brochures.

  7. African Diaspora Associations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vammen, Ida Marie; Trans, Lars Ove

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically on their tr......Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically...

  8. Traumatic pasts and the historical imagination: Symptoms of loss, postcolonial suffering, and counter-memories among African migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneduce, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    This work aims to rethink the relationship between anthropology and cultural psychiatry from a historical perspective, through reflections on the dynamics of forgetting and remembering in the context of migration. While migrants' symptoms often bear cultural hallmarks of suffering, they also reveal images of a traumatic history, which resurface in moments of danger, uncertainty, and crisis. I claim these symptoms are allegories of a dispossessed past, and can be interpreted as counter-memories, as "palimpsests" of an eclipsed script. Trauma symptoms keep returning to a collective past, and thus can be considered a particular form of historical consciousness. Psychiatric diagnoses may obscure these counter-memories. In particular, the diagnostic category of posttraumatic stress disorder that is commonly attached to traumatic experiences in current clinical practice recognizes the truth of individual traumatic events, but at the same time contributes to concealing the political, racial, and historical roots of suffering.

  9. Human immunodeficiency virus and migrant labor in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochelson, K; Mothibeli, M; Leger, J P

    1991-01-01

    The authors investigate the impact of the migrant labor system on heterosexual relationships on South African mines and assess the implications for the future transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The migrant labor system has created a market for prostitution in mining towns and geographic networks of relationships within and between urban and rural communities. A section of the migrant workforce and a group of women dependent on prostitution for economic support appear especially vulnerable to contracting HIV infection since they are involved in multiple sexual encounters with different, changing partners, usually without condom protection. Furthermore, sexually transmitted disease morbidity is extensive in the general and mineworker populations. Historically, migration facilitated the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and may act similarly for HIV. Problems of combating the HIV epidemic in South Africa are discussed.

  10. Migrants at/as risk : Identity verification and risk assessment technologies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Fors, Karolina; Van der Ploeg, Irma; Van der Ploeg, Irma; Pridmore, Jason

    2015-01-01

    International policy discourse on migration and practices geared toward the sorting out of entitlements for migrants to enter and reside in a country mobilize a discourse that increasingly frames them as posing risks to the societies of their host countries (Leers, 2012; Leers, 2011), notwithstandin

  11. Beyond ESOL? Assessing the Propensity of East European Migrant Workers to Undertake Further and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Steve

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the labour market participation of east Europeans living and working in East Staffordshire and Derby. It is based upon research which examines the qualifications and occupations of these migrant workers and which also seeks to ascertain their future intentions in respect of settlement, and the propensity to undertake…

  12. Assessing the Factors Associated with Sexual Harassment among Young Female Migrant Workers in Nepal

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    Puri, Mahesh; Cleland, John

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the extent of, and factors associated with, sexual harassment of young female migrant workers in the carpet and garment factories in Kathmandu Valley. Information is drawn from a survey of 550 female workers aged 14 to 19 and 12 in-depth case histories. Bivariate and multivariate techniques were applied to identify the…

  13. Development and Validation of the Body Size Scale for Assessing Body Weight Perception in African Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Emmanuel; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Ponty, Amandine; Ndao, Amadou; Amougou, Norbert; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pasquet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS) to estimate African body weight perception. Methods Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 ...

  14. Prevalence of Plasmodium spp. in malaria asymptomatic African migrants assessed by nucleic acid sequence based amplification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Marangi; R. Di Tullio; P.F. Mens; D. Martinelli; V. Fazio; G. Angarano; H.D.F.H. Schallig; A. Giangaspero; G. Scotto

    2009-01-01

    Background: Malaria is one of the most important infectious diseases in the world. Although most cases are found distributed in the tropical regions of Africa, Asia, Central and South Americas, there is in Europe a significant increase in the number of imported cases in non-endemic countries, in par

  15. Increasing the Confidence of African Carbon Cycle Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardö, Jonas

    2016-04-01

    Scarcity of in situ measurements of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes hamper calibration and validation of assessments of carbon budgets in Africa. It limits essential studies of ecosystem function and ecosystem processes. The wide range reported net primary production (NPP) and gross primary production (GPP) for continental African is partly a function of the uncertainty originating from this data scarcity. GPP estimates, based on vegetation models and remote sensing based models, range from ~17 to ~40 Pg C yr-1 and NPP estimates roughly range from ~7 to ~20 Pg C yr-1 for continental Africa. According to the MOD17 product does Africa contribute about 23 % of the global GPP and about 25 % of the global NPP. These percentages have recently increased slightly. Differences in modeled carbon use efficiency (i.e. the NPP/GPP ratio) further enhance the uncertainty caused by low spatial resolution driver data sets when deriving NPP from GPP. Current substantial uncertainty in vegetation productivity estimates for Africa (both magnitudes and carbon use efficiency) may be reduced by increased abundance and availability of in situ collected field data including meteorology, radiation, spectral properties, GHG fluxes as well as long term ecological field experiments. Current measurements of GHGs fluxes in Africa are sparse and lacking impressive coordination. The European Fluxes Database Cluster includes ~24 African sites with carbon flux data, most of them with a small amount of data in short time series. Large and diverse biomes such as the evergreen broad leafed forest are under-represented whereas savannas are slightly better represented. USA for example, with 171 flux site listed in FLUXNET has a flux site density of 17 sites per million km2, whereas Africa has density of 0.8 sites per million km2. Increased and coordinated collection of data on fluxes of GHGs, ecosystem properties and processes, both through advanced micro meteorological measurements and through cost

  16. The Legal Position of Migrants in Denmark: Assessing the Context around the "Cartoon Crisis"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamo, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    Abstract What can we infer from the legal status of migrants living in Denmark? This article argues that understanding recent developments in Danish immigration law is essential for comprehending contemporary political tensions in this policy area, including notably the cartoon incident. The anal......Abstract What can we infer from the legal status of migrants living in Denmark? This article argues that understanding recent developments in Danish immigration law is essential for comprehending contemporary political tensions in this policy area, including notably the cartoon incident....... The analysis offered focuses on general principles and practical notions of Danish immigration and refugee law, integration policies and regulations in light of international legal obligations, rules on family reunification, and the growing importance of citizenship status and anti-terrorism measures. Keywords...

  17. The Water Suitcase of Migrants: Assessing Virtual Water Fluxes Associated to Human Migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Metulini

    Full Text Available Disentangling the relations between human migrations and water resources is relevant for food security and trade policy in water-scarce countries. It is commonly believed that human migrations are beneficial to the water endowments of origin countries for reducing the pressure on local resources. We show here that such belief is over-simplistic. We reframe the problem by considering the international food trade and the corresponding virtual water fluxes, which quantify the water used for the production of traded agricultural commodities. By means of robust analytical tools, we show that migrants strengthen the commercial links between countries, triggering trade fluxes caused by food consumption habits persisting after migration. Thus migrants significantly increase the virtual water fluxes and the use of water in the countries of origin. The flux ascribable to each migrant, i.e. the "water suitcase", is found to have increased from 321 m3/y in 1990 to 1367 m3/y in 2010. A comparison with the water footprint of individuals shows that where the water suitcase exceeds the water footprint of inhabitants, migrations turn out to be detrimental to the water endowments of origin countries, challenging the common perception that migrations tend to relieve the pressure on the local (water resources of origin countries.

  18. The Water Suitcase of Migrants: Assessing Virtual Water Fluxes Associated to Human Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metulini, Rodolfo; Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Disentangling the relations between human migrations and water resources is relevant for food security and trade policy in water-scarce countries. It is commonly believed that human migrations are beneficial to the water endowments of origin countries for reducing the pressure on local resources. We show here that such belief is over-simplistic. We reframe the problem by considering the international food trade and the corresponding virtual water fluxes, which quantify the water used for the production of traded agricultural commodities. By means of robust analytical tools, we show that migrants strengthen the commercial links between countries, triggering trade fluxes caused by food consumption habits persisting after migration. Thus migrants significantly increase the virtual water fluxes and the use of water in the countries of origin. The flux ascribable to each migrant, i.e. the "water suitcase", is found to have increased from 321 m3/y in 1990 to 1367 m3/y in 2010. A comparison with the water footprint of individuals shows that where the water suitcase exceeds the water footprint of inhabitants, migrations turn out to be detrimental to the water endowments of origin countries, challenging the common perception that migrations tend to relieve the pressure on the local (water) resources of origin countries.

  19. Migrant Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inequality In Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Three articles describe the lifestyle of the children of migrant agricultural workers. First, Jose A. Cardenas provides an overview of education for migrant children. He notes academic performance deviations and underachievement resulting from their educational programs. Cardenas describes poor staffing, frequent segregation, curricula…

  20. Migrant Farmworkers in Western New York, 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ruth C.; And Others

    To provide current demographic and needs assessment information for public and private agencies serving migrants, a survey was conducted among farmers and the migrant workers they employed. Of 228 migrant labor camps in western and central New York, 57 were selected for study by a stratified random sampling procedure which assured adequate…

  1. Alignment between South African mathematics assessment standards and the TIMSS assessment frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mdutshekelwa Ndlovu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s performance in international benchmark tests is a major cause for concern amongst educators and policymakers, raising questions about the effectiveness of the curriculum reform efforts of the democratic era. The purpose of the study reported in this article was to investigate the degree of alignment between the TIMSS 2003 Grade 8 Mathematics assessment frameworks and the Revised National Curriculum Statements (RNCS assessment standards for Grade 8 Mathematics, later revised to become the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements (CAPS. Such an investigation could help to partly shed light on why South African learners do not perform well and point out discrepancies that need to be attended to. The methodology of document analysis was adopted for the study, with the RNCS and the TIMSS 2003 Grade 8 Mathematics frameworks forming the principal documents. Porter’s moderately complex index of alignment was adopted for its simplicity. The computed index of 0.751 for the alignment between the RNCS assessment standards and the TIMSS assessment objectives was found to be significantly statistically low, at the alpha level of 0.05, according to Fulmer’s critical values for 20 cells and 90 or 120 standard points. The study suggests that inadequate attention has been paid to the alignment of the South African mathematics curriculum to the successive TIMSS assessment frameworks in terms of the cognitive level descriptions. The study recommends that participation in TIMSS should rigorously and critically inform ongoing curriculum reform efforts.

  2. Assessment of an undergraduate psychiatry course in an African setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leuvennink Johan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International reports recommend the improvement in the amount and quality of training for mental health workers in low and middle income countries. The Scotland-Malawi Mental Health Education Project (SMMHEP has been established to support the teaching of psychiatry to medical students in the University of Malawi. While anecdotally supportive medical educational initiatives appear of value, little quantitative evidence exists to demonstrate whether such initiatives can deliver comparable educational standards. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of an undergraduate psychiatry course given by UK psychiatrists in Malawi by studying University of Malawi and Edinburgh University medical students' performance on an MCQ examination paper. Methods An undergraduate psychiatry course followed by an MCQ exam was delivered by the SMMHEP to 57 Malawi medical students. This same MCQ exam was given to 71 Edinburgh University medical students who subsequently sat their own Edinburgh University examination. Results There were no significant differences between Edinburgh students' performance on the Malawi exam and their own Edinburgh University exam. (p = 0.65. This would suggest that the Malawi exam is a comparable standard to the Edinburgh exam. Malawi students marks ranged from 52.4%–84.6%. Importantly 84.4% of Malawi students scored above 60% on their exam which would equate to a hypothetical pass by UK university standards. Conclusion The support of an undergraduate course in an African setting by high income country specialists can attain a high percentage pass rate by UK standards. Although didactic teaching has been surpassed by more novel educational methods, in resource poor countries it remains an effective and cost effective method of gaining an important educational standard.

  3. Assessing nutritional diversity of cropping systems in African villages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseline Remans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Sub-Saharan Africa, 40% of children under five years in age are chronically undernourished. As new investments and attention galvanize action on African agriculture to reduce hunger, there is an urgent need for metrics that monitor agricultural progress beyond calories produced per capita and address nutritional diversity essential for human health. In this study we demonstrate how an ecological tool, functional diversity (FD, has potential to address this need and provide new insights on nutritional diversity of cropping systems in rural Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data on edible plant species diversity, food security and diet diversity were collected for 170 farms in three rural settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nutritional FD metrics were calculated based on farm species composition and species nutritional composition. Iron and vitamin A deficiency were determined from blood samples of 90 adult women. Nutritional FD metrics summarized the diversity of nutrients provided by the farm and showed variability between farms and villages. Regression of nutritional FD against species richness and expected FD enabled identification of key species that add nutrient diversity to the system and assessed the degree of redundancy for nutrient traits. Nutritional FD analysis demonstrated that depending on the original composition of species on farm or village, adding or removing individual species can have radically different outcomes for nutritional diversity. While correlations between nutritional FD, food and nutrition indicators were not significant at household level, associations between these variables were observed at village level. CONCLUSION: This study provides novel metrics to address nutritional diversity in farming systems and examples of how these metrics can help guide agricultural interventions towards adequate nutrient diversity. New hypotheses on the link between agro-diversity, food security and human nutrition are

  4. Assessment of religious and spiritual capital in African American communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Cheryl L; Schulz, Emily; Williams, Beverly; Clark, Eddie M; Wang, Min Qi; Southward, Penny L

    2012-12-01

    African American faith communities are an important source of social capital. The present study adapted a theory-based social capital instrument to result in religious (e.g., from organized worship) and spiritual (e.g., from relationship with higher power) capital measures. Data from a national sample of 803 African Americans suggest the instruments have high internal reliability and are distinct from general religiosity. Measurement models confirmed factor structures. Religious capital was positively associated with self-rated health status. Religious and spiritual capital were negatively associated with depressive symptoms, but these associations largely became nonsignificant in multivariate models that controlled for demographic characteristics. An exception is for spiritual capital in the form of community participation, which retained a negative association with depressive symptoms. These instruments may have applied value for health promotion research and practice in African American communities.

  5. Curriculum-Based Measurement: An Emerging Alternative to Traditional Assessment for African American Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fore, Cecil, III; Burke, Mack D.; Martin, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide readers with an overview of Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM). Special education is often used for meeting the needs of African American children and youth. Assessment reform is needed that emphasizes reliable and valid alternative assessment, linkages to the curriculum, and progress monitoring. CBM may…

  6. Migrant tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jorgensen, Zaza; Andersen, Aase Bengaard; Kok-Jensen, Axel;

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Human migration caused by political unrest, wars and poverty is a major topic in international health. Infectious diseases like tuberculosis follow their host, with potential impact on both the migrants and the population in the recipient countries. In this study, we evaluate...... Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission between the national population and migrants in Denmark. METHODS: Register study based on IS6110-RFLP results from nationwide genotyping of tuberculosis cases during 1992 through 2004. Cases with 100% identical genotypes were defined as clustered and part...

  7. Migrant workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starren, A.; Drupsteen, L.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores Health and Safety aspects related to migrants working in multi-cultural settings (heterogeneous teams, working together on one location). Several assumptions can be made related to cultural differences and safe and healthy behaviour, but research evidence on this matter is very

  8. Migrant Programs in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Migrant Information Clearinghouse, Austin, TX. Juarez-Lincoln Center.

    As the last of 3 directories, this lists services available to migrants in Florida. Migrant programs, Community Action Agencies, and labor camps in the state are identified by county. Information for each county includes total population, estimated migrant population, migrant labor demand, estimated migrant wages, crops, work periods, migrant…

  9. Fear of Criminal Violence and the African American Elderly: Assessment of a Crime Prevention Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Dalzine, Patricia; Dalzine, Lawrence; Martin-Stanley, Charles

    1996-01-01

    Assesses an intervention model for reducing fear of criminal violence among the African American elderly. Senior citizens (n=31) participated in four crime prevention workshops. Eighty-three percent, as compared with 68% before the workshops, reported feeling safe at home at night. Significant posttest correlations were noted for posttest fear of…

  10. Portfolio Assessment as a Tool for Promoting Professional Development of School Principals: A South African Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestry, Raj; Schmidt, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Poor matriculation results in South African urban schools have resulted in the implementation of professional development programs for principals who wish to improve their qualifications and practice. This article studies principals' perceptions of the efficacy of using portfolios to assess their professional growth. Using a poststructural lens to…

  11. Assessment of conventional oil resources of the East African Rift Province, East Africa, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-03-27

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean conventional resources of 13.4 billion barrels of oil and 4.6 trillion cubic feet of gas in the East African Rift Province of east Africa.

  12. Culturally Responsive Assessment for African American Students with Learning and Behavioral Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kea, Cathy D.; Campbell-Whatley, Gloria D.; Bratton, Kenya

    2003-01-01

    Inappropriate assessment procedures result in the misdiagnosis, misidentification, and misplacement of many African American students in special education. This article discusses poor teacher judgment, lack of cultural awareness among teachers, cultural discontinuity between home and school, and bias inherent in current tests used in special…

  13. Post-Modern Career Assessment for Traditionally Disadvantaged South African Learners: Moving Away from the "Expert Opinion"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischof, David; Alexander, Dinah

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the perceptions of learners from a disadvantaged community regarding the limitations and advantages of traditional and post-modern career assessment techniques in the South African context, when conducted in a group context. Through the use of traditional psychometric instruments, South African professionals are inclined to…

  14. Interstate Migrant Education Task Force: Migrant Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    Because ill-clothed, sick, or hungry migrant children learn poorly, the Task Force has emphasized the migrant health situation in 1979. Migrant workers have a 33% shorter life expectancy, a 25% higher infant mortality rate, and a 25% higher death rate from tuberculosis and other communicable diseases than the national average. Common among…

  15. Proyectos de Educacion Migrante (Migrant Education Projects).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ramon; Garcia, Jose D.

    Written in Spanish and English for project personnel, parents, and others interested in migrant education, the booklet summarizes general concepts and requirements behind Title I-Migrant activities in Oregon, which has been allocated $4,439,341 in Title I-Migrant funds for fiscal year 1980. Following brief definitions of important terms,…

  16. A preliminary study to assess the construct validity of a cultural intelligence measure on a South African sample

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Orientation: Cultural intelligence is an essential social competence for effective individual interaction in a cross-cultural context. The cultural intelligence scale (CQS) is used extensively for assessing cultural intelligence; nevertheless, its reliability and validity on a South African sample are yet to be ascertained.Research purpose: The purpose of the current study was to assess the construct validity of the CQS on a South African sample. The results of the psychometric assessment off...

  17. Development and Validation of the Body Size Scale for Assessing Body Weight Perception in African Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Cohen

    Full Text Available The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS to estimate African body weight perception.Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese were used to evaluate three criteria of adiposity: body mass index (BMI, overall percentage of fat, and endomorphy (fat component of the somatotype. To develop the BSS, the participants were photographed in full face and profile positions. Models were selected for their representativeness of the wide variability in adiposity with a progressive increase along the scale. Then, for the validation protocol, participants self-administered the BSS to assess self-perceived current body size (CBS, desired body size (DBS and provide a "body self-satisfaction index." This protocol included construct validity, test-retest reliability and convergent validity and was carried out with three independent samples of respectively 201, 103 and 1115 Cameroonians.The BSS comprises two sex-specific scales of photos of 9 models each, and ordered by increasing adiposity. Most participants were able to correctly order the BSS by increasing adiposity, using three different words to define body size. Test-retest reliability was consistent in estimating CBS, DBS and the "body self-satisfaction index." The CBS was highly correlated to the objective BMI, and two different indexes assessed with the BSS were consistent with declarations obtained in interviews.The BSS is the first scale with photos of real African models taken in both full face and profile and representing a wide and representative variability in adiposity. The validation protocol proved its reliability for estimating body weight

  18. Development and Validation of the Body Size Scale for Assessing Body Weight Perception in African Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Emmanuel; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Ponty, Amandine; Ndao, Amadou; Amougou, Norbert; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pasquet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS) to estimate African body weight perception. Methods Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese were used to evaluate three criteria of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), overall percentage of fat, and endomorphy (fat component of the somatotype). To develop the BSS, the participants were photographed in full face and profile positions. Models were selected for their representativeness of the wide variability in adiposity with a progressive increase along the scale. Then, for the validation protocol, participants self-administered the BSS to assess self-perceived current body size (CBS), desired body size (DBS) and provide a “body self-satisfaction index.” This protocol included construct validity, test-retest reliability and convergent validity and was carried out with three independent samples of respectively 201, 103 and 1115 Cameroonians. Results The BSS comprises two sex-specific scales of photos of 9 models each, and ordered by increasing adiposity. Most participants were able to correctly order the BSS by increasing adiposity, using three different words to define body size. Test-retest reliability was consistent in estimating CBS, DBS and the “body self-satisfaction index.” The CBS was highly correlated to the objective BMI, and two different indexes assessed with the BSS were consistent with declarations obtained in interviews. Conclusion The BSS is the first scale with photos of real African models taken in both full face and profile and representing a wide and representative variability in adiposity. The validation protocol proved its

  19. Migrants' access to healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norredam, Marie

    2011-01-01

    -migrant women. Sub-study II found that some migrants (those born in Somalia, Turkey and Ex-Yugoslavia) use ER services more frequently than do non-migrants whereas others have the same or lower utilisation levels. As a consequence, substudy III was undertaken, which documented that more migrant within all...

  20. Assessment in multicultural groups: The South African case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. R. Van De Vijver

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available It is argued that the 1998 Employment Equity Act, in which the onus of the proof to demonstrate the adequacy of psychometric instruments is on psychology as a profession, creates daunting tasks, but also creates unique opportunities. Recent developments in the assessment of multicultural groups are described, with an emphasis on procedures to enhance the validity of measures for all groups involved and on procedures to examine validity. Bias and equivalence are treated as key concepts in multicultural assessment. Four kinds of procedures for dealing with multicultural assessment (namely, establishing equivalence of existing instruments, defining new norms, developing new instruments, and studying validity-threatening factors in multicultural assessment are described and illustrated. Opsomming Daar word geredeneer dat die Wet op Billike Indiensneming, 1998, waarvolgens die onus om die geskiktheid van psigometriese instrumente te bewys na psigologie as professie verskuif, nie net oorweldigende take nie maar ook unieke geleenthede skep. Onlangse ontwikkelings rakende die evaluering van multikulturele groepe word beskryf, met die klem op prosedures om die geldigheid van metings vir alle groepe te verhoog en op prosedures om hierdie geldigheid te ondersoek. Sydigheid en ekwivalensie word as sleutelkonsepte in multikulturele evaluering behandel. Vier soorte prosedures om multikulturele evaluering te hanteer (te wete bepaling van die ekwivalensie van bestaande instrumente, definiëring van nuwe norme, ontwikkeling van nuwe instrumente en ‘n studie van faktore wat die geldigheid van multikulturele evaluering bedreig word beskryf en geïllustreer.

  1. Climate Change and Environmental assessments: Issues in an African Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalfelt, Arne; Naess, Lars Otto

    1997-12-31

    The present report discusses the potential for integrating climate change issues into environmental assessments of development actions, with an emphasis on sub-Sahara Africa. The study is motivated by the fact that future climate change could have significant adverse impacts on the natural and socio-economic environment in Africa. Yet, to date global change issues, including climate change, have been largely overlooked in the process of improving environmental assessment procedures and methodologies. It is argued that although emissions of greenhouse gases in Africa are negligible today, it is highly relevant to include this aspect in the planning of long-term development strategies. The report discusses potential areas of conflicts and synergies between climate change and development goals. The general conclusion is that environmental assessments could be an appropriate tool for addressing climate change issues, while there are still several obstacles to its practical implementation. Four priority areas are suggested for further work: (1) Environmental accounting, (2) harmonization and standard-setting, (3) implementation, and (4) risk management. 82 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Sexual health is dead in my body: participatory assessment of sexual health determinants in refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants in Belgium and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Keygnaert, Ines; Vettenburg, Nicole; Roelens, Kristien; Temmerman, Marleen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although migrants constitute an important proportion of the European population, little is known about migrant sexual health. Existing research mainly focuses on migrants' sexual health risks and accessibility issues while recommendations on adequate sexual health promotion are rarely provided. Hence, this paper explores how refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants in Belgium and the Netherlands define sexual health, search for sexual health information and perceive sexu...

  3. Risky sexual behaviors: The role of ethnic identity in HIV risk in migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehadeh, Nancy; McCoy, H Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Migrant workers have been shown to be at a heightened level of risk for HIV, and ethnic identity has been posited to have an impact on engagement in risky sexual behaviors. Our longitudinal study examined associations between baseline and short-term changes in ethnic identity and high-risk sexual behaviors. Baseline (n = 431) and 6-month assessment (n = 270) data were obtained from a larger HIV prevention study conducted among African American and Hispanic migrant workers. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of covariance and multiple linear regressions were used. Ethnic identity explore, a subscale of ethnic identity, was a significant predictor of overall sexual risk [F(8, 422) = 6.953, p < .001] and unprotected vaginal acts [F(8, 422) = 8.444, p < .001] at baseline. However, ethnic identity had no bearing on changes in risky sexual behaviors. Ethnic identity explore was associated with safer sexual behaviors.

  4. Migrant mortality from diabetes mellitus across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Deboosere, Patrick; Stirbu, Irina

    2012-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to determine and quantify variations in diabetes mortality by migrant status in different European countries. The second objective was to investigate the hypothesis that diabetes mortality is higher in migrant groups for whom the country of residence (COR......) is more affluent than the country of birth (COB). We obtained mortality data from 7 European countries. To assess migrant diabetes mortality, we used direct standardization and Poisson regression. First, migrant mortality was estimated for each country separately. Then, we merged the data from all...... mortality registers. Subsequently, to examine the second hypothesis, we introduced gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of COB in the models, as an indicator of socio-economic circumstances. The overall pattern shows higher diabetes mortality in migrant populations compared to local-born populations...

  5. Sumario de Reglamentos Revisados de Titulo I - Educacion Migrante (Summary of Revised Title I - Migrant Regulations).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ramon

    Extracted from the April 3, 1980 Federal Register, revisions of the Migrant Education regulations are synthesized in this Spanish-English booklet. Revised regulations address program planning and evaluation; needs assessment; identification and recruitment of migrant children; and special discretionary projects for the coordination of migrant…

  6. Migrant Workers: Urban Underclass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIWUZHOU

    2004-01-01

    ACCORDING to official statistics, there are now 130 million (equivalent to half the American population) migrant workers in Chinese cities. This means that China has more migrant than urban workers, and that they constitute the main Chinese industrial workforce.

  7. Developing a South African pedestrian environment assessment tool: Tshwane case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Olwoch

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians, comprising approximately 60% of the population, are among the most vulnerable road users in South Africa. The roadside environment may be an important factor influencing the nature and frequency of pedestrian fatalities. While there are audit tools for assessing the pedestrian environment in other countries, no such tool exists for South Africa. This study evaluated existing audit tools in relation to South African issues and conditions and developed a South African Pedestrian Environment Assessment Tool (PEAT. PEAT was tested at five sites in the Tshwane Metropolitan Area in Gauteng to assess its applicability. PEAT was simple to use and provided valuable information, however, appropriate measures need to be taken to address fieldworker security, especially for night-time assessments when several roadside factors, such as lighting, should be evaluated. Although it was not the focus of our study, based on our results, we suggest that the lack of pavements, pedestrian crossings and pedestrian lighting are factors that, potentially, could increase pedestrian vulnerability.

  8. The Assessment Of Intellectual Capital (Ic In The South African Context – A Qualitative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius De Beer

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to report on an investigation into IC as portrayed by thought leaders and research groups, against a South African background. An attempt was made to clarify relevant terminology, develop a model and methodology for South African application, and assess the status of IC within the South Africa context through a qualitative methodology using Focus Groups. Results indicated that IC in South Africa is still in the infancy stage. However, models and methodologies developed in other continents could with changes be applied in the South African context. OpsommingDie doel van hierdie artikel is om verslag te doen oor die ondersoek na Intellektuele Kapitaal (IK soos voorgestel deur vakkundiges en navorsingsgroepe, teen die agtergrond van die Suid Afrikaanse situasie. ’n Poging is aangewend om tersaaklike terminologie te verklaar, ’n model en metodologie vir Suid Afrikaanse aanwending te ontwikkel, en dit sowel as die status van IK in die Suid Afrikaanse omgewing te ondersoek deur middel van ’n kwalitatiewe metodologie, naamlik fokusgroepe. IK in Suid Afrika is steeds in die kinderskoene. Modelle en metodologieë ontwikkel in ander lande kan egter met aanpassings aangewend word vir aanwending in die Suid Afrikaanse omgewing.

  9. I, Migrant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Walker

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ‘I, Migrant?’ is a narrative poetry sequence that explores themes of language, culture, identity and belonging through the eyes of an Australian living in Den Haag, The Netherlands. The speaker in the poems faces challenges such as seeking work and making friends in a context where she does not speak the dominant language, Dutch. This proves far from easy, destabilising her sense of identity. She questions where and how she can belong. Reluctant to join what she considers “the white ghetto of Den Haag,” the speaker initially attempts to assimilate herself into Dutch culture, but later finds solace in a community of other expats. Within this community, national identities become exaggerated and people morph into stereotypes. The speaker increasingly defines herself as “Australian,” performing this identity both publicly and in private. Beneath the surface there bubbles, however, an awareness that she is acting out a myth. A more genuine sense of belonging emerges, unexpectedly, in an Asian food court, where she converses in Dutch with staff who also speak it as their second language. The speaker concludes that identity is located in language. It is therefore neither fixed nor singular, but multiple and forever changing.

  10. Who Are Ohio's Migrants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, Joy; Mecartney, John

    Identifying and defining Ohio's migrant population, the document also seeks to destroy many of the myths that exist about migrant workers. The survey, made in September 1972, found that 90% of the state's 35,000 workers were Spanish speaking. The document also gives information on migrant recruitment, crew leaders, income, housing, crops,…

  11. MIGRANT CHILDREN AND YOUTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WYCKOFF, FLORENCE R.

    A MIGRANT CHILD IS DEFINED AS A MEMBER OF A FAMILY OF AGRICULTURAL WORKERS WHO MUST TRAVEL A GREAT DISTANCE TO WORK. THE WORKERS FOLLOW A SEASONAL COURSE, OFTEN THROUGH SEVERAL STATES, AND RETURN HOME AFTER THE CROP SEASON IS OVER. THERE ARE ABOUT 415,000 MIGRANT CHILDREN UNDER 14 YEARS OF AGE IN THE UNITED STATES. IN 1960 THE MIGRANT FARM WORKER…

  12. An assessment of West African seahorses in fisheries catch and trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros-Montemayor, A M; West, K; Boiro, I S; Vincent, A C J

    2016-02-01

    This study provides the first assessment of a heavily traded West African seahorse species, Hippocampus algiricus, and the first information on short-snouted seahorse Hippocampus hippocampus biology in Africa. A total of 219 seahorses were sampled from fisher catch in Senegal and The Gambia, with estimated height at reproductive activity for H. algiricus (161 mm) larger than mean ± S.D. catch height (150 ± 31 mm). Catch composition, height at reproductive activity and potential biases in fishery retention are discussed with regard to the current Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES) guidelines.

  13. Cultural explanations for the persistence of migrant labour in Southern Africa: a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderblom, D

    1987-07-01

    In 1986 the South African government relaxed the law that made it illegal for blacks to live in urban areas. The author discusses some reasons why blacks might choose to remain in rural areas and continue as migrant laborers. In particular, a critique is presented of arguments that base their explanations of the continuance of migrant labor on the value system or culture of migrant laborers.

  14. Geographical assessment of body measurements and qualitative traits in West African cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, Amadou; Koudandé, Delphin Oloronto; Fernández, Iván; Soudré, Albert; Granda, Víctor; Álvarez, Isabel; Diarra, Siaka; Diarra, Fousseyni; Kaboré, Adama; Sanou, Moumouni; Tamboura, Hamidou Hamadou; Goyache, Félix

    2015-12-01

    A total of 1015 adult cows belonging to nine West African cattle breeds were assessed for 16 body measurements and 18 qualitative traits to ascertain the existence of geographical patterns of variation. Sampling was carried out in 29 different provinces of Mali, Burkina Faso and Benin. For body measurements, taurine breeds took lower average values than the zebu breeds. Sanga cattle took intermediate values. Qualitative traits did not allow to differentiate among cattle groups (taurine, zebu or sanga) or breeds. Principal component analysis identified two factors explaining 56.4 and 9.2 % of the variance for body measurements, respectively. Two correspondence analysis dimensions computed on qualitative traits explained a small proportion of the variability (20.8 and 13.5 %, respectively). Contour plots were constructed using the eigenvalues computed for each individual and either factor or dimension identified; confidence regions calculated confirmed that body measurements clearly differentiated zebu and taurine cattle breeds while qualitative traits did not. Factor 1 was projected on a geographical map, using provinces as nodes, to assess breed-free variation for body measurements. A pattern of continuous variation from the Sahel area southwards was identified. Probably, breeding decisions promoting the crosses between zebu-like and taurine cattle are underlying this geographical pattern of variation. The implementation of selection strategies aiming at the increase of the productivity of native West African taurine cattle breeds while avoiding looses in trypanotolerant ability would be highly advisable.

  15. AN EXPERT SYSTEM ON ASSESSING ROCKBURST RISKS FOR SOUTH AFRICAN DEEP GOLD MINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯夏庭; S.Webber; M.U.Ozbay; 王永嘉

    1996-01-01

    Expert systems are methods that can cope with rock engineer's expertise effectively.An expert system on assessing rockburst risks for South African deep gold mines is described.Expertise was represented by rules, frames and mathematical models integratively. About 9.50rules was built in the knowledge base, which can be learned by the suggested learning algorithm.A new uncertain reasoning algorithm was proposed. According to the features such as depth be-low surface, energy release rate (ERR), excess shear stress (ESS), geological structure, faceangle with structure, distance from structure, extent of mining, mining type, width of bracket pil-lar, stope width, local support, regional support and gully support, rockburst risk is assessed ei-ther”Low”, ”Moderate”, ”High” or ”Severe”.Turbo Prolog. The results of testing cases showA computer program system was developed byits applicability of the system.

  16. Results of the third reproductive assessment survey of North American Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) female elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, T L; Holásková, I; Brown, J L

    2011-01-01

    A written survey assessed reproductive status of female Asian and African elephants in AZA/SSP facilities in 2008, and data were compared to surveys conducted in 2002 and 2005. Results showed that ovarian acyclicity rates across the surveys remained unchanged for Asian (13.3, 10.9 and 11.1%) and African (22.1, 31.2 and 30.5%) elephants, respectively (P > 0.05), but were higher overall for African compared to Asian elephants (P elephants with irregular cycles (14.3 and 15.8%) and irregular + no cycles (25.4 and 46.4%) was similar to 2005 (7.6 and 11.8%; 18.5 and 43.0%), but were increased compared to 2002 (2.6 and 5.2%; 16.0 and 27.3%), respectively (P elephants compared to females at facilities with no male, respectively. Cyclicity rates were higher for Asian (86.8 vs. 65.2%) and African (67.9 vs. 56.7%) elephants managed in free compared to protected contact programs (P 0.05). In summary, incidence of ovarian cycle problems continues to predominantly affect African elephants. Although percentages of acyclicity did not increase between 2005 and 2008, 42.2% Asian and 30.2% African females were no longer being hormonally monitored; thus, reproductive cycle abnormalities could be worse than current data suggest.

  17. Perceptions and attitudes of batswana mineworkers towards the South African gold mines, with special reference to living and working conditions, legal issues and trade unions.

    OpenAIRE

    Molamu L; Molokomme A; Somolekae G

    1987-01-01

    Includes texts of "Charter of Rights for Migrant Workers in Southern Africa", "Charter of Rights for Migrant Workers" (South African Catholic Bishops Conference) and "National Union of Mineworkers Miners' Bill of Rights".

  18. Developing programs for african families, by african families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halliday, Jennifer A; Green, Julie; Mellor, David

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is an emerging problem for African migrants in Australia, but few prevention programs incorporate their cultural beliefs and values. This study reports on the application of community capacity-building and empowerment principles in 4 workshops with Sudanese families in Australia. Workshop...

  19. Testing a Scandinavian Biodiversity Assessment Tool in an African Desert Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Antje; Kyläkorpi, Lasse; Rydgren, Bernt; Schneeweiss, Rainer

    2008-10-01

    Life cycle assessment-based environmental product declarations (EPDs) require the inclusion of biodiversity impacts across the entire supply chain. The objective of this study is to test the applicability of a Scandinavian biodiversity assessment tool, developed specifically for use with EPD applications, in an African desert environment, linking the industry types power generation and mining. For this purpose, a GIS-based spatial analysis tool—the biotope method—was adapted to a framework approach which allowed the selection of more suitable, site-specific biodiversity indicators. The biotope method provides a step-by-step process of defining system boundaries, mapping biotopes, categorizing biotopes based on site-specific indicators, and evaluating change in biotope status “before” and “after” the impact. The development of site-specific indicators was piloted in this study and determined by the affected ecosystem and the status of knowledge on biodiversity in this geographic area. Thus plants were used as indicators for biodiversity, and red-list status and endemism constituted the prime criteria for conservation value of plants. This in turn represented the key criterion for classifying biotopes. The tested biodiversity assessment tool has potential for application in different environments and operational settings but leaves room for improvement by including secondary impacts in the assessment and using a wider range of taxa for indicators of biodiversity.

  20. Stable isotope analysis provides new information on winter habitat use of declining avian migrants that is relevant to their conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl L Evans

    Full Text Available Winter habitat use and the magnitude of migratory connectivity are important parameters when assessing drivers of the marked declines in avian migrants. Such information is unavailable for most species. We use a stable isotope approach to assess these factors for three declining African-Eurasian migrants whose winter ecology is poorly known: wood warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix, house martin Delichon urbicum and common swift Apus apus. Spatially segregated breeding wood warbler populations (sampled across a 800 km transect, house martins and common swifts (sampled across a 3,500 km transect exhibited statistically identical intra-specific carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in winter grown feathers. Such patterns are compatible with a high degree of migratory connectivity, but could arise if species use isotopically similar resources at different locations. Wood warbler carbon isotope ratios are more depleted than typical for African-Eurasian migrants and are compatible with use of moist lowland forest. The very limited variance in these ratios indicates specialisation on isotopically restricted resources, which may drive the similarity in wood warbler populations' stable isotope ratios and increase susceptibility to environmental change within its wintering grounds. House martins were previously considered to primarily use moist montane forest during the winter, but this seems unlikely given the enriched nature of their carbon isotope ratios. House martins use a narrower isotopic range of resources than the common swift, indicative of increased specialisation or a relatively limited wintering range; both factors could increase house martins' vulnerability to environmental change. The marked variance in isotope ratios within each common swift population contributes to the lack of population specific signatures and indicates that the species is less vulnerable to environmental change in sub-Saharan Africa than our other focal species. Our findings

  1. Proficiency in condom use among migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubens, Muni; McCoy, H Virginia; Shehadeh, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Consistent and correct use of condoms is important to prevent the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. We evaluated condom use skills on an 11-point scale in which participants were observed placing a condom on a penile model. Participants were 375 sexually active African American and Hispanic migrant workers. For analysis, subjects were divided into skilled and unskilled groups by a median split of the condom use skills score. Sexual risk behaviors were analyzed between condom use skilled and unskilled groups and level of condom use skills between African Americans and Hispanics. African Americans showed better skills in using condoms, and participants in the condom-use skilled group used condoms more frequently. Finally, a logistic regression was conducted to find predictors of condom use skills. Significant predictors were ethnicity, language, and assistance-related social support (obtaining advice from people who could provide tangible assistance).

  2. Improving estimates of the prevalence of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting among migrants in Western countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Elisa Ortensi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C is an emerging topic in immigrant countries as a consequence of the increasing proportion of African women in overseas communities. Objective: While the prevalence of FGM/C is routinely measured in practicing countries, the prevalence of the phenomenon in western countries is substantially unknown, as no standardized methods exist yet for immigrant countries. The aim of this paper is to present an improved method of indirect estimation of the prevalence of FGM/C among first generation migrants based on a migrant selection hypothesis. A criterion to assess reliability of indirect estimates is also provided. Methods: The method is based on data from Demographic Health Surveys (DHS and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS. Migrants' Selection Hypothesis is used to correct national prevalence estimates and obtain an improved estimation of prevalence among overseas communities. Results: The application of the selection hypothesis modifies national estimates, usually predicting a lower occurrence of FGM/C among immigrants than in their respective practicing countries. A comparison of direct and indirect estimations confirms that the method correctly predicts the direction of the variation in the expected prevalence and satisfactorily approximates direct estimates. Conclusions: Given its wide applicability, this method would be a useful instrument to estimate FGM/C occurrence among first generation immigrants and provide corresponding support for policies in countries where information from ad hoc surveys is unavailable.

  3. Prevalence and Determinants of Overweight and Obesity in Children and Adolescents from Migrant and Seasonal Farmworker Families in the United States—A Systematic Review and Qualitative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yuen Mei; Song, SuJin; Song, Won O.

    2017-01-01

    Overweight and obesity (OW/OB) is a pressing health concern among migrant and seasonal farmworker (MSFW) families in the US. The limited number of previously reported research on MSFW families suggests that their unique sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle predispose them to poor health outcomes including OW/OB. We aimed to synthesize and assess available data on the prevalence and modifiable health determinants of OW/OB in MSFW children and adolescents. Literature search, study selection, data extraction and synthesis, and qualitative assessment of selected studies were performed independently by two authors. Ten cross-sectional studies met the inclusion criteria: articles or dissertations investigating prevalence and association between health determinants and OW/OB in MSFW children and adolescents (food insecurity, parents’ weight status, parents’ distorted perception of their children’s weight status, and parents’ participation in the federal nutrition assistance program were significantly associated with the children’s and adolescents’ risk of OW/OB. Promotion of culturally relevant public health programs and implementation of a systematic health surveillance plan for MSFWs and their children should be emphasized to combat OW/OB among MSFW children and adolescents. PMID:28245565

  4. PROBLEMS OF MIGRANT LABOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WALLS, FOREST

    PRESENT MIGRANT LABOR PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS WHICH HAVE BEEN PROPOSED ARE PRESENTED. THE FIRST PROBLEM AREA IS PROVIDING EDUCATION FOR MIGRANT CHILDREN. THIS IS HINDERED BY THE PROBLEM OF SECURING COMPLIANCE WITH MINIMUM EDUCATION LAWS AND BY LAWS PROHIBITING EMPLOYMENT OF CHILDREN DURING SCHOOL HOURS. A SECOND PROBLEM AREA IS THAT OF CHILD LABOR.…

  5. Migrant Farm Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Pfeffer, Max J.

    This paper documents migrant farm workers as being among the most persistently underprivileged groups in American society. Migrant farm workers typically receive low wages from irregular employment and live in poverty with access to only substandard housing and inadequate health care. The lack of economic improvement stems from a number of…

  6. The Migrant Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    According to the Geneseo Migrant Center, 1 million to 3 million migrant workers leave their homes each year to work in agricultural fields, many coming to the United States from homes in Mexico and Latin America. The Pew Hispanic Center recently reported that one in four U.S. farm workers is an unauthorized immigrant, meaning they lack either a…

  7. Migrant Education Projects. Projectos de Educacion Migrante. Oregon Migrant Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Written in both English and Spanish, this booklet briefly summarizes the general concepts and requirements behind Title I Migrant activities for use by project personnel, parents, and others interested in those projects. After a brief discussion of project funding and definitions of commonly used terms, there is an outline of requirements which…

  8. 'We get nothing from fishing' : Fishing for boat opportunities amongst Senegalese fisher migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyamnjoh, Henrietta Mambo

    2010-01-01

    The world is regularly confronted in the media with dramatic images of African boat migrants. Seemingly desperate, these Africans, most of them males, are willing to risk a perilous journey at sea, hoping for a better life in Europe. And, even worse, hundreds more are believed to die each year, swal

  9. Comparative assessment of migrant farm worker health in conventional and organic horticultural systems in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul; Edwards, Rhiannon T; Hounsome, Barry; Edwards-Jones, Gareth

    2008-02-25

    This study describes the self-reported health and well-being status of field and packhouse workers in UK vegetable horticulture, and tests the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the self-reported health of workers on organic and conventional horticultural farms. The majority of those sampled were migrant workers (93%) from Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia and the Ukraine. More than 95% of the respondents were aged 18-34 and recruited through university agricultural faculties in East European or employed via UK agencies. The health of 605 farm workers (395 males and 210 females) was measured through the use of four standard health instruments. Farm workers' health was significantly poorer than published national norms for three different health instruments (Short Form 36, EuroQol EQ-5D and the Visual Analogue Scale). There were no significant differences in the health status of farm workers between conventional and organic farms for any of these three instruments. However, organic farm workers scored higher on a fourth health instrument the Short Depression Happiness Scale (SDHS) indicating that workers on organic farms were happier than their counterparts working on conventional farms. Multiple regression analysis suggested that the difference in the SDHS score for organic and conventional farms is closely related to the range and number of tasks the workers performed each day. These findings suggest that a great deal of improvement in the self-reported health of farmers will need to occur before organic farms meet the requirements of the 'Principle of Health' as described by IFOAM. Ensuring that farm workers have a varied range of tasks could be a cost effective means of improving self-reported health status in both organic and conventional farming systems.

  10. First molecular assessment of the African swine fever virus status of Ornithodoros ticks from Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carin I. Boshoff

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is an economically significant haemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs. It is caused by the African swine fever virus (ASFV, a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNAarbovirus. Argasid ticks of the genus Ornithodoros, which are widely distributed throughout southern Africa, play a primary role in virus maintenance and spread within the endemic sylvatic cycle. The ASF status of Swaziland is unknown, but this land-locked country is surrounded by ASF-positive countries, has a burgeoning pig industry and sylvatic cycle hosts present within its borders. In this first assessment of ASF status, warthog burrows in seven nature reserves and game management areas in Swaziland were investigated for tick and virus presence. Tick infestation rates of between 33.3% – 88.8% were recovered for the four Ornithodoros-infested reserves. A total of 562 ticks were screened for virus genome presence using a duplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR that targets the C-terminal end of the p72 gene of the ASFV and confirms DNA integrity through amplification of the 16S rRNA tick host gene. All samples were negative for virus genome presence and positive for the tick genome target. Nucleotide sequencing of the latter confirmed that Ornithodoros ticks from Swaziland are identical to those from the Kruger National Park in South Africa across the gene region characterised. Whilst this first evaluation of ASF presence in Swaziland indicates that the virus does not appear to be present in the key virus vector, the presence of sylvatic cycle hosts, together with the country’s proximity to ASF-affected countries calls for expanded investigations and regular monitoring of the ASF status of Swaziland.

  11. First molecular assessment of the African swine fever virus status of Ornithodoros ticks from Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshoff, Carin I; Bastos, Armanda D S; Dube, Mzwandi M; Heath, Livio

    2014-12-03

    African swine fever (ASF) is an economically significant haemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs. It is caused by the African swine fever virus (ASFV), a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)arbovirus. Argasid ticks of the genus Ornithodoros, which are widely distributed throughout southern Africa, play a primary role in virus maintenance and spread within the endemic sylvatic cycle. The ASF status of Swaziland is unknown, but this land-locked country is surrounded by ASF-positive countries, has a burgeoning pig industry and sylvatic cycle hosts present within its borders. In this first assessment of ASF status, warthog burrows in seven nature reserves and game management areas in Swaziland were investigated for tick and virus presence. Tick infestation rates of between 33.3% - 88.8% were recovered for the four Ornithodoros-infested reserves. A total of 562 ticks were screened for virus genome presence using a duplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) that targets the C-terminal end of the p72 gene of the ASFV and confirms DNA integrity through amplification of the 16S rRNA tick host gene. All samples were negative for virus genome presence and positive for the tick genome target. Nucleotide sequencing of the latter confirmed that Ornithodoros ticks from Swaziland are identical to those from the Kruger National Park in South Africa across the gene region characterised. Whilst this first evaluation of ASF presence in Swaziland indicates that the virus does not appear to be present in the key virus vector, the presence of sylvatic cycle hosts, together with the country's proximity to ASF-affected countries calls for expanded investigations and regular monitoring of the ASF status of Swaziland.

  12. Physical activity differences between children from migrant and native origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.W. Labree (Wim); F.J.B. Lötters (Freek); H. van de Mheen (Dike); F.F.H. Rutten (Frans); A. Rivera Chavarría; M. de Neve (Melissa); G. Rodenburg (Gerda); H. Machielsen; G.T. Koopmans (Gerrit); M.M.E. Foets (Marleen)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Background: Children from migrant origin are at higher risk for overweight and obesity. As limited physical activity is a key factor in this overweight and obesity risk, in general, the aim of this study is to assess to what degree children from migrant and native Dutch

  13. Still sons of the shaking earth: Mexicans and Guatemalans in the East Coast migrant labor stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellet, L B

    1994-01-01

    The author reports on a survey of 375 undocumented migrants from Guatemala and Mexico working along the U.S. mid-Atlantic coast. The focus was on "documenting sojourning versus settling behaviors and intentions of migrants from Latin American homelands and assessing risk for acquiring and transmitting AIDS, sexual, and communicable diseases by internationally commuting migrants.... The researchers also sought to learn why migrants come to the east coast and how living here is different from [other] parts of the country...."

  14. Migrant labor absorption in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayagam, J

    1992-01-01

    The use of migrant workers to ease labor shortages caused by rapid industrialization in Malaysia during the twentieth century is examined. "This paper will focus on: (1) the extent, composition and distribution of migrant workers; (2) the labor shortage and absorption of migrant workers; and (3) the role of migrant workers in the government's economic restructuring process."

  15. THE TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF DEMAND SIDE BIDDING IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN CONTEXT*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Grover

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT:South Africa is currently in the grip of a severe power supply capacity constraint. January 2007 saw blackouts throughout the country, and worse was expected in the months to come. As a measure of immediate remedy Eskom has turned to demand side bidding (DSB, a methodology whereby the demand side has an opportunity to sell back flexible load to the supply side. This paper assesses DSB with the aim of evaluating and gauging the current and potential future standing of DSB as a technology product within the South African context.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Suid-Afrika ervaar tans ’n ernstige vraagstuk in elektrisiteitsvoorsiening. Vanaf Januarie 2007 kom gereelde kragonderbrekings voor, en volgens alle aanduidings lê die ergste nog voor. As ’n korttermynmaatreël beoog ESKOM ’n strategie van aanvraagbestuur en spesifiek aanvraag-bie, ’n metodologie waarvolgens verbruikers die geleentheid kry om elektrisiteit aan die verskaffer terug te verkoop. Hierdie artikel assesseer die metodologie ten einde die huidige en toekomstige gebruikersmoontlikhede daarvan as ’n tegnologieproduk binne Suid-Afrikaanse konteks te bepaal.

  16. Desnutrición en prescolares de familias migrantes Malnutrition in preschool children of migrant families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Mayela Núñez-Rocha

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Comparar la prevalencia de desnutrición entre prescolares migrantes y no migrantes. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron al azar 160 infantes de 1-6 años de edad, de parvularios de muy alta marginación. Se excluyeron aquellos con malformaciones congénitas o bajo alguna intervención nutricional. La migración se definió como el desplazamiento geográfico Objective. To compare malnutrition rates between migrant and non-migrant children. Material and methods. One-hundred and sixty children 1-6 years old were selected at random from schools located in highly marginated areas. Excluded were infants with congenital malformations or under nutritional intervention. Migration was defined as any geographical movement during the last 6 years. Malnutrition was assessed through the weight/height and height/age indicators, as recommended by the World Health Organization. Results. Fifty-nine percent of the infants belonged to families whose father had a non-qualified occupation, 27.5% of them did not finish elementary school. Fifty-three referred migration; malnutrition rate was 51.3% among migrant infants and 28.8%, among non-migrant infants (OR= 2.6, CI95%= 1.2, 5.2, p= 0.006. Migrant children registered a mean Z score of -2.4±.40 and non-migrant children, -2.3±.33, based on the indicator height for age. Conclusions. Chronic malnutrition among migrant infants justifies a nutritional intervention, they constitute a specific group at risk. Migration should be considered for health planning.

  17. A preliminary study to assess the construct validity of a cultural intelligence measure on a South African sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bright Mahembe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Cultural intelligence is an essential social competence for effective individual interaction in a cross-cultural context. The cultural intelligence scale (CQS is used extensively for assessing cultural intelligence; nevertheless, its reliability and validity on a South African sample are yet to be ascertained.Research purpose: The purpose of the current study was to assess the construct validity of the CQS on a South African sample. The results of the psychometric assessment offer some important insights into the factor structure of the cultural intelligence construct.Motivation for the study: The current study sought to provide some practical validity confirmation of the CQS for the effective management of cultural diversity in the South African context.Research approach, design and method: The CQS was administered on a non-probability sample of 229 young adults in South Africa. Item analysis was performed to ascertain reliability. Exploratory factor analysis was used to test the unidimensionality of CQS subscales. The first-order and second-order factor structures underlying contemporary models of cultural intelligence were tested using confirmatory factor analysis.Main findings: Results indicated that the CQS is a reliable and valid measure of cultural intelligence as evidenced by the high internal consistency coefficients in all the subscales. Good construct validity for both the first-order and second-order models was obtained via confirmatory factor analysis.Practical/managerial implications: The study finds good measurement properties of the CQS in a South African context. The CQS can be confidently used for applications such as selecting, training and developing a more culturally competent workforce.Contribution: The study extends the body of knowledge on the reliability and construct validity of the CQS in the South African milieu. It further indicates that cultural intelligence can be represented by a general cultural

  18. Sexual Violence against Migrant Women: a Study of the Prevalence of and Responses to the Rape of Migrant Women in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine BOYD

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the prevalence of and responses to the rape of migrant women in South Africa through the analysis of legislation, secondary sources and interviews conducted by the author with migrant women raped in South Africa. The article considers the legal protections afforded to migrant women in South Africa and the extent to which these safeguard migrant women from rape. The article also assesses whether these legal protections are implemented in practise. It additionally suggests how migrant women could be better protected from rape in South Africa.

  19. Migrant Associations, Trade and FDI

    OpenAIRE

    Baghdadi, Leila; Cheptea, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Recent literature sets forth the positive role of migrants in international trade and foreign direct investment. We use a new database on French migrant associations together with data on the stocks of migrants to diffe-rentiate between organized and, respectively, non-organized migrant-based networks. We find that the creation of a new association of migrants is accompanied by important jumps in bilateral trade and investment between the host and origin countries. This effect adds on top of ...

  20. Estimation of exposure to food packaging migrants in a sample of Irish children

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, Edel

    2007-01-01

    Food packaging materials are not inert and transfer chemicals, known as migrants, into food. As the presence of chemicals in foods is a highly regulated area, food packaging migrants must undergo a risk assessment procedure before their use is permitted in food packaging materials. Exposure assessments are an integral part of this risk assessment process. The aim of this thesis was to improve the exposure assessment of food packaging migrants by collecting relevant data and applying more soph...

  1. Pharmacophore modeling and in silico toxicity assessment of potential anticancer agents from African medicinal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Simoben, Conrad Veranso; Karaman, Berin; Ngwa, Valery Fuh; Judson, Philip Neville; Sippl, Wolfgang; Mbaze, Luc Meva’a

    2016-01-01

    Molecular modeling has been employed in the search for lead compounds of chemotherapy to fight cancer. In this study, pharmacophore models have been generated and validated for use in virtual screening protocols for eight known anticancer drug targets, including tyrosine kinase, protein kinase B β, cyclin-dependent kinase, protein farnesyltransferase, human protein kinase, glycogen synthase kinase, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1. Pharmacophore models were validated through receiver operating characteristic and Güner–Henry scoring methods, indicating that several of the models generated could be useful for the identification of potential anticancer agents from natural product databases. The validated pharmacophore models were used as three-dimensional search queries for virtual screening of the newly developed AfroCancer database (~400 compounds from African medicinal plants), along with the Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anticancer Compound-Activity-Target dataset (comprising ~1,500 published naturally occurring plant-based compounds from around the world). Additionally, an in silico assessment of toxicity of the two datasets was carried out by the use of 88 toxicity end points predicted by the Lhasa’s expert knowledge-based system (Derek), showing that only an insignificant proportion of the promising anticancer agents would be likely showing high toxicity profiles. A diversity study of the two datasets, carried out using the analysis of principal components from the most important physicochemical properties often used to access drug-likeness of compound datasets, showed that the two datasets do not occupy the same chemical space. PMID:27445461

  2. Assessment of infant feeding styles among low income African American mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Lisa M.; Bentley, Margaret E.; Carby-Shields, Kenitra; Borja, Judith B.; Goldman, Barbara D.

    2007-01-01

    This study’s goal was to provide a detailed description of feeding styles adopted by a sample of African-American women in feeding their infants in North Carolina, and to examine the correspondence between reported and observed feeding styles. Cross-sectional semi-structured interview and videotaped data were gathered in the homes of 20 participating low-income mothers of infants aged 3-20 months. Feeding styles were characterized through a tailored coding scheme (the Infant Feeding Styles Video Coding Scheme, IFSVCS) applied to both interview and video-taped data. We found that the most frequent feeding styles identified for both interviews and videotaped observations was restrictive, but that mothers were roughly equally divided among predominantly controlling (pressuring or restrictive) and less controlling (laissez-faire or indulgent) styles across methods. However, for over 2/3 of the sample, there was a lack of correspondence between interview and video-taped feeding styles. This unique characterization and comparison of observed and reported infant feeding styles provides additional insights into parental feeding approaches among mothers of infants at high risk of obesity, and highlights the need for further study of feeding style assessment and potential impact on infant weight outcomes. PMID:17336423

  3. New hierarchical classification of food items for the assessment of exposure to packaging migrants: use of hub codes for different food groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northing, P; Oldring, P K T; Castle, L; Mason, P A S S

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes development work undertaken to expand the capabilities of an existing two-dimensional probabilistic modelling approach for assessing dietary exposure to chemicals migrating out of food contact materials. A new three-level hub-coding system has been devised for coding different food groups with regards to their consumption by individuals. The hub codes can be used at three different levels representing a high, medium and low level of aggregation of individual food items. The hub codes were developed because they have a greater relevance to packaging migration than coding used (largely and historically) for nutritional purposes. Also, the hub codes will assist pan-europeanization of the exposure model in the future, when up to 27 or more different food coding systems from 27 European Union Member States will have to be assimilated into the modelling approach. The applicability of the model with the new coding system has been tested by incorporating newly released 2001 UK consumption data. The example used was exposure to a hypothetical migrant from coated metal packaging for foodstuffs. When working at the three hierarchical levels, it was found that the tiered approach gave conservative estimates at the cruder level of refinement and a more realistic assessment was obtained as the refinement progressed. The work overall revealed that changes in eating habits over time had a relatively small impact on estimates of exposure. More important impacts are changes over time in packaging usage, packaging composition and migration levels. For countries like the UK, which has sophisticated food consumption data, it is uncertainties in these other areas that need to be addressed by new data collection.

  4. African Countries’ Agricultural Trade Value Chain Assessment Case study: Tanzania (Cashew nut exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Krepl

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa lost its status as a net exporter of agricultural products in the early 1980s when prices for raw commodities fell and local production stagnated. Since then, agricultural imports have grown faster than agricultural exports. In order to get to the bottom of this critical issue, UNIDO in partnership with the AU, IFAD, AfDB, FAO, and UNECA, developed the African Agribusiness and Agro-Industries Development Initiative (3ADI. The major objective of the 3ADI is to increase private sector investment flows going into the agriculture sector in Africa by mobilizing resources for agribusiness and agro-industrial development from the domestic, regional or international financial systems. This formed the basis of research with the objective of assessing the value addition chain for some vital agricultural commodities in the 3ADI focus countries. UNIDO is developing several action plans in a few African countries – one of them is Tanzania. In the case of Tanzania, the findings show the potential in cashew nuts. The paper’s main goal is to propose a plan or set of steps leading to the improvement of added value generation in the area of agricultural trade in Tanzania. The paper is focused on one commodity Cashew-nuts. Tanzania boosts high volumes of local supply of this commodity, which is the key prerequisite for the value addition chain through local processing. The results from the analysis prove significant economic losses related to the current structure of Tanzanian trade in cashew nuts. The main problem of the current cashew nut trade activities is the very low added value of exported cashew nuts. The paper analyses the structure of value added activities related to the cashew nut trade and proposes a plan for increasing the share of processed cashew nuts at a much higher unit price in comparison to raw cashew nuts. The simulated development in the cashew sector in Tanzania to the year 2030 is based on two expectations a 5

  5. Migrants caught in crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Kelly

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of new initiatives point to ways in which the internationalcommunity – particularly governments – could help reduce the vulnerabilities of migrant workers during conflict and crisis situations.

  6. Migrant Workers Fight Back

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUBO

    2005-01-01

    Zhao, aged 33, is a migrant worker in a shoe factory in Shenzhen, the prosperous southern Chinese city. He arrived there hve years ago from his home village in north Jiangsu province, a notoriously poverty struck region of China.

  7. Health services for reproductive tract infections among female migrant workers in industrial zones in Ha Noi, Viet Nam: an in-depth assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Le

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural-to-urban migration involves a high proportion of females because job opportunities for female migrants have increased in urban industrial areas. Those who migrate may be healthier than those staying in the village and they may benefit from better health care services at destination, but the 'healthy' effect can be reversed at destination due to migration-related health risk factors. The study aimed to explore the need for health care services for reproductive tract infections (RTIs among female migrants working in the Sai Dong industrial zone as well as their services utilization. Methods The cross sectional study employed a mixed method approach. A cohort of 300 female migrants was interviewed to collect quantitative data. Two focus groups and 20 in-depth interviews were conducted to collect qualitative data. We have used frequency and cross-tabulation techniques to analyze the quantitative data and the qualitative data was used to triangulate and to provide more in-depth information. Results The needs for health care services for RTI were high as 25% of participants had RTI syndromes. Only 21.6% of female migrants having RTI syndromes ever seek helps for health care services. Barriers preventing migrants to access services were traditional values, long working hours, lack of information, and high cost of services. Employers had limited interests in reproductive health of female migrants, and there was ineffective collaboration between the local health system and enterprises. These barriers were partly caused by lack of health promotion programs suitable for migrants. Most respondents needed more information on RTIs and preferred to receive these from their employers since they commonly work shifts - and spend most of their day time at work. Conclusion While RTIs are a common health problem among female migrant workers in industrial zones, female migrants had many obstacles in accessing RTI care services. The findings

  8. Risks to birds traded for African traditional medicine: a quantitative assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivienne L Williams

    Full Text Available Few regional or continent-wide assessments of bird use for traditional medicine have been attempted anywhere in the world. Africa has the highest known diversity of bird species used for this purpose. This study assesses the vulnerability of 354 bird species used for traditional medicine in 25 African countries, from 205 genera, 70 families, and 25 orders. The orders most represented were Passeriformes (107 species, Falconiformes (45 species, and Coraciiformes (24 species, and the families Accipitridae (37 species, Ardeidae (15 species, and Bucerotidae (12 species. The Barn owl (Tyto alba was the most widely sold species (seven countries. The similarity of avifaunal orders traded is high (analogous to "morphospecies", and using Sørensen's index, which suggests opportunities for a common understanding of cultural factors driving demand. The highest similarity was between bird orders sold in markets of Benin vs. Burkina Faso (90%, but even bird orders sold in two geographically separated countries (Benin vs. South Africa and Nigeria vs. South Africa were 87% and 81% similar, respectively. Rabinowitz's "7 forms of rarity" model, used to group species according to commonness or rarity, indicated that 24% of traded bird species are very common, locally abundant in several habitats, and occur over a large geographical area, but 10% are rare, occur in low numbers in specific habitats, and over a small geographical area. The order with the highest proportion of rare species was the Musophagiformes. An analysis of species mass (as a proxy for size indicated that large and/or conspicuous species tend to be targeted by harvesters for the traditional medicine trade. Furthermore, based on cluster analyses for species groups of similar risk, vultures, hornbills, and other large avifauna, such as bustards, are most threatened by selective harvesting and should be prioritised for conservation action.

  9. Assessing the Acceptability and Usability of an Internet-Based Intelligent Health Assistant Developed for Use among Turkish Migrants: Results of a Study Conducted in Bremen, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Samkange-Zeeb

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet offers a new chance for health professionals to reach population groups not usually reached through traditional information channels, for example, migrants. Criticism has, however, been raised that most health information on the Internet is not easy to read and lacks cultural sensitivity. We developed an Internet-based bilingual health assistant especially for Turkish migrants in Germany, tested its acceptance, and evaluated its usability in a participatory research design with families with and without Turkish migrant background. The interactive health assistant covered the following: nutrition, physical activity, overweight, diabetes, as well as pregnancy and pregnancy support. The idea of an Internet-based health assistant was generally accepted by all participants of the evaluation study, as long as it would be incorporated in existing appliances, such as smartphones. The bilingual nature of the assistant was welcomed especially by first generation migrants, but migrant participants also indicated that not all health information needed to be made available in a culture-specific way. The participants were least satisfied with the nutrition component, which they felt should include recipes and ingredients from the culture of origin, as well as specific aspects of food preparation.

  10. Assessing the Acceptability and Usability of an Internet-Based Intelligent Health Assistant Developed for Use among Turkish Migrants: Results of a Study Conducted in Bremen, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Ernst, Sinja Alexandra; Klein-Ellinghaus, Funda; Brand, Tilman; Reeske-Behrens, Anna; Plumbaum, Till; Zeeb, Hajo

    2015-12-03

    The Internet offers a new chance for health professionals to reach population groups not usually reached through traditional information channels, for example, migrants. Criticism has, however, been raised that most health information on the Internet is not easy to read and lacks cultural sensitivity. We developed an Internet-based bilingual health assistant especially for Turkish migrants in Germany, tested its acceptance, and evaluated its usability in a participatory research design with families with and without Turkish migrant background. The interactive health assistant covered the following: nutrition, physical activity, overweight, diabetes, as well as pregnancy and pregnancy support. The idea of an Internet-based health assistant was generally accepted by all participants of the evaluation study, as long as it would be incorporated in existing appliances, such as smartphones. The bilingual nature of the assistant was welcomed especially by first generation migrants, but migrant participants also indicated that not all health information needed to be made available in a culture-specific way. The participants were least satisfied with the nutrition component, which they felt should include recipes and ingredients from the culture of origin, as well as specific aspects of food preparation.

  11. Government Should Adopt Policies Favouring Rural Migrants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩长赋

    2007-01-01

    Based on a systematic analysis of the development trends of Chinese rural migrant workers, this article has designed a model representing the flow of migrant workers from rural to urban areas, and the patterns of urban settlement. The significant factors contributing to the problems of migrant workers are assessed and suggestions for improvement put forward. This article concludes that the rural migrant worker problem is attributable to institutional set-up and strategy and will continue for the entire process of China’s modernization. It is estimated that modernization will be realized in about 2050, at which time the rural-urban migration process will also be completed. To solve the problems of migrant workers, a comprehensive strategy of balanced development between urban and rural areas should be carried out, featuring industry’s support of agriculture and urban support of rural areas. Furthermore, the urban-rural dual structure should be gradually eliminated through institutional reform and policy innovation. The principles of equality, humanity and fair treatment for both urban and rural populations should be sought.

  12. Assessment of microsatellite and SNP markers for parentage assignment in ex situ African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuschagne, Christiaan; Nupen, Lisa; Kotzé, Antoinette; Grobler, Paul J; Dalton, Desiré L

    2015-10-01

    Captive management of ex situ populations of endangered species is traditionally based on pedigree information derived from studbook data. However, molecular methods could provide a powerful set of complementary tools to verify studbook records and also contribute to improving the understanding of the genetic status of captive populations. Here, we compare the utility of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and microsatellites (MS) and two analytical methods for assigning parentage in ten families of captive African penguins held in South African facilities. We found that SNPs performed better than microsatellites under both analytical frameworks, but a combination of all markers was most informative. A subset of combined SNP (n = 14) and MS loci (n = 10) provided robust assessments of parentage. Captive or supportive breeding programs will play an important role in future African penguin conservation efforts as a source of individuals for reintroduction. Cooperation among these captive facilities is essential to facilitate this process and improve management. This study provided us with a useful set of SNP and MS markers for parentage and relatedness testing among these captive populations. Further assessment of the utility of these markers over multiple (>3) generations and the incorporation of a larger variety of relationships among individuals (e.g., half-siblings or cousins) is strongly suggested.

  13. Preclinical assessment of the treatment of second-stage African trypanosomiasis with cordycepin and deoxycoformycin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman K Vodnala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to substitute the highly toxic compounds still in use for treatment of the encephalitic stage of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT. We here assessed the treatment with the doublet cordycepin and the deaminase inhibitor deoxycoformycin for this stage of infection with Trypanosoma brucei (T.b.. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cordycepin was selected as the most efficient drug from a direct parasite viability screening of a compound library of nucleoside analogues. The minimal number of doses and concentrations of the drugs effective for treatment of T.b. brucei infections in mice were determined. Oral, intraperitoneal or subcutaneous administrations of the compounds were successful for treatment. The doublet was effective for treatment of late stage experimental infections with human pathogenic T.b. rhodesiense and T.b. gambiense isolates. Late stage infection treatment diminished the levels of inflammatory cytokines in brains of infected mice. Incubation with cordycepin resulted in programmed cell death followed by secondary necrosis of the parasites. T.b. brucei strains developed resistance to cordycepin after culture with increasing concentrations of the compound. However, cordycepin-resistant parasites showed diminished virulence and were not cross-resistant to other drugs used for treatment of HAT, i.e. pentamidine, suramin and melarsoprol. Although resistant parasites were mutated in the gene coding for P2 nucleoside adenosine transporter, P2 knockout trypanosomes showed no altered resistance to cordycepin, indicating that absence of the P2 transporter is not sufficient to render the trypanosomes resistant to the drug. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Altogether, our data strongly support testing of treatment with a combination of cordycepin and deoxycoformycin as an alternative for treatment of second-stage and/or melarsoprol-resistant HAT.

  14. Solute clearance measurement in the assessment of dialysis adequacy among African continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Abdu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solute clearance measurement is an objective means of quantifying the dose of peritoneal dialysis (PD. Despite continued debate on the interpretation and precise prognostic value of small solute clearance in PD patients, guidelines based on solute clearance values are common in clinical practice. There is limited information on the solute clearance indices and PD adequacy parameters among this predominantly low socioeconomic status PD population. We investigated the solute clearance among continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD patients at the Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital and its relationship with other parameters of PD adequacy. Seventy patients on CAPD were studied in this cross-sectional study. Solute clearance was assessed using urea clearance (Kt/V. Linear regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with solute clearance, while analysis of variance was used to test the influence of weekly Kt/V on blood pressure (BP, hemoglobin (Hb and other biochemical parameters. The mean age of the study population was 37.9 ± 12.4 years, 43% were females and 86% were black Africans. The mean duration on CAPD was 19.7 ± 20.8 months. Mean systolic and diastolic BP were 144 ± 28 and 92 ± 17 mm Hg, respectively. The mean Hb was 11.1 ± 2.2 g/dL and the mean weekly Kt/V was 1.7 ± 0.3. Factors like systolic BP, Hb level, serum levels of cholesterol, calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone and albumin were not significantly associated with the weekly Kt/V. We conclude that the dose of PD received by the majority of our patients in terms of the weekly Kt/V is within the recommended values and that this finding is significant considering the low socioeconomic background of our patients. There is no significant association between Kt/V and other indices of dialysis adequacy.

  15. Assessing the performance of methods to detect and quantify African dust in airborne particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Mar; Salvador, Pedro; Artíñano, Begoña; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Pey, Jorge; Latz, Achim J; Cabañas, Mercè; Moreno, Teresa; García dos Santos, Saúl; Herce, María Dolores; Diez Hernández, Pablo; Romero García, Dolores; Fernández-Patier, Rosalía

    2010-12-01

    African dust (AD) contributions to particulate matter (PM) levels may be reported by Member States to the European Commission during justification of exceedances of the daily limit value (DLV). However, the detection and subsequent quantification of the AD contribution to PM levels is complex, and only two measurement-based methods are available in the literature: the Spanish-Portuguese reference method (SPR), and the Tel Aviv University method (TAU). In the present study, both methods were assessed. The SPR method was more conservative in the detection of episodes (71 days identified as AD by SPR, vs 81 by TAU), as it is less affected by interferences with local dust sources. The mean annual contribution of AD was lower with the TAU method than with SPR (2.7 vs 3.5 ± 1.5 μg/m(3)). The SPR and TAU AD time series were correlated with daily aluminum levels (a known tracer of AD), as well as with an AD source identified by the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor model. Higher r(2) values were obtained with the SPR method than with TAU in both cases (r(2) = 0.72 vs 0.56, y = 0.05x vs y = 0.06x with aluminum levels; r(2)=0.79 vs 0.43, y = 0.8x vs y = 0.4x with the PMF source). We conclude that the SPR method is more adequate from an EU policy perspective (justification of DLV exceedances) due to the fact that it is more conservative than the TAU method. Based on our results, the TAU method requires adaptation of the thresholds in the algorithm to refine detection of low-impact episodes and avoid misclassification of local events as AD.

  16. Migrants Examined for Determinants of psychopathology through INternet Assessment ( MEDINA) study : a cross-sectional study among visitors of an Internet community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Madelien Hermina; van der Krieke, Lian; Schoevers, Robert Anton

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Migration is a risk factor for the onset of psychopathology. A range of social factors may play a role in the aetiology of psychiatric disorders in migrants. A better understanding of these associations is needed to develop preventive interventions to reduce the disease burden in the mi

  17. Assessment of Flooring Renovations on African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) Behavior and Glucocorticoid Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Sarah A; Roberts, Beth; Pope, Brittany M; Blake, Margaret R; Leavelle, Stephen E; Marshall, Jennifer J; Smith, Andrew; Hadicke, Amanda; Falcone, Josephine F; Knott, Katrina; Kouba, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Captive African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants can experience foot pathologies and arthritis. As a preventative measure against these pathologies and to alleviate the potential discomfort due to concrete substrates, some zoological institutions have renovated elephant housing to increase the amount of natural or shock-absorbent substrates. The objective of this study was to compare behavioral (diurnal and nocturnal) and glucorticoid (e.g., serum cortisol) responses of three female African elephants before, during, and after renovation to their indoor housing floor to assess whether renovations had short-term effects on the elephants' behavior and stress physiology. Behavioral data were collected using scan-sampling methods, and activity budgets were constructed for each of the three elephants. In addition, the duration of all lying rest activities were recorded. Weekly serum cortisol concentrations were determined with enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Overall, eating was the most prevalent behavior exhibited outdoors during the day, while resting (either in a lying or standing position) were most common during the indoor, nocturnal periods. Although variation existed among the three elephants, all three females spent significantly more time walking and less time eating during the day after the completion of the renovations. The extent to which the three elephants exhibited nocturnal lying rest behavior varied among the elephants, with the oldest elephant exhibiting the least amount (an average of 13.2 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans) compared to the two younger elephants (an average of 34.5 ± 2.1% and 56.6 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans). There was a significant increase in lying rest behavior for one elephant and standing rest for a second elephant following renovations. Baseline cortisol concentrations prior to renovations were 3.0 ± 0.4 ng/ml, 4.5 ± 0.5 ng/ml, and 4.9 ± 0.5 ng/ml for the three elephants. Cortisol

  18. Assessment of Flooring Renovations on African Elephant (Loxodonta africana Behavior and Glucocorticoid Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Boyle

    Full Text Available Captive African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus elephants can experience foot pathologies and arthritis. As a preventative measure against these pathologies and to alleviate the potential discomfort due to concrete substrates, some zoological institutions have renovated elephant housing to increase the amount of natural or shock-absorbent substrates. The objective of this study was to compare behavioral (diurnal and nocturnal and glucorticoid (e.g., serum cortisol responses of three female African elephants before, during, and after renovation to their indoor housing floor to assess whether renovations had short-term effects on the elephants' behavior and stress physiology. Behavioral data were collected using scan-sampling methods, and activity budgets were constructed for each of the three elephants. In addition, the duration of all lying rest activities were recorded. Weekly serum cortisol concentrations were determined with enzyme immunoassay (EIA. Overall, eating was the most prevalent behavior exhibited outdoors during the day, while resting (either in a lying or standing position were most common during the indoor, nocturnal periods. Although variation existed among the three elephants, all three females spent significantly more time walking and less time eating during the day after the completion of the renovations. The extent to which the three elephants exhibited nocturnal lying rest behavior varied among the elephants, with the oldest elephant exhibiting the least amount (an average of 13.2 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans compared to the two younger elephants (an average of 34.5 ± 2.1% and 56.6 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans. There was a significant increase in lying rest behavior for one elephant and standing rest for a second elephant following renovations. Baseline cortisol concentrations prior to renovations were 3.0 ± 0.4 ng/ml, 4.5 ± 0.5 ng/ml, and 4.9 ± 0.5 ng/ml for the three elephants

  19. "Migrant Mother" by Dorothea Lange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Carole

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that the photograph, "Migrant Mother," is recognized throughout the world. Provides a three-part instructional unit on Dorothea Lange and social issues related to migrant workers. Includes four photographs by Lange, including the most well-known, "Migrant Mother 5." (CFR)

  20. [Risk assessment and control measures for import of African schistosomiasis into China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, You-Sheng; Wang, Wei; Hong, Qing-Biao; Dai, Jian-Rong

    2013-06-01

    The habitats of Biomphalaria straminea, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, have been found in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Shenzhen City of People's Republic of China. Currently, there is a sharp increase in the number of Africa-aid projects and workers moving to Africa, and more and more cases infected with S. mansoni or S. haematobium returning from African countries have been detected in China. The possibility of transmission of African schistosomiasis in Chinese mainland, in the context of global climate warming, has received much attention. This paper illustrates the risk of transmission of African schistosomiasis in China based on biological and epidemiological features, and proposes interventions to tackle the risk.

  1. Case-control assessment of diet and lung cancer risk in African Americans and Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillow, P C; Hursting, S D; Duphorne, C M; Jiang, H; Honn, S E; Chang, S; Spitz, M R

    1997-01-01

    In this case-control study we determined whether dietary differences underlie some of the ethnic and sex differences in US lung cancer rates. We examined the relationship between diet and lung cancer development in 137 lung cancer cases (93 African Americans and 44 Mexican Americans) and 187 controls (78 African Americans and 109 Mexican Americans). Cases reported a higher daily mean total fat intake (p fruits (p = 0.02). Ethnic differences in diet were also observed: Mexican Americans consumed less total fat (p fruits (p lung cancer risk (p fruit consumption and lung cancer risk (p = 0.05). In conclusion, our findings support the hypothesis that diet, particularly high fat consumption and low fruit and vegetable consumption, contributes (independent of cigarette smoking) to the excess lung cancer risk in African-American men, who have the highest lung cancer rates in the United States.

  2. Assessing the Reliability, Factor Structure, and Validity of the African Self-Consciousness Scale in a General Population of African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Julie E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This paper investigates the psychometric properties of the African Self-Consciousness (ASC) Scale in a noncollege heterogeneous population of 147 African Americans to determine the reliability and validity of the ASC Scale. Based on analysis of the scale's reliability, factor structure, and construct validity, the study shows the ASC Scale to be a…

  3. A critical assessment of the key success factors of social media as a marketing tool in the South African tourism industry / Clarise Letitia Mostert

    OpenAIRE

    Mostert, Clarise Letitia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to critically assess the key success factors of social media as a marketing tool in the South African tourism industry. Numerous studies have been done on social media, but none of them were focused on optimising the success of social media in the South African tourism industry. Relationship marketing and social media is interrelated, where relationships form the foundation of social media. Social media has become the world’s latest marketing marvel, dissemina...

  4. Emprendedores migrantes en Cartagena

    OpenAIRE

    Madrid Guijarro, Antonia; Rosique Blasco, Mario; García Pérez De Lema, Domingo; Mula Cruz, Antonio; Hernández Martínez, Lucía; Mora Quinto, Manuel; Navarro Aracil, Salvador; García Valenzuela López, Francisco; Cerón Mora, Fulgencio Luis; Martínez Victorio, Joaquín; Requena Gómez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Este estudio elaborado por la UPCT e impulsado por la Concejalía de Atención Social y la Agencia de Desarrollo Local en colaboración ACCEM y CEPAIM, ha revelado la situación de los emprendedores migrantes del municipio de Cartagena. El perfil del emprendedor migrante que revela esta encuesta es la de un hombre, predominantemente de origen magrebí, que montó su negocio del sector de la alimentación y restauración, para obtener una mayor independencia y autonomía, con dinero que tenía ahorrado ...

  5. Making Migrants Governable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenum, Helle

    2012-01-01

    This paper will investigate the production of knowledge regarding the number of illegalized migrants. Estimation of the number has been the common frame for production of this kind of knowledge, performed by social scientists, government officials, NGOs and others, but now biometric technology...... by biometric technology will produce increased objectivity and depolitization in numbers of irregular migrants which could not be obtained in the field of estimation. The level of truth reflects the level of control and surveillance fixed as a strategy of government of mobility in the biometric technology....

  6. The Literature Review of Information Literacy Assessment Standard for Rural-to-Urban Migrants%农转城新市民信息素养评价标准综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张必兰; 吴诗贤; 刘军

    2015-01-01

    The information literacy assessment standard is the basis of information literacy education and information literacy assessment. This paper summarizes the research results of assessment of information literacy at home and abroad, analyzes the research status, main directions and research trend of the information literacy assessment standard. Finally, the research problem about rural-to-urban migrants is emphatically summarized and analyzed.%信息素养标准是开展信息素养教育和评价的依据。论文梳理了国内外信息素养评价的研究成果,分析了国内外信息素养评价的研究现状、主要研究方向、研究趋势,并重点对新市民相关的研究进行了综述分析。

  7. Pharmacophore modeling and in silico toxicity assessment of potential anticancer agents from African medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntie-Kang F

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fidele Ntie-Kang,1,2,* Conrad Veranso Simoben,1,2,* Berin Karaman,1 Valery Fuh Ngwa,3 Philip Neville Judson,4 Wolfgang Sippl,1 Luc Meva’a Mbaze5 1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Martin-Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale, Germany; 2Department of Chemistry, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon; 3Interuniversity Institute For Biostatistics and Statistical Bioinformatics (I-BioStat, University of Hasselt, Hasselt, Belgium; 4Chemical Bioactivity Information Centre, Harrogate, UK; 5Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Molecular modeling has been employed in the search for lead compounds of chemotherapy to fight cancer. In this study, pharmacophore models have been generated and validated for use in virtual screening protocols for eight known anticancer drug targets, including tyrosine kinase, protein kinase B β, cyclin-dependent kinase, protein farnesyltransferase, human protein kinase, glycogen synthase kinase, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1. Pharmacophore models were validated through receiver operating characteristic and Güner–Henry scoring methods, indicating that several of the models generated could be useful for the identification of potential anticancer agents from natural product databases. The validated pharmacophore models were used as three-dimensional search queries for virtual screening of the newly developed AfroCancer database (~400 compounds from African medicinal plants, along with the Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anticancer Compound-Activity-Target dataset (comprising ~1,500 published naturally occurring plant-based compounds from around the world. Additionally, an in silico assessment of toxicity of the two datasets was carried out by the use of 88 toxicity end points predicted by the Lhasa’s expert knowledge-based system (Derek, showing that only an insignificant proportion of the promising

  8. Care during pregnancy and childbirth for migrant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2016-01-01

    The increased risk of adverse pregnancy and childbirth outcomes demonstrated for many non-Western migrants in Europe, Australia and North America may be due to inadequate use and suboptimal quality of care. It is indicated that a poor user-provider interaction leads to inequity of pregnancy...... and health-care providers. We present the Danish MAMAACT study as a strategic perspective on how to move forward, and we describe methodological steps in intervention development. Based on a mixed method needs assessment, the MAMAACT study aimed to enhance the communication between migrant women and midwives...... and delivery care. This review demonstrated that there is no evidence of best practice antenatal care for migrant women. Health system interventions for improved maternal and child health among migrants should be based on thorough needs assessments, contextual understanding and involvement of the target group...

  9. Migrant Workers: Urban Underclass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China has 130 million migrant workers in cities,according to official statistics. The term "farmer" carries quite different connotations in China than in the West, where farming is a profession taken up by well-educated people and involves large-scale mechanical production. In the West, farmers enjoy the same social status as urban dwellers.

  10. Migrants in Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kerry D.

    Migration patterns, health standards, living conditions, and educational opportunities are the highlights of this report of migrant farm workers in Utah. A review of the migratory worker streams in the United States reveals that most migratory workers in Utah come from the Rio Grande valley area of southwest United States. Because most are Mexican…

  11. Assessment of genotype imputation performance using 1000 Genomes in African American studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana B Hancock

    Full Text Available Genotype imputation, used in genome-wide association studies to expand coverage of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, has performed poorly in African Americans compared to less admixed populations. Overall, imputation has typically relied on HapMap reference haplotype panels from Africans (YRI, European Americans (CEU, and Asians (CHB/JPT. The 1000 Genomes project offers a wider range of reference populations, such as African Americans (ASW, but their imputation performance has had limited evaluation. Using 595 African Americans genotyped on Illumina's HumanHap550v3 BeadChip, we compared imputation results from four software programs (IMPUTE2, BEAGLE, MaCH, and MaCH-Admix and three reference panels consisting of different combinations of 1000 Genomes populations (February 2012 release: (1 3 specifically selected populations (YRI, CEU, and ASW; (2 8 populations of diverse African (AFR or European (AFR descent; and (3 all 14 available populations (ALL. Based on chromosome 22, we calculated three performance metrics: (1 concordance (percentage of masked genotyped SNPs with imputed and true genotype agreement; (2 imputation quality score (IQS; concordance adjusted for chance agreement, which is particularly informative for low minor allele frequency [MAF] SNPs; and (3 average r2hat (estimated correlation between the imputed and true genotypes, for all imputed SNPs. Across the reference panels, IMPUTE2 and MaCH had the highest concordance (91%-93%, but IMPUTE2 had the highest IQS (81%-83% and average r2hat (0.68 using YRI+ASW+CEU, 0.62 using AFR+EUR, and 0.55 using ALL. Imputation quality for most programs was reduced by the addition of more distantly related reference populations, due entirely to the introduction of low frequency SNPs (MAF≤2% that are monomorphic in the more closely related panels. While imputation was optimized by using IMPUTE2 with reference to the ALL panel (average r2hat = 0.86 for SNPs with MAF>2%, use of the ALL

  12. Health services for reproductive tract infections among female migrant workers in industrial zones in Ha Noi, Viet Nam: an in-depth assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Le; Pham Lien; Vu Lan; Schelling Esther

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Rural-to-urban migration involves a high proportion of females because job opportunities for female migrants have increased in urban industrial areas. Those who migrate may be healthier than those staying in the village and they may benefit from better health care services at destination, but the 'healthy' effect can be reversed at destination due to migration-related health risk factors. The study aimed to explore the need for health care services for reproductive tract i...

  13. Attitudes Towards Migrant Workers in the GCC: Evidence from Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Diop, Abdoulaye; Tessler, Mark; Trung Le, Kien; Al-Emadi, Darwish; Howell, David

    2012-01-01

    With the majority of Qatar’s total population made up of foreigners (high-skilled and low-skilled migrant workers), Qatari nationals may feel that there are significant challenges for their society; despite the absence of employment competition, this may lead many Qataris to see problems as well as benefits in the presence of these migrant workers in their country. Using a split-sample technique, Qataris’ attitudes towards these foreigners were assessed. Results suggest that Qa...

  14. Using a Household Food Inventory to Assess the Availability of Traditional Vegetables among Resettled African Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gichunge, Catherine; Somerset, Shawn; Harris, Neil

    2016-01-18

    A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availability were less likely to consume the recommended number of vegetable servings. Barriers faced in the food environment included language, lack of availability of traditional vegetables and lack of transport. All of these aspects contributed to the study findings that both individual and food environment characteristics may play a role in access to and availability of food and vegetable consumption of resettled refugees. Consumption of traditional foods among the resettled refugees continues post resettlement.

  15. Using a Household Food Inventory to Assess the Availability of Traditional Vegetables among Resettled African Refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Gichunge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availability were less likely to consume the recommended number of vegetable servings. Barriers faced in the food environment included language, lack of availability of traditional vegetables and lack of transport. All of these aspects contributed to the study findings that both individual and food environment characteristics may play a role in access to and availability of food and vegetable consumption of resettled refugees. Consumption of traditional foods among the resettled refugees continues post resettlement.

  16. HIV/AIDS and Croatian migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Brouillard, Pamela; Nikolić, Nebojga; Greiner, Nina

    2006-12-01

    Due to their geographical mobility and long periods of separation from intimate partners, migrant workers are at increased risk for a variety of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS. This study sought to investigate patterns in HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitudes and sexual behaviour in migrant workers in Croatia. In 2003, 566 male migrant workers were recruited during regular required medical examinations and surveyed at seven locations throughout the country. Each participant was asked to complete a self-administered KABP (sexual knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices) questionnaire. The average age of respondents was 38.2 years and the majority worked as seafarers (77.3%) and construction workers (20.5%). Only 18.5% of respondents were able to correctly answer all 13 questions assessing knowledge of HIV/AIDS. Seafarers reported higher levels of knowledge than did construction workers. The average respondent reported having had two sexual partners in the last 12 months, with slightly over half of the respondents (55.3%) reporting condom use at their last intercourse with a casual partner. One fifth of the respondents (20.3%) who reported having had intercourse with a sex worker during the last year reported not using condoms at last intercourse. The number of sexual partners was correlated with age, marital status, faith in God, and personal HIV risk assessment. Attitudes toward condom use, co-workers' HIV/AIDS concerns and the duration of migrant status (within the last two years) were shown to be significant correlates of condom use at last intercourse with a casual partner. The effect of HIV/AIDS related knowledge on analyzed behaviors did not reach statistical significance. Inadequate patterns of migrant workers' condom use, gaps in knowledge about HIV transmission and modes of protection, as well as widespread ignorance regarding available anonymous HIV testing found by this study suggest a critical need for expert intervention to

  17. Renewable rural electrification. Sustainability assessment of mini-hybrid off-grid technological systems in the African context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent, Alan Colin [Resource Based Sustainable Development, Natural Resources and the Environment, CSIR, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Graduate School of Technology Management, University of Pretoria (South Africa); Rogers, David E. [Energy and Processes, Material Science and Manufacturing, CSIR, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2010-01-15

    The investigation summarised in this paper applied a sustainability assessment methodology on a renewable energy technological system in a rural village project that was commissioned by the South African Department of Minerals and Energy. The project comprised of wind, solar and lead-acid battery energy storage technologies that were implemented as a mini-hybrid off-grid electrification system for the village. The sustainability assessment methodology predicts the outcomes of such interventions by way of a learning model using discipline experts in the fields of economics, sociology, ecosystem sustainability, institutional governance, and the physics and chemistry of energy conversion processes. The comparison of the project's outcomes with a South African sustainable development framework shows that the specific village renewable off-grid electrification system is not viable. The main reason is that charges for electricity supply costs in village grids are too high for available subsidies; the economies of scale for renewable energy supply technologies favour national grids. The failure of the integrated system may also be attributable to the complexity of the social-institutional sub-system, which resulted in uncertainty for project planners and system designers, and the lack of resilience of the technological system to demands from the socio-economic and institutional sub-systems. Policy-related recommendations are made accordingly. (author)

  18. Assessment of a Culturally-Tailored Sexual Health Education Program for African American Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Zellner Lawrence

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available African American youth are affected disproportionately by sexually transmitted infections (STIs, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, and teenage pregnancy when compared to other racial groups. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the To Help Young People Establish (2 HYPE Abstinence Club, a behavioral intervention designed to promote delayed sexual activity among African American youth ages 12–18 in Atlanta, Georgia. The intervention included 20 h of curriculum and creative arts instruction. Pre- and post-intervention survey data collected from 2008–2010 were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. Intervention (n = 651 and comparison (n = 112 groups were compared through analysis of variance and multivariate logistic regression models. There was a statistically significant increase in intervention youth who were thinking about being abstinent (p = 0.0005. Those who had not been engaged in sexual activity were two times more likely to plan abstinence compared to participants that had been previously sexually active previously (odds ratio 2.41; 95% confidence interval 1.62, 3.60. Significant results hold implications for subsequent community-based participatory research and practice that broadens the understanding of the relevance of marriage, as just one among other life success milestones that may hold more importance to African American youth in positioning the value of delayed and responsible sexual activity towards effective STIs, HIV/AIDS, and teen pregnancy risk reduction interventions.

  19. Assessing Collectivism in Latino, Asian/Pacific Islander, and African American Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Psychometric Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauceda, John A; Paul, Jay P; Gregorich, Steven E; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2016-02-01

    The study of collectivism has implications for HIV prevention research, especially in studies that use a social networking or community mobilization approach. However, research on collectivism in race/ethnicity and sexual minority groups is limited. We psychometrically evaluated a brief version of the Individualism-Collectivism Interpersonal Assessment Inventory (ICIAI) in a chain-referral sample of 400 Latino, 393 Asian/Pacific Islander, and 403 African American men who have sex with men (MSM). Data were collected via a one-time survey on demographics, the ICIAI, acculturation, and ethnicity identity. We conducted a multiple groups confirmatory factor analysis to assess for measurement invariance across the three groups of MSM, as well as tested its reliability and validity. The ICIAI evidenced good psychometric properties and was invariant across all groups. We highlight implications for how this measure of collectivism can be applied toward the study of HIV prevention and in lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender communities.

  20. Labour market specific institutions and the working conditions of labour migrants:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnholtz, Jens; Hansen, Nana Wesley

    2013-01-01

    Based on a respondent driven sampling survey with 500 Polish migrant workers in Denmark, this article argues that specific labour market institutions and sector differences need to be taken into account when explaining the working conditions of migrant workers. Comparing the working conditions of...... such as institutionalized wage variability within sectors and the decentralized regulation of working conditions are important when assessing the potential implication of migrant workers in the labour market....

  1. Age determination by back length for African savanna elephants: extending age assessment techniques for aerial-based surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan J Trimble

    Full Text Available Determining the age of individuals in a population can lead to a better understanding of population dynamics through age structure analysis and estimation of age-specific fecundity and survival rates. Shoulder height has been used to accurately assign age to free-ranging African savanna elephants. However, back length may provide an analog measurable in aerial-based surveys. We assessed the relationship between back length and age for known-age elephants in Amboseli National Park, Kenya, and Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. We also compared age- and sex-specific back lengths between these populations and compared adult female back lengths across 11 widely dispersed populations in five African countries. Sex-specific Von Bertalanffy growth curves provided a good fit to the back length data of known-age individuals. Based on back length, accurate ages could be assigned relatively precisely for females up to 23 years of age and males up to 17. The female back length curve allowed more precise age assignment to older females than the curve for shoulder height does, probably because of divergence between the respective growth curves. However, this did not appear to be the case for males, but the sample of known-age males was limited to ≤27 years. Age- and sex-specific back lengths were similar in Amboseli National Park and Addo Elephant National Park. Furthermore, while adult female back lengths in the three Zambian populations were generally shorter than in other populations, back lengths in the remaining eight populations did not differ significantly, in support of claims that growth patterns of African savanna elephants are similar over wide geographic regions. Thus, the growth curves presented here should allow researchers to use aerial-based surveys to assign ages to elephants with greater precision than previously possible and, therefore, to estimate population variables.

  2. China's Migrant Workers' Social Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Sifeng; Zhang Wenxue; Wang Lijian; Zhang Li

    2010-01-01

    Based on the definition of migrant workers and migrant workers'social security,systems,policies and regulations and status quo of specific safeguard project of social security have been analyzed.Authors draw following conclusions: China's social security systems of migrant workers show diversification and differentiation trend; national-level policies take on diversification and local-level regulations take on differentiation; social welfare and social assistance have deficiency; coverage rate of social insurance items is extremely low.

  3. “NGOs” Defending Migrant Workers’ Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Froissart, Chloé

    2012-01-01

    In the absence of trade union freedoms, “NGOs” have emerged to defend migrant workers’ rights. This article takes a close look at the mobilisation of such organisations, assesses their short-term impact, and examines their role in China’s political system. NGOs display a new form of activism based on pragmatic positioning and technical knowhow, especially in legal matters, all the while testing political boundaries. While such organisations act as a real counterweight within the system whose ...

  4. Assessment of ovarian cycles in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) by measurement of salivary progesterone metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illera, Juan-Carlos; Silván, Gema; Cáceres, Sara; Carbonell, Maria-Dolores; Gerique, Cati; Martínez-Fernández, Leticia; Munro, Coralie; Casares, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring ovarian cycles through hormonal analysis is important in order to improve breeding management of captive elephants, and non-invasive collection techniques are particularly interesting for this purpose. However, there are some practical difficulties in collecting proper samples, and easier and more practical methods may be an advantage for some institutions and/or some animals. This study describes the development and validation of an enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) for progestins in salivary samples of African elephants, Loxodonta africana. Weekly urinary and salivary samples from five non-pregnant elephant cows aged 7-12 years were obtained for 28 weeks and analyzed using EIA. Both techniques correlated positively (r = 0.799; P < 0.001), and the cycle characteristics obtained were identical. The results clearly show that ovarian cycles can be monitored by measuring progestins from salivary samples in the African elephant. This is a simple and non-invasive method that may be a practical alternative to other sampling methods used in the species.

  5. Latino Migrant Parent Influence on Latino Migrant Student University Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Migrant families have long been victims of their unusual lifestyle. High poverty conditions combined with constant mobility in search for agricultural work have contributed to their challenging lifestyle. As a result, Latino migrant students are among the least likely to graduate from high school and pursue a college degree. However, in spite of…

  6. World region of origin and common mental disorders among migrant women in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Dolores; Mendieta-Marichal, Yaiza; Martínez-Ortega, José M; Agrela, María; Ariza, Carmen; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis; Araya, Ricardo; Lewis, Glyn; Gurpegui, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Migration can affect the mental health of migrants. This cross-sectional study has two objectives: (1) to compare the prevalence of common mental disorder (CMD) between migrants (n = 458) living in Granada (Spain) and Spanish-born women (n = 448); (2) within migrants, to analyse the associations of world region of origin, other sociodemographic factors and post-migration features with the presence of CMD. Participants answered a questionnaire, including sociodemographic characteristics, post-migration features and CMD that was measured by Kessler K6-scale. Logistic regression analyses showed that CMD (K6 ≥ 13) was significantly higher among migrants than Spaniards. Compared with Spaniards, the odds of CMD were 3.6 [95 % confidence intervals (CI) 2.1–6.0] and 2.9 (CI 1.6–5.3), respectively, for Latin Americans and for Moroccan and other African women. Among migrants, Latin Americans as opposed to the reference group (migrants from other countries), had higher probability of CMD (OR 2.3, CI 1.1–4.9). This study supports the hypothesis that migration leads to mental distress. Consideration of world region of origin may clarify the differences observed in mental health across different migrant groups.

  7. Racial Bias in Personality Assessment: Using the MMPI-2 to Predict Psychiatric Diagnoses of African American and Caucasian Chemical Dependency Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnot, Matthew J.; Quirk, Stuart W.; Hoerger, Michael; Brewer, Linda

    2009-01-01

    An assessment of predictive bias was conducted on numerous scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; J. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989), including the Restructured Clinical (RC) scales, in the prediction of clinical diagnostic status for African American and Caucasian male…

  8. Repatriation and translocation of ungulates into South African national parks: an assessment of past attempts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Novellie

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of 36 attempts to repatriate or translocate ungulates into South African national parks are examined. Habitat suitability appeared to be an important factor influencing the success rate. Of six cases in which individuals were translocated outside the range occupied by the species in historical times, only one succeeded. Of 10 cases where the park was within the historical range of the species but the habitat was rated as unsuitable (little or none of the required habitat present in the park only one succeeded. In contrast 17 out of 20 cases in which the habitat was classified as adequate resulted in success. The repatriation and translocation attempts were poorly documented and this hampered identification of the factors associated with success.

  9. THE FEASIBILITY OF FINANCING INDONESIAN MIGRANT WORKERS BY ISLAMIC BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Agus Pramuka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper identifies the profile of migrant workers located in Banyumas regency, assesses the financial feasibility of the scheme, and gauges the viability of the migrant workers financing from conventional and Islamic banks’ perspectives. The samples comprises potential migrant workers, ex-migrant workers and their relatives. The nature of the study is descriptive qualitative where both primary and secondary data were analysed during the study. The result of the study indicates that financing migrant workers to work abroad is economically desirable for both conventional and Islamic banks. Either mode of financing, Islamic and conventional, are advantageous to the Indonesian workers who want to work abroad. Keywords: Feasibility study, financing, migrant workers, Islamic banks JEL classification numbers: G21, G29AbstrakMakalah ini mengidentifikasi profil pekerja migran di kabupaten Banyumas, menaksir kelayakan keuangan dari skema tersebut, dan memperkirakan kelayakan pembiyaan para pekerja migran dari perspektif bank islam dan bank konvensional. Sampel yang digunakan terdiri dari para pekerja migran potensial, bekas pekerja migran, serta keluarga mereka. Penelitian ini bersifat deskriptif kualitatif menggunakan baik data primer dan data sekunder. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa pembiayaan terhadap para pekerja migran untuk bekerja di luar negeri secara ekonomis adalah layak baik dari pserspektif bank islam maupun bank konvensional. Baik mode pembiayaan islam maupun konvensional memberikan keuntungan bagi para pekerja Indonesia yang bekerja di luar negeri.Kata kunci: Studi kelayakan, pembiayaan, pekerja migran, bank islamJEL classification numbers: G21, G29

  10. BUREAU OF MIGRANT LABOR REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    YERSAK, CHARLES G.

    A GRADUAL REDUCTION IN MIGRANT LABOR HAS OCCURRED IN NEW JERSEY BECAUSE OF MECHANIZATION AND URBANIZATION. THIS REDUCTION IS REFLECTED IN FEWER ACTIVE CAMPS THAT HOUSE WORKERS. THE TREND IS AWAY FROM THE USE OF FRAME BUILDINGS AND NEW CAMPS BEING BUILT ARE CONSTRUCTED OF CINDER BLOCK. THE MIGRANT FORCE IS LARGELY COMPOSED OF NEGROES FROM THE SOUTH…

  11. Migrant Ministry, 1967. Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council of Churches of Christ, New York, NY.

    The first annual meeting of the Migrant Ministry Section discussed and evaluated 10 policy and program goals established for the Fifth Decade. The result was the adoption and assignment for implementation of recommendations in 5 Task Force areas concerning migrant labor, education, and training. Significant parts of 35 state reports are presented…

  12. HOW OHIO HELPS MIGRANT CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth S. Magee Education and Research Foundation, Inc., Cleveland, OH.

    PRESENTED WERE PROBLEMS OF OHIO MIGRANT WORKERS, MOSTLY TEXANS OF MEXICAN BACKGROUND, WHOSE CHILDREN WERE DEFICIENT IN EDUCATIONAL GROWTH. THE GROWTH OF THE SUMMER SCHOOL PROGRAM BEGAN IN 1957 WITH AN INVESTIGATION THAT POINTED OUT THE NEED OF SUCH SCHOOLS FOR MIGRANT CHILDREN. IN 1958, TWO SUMMER SCHOOL CLASSES WERE HELD, IN 1959, THE TWO CLASSES…

  13. Refugees, Migrants, and Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sonia; Infirri, Jennifer Sardo

    1996-01-01

    Migrant and refugee communities must be considered as high-risk groups for poor general and oral health. Limited access to basic necessities, risky behavior, and a mismatch between services and health belief systems of migrants and refugees are contributing factors. (SLD)

  14. Health Care Utilization among Migrant Latino Farmworkers: The Case of Skin Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Steven R.; Vallejos, Quirina M.; Quandt, Sara A.; Fleischer, Alan B., Jr.; Schulz, Mark R.; Verma, Amit; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Skin diseases are common occupational illnesses for migrant farmworkers. Farmworkers face many barriers in accessing health care resources. Purpose: Framed by the Health Behavior Model, the purpose of this study was to assess health care utilization for skin disease by migrant Latino farmworkers. Methods: Three hundred and four migrant…

  15. Internal Migration and Depressive Symptoms among Migrant Factory Workers in Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Jin; Cheng, Jinquan; Griffiths, Sian M.; Wong, Samuel Y. S.; Hillier, Sheila; Zhang, Dan

    2011-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in rural-urban migration in China over the last two decades but there are few studies on the mental health of Chinese internal migrants. This study assesses the prevalence of depressive symptoms (DS) and their associated factors among migrant factory workers in Shenzhen, China. A questionnaire survey was sent to…

  16. "Teachers Should Be Like Us!" Bridging Migrant Communities to Rural Michigan Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrez, J. Estrella

    2014-01-01

    A brief sketch, as provided by the 2010 Michigan Migrant Head Start Community Assessment, describes Michigan migrant students in the following terms: (1) approximately 17.5% are high school graduates; (2) 92.46% live in homes where Spanish is the preferred language; and (3) 93.3% live below the poverty line. These circumstances create a…

  17. Challenges and Solutions for Educating Migrant Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Edgar

    This paper overviews challenges and solutions for educating migrant students in Michigan. The majority of migrant workers in the United States are Hispanic men with families. Data indicate that only about a fifth of migrant children complete education beyond the sixth grade. Migrant students tend to fall behind in their education because they…

  18. Africans and the myth of rural retirement in South Africa, ca 1900-1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Aran S

    2008-06-01

    The South African mining industry relied upon a massive African migrant workforce from the rural areas. Rural transformations in this migrant labor system form an important part of the story of developing capitalism in industrializing South Africa. Yet, recent historical studies on southern African migrant and rural wage labor have paid little attention to life adjustments made by the elderly and those 'burned out' by the mines and forced to leave formal wage employment in the urban areas. The South African segregationist state's rhetoric implied that 'retired' Africans could find economic security in their designated rural reserves. Indeed, legislation sought to prohibit Africans who were not employed from remaining in the 'white' urban areas. By the 1930s, however, the reserves were rapidly deteriorating. Many elderly Africans could not retire and were forced to seek wage labor. This raises significant questions about how retirement came to be defined and experienced by Africans in South Africa during a critical period of dramatic economic decline in the 1930s and 40s, and what the underlying material circumstances of African South Africans were with regard to adaptations to employment and ageing-related life changes. In many cases, elderly Africans were forced to forgo retirement, and find wage labor, usually in the most poorly paid, least sought-after or dangerous fields of employment. This article thus seeks to illuminate critical generational dimensions of the impact of segregation and racism in South Africa prior to the formal articulation of Apartheid.

  19. Remuneration Difference between Migrant Workers and Non-migrant Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changlin; DUAN; Huawei; LUO

    2013-01-01

    Through the survey of direct economic remuneration, indirect economic remuneration and non-economic remuneration of employees in flat panel furniture enterprises in Chengdu City, we conduct a comparative analysis of the problems and causes of remuneration difference between migrant workers and non-migrant workers. The results show that the wage difference between migrant workers and non-migrant workers is the biggest, and there is little difference in terms of interests safeguarding and non-economic factors. The reason for the above results lies in the difference of education level; gender, region, household registration and other issues have little impact on the above results. The following recommendations are put forward to improve the remuneration of migrant workers: increasing government’s policy advocacy efforts and eliminating subjective offense; establishing the administrative oversight bodies and effectively safeguarding the legitimate rights and interests of migrant workers; strengthening vocational training for migrant workers, so that workers have more choices on positions; improving the working environment and developing good working atmosphere.

  20. Depression in Europe: does migrant integration have mental health payoffs? A cross-national comparison of 20 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levecque, Katia; Van Rossem, Ronan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Depression is a leading cause of ill health and disability. As migrants form an increasing group in Europe, already making up about 8.7% of the population in 2010, knowledge on migrant-related inequalities in depression is of main public health interest. In this study, we first assess whether migrants in Europe are at higher risk for depression compared to the native population. Second, we assess whether the association between migration and depression is dependent on different forms of migrant integration. Migrant integration is looked at both from the individual and from the national level. Design. Hierarchical linear regression analyses based on data for 20 countries in the European Social Survey 2006/2007 (N = 37,076 individuals aged 15 or more). Depression is measured using the center for Epidemiologic Depression Scale. We consider migrant integration over time (first- and second-generation migrants, differentiated according to European Union (EU) or non-EU origin), barriers to integration (low educational level, financial difficulties, being out of the labor market, ethnic minority status, discrimination), and the host country environment (national migrant integration policy). Controls are gender, age, partner relationship, social support, and welfare state regime. Results. Natives and second-generation migrants do not differ significantly in their risk profile for depression. First-generation migrants show higher levels of depression, with those born outside of Europe to be the worst off. This higher risk for depression is not attributable to ethnic minority status but is mainly due to experienced barriers to socioeconomic integration and processes of discrimination. A country's national policy on migrant integration shows not to soften the depressing effect of being a first-generation migrant nor does it have indirect beneficial health effects by reducing barriers to integration. Conclusion. In Europe, first-generation EU and non-EU migrants

  1. Factors associated with health-seeking behavior among migrant workers in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Hongpu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migrant workers are a unique phenomenon in the process of China's economic transformation. The household registration system classifies them as temporary residents in cities, putting them in a vulnerable state with an unfair share of urban infrastructure and social public welfare. The amount of pressure inflicted by migrant workers in Beijing, as one of the major migration destinations, is currently at a threshold. This study was designed to assess the factors associated with health-seeking behavior and to explore feasible solutions to the obstacles migrant workers in China faced with when accessing health-care. Methods A sample of 2,478 migrant workers in Beijing was chosen by the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method. A structured questionnaire survey was conducted via face-to-face interviews between investigators and subjects. The multilevel methodology (MLM was used to demonstrate the independent effects of the explanatory variables on health seeking behavior in migrant workers. Results The medical visitation rate of migrant workers within the past two weeks was 4.8%, which only accounted for 36.4% of those who were ill. Nearly one-third of the migrant workers chose self-medication (33.3% or no measures (30.3% while ill within the past two weeks. 19.7% of the sick migrants who should have been hospitalized failed to receive medical treatment within the past year. According to self-reported reasons, the high cost of health service was a significant obstacle to health-care access for 40.5% of the migrant workers who became sick. However, 94.0% of the migrant workers didn't have any insurance coverage in Beijing. The multilevel model analysis indicates that health-seeking behavior among migrants is significantly associated with their insurance coverage. Meanwhile, such factors as household monthly income per capita and working hours per day also affect the medical visitation rate of the migrant workers in Beijing

  2. Assessment of aerosol-cloud interactions during southern African biomass burning activity, employing cloud parameterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiston, Modise; McFiggans, Gordon; Schultz, David

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we perform a simulation of the spatial distributions of particle and gas concentrations from a significantly large source of pollution event during a dry season in southern Africa and their interactions with cloud processes. Specific focus is on the extent to which cloud-aerosol interactions are affected by various inputs (i.e. emissions) and parameterizations and feedback mechanisms in a coupled mesoscale chemistry-meteorology model -herein Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem). The southern African dry season (May-Sep) is characterised by biomass burning (BB) type of pollution. During this period, BB particles are frequently observed over the subcontinent, at the same time a persistent deck of stratocumulus covers the south West African coast, favouring long-range transport over the Atlantic Ocean of aerosols above clouds. While anthropogenic pollutants tend to spread more over the entire domain, biomass pollutants are concentrated around the burning areas, especially the savannah and tropical rainforest of the Congo Basin. BB is linked to agricultural practice at latitudes south of 10° N. During an intense burning event, there is a clear signal of strong interactions of aerosols and cloud microphysics. These species interfere with the radiative budget, and directly affect the amount of solar radiation reflected and scattered back to space and partly absorbed by the atmosphere. Aerosols also affect cloud microphysics by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), modifying precipitation pattern and the cloud albedo. Key area is to understand the role of pollution on convective cloud processes and its impacts on cloud dynamics. The hypothesis is that an environment of potentially high pollution enables the probability of interactions between co-located aerosols and cloud layers. To investigate this hypothesis, we outline an approach to integrate three elements: i) focusing on regime(s) where there are strong indications of

  3. Migrantes africanos en Buenos Aires: Entre estigmatización y exotización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Minvielle

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available African Migrants in Buenos Aires: between Stigma and Exoticization Abstract Since the 1990s decade, but especially since 2000, immigrants coming mostly from West Africa, have gradually weaved the contours of a transatlantic south-south migration device between Africa and Latin America. In Buenos Aires they trade on the streets. This activity was initiated mainly by the Senegalese community.This article aims to expose the stereotypes and the relationships between the Argentine society and the African migrants in order to observe the reception of an unknown population in that part of the continent. To do this research, the ethnographic method and discourse analysis were used. The recent nature of the African migration to Argentina generates clichés and prejudices but the desire for exoticism also gives rise to fascination.

  4. Personality assessment and its association with genetic factors in captive Asian and African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Saki; Konno, Akitsugu; Tanaka, Masayuki; Idani, Gen'ichi; Ludwig, Arne; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2013-01-01

    Elephants live in a complex society based on matrilineal groups. Management of captive elephants is difficult, partly because each elephant has a unique personality. For a better understanding of elephant well being in captivity, it would be helpful to systematically evaluate elephants' personalities and their underlying biological basis. We sent elephant' personality questionnaires to keepers of 75 elephants. We also used 196 elephant DNA samples to search for genetic polymorphisms in genes expressed in the brain that have been suggested to be related to personality traits. Three genes, androgen receptor (AR), fragile X related mental retardation protein interacting protein (NUFIP2), and acheate-scute homologs 1 (ASH1) contained polymorphic regions. We examined the association of personality with intraspecific genetic variation in 17 Asian and 28 African elephants. The results suggest that the ASH1 genotype was associated with neuroticism in Asian elephants. Subjects with short alleles had lower scores of neuroticism than those with long alleles. This is the first report of an association between a genetic polymorphism and personality in elephants.

  5. GPS assessment of the use of exhibit space and resources by African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighty, Katherine A; Soltis, Joseph; Savage, Anne

    2010-01-01

    In public discussions of animal rights and welfare, we as members and proponents of zoological institutions often face significant challenges addressing the concerns of our detractors due to an unfortunate deficiency in systematically collected and published data on the animals in our collections. In the case of elephants, there has been a paucity of information describing their use of space within captive environments. Here, using collar-mounted GPS recording devices, we documented the use of exhibit space and resources by a herd of five adult female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) housed at Disney's Animal Kingdom((R)). We found that dominant animals within the herd used a greater percentage of the available space and subordinate females avoided narrow or enclosed regions of the enclosure that we termed "restricted flow areas." In their use of other resources, dominant females demonstrated increased occupation of the watering hole over subordinate females, but all females demonstrated relatively equivalent use of the mud wallow. Overall, our results provide preliminary evidence that position within the dominancy hierarchy impacts the percentage of space occupied in a captive setting and may contribute to resource accessibility. These findings can be applied to future decisions on exhibit design and resource distribution for this species.

  6. Assessing the Risk of African Swine Fever Introduction into the European Union by Wild Boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Torre, A; Bosch, J; Iglesias, I; Muñoz, M J; Mur, L; Martínez-López, B; Martínez, M; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2015-06-01

    The presence of African swine fever (ASF) in the Caucasus region and Russian Federation has increased concerns that wild boars may introduce the ASF virus into the European Union (EU). This study describes a semi-quantitative approach for evaluating the risk of ASF introduction into the EU by wild boar movements based on the following risk estimators: the susceptible population of (1) wild boars and (2) domestic pigs in the country of origin; the outbreak density in (3) wild boars and (4) domestic pigs in the countries of origin, the (5) suitable habitat for wild boars along the EU border; and the distance between the EU border and the nearest ASF outbreak in (6) wild boars or (7) domestic pigs. Sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the most influential risk estimators. The highest risk was found to be concentrated in Finland, Romania, Latvia and Poland, and wild boar habitat and outbreak density were the two most important risk estimators. Animal health authorities in at-risk countries should be aware of these risk estimators and should communicate closely with wild boar hunters and pig farmers to rapidly detect and control ASF.

  7. Assessment of the repellent effect of citronella and lemon eucalyptus oil against South African Culicoides species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Gert J; Labuschagne, Karien; Boikanyo, Solomon N B; Morey, Liesl

    2014-08-08

    The use of insect repellents to reduce the attack rate of Culicoides species (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae) should form part of an integrated control programme to combat African horse sickness and other diseases transmitted by these blood-feeding midges. In the present study the repellent effects of a commercially available mosquito repellent, a combination of citronella and lemon eucalyptus oils, on Culicoides midges was determined. The number of midges collected with two 220 V Onderstepoort traps fitted with 8 W 23 cm white light tubes and baited with peel-stick patches, each containing 40 mg of active ingredient, was compared with that of two unbaited traps. Two trials were conducted and in each trial the four traps were rotated in two replicates of a 4 x 4 randomised Latin square design. Although more midges were collected in the baited traps, the mean number in the baited and unbaited traps was not significantly different. This mosquito repellent did not influence either the species composition or the physiological groups of Culicoides imicola Kieffer. The higher mean numbers in the baited traps, although not statistically significant, may indicate that this mosquito repellent might even attract Culicoides midges under certain conditions.

  8. Assessing Vitamin D Status in African Americans and the Influence of Vitamin D on Skeletal Health Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Albert; Aloia, John F

    2017-03-01

    In the United States, there is a significant disparity in vitamin D status among individuals of African versus European descent. Despite having lower total 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels compared with white Americans, African Americans have higher bone mineral density and lower fracture risk. This article reviews classical and nonclassical vitamin D physiology, describes whether total versus free 25-hydroxyvitamin D is a better marker of vitamin D status in African Americans, and summarizes the influence of vitamin D status and vitamin D supplementation on markers of vitamin D bioactivity (intestinal calcium absorption, parathyroid hormone secretion, bone mineral density, fracture) in African Americans.

  9. Migrant fertility differentials in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundquist, F; Brown, L A

    1989-01-01

    The effects of migration on fertility in Ecuador were analyzed by subdividing migrant categories into permanent-, return-, circular-, and non-migrants, and context factors into 6 socioeconomic and agrarian variables. The study is introduced with a conceptual framework that explains personal intermediate variables and their influence on fertility in terms of demographic transition theory, and then defines the influences of selection for fertility, disruption of marital unions, and socialization into fertility norms at the origin vs. assimilation of norms at the destination. Migrants are usually better educated, younger and upwardly mobile, all selecting for lower fertility. Migration disrupts formation of marital unions, and causes separation of spouses, lowering fertility. Data for this study were from the 1974 and 1982 Ecuadorian Population Censuses. The contextual variables analyzed were urban/rural; manufacturing/agricultural; mineral extraction/economic recession; long/recent agricultural settlement; domestic/export crop; and large/medium sized farm. The analysis of personal attributes showed that fertility increased over the range on non-migrants through circular-, return- to permanent-migrants, a finding explained by degrees of disruption of unions. Higher fertility was associated with less education, lower economic participation, higher prevalence of marriage, longer residence and older ages. Regression analysis also showed that personal attributes outweighed contextual factors: thus age, marriage rates, residence time, education and economic activity were significant. Contextual factors were important only for non-migrants, except for destination variables which affected return-migrants and origin variables which affected circular-migrants. Low fertility was associated with urbanization, industrialization, mineral extraction, large farms, recent farm settlement and export crops. The results indicate cear influences of modernity and place influences on

  10. Health risk assessment of migrant workers' exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in air and dust in an e-waste recycling area in China: Indication for a new wealth gap in environmental rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yalin; Hu, Jinxing; Lin, Wei; Wang, Ning; Li, Cheng; Luo, Peng; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Wang, Wenbo; Su, Xiaomei; Chen, Chen; Liu, Yindong; Huang, Ronglang; Shen, Chaofeng

    2016-02-01

    Migrant workers who work and live in polluted environment are a special vulnerable group in the accelerating pace of urbanization and industrialization in China. In the electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area, for example, migrant workers' exposure to pollutants, such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), is the result of an informal e-waste recycling process. A village in an electronic waste recycling area where migrant workers gather was surveyed. The migrant workers' daily routines were simulated according to the three-space transition: work place-on the road-home. Indoor air and dust in the migrant workers' houses and workplaces and the ambient air on the roads were sampled. The PCB levels of the air and dust in the places corresponding to the migrant workers are higher than those for local residents. The migrant workers have health risks from PCBs that are 3.8 times greater than those of local residents. This is not only caused by the exposure at work but also by their activity patterns and the environmental conditions of their dwellings. These results revealed the reason for the health risk difference between the migrant workers and local residents, and it also indicated that lifestyle and economic status are important factors that are often ignored compared to occupational exposure.

  11. Quantitative Risk Assessment for African Horse Sickness in Live Horses Exported from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Evan S; Grewar, John D; Weyer, Camilla T; Guthrie, Alan J

    2016-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a severe, often fatal, arbovirus infection of horses, transmitted by Culicoides spp. midges. AHS occurs in most of sub-Saharan Africa and is a significant impediment to export of live horses from infected countries, such as South Africa. A stochastic risk model was developed to estimate the probability of exporting an undetected AHS-infected horse through a vector protected pre-export quarantine facility, in accordance with OIE recommendations for trade from an infected country. The model also allows for additional risk management measures, including multiple PCR tests prior to and during pre-export quarantine and optionally during post-arrival quarantine, as well as for comparison of risk associated with exports from a demonstrated low-risk area for AHS and an area where AHS is endemic. If 1 million horses were exported from the low-risk area with no post-arrival quarantine we estimate the median number of infected horses to be 5.4 (95% prediction interval 0.5 to 41). This equates to an annual probability of 0.0016 (95% PI: 0.00015 to 0.012) assuming 300 horses exported per year. An additional PCR test while in vector-protected post-arrival quarantine reduced these probabilities by approximately 12-fold. Probabilities for horses exported from an area where AHS is endemic were approximately 15 to 17 times higher than for horses exported from the low-risk area under comparable scenarios. The probability of undetected AHS infection in horses exported from an infected country can be minimised by appropriate risk management measures. The final choice of risk management measures depends on the level of risk acceptable to the importing country.

  12. Methods for assessing movement path recursion with application to African buffalo in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-David, S.; Bar-David, I.; Cross, P.C.; Ryan, S.J.; Knechtel, C.U.; Getz, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments of automated methods for monitoring animal movement, e.g., global positioning systems (GPS) technology, yield high-resolution spatiotemporal data. To gain insights into the processes creating movement patterns, we present two new techniques for extracting information from these data on repeated visits to a particular site or patch ("recursions"). Identification of such patches and quantification of recursion pathways, when combined with patch-related ecological data, should contribute to our understanding of the habitat requirements of large herbivores, of factors governing their space-use patterns, and their interactions with the ecosystem. We begin by presenting output from a simple spatial model that simulates movements of large-herbivore groups based on minimal parameters: resource availability and rates of resource recovery after a local depletion. We then present the details of our new techniques of analyses (recursion analysis and circle analysis) and apply them to data generated by our model, as well as two sets of empirical data on movements of African buffalo (Syncerus coffer): the first collected in Klaserie Private Nature Reserve and the second in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Our recursion analyses of model outputs provide us with a basis for inferring aspects of the processes governing the production of buffalo recursion patterns, particularly the potential influence of resource recovery rate. Although the focus of our simulations was a comparison of movement patterns produced by different resource recovery rates, we conclude our paper with a comprehensive discussion of how recursion analyses can be used when appropriate ecological data are available to elucidate various factors influencing movement. Inter alia, these include the various limiting and preferred resources, parasites, and topographical and landscape factors. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  13. The human capital characteristics and household living standards of returning international migrants in Eastern and Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin J A

    2014-01-01

    Africa’s experience with return migration is not new. However, few empirical studies have examined the social and economic characteristics of returning migrants within the continent. In this study, the human capital endowments and household living standards of returning migrants in Uganda and South Africa are examined using recently available data. The study compares returnees in both countries with immigrants as well as the native-born population with no international migration experience. It also investigates how factors such as previous country of residence, year of arrival, and other demographic factors predict levels of education and living standards among returning migrants. In Uganda, the results show that recently arrived returning migrants had better educational endowments than both immigrants and non-migrants. Migrants who returned to Uganda following the fall of Idi Amin’s regime had the lowest educational levels and lowest living standards compared to other returnees. Furthermore, the results indicate that previous residence in countries in the West was associated with four additional years of schooling while returning migrants arriving from other African countries had the lowest levels of schooling among returning migrants. In South Africa, the study finds that returnees arriving almost immediately following the end of Apartheid had the highest levels of education compared to either immigrants or non-migrants. Returnees on average also had the highest household living standards in South Africa. Among South African immigrants, the results indicate that those arriving towards the end of the century had lower educational endowments compared to immigrants who arrived in the country two to four years after the end of Apartheid. PMID:24970950

  14. African Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Recek, Denis

    2011-01-01

    The topic of this diploma is the formation and shaping of African literature. The first chapter is about the beginning of African literature. It describes oral literature and its transmission into written literature. Written African literature had great problems in becoming a part of world literature because of its diversity of languages and dialects. Christianity and Islam are mentioned as two religions which had a great impact on African literature. Colonialism is broadly described as an es...

  15. PROFILE OF ROMANIAN RETURNED MIGRANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria ZAMFIR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the post-communist period, migration of the Romanians became an emergent phenomenon which went through many structural transformations. Within the context of the recent economic crisis and of some unfavourable collective attitudes regarding the immigration in some countries of destination, evidences of the reverse movement, of return of some migrants in Romania have appeared. This paper aims to examine the profile of Romanian returned migrants, with a special view on the returning motivations. Results show that the family related factors have the highest influence in the returning decision among Romanian migrants. Finally, future intentions of the returned migrants confirm the model of the circulatory migration as a strategy of life of the Romanians.

  16. LGBTI migrants in immigration detention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana Tabak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As states increasingly use detention as a means of controllingmigration flows, sexual minority migrants find themselves in detentionfacilities where they may face multiple violations of their human rights.

  17. Between talent and migrant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosneaga, Ana

    , the globalisation of higher education and national practices of migration management. The research draws on the example of Denmark, which represents a host country still developing its national position in the wider European and international policy landscapes. In doing so, it focuses on foreign postgraduate......International student migration is increasingly treated as a sub-class of global talent mobility by states, regions and cities competing in the globalising knowledge economy, where a highly educated workforce is seen as a prerequisite for sustaining growth. This is leading to mobilisation of states......’ agendas for internationalisation of higher education and talent attraction to boost national competitiveness. Concurrently, convergence is happening between migration management regimes, albeit with persistent variations in actual regulations, when it comes to attracting skilled migrants, while reducing...

  18. Reproductive Health Assessment of Female Elephants in North American Zoos and Association of Husbandry Practices with Reproductive Dysfunction in African Elephants (Loxodonta africana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine L Brown

    Full Text Available As part of a multi-institutional study of zoo elephant welfare, we evaluated female elephants managed by zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums and applied epidemiological methods to determine what factors in the zoo environment are associated with reproductive problems, including ovarian acyclicity and hyperprolactinemia. Bi-weekly blood samples were collected from 95 African (Loxodonta africana and 75 Asian (Elephas maximus (8-55 years of age elephants over a 12-month period for analysis of serum progestogens and prolactin. Females were categorized as normal cycling (regular 13- to 17-week cycles, irregular cycling (cycles longer or shorter than normal or acyclic (baseline progestogens, <0.1 ng/ml throughout, and having Low/Normal (<14 or 18 ng/ml or High (≥14 or 18 ng/ml prolactin for Asian and African elephants, respectively. Rates of normal cycling, acyclicity and irregular cycling were 73.2, 22.5 and 4.2% for Asian, and 48.4, 37.9 and 13.7% for African elephants, respectively, all of which differed between species (P < 0.05. For African elephants, univariate assessment found that social isolation decreased and higher enrichment diversity increased the chance a female would cycle normally. The strongest multi-variable models included Age (positive and Enrichment Diversity (negative as important factors of acyclicity among African elephants. The Asian elephant data set was not robust enough to support multi-variable analyses of cyclicity status. Additionally, only 3% of Asian elephants were found to be hyperprolactinemic as compared to 28% of Africans, so predictive analyses of prolactin status were conducted on African elephants only. The strongest multi-variable model included Age (positive, Enrichment Diversity (negative, Alternate Feeding Methods (negative and Social Group Contact (positive as predictors of hyperprolactinemia. In summary, the incidence of ovarian cycle problems and hyperprolactinemia predominantly

  19. Reproductive Health Assessment of Female Elephants in North American Zoos and Association of Husbandry Practices with Reproductive Dysfunction in African Elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Janine L; Paris, Stephen; Prado-Oviedo, Natalia A; Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jennifer N; Morfeld, Kari A; Carlstead, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    As part of a multi-institutional study of zoo elephant welfare, we evaluated female elephants managed by zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums and applied epidemiological methods to determine what factors in the zoo environment are associated with reproductive problems, including ovarian acyclicity and hyperprolactinemia. Bi-weekly blood samples were collected from 95 African (Loxodonta africana) and 75 Asian (Elephas maximus) (8-55 years of age) elephants over a 12-month period for analysis of serum progestogens and prolactin. Females were categorized as normal cycling (regular 13- to 17-week cycles), irregular cycling (cycles longer or shorter than normal) or acyclic (baseline progestogens, <0.1 ng/ml throughout), and having Low/Normal (<14 or 18 ng/ml) or High (≥14 or 18 ng/ml) prolactin for Asian and African elephants, respectively. Rates of normal cycling, acyclicity and irregular cycling were 73.2, 22.5 and 4.2% for Asian, and 48.4, 37.9 and 13.7% for African elephants, respectively, all of which differed between species (P < 0.05). For African elephants, univariate assessment found that social isolation decreased and higher enrichment diversity increased the chance a female would cycle normally. The strongest multi-variable models included Age (positive) and Enrichment Diversity (negative) as important factors of acyclicity among African elephants. The Asian elephant data set was not robust enough to support multi-variable analyses of cyclicity status. Additionally, only 3% of Asian elephants were found to be hyperprolactinemic as compared to 28% of Africans, so predictive analyses of prolactin status were conducted on African elephants only. The strongest multi-variable model included Age (positive), Enrichment Diversity (negative), Alternate Feeding Methods (negative) and Social Group Contact (positive) as predictors of hyperprolactinemia. In summary, the incidence of ovarian cycle problems and hyperprolactinemia predominantly affects

  20. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September. This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,aleading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  1. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September.This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,a leading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  2. Comparative assessment of immunization coverage of migrant children between national immunization program vaccines and non-national immunization program vaccines in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Luo, Shuying; Tang, Xuewen; Lou, Linqiao; Chen, Yaping; Guo, Jing

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the disparities in immunization coverage between National Immunization Program (NIP) vaccines and non-NIP vaccines in Yiwu and to identify potential determinants. A face-to-face interview-based questionnaire survey among 423 migrant children born from 1 June 2010 to 31 May 2013 was conducted. Immunization coverage was estimated according to the vaccines scheduled at different age, the birth cohorts, and socio- demographic characteristics. Single-level logistic regression analysis was applied to identify the determinants of coverage of non-NIP vaccines. We found that NIP vaccines recorded higher immunization coverage compared with non-NIP vaccines (87.9100%- vs 0%-74.8%). Among the non-NIP vaccines, varicella vaccine (VarV) recorded the highest coverage of 85.4%, which was introduced in 1998; while 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine(PCV7) recorded the lowest coverage of 0% for primary series, which was introduced recently. Lower coverage rate of non-NIP vaccines was significantly associated with more siblings in household, shorter duration of living in the surveyed areas, lower family income, mother with a job, mother with poor awareness of vaccination, and mother with lower education level. We found the immunization coverage rate of non-NIP vaccines was significant lower than that of NIP vaccines. Expansion of NIP to include non-NIP vaccines can provide better protection against the vaccine preventable diseases through increased immunization coverage.

  3. AFRICAN BUFFALO OPTIMIZATION ico-pdf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Beneoluchi Odili

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This is an introductory paper to the newly-designed African Buffalo Optimization (ABO algorithm for solving combinatorial and other optimization problems. The algorithm is inspired by the behavior of African buffalos, a species of wild cows known for their extensive migrant lifestyle. This paper presents an overview of major metaheuristic algorithms with the aim of providing a basis for the development of the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm which is a nature-inspired, population-based metaheuristic algorithm. Experimental results obtained from applying the novel ABO to solve a number of benchmark global optimization test functions as well as some symmetric and asymmetric Traveling Salesman’s Problems when compared to the results obtained from using other popular optimization methods show that the African Buffalo Optimization is a worthy addition to the growing number of swarm intelligence optimization techniques.

  4. Productivity assessments in small ruminants improvement programmes. A case study of the West African Dwarf Goat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, H.

    1995-01-01

    Livestock production in the tropics is characterised by a high degree of variability in terms of composition, setting and aims. A good understanding of these characteristics is a prerequisite for the planning of a successful improvement programme. A frequently used criterion to assess the suitabilit

  5. Health Workforce Development: A Needs Assessment Study in French Speaking African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastonay, Philippe; Moretti, Roberto; Zesiger, Veronique; Cremaschini, Marco; Bailey, Rebecca; Pariyo, George; Kabengele, Emmanuel Mpinga

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, WHO alerted the world to a global health workforce crisis, demonstrated through critical shortages of health workers, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa (WHO in World Health Report, 2006). The objective of our study was to assess, in a participative way, the educational needs for public health and health workforce development among potential…

  6. Assessment of thinking style preferences and language proficiency for South African students whose native languages differ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maree, Jacobus G; de Boer, Ann-Louise

    2003-10-01

    The language proficiency of first-year students at the University of Pretoria (56 men and 59 women, M age=19.40 yr., SD=.80, range from 18.00 to 20.70) was assessed by means of the English Language Skills Assessment. More than one-third of the students did not show proficiency at Grade 10, as expected. This language assessment was not correlated with academic achievement equally well for students in a group. The diversity of thinking style preferences of the students enrolled in a language development course was also assessed on the Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument. Scores indicated a range of thinking style preferences but the group's overall mean scores represented detail-oriented and feeling-based modes of thinking processes. These preferences were correlated with academic achievement and learning of languages. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that thinking styles could be a focus of educational strategies in South Africa, using the perspective that qualitatively different approaches to teaching might be associated with students' qualitatively different approaches to learning.

  7. Assessing the potential of multi-seasonal WorldView-2 imagery for mapping West African agroforestry tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, Martin; Ostwald, Madelene; Reese, Heather; Bazié, Hugues Roméo; Tankoano, Boalidioa

    2016-08-01

    High resolution satellite systems enable efficient and detailed mapping of tree cover, with high potential to support both natural resource monitoring and ecological research. This study investigates the capability of multi-seasonal WorldView-2 imagery to map five dominant tree species at the individual tree crown level in a parkland landscape in central Burkina Faso. The Random Forest algorithm is used for object based tree species classification and for assessing the relative importance of WorldView-2 predictors. The classification accuracies from using wet season, dry season and multi-seasonal datasets are compared to gain insights about the optimal timing for image acquisition. The multi-seasonal dataset produced the most accurate classifications, with an overall accuracy (OA) of 83.4%. For classifications based on single date imagery, the dry season (OA = 78.4%) proved to be more suitable than the wet season (OA = 68.1%). The predictors that contributed most to the classification success were based on the red edge band and visible wavelengths, in particular green and yellow. It was therefore concluded that WorldView-2, with its unique band configuration, represents a suitable data source for tree species mapping in West African parklands. These results are particularly promising when considering the recently launched WorldView-3, which provides data both at higher spatial and spectral resolution, including shortwave infrared bands.

  8. Evaluating Responses in Complex Adaptive Systems: Insights on Water Management from the Southern African Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (SAfMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Bohensky

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services are embedded in complex adaptive systems. These systems are riddled with nonlinearities, uncertainties, and surprises, and are made increasingly complex by the many human responses to problems or changes arising within them. In this paper we attempt to determine whether there are certain factors that characterize effective responses in complex systems. We construct a framework for response evaluation with three interconnected scopes or spatial and temporal domains: the scope of an impact, the scope of the awareness of the impact, and the scope of the power or influence to respond. Drawing from the experience of the Southern African Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (SAfMA, we explore the applicability of this framework to the example of water management in southern Africa, where an ongoing paradigm shift in some areas has enabled a transition from supply-side to demand-side responses and the creation of new institutions to manage water across scales. We suggest that the most effective responses exhibit congruence between the impact, awareness, and power scopes; distribute impacts across space and time; expand response options; enhance social memory; and depend on power-distributing mechanisms. We conclude by stressing the need for sufficient flexibility to adapt responses to the specific, ever-evolving contexts in which they are implemented. Although our discussion focuses on water in southern Africa, we believe that the framework has broad applicability to a range of complex systems and places.

  9. Drafting an International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hune, S

    1987-01-01

    The open-ended Working Group (WG) completed its 3rd session of the 2nd reading on the Elaboration of an International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Their Families during September 24-October 3, 1986 in New York. In this session, the WG elaborated a "dictionary" of terms related to the migrant worker and members of the family of the migrant worker that, when ratified, will be viewed as international standards. The WG also approved 8 articles primarily relating to civil and political rights. These included articles regarding the rights of migrant workers and their families to 1) leave any State, including their State of origin; 2) life; 3) be excluded from forced or compulsory labor except under specific conditions; 4) the freedom of thought, conscience, and religion; 5) hold opinions without interference and the freedom of expression, subject only to certain restrictions; and 6) liberty and security of person. The Convention's intention was to ensure the application of human rights to migrant workers. There were nearly 60 participating states in attendance, with 1/3 of them from African states. African and Arab states played a very active role in the discussions. The number of women delegates has increased with each session. Future issues include 1) economic and cultural rights, and 2) the additional rights of migrant workers and their families in a regular situation of lawful status.

  10. Family services for migrant and seasonal farm workers: the Redlands Christian Migrant Association (RCMA) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebman, Amy K; Mainster, Barbara; Lee, Barbara C

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural employers and work supervisors strive to keep children out of worksites, but oftentimes migrating farm worker parents lack accessible or affordable options for childcare in a trusted environment. Thus, children may not have a safe, appropriate place to be while their parents are conducting agricultural work. Redlands Christian Migrant Association (RCMA) of Florida is a community development organization that creates and fosters opportunities for the children of migrant and other low-income rural families. To better understand the RCMA system, an in-depth assessment of its program was undertaken to identify both its standard and unique features. Results revealed many attributes contributing to RCMA's success. Based upon RCMA's 48-year track record, employers, agribusinesses, and communities are encouraged to adopt strategies to meet local and regional childcare needs where parents are working in agriculture.

  11. Socioeconomic inequalities in stroke incidence among migrant groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agyemang, Charles; van Oeffelen, Aloysia A; Norredam, Marie;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Low socioeconomic status has been linked to high incidence of stroke in industrialized countries; therefore, reducing socioeconomic disparities is an important goal of health policy. The evidence on migrant groups is, however, limited and inconsistent. We assessed socioeco...

  12. Acculturative Stress of Chinese Rural-To-Urban Migrant Workers: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Bao-Liang; Liu, Tie-Bang; Huang, Jian-Xing; Fung, Helene H.; Chan, Sandra S. M.; Conwell, Yeates; Chiu, Helen F. K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Global literature has suggested a negative impact of acculturative stress on both physical and mental health among international migrants. In China, approximately 20 percent of its population is rural-to-urban migrant workers and there are significant cultural differences between rural and urban societies, but no data are available regarding the acculturative stress of Chinese migrant workers. This study aimed to explore the forms and contexts of acculturative stress among Chinese migrant workers. Methods Qualitative data were collected from four focus group discussions with 17 Chinese rural-to-urban migrant workers and three individual interviews with three medical professionals who provided mental health services for factory-workers in Shenzhen, China. Results The data in the current study showed that rural-to-urban migrant workers in China had experienced various forms of acculturative stress including difficulties in adapting to the environment, work-related stress, family-related stress, financial hardship, and lack of sense of belonging to cities. Conclusion Rural-to-urban migration in China is a challenging transition with significant acculturative stress and demands for major adjustments among migrant workers. The assessment and management of acculturative stress is a necessary first step in providing mental health services to migrant workers. PMID:27300005

  13. Acculturative Stress of Chinese Rural-To-Urban Migrant Workers: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Liang Zhong

    Full Text Available Global literature has suggested a negative impact of acculturative stress on both physical and mental health among international migrants. In China, approximately 20 percent of its population is rural-to-urban migrant workers and there are significant cultural differences between rural and urban societies, but no data are available regarding the acculturative stress of Chinese migrant workers. This study aimed to explore the forms and contexts of acculturative stress among Chinese migrant workers.Qualitative data were collected from four focus group discussions with 17 Chinese rural-to-urban migrant workers and three individual interviews with three medical professionals who provided mental health services for factory-workers in Shenzhen, China.The data in the current study showed that rural-to-urban migrant workers in China had experienced various forms of acculturative stress including difficulties in adapting to the environment, work-related stress, family-related stress, financial hardship, and lack of sense of belonging to cities.Rural-to-urban migration in China is a challenging transition with significant acculturative stress and demands for major adjustments among migrant workers. The assessment and management of acculturative stress is a necessary first step in providing mental health services to migrant workers.

  14. Can migrants from high-endemic countries cause new HIV outbreaks among heterosexuals in low-endemic countries?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Xiridou; M. van der Veen; R. Coutinho; M. Prins

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate how the sexual behaviour of migrants originating from HIV-endemic countries affects the spread of HIV among heterosexuals in low-endemic countries. Methods: A mathematical model is developed describing the transmission of HIV in heterosexual partnerships between African mi

  15. The traffic in voices: Contrasting experiences of migrant women in prostitution with the paradigm of "human trafficking"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpes, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on empirical research with West African migrant women working in prostitution in Paris. Given current migration regulations in Western Europe, as well as state policies on prostitution, the traffickers and people considered to be trafficking victims de facto form part of the sa

  16. Amsterdam's STI/HIV Programme: An Innovative Strategy to Achieve and Enhance the Participation of Migrant Community-Based Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemakers, Annemarie; van Husen, Gwen; Barrett, Jennifer B.; Koelen, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The STI/HIV prevention programme in Amsterdam aims to improve the sexual health of Amsterdam residents of African, Antillean, Aruban and Surinamese origins. The programme strategy is to achieve and enhance the participation of migrant community-based organisations (CBOs) in sexual health promotion through a grant scheme and by providing…

  17. Health problems of Maryland's migrant farm laborers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, V; Baker, T

    1995-08-01

    The health problems of Maryland's agricultural migrant labor force are presented for the information of Maryland's health care providers. Maryland's problems are placed in the context of U.S. and worldwide migrant labor practices.

  18. The assessment of functional work capacity in the South African mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Tia-Mari; Kielblock, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Overall physical work fitness is a prerequisite in numerous industries. Apart from improved productivity, it remains fundamental with regards to the maintenance of good health and safety. To address worker fitness in the mining industry, AngloGold Ashanti and Anglo Platinum Mining Houses developed a Functional Work Capacity (FWC) test battery. The FWC test battery consists of 19 work simulations representing the required functional work capacity to cope with all types of physical work tasks and work environments in the mining industry. This assessment tool is not only used to evaluate injured or medically affected workers for alternative placement but also to ensure that the new employee is placed in a job matching his physical capacity. This paper reviews the design process and application of the FWC test battery in the mining industry.

  19. Migrants and non-migrants in Kücükkale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Connie Carøe

    2013-01-01

    When villages are marked by extensive out-migration and become transnationally extended, the dividing line between migrants and non-migrants becomes salient. But how deep do divisions run? In a cluster of Kurdish villages in central Turkey, notwithstanding continued social bonds, divisions between...... migrants and non-migrants are not least in existence when it comes to the cultural style of consumption practices, behaviour and manners. The mutual stereotyping of migrants and non-migrants seems to confirm that at least one version of the meaning made locally of migration is that it has deepened...... the social divisions of the village. But non-migrant villagers also point out that migrants have degraded themselves morally in order to obtain their material well-being. This is contested by migrants who find that non-migrants, too, are morally degraded, since they have lost their initiative and become...

  20. Exporting by Migrants and Indigenous Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Schøtt, Thomas; Pişkinsüt Şengüler, Ece

    2016-01-01

    Migrants may become entrepreneurs in their host countries. They may utilize their dual embeddedness in both the home country and the host country, and also use transnational links to gain a competitive advantage in exporting compared to indigenous entrepreneurs. Migrant entrepreneurs’ advantage may...... around the world was surveyed in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, which reports on migration and exporting. Hierarchical linear modeling shows that migrant entrepreneurs export more than indigenous entrepreneurs, especially in the first generation, and especially among educated and male migrants...

  1. Water Quality Assessment of Streams and Wetlands in a Fast Growing East African City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels De Troyer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The combination of rapid urbanization, industrialization, population growth, and low environmental awareness poses a major threat to worldwide valuable freshwater resources, which provide important ecosystem services to humans. There is an urgent need to monitor and assess these resources, as this information is indispensable for sustainable decision-making and management. In this context, we analyzed the chemical and ecological water quality of the riverine environment of a fast growing city in Southwest Ethiopia for which we proposed possible remediation options that were evaluated with an empirical model. The chemical and ecological water quality was assessed at 53 sampling locations using the oxygen Prati index and the ETHbios, which is a biotic index based on macroinvertebrates. In addition, a microbiological analysis was performed to estimate the degree of fecal contamination. Finally, we analyzed the relationship between the oxygen content and the organic pollution to simulate the effect of organics removal from waste streams on the chemical water quality. Our results showed that the average values for dissolved oxygen (4.2 mg DO·L−1 and nutrients (0.9 mg oPO43−·L−1 and 12.8 mg TAN·L−1 exceeded international standards. Moreover, high turbidity levels revealed that land erosion is a severe problem in the region. Along the rivers, a significant increase in oxygen consumption and in nutrient concentrations was observed, indicating organic pollution originating from different diffuse and point sources of pollution. The lack of proper sanitation also led to exceedingly high abundances of fecal coliforms in the surface water (>320 MPN·mL−1. However, fecal contamination was strongly reduced (>92% after the polluted river water passed Boye wetland, indicating the purification potential of natural wetlands and the importance of conserving and protecting those ecosystems. The simulation results of the model showed that water quality

  2. Assessment of capacity for Health Policy and Systems Research and Analysis in seven African universities: results from the CHEPSAA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoev, Tolib; Lê, Gillian; Green, Andrew; Orgill, Marsha; Komba, Adalgot; Esena, Reuben K; Nyapada, Linet; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Amde, Woldekidan K; Nxumalo, Nonhlanhla; Gilson, Lucy

    2014-10-01

    The importance of health policy and systems research and analysis (HPSR+A) is widely recognized. Universities are central to strengthening and sustaining the HPSR+A capacity as they teach the next generation of decision-makers and health professionals. However, little is known about the capacity of universities, specifically, to develop the field. In this article, we report results of capacity self- assessments by seven universities within five African countries, conducted through the Consortium for Health Policy and Systems Analysis in Africa (CHEPSAA). The capacity assessments focused on both capacity 'assets' and 'needs', and covered the wider context, as well as organizational and individual capacity levels. Six thematic areas of capacity were examined: leadership and governance, organizations' resources, scope of HPSR+A teaching and research, communication, networking and getting research into policy and practice (GRIPP), demand for HPRS+A and resource environment. The self-assessments by each university used combinations of document reviews, semi-structured interviews and staff surveys, followed by comparative analysis. A framework approach, guided by the six thematic areas, was used to analyse data. We found that HPSR+A is an international priority, and an existing activity in Africa, though still neglected field with challenges including its reliance on unpredictable international funding. All universities have capacity assets, such as ongoing HPSR+A teaching and research. There are, however, varying levels of assets (such as differences in staff numbers, group sizes and amount of HPSR+A teaching and research), which, combined with different capacity needs at all three levels (such as individual training, improvement in systems for quality assurance and fostering demand for HPSR+A work), can shape a future agenda for HPSR+A capacity strengthening. Capacity assets and needs at different levels appear related. Possible integrated strategies for strengthening

  3. Assessing the distribution of monthly mean hourly solar irradiation at an African Equatorial site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mubiru, J.; Banda, E.J.K.B.; D' Ujanga, F.; Senyonga, T. [Department of Physics, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala (Uganda)

    2007-02-15

    Existing literature lacks information on the distribution of total solar radiation and its components for locations within the Equatorial region. Locations in this region have substantial amounts of the solar energy resource. Distributions of solar radiation can provide a convenient format for reading solar radiation data. This data is required by modelers of solar energy applications. The objective of this study is to draw and assess the distributions of the monthly means of hourly total, diffuse and direct solar irradiation at a selected site in the Equatorial region. A location at latitude 02 17'N, longitude 32 56'E and altitude 1189 m, was selected for this study. The results have shown the distribution of global solar irradiation to have the highest peak of 4.0 MJ/m{sup 2} in December and peaks of 3.0 MJ/m{sup 2} throughout the year. A four peaked diffuse solar irradiation distribution was evident where the highest diffuse peak of 1.8 MJ/m{sup 2} was observed in September. The distribution of the direct solar irradiation exhibited peaks of 2.0 MJ/m{sup 2} during the first and last quarters of the year. (author)

  4. Children Adrift: Educating China's Millions of Migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Haili

    1999-01-01

    The population of migrants moving within China's borders has reached some 80 million, including 2-3 million school-aged children. As migrant workers flock to cities, their children strain urban school systems or receive no education. But independent schools for migrants are illegal and substandard. In some rural provinces, vocational training may…

  5. The Health Condition of Migrant Farm Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Edgar

    This report examines information about the health status of migrant farmworkers, including specific issues related to migrant health services in Michigan. Despite the high rate of families with two wage earners, one-half of migrant farmworker families have incomes below the poverty level. Poverty is associated with poor nutrition and sanitation,…

  6. The Migrant Papers. Behavorial Science Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Ira E.

    Four papers pertaining to health services for East Coast migrant workers are included in this publication. These papers are: (1) "The Crew Leader as a Broker with Implications for Health Service Delivery," (2) "Migrant Health Project with Implications for Health Service Delivery," (3) "Planned Change in a Migrant Health…

  7. Texas Migrant Labor. 1975 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, Austin.

    The Good Neighbor Commission of Texas coordinates the work of the Federal, State, and local government toward the improvement of travel and living and working conditions of Texas migrant laborers and their families. Covering the full spectrum of migrant labor activity directly related to the improvement of the well-being of migrant and seasonal…

  8. Texas Migrant Labor. Annual Report, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, Austin.

    Among the responsibilities of the Good Neighbor Commission of Texas are (1) a survey of conditions and (2) a study of problems related to migrant labor in Texas. This annual report of the 1969 migrant scene shows the results of that survey and study. Beginning with an overview of Texas migrant labor, which goes back several years and includes a…

  9. Definition labour migrant (updated) : Second, revised version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Different definitions in which one can comprehend who counts as a migrant are used. Moreover, also in the regulatory frame that applies for migrants, in statistics on the stocks and flows of migrant workers, in analysis of labour mobility and cross-border recruitment, in data sources and research th

  10. Migrant Farmworkers and Their Children. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Philip

    This digest reviews the population characteristics of migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their children. Since the 1960s, federal programs for migrant workers and their families have multiplied. However, these programs have differing definitions for "migrant and seasonal farmworker," and no current data system provides a reliable count…

  11. University and Community Collaborations in Migrant ESL

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, John; Rodriguez, Maria; Madden, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Migrant English as a Second Language (ESL) has been an important form of rural adult education in the United States for decades. This chapter provides a national and historical overview of rural and migrant ESL. The educational needs of the growing population of seasonal, migrant agricultural workers are discussed and situated in relation to the…

  12. Assessing vaccination as a control strategy in an ongoing epidemic: Bovine tuberculosis in African buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul C.; Getz, W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is an exotic disease invading the buffalo population (Syncerus caffer) of the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. We used a sex and age-structured epidemiological model to assess the effectiveness of a vaccination program and define important research directions. The model allows for dispersal between a focal herd and background population and was parameterized with a combination of published data and analyses of over 130 radio-collared buffalo in the central region of the KNP. Radio-tracking data indicated that all sex and age categories move between mixed herds, and males over 8 years old had higher mortality and dispersal rates than any other sex or age category. In part due to the high dispersal rates of buffalo, sensitivity analyses indicate that disease prevalence in the background population accounts for the most variability in the BTB prevalence and quasi-eradication within the focal herd. Vaccination rate and the transmission coefficient were the second and third most important parameters of the sensitivity analyses. Further analyses of the model without dispersal suggest that the amount of vaccination necessary for quasi-eradication (i.e. prevalence 70% of the calf population would have to be vaccinated every year to reduce the prevalence to less than 1%. If the half-life of the vaccine is less than 5 years, even vaccinating every calf for 50 years may not eradicate BTB. Thus, although vaccination provides a means of controlling BTB prevalence it should be combined with other control measures if eradication is the objective.

  13. The Malawi Developmental Assessment Tool (MDAT: the creation, validation, and reliability of a tool to assess child development in rural African settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Gladstone

    2010-05-01

    between malnourished children and controls. In terms of pass/fail, 28% of malnourished children versus 94% of controls passed the test overall. CONCLUSIONS: A culturally relevant developmental assessment tool, the MDAT, has been created for use in African settings and shows good reliability, validity, and sensitivity for identification of children with neurodisabilities.

  14. Diabetes among migrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Kamper-Jørgensen, Zaza; Carstensen, Bendix;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Studies of diabetes in migrant populations have shown a higher prevalence compared to their respective countries of origin and to people natively born in the host country, but there is little population-based data on diabetes incidence and mortality in migrant populations. The aim...... of the current study was (1) to describe the incidence rates and prevalence of diabetes among first generation migrants in Denmark compared to the Danish background population, and (2) to compare standardised mortality rates (SMRs) for individuals with and without diabetes according to country of origin....... RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Information was obtained from linkage of the National Diabetes Register with mortality statistics and information from the Central Personal Register on country of origin. Age- and sex-specific estimates of prevalence, incidence rates, mortality rates and SMRs relative...

  15. Smuggling of migrants in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Albulena Hajdari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Smuggling of migrants, as a serious type of criminality, takes an important place in legal science and criminal legislation. This is due to the fact that actions creating the image of these criminal offences also cause numerous individual, family and societal consequences. Smuggling migrants, with all its consequences, attracts the attention not only of the state authorities, but also the wider public, and numerous researchers and scholars. Nevertheless, despite this fact, this phenomenon has not been studied thoroughly. There is a dire lack of such research in recent years, specifically because of the presence of such crimes in a relatively higher number. This circumstance, specifically the fact that in Kosovo, smuggling migrants is a frequent occurrence, made me engage in studying this type of criminality. The aim of this paper is to research on criminal offences of migrant smuggling in Kosovo, and especially their causes. The causes of these criminal offences may be of numerous natures, but the main causes may be sought in social and economic circumstances, and other conditions related to the unstable political setting, weaknesses in operations of justice authorities, lack of implementation of criminal legislation, etc. In researching the criminal offences of smuggling migrants, I have used the method of historical materialism, legal-dogmatic method, statistical method, complaint method and interviews, and the method of studying individual cases. In the case of addressing criminal offences of smuggling migrants, I have concluded that these offences represent a serious type of crime, thereby resulting in dire individual, family and societal consequences. They are found in all modern societies, including Kosovo.

  16. Sampling Migrants from their Social Networks: The Demography and Social Organization of Chinese Migrants in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merli, M Giovanna; Verdery, Ashton; Mouw, Ted; Li, Jing

    2016-07-01

    The streams of Chinese migration to Africa are growing in tandem with rising Chinese investments and trade flows in and to the African continent. In spite of the high profile of this phenomenon in the media, there are few rich and broad descriptions of Chinese communities in Africa. Reasons for this include the rarity of official statistics on foreign-born populations in African censuses, the absence of predefined sampling frames required to draw representative samples with conventional survey methods and difficulties to reach certain segments of this population. Here, we use a novel network-based approach, Network Sampling with Memory, which overcomes the challenges of sampling 'hidden' populations in the absence of a sampling frame, to recruit a sample of recent Chinese immigrants in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and collect information on the demographic characteristics, migration histories and social ties of members of this sample. These data reveal a heterogeneous Chinese community composed of "state-led" migrants who come to Africa to work on projects undertaken by large Chinese state-owned enterprises and "independent" migrants who come on their own accord to engage in various types of business ventures. They offer a rich description of the demographic profile and social organization of this community, highlight key differences between the two categories of migrants and map the structure of the social ties linking them. We highlight needs for future research on inter-group differences in individual motivations for migration, economic activities, migration outcomes, expectations about future residence in Africa, social integration and relations with local communities.

  17. Development and evaluation of an ITS1 "Touchdown" PCR for assessment of drug efficacy against animal African trypanosomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thao; Napier, Grant; Rowan, Tim; Cordel, Claudia; Labuschagne, Michel; Delespaux, Vincent; Van Reet, Nick; Erasmus, Heidi; Joubert, Annesca; Büscher, Philippe

    2014-05-28

    Animal African trypanosomoses (AAT) are caused by flagellated protozoa of the Trypanosoma genus and contribute to considerable losses in animal production in Africa, Latin America and South East Asia. Trypanosoma congolense is considered the economically most important species. Drug resistant T. congolense strains present a threat to the control of AAT and have triggered research into discovery of novel trypanocides. In vivo assessment of trypanocidal efficacy relies on monitoring of treated animals with microscopic parasite detection methods. Since these methods have poor sensitivity, follow-up for up to 100 days after treatment is recommended to increase the chance of detecting recurrent parasitaemia waves. Molecular techniques are more amendable to high throughput processing and are generally more sensitive than microscopic detection, thus bearing the potential of shortening the 100-day follow up period. The study presents a "Touchdown" PCR targeting the internal transcribed spacer 1 of the ribosomal DNA (ITS1 TD PCR) that enables detection and discrimination of different Trypanosoma taxa in a single run due to variations in PCR product sizes. The assay achieves analytical sensitivity of 10 parasites per ml of blood for detection of T. congolense savannah type and T. brucei, and 100 parasites per ml of blood for detection of T. vivax in infected mouse blood. The ITS1 TD PCR was evaluated on cattle experimentally infected with T. congolense during an investigational new veterinary trypanocide drug efficacy study. ITS1 TD PCR demonstrated comparable performance to microscopy in verifying trypanocide treatment success, in which parasite DNA became undetectable in cured animals within two days post-treatment. ITS1 TD PCR detected parasite recrudescence three days earlier than microscopy and had a higher positivity rate than microscopy (84.85% versus 57.58%) in 66 specimens of relapsing animals collected after treatments. Therefore, ITS1 TD PCR provides a useful tool

  18. The transnational strategies of migrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Connie Carøe

    to explain. It has been suggested that transnational strategies are applied as a safety net to substitute for prospects of a secure future in the receiving society. Solidarities or obligations, sometimes in the shape of a social contract between stayers and leavers of a family, are another suggestion. While...... – their continued attachment to the sending society manifested in concrete actions – represents some mystery and bewilderment which is approached and discussed here by examining migrants to Denmark, more specifically the formation of hometown associations by Kurdish and Alevi migrants from Turkey on the one hand...

  19. Health-reception of newly arrived documented migrants in Europe—why, whom, what and how?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne Winther

    2013-01-01

    address the existing health inequities, nor determining factors of migrant health, including barriers to access health services’.1 Two recent Danish documents highlight these aspects in relation to the health-reception of migrants. A report from the Ministry of Social Affairs and Integration concludes...... Danish health-reception model, using a more systematic approach based on a close cooperation between social and health sectors.3 With this development, we wish to initiate a European public health debate about how to assess and meet the health needs of newly arrived long-term documented migrants...

  20. Correlates of the sex trade among African-American youth living in urban public housing: assessing the role of parental incarceration and parental substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebbitt, Von; Tirmazi, Taqi M; Lombe, Margaret; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana; French, Shelby

    2014-04-01

    African-American youth are disproportionately affected by parental incarceration and the consequences of parental substance use. Many adapt to the loss of their parents to prison or drug addiction by engaging in sex-risk behavior, particularly the sex trade. These youth may engage in this risky behavior for a number of reasons. Although previous research has examined this issue, most of these studies have focused on runaway or street youth or youth in international settings. Empirical evidence on correlates of trading sex for money among urban African-American youth is practically missing. Using a sample of 192 African-American youth living in urban public housing, this paper attempts to rectify this gap in knowledge by assessing how individual and parental factors are related to the likelihood of a youth trading sex for money. The sample for this study reported a mean age of 19; 28 % reported having traded sex for money; 30 % had a father currently in prison; and 7 % reported having a mother currently in prison. Maternal incarceration and paternal substance use were associated with a higher likelihood of trading sex for money. Given the potential health risks associated with trading sex for money, understanding correlates of this behavior has important implications for the health of this vulnerable population of youth and urban health in general.

  1. Trends in loss to follow-up among migrant workers on antiretroviral therapy in a community cohort in Lesotho.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Bygrave

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART to migrant populations raises particular challenges with respect to ensuring adequate treatment support, adherence, and retention in care. We assessed rates of loss to follow-up for migrant workers compared with non-migrant workers in a routine treatment programme in Morjia, Lesotho. DESIGN: All adult patients (≥18 years initiating ART between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2008, and followed up until the end of 2009, were included in the study. We described rates of loss to follow-up according to migrant status by Kaplan-Meier estimates, and used Poisson regression to model associations between migrant status and loss to follow-up controlling for potential confounders identified a priori. RESULTS: Our cohort comprised 1185 people, among whom 12% (148 were migrant workers. Among the migrant workers, median age was 36.1 (29.6-45.9 and the majority (55% were male. We found no statistically significant differences between baseline characteristics and migrant status. Rates of lost to follow up were similar between migrants and non-migrants in the first 3 months but differences increased thereafter. Between 3 and 6 months after initiating antiretroviral therapy, migrants had a 2.78-fold increased rate of defaulting (95%CI 1.15-6.73; between 6 and 12 months the rate was 2.36 times greater (95%CI 1.18-4.73, whereas after 1 year the rate was 6.69 times greater (95%CI 3.18-14.09. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the need for programme implementers to take into account the specific challenges that may influence continuity of antiretroviral treatment and care for migrant populations.

  2. Migrant entrepreneurship, economic activity and export performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Baklanov, Nikita; Brambini-Pedersen, Jan Vang

    Recent studies on transnational entrepreneurship) suggest that migrant entrepreneur play an increasingly significant role as sources of economic activities and especially export revenue. The literature is, however, biased on the US experience, lacks a comparative perspective between migrants...... and non-migrants and is primarily anecdotal in nature (Saxenian, 2002; 2006, Ruzzlier et al, 2007; Honig and Drori, 2010, Drodi et al, 2010)). This paper aims at reducing this gap by mapping the recent changes in the role of migrant entrepreneurs as a source of increased economic activity and export...... in across ethic categories. Export revenue is proxied by the number of firms in the different ethnic categories that exports. The Danish context provides unique data allowing for a comparison across migrants and non-migrants, across sectors and across time. The paper reveals that migrants play a decreasing...

  3. Implementing health insurance for migrants, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwin, Aye Aye; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Problem Undocumented migrant workers are generally ineligible for state social security schemes, and either forego needed health services or pay out of pocket. Approach In 2001, the Thai Ministry of Public Health introduced a policy on migrant health. Migrant health insurance is a voluntary scheme, funded by an annual premium paid by workers. It enables access to health care at public facilities and reduces catastrophic health expenditures for undocumented migrants and their dependants. A range of migrant-friendly services, including trained community health volunteers, was introduced in the community and workplace. In 2014, the government introduced a multisectoral policy on migrants, coordinated across the interior, labour, public health and immigration ministries. Local setting In 2011, around 0.3 million workers, less than 9% of the estimated migrant labour force of 3.5 million, were covered by Thailand’s social security scheme. Relevant changes A review of the latest data showed that from April to July 2016, 1 146 979 people (33.7% of the total estimated migrant labourers of 3 400 787) applied, were screened and were enrolled in the migrant health insurance scheme. Health volunteers, recruited from migrant communities and workplaces are appreciated by local communities and are effective in promoting health and increasing uptake of health services by migrants. Lessons learnt The capacity of the health ministry to innovate and manage migrant health insurance was a crucial factor enabling expanded health insurance coverage for undocumented migrants. Continued policy support will be needed to increase recruitment to the insurance scheme and to scale-up migrant-friendly services. PMID:28250516

  4. Assessing the Impact of Globalization on South African Education and Training: A Review of the Evidence so Far

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoojee, Salim; McGrath, Simon

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the effects of globalization on South Africa a decade after the transition to a post-apartheid system. It brings together some of the recent literature of the performance of the economy and concomitant changes in education. It shows the pervasive force of globalization on South African education and training and explores in…

  5. Universal jurisdiction under attack: an assessment of African misgivings towards international criminal justice as administered by Western states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wilt, H.G.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the current criticism, expressed by African states and institutions, of the exercise of universal jurisdiction by Western states, accusing the latter of overstepping their lawful powers, as well as practicing ‘legal colonialism’. In order to gauge whether this criticism is war

  6. In situ hybridization with labeled probes: assessment of african Swine Fever virus in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Maria; Rodríguez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    In situ hybridization (ISH) has become a very valuable molecular diagnostic tool to detect specific DNA or RNA sequences in biological samples through the use of complementary DNA- or RNA-labeled probes. Here, we describe an optimized in situ hybridization protocol to detect African swine fever virus (ASFV) DNA in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues using digoxigenin-labeled probes.

  7. Migrant Health - Legislation and Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Migrant Information Clearinghouse, Austin, TX. Juarez-Lincoln Center.

    The Public Health Service Act was amended in 1962 to authorize grants to establish family health service clinics for domestic agricultural migratory workers and to improve the health conditions of these workers and their families. Approximately 100 programs currently provide migrant health services. As a result of the low level of funding of these…

  8. Migrant Workers. Report VII (2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    A 59-item questionnaire covering all aspects of migrant labor was sent by the International Labor Office to member States, of whom 45 sent replies which are summarized in the document. For each of the questions, the question is reproduced and followed by a list indicating which governments responded and the nature of the response. The substance of…

  9. Bodies Folded in Migrant Crypts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Tzokas, Spyros; Tympas, Aristotle

    2016-01-01

    and human migrants generates a dis/abled subject. In this context, dis/ability may be a cause or consequence of migration, both in physical/material (the folding of bodies in the crypt) and cultural/semiotic terms, and may become a barrier to accessing protection, to entering and/or crossing a country...

  10. Education of Migrant Children Worrisome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The plight of migrant workers in China, estimated to number in the hundreds of millions, has drawn grave concerns from top leaders and common people alike.Part of their plight is the schooling of their children that they cannot go to school on equal terms as local children.

  11. The Adaptation of Migrant Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portes, Alejandro; Rivas, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Alejandro Portes and Alejandro Rivas examine how young immigrants are adapting to life in the United States. They begin by noting the existence of two distinct pan-ethnic populations: Asian Americans, who tend to be the offspring of high-human-capital migrants, and Hispanics, many of whose parents are manual workers. Vast differences in each, both…

  12. Education of migrant workers' children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzee, Louis

    1975-01-01

    Article focused on the obstacles of educating migrant children and discussed three themes relating to these problems, namely, reception in the host country, educational provision up to the school leaving age, and vocational training and general education of adolescents and adults. (Author/RK)

  13. Nicaraguan Migrants in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquette, Catherine M.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This document is the executive summary of a detailed document entitled, Nicaraguan Migrants and Poverty in Costa Rica, which was prepared for the World Bank in 2006. The more detailed background paper from which this summary is derived was commissioned as a background paper in preparation for an upcoming poverty mission by the World Bank to Costa Rica. This summary and the larger document from which it comes provides: (1 a general overview of the socioeconomic and health situation of Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica and (2 a review of the poverty characteristics of these migrants. The primary data sources for the larger paper were successive recent rounds of the Annual National Household Survey in Costa Rica and the 2000 Census. The more detailed report on which this summary is based also reviews issues of data quality, comparability, and methodological problems with respect to existing information on Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica. As a summary, the document below, does not include detailed citations, which are of course included in the larger report. Readers are thus, referred to the larger report for citations and more detailed information on the data included in this summary.

  14. Nicaraguan Migrants in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. Marquette

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This document is the executive summary of a detailed document entitled, Nicaraguan Migrants and Poverty in Costa Rica, which was prepared for the World Bank in 2006. The more detailed background paper from which this summary is derived was commissioned as a background paper in preparation for an upcoming poverty mission by the World Bank to Costa Rica. This summary and the larger document from which it comes provides: (1 a general overview of the socioeconomic and health situation of Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica and (2 a review of the poverty characteristics of these migrants. The primary data sources for the larger paper were successive recent rounds of the Annual National Household Survey in Costa Rica and the 2000 Census. The more detailed report on which this summary is based also reviews issues of data quality, comparability, and methodological problems with respect to existing information on Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica. As a summary, the document below, does not include detailed citations, which are of course included in the larger report. Readers are thus, referred to the larger report for citations and more detailed information on the data included in this summary.

  15. Third molar maturity index (I3M) for assessing age of majority in a black African population in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavrić, Jelena; Galić, Ivan; Vodanović, Marin; Brkić, Hrvoje; Gregov, Jelena; Viva, Serena; Rey, Laura; Cameriere, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    Assessment of legal age, also known as age of majority, is a controversial issue as there are few body biomarkers or evidence during late adolescence differentiating a subject from being a minor or adult. The third molar was recognized as a suitable site for age examination in late adolescence. We analyzed the development of the left mandibular third molar by the third molar maturity index (I3M) and a specific cut-off value of I3M = 0.08, established by Cameriere et al. in 2008 and used it for discriminating between minors and adult black Africans from Gaborone, Botswana. A final sample of panoramic radiographs (OPTs) of 1294 people (582 males and 712 females) aged between 13 and 23 years was evaluated. The real age decreased as I3M gradually increased. There was no statistically significant difference in the third molar development evaluated using I3M between males and females (p > 0.05) across different I3M classes. Results of 2 × 2 contingency tables for different cut-off values indicated that I3M = 0.08 was useful in discriminating between adults and minors. Precisely, for I3M = 0.08, the values of accuracy or overall fraction of correctly classified were 0.91 in males with a 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) of 0.88 to 0.93 and 0.92 (95 % CI, 0.90 to 0.93) in females. Values of sensitivity of the test or the proportion of participants being 18 years and older were 0.88 (95 % CI, 0.87 to 0.90) in males and 0.88 (95 % CI, 0.90 to 0.93) in females, while values of specificity or proportion of individuals younger than 18 who have I3M age of 18 years in Botswana. Further studies should address the usefulness of this method and specific cut-off for different adolescent populations.

  16. Establishment of Evaluation Index System of Migrant Workers' Entrepreneurial Competence

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Bao

    2011-01-01

    Taking evaluation of migrant workers' entrepreneurial competence as the research content, this paper first defines the migrant workers' entrepreneurial characteristics and the connotation of migrant workers' entrepreneurial competence; on the basis of this, from entrepreneurial thinking competence, behaviour competence, and language competence of migrant workers, this paper establishes evaluation index system of migrant workers' entrepreneurial competence. We use Analytic Hierarchy Process, e...

  17. Winter habitat occurrence patterns of temperate migrant birds in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, D.K.; Robbins, C.S.; Sauer, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    We used mist nets and point counts to sample bird populations in 61 sites in Belize during January-March of 1987-1991. Sites were classified as forest, second growth, woody agricultural crops (citrus, mango, cacao, and cashew), or non-woody agricultural crops (rice and sugar cane). We evaluated patterns of occurence of wintering temperate migrant bird species in these habitats. Mist net captures of 22 of 31 migrant species differed significantly among habitats. Of these, 13 species were captured more frequently in the agricultural habitats. American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla), Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia), and Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica magnolia) were among the species captured most frequently in woody agricultural habitats; captures of Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and Northern (lcterus galbula) and Orchard orioles (I. spur/anus) were highest in the non-woody agricultural sites. We relate these occurrence patterns to trends in breeding populations in North America. While count data provide a wide picture of winter habitat distribution of migrants, more intensive work is necessary to assess temporal and geographic variation of migrant bird use of agricultural habitats.

  18. Policy perspectives on public health for Mexican migrants in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Stephen F; Carrillo, Héctor; Steward, Wayne T; Maiorana, Andre; Trautwein, Mark; Gómez, Cynthia A

    2004-11-01

    This analysis focuses on public policies that affect primary HIV prevention and access to HIV care for Mexican migrants residing in California. Policy or structural level interventions, as opposed to behavioral or psychologic interventions, help to shape the environment in which people live. We use a conceptual model for policy analysis in public health to understand better the challenges faced by Mexican migrants. We assess potential policy level interventions that may serve as barriers to or facilitators of primary HIV prevention and care for Mexican migrants. Among potential barriers, we discuss restrictions on public health services based on legal immigration status, limits placed on affirmative action in education, and laws limiting travel and immigration. Under potential facilitators, we discuss community and migrant health centers, language access laws, and the use of community-based groups to provide prevention and treatment outreach. We also report on the limited research evaluating the implications of these public policies and ways to organize for more responsive public policies.

  19. New times for migrants' health in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Reyes-Uruena

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of migration can change greatly over time, with the size and composition of migrant populations reflecting both, current and historical patterns of migration flows. The recent economic crisis has caused a decrease on migration flows towards the most affected areas, as well as cut offs in health interventions addressed to migrants. The objective of this paper is to review available data about interventions on migrants' health in Europe, and to describe changes in migrant health policies across Europe after the economic crisis, that can have a negative effect in their health status. Although migrants have the right to health care under legal settlements issued by the EU, there is no a standard European approach to offer health care to migrants, since; policies in each EU Member State are developed according to specific migrant experience, political climate, and attitudes towards migration. Migrants use to face greater health problems and major health care access barriers, compared with their counterparts from the EU. Therefore, migrant health policies should focus in protects this vulnerable group, especially during economic hardship, taking into account economic and socio-demographic risk factors. There is an especial need for research in the cost-effectiveness of investing in the health care of the migrant population, demonstrating the benefit of such, even in the health of the European native population, and the need for constant intervention despite of resource constraints.

  20. Building a new life in Australia: an analysis of the first wave of the longitudinal study of humanitarian migrants in Australia to assess the association between social integration and self-rated health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Ling, Li; Renzaho, Andre M N

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess the relationship between social integration and physical and mental health among humanitarian migrants (HMs) in Australia. Design, setting and participants We used the recently released first wave of data from the 2013 ‘Building a New Life in Australia’ survey, which is an ongoing nationwide longitudinal study. A total of 2399 HMs participated in the survey. Main outcome measures Self-rated physical health was measured using four items selected from the SF-36 which is a generic measure of health status. The 6-item Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6) was used to measure mental health. Social integration was measured using four dimensions: economic integration, acculturation, social capital and self-identity. Results More than half (63%), 47% and 49% of participants self-rated well on the general health, physical function and role-physical dimensions, respectively and 46% reported not having any bodily pain. Seventeen per cent of participants had a serious mental illness. There was a positive relationship between social integration and physical and mental health. That is, factors associated with better health included less financial hardship (economic integration dimension), better English proficiency and self-sufficiency (acculturation dimension), having the capacity to communicate with locals, having friends from different ethnic/religious groups and attending a place of worship weekly or more often (social capital dimension) and feeling welcomed and having a strong sense of belonging in Australia (self-identity dimension). Conclusions Using a more comprehensive framework of social integration, we found that greater social integration was associated with better physical and mental health outcomes among HMs. Social integration should be embedded in HMs' resettlement programmes in order to reduce migration-related health inequities. PMID:28298368

  1. Migrantes y refugiados: reflexiones conceptuales (Migrants and refugees: conceptual reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinar Ruiz, Eva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Al margen de las definiciones legales existentes, cada vez resulta más difícil mantener una clara distinción entre refugiados (políticos y migrantes (económicos. En concreto, las restrictivas políticas migratorias, de refugio y asilo están estrechamente relacionadas con lo que los expertos llaman the asylum-migration nexus. Así, la creación de múltiples categorías administrativas de personas protegidas, la presencia de refugiados no reconocidos como tales, la incorporación de refugiados en las redes ilegales de inmigración o la solicitud del status de refugiado por parte de población migrante colaboran en la confusión de realidades. Igualmente, los cambios sociales experimentados en las últimas décadas suponen un reto para las definiciones legales derivadas de la Convención de Ginebra de 1951 y que, desde diferentes sectores, vienen calificándose como excesivamente limitadas.Abstract: Apart from the existing legal definitions, the simple distinction between (politic refugees and (economic migrants is getting more difficult to maintain. Restrictive refugee and migration legislations are strong related with what different experts have called the asylum-migration nexus. The creation of multiple administrative categories of protected people; non recognized refugees; the incorporation of refugees to illegal networks of migration; economic migrants trying to enter a country through refugee status; etc. collaborate to the confusion of the realities. Recent social changes are also a challenge to legal definitions derived from the 1951 Geneva Convention, which are described as excessively restrictive by different actors.

  2. Migrant and Non-Migrant Families in Chengdu, China: Segregated Lives, Segregated Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Nan Li; Peggy Placier

    2015-01-01

    This study documented the experiences of Chinese rural-urban migrant children and their parents living in the host city of Chengdu, China. It was informed by previous studies but applied a theoretical lens cultural reproduction theory—to reveal deeper understanding of rural-urban migrant families’ lives in the city of Chengdu. Participants in this study were 10 families—10 migrant parents, 10 local Chengdu resident parents, 5 local Chengdu children, and 5 migrant children. Through qualitative...

  3. Smoking prevalence among migrants in the US compared to the US-born and the population in countries of origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizzo R Bosdriesz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Smoking among migrants is known to differ from the host population, but migrants' smoking is rarely ever compared to the prevalence of smoking in their country of origin. The goal of this study is to compare the smoking prevalence among migrants to that of both the US-born population and the countries of origin. Further analyses assess the influence of sex, age at time of entry to the US and education level. METHODS: Data of 248,726 US-born and migrants from 14 countries were obtained from the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS from 2006-2007. Data on 108,653 respondents from the corresponding countries of origin were taken from the World Health Survey (WHS from 2002-2005. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking among migrants (men: 14.2%, women: 4.1% was lower than both the US-born group (men: 21.4%, women: 18.1% and countries of origin (men: 39.4%, women: 11.0%. The gender gap among migrants was smaller than in the countries of origin. Age at time of entry to the US was not related to smoking prevalence for migrants. The risk of smoking for high-educated migrants was closer to their US counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: The smoking prevalence among migrants is consistently lower than both the country of origin levels and the US level. The theory of segmented assimilation is supported by some results of this study, but not all. Other mechanisms that might influence the smoking prevalence among migrants are the 'healthy migrant effect' or the stage of the smoking epidemic at the time of migration.

  4. Health-reception of newly arrived documented migrants in Europe-why, whom, what and how?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne W; Kamper-Jørgensen, Zaza; Agyemang, Charles

    2013-01-01

    address the existing health inequities, nor determining factors of migrant health, including barriers to access health services’.1 Two recent Danish documents highlight these aspects in relation to the health-reception of migrants. A report from the Ministry of Social Affairs and Integration concludes...... Danish health-reception model, using a more systematic approach based on a close cooperation between social and health sectors.3 With this development, we wish to initiate a European public health debate about how to assess and meet the health needs of newly arrived long-term documented migrants......In WHO’s report ‘Health of migrants – the way forward’ from 2010, it is stated that ‘approaches to manage the health consequences of migration have not kept pace with growing challenges associated with the volume, speed, diversity and disparity of modern migration patterns, and do not sufficiently...

  5. Study on Undertaking-starting of New Generation Migrant Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Chuang; Liu, Wanzhao

    2014-01-01

    New generation migrant workers have become mainstay of China’s migrant workers and also major builders of China’s urbanization process. Compared with last generation migrant workers, new generation migrant workers have greater awareness of starting an undertaking. In the new trend, undertaking-starting is inevitable for new generation migrant workers. This study analyzed problems encountered by new generation migrant workers in the course of starting an undertaking. It reached conclusions...

  6. Who is a Migrant Farm Worker? Quien Es Un Trabajador Agricola Migrante?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, Manuel

    Concerned with varying definitions of migrants given by Federal agencies helping them, the 2 objectives of this study were to present migrant definitions utilized by these agencies and to initiate discussion on one standard definition of a migrant worker. Using standards of the Office of Economic Opportunity, the Department of Labor, the…

  7. The Social Psychological Adjustment of Migrant and Non-Migrant Puerto Rican Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Joseph O. Prewitt; Seilhamer, Emily Stella

    1987-01-01

    Reviews research literature on Puerto Rican youth and summarizes findings on factors influencing return migration and the cultural and physical adjustment of return migrants. Presents findings of a survey of Puerto Rican students, non-migrants and return migrants, which attempted to determine whether there was a relationship between reading…

  8. Forest to agriculture conversion in southern Belize: Implications for migrant land birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, J.P.; Dowell, B.A.; Robbins, C.S.; Sader, S.A.; Doyle, Jamie K.; Schelhas, John

    1993-01-01

    Central America offers a suite of neotropical habitats vital to overwintering migrant land birds. The recent decline of many forest dwelling avian migrants is believed to be related in part to neotropical deforestation and land use change. However, spatio-temporal trends in neotropical habitat availability and avian migrant habitat use are largely unknown. Such information is needed to assess the impact of agriculture conversion on migrant land birds. In response, the USDI Fish and Wildlife Service and the University of Maine began a cooperative study in 1988 which applies remote sensing and field surveys to determine current habitat availability and avian migrant habitat use. Study sites include areas in Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala and southern Mexico. Visual assessment of Landsat TM imagery indicates southern Belize forests are fragmented by various agricultural systems. Shifting agriculture is predominant in some areas, while permanent agriculture (citrus and mixed animal crops) is the primary system in others. This poster focuses on efforts to monitor forest to agriculture conversion in southern Belize using remote sensing, field surveys and GIS techniques. Procedures and avian migrant use of habitat are summarized.

  9. Determinants of health in seasonal migrants: coffee harvesters in Los Santos, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loría Bolaños, Rocío; Partanen, Timo; Berrocal, Milena; Alvárez, Benjamín; Córdoba, Leonel

    2008-01-01

    In the agroexport zone of Los Santos Zone in Costa Rica, coffee is harvested by migrant labor. Most migrants are from Panama and Nicaragua. We describe migrants' housing- and service-related health determinants, with analyses of ethnicity, nationality and geography. We used interviews, observation-based assessments, and the Geographic Information System to assess a population of 8,783 seasonal migrants and 1,099 temporary dwellings at a total of 520 farms during 2004-2005. We identified determinants of poor health including widespread deficiencies in the quality of grower-provided dwellings, geographical isolation, crowding, lack of radio and television, and deficient toilets and cooking facilities. The indigenous and non-Costa Ricans shared the poorest conditions. Reluctance to use mainstream public health services was widespread, especially among foreign and indigenous migrants and the geographically isolated. Post-study, researchers organized workshops for audiences including workers, coffee producers, public officials and service providers. Topics have included migration, preventive health and hygiene, and child labor. This work was successful in convincing Costa Rican social security authorities to implement reforms that improve access to and quality of health care for the migrants. Special projects on ergonomics, psychosocial health hazards, and water quality, as well as a literacy program, are ongoing.

  10. Research on Migrant Workers' Medical and Health Condition Assessment System in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Economic Circle%京津冀经济圈农民工医疗与健康状况评估体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡宏伟; 张冰华; 赵英丽

    2012-01-01

    为科学评估农民工医疗与健康状况.选取能代表京津冀经济圈农民工医疗与健康状况的指标,构建出一个力求合理、科学、简明、可行的京津冀经济圈农民工医疗与健康状况评估指标体系,作为评估京津冀经济圈乃至全国农民工群体医疗与健康状况的依据和工具。%In order to scientifically evaluate medical and health condition of migrant workers. select the indicators that can represent the medical and health condition of migrant workers in Bei- jing-Tianjin-Hebei economic circle to construct a scientific, reasonable, concise, and feasible as- sessment indeX system of medical and health condition of migrant workers in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei economic Circle that can be the basis and tool of evaluating medical and health condition of migrant workers in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei economic circle or the whole China.

  11. The Research of Cenozoic Migrant Worker Satisfaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海霞

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of Cenozoic migrant worker shortage is a realism problem of China's enterprise,and Cenozoic migrant worker has become an important force occupied the social structure.So the study of Cenozoic migrant worker's status and the demand is imperative.Understand employees"both psychological and physiological satisfaction of enterprises'environmental factors,and make some corresponding changes is of great help to reduce the employee turnover rate.This paper commenced to research from the Cenozoic migrant worker's characteristics,analyzed conditions and puts forward the corresponding countermeasures.

  12. Undocumented migrants have diverse health problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehmsen, Boje Kvorning; Biswas, Dan; Jensen, Natasja Koitszch;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In 2008, 1.9-3.8 million undocumented migrants lived in Europe. We aimed to strengthen the evidence base on undocumented migrants' health problems by describing characteristics of undocumented migrant patients in a Danish non-governmental organisation (NGO) health clinic. MATERIAL...... on average (16+ weeks). CONCLUSION: Undocumented migrants presented with diverse health problems. Some patients presented with critical disease, and an alarming number of pregnant women did not seek medical care until a late stage, and they did not return for infant care after giving birth. FUNDING...

  13. Employers mexican migrants in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernández Guzmán

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available You might think that by definition the migrant labor plays in less profitable niches and meager social mobility. However, a large group of migrants in different economically developed countries have successfully launched businesses of diverse nature and volume. This is why entrepreneurship of migrants is an issue that has received increasing attention in recent years. Compared to other immigrant groups in the United States, Mexicans show low levels of entrepreneurial activity. The aim of this paper is to, through a general literature review of official statistical data, a preliminary analysis of mexican migrant entrepreneurship in the United States, that is to say in recent years has been growing in importance.

  14. O conceito de discurso migrante

    OpenAIRE

    Jane D'arc

    2000-01-01

    Baseando-me nos conceitos de Homi Bhabha sobre cultura e de Antonio Cornejo Polar sobre discurso migrante, analiso a performance da personagem Hue de Es necesario entender um poco, da dramaturga argentina Griselda Gambaro. O artigo enfatiza alguns pontos importantes que me servem de conectares para minha leitura interpretativa: globalização, identidade do sujeito, competência lingüística e inserção cultural, e estranhamento.

  15. O conceito de discurso migrante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    jANE D'Arc

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Baseando-me nos conceitos de Homi Bhabha sobre cultura e de Antonio Cornejo Polar sobre discurso migrante, analiso a performance da personagem Hue de Es necesario entender um poco, da dramaturga argentina Griselda Gambaro. O artigo enfatiza alguns pontos importantes que me servem de conectares para minha leitura interpretativa: globalização, identidade do sujeito, competência lingüística e inserção cultural, e estranhamento.

  16. Identifying phonological processing deficits in Northern Sotho-speaking children: The use of non-word repetition as a language assessment tool in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carien Wilsenach

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic testing of speech/language skills in the African languages spoken in South Africa is a challenging task, as standardised language tests in the official languages of South Africa barely exist. Commercially available language tests are in English, and have been standardised in other parts of the world. Such tests are often translated into African languages, a practice that speech language therapists deem linguistically and culturally inappropriate. In response to the need for developing clinical language assessment instruments that could be used in South Africa, this article reports on data collected with a Northern Sotho non-word repetition task (NRT. Non-word repetition measures various aspects of phonological processing, including phonological working memory (PWM, and is used widely by speech language therapists, linguists, and educational psychologists in the Western world. The design of a novel Northern Sotho NRT is described, and it is argued that the task could be used successfully in the South African context to discriminate between children with weak and strong Northern Sotho phonological processing ability, regardless of the language of learning and teaching. The NRT was piloted with 120 third graders, and showed moderate to strong correlations with other measures of PWM, such as digit span and English non-word repetition. Furthermore, the task was positively associated with both word and fluent reading in Northern Sotho, and it reliably predicted reading outcomes in the tested population. Suggestions are made for improving the current version of the Northern Sotho NRT, whereafter it should be suitable to test learners from various age groups.

  17. Identifying phonological processing deficits in Northern Sotho-speaking children: The use of non-word repetition as a language assessment tool in the South African context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsenach, Carien

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic testing of speech/language skills in the African languages spoken in South Africa is a challenging task, as standardised language tests in the official languages of South Africa barely exist. Commercially available language tests are in English, and have been standardised in other parts of the world. Such tests are often translated into African languages, a practice that speech language therapists deem linguistically and culturally inappropriate. In response to the need for developing clinical language assessment instruments that could be used in South Africa, this article reports on data collected with a Northern Sotho non-word repetition task (NRT). Non-word repetition measures various aspects of phonological processing, including phonological working memory (PWM), and is used widely by speech language therapists, linguists, and educational psychologists in the Western world. The design of a novel Northern Sotho NRT is described, and it is argued that the task could be used successfully in the South African context to discriminate between children with weak and strong Northern Sotho phonological processing ability, regardless of the language of learning and teaching. The NRT was piloted with 120 third graders, and showed moderate to strong correlations with other measures of PWM, such as digit span and English non-word repetition. Furthermore, the task was positively associated with both word and fluent reading in Northern Sotho, and it reliably predicted reading outcomes in the tested population. Suggestions are made for improving the current version of the Northern Sotho NRT, whereafter it should be suitable to test learners from various age groups.

  18. Gaps in the 2010 measles SIA coverage among migrant children in Beijing: evidence from a parental survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaojiang; Xiao, Suowei; Chen, Binli; Sa, Zhihong

    2012-08-24

    China suffers from high incidence of measles partly due to high population mobility and low vaccination rates among migrants. In this study, we assessed the vaccination coverage of the nationwide measles supplementary immunization activity (SIA) of 2010 and its determinants among migrant children in Beijing. Information was collected through face-to-face interviews with the caregivers of 589 migrant children at train and long-distance bus stations in January 2011, when migrants were traveling home for the Chinese New Year holiday. We estimated that 83.4% of migrant children aged 8 months to 14 years received the measles vaccine during the SIA. This estimated coverage is lower than the official report of 96% among all eligible children in Beijing. Factors associated with being unvaccinated through the SIA included children being at home or in the kindergarten, living in a single-child family, and having a parent who was unaware of the SIA or who had a low level of trust in the government-administered measles campaign. We recommend more focused targeting on migrant children in future measles vaccination campaigns, improved immunization service delivery in unregulated migrant-run kindergartens and at the community level, as well as development of more effective communication methods to reach disadvantaged migrants.

  19. Together we have fun: native-place networks and sexual risk behaviours among Chinese male rural-urban migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaozhao Yousef; Kelly, Brian C; Yang, Tingzhong

    2016-05-01

    Some scholars argue that the maintenance of social networks contributes to the lower prevalence of deviant behaviours and fewer adverse health effects among migrants. But others suggest that if migrants are embedded in homogeneous networks, such networks may enable the formation of a deviant subculture that promotes risk taking. Facing this dilemma, the present study investigates how native-place networks influence sexual risk behaviours (SRBs), specifically the pursuit of commercial sex and condomless sex with sex workers, for male rural-urban migrants. Using a multi-stage sample of 1,591 male rural-urban migrants from two major migrant-influx cities within China, we assessed migrants' general friend network ties and native place networks (townsmen in migrants' local networks) and tested their associations with SRBs. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicate that native-place network ties are associated with paying for sex (OR = 1.33, p rural-urban migrants are associated with SRBs because homogenous networks may serve as a platform for the emergence of a deviant subculture that promotes risk behaviours. A Virtual Abstract of this paper is available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Wg20I6j8XQ.

  20. Vaccinations in migrants and refugees: a challenge for European health systems. A systematic review of current scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mipatrini, Daniele; Stefanelli, Paola; Severoni, Santino; Rezza, Giovanni

    2017-03-01

    The decline of immunization rates in countries of origin of migrants and refugees, along with risky conditions during the journey to Europe, may threaten migrants' health. We performed a systematic review of the scientific literature in order to assess the frequency of vaccine preventable diseases, and vaccination coverage among migrants and refugees in Europe. To this end, Medline and Cochrane databases were considered. After the screening and the selection process, 58 papers were included in the review. We focused on the following vaccine-preventable diseases: hepatitis B, measles, rubella, mumps, tetanus, poliomyelitis, pertussis, diphtheria, meningitis, and varicella. The results were presented as a qualitative synthesis. In summary, several studies highlighted that migrants and refugees have lower immunization rates compared to European-born individuals. Firstly, this is due to low vaccination coverage in the country of origin. Then, several problems may limit migrants' access to vaccination in Europe: (i) migrants are used to move around the continent, and many vaccines require multiple doses at regular times; (ii) information on the immunization status of migrants is often lacking; (iii) hosting countries face severe economic crises; (iv) migrants often refuse registration with medical authorities for fear of legal consequences and (v) the lack of coordination among public health authorities of neighboring countries may determine either duplications or lack of vaccine administration. Possible strategies to overcome these problems include tailoring immunization services on the specific needs of the target population, developing strong communication campaigns, developing vaccination registers, and promoting collaboration among public health authorities of European Countries.

  1. We Have Come to Stay and We Shall Find All Means to Live and Work in this Country: Nigerian Migrants and Life Challenges in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adediran Daniel Ikuomola

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent times many Nigerians have been singled out when it comes to criminal activities and xenophobic attacks in South Africa, which leads to disruption of the hitherto cordial relationship between South African host communities and Nigerian migrants. Nevertheless, the rate of Nigerians migrating to South Africa keeps soaring. Studies of migration between Nigeria and South Africa, have been scanty, often limited to the study of traditional economic disparity between the two countries with less emphasis on the social-cultural challenges facing Nigerian migrants in the host communities. This paper thus examined the socio-economic and cultural challenges facing Nigerian migrants in selected communities in Johannesburg, South Africa. Data for the study were collected through in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with Nigerian migrants in Hillbrow, Braamfontein and Alexandra suburbs in Johannesburg, South Africa.

  2. Enhanced statistical tests for GWAS in admixed populations: assessment using African Americans from CARe and a Breast Cancer Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Pasaniuc

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available While genome-wide association studies (GWAS have primarily examined populations of European ancestry, more recent studies often involve additional populations, including admixed populations such as African Americans and Latinos. In admixed populations, linkage disequilibrium (LD exists both at a fine scale in ancestral populations and at a coarse scale (admixture-LD due to chromosomal segments of distinct ancestry. Disease association statistics in admixed populations have previously considered SNP association (LD mapping or admixture association (mapping by admixture-LD, but not both. Here, we introduce a new statistical framework for combining SNP and admixture association in case-control studies, as well as methods for local ancestry-aware imputation. We illustrate the gain in statistical power achieved by these methods by analyzing data of 6,209 unrelated African Americans from the CARe project genotyped on the Affymetrix 6.0 chip, in conjunction with both simulated and real phenotypes, as well as by analyzing the FGFR2 locus using breast cancer GWAS data from 5,761 African-American women. We show that, at typed SNPs, our method yields an 8% increase in statistical power for finding disease risk loci compared to the power achieved by standard methods in case-control studies. At imputed SNPs, we observe an 11% increase in statistical power for mapping disease loci when our local ancestry-aware imputation framework and the new scoring statistic are jointly employed. Finally, we show that our method increases statistical power in regions harboring the causal SNP in the case when the causal SNP is untyped and cannot be imputed. Our methods and our publicly available software are broadly applicable to GWAS in admixed populations.

  3. Bibliometric Assessment of European and Sub-Saharan African Research Output on Poverty-Related and Neglected Infectious Diseases from 2003 to 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gabrielle Breugelmans

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP is a partnership of European and sub-Saharan African countries that aims to accelerate the development of medical interventions against poverty-related diseases (PRDs. A bibliometric analysis was conducted to 1 measure research output from European and African researchers on PRDs, 2 describe collaboration patterns, and 3 assess the citation impact of clinical research funded by EDCTP.Disease-specific research publications were identified in Thomson Reuters Web of Science using search terms in titles, abstracts and keywords. Publication data, including citation counts, were extracted for 2003-2011. Analyses including output, share of global papers, normalised citation impact (NCI, and geographical distribution are presented. Data are presented as five-year moving averages. European EDCTP member countries accounted for ~33% of global research output in PRDs and sub-Saharan African countries for ~10% (2007-2011. Both regions contributed more to the global research output in malaria (43.4% and 22.2%, respectively. The overall number of PRD papers from sub-Saharan Africa increased markedly (>47% since 2003, particularly for HIV/AIDS (102% and tuberculosis (TB (81%, and principally involving Southern and East Africa. For 2007-2011, European and sub-Saharan African research collaboration on PRDs was highly cited compared with the world average (NCI in brackets: HIV/AIDS 1.62 (NCI: 1.16, TB 2.11 (NCI: 1.06, malaria 1.81 (NCI: 1.22, and neglected infectious diseases 1.34 (NCI: 0.97. The NCI of EDCTP-funded papers for 2003-2011 was exceptionally high for HIV/AIDS (3.24, TB (4.08 and HIV/TB co-infection (5.10 compared with global research benchmarks (1.14, 1.05 and 1.35, respectively.The volume and citation impact of papers from sub-Saharan Africa has increased since 2003, as has collaborative research between Europe and sub-Saharan Africa. >90% of publications from EDCTP

  4. [Mortality risks of migrants: Analysis of the healthy-migrant-effect after the 2011 German Census].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohls, Martin

    2015-06-01

    In Germany there are 16 million people with a migration background, one in five of the total population. There are relatively few migrant mortality studies in Germany, which is primarily due to the restricted quantity and quality of existing data. The official migrant death statistics for Germany suffer from incomplete migrant population stock data due to non-registered remigration events. After the German census in 2011 especially the migrant stock data was adjusted downwards, and therefore realistic estimates of the migrant mortality risk and the healthy-migrant-effect are possible. Between 2010 and 2013 mortality risks of foreigners rose strongly due to the census corrections of the migrant population. However, the risks for adults and pensioners still lie below the risks for Germans in the same age groups. The lower risks indicate a healthy-migrant-effect, whicht was primarily effective shortly after the immigration event. Analysis based on data from the Statutory Pension Insurance (GRV) shows higher migrant mortality risks in the age group from 65 to 84. In that age group there are supposedly a lot of people, who immigrated to Germany in the context of the guest worker recruitment in the 1950s to 1970s and who had hard working conditions in their lifetimes. Their mortality risk, therefore, increased in the long-term perspective. In the future the lack of data in the migrant population will again rise due to unregistered remigration. Alternative databases need to be used for migrant mortality analyses.

  5. Seasonality in pulmonary tuberculosis among migrant workers entering Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hameed GHH

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is paucity of data on seasonal variation in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB in developing countries contrary to recognized seasonality in the TB notification in western societies. This study examined the seasonal pattern in TB diagnosis among migrant workers from developing countries entering Kuwait. Methods Monthly aggregates of TB diagnosis results for consecutive migrants tested between January I, 1997 and December 31, 2006 were analyzed. We assessed the amplitude (α of the sinusoidal oscillation and the time at which maximum (θ° TB cases were detected using Edwards' test. The adequacy of the hypothesized sinusoidal curve was assessed by χ2 goodness-of-fit test. Results During the 10 year study period, the proportion (per 100,000 of pulmonary TB cases among the migrants was 198 (4608/2328582, (95% confidence interval: 192 – 204. The adjusted mean monthly number of pulmonary TB cases was 384. Based on the observed seasonal pattern in the data, the maximum number of TB cases was expected during the last week of April (θ° = 112°; P α = 0.204 ± 0.04 of simple harmonic curve showed 20.4% difference from the mean to maximum TB cases. The peak to low ratio of adjusted number of TB cases was 1.51 (95% CI: 1.39 – 1.65. The χ2 goodness-of-test revealed that there was no significant (P > 0.1 departure of observed frequencies from the fitted simple harmonic curve. Seasonal component explained 55% of the total variation in the proportions of TB cases (100,000 among the migrants. Conclusion This regularity of peak seasonality in TB case detection may prove useful to institute measures that warrant a better attendance of migrants. Public health authorities may consider re-allocation of resources in the period of peak seasonality to minimize the risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to close contacts in this and comparable settings in the region having similar influx of immigrants from high TB burden countries

  6. THE MIGRANT WORKER AND LEGISLATIVE PROTECTION. A DISCUSSION OF THE SOUTH AFRICA EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux G. Iwu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of this paper, a migrant is defined as an asylum seeker, a refugee, a legal and or an illegal immigrant. Labour migration in South Africa has received little attention due to concerns with immigration, which are regarded as far more immediate and pressing. This consideration and others provide the impetus for this paper, which in the opinion of the authors adds to the growing concern over the issues of xenophobia and incidences of maltreatment of African immigrants in South Africa, especially against the background of the bold posture of South Africa’s constitution as the most promising constitution in the world. One must note that South Africa’s independence in 1994 and the prospects of a booming economy in a democratic setting unleashed a floodgate for immigration into the Republic from a variety of countries in Africa including Eastern Europe. This paper finds that despite narratives that tend to argue that migrant workers are deficiently protected in South Africa, evidence suggests that their rights within and outside of the workplace are indeed under the veil of protection by the legislation and the courts. Nonetheless, we are of the opinion that more interventions need to be in place, especially with regard to mitigating the levels of exploitation of migrant workers. This and many other recommendations have been put forward considering that migrant workers are susceptible to exploitation.

  7. Healthier before they migrate, less healthy when they return? The health of returned migrants in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, S. Heidi; Goldman, Noreen; Massey, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    Over the course of the 20th century, Mexico-U.S. migration has emerged as an important facet of both countries, with far reaching economic and social impacts. The health of Mexican immigrants in the U.S. has been well studied, but relatively less is known about the health of returned migrants to Mexico. The objectives of this paper are twofold. Relying on health data pertaining to two stages of the life course, early life health (pre-migration) and adult health (post-migration) from the Mexican Migration Project gathered between 2007 and 2009, we aim to assess disparities in adult health status between male returned migrants and male non-migrants in Mexico, accounting for their potentially different early life health profiles. While we find evidence that returned migrants had more favorable early life health, the results for adult health are more complex. Returned migrants have a higher prevalence of heart disease, emotional/psychiatric disorders, obesity, and smoking than non-migrants but no differences are found in self-rated health, diabetes, or hypertension. PMID:21729820

  8. Social protection of migrant workers in Ukraine: striving towards European standards under crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia FEDIRKO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to analyse the state of social protection for migrant workers in Ukraine. We investigated the legal status of migrant workers in Ukraine and carried out a comparative analysis of national and European experience in the area of protection of migrant workers’ rights. The author provides grounded support for a set of administrative measures aimed to implement the rights of migrant workers as a part of Ukraine’s international and European commitments. The practical significance of the article lies in the evaluation of Ukraine’s readiness to ratify Article 19 of the European Social Charter (revised “The right of migrant workers and their families to protection and assistance”. The author analyses the influence of the socio-political and economic crisis in Ukraine on the processes of external and internal migration, and on the social protection policies in the area of forced migrants. Also, the study assesses the social assistance provided to internally displaced persons. Finally, it suggests complex measures designed to counteract the negative migration trend.

  9. Stigmatization experienced by rural-to-urban migrant workers in China: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xiong, Qing; Chen, Xinguang; Lin, Danhua; Mathur, Ambika; Stanton, Bonita

    2007-12-01

    Global literature has suggested a potential negative impact of social stigma on both physical and mental health among those who are being stigmatized. However, limited data are available regarding the form of stigma and stigmatization against rural-to-urban migrant workers in developing countries, including China. This study, employing qualitative data collected from focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews with rural-to-urban migrants in Beijing, China, was designed to understand the forms and context of stigmatization against rural migrant workers. The data in the current study show that rural-to-urban migrant workers in China had experienced various forms of stigmatization including labelling, stereotyping, separation, status loss and discrimination. Stigmatization occurred through different contexts of migrant workers' lives in urban destinations, including employment seeking, workplace benefits, and access to health and other public services. The current study is a necessary first step to assess the potential impact of stigmatization on both the physical and psychological well-being of rural-to-urban migrant workers.

  10. Vulnerability of wives of Nepalese labor migrants to HIV infection: Integrating quantitative and qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Subash; Bista, Nirmala; Hannes, Karin; Buve, Anne; Vermandere, Mieke; Mathei, Catharina

    2016-10-01

    HIV risk is determined by the interaction between social and individual risk factors, but information about such factors among Nepalese women is not yet understood. Therefore, to assess the risk factors and vulnerability of the wives of Nepalese labor migrants to HIV infection, the authors conducted a mixed-methods study in which a descriptive qualitative study was embedded within a case-control study. Two hundred twenty-four wives of labor migrants were interviewed in the case-control study, and two focus group discussions (n = 8 and 9) were conducted in the qualitative study. The authors found that illiteracy, low socio-economic status, and gender inequality contributed to poor knowledge and poor sexual negotiation among the wives of labor migrants and increased their risk of HIV through unprotected sex. Among male labor migrants, illiteracy, low socio-economic status, migration to India before marriage, and alcohol consumption contributed to liaisons with female sex workers, increasing the risk of HIV to the men and their wives through unprotected sex. Both labor migrants and their wives feared disclosure of positive HIV status due to HIV stigma and thus were less likely to be tested for HIV. HIV prevention programs should consider the interaction among these risk factors when targeting labor migrants and their wives.

  11. HIV-related high-risk behaviors among Chinese migrant construction laborers in Nantong, Jiangsu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Zhuang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV transmission in rural areas of China is being fueled in part by migrant workers who acquire HIV outside of their hometowns. Recent surveillance statistics indicate that HIV prevalence among returning migrants has increased significantly. METHODS: We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study to assess HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors among migrant returnees in Nantong, Jiangsu Province, one of the largest exporters of migrant laborers. RESULTS: A total of 1625 subjects were enrolled with a response rate of 89%. All participants were male and of the majority Han ethnicity. The mean age was 39.0 years (SD = 6.7; range: 18 to 63, and most had a stable partner (N = 1533, 94.3%. Most correctly identified the major modes of HIV transmission (68.9%-82.0%, but fewer were able to identify ways that HIV cannot be transmitted. Nearly one-third of participants held positive attitudes toward having multiple sex partners, and nearly half believed that sex work should be legalized. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that risky sexual behavior (defined as sex with a casual or commercial sex partner was associated with no stable partner; working abroad; correct condom use; age <22 at first sex; higher coital frequency; and having a positive attitude towards multiple sex partners. CONCLUSIONS: We found high levels of reported sex with a casual or commercial sex partner and low levels of consistent condom use. HIV prevention interventions among migrant workers need to focus on younger migrants, migrants without stable partners, and migrants who travel abroad for work.

  12. Barriers to lifestyle behavioral change in migrant South Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mihir; Phillips-Caesar, Erica; Boutin-Foster, Carla

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to describe and assess the cultural barriers to behavior change in migrant South Asians, given the high morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease in this population. We reviewed studies that explored the relationship between South Asian culture in the Diaspora and lifestyle behaviors. Our review produced 91 studies, of which 25 discussed the relationship between various aspects of South Asians' belief system and their approach to modifying lifestyle habits. We identify 6 specific categories of beliefs which play the largest role in the difficulties South Asians describe with behavior change: gender roles, body image, physical activity misconceptions, cultural priorities, cultural identity, and explanatory model of disease. Future research and interventions should account for these cultural factors to successfully improve dietary habits and physical activity levels in migrant South Asian populations.

  13. Involving Migrant Families in Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Yolanda G.; Velazquez, Jose A.

    This digest describes parent involvement in their children's education from the perspective of migrant parents and educators and offers strategies to enhance the experience of schooling for migrant students and their families. Teachers often perceive parent involvement as preparing children for school, attending school events, and fulfilling…

  14. Migrant Agricultural Workers in America's Northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, William H.; Nelkin, Dorothy

    The study explores the migrant labor system as it operates in the northeastern United States. It is concerned with how the system affects life in migrant labor crews, the details of daily routine, and the problems and adjustments made by the people to the circumstances in which they live. The 3 themes of the book are: (1) the disorganized and…

  15. MIGRANT ACTION PROGRAM. ANNUAL REPORT 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SANDAGE, MRS. RICHARD

    THIS REPORT REVIEWS IN DETAIL THE MIGRANT ACTION PROGRAM AS FUNDED BY THE OFFICE OF ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY IN IOWA. DAY CARE SERVICES, SUMMER SCHOOLS, AND ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMS WERE OFFERED IN FOUR CENTERS WITHIN A SEVEN COUNTY AREA. A STAFF OF SIX PROVIDED MEDICAL SERVICES IN 29 MIGRANT LABOR CAMPS. A DETAILED ANALYSIS OF THE COMPONENTS IN EACH…

  16. TEXAS MIGRANT LABOR, THE 1964 MIGRATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, Austin.

    THE MAJORITY OF TEXAS MIGRANTS LIVE IN SOUTH TEXAS AND APPROXIMATELY 95 PERCENT OF THEM ARE OF MEXICAN EXTRACTION. MOST OF THE OTHER FIVE PERCENT ARE EAST TEXAS NEGROES. THE MECHANIZATION OF COTTON HARVESTING AND THE EXPIRATION OF THE "BRACERO PROGRAM" IN 1964 HAVE CAUSED MORE TEXAS MIGRANTS TO SEEK EMPLOYMENT OUTSIDE OF THE STATE. DURING 1964,…

  17. Competition for Migrants in a Federation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köthenbürger, Marko

    The paper provides an equilibrium analysis of how countries compete for migrants. The type of competition (tax or transfer competition) depends on whether the competing countries have similar policy preferences. With symmetric preferences, countries compete in taxes for migrants. With asymmetric...

  18. The Migrant Farmworker: Health Care Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberg, Kathy

    1992-01-01

    Describes health problems experienced by the 12,000 migrants in New Jersey. Illustrates the needs for more attention and resources from the medical community. New Jersey programs, including school health services, are relatively advanced in protecting the rights and health of migrant workers, but a lack of resources limits the delivery of…

  19. Miniature Marimbas: Migrant Workers' Memories of Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Jayne

    1995-01-01

    Three Mexican migrant workers attending classes at Geneseo (New York) Migrant Center used leftover art materials to represent their home village in miniature. A spontaneous artistic expression, the objects allowed the men an opportunity to reminisce and reinforce cultural and interpersonal ties, and gave insight about their background and culture…

  20. THE EDUCATION OF THE MIGRANT CHILD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CURRENT, TOM; INFANTE, MARK M.

    RESULTS OF A SURVEY OF 337 MIGRANT CHILDREN IN THREE COUNTIES IN OREGON WERE GIVEN. BETWEEN 60 AND 70 PERCENT OF THE CHILDREN ON WHOM DATA WERE COLLECTED WERE BEHIND THEIR PROPER GRADE LEVEL, 40 TO 50 PERCENT ATTENDED MORE THAN ONE SCHOOL THE PREVIOUS YEAR. AN ANALYSIS WAS MADE OF SUCH PROBLEMS FACING MIGRANT CHILDREN AS PRESCHOOL MENTAL…

  1. Informal labor and irregular migrant workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van Meeteren (Masja)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIrregular migrants, also referred to as “undocumented migrants” or “illegal migrants,” are immigrants who do not have legal permission to stay in the country they have migrated to and frequently take on informal and precarious employment. They may have entered the country legally – on a

  2. Migrant Health: a value for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Laurenti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The health matters associated with migration are crucial public health challenges faced by both governments and societies. According to United Nations estimates, 120 million of the approximately 175 million migrants worldwide are migrant workers with their families (1. Legal and illegal workers have a different status and, therefore, varying levels of access to social and health services. The collective health needs and implications of this sizeable population are considerable, and different health determinants and levels of vulnerability could impact on their health (2. The main public health goal is to avoid disparities in health status and access to health services between migrants and the host population (3. The second, closely associated principle, is to ensure migrants’ health rights, as stated during the 4th Conference on Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health in Europe which took place from 21st to 23rd June 2012 in Milan, where Migrants and ethnic minorities were confirmed as a benefit to the society (4.

  3. Louse-borne relapsing fever among East African refugees in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinori, Spinello; Mediannikov, Oleg; Corbellino, Mario; Raoult, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Louse-borne relapsing fever a neglected and forgotten disease by western physicians has recently re-emerged among East African migrants seeking asylum in Europe. We review here the cases observed so far together with a critical reappraisal of several issues regarding clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Migrant Health Program. [New Jersey] 1970 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Jersey State Dept. of Health, Trenton.

    During 1970, 3 federally supported migrant health projects continued to serve New Jersey's migrant workers with comprehensive health care. In the 7 counties of principal migrant activity, 4,464 patients received health services. This group represented more than 60% of the noncontract workers. Migrant health programs in Burlington, Gloucester,…

  5. Migrant Education: A Reference Handbook. Contemporary Education Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouwens, Judith A.

    This book presents an overview of the education of migrant farmworkers and their children in the United States. Chapter 1 describes characteristics of migrant workers and explains how conditions of migrant labor put migrant children, youth, and families at risk of educational failure. Chapters 2-3 present a chronology and a history of migrant…

  6. The Undocumented: Educating the Children of Migrant Workers in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul E.

    2003-01-01

    Partly because of mobility, but mostly because of poverty, migrant children are systematically denied their right to equal educational opportunity. This review covers migrant families' immigration and illegal immigration, migration patterns, poor living conditions, impact of migrant workers on the U.S. economy, children as migrant workers, impact…

  7. The Migrant Child: A Special Place in the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Georgianna; Rafanello, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Describes hardships of Hispanic migrant workers and their families living and working in the United States, and how these conditions effect young children. Focuses particularly on Migrant Head Start and discusses components of programs and services offered; special challenges of migrant education; how teachers respond to migrant children's special…

  8. African America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.; Brown, Gloria

    1994-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of quality materials by and about African Americans in the areas of poetry, music, folklore, women, picture books, history/collective biography, authors, and professional materials. Activities are suggested in each area for Black History Month. (LRW)

  9. Study on Undertaking-starting of New Generation Migrant Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuang; LU; Wanzhao; LIU

    2014-01-01

    New generation migrant workers have become mainstay of China’s migrant workers and also major builders of China’s urbanization process. Compared with last generation migrant workers,new generation migrant workers have greater awareness of starting an undertaking. In the new trend,undertaking-starting is inevitable for new generation migrant workers. This study analyzed problems encountered by new generation migrant workers in the course of starting an undertaking. It reached conclusions that competent authorities should set up support mechanism in undertaking-starting training,undertaking-starting fund,service platform,and preferential policies,to encourage and support new generation migrant workers to start an undertaking.

  10. Alcohol Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors in a Migrant Worker Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, H Virginia; Shehadeh, Nancy; Rubens, Muni

    2016-06-01

    There are not many studies exploring the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors among migrant workers. This study analyzed how changes in alcohol use was associated with changes in risky sexual behavior and psychosocial variables. Data for this study was drawn from an HIV risk reduction project. Repeated measures ANOVA and Linear mixed model statistical method was conducted to find changes and association between alcohol use, sexual risk and psychosocial variables over time. The sample (n = 203) was composed of African Americans (33.0 %) and Hispanics (77.0 %) men. Both groups, over time, showed reduction in sexual risk in accordance with reduction in alcohol use. Changes in alcohol use and psychosocial variables showed significant association with sexual risk changes over time. Psychological strategies like building social support should be considered for HIV risk reduction intervention directed towards high alcohol consuming migrant workers.

  11. Paradoxical payoffs: migrant women, informal sector work, and HIV/AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gayatri

    2007-01-01

    In post-apartheid South Africa, there has been a significant rise in women's out-migration from rural areas and across its territorial borders for economic purposes resulting in gender reconfiguration of migration streams. Alongside, there has been a simultaneous increase in the participation of women in the labor force. However, this has mostly grown in the informal sector,1 which is often associated with low earnings and insecure working conditions. One consequence has been the increasing reliance of migrant women on survivalist activities such as informal sexual exchanges that increase their risk of contracting HIV infection. Insecure working environments also expose migrant women to sexual abuses. This article is based on the author's work in South Africa's major urban centers and examines the nature of the relationship between the increased migration of black African women in South Africa, the nature of their work, and their resultant vulnerability to HIV/AIDS.

  12. Development of the Migrant Friendly Maternity Care Questionnaire (MFMCQ) for migrants to Western societies: An international Delphi consensus process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gagnon, A.J.; DeBruyn, R.; Essén, B.; Gissler, M.; Heaman, M.; Jeambey, Z.; Korfker, D.; McCourt, C.; Roth, C.; Zeitlin, J.; Small, R.; Alexander, S.; Racapé, J.; Arntzen, A.; Barros, H.; Blondel, B.; Merry, L.; Glazier, R.; Kirby, R.; Mohangoo, A.; Macfarlane, A.; Dattani, N.; Nybo Andersen, A.M.; Mortensen, L.; Villadsen, S.; Davey, M.A.; Sievers, E.; Stray-Pedersen, B.; Urquia, M.; Janevic, T.; Guendelman, S.; Bolumar, F.; Río Sánchez, M.I.; Hjern, A.; Vangen, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Through the World Health Assembly Resolution, 'Health of Migrants', the international community has identified migrant health as a priority. Recommendations for general hospital care for international migrants in receiving-countries have been put forward by the Migrant Friendly Hospital

  13. A Story of a Journey in Implementing an E-Assessment System at a South African University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, U. G.; Wassermann, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Following the challenges faced in the selection and implementation of e-assessment tools for student assessment, I undertook a journey of implementing an e-assessment system within the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN). This article describes the path traversed and highlights the potholes and expressways on this road towards e-assessment…

  14. Migrant Labor in the Workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla DAHL-JØRGENSEN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We compared immigrant workers with native workers on several factors related to their perception of their work identity anchored in their psychosocial work environment, and the result of these factors on work stress and subjective health. The data for this study came from a survey among migrant laborers in the construction and cleaning business (N=125 and was compared to a native sample (N=654 we used in an earlier study. The present study showed that the migrant workers perceived more over-commitment and higher job stress than native workers. This finding was similar to the first study in relation to these two factors. In this study, however, the construction workers and cleaners did not have significant higher levels of mental health problems than native workers. The personal ambitions of the immigrants, measured as a higher level of over-commitment was seen as a driving force behind the patterns we found. In this new study, the construction workers and cleaners showed significantly lower commitment than the natives, but still a path from over-commitment to commitment was found and may function as a barrier from developing even more stress and mental health reactions over time.

  15. Nicotine Dependence among Rural-Urban Migrants in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuyan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complex mechanism of nicotine dependency makes it challenging to evaluate dependence or progress towards dependence. The aim of this study was to estimate nicotine dependence levels and identify determinants of dependence among Chinese rural-urban migrants. Methods Multi-stage systematic sampling was used to select 4,198 rural-urban migrants aged 18 years or older from three metropolises in China. A structured questionnaire was administered during face-to-face interviews. Nicotine dependence among participants was assessed by means of the six-item Mandarin Chinese Version of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (CFTND. Determinants of dependence were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. Results Among 4,198 participants, estimated current, daily, and occasional smoking rates were 28.3%, 21.2%, and 7.1%, respectively. The CTFND score for the 894 daily smokers was 3.39(SD: 2.32. MANOVA showed that work type, age at first migration, length of migration, and number of cities ever lived were associated with nicotine dependence. Conclusion A migratory lifestyle is associated with nicotine dependence. Results could inform the design of tobacco control programs that target Chinese rural-urban migrant workers as a special at-risk population.

  16. Development of the Migrant Friendly Maternity Care Questionnaire (MFMCQ) for migrants to Western societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Anita J; DeBruyn, Rebecca; Essén, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    , and perceptions of care, has been created--the Migrant Friendly Maternity Care Questionnaire (MFMCQ)--in three languages (English, French and Spanish). It is completed in 45 minutes via interview administration several months post-birth. CONCLUSIONS: A 4-stage process of questionnaire development......BACKGROUND: Through the World Health Assembly Resolution, 'Health of Migrants', the international community has identified migrant health as a priority. Recommendations for general hospital care for international migrants in receiving-countries have been put forward by the Migrant Friendly Hospital......) Questionnaire, developed in Australia and revised for use in Canada to capture the maternity care experiences of migrant women, and combined to create an initial MFMC questionnaire. Second, a Delphi consensus process in three rounds with a panel of 89 experts in perinatal health and migration from 17 countries...

  17. Luchas migrantes en contextos de tránsito migratorio, el caso del movimiento migrante centroamericano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarela Varela Huerta

    Full Text Available Resumen Este texto aborda un ejemplo concreto de organización de migrantes, el Movimiento Migrante Mesoamericano, que trabaja por los derechos de los migrantes en tránsito por México, de forma coordinada con organizaciones y familiares de migrantes víctimas de desaparición en su tránsito hacia Estados Unidos. Este estudio de caso es un ejemplo de luchas migrantes en contextos de tránsito, tipo específico de movimiento social que ha sido poco abordado en la literatura que piensa la acción colectiva de los migrantes. En el trabajo se analizan los actores, las prácticas, las alianzas y el contexto al que se enfrentan los activistas del movimiento en cuestión.

  18. African-American Biography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ron

    1995-01-01

    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  19. How Do Migrants Save? Evidence from the British Household Panel Survey on Temporary and Permanent Migrants versus Natives

    OpenAIRE

    De Arcangelis, Giuseppe; Joxh, Majlinda

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the saving behavior of migrants in the UK across different dimensions, i.e., comparing temporary versus permanent migrants and migrants versus natives. Established theoretical predictions show that migrants save more when they plan to stay in the destination only temporarily as target savers. Our empirical evidence takes into account the contemporaneous choice of savings and remittances. Moreover, when comparing the saving profiles of both natives and migrants, we unco...

  20. The probability of return migration, migrants' work effort, and migrants' performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, O; Stark, O

    1991-04-01

    "This paper demonstrates that differences in earnings between migrants and the native population may reflect differences in incentives rather than differences in characteristics. The analysis indicates that in the presence of a positive probability of return migration, migrants' work effort is higher than that of comparable native-born workers. This differential may explain why, even if all workers are perfectly homogeneous in skills, migrants often outperform the native-born workers in the receiving economy."

  1. MIGRANT AND LOCAL ENTREPRENEURIAL NETWORKS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Adam

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines factors influencing migrant and local entrepreneurial business networks with particular reference to Provincial development in Indonesia. Factors of influence include market accessibility, capital accessibility, business focus or business specialisation in manufacturing, trades and services as well as economic conditions, degree of tolerance towards migrant and local entrepreneurs, support networks, business experience, educational background, and entrepreneurial personal characteristics and initiatives. The findings have significance for local development by entrepreneurs in this special case where migrant and local entrepreneurs link in networks and in many cases, joint ventures. The outcomes have significance for government in development programs, academic institutions designing training, and for local business organisation.

  2. Experimental exposure of African catfish Clarias Gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 to phenol: Clinical evaluation, tissue alterations and residue assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai D. Ibrahem

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There is lack of information regarding; the toxicological and pathological consequences of phenol stressed Clarias gariepinus; as well as; the susceptibility of the stressed fish to disease occurrence. Static renewal bioassay was experimentally conducted to evaluate the toxic effects of phenol on the African catfish C. gariepinus. Ninety-six-hour acute toxicity tests revealed that the median lethal concentration of phenol (LC50 is 35 mg/L by immersion. Four experimental fish groups were assigned for 3 weeks exposure test; three were exposed 20%, 50% and 70% LC50, the fourth control fish group received a vehicle of dechlorinated water. Abnormal signs including cessation of feeding, nervous manifestations; skin expressed perfuses mucous, black patches with skin erosion and ulcerations in the later stages. All observations were correlated to the time and dose of exposure. Post mortem examination revealed adhesion of the internal organs. For tissue alterations; Skin, gills, brain, liver and kidney showed variable degrees of degenerative changes and necrosis. Muscle residues shown in mean ± SE were 4.3 ± 0.05 and 6.65 ± 0.05 ppm in groups that received 20 and 50% LD50, respectively. Infection with Aeromonas hydrophila resulted in high percent of mortalities with a non significant difference between the challenged fish groups. The study cleared that phenol is toxic to C. gariepinus under experimental conditions.

  3. The role of refugee-established churches in integrating forced migrants: A case study of Word of Life Assembly in Yeoville, Johannesburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedaste Nzayabino

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing embeddedness of religious issues within contemporary global phenomena has increased the role religion plays in migrants’ spiritual, social, and economic lives. Drawing on the findings of the study, conducted within one of the Pentecostal migrant churches in Johannesburg, this paper explored ways in which a (migrant church shapes a refugee’s motivation to integrate and his resultant quest for a transient alternative belonging and inclusion within diasporic communities through church affiliation. Through interviews with members of the Word of Life Assembly (WOLA, one of the independent churches established by forced migrants in Yeoville, the study revealed that refugees tend to integrate themselves within their own churches, while the refugee church itself – labelled a ‘foreign’ entity by South African community members – works to garner approval and acceptance from South Africans and faith-based institutions. Cultural and linguistic problems were identified as major barriers to a refugee’s attempts to integrate into local churches, thereby becoming important issues that need to be considered in the establishment of migrant churches within the South African host community.

  4. African Trypanosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Histol. 1977;375:53- 70. 42. Poltera AA, Owor R, Cox JN. Pathological aspects of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) in Uganda. A post - mortem survey of...nodular lesions , including anthrax or tick bite associated with Rickettsia conorii infection. The chancre is followed by a hemolymphatic stage, dur- ing...electrocardiograph- ic changes and, at times, terminal cardiac insufficiency.41 Pulmonary lesions specifically related to trypanosomiasis are not

  5. Feasibility of Ecological Momentary Assessment of Daily Sexting and Substance Use Among Young Adult African American Gay and Bisexual Men: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmasry, Hoda; Webb Hooper, Monica; Niaura, Raymond S; Hamilton, Alison B; Milburn, Norweeta G

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that sexualized text communication (“sexting”) is associated with substance use and sexual risk behaviors among young adults, yet little is known about this relationship among young adult African American gay and bisexual men, a population disproportionately impacted by HIV in the United States. Rapid advances in mobile phone technology indicate a clear need for research using mobile health (mHealth) methods such as ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to serve as a viable counterpart to retrospective evaluation methods by using real-time data collection to assess sexting and substance use among this population. Objective The objective of this pilot study was to (1) describe the EMA study design and protocol, (2) characterize the study population, and (3) assess the feasibility of a random prompt text message-based thrice-daily EMA over 14 days, as a means of prospectively studying sexting, marijuana, and alcohol use among a sample of young adult African American gay and bisexual men ages 21 to 25. Methods Participants were recruited through flyers and snowball sampling during spring and summer 2015 at a community-based HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and support organization in Washington, DC. Eligible participants were enrolled in a one-time in-person study visit that consisted of informed written consent to participate in the study, a self-administered survey, a semi-structured interview, and enrollment and training in EMA data collection. Commencing the day after the study visit, a random prompt survey was texted to participants on their personal mobile phones 3 times a day over a 14-day data collection period assessing mood, texts sent, texts received, sexts sent, sexts received, marijuana want, marijuana use, and alcohol use. Results EMA feasibility was tested with 25 self-identified African American gay (n=16) and bisexual (n=9) men (mean age of 23.48 years, SD 1.5). Each random prompt survey had 8 questions with responses

  6. The impact of ethnic identity on changes in high risk HIV behaviors in sexually active migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehadeh, Nancy; Virginia McCoy, H; Rubens, Muni; Batra, Anamica; Renfrew, Roderick; Winter, Kelly

    2012-02-01

    Among migrant workers (MWs) in the US, HIV/AIDS prevalence may be as high as 13.5%. This serial cross-sectional study examines associations between Ethnic Identity (EI) in African American and Hispanic MWs and short-term changes in high-risk sexual behaviors. Baseline and 3-month follow-up data was collected from a larger HIV intervention study among MWs in Immokalee, Florida (n = 119) who reported unprotected sex in the past 30 days. The Multigroup Identity Measure was used to assess EI. A high EI score indicates less acculturation to one's new surroundings. Females had higher levels of positive behavior change. Lower EI was associated with higher levels of positive change in relation to HIV/AIDS risk behavior. Among Hispanics, education was negatively correlated with EI. Education was a predictor of behavior change. Future interventions should focus on reducing acculturation stress, which may prompt harmful coping behaviors, such as high-risk sex and substance abuse.

  7. The adaptation of migrant children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portes, Alejandro; Rivas, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Alejandro Portes and Alejandro Rivas examine how young immigrants are adapting to life in the United States. They begin by noting the existence of two distinct pan-ethnic populations: Asian Americans, who tend to be the offspring of high-human-capital migrants, and Hispanics, many of whose parents are manual workers. Vast differences in each, both in human capital origins and in their reception in the United States, mean large disparities in resources available to the families and ethnic communities raising the new generation. Research on the assimilation of these children falls into two theoretical perspectives. Culturalist researchers emphasize the newcomers' place in the cultural and linguistic life of the host society; structuralists, their place in the socioeconomic hierarchy. Within each camp, views range from darkly pessimistic-that disadvantaged children of immigrants are simply not joining the American mainstream--to optimistic--that assimilation is taking place today just as it has in the past. A middle ground is that although poorly endowed immigrant families face distinct barriers to upward mobility, their children can overcome these obstacles through learning the language and culture of the host society while preserving their home country language, values, and customs. Empirical work shows that immigrants make much progress, on average, from the first to the second generation, both culturally and socioeconomically. The overall advancement of the immigrant population, however, is largely driven by the good performance and outcomes of youths from professional immigrant families, positively received in America. For immigrants at the other end of the spectrum, average socioeconomic outcomes are driven down by the poorer educational and economic performance of children from unskilled migrant families, who are often handicapped further by an unauthorized or insecure legal status. Racial stereotypes produce a positive self-identity for white and Asian

  8. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  9. The role of Surinamese migrants in the transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis between Paramaribo, Suriname and Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bom, Reinier J M; van der Helm, Jannie J; Bruisten, Sylvia M; Grünberg, Antoon W; Sabajo, Leslie O A; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; de Vries, Henry J C

    2013-01-01

    The large Surinamese migrant population in the Netherlands is a major risk group for urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Suriname, a former Dutch colony, also has a high prevalence of C. trachomatis. Surinamese migrants travel extensively between the Netherlands and Suriname. Our objective was to assess whether the Surinamese migrants in the Netherlands form a bridge population facilitating transmission of C. trachomatis between Suriname and the Netherlands. If so, joint prevention campaigns involving both countries might be required. Between March 2008 and July 2010, participants were recruited at clinics in Paramaribo, Suriname and in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants were grouped as native Surinamese, native Dutch, Surinamese migrant, Dutch migrant, or Other, based on country of residence and country of birth of the participant and of their parents. Risk behavior, such as sexual mixing between ethnic groups, was recorded and C. trachomatis positive samples were typed through multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A minimum spanning tree of samples from 426 participants showed four MLST clusters. The MLST strain distribution of Surinamese migrants differed significantly from both the native Surinamese and Dutch populations, but was not an intermediate state between these two populations. Sexual mixing between the Surinamese migrants and the Dutch and Surinamese natives occurred frequently. Yet, the MLST cluster distribution did not differ significantly between participants who mixed and those who did not. Sexual mixing occurred between Surinamese migrants in Amsterdam and the native populations of Suriname and the Netherlands. These migrants, however, did not seem to form an effective bridge population for C. trachomatis transmission between the native populations. Although our data do not seem to justify the need for joint campaigns to reduce the transmission of C. trachomatis strains between both countries, intensified preventive campaigns to

  10. The role of Surinamese migrants in the transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis between Paramaribo, Suriname and Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinier J M Bom

    Full Text Available The large Surinamese migrant population in the Netherlands is a major risk group for urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Suriname, a former Dutch colony, also has a high prevalence of C. trachomatis. Surinamese migrants travel extensively between the Netherlands and Suriname. Our objective was to assess whether the Surinamese migrants in the Netherlands form a bridge population facilitating transmission of C. trachomatis between Suriname and the Netherlands. If so, joint prevention campaigns involving both countries might be required. Between March 2008 and July 2010, participants were recruited at clinics in Paramaribo, Suriname and in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants were grouped as native Surinamese, native Dutch, Surinamese migrant, Dutch migrant, or Other, based on country of residence and country of birth of the participant and of their parents. Risk behavior, such as sexual mixing between ethnic groups, was recorded and C. trachomatis positive samples were typed through multilocus sequence typing (MLST. A minimum spanning tree of samples from 426 participants showed four MLST clusters. The MLST strain distribution of Surinamese migrants differed significantly from both the native Surinamese and Dutch populations, but was not an intermediate state between these two populations. Sexual mixing between the Surinamese migrants and the Dutch and Surinamese natives occurred frequently. Yet, the MLST cluster distribution did not differ significantly between participants who mixed and those who did not. Sexual mixing occurred between Surinamese migrants in Amsterdam and the native populations of Suriname and the Netherlands. These migrants, however, did not seem to form an effective bridge population for C. trachomatis transmission between the native populations. Although our data do not seem to justify the need for joint campaigns to reduce the transmission of C. trachomatis strains between both countries, intensified preventive

  11. Migrant entrepreneurship, economic activity and export performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baklanov, Nikita; Rezaei, Shahamak; Vang, Jan;

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on transnational entrepreneurship suggest that migrant entrepreneur plays an increasingly significant role as sources of economic activities and especially export revenue. The literature is, however, biased on the US experience, lacks a comparative perspective between migrants...... and non-migrants and is primarily anecdotal in nature. This paper aims to reduce this gap by mapping the recent changes in the role of migrant entrepreneurs as a source of increased economic activity and export revenue in the Danish context and thereby linking the challenges stemming from...... the transnational entrepreneurship literature to the immigration and internationalisation of entrepreneurship literature. Entrepreneurial economic activity in this paper is proxied by the changing share of self-owned firms across ethic categories. Export revenue is proxied by the number of firms in the different...

  12. Mental health challenges of LGBT forced migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Shidlo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many LGBT forced migrants have significant and sometimesincapacitating psychological scars. Mental health providers can assistin documenting the psychological impact of anti-LGBT persecutionand its impact on the ability to secure refugee status.

  13. Migranter i prostitution klemmes af lovgivning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanger, Marlene

    2008-01-01

    Kvindelige migranter, der prostituerer sig, er en potentielt udsat gruppe, der ofte kommer i klemme mellem to politikområder - myndighedernes menneskehandelsindsats og ægteskabssammenføringslovgivningen....

  14. [Migrant workers. The critical aspects of integration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berra, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    The integration of migrant poplulations with the indigeneous population is regulated by the Italian Decree, D.Lgs 9/7/2003 n. 215 in enforcement of the directive 2000/43/EC implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of racial or ethnic origin. The Italian decree, D.Lgs 215/2003, at present in force, according to regulation stipulated as to the equal treatment of diverse cohabiting populations, explicitly forbids any form of discrimination whatsoever, be it direct or indirect. A first description of today's migrant panorama is offered by the Caritas Migrantes and the CNEL (Italian National Council of the Economy of Labour). The most critical aspects on the integration of migrants are described and discussed in the text.

  15. Maternal Mortality Among Migrants in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Grete Skøtt; Grøntved, Anders; Mortensen, Laust Hvas;

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether an excess risk of maternal mortality exists among migrant women in Western Europe. We searched electronic databases for studies published 1970 through 2013 for all observational studies comparing maternal mortality between the host country and a defined migrant population....... Compared with indigenous born women, the pooled risk estimate (RR) was 2.00 with 95 % confidence interval (CI) of 1.72, 2.33. Migrant women had a non-significantly higher risk of dying from direct than indirect death causes; pooled RRs of 2.65 CI 1.88, 3.74 and 1.83 CI 1.37, 2.45. This meta......-analysis provides evidence that migrant women in Western European countries have an excess risk of maternal mortality....

  16. Assessment of IRI and IRI-Plas models over the African equatorial and low-latitude region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebiyi, S. J.; Adimula, I. A.; Oladipo, O. A.; Joshua, B. W.

    2016-07-01

    A reliable ionospheric specification by empirical models is important to mitigate the effects of the ionosphere on the operations of satellite-based positioning and navigation systems. This study evaluates the capability of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) and IRI extended to the plasmasphere (IRI-Plas) models in predicting the total electron content (TEC) over stations located in the southern hemisphere of the African equatorial and low-latitude region. TEC derived from Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements were compared with TEC predicted by both the IRI-Plas 2015 model and the three topside options of the IRI 2012 model (i.e., NeQuick (NeQ), IRI 2001 corrected factor (IRI-01 Corr), and the IRI 2001(IRI-01)). Generally, the diurnal and the seasonal structures of modeled TEC follow quite well with the observed TEC in all the stations, although with some upward and downward offsets observed during the daytime and nighttime. The prediction errors of both models exhibit latitudinal variation and these showed seasonal trends. The values generally decrease with increase in latitude. The TEC data-model divergence of both models is most significant at stations in the equatorial region during the daytime and nighttime. Conversely, both models demonstrate most pronounced convergence during the nighttime at stations outside the equatorial region. The IRI-Plas model, in general, performed better in months and seasons when the three options of the IRI model underestimate TEC. Factors such as the height limitation of the IRI model, the inaccurate predictions of the bottomside and topside electron density profiles were used to explain the data-model discrepancies.

  17. Elderly Turkish Migrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaakilde, Anne Leonora; Petersen, Signe Sofia Gronwald; Yazici, Suzan

    simoultaneously translated from Turkish, English and Danish by the two interviewers; a medical doctor from Turkey and an ethnologist from Denmark. Results The interviews revealed a high level of functional illiteracy, low social and economic status and little language skills except for Turkish. From their life...... histories, we learned that the interviewees had not only encountered unskilled and physical demanding work, but many of them had experienced very bad and unhealthy living conditions during their stay in Denmark. Conclusions A life course approach to the study of Elderly Turkish migrants in Denmark suggests...... that the negative health situation among this population, compared to ethnic Danes, is entailed to low socio-economic status and experiences with bad living conditions in Denmark in a life-historical perspective....

  18. Slovene migrant literature in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Maver

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This article on the literary creativity of Slovene rnigrants in Australia after the Second World War, including the most recent publications, discusses only the most artistically accomplished auth­ ors and addresses those works that have received the most enthusiastic reception by the critics and readers alike. Of course, those who are not mentioned are also important to the preservation of Slovene culture and identity among the Slovene migrants in Australia from a documentary, histori­ cal,or ethnological points of view. However, the genresfeatured here include the explicitly literary, the semi-literary fictionalized biography, the memoir and documentary fiction, and the literary journalistic text - all those fields and genres that nowadays straddle the division line between 'high' literature and so-called 'creative fiction'.

  19. Never tested for HIV in Latin-American migrants and Spaniards: prevalence and perceived barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Hoyos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increasing the uptake of HIV testing and decreasing the number of undiagnosed people is a priority for HIV prevention. Understanding the barriers that hinder people from testing is vital, particularly when working with especially vulnerable populations like migrants. Most data available on migrants are based on African migrants in the UK, while barriers to HIV testing in Latin-American migrants living in Europe remain unexplored. Still, they account for a quarter of new diagnosis in Spain and suffer higher rates of delayed diagnosis. Methods: Between May 2008 and March 2011, a mobile unit offered free rapid HIV tests in different Spanish cities. We compared the prevalence of no previous testing, adjusting for potential confounders by two multivariate logistic models, and described differences in perceived barriers to testing in Latin-American migrants living in Spain versus Spaniards. Participants included men who have sex with men (MSM, men who have sex exclusively with women (MSW, and women. Results: Of the 5920 individuals who got tested and answered a self-administered questionnaire, 36.5% were MSM (20.4% previously untested, 28.9% were MSW (49% previously untested and 34.6% were women (53% previously untested. Almost one quarter were Latin-American, of whom 30% had never been tested versus 45% of untested Spaniards. After adjusting for potential confounders, Spaniards were more likely to report no previous testing than Latin-Americans among women and MSW all together (Odds Ratio (OR=2.0; 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.7–2.4 and among MSM (OR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.2–2.0. Among the 2455 who had never undergone an HIV test before, main barriers to testing were low perceived risk (54% Spaniards vs. 47% Latin-American and concerns arising from the loss of anonymity (19.5% vs. 16.9%. Fear of rejection or discrimination and fear of legal problems were a barrier for <2%. Conclusions: Latin-American migrants living in Spain were more

  20. Health Condition of Migrant Women Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    WITH the deepening of economic reform, an increasingly large surplus labor force is transforming urban areas. They are flocking to areas such as Guangdong Province, which has attracted the highest number of rural migrant workers in the country. In the first six months of 1996, its registered migrant labor force from other provinces reached 5.4 million; in Zhongshan City alone, it numbers more than 400,000, among whom 240,000 are women.

  1. Diabetes among Inuit migrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moustgaard, Helene; Bjerregaard, Peter; Borch-Johnsen, Knut;

    2005-01-01

    The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose intolerance (IGT) among Inuit migrants living in Denmark, and to compare with findings from Greenland. Further, we analyzed determinants for diabetes and impaired glucose metabolism.......The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose intolerance (IGT) among Inuit migrants living in Denmark, and to compare with findings from Greenland. Further, we analyzed determinants for diabetes and impaired glucose metabolism....

  2. Sundhedsloven og sundhedsydelser hos udokumenterede migranter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Hallas, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Health-care workers may experience uncertainty regarding legal matters when attending to medical needs of undocumented migrants. This paper applies a pragmatic focus when addressing the legal aspects involved in providing health-care services to undocumented migrants with examples from the Danish...... Health Act and international conventions. The delivery of medical care to vulnerable groups such as pregnant women and children is described....

  3. Longitudinal assessment of micronutrient intake among African-American and white girls : The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Affenito, Sandra G.; Thompson, Douglas R.; Franko, Debra L.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Daniels, Stephen R.; Barton, Bruce A.; Schreiber, George B.; Schmidt, Marcia; Crawford, Patricia B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Low intakes of micronutrients among adolescents may be linked to long-term health risks, especially in African-American girls. This report describes intake of key micronutrients relative to the Dietary Reference Intakes in a sample of African-American and white girls. Design Longitudinal a

  4. Migrant women: issues in organization and solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Castro, M

    1986-01-01

    To understand the situation of migrant women and their increased vulnerability, it is necessary to consider the structural factors--economic, political, and cultural--that have impelled the movement of labor, and specifically of women, from developing to developed, and also within capitalist countries. Unequal access to land and other resources has been the historic cause of rural men and women migrating, but it is the internationalization of former agrarian economies and their increased dependence on the world economic system that stand out as important new factors. In the US, about 40% of the women in domestic service work are Black women and the rest are predominantly foreigners, especially Latin Americans, Caribbeans, and to a lesser degree, Asians. Contrary to the myth that migrant women have been a passive labor force, the history of the garment industry shows that they have been in the forefront of labor issues in many developed nations. There is a need to guarantee conditions that will enable women to organize and work in labor and migrant organizations and still protect their special characteristics as women. Women migrants, because of their conditions as women and because of their status as citizens without citizenship, especially when they are undocumented, are greatly in need of a solidarity group to educate national populations of migrant worker's rights. It is essential to guarantee the autonomy of migrant women's organization without interfering with their specific demands, considering their race, nationality, and social class.

  5. [Healthcare for migrant workers in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Mordechai

    2003-06-01

    An estimated 300.000 migrant workers are currently living in Israel, which is about 5% of the general population. More then half of this population is undocumented and have very limited access to public health care. Due to the financial difficulties within the Israel's public health system, the entity is unable to deal with the needs of migrant workers. Hence, when these migrant workers need inpatient care, hospitals have to bear the costs and this situation creates a divergence between medical and economic considerations. The open clinic of "Physicians for Human Rights", which is operated by volunteer physicians and nurses, is able to provide medical aid for mild and transient illnesses, but not for chronic diseases. Israeli physicians are regularly confronted with ethical issues, regarding the therapy they would like to provide to undocumented migrant workers, but are unable to do so. In Europe, undocumented migrant workers have better access to public health care than in Israel. The Israeli public health system should permit all migrant workers to insure themselves at affordable prices, or another inexpensive insurance system should be created for them.

  6. Establishment of Evaluation Index System of Migrant Workers’ Entrepreneurial Competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Taking evaluation of migrant workers’ entrepreneurial competence as the research content,this paper first defines the migrant workers’ entrepreneurial characteristics and the connotation of migrant workers’ entrepreneurial competence;on the basis of this,from entrepreneurial thinking competence,behaviour competence,and language competence of migrant workers,this paper establishes evaluation index system of migrant workers’ entrepreneurial competence.We use Analytic Hierarchy Process,establish hierarchical structure,and construct multiple comparison matrix,to get the weight of relative importance.The method of applying this index system to evaluation of returning-home migrant workers’ entrepreneurial competence is offered.

  7. Associations of Socioeconomic Status with Diet and Physical Activity in Migrant Bougainvilleans in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengiau, Gwendalyn; Umezaki, Masahiro; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Siba, Peter; Watanabe, Chiho

    2014-01-01

    Urban migrants in Papua New Guinea have undergone a nutritional transition. The present study investigated associations of socioeconomic status with dietary and physical activity patterns among migrant Bougainvilleans from Nassioi territory in the capital city of Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. All adults Naasioi migrants residing in Port Moresby were identified (N = 185) and 70 were included. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity, and dietary patterns were assessed by per-week consumption frequency of food items. Principal component analysis was applied to produce a composite score for socioeconomic status. Least square regression analysis indicated that socioeconomic status was positively correlated with consumption of a traditional diet (p = .03) and negatively with walking-related physical activity (p = .02), but it was not correlated with MET-minutes of moderate/vigorous activity. Different patterns of nutritional transition occur among migrants in urban Papua New Guinea, depending on socioeconomic status.

  8. Disease, predation and demography: Assessing the impacts of bovine tuberculosis on African buffalo by monitoring at individual and population levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, P.C.; Heisey, D.M.; Bowers, J.A.; Hay, C.T.; Wolhuter, J.; Buss, P.; Hofmeyr, M.; Michel, A.L.; Bengis, Roy G.; Bird, T.L.F.; Du Toit, J.T.; Getz, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    1. Understanding the effects of disease is critical to determining appropriate management responses, but estimating those effects in wildlife species is challenging. We used bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in the African buffalo Syncerus caffer population of Kruger National Park, South Africa, as a case study to highlight the issues associated with estimating chronic disease effects in a long-lived host. 2. We used known and radiocollared buffalo, aerial census data, and a natural gradient in pathogen prevalence to investigate if: (i) at the individual level, BTB infection reduces reproduction; (ii) BTB infection increases vulnerability to predation; and (iii) at the population level, increased BTB prevalence causes reduced population growth. 3. There was only a marginal reduction in calving success associated with BTB infection, as indexed by the probability of sighting a known adult female with or without a calf (P = 0??065). 4. Since 1991, BTB prevalence increased from 27 to 45% in the southern region and from 4 to 28% in the central region of Kruger National Park. The prevalence in the northern regions was only 1??5% in 1998. Buffalo population growth rates, however, were neither statistically different among regions nor declining over time. 5. Lions Panthera leo did not appear to preferentially kill test-positive buffalo. The best (Akaike's Information Criterion corrected for small sample size) AICc model with BTB as a covariate [exp(??) = 0??49; 95% CI = (0??24-1??02)] suggested that the mortality hazard for positive individuals was no greater than for test-negative individuals. 6. Synthesis and applications. Test accuracy, time-varying disease status, and movement among populations are some of the issues that make the detection of chronic disease impacts challenging. For these reasons, the demographic impacts of bovine tuberculosis in the Kruger National Park remain undetectable despite 6 years of study on known individuals and 40 years of population counts

  9. Ethnoreligious attitudes of contemporary Russian students toward labor migrants as a social group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abakumova I. V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the role of the media in shaping the worldview of today’s youth. In Part 1, social attitudes and social stereotypes are described in the context of ethnic relations. Part 2 describes the research into social distance and ethnic and religious stereotypes conducted by I.V. Abakumova and A.V. Grishina. The study was conducted in two stages. First we analyzed various TV and radio programs, articles in the press and on the Internet, about migrant workers, published from March 2009 to March 2012, to identify the image of migrant workers in the Russian media, for further study of the perceptions of migrant workers by students in different professional fields. In the second stage, we modified E. Bogardus’s “Social Distance Scale” in order to assess respondents’ attitudes toward media images of migrant workers and, more importantly, to determine the social distance at which the respondent tolerates the images and therefore the migrants themselves. The last part of the article reports the main findings and conclusions of the study.

  10. Factors associated with high-risk behaviour among migrants in the state of maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Neeta; Jeyaseelan, L; Joy, Anna; Kumar, V Sampath; Thenmozhi, M; Acharya, Smriti

    2013-09-01

    Studies among migrants show that they are more susceptible to HIV infection than the general population and thereby spread the epidemic from high prevalence to low prevalence areas. It is therefore critical to enhance the body of knowledge on factors associated with condom use among migrants. This study, conducted in 2009 in the State of Maharashtra, covers 4595 single in-migrants aged 15-49 years and aims at understanding the factors associated with non-use of condoms consistently. Information was collected using a Structured Interview Schedule covering demographic, socioeconomic profile, sexual history, knowledge, behaviour and stigma and discrimination indicators. Logistic regression analysis was used to understand the association between unprotected sex and various socio-demographic and environmental factors. The models were run using the Enter method. The goodness-of-fit of the model was assessed using Hosmer and Lemeshow chi-squared statistics. A significant association is observed between sex with sex workers and older migrants (>24 years), the literate, those who are mobile, unmarried, employed in the textile, quarry and construction industries, who often consume alcohol and who watch pornographic films. The factors associated with unprotected sex are age between 30 and 34 years and no literacy. Migrants who are mobile and consume alcohol show a significant association with unprotected sex. The findings suggest a need for a comprehensive HIV prevention programme including strategies to address the stressful work conditions. The prevention programmes should focus not only on skills for safer sex practices, but also on alcohol use reduction.

  11. Prevalence of mental disorders in migrants compared with original residents and local residents in Ningxia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhizhong Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological migrants has a special background compared with other types of migrant. However, the mental health status of ecological migrants who were expected to benefit from a massive “ecological migration project” initiated by the Chinese government is unknown. This study aims to explore the influence of environmental change on individuals’ mental health and to improve current understanding of the mechanisms that mental disorders occurred. Methods The data were extracted from a cross-sectional study. Anxiety disorders, mood disorders and substance use disorders were assessed using the Chinese version WHO-CIDI. The prevalence of mental disorders was stratified by migration status into ecological migrant, local resident and original resident groups. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate the risk of prevalence among these three groups. Results After controlling for gender, ethnicity, age, marriage, and education, the migrants had lower risk of mental disorders than original residents [OR = 0.70 (95 % CI: 0.57–0.86], p < 0.001, but had a higher risk of mental disorders than local residents [OR = 1.29 (95 % CI: 1.06–1.55], p = 0.007. Conclusion The ecological migration project may be beneficial to people’s mental health by improving their living environment and social economy.

  12. Cross-sectional observational assessment of quality of newborn care immediately after birth in health facilities across six sub-Saharan African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graft-Johnson, Joseph; Vesel, Linda; Rosen, Heather E; Rawlins, Barbara; Abwao, Stella; Mazia, Goldy; Bozsa, Robert; Mwebesa, Winifrede; Khadka, Neena; Kamunya, Rosemary; Getachew, Ashebir; Tibaijuka, Gaudiosa; Rakotovao, Jean Pierre; Tekleberhan, Alemnesh

    2017-01-01

    Objective To present information on the quality of newborn care services and health facility readiness to provide newborn care in 6 African countries, and to advocate for the improvement of providers' essential newborn care knowledge and skills. Design Cross-sectional observational health facility assessment. Setting Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Rwanda and Tanzania. Participants Health workers in 643 facilities. 1016 health workers were interviewed, and 2377 babies were observed in the facilities surveyed. Main outcome measures Indicators of quality of newborn care included (1) provision of immediate essential newborn care: thermal care, hygienic cord care, and early and exclusive initiation of breast feeding; (2) actual and simulated resuscitation of asphyxiated newborn infants; and (3) knowledge of health workers on essential newborn care, including resuscitation. Results Sterile or clean cord cutting instruments, suction devices, and tables or firm surfaces for resuscitation were commonly available. 80% of newborns were immediately dried after birth and received clean cord care in most of the studied facilities. In all countries assessed, major deficiencies exist for essential newborn care supplies and equipment, as well as for health worker knowledge and performance of key routine newborn care practices, particularly for immediate skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding initiation. Of newborns who did not cry at birth, 89% either recovered on their own or through active steps taken by the provider through resuscitation with initial stimulation and/or ventilation. 11% of newborns died. Assessment of simulated resuscitation using a NeoNatalie anatomic model showed that less than a third of providers were able to demonstrate ventilation skills correctly. Conclusions The findings shared in this paper call attention to the critical need to improve health facility readiness to provide quality newborn care services and to ensure that service providers have

  13. Sampling international migrants with origin-based snowballing method:: New evidence on biases and limitations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cris Beauchemin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a methodological assessment of the advantages and drawbacks of the origin-based snowballing technique as a reliable method to construct representative samples of international migrants in destination areas. Using data from the MAFE-Senegal Project, our results indicate that this is a very risky method in terms of quantitative success. Besides, it implies some clear selection biases: it over-represents migrants more strongly connected to their home country, and it tends to overestimate both poverty in households at origin and the influence of previous migration experiences of social networks on individuals' out-migration.

  14. Migrant and Non-Migrant Families in Chengdu, China: Segregated Lives, Segregated Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study documented the experiences of Chinese rural-urban migrant children and their parents living in the host city of Chengdu, China. It was informed by previous studies but applied a theoretical lens cultural reproduction theory—to reveal deeper understanding of rural-urban migrant families’ lives in the city of Chengdu. Participants in this study were 10 families—10 migrant parents, 10 local Chengdu resident parents, 5 local Chengdu children, and 5 migrant children. Through qualitative interviews and observations the researchers created 5 family case studies, documenting differences and similarities in the lives of migrant and local resident families in Chengdu. Results indicated that children in the two groups experienced unequal childhoods. Although the Chinese central government has issued a number of proactive policies to allow migrant children to attend local urban public schools since 2003, the negative effect of the longstanding Hukou residency policy still impacts migrant families’ lives in Chengdu. In this article we discuss an entrenched urban-rural divide between urban residents and rural-urban migrant families, in work, community, and schooling.

  15. The migrant suitcase: Food, belonging and commensality among Indian migrants in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey, Ajay

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Migrant Suitcase is a metaphor to understand how social remittances are taken, brought back and transformed. Migrants bring with them different cultural norms, food and eating practices. In this paper I review the concept of social remittances in light of material culture, food and eati

  16. Migrant Graduation Specialists: Understanding Their Role in Supporting Secondary Migrant Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanco, Ismael

    2010-01-01

    This action research study examined the role of the Migrant Graduation Specialists in public middle schools, junior high schools, and high schools participating in a special project called HOPE (Honing in On Post-secondary Education); and analyzed the viewpoint of migrant students participating in this project in order to determine their…

  17. Validation of the Revised BSI-18 with Latino Migrant Day Laborers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Nalini Junko; Iwamoto, Derek Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the factor structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18; Derogatis, 2001) in a hard-to-reach population of mainly undocumented migrant Latino day laborers. While, the BSI-18 has been found to be a valid and reliable measure of psychological distress, cross-cultural assessments in sub-groups of Latinos are…

  18. Europe's migration agreements with migrant-sending countries in the global South: a critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adepoju, A.; Noorloos, H.J. van; Zoomers, E.B.

    2010-01-01

    The past two decades have seen the steady emergence of various bilateral and multilateral migration agreements between Europe and migrant-sending countries in the global South. This article provides a critical assessment of the way the EU – and individual countries such as Spain, France and Italy –

  19. Evaluating the language development of newly arrived migrant pupils: Go beyond words!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothoff, F.C.

    2016-01-01

    It is a widespread practice to assess Newly Arrived Migrant pupilS (NAMS) with diagnostic tests, even though most tests have only been standardized for monolingual speakers. Sometimes tests are informally translated bilingual clinicians from L2 to L1, without being adapted to the targeted structures

  20. "Me Amo Leer" Reading Experiences in a Central Illinois Summer Migrant Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavri, Shireen; Bentz, Johnell; Bradley, Janetta Fleming; Corso, Laurie

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the assessment and instructional strategies used in a migrant education programme that had positive academic outcomes for a group of 11 eight-to-12-year-old Spanish/English-speaking students of Mexican descent. Students attended this four-week summer programme, jointly sponsored by the University of Illinois and the local…

  1. Climate Change and Potato Production in Contrasting South African Agro-Ecosystems 2. Assessing Risks and Opportunities of Adaptation Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, A.C.; Haverkort, A.J.; Steyn, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the risks and opportunities posed by climate change to potato growers in South Africa and to evaluate adaptation measures in the form of changes in planting time growers could adopt to optimise land and water use efficiencies in potato, using a climate model of past, presen

  2. The Application of a Resilience Assessment Approach to Promote Campus Environmental Management: A South African Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Irene; Tempelhoff, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to outline the benefits of using resilience assessment instead of command and control mechanisms to evaluate sustainable campus environments. Design/Methodology/Approach: An exploratory mixed-method design was followed for the purposes of the project. During the first qualitative phase, a historical timeline of the focal…

  3. Study on Freshwater Macroinvertebrates of Some Tanzanian Rivers as a Basis for Developing Biomonitoring Index for Assessing Pollution in Tropical African Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius D. Elias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroinvertebrates and physicochemical parameters were assessed at 15 sites along five rivers in Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania, with the aim of understanding their ecological status and setting a base to the development of a biological index for tropical regions. Investigated rivers that occur within Pangani basin include Karanga, Rau, Lumbanga, Sere, and Umbwe. Sampling sites were categorized according to the level of water and habitat quality as follows: reference or least impacted (4 sites, moderately impacted (5 sites, and highly impacted (6 sites sites. A total of 12,527 macroinvertebrates belonging to 13 orders and 48 families were recorded. The highest total abundance of 4,110 individuals per m2 was found in Karanga river, while Umbwe river had the lowest with 1,203 individuals per m2. Chironomidae was the most abundant family (2,588 individuals per m2 and the least were Hydridae and Thiaridae, each having 5 individuals per m2. High numbers of taxa were noted among the orders: Ephemeroptera (8, Odonata (8, Diptera (7, and Trichoptera (6. In conclusion, orders with greater diversity of macroinvertebrate families offer a wide range of tolerance to pollution and, thus can potentially be used to develop a biomonitoring index for evaluating pollution in tropical African rivers.

  4. Assessment of Body Condition in African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus Elephants in North American Zoos and Management Practices Associated with High Body Condition Scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari A Morfeld

    Full Text Available Obesity has a negative effect on health and welfare of many species, and has been speculated to be a problem for zoo elephants. To address this concern, we assessed the body condition of 240 elephants housed in North American zoos based on a set of standardized photographs using a 5-point Body Condition Score index (1 = thinnest; 5 = fattest. A multi-variable regression analysis was then used to determine how demographic, management, housing, and social factors were associated with an elevated body condition score in 132 African (Loxodonta africana and 108 Asian (Elephas maximus elephants. The highest BCS of 5, suggestive of obesity, was observed in 34% of zoo elephants. In both species, the majority of elephants had elevated BCS, with 74% in the BCS 4 (40% and 5 (34% categories. Only 22% of elephants had BCS 3, and less than 5% of the population was assigned the lowest BCS categories (BCS 1 and 2. The strongest multi-variable model demonstrated that staff-directed walking exercise of 14 hours or more per week and highly unpredictable feeding schedules were associated with decreased risk of BCS 4 or 5, while increased diversity in feeding methods and being female was associated with increased risk of BCS 4 or 5. Our data suggest that high body condition is prevalent among North American zoo elephants, and management strategies that help prevent and mitigate obesity may lead to improvements in welfare of zoo elephants.

  5. Assessment of Body Condition in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in North American Zoos and Management Practices Associated with High Body Condition Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfeld, Kari A; Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jennifer N; Brown, Janine L

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has a negative effect on health and welfare of many species, and has been speculated to be a problem for zoo elephants. To address this concern, we assessed the body condition of 240 elephants housed in North American zoos based on a set of standardized photographs using a 5-point Body Condition Score index (1 = thinnest; 5 = fattest). A multi-variable regression analysis was then used to determine how demographic, management, housing, and social factors were associated with an elevated body condition score in 132 African (Loxodonta africana) and 108 Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants. The highest BCS of 5, suggestive of obesity, was observed in 34% of zoo elephants. In both species, the majority of elephants had elevated BCS, with 74% in the BCS 4 (40%) and 5 (34%) categories. Only 22% of elephants had BCS 3, and less than 5% of the population was assigned the lowest BCS categories (BCS 1 and 2). The strongest multi-variable model demonstrated that staff-directed walking exercise of 14 hours or more per week and highly unpredictable feeding schedules were associated with decreased risk of BCS 4 or 5, while increased diversity in feeding methods and being female was associated with increased risk of BCS 4 or 5. Our data suggest that high body condition is prevalent among North American zoo elephants, and management strategies that help prevent and mitigate obesity may lead to improvements in welfare of zoo elephants.

  6. Comparison of Subjective Well-Being and Personality Assessments in the Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), Snow Leopard (Panthera uncia), and African Lion (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Marieke Cassia; Powell, David M; Weiss, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The study of subjective well-being in nonhuman animals is growing in the field of psychology, but there are still only a few published studies and the focus is on primates. To consider whether the construct of subjective well-being could be found in another mammal, this study aimed to assess subjective well-being in felids and to examine its association with personality. Personality is one of the strongest and most consistent predictors of well-being in humans. This relationship could have important implications for other species, because personality has also been shown to affect health outcomes including stress, morbidity, and mortality. As in previous studies in nonhuman animals, the study results revealed that subjective well-being was related to agreeableness/openness and neuroticism in clouded leopards, neuroticism in snow leopards, and impulsiveness and neuroticism in African lions. The implications of these results for health outcomes and the welfare of animals in captivity are discussed. More research on any direct links among personality, subjective well-being, and these outcomes is important to advancing this field and adding another tool for improving captive animals' lives.

  7. Reproductive and Sexual Health of Chinese Migrants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-fang ZHOU; Joanna E Mantell; Xiao-mei RU

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the reproductive and sexual health situation,including knowledge,attitudes,and behaviors,among a population-based sample of internal migrant workers in China.Methods A cross-sectional survey of 4 900 rural-to-urban migrants in 6 provinces of China was conducted.Participants completed a 30-min semi-structured questionnaire about contraceptive practices,sexual behavior,and HIV-related knowledge.Results Migrants lacked knowledge of reproductive and sexual health issues.Among those who had heard any sexually transmitted infections(STIs),only 79.1%,46.2%,86.1%,14.5% and 82.2%,respectively,knew that gonorrhea,condyloma,syphilis,chancroid,and AIDS were STIs.About three-quarters of participants had not used any contraceptive method at sexual debut.Among current users of contraceptive methods,85.5% indicated that they were satisfied with the method.Before adoption of a contraceptive method,46.6% of the migrant workers were unaware of the advantages/disadvantages of the method and 75.3% had no knowledge of emergency contraception.Nearly one-quarter(23.4%)reported that they had premarital sex.Among migrants who were sexually active one month prior to the survey,only 14.0% reported that they had used condoms.Conclusion The limited sexual and reproductive health knowledge and unmet reproductive health services of migrant workers in China underscore the need for a comprehensive package of sexual and reproductive health interventions that combine cognitive and behavioral skills training and target both migrants and health care providers.

  8. The distortions of care needs and medical professionalism: The ruling practices of migrant labor policy in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li-Fang

    2015-08-01

    According to Taiwanese government policies and regulations, families planning to hire migrant care workers must apply for a medical assessment of the needs of elderly people destined to be cared for. The physician conducting this assessment acts as a gatekeeper who carries out her/his work with state and medical profession authority to identify, define, and regulate older people's needs. Using institutional ethnography as the method of inquiry, this article locates the problematic nature of the medical assessment as an entry point to an inquiry into how the care needs met by migrant workers are textually-mediated. This article begins by telling the daily story of an old woman and her live-in migrant worker to point out the standpoint of care recipients and their families where the inquiry anchors. I examine the physicians' daily working activities of medical assessment to discover how policy subordinates people's interests to the governmental purpose.

  9. Becoming less illegal: deservingness frames and undocumented migrant incorporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Chauvin; B. Garcés-Mascareñas

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, research on unauthorized migration has departed from the equation of migrant illegality with absolute exclusion, emphasizing that formal exclusion typically results in subordinate inclusion. Irregular migrants integrate through informal support networks, the underground ec

  10. Migrant labour Culture in Post-Mao China

    OpenAIRE

    Florence, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Against a backdrop of economic growth and growing spate of collective actions, rural migrant workers have developed narratives of migrant labour. This essay studies articles, diaries, poems and online songs asserting their collective subaltern identity and specific norms and values.

  11. Health equity and migrants in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Celia; Healy, Judith

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Migrant health is receiving increasing international attention, reflecting recognition of the health inequities experienced among many migrant populations and the need for health systems to adapt to diverse migrant populations. In the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) there is increasing migration associated with uneven economic integration and growth, socio-economic vulnerabilities, and disparities between countries. There has been limited progress, however, in improving migrant access to health services in the Subregion. This paper examines the health needs, access barriers, and policy responses to cross-border migrants in five GMS countries. Methods: A review of published literature and research was conducted on migrant health and health service access in Cambodia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam, as well as analysis of current migration trends and universal health coverage (UHC) indicators in the Subregion. The review included different migrant types: i.e. migrant workers, irregular migrants, victims of trafficking, refugees and asylum seekers, and casual cross-border migrants. Results: There is substantial diversity in the capacity of GMS health systems to address migrant populations. Thailand has sought to enhance migrant health coverage, including development of migrant health policies/programs, bilateral migrant worker agreements, and migrant health insurance schemes; Viet Nam provides health protection for emigrant workers. Overall, however, access to good quality health care remains weak for many citizens in GMS countries let alone migrants. Migrant workers – and irregular migrants in particular – face elevated health risks yet are not adequately covered and incur high out-of-pocket (OOP) payments for health services. Conclusions: UHC implies equity: UHC is only achieved when everyone has the opportunity to access and use good-quality health care. Efforts to achieve UHC in the GMS require

  12. Social Support and Its Impact on Ethnic Identity and HIV Risk among Migrant Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehadeh, Nancy; Rubens, Muni; Attonito, Jennifer; Jennings, Terri

    2017-03-09

    Migrant workers are disproportionately affected by HIV due to poverty, social isolation, lack of access to and availability of health care services, acculturation, language barriers, constant mobility, and lack of knowledge. This study examined the impact of changes in social support on ethnic identity and HIV risk behaviors among migrant workers in South Florida. For this study, baseline and 6-month follow-up data were collected from an HIV intervention study among migrant workers in South Florida (n = 270) who reported unprotected sex in the past 30 days. The Multigroup Identity Measure was used to assess ethnic identity and the Social Provisions Scale examined the degree to which respondents' social relationships provide various dimensions of social support. Social support was a significant predictor of ethnic identity and of ethnic identity subscales, ethnic identity belonging and ethnic identity explore. There were small but statistically significant short-term changes in ethnic identity and ethnic identity subscales among the migrant workers over the 6-month time period assessed after controlling for the intervention. Future studies should be conducted over a longer period of time to better assess this relationship and possible factors to reduce HIV risk behaviors. There is a need to focus on improving the quality of health and reduce HIV and other risks experienced by this marginalized community.

  13. The Effect of Rural Factors on Migrant Integration in China /

    OpenAIRE

    Tyner, Adam

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation examines the integration of rural-to- urban migrant workers in the People's Republic of China through the lens of rural factors. Although there is a commonly held belief that migrants' marginalization in the cities is a result of urban policies which exclude them from urban society in general and urban public services specifically, the dissertation argues that rural factors such as land rights play a role in migrants' marginalization by perpetuating incentives for migrants t...

  14. Northeast Migrants in Delhi : Race, Refuge and Retail

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Northeast Migrants in Delhi: Race, Refuge and Retail is an ethnographic study of migrants from India's north-east border region living and working in Delhi, the nation's capital. Northeast India borders China, the Himalayas, and Southeast Asia. Despite burgeoning interest in the region, little attention is given to the thousands of migrants leaving the region for Indian cities for refuge, work, and study. The stories of Northeast migrants reveal an everyday Northeast India rarely captured els...

  15. Migrant Women’s Work: Intermeshing Structure and Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Pajnik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we address the question of migrant women's experiences in accessing the labour market in Slovenia and examine how welfare policies, or the lack thereof, affect migrant workers' lives. By focusing the study on migrant women and their position in the labour market, we problematise these women's perpetual de-skilling and socio-economic exclusion. Drawing on migrant women’s narratives we also point to their activity in counteracting experiences of discrimination and downward social mobility.

  16. Migrant Sexual Health Help-Seeking and Experiences of Stigmatization and Discrimination in Perth, Western Australia: Exploring Barriers and Enablers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agu, Josephine; Lobo, Roanna; Crawford, Gemma; Chigwada, Bethwyn

    2016-05-11

    Increasing HIV notifications amongst migrant and mobile populations to Australia is a significant public health issue. Generalizations about migrant health needs and delayed or deterred help-seeking behaviors can result from disregarding the variation between and within cultures including factors, such as drivers for migration and country of birth. This study explored barriers and enablers to accessing sexual health services, including experiences of stigma and discrimination, within a purposive sample of sub-Saharan African, Southeast Asian, and East Asian migrants. A qualitative design was employed using key informant interviews and focus group discussions. A total of 45 people with ages ranging from 18 to 50 years, participated in focus group discussions. Common barriers and enablers to help seeking behaviors were sociocultural and religious influence, financial constraints, and knowledge dissemination to reduce stigma. Additionally, common experiences of stigma and discrimination were related to employment and the social and self-isolation of people living with HIV. Overcoming barriers to accessing sexual health services, imparting sexual health knowledge, recognizing variations within cultures, and a reduction in stigma and discrimination will simultaneously accelerate help-seeking and result in better sexual health outcomes in migrant populations.

  17. Assessing cognitive-linguistic abilities in South African adults living with HIV: the Cognitive Linguistic Quick Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupawose, Anniah; Broom, Yvonne

    2010-06-01

    HIV can cross the blood-brain barrier to enter the central nervous system. This results in cognitive deficits in the majority of patients. The assessment of these deficits and management of these patients poses challenges for healthcare workers in South Africa. This study investigates the effectiveness of the Cognitive Linguistic Quick Test (CLQT) in identifying the cognitive and linguistic abilities of adults with HIV or AIDS. Sixteen participants were recruited from an outpatient clinic in Johannesburg. The CLQT was utilised to assess the cognitive/linguistic abilities of the participants. The overall scores revealed that 87.5% of the participants presented with some form of cognitive deficit, 81% exhibited deficits in memory and executive functioning, 75% showed deficits in attention and visual perception, and 50% exhibited language deficits. Thus, this instrument may be usefully employed with patients who exhibit neurological disorders, including those caused by HIV infection. We conclude that the CLQT can be used as an alternative to more expensive, elaborate and time-consuming neuropsychometric evaluations to identify deficits in memory, attention and executive functions as experienced by adults with HIV or AIDS in South Africa.

  18. An Enrichment Program for Migrant Students: MENTE/UOP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Michael B.

    The report describes the objectives and accomplishments of a summer enrichment program, Migrantes Envueltos en Nuevos Temas de Educacion/Migrants Engaged in New Themes in Education (MENTE), for promising and talented migrant high schoolers. The program is a cooperative one with a university. Students selected by a review committee are tested for…

  19. POLICY STATEMENT RELATING TO THE EDUCATION OF MIGRANT CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    PURPOSES, DEFINITIONS, OBLIGATIONS, AND PRACTICES IN THE EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR AGRICULTURAL MIGRATORY CHILDREN ARE CLARIFIED IN A POLICY STATEMENT. COLORADO LAW PROVIDES EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES FOR MIGRANT CHILDREN TO DEVELOP THEIR POTENTIALITIES AND CAPACITIES. A MIGRANT CHILD IS DEFINED BY THE MIGRANT CHILDREN EDUCATIONAL ACT. COMMON USAGE AND…

  20. To return permanently or to return temporarily?: Explaining migrants' intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilgili, Ö.; Siegel, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies migrants' intentions to return to their origin country by making the distinction between permanent return, temporary return and participation in temporary return programmes. Using survey data from first generation migrants in the Netherlands, we explore how migrants' experiences r

  1. On the Season: Aspects of the Migrant Labor System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelkin, Dorothy

    The 3 essays on migrants in this study draw upon a survey of 181 migrants from 12 crews and of the crew leaders and growers associated with these crews, a small survey of an agricultural community, field notes of 16 undergraduate students who lived and worked in 14 migrant labor camps for 5 to 10 weeks, and interviews by 8 additional students with…

  2. Inter-Agency Task Force on Migrant Labor. Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, Austin.

    The Inter-Agency Task Force on Migrant Labor, created in 1970 by the governor of Texas, was charged with the responsibility of cataloging migrant needs, making an inventory of all ongoing Federal and state migrant programs, and developing a state plan to bring into focus all resources at hand to produce some immediate as well as long-range…

  3. Confined mobilities: following Indonesian migrant workers on their way home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloppenburg, S.; Peters, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the return journeys of Indonesian migrant domestic workers to their home towns. When migrant workers return home, the Indonesian government sets them apart from other travellers in order to protect the migrants from extortion in the airport environment, and assist them during the

  4. The Migrant Farm Work Force: Differences in Attachment to Farmwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitener, Leslie A.

    1985-01-01

    Investigates extent of diversity and segmentation within United States migrant farm labor force by examining differences in migrants' attachment to farmwork. Finds three groups of migrants with differing levels of dependence on agriculture differentiated by demographic (age, minority status, region) and employment (earnings) variables. (NEC)

  5. A "migrant friendly hospital" initiative in Geneva, Switzerland: evaluation of the effects on staff knowledge and practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Hudelson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: International migration poses important challenges to European health care systems. The development of "migrant friendly hospitals" has been identified as a priority in both Europe and Switzerland. METHODS: A multi-pronged initiative was developed at Geneva University Hospitals (HUG to improve staff knowledge and use of existing "migrant friendly" resources. A self-administered questionnaire was sent pre and post-intervention to random samples of 4 major professional groups with direct patient contact at the HUG. The questionnaire assessed staff knowledge, attitudes and reported practices regarding the care of migrant patients. RESULTS: Overall response rate was 51% (N = 1460 in 2010 but only 19% (N = 761 in 2013 owing to an institutionally imposed change in survey method. Despite these difficulties, and after adjusting for sample differences, we found that respondents in 2013 were significantly more likely to have received training in how to organize an appointment with an interpreter, how to work with an interpreter and about health and social services available for migrant patients. Respondents were also significantly more likely to have used several Migrant Friendly structures at the HUG. Use of, preference for and perceived skill at working with professional interpreters all improved, and respondents were both more likely to be encouraged by their supervisors to use professional interpreters, and less likely to be encouraged to look for alternative solutions for communicating with non francophone patients. Finally, 2013 respondents encountered fewer difficulties caring for migrant patients, although lack of time and language barriers continued to be the most important sources of difficulty. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that an institution-wide information campaign may contribute to increased awareness and use of migrant friendly resources by clinical staff. Hospital commitment and financing, along with inter

  6. Assessing changes to South African maize production areas in 2055 using empirical and process-based crop models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, L.; Bradley, B.; Oppenheimer, M.; Beukes, H.; Schulze, R. E.; Tadross, M.

    2010-12-01

    gains and losses in maize productivity. We identify several areas-particularly along the southern and eastern boundaries of current production-with potential for increased productivity. However, larger areas, primarily in the more arid western and northern production regions, are likely to experience diminished productivity. The combination of process-based and distribution models for agricultural impacts assessments provides a useful comparison of two different crop modeling frameworks, as well as the finest scale investigation using a spatially-explicit implementation of a process-based model for South Africa. The large GCM ensemble and multiple emissions scenarios provide a broad climate risk assessment for current maize production. SOM downscaling can help improve climate impacts assessments by increasing their resolution, and by circumventing GCM precipitation schemes whose outcomes are highly divergent.

  7. A JOINT VENTURE MODEL FOR ASSESSMENT OF PARTNER CAPABILITIES: THE CASE OF ESKOM ENTERPRISES AND THE AFRICAN POWER SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.V. Soni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This article investigates the concept of joint ventures in the international energy sector and develops a joint venture model, as a business development and assessment tool. The joint venture model presents a systematic method that relies on modern business intelligence to assess a potential business venture by using a balanced score card technique to screen potential partners, based on their technological and financial core capabilities. The model can be used by business development managers to harness the potential of joint ventures to create economic growth and sustainable business expansion. Furthermore, partnerships with local companies can help to mitigate econo-political risk, and facilitate buy-in from the national governments that are normally the primary stakeholders in the energy sector ventures (directly or indirectly. The particular case of Eskom Enterprises (Pty Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of Eskom, is highlighted.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel ondersoek die begrip gesamentlike onderneming in die internasionale energiesektor en ontwikkel 'n gesamentlike-onderneming-model as 'n sake-ontwikkeling- en takseermodel. Die gesamentlike-onderneming-model bied 'n stelselmatige metode wat op moderne sake-intelligensie staat maak om 'n potensiële sake-onderneming op grond van die tegnologiese en finansiële kernvermoëns daarvan te takseer deur 'n gebalanseerdepuntekaart-tegniek te gebruik. Die model kan deur sake-ontwikkelingsbestuurders gebruik word om die potensiaal van gesamentlike ondernemings in te span om ekonomiese groei en volhoubare sake-uitbreiding daar te stel. Verder kan venootskappe met plaaslike maatskappye help om die ekonomiese risiko te verminder en inkoop te vergemaklik van die nasionale regerings wat gewoonlik die primêre belanghebbendes in die energiesektorondernemings is (hetsy regstreeks of onregstreeks. Die besondere geval van Eskom Enterprises (Edms Bpk, 'n vol filiaal van Eskom

  8. Future Water Resources Assessment for West African River Basins Under Climate Change, Population Growth and Irrigation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisser, D.; Ibrahim, B.; Proussevitch, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    West Africa economies rely on rain-fed agriculture and are extremely vulnerable to changes in precipitation. Results from the most recent generation of regional climate models suggest increases in rainy season rainfall variability (delayed rainy season onset, increased probability of dry spells, shorter rainy season duration) despite a moderate increase in rainy season total precipitation. These changes could potentially have detrimental effects on crop yield and food security. Additional pressures on water resources come from increased demand as a result of high population growth rates (~3% per year). Increased water storage and irrigation can help improve crop yields but future assessments of water resources are needed to prioritize irrigation development as an adaptation option. Increased water abstraction, in turn can impact water availability in downstream regions so that an integrated assessment of future water availability and demand is needed. We use a set of 15 RCM outputs from the CORDEX data archive to drive WBMplus, a hydrological model and simulate water availability under climate change. Based on estimated water constraints, we develop scenarios to expand irrigated areas (from the current 1% of all croplands) and calculate the effects on water scarcity, taking into account increased demand for domestic consumption and livestock water demand, at a spatial resolution of 10 km. Results around the 2050's indicate large potential to develop irrigated areas on ground and surface water and increase local water storage without increasing water scarcity downstream for many river basins in the region that could help alleviate pressures on the cropping systems and thereby increase food security.

  9. A survey in rural China of parent-absence through migrant working: the impact on their children's self-concept and loneliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yue

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the rapid increase of migrant workers in China, the number of "absent migrant parents" children is also rising fast. The "absent migrant parents" children might have an insecure relationship with their parents, have a different view of them, and be prone to have the feeling of loneliness. The purpose of the study was to compare the self-concept and loneliness between the "absent migrant parents" children and comparison children, to examine the relationship between self-concept and loneliness among the two groups, and to study the predictors of self-concept among the two groups. Methods Participants were 230 "absent migrant parents" children and 250 comparison children in the rural area of a county, China. The self-concept and loneliness of children were assessed using Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale and Childhood Loneliness Scale. Results The "absent migrant parents" children were more likely to dislike their parents or be uncertain whether they like their parents, and they reported less time spent in physical and leisure time activities, higher loneliness and lower self-concept in comparison with the comparison children. Loneliness was significantly negatively correlated with all the dimensions of self-concept among the two groups. Regression analysis showed that self-concept was positively related to the relationship with parents and guardians and time spent in physical and leisure activities among the "absent migrant parents" children. The same factors (except the relationship with guardians were found for self-concept among the comparison children. Conclusions The "absent migrant parents" children were more inclined to have lower self-concept and higher loneliness. The lower self-concept seemed to contribute to the higher loneliness of the "absent migrant parents" children. The lower self-concept of the "absent migrant parents" children was mainly related with their relationship with parents and guardians. The

  10. Migrant Labor, Unemployment and Optimal Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Viasu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the arguments against migrant labor is that it has negative ef- fect on the employment of domestic labor. The question is now if the immigration has also negative effects on the other variables of the econ- omy. To examine these effects we develop an optimal growth model with migration and unemployment and then we analyze these effects, restricting our analysis to the steady state. We introduce a simplify- ing hypothesis concerning the skill level of human capital. We assume that the average skill level of domestic employed labor differs from the average skill level of migrant labor, but the two kinds of labor grow at the same constant rate. We prove that the immigration process could have both positive and negative effects on consumption, human capital and physical capital, depending on the skill level of the migrant labor. The numerical simulations confirm our theoretical results.

  11. Differences in mortality between different groups of older migrants and non-migrants in Belgium, 2001 to 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reus-Pons, Matias; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Janssen, Fanny; Kibele, Eva U.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: European societies are rapidly ageing and becoming multicultural, and Belgium is part of the countries ahead in this transition. Differences in mortality between migrants and non-migrants in Europe have been shown to depend on age, sex, socio-economic status, migrant background and count

  12. "MIGRANT CHILDREN--THE CHALLENGE AND OUR RESPONSE"--REPORT OF THE MIGRANT CHILDREN'S FUND CONFERENCE (JULY 1961).

    Science.gov (United States)

    GORDON, CYRUS; AND OTHERS

    THE ROLE OF FEDERAL, STATE, AND PRIVATE AGENCIES IN HELPING MIGRANT CHILDREN WAS DISCUSSED. BACKGROUND INFORMATION GIVEN BY NORMAN THOMAS AND FAY BENNETT EMPHASIZED SURVEY RESULTS. IN 1961 THERE WERE BETWEEN 350,000 AND 450,000 CHILDREN OF DOMESTIC MIGRANT WORKERS IN AMERICA. IN 1959 75,000 OF THE 500,000 MIGRANT WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES WERE…

  13. The Impact of the College Assistance Migrant Program on Migrant Student Academic Achievement in the California State University System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Adrian D.

    2012-01-01

    The 7-year longitudinal study examined the College Assistance Migrant Program (CAMP) impact on migrant student achievement in the California State University system. Participants included migrant students, Latinos, and general student populations from 2002-2009. The analysis of variance and chi-square test of independence were used to explore…

  14. The Impact of the College Assistance Migrant Program on Migrant Student Achievement in the California State University System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Adrian Dee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the 7-year longitudinal study was to examine the College Assistance Migrant Program (CAMP), a student services intervention, to determine its impact on migrant student achievement in the California State University (CSU) system. Participants included 336 migrant students who were enrolled as first-time, full-time freshmen in fall…

  15. A stochastic exposure assessment model to estimate vanadium intake by beef cattle used as sentinels for the South African vanadium mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummow, B; Kirsten, W F A; Gummow, R J; Heesterbeek, J A P

    2006-10-17

    This paper presents an environmental exposure assessment model for estimating chronic intake of vanadium (a transition metal) by cattle farmed extensively in areas contaminated by vanadium pollutants. The exposure model differs from most other models in several ways: (1) it does not rely heavily on extrapolating information from the point source (e.g. stack height, exit velocity, exit diameter) to the point of exposure. (2) It incorporates the physiological constraints of the species exposed. (3) It takes into account oral as well as inhalation exposure. (4) It addresses terrain, by using measurements at the point of exposure. (5) It accounts for existing background concentrations of pollutants and pollutants from multiple sources. (6) It uses a stochastic process with distribution functions to account for variability in the data over time. Environmental inputs into the model included aerial fall-out sample vanadium (n=566), unwashed grass sample vanadium (n=342) and soluble soil sample vanadium (n=342). Physiological cattle inputs were derived from two cohorts of Brahman-cross sentinel cattle (n=30). The model provided an estimate of the chronic external exposure dose of vanadium for two separate groups of cattle grazing over a 5-year period (1999-2004) immediately adjacent (median dose=2.14mg vanadium/kg body weight/day) and 2km away (median dose=1.07mg/kg/day) from a South African vanadium-processing plant, respectively. The final output of the model is a distribution curve of the probable vanadium intake based on the variability within the inputs over the 5-year period of the study. The model is adaptable enough for application to other transition metals and species (including man), and could be used as an alternative to plume-dispersion modelling.

  16. Feeding potential of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peels ensiled with Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium assessed with West African dwarf goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduguwa, Bamidele Omonuwa; Oni, Adebayo Olusoji; Arigbede, Oluwasanmi Moses; Adesunbola, Julius Olukunle; Sudekum, Karl Heinz

    2013-08-01

    Cassava peels (CaPe) were ensiled in mixtures with Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, and the utilization of the mixed silages by West African dwarf (WAD) goats was assessed. Five silages were composed, comprising of 100% ensiled CaPe (control), CaPe + G. sepium 2:1 (w/w; 2CGS), CaPe + G. sepium 1:1 (w/w; CGS), CaPe + L. leucocephala 2:1 (w/w; 2CLL) and CaPe + L. leucocephala 1:1 (w/w; CLL). All diets were supplemented with molasses (40 g/kg) before ensiling which lasted 3 months. Fifteen WAD goats (8.01 ± 0.12 kg body weight) were fed one of the experimental diets (50 g/kg body weight) for 8 weeks. The control had the lowest hydrocyanic acid content (0.05 mg/kg DM), while others ranged from 6.2 to 81.3 mg/kg. Condensed tannin concentration ranged from 1.7 to 8.4 mg/kg DM, while mimosine levels were 11.6 and 12.4 mg/kg DM in 2CLL and CLL, respectively. After fermentation, all silages showed low pH (<4.5) and were different (P < 0.05) in the lactic, acetic and butyric acid concentrations. Ratio of foliage supplementation influenced DM intake (P < 0.05). Daily weight gains ranged from 17 (CLL) to 24 g/day in control. The digestibility coefficients of nutrients and fibre fractions differed (P < 0.05) among diets. The values for packed cell volume, haemoglobin, red blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were also different (P < 0.05) across the dietary treatments. Ensiling CaPe with foliages of G. sepium and L. leucocephala can be recommended for feeding WAD goats especially during the dry spells when there is little or no available forage for the animals.

  17. Land use scenarios development and impacts assessment on vegetation carbon/nitrogen sequestration in the West African Sudan savanna watershed, Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabi, A.

    2015-12-01

    ackground: Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+), being developed through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) requires information on the carbon/nitrogen stocks in the plant biomass for predicting future climate under scenarios development. The development of land use scenarios in West Africa is needed to predict future impacts of change in the environment and the socio-economic status of rural communities. The study aims at developing land use scenario based on mitigation strategy to climate change as an issue of contributing for carbon and nitrogen sequestration, the condition 'food focused' as a scenario based crop production and 'financial investment' as scenario based on an economic development pathway, and to explore the possible future temporal and spatial impacts on vegetation carbon/nitrogen sequestration/emission and socio-economic status of rural communities. Preliminary results: BEN-LUDAS (Benin-Land Use DyNamic Simulator) model, carbon and nitrogen equations, remote sensing and socio-economic data were used to predict the future impacts of each scenario in the environment and human systems. The preliminary results which are under analysis will be presented soon. Conclusion: The proposed BEN-LUDAS models will help to contribute to policy decision making at the local and regional scale and to predict future impacts of change in the environment and socio-economic status of the rural communities. Keywords: Land use scenarios development, BEN-LUDAS, socio-economic status of rural communities, future impacts of change, assessment, West African Sudan savanna watershed, Benin

  18. Migrant tuberculosis screening in the EU/EEA: yield, coverage and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkenberg, E; Manissero, D; Semenza, J C; Verver, S

    2009-11-01

    A systematic literature review was performed with the objective of assessing the effectiveness of tuberculosis (TB) screening methods and strategies in migrants in European Union/European Economic Area (including Switzerland) countries. Extracted data on yield and coverage were used as indicators of effectiveness. Reported yields varied considerably between studies and countries. Considering only the 14 studies representative of national screening programmes, a median yield of TB disease of 0.18% (interquartile range 0.10-0.35%) was reported. The data did not indicate differences in effectiveness between the three main strategies: 1) screening at port of entry; 2) screening just after arrival in reception/holding centres; and 3) screening in the community following arrival in European Union countries. The variation seen probably reflects variation in risk factors for TB, in particular the composition of the migrants entering the country. Recommendations include the need for improved data for guiding the optimal frequency and duration of screening; assessment and improvement of cost-effectiveness; access to healthcare for migrants, including illegal migrants; ensuring a continuum of care for those screened; and consideration of screening for latent TB infection with caution. Finally, screening should be a component of a wider approach, rather than a stand-alone intervention.

  19. Radical Islamism and Migrant Integration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goli, Marco; Rezaei, Shahamak

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that alienation and failed integration may be causes of “Homegrown Radical Islamism” in Western societies. Western countries often expect that migrants and their descendants residing there as citizens will embrace or support common democratic ideals as a predicate for – or c......It has been suggested that alienation and failed integration may be causes of “Homegrown Radical Islamism” in Western societies. Western countries often expect that migrants and their descendants residing there as citizens will embrace or support common democratic ideals as a predicate...

  20. Establishing a Tradition of Migrant Brides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Michael

    2015-01-01

    1949 assisted the development of the migrant bride phenomenon in the 1960s. Catalytic, however, was the desperate situation of the marginalized Mainlander veterans who bought ethnically different wives for matrimony. Similarly, the development of large-scale cross-border and cross-ethnic marriage as we...... outside their own society. The upsurge of the migrant bride phenomenon in recent years is additionally supported by an increasing divergence of value orientations of men and women in Taiwan today, as well as the global rise of the internet, which not only enhances the mutual connectivity of buyers...

  1. Family Support and Colorectal Cancer Screening among Urban African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Northouse, Laurel; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2012-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death among African Americans. Less than 50% of African Americans have had CRC screening. This study examined the relationships between family support and influence, cultural identity, CRC beliefs, and a screening informed decision among 129 urban African Americans. Family support (p < .01) significantly predicted CRC beliefs and CRC beliefs significantly predicted informed decision (p < .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely assess family support and CRC beliefs with African Americans patients. This may improve patient-provider shared decision-making satisfaction and CRC screening adherence among African American patients.

  2. The big crossing: illegal boat migrants in the Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassar, Hassène; Dourgnon, Paul

    2014-08-01

    This article explores illegal migration routes and groups across North Africa to Europe. We describe sub-Saharan and cross-Mediterranean routes, and how they changed during the years. We propose an analytical framework for the main factors for these migrations, from local to international and regulatory context. We then describe sea-migrants' nationalities and socio-economic and demographic characteristics, from studies undertook in Tunisia and Morocco. While boat migration represents only a fraction of illegal migration to Europe, it raises humanitarian as well as ethical issues for European and North African (NA) countries, as a non-negligible amount of them end up in death tolls of shipwrecks in the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, existing statistics show that illegal trans-Mediterranean migration is growing exponentially. Ongoing crises in Africa and the Middle East are likely to prompt even larger outflows of refugees in the near future. This should induce NA countries to share closer public policy concerns with European countries.

  3. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  4. Migrant Education Programs Under ESEA Title I Migrant Amendment. (Programas de Educacion Migrante bajo el Titulo I de ESEA.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkler, Elton D.

    Migrant Education Programs are designed for those students who, because of the migratory nature of their parents' employment, are required to move from one school district to another during the school year. In many instances these students, because of sporadic attendance and discontinuity of their educational experiences, have found it difficult,…

  5. Recommendations for Evidence-based Thinking on Migrant Worker Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based thinking originates from the United States. It stresses combination of actual facts and practical experience of managers to find out optimal evidence and make decisions accordingly. Migrant worker is a unique concept of China. Migrant workers are essential parts of industrial forces. However,due to limitation of their quality,they generally fail to bring into play their important function in the industry chain. At present,there are many problems in training models of migrant workers,leading to failure to raise their employment ability. This study is expected to introduce the evidence-based thinking into the building of training models for migrant workers,to provide recommendations for migrant worker training,raise efficiency of migrant worker training,and so as to bring into play important function of migrant workers in socialist construction of China.

  6. Economic Integration of Intermarried Labour Migrants, Refugees and Family Migrants to Sweden: Premium or Selection?

    OpenAIRE

    Irastorza, Nahikari; Bevelander, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    We use Swedish register data to compare the employment and income of immigrants who intermarry natives versus those of immigrants who intramarry other immigrants in Sweden. We conduct the same analyses on three subsamples: labour migrants, refugees and family migrants. We find that intermarried immigrants outperformed intramarried ones in employment rates and salaries before and after marriage, in 1997 and 2007 respectively, and the same in true for each of the three subsamples analyzed. Ther...

  7. Care during pregnancy and childbirth for migrant women: How do we advance? Development of intervention studies--the case of the MAMAACT intervention in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2016-04-01

    The increased risk of adverse pregnancy and childbirth outcomes demonstrated for many non-Western migrants in Europe, Australia and North America may be due to inadequate use and suboptimal quality of care. It is indicated that a poor user-provider interaction leads to inequity of pregnancy and delivery care. This review demonstrated that there is no evidence of best practice antenatal care for migrant women. Health system interventions for improved maternal and child health among migrants should be based on thorough needs assessments, contextual understanding and involvement of the target group and health-care providers. We present the Danish MAMAACT study as a strategic perspective on how to move forward, and we describe methodological steps in intervention development. Based on a mixed method needs assessment, the MAMAACT study aimed to enhance the communication between migrant women and midwives during antenatal care regarding warning signs of pregnancy and how to access acute care.

  8. The migrant suitcase: Food, belonging and commensality among Indian migrants in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Ajay

    2017-03-01

    The Migrant Suitcase is a metaphor to understand how social remittances are taken, brought back and transformed. Migrants bring with them different cultural norms, food and eating practices. In this paper I review the concept of social remittances in light of material culture, food and eating practices and examine the linkages between food, belonging, commensality and care and then provide empirical examples from the suitcases of Indian migrants. This paper is based on 30 in-depth interviews conducted among Indian migrants living in The Netherlands. The main themes from the data included food from home, cooking practices, food sharing and family relationships. Migrants' sense of belonging was intrinsically related to the food they brought from home and the memories it generates. The practices of cooking and sensorial experiences surrounding them demonstrate the place and home making processes. Commensality with co-ethnics led to a sense of community and stronger community bonds. Commensality with other non-Indian groups was perceived to be problematic. The exchanges of food, eating practices, and care create a sense of 'co-presence' in lives migrants and their transnational families.

  9. Tobacco Use and Exposure among Children in Migrant and Non-migrant Households in Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukamdi; Wattie, Anna Marie

    2013-12-01

    This research note aims to understand the impact of parental migration on the children who stay behind by examining the issue of smoking. It asks whether tobacco use and exposure are higher among children in migrant households compared with those in non-migrant households in Java, Indonesia. Data were collected in 2008 in two provinces, West Java and East Java, as part of the Child Health and Migrant Parents in South-East Asia (CHAMPSEA) Project. The analytical sample used here relates to children aged 9, 10 and 11 living in both non-migrant and transnational households (N=451). The findings show that the incidence of ever having smoked among these primary school-aged children is relatively low at less than 10 percent, but that boys are much more likely to have used tobacco than girls. Findings from multivariate logistic models predicting smoking behavior show no difference between the children of migrants and non-migrants; nor does household wealth appear to influence whether or not a child has tried tobacco. Gender, child stunting (low height-for-age), carer's education, family functioning and tobacco use by friends are the four main factors found to be significantly associated with child smoking.

  10. MENTE Spells Success for Migrant Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Andres F.; Gilbert, Michael B.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the MENTE (Minorities Engaged in New Things in Education) program which builds migrant students' skills, confidence, and awareness of opportunities. Components include language arts, quantitative skills (science and mathematics), and personal development activities. Participants later entered college at a much higher rate than the…

  11. Government Helps Migrant Workers Recover Unpaid Salary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    As the traditional Chinese New Year draws near,local governments in China have launched a special inspection of the country's building, services, catering and manufacturing industries and are taking complaints from the tens of thousands of migrant workers who remain unpaid.

  12. Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers: A Forgotten Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Loida C.

    Migrant and seasonal farmworkers are the most educationally disadvantaged group in society, with over 70% high school dropouts and 15% functionally illiterate. Mobility, language barriers, and cultural differences combined with health and nutrition problems have a negative effect on school achievement. The constant interruption of the educational…

  13. Problems Portraying Migrants in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a very personal attempt to explore the problematics of portraying migrants in Applied Linguistics research. I begin with a discussion of identity, in particular what we might mean when we use the term, and from there I go on to explore its fundamental imprecision through an analysis of a census question about ethnicity. I then…

  14. Looking Out for Our Country's Illegal Migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Carlos D.

    2007-01-01

    Illegal migrants are a nonentity in the United States, and, to a certain extent, many prefer it that way. They exist in society's netherworld, living under their own code of survival by whatever means they can, since the alternatives are less inviting. Mostly, they struggle. People take advantage of them at every opportunity because they are…

  15. EPA guidance mental health care of migrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhugra, D; Gupta, S; Schouler-Ocak, M

    2014-01-01

    Migration is an increasingly commonplace phenomenon for a number of reasons. People migrate from rural to urban areas or across borders for reasons including economic, educational or political. There is increasing recent research evidence from many countries in Europe that indicates that migrants...

  16. Sociocritical Matters: Migrant Students' College Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Anne-Marie; Gildersleeve, Ryan Evely

    2016-01-01

    Migrant students face many educational, economic, social, and cultural challenges to college access. Anti-bilingual, anti-affirmative action, and anti-immigrant policies also constrain their postsecondary pathways. With these issues in mind, this article draws on quantitative and qualitative research to examine the influence of a residential…

  17. Texas Migrant Labor, 1974 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, Austin.

    Organized under a 1943 Federal grant and later funded by legislative appropriations, the Good Neighbor Commission of Texas coordinates the work of Federal, State, and local government units endeavoring to improve the travel, living, and working conditions of Texas migrant farmworkers and their families. The 1974 annual report chronicles the facts,…

  18. TEXAS MIGRANT LABOR, THE 1966 MIGRATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, Austin.

    THE CALENDAR YEAR 1966 WAS THE SECOND FULL YEAR IN WHICH NO BRACEROS WERE IMPORTED FROM MEXICO. CRITICAL LABOR SHORTAGES OCCURRED IN SOME AREAS, HOWEVER, THE DOMESTIC LABOR SUPPLY BECAME MORE STABLE AND FEWER PROBLEMS WERE EXPERIENCED THAN IN 1965. THE MAJORITY OF TEXAS MIGRANTS LIVE IN SOUTH TEXAS AND APPROXIMATELY 95 PERCENT OF THEM ARE OF…

  19. Texas Migrant Labor. 1973 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, Austin.

    The Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, organized under a 1943 Federal grant and later constituted as a State agency, coordinates the work of the Federal, State, and local governments in improving travel and working conditions of migrant farm workers. The basic responsibilities presented in its 1973 annual report are: (1) surveying conditions and…

  20. Texas Migrant Labor. Annual Report, 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, Austin.

    The Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, organized under a Federal grant in 1943 and later constituted as an agency of state government by legislative mandate, is charged under its basic law to coordinate the work of the Federal, State, and local government units endeavoring to improve the travel and working conditions of Texas migrant farm workers.…

  1. TEXAS MIGRANT LABOR, THE 1965 MIGRATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, Austin.

    THE CALENDAR YEAR 1965 WAS THE FIRST FULL YEAR IN WHICH NO BRACEROS WERE IMPORTED FROM MEXICO. CROP LOSSES OCCURRED IN SOME AREAS OF THE COUNTRY DUE TO LABOR SHORTAGES, HOWEVER, GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS STATE THAT THESE SHORTAGES CAN BE AVOIDED IN THE FUTURE. THE MAJORITY OF TEXAS MIGRANTS LIVE IN SOUTH TEXAS AND APPROXIMATELY 95 PERCENT OF THEM ARE…

  2. Texas Migrant Labor. Annual Report, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, Austin.

    Organized under a 1943 Federal grant and later constituted as a state agency, the Good Neighbor Commission of Texas is charged with coordinating the work of Federal, state, and local government units in improving travel and working conditions of migrant farm workers. A basic responsibility is surveying conditions and determining problem areas…

  3. MAJOR AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND AREAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    DEPICTED ARE 12 CHARTS OF MAJOR CROP PRODUCTION CENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES WHICH DEMAND THE LABOR OF MIGRATORY FARM WORKERS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR. EACH CHART ILLUSTRATES THE AREAS OF AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND FOR ONE MONTH OF THE YEAR. THE PURPOSE IS TO ACQUAINT THE PUBLIC WITH THE COMPLEXITY OF PLACING AND SCHEDULING MIGRATORY WORKERS…

  4. Children of Migrant Workers: Exploring the Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercaw, Lynne; Colby, Susan; Pacifici, Linda; Oldendorf, Sandra; Groce, Robin; Groce, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The topic of migrant workers is commonplace among headlines in the national news, but such workers have been part of the United States economy for at least seventy-five years, as can be seen in decades of enrollment records in K-12 schools. In this article, the authors discuss an integrated unit of study which integrates language arts and social…

  5. Migrant Workers and the Changing Psychological Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Arthur; Finniear, Jocelyn

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The influx of migrant workers in the UK has widespread interest. This group's experience of the British work place has evoked considerable debate ranging from the potential to be exploited through unscrupulous practices to allegations about taking away jobs from British workers. The purpose of this paper is to extend knowledge about the…

  6. Response of Migrant Children to Outdoor Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hick, Thomas L.

    An outdoor education program for migrant children was compared with a typical school program during the summer of 1969. The Wide Range Achievement Test was administered to both groups to obtain a pretest and posttest measure of reading and arithmetic. Visual-motor development was measured by the Bender-Gestalt scored by the Koppitz Developmental…

  7. Migrant cap 'may damage' UK physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Scientists have expressed concern that changes to UK immigration rules - including a sharp drop in the number of visas available for the most highly skilled migrants - could make it more difficult for universities and other institutions to recruit talented researchers from overseas.

  8. Fields of Toil: A Migrant Family's Journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Isabel

    Journalist Isabel Valle lived and traveled for 1 year with the family of Raul and Maria Elena Martinez, migrant farmworkers who make their permanent home in south Texas. Her reports appeared every Sunday in the Walla Walla Union-Bulletin's award-winning series "Fields of Toil." This book compiles those weekly reports, which reveal the…

  9. Migrant Workers on Maryland's Eastern Shore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Yvonne; And Others

    Based on facts gathered in 1982-83 and prepared to inform the United States Commission on Civil Rights of the status of migrants in the State of Maryland, this report summarizes findings about housing, health and safety, access/communication/transportation, employment issues, and education. The summary of housing conditions notes that more than…

  10. Puerto Rican Migrant Farmworkers: An Untold Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Gloria Bonilla

    1986-01-01

    Details the history and activities in New Jersey of "El Comite de Apoyo a los Trabajadores Agricolos" (CATA) or Farmworkers' Support Committee. The Committee was founded in 1979 to help Puerto Rican migrant workers who suffer from social and political isolation and are denied basic rights. Successes, goals, and problems are noted. (PS)

  11. The Offerings of Fringe Figures and Migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels-Schwarzpaul, A.-Chr.

    2015-01-01

    "The Western tradition", as passe-partout, includes fringe figures, émigrés and migrants. Rather than looking to resources at the core of the Western tradition to overcome its own blindnesses, I am more interested in its gaps and peripheries, where other thoughts and renegade knowledges take hold. It is in the contact zones with…

  12. Depression and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Depression And African Americans Depression And African Americans Not “Just the Blues” Clinical ... or spiritual communities. Commonly Asked Questions about Clinical Depression How do I get help for clinical depression? ...

  13. Education of EU Migrant Children in EU Member States. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Emma; Herrera, Facundo; Stepanek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This policy brief looks at the education of EU migrant children in the context of intra-EU mobility. It examines some of the literature and data on the topic in order to identify key differences between EU migrant children and non-migrant children. There are disparities in educational performance between migrants and non-migrants. The brief…

  14. Increasing numbers of migrants challenge policymakers worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P

    1996-05-01

    International migration has increased greatly in the 1990s. In the mid-1990s there were about 125 million migrants (about 2% of the world's population) not living in their country of birth or citizenship. There are 2-4 million new migrants each year. The global migrant population is concentrated in only a few countries. In many Middle Eastern countries, foreign workers make up most of the labor force (60-90%). Africa and western Asia have more than 50% of all 27 million refugees and displaced persons. Germany, France, the UK, the US, Italy, Japan, and Canada have about 33% of the migrant population. Newly arriving immigrants make up a large percentage of annual population growth in industrialized countries with low birth rates (100% in Germany and about 33% in the US). Major migration flows are from Mexico, Central America, and Asia to the US; from North Africa and eastern Europe to western Europe; and from the Philippines and India to the Middle East. Two US legalization programs contributed to a resurgence in immigration in the early 1990s. Many of the world's top economic powers are very concerned about immigration. Economic growth can cut down on economic migration. Many specialists think that freer trade, more foreign investment, and, in some cases, aid can spark economic growth. Many residents of countries receiving migrants want immigration curtailed. Many industrial democracies handle difficult migration issues by making trade-offs, particularly combine stricter immigration controls with more assistance to integrate new immigrants and liberalize trade so countries can export goods instead of people.

  15. Migrant workers: victims of war in Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The Persian Gulf War forced millions of migrant workers in the region to return home, causing hardship not only on the workers but also on their home countries. Prior to the war, the region's oil wealth had attracted migrants from around the world. By 1990, some 3 million resided in Iraq and Kuwait alone. Many more worked in other Gulf countries. But only 2 months after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, over 2 million workers had fled the region or had been returned home. Yemenis and Egyptians alone accounted for 750,000 and 1/2 million workers, respectively. There were also an estimated 600,000 Asians. Although many of the migrants were unskilled laborers, many also were skilled laborers and professionals. Jordanians and Palestinians made up much of the Kuwaiti civil service. As the war unfolded, it became clear that the migrant workers lacked any of the legal rights and protection granted to other citizens. Many workers were not allowed to return home because of their importance to the economy. Others, like some 35,000 Sri Lankan housemaids in Kuwait, were stranded in the war zone, lacking the money and means to return home. In most cases, the workers also suffered from frozen bank accounts, unpaid wages and benefits, and property loss. Their return home also created problems for their countries. Jordan's population increased by 10% in 1990 due to the returning population. Yemen's unemployment increased from 10% to 25%. As a result of the Gulf war experience, the UN General Assembly adopted the International Convention on the Rights of Migrant Workers and their Families, which must now be ratified by 20 nations before implementation begins.

  16. Linguistic Imperialism: African Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Responds to an article on aspects of African language policy and discusses the following issues: multilingualism and monolingualism, proposed changes in language policy from the Organization for African Unity and South African initiatives, the language of literature, bilingual education, and whose interests English-language teaching is serving.…

  17. Multiple risk factors for work-related injuries and illnesses in korean-chinese migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Chae, Duckhee; Yi, Kwan Hyung; Im, Soye; Cho, Sung Hye

    2015-01-01

    Korean-Chinese currently represent the largest group of migrant workers in Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of risk factors on the occurrence of work-related injuries and illnesses (WII). Data for 486 Korean-Chinese migrant workers were drawn from the 2010 Migrant Workers' Health and Safety Survey in Korea. Logistic regression was used to identify the association between WII and multiple risk factors. Individual health status (OR = 3.83, 95% CI [2.01, 7.30]), safety training (OR = 0.39, 95% CI [0.18, 0.85]), job satisfaction (OR = 1.90, 95% CI [1.07, 3.38]), physical and chemical hazard exposure (OR = 1.05, 95% CI [1.02, 1.08]), and length of stay (OR = 1.01, 95% CI [1.00, 1.01]) were identified as risk factors for WII. The findings suggest the need for a comprehensive approach to assess WII risk factors, including personal, work organization and psychosocial demands, and acculturation in Korean-Chinese migrant workers.

  18. Maternal mortality among migrants in Western Europe: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Grete Skøtt; Grøntved, Anders; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Rich-Edwards, Janet

    2014-09-01

    To examine whether an excess risk of maternal mortality exists among migrant women in Western Europe. We searched electronic databases for studies published 1970 through 2013 for all observational studies comparing maternal mortality between the host country and a defined migrant population. Results were derived from a random-effects meta-analysis, and statistical heterogeneity assessed by the I (2) statistic. In sub-analyses we also calculated summary estimates stratified by direct and indirect death causes. We included 13 studies with more than 42 million women and 4,995 maternal deaths. Compared with indigenous born women, the pooled risk estimate (RR) was 2.00 with 95 % confidence interval (CI) of 1.72, 2.33. Migrant women had a non-significantly higher risk of dying from direct than indirect death causes; pooled RRs of 2.65 CI 1.88, 3.74 and 1.83 CI 1.37, 2.45. This meta-analysis provides evidence that migrant women in Western European countries have an excess risk of maternal mortality.

  19. Qualitative assessment of PMIP3 rainfall simulations across the eastern African monsoon domains during the mid-Holocene and the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Manuel; Brewer, Simon; Chase, Brian M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we compare a compilation of multiproxy records spanning the eastern African margin with general circulation model simulations of seasonal precipitation fields for the mid-Holocene and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) carried out as part of the third phase of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP3). Results show good agreement during the mid-Holocene (the '6K experiment'), with palaeodata and model outputs correlating well and indicating that changes in insolation drove a stronger northern African monsoon (north of ∼0-5°S) during the terminal "African Humid Period" and a weaker southeast African monsoon. For the LGM (the '21K experiment'), however, significant discrepancies exist both between model simulations, and between existing palaeodata and simulated conditions, both in terms of direction and amplitude of change. None of the PMIP3 simulations reflect the pattern inferred from the palaeodata. Two major discrepancies have been identified to explain this: 1) the limited sensitivity of the southern monsoon domain to the colder temperatures of the Indian Ocean (-2 °C), and 2) the absence of changes in the dynamic of the Indian Ocean Walker circulation over the entire basin, despite the exposure of the Sahul and Sunda shelves that weakened convection over the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool during the LGM. These results indicate that some major features of the atmospheric and oceanic teleconnections between the different monsoon regions require further consideration as models evolve.

  20. Communicating complexity: Integrated assessment of trade-offs concerning soil fertility management within African farming systems to support innovation and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Tittonell, P.A.; Rufino, M.C.; Wijk, van M.T.; Zingore, S.; Mapfumo, P.; Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Herrero, M.; Chikowo, R.; Corbeels, M.; Rowe, E.C.; Baijukya, F.P.; Mwijage, A.; Smith, J.; Yeboah, E.; Burg, van der W.J.; Sanogo, O.; Misiko, M.; Ridder, de N.; Karanja, S.; Kaizzi, C.K.; K'ungu, J.; Mwale, M.; Nwaga, D.; Pacini, C.; Vanlauwe, B.

    2011-01-01

    African farming systems are highly heterogeneous: between agroecological and socioeconomic environments, in the wide variability in farmers’ resource endowments and in farm management. This means that single solutions (or ‘silver bullets’) for improving farm productivity do not exist. Yet to date fe

  1. Random blood glucose may be used to assess long-term glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a rural African clinical setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon B; Nordin, Lovisa S; Rasmussen, Niclas S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of random blood glucose (RBG) on good glycaemic control among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) in a rural African setting. METHODS: Cross-sectional study at St. Francis' Hospital in eastern Zambia. RBG and HbA1c were measured during one...

  2. Different methodological approaches to the assessment of in vivo efficacy of three artemisinin-based combination antimalarial treatments for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in African children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongo Issaka

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of different methods for assessing the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination antimalarial treatments (ACTs will result in different estimates being reported, with implications for changes in treatment policy. Methods Data from different in vivo studies of ACT treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria were combined in a single database. Efficacy at day 28 corrected by PCR genotyping was estimated using four methods. In the first two methods, failure rates were calculated as proportions with either (1a reinfections excluded from the analysis (standard WHO per-protocol analysis or (1b reinfections considered as treatment successes. In the second two methods, failure rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier product limit formula using either (2a WHO (2001 definitions of failure, or (2b failure defined using parasitological criteria only. Results Data analysed represented 2926 patients from 17 studies in nine African countries. Three ACTs were studied: artesunate-amodiaquine (AS+AQ, N = 1702, artesunate-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS+SP, N = 706 and artemether-lumefantrine (AL, N = 518. Using method (1a, the day 28 failure rates ranged from 0% to 39.3% for AS+AQ treatment, from 1.0% to 33.3% for AS+SP treatment and from 0% to 3.3% for AL treatment. The median [range] difference in point estimates between method 1a (reference and the others were: (i method 1b = 1.3% [0 to24.8], (ii method 2a = 1.1% [0 to21.5], and (iii method 2b = 0% [-38 to19.3]. The standard per-protocol method (1a tended to overestimate the risk of failure when compared to alternative methods using the same endpoint definitions (methods 1b and 2a. It either overestimated or underestimated the risk when endpoints based on parasitological rather than clinical criteria were applied. The standard method was also associated with a 34% reduction in the number of patients evaluated compared to the number of patients enrolled. Only 2% of the sample size

  3. Migrant Mexican Traditions = Tradiciones Migrantes Mexicanas. An Exhibit of Folk Art by Mexican Migrant Farmworkers (Geneseo, New York, September 22-October 4, 1990).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Juana; Gomez, Jose Luis

    This exhibit guide (in Spanish, with translation in English printed on adjoining columns on each page), describes an exhibition of folk art by Mexican migrant farmworkers presented by thre Folk Arts Program of the BOCES Geneseo Migrant Center. The exhibit is divided into four major themes that farmworkers presented by the BOCES Geneseo Migrant…

  4. Preparing rural migrant workers for new jobs amid crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张车伟; 王智勇

    2009-01-01

    Referencing statistical yearbooks and census data,we first estimate the total number of rural migrant workers in China at about 238 million in 2008,including 71.4 million working across provinces.We also estimate how many migrant workers will be affected by the financial crisis and may lose their jobs.The coastal areas are the hardest hit.We predict that China in the first half of 2009 will face the most serious employment situation since the dawn of the new century, and that structural unemployment of rural migrant workers is the main problem.We estimate that around 34.18 million rural migrant workers would be facing the risk of structural unemployment.In order to cope with the shocks to rural migrant workers’ employment,the government should put a policy emphasis on adjusting rural migrant workers to new jobs.

  5. The Future of the Migrant Workers: the Issue of Pensioning of the Retired Migrant Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boxia Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The first generation migrant workers contributed a lot to the construction of the cities with the lowest wages and the hardest work. On the other hand, due to flaws in the current social insurance systems, unclear responsibility of enterprises, insufficient understanding of the migrant workers themselves, there appear the dilemma that the cities refuse to care for migrant workers while the countryside cannot undertake the task and the traditional family and land-supporting model also fails to do so. And this has become an urgent problem faced the whole society. This paper, by analyzing the predicament and the issues of the care service of the retired migrant workers, presents solutions such as bettering the insurance system, quickening the law making, and popularizing the idea of responsibilities and consciousness of the enterprises and the farmer workers. It also calls for a power financial support from the government, and a way to unite the transitional system of the insurance policies, with strict supervision and management to protect the lawful interest of the migrant workers.

  6. Export stoichiometry and migrant-mediated flux of phosphorus in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannides, Cecelia C. S.; Landry, Michael R.; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R.; Styles, Renée M.; Montoya, Joseph P.; Karl, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Export processes play a major role in regulating global marine primary production by reducing the efficiency of nutrient cycling and turnover in surface waters. Most studies of euphotic zone export focus on passive fluxes, that is, sinking particles. However, active transport, the vertical transfer of material by migrating zooplankton, can also be an important component of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) removal from the surface ocean. Here we demonstrate that active transport is an especially important mechanism for phosphorus (P) removal from the euphotic zone at Station ALOHA (Hawaii Ocean Time-series program; 22°45'N, 158°W), a P-stressed site in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. Migrant excretions in this region are P-rich (C 51:N 12:P 1) relative to sinking particles (C 250:N 31:P 1), and migrant-mediated P fluxes are almost equal in magnitude (82%) to P fluxes from sediment traps. Migrant zooplankton biomass and therefore the importance of this P removal pathway relative to sinking fluxes has increased significantly over the past 12 years, suggesting that active transport may be a major driving force for enhanced P-limitation of biological production in the NPSG. We further assess the C:N:P composition of zooplankton size fractions at Station ALOHA (C 88:N 18:P 1, on average) and discuss migrant-mediated P export in light of the balance between zooplankton and suspended particle stoichiometries. We conclude that, because active transport is such a large component of the total P flux and significantly impacts ecosystem stoichiometry, export processes involving migrant zooplankton must be included in large-scale efforts to understand biogeochemical cycles.

  7. Wind-Related Orientation Patterns in Diurnal, Crepuscular and Nocturnal High-Altitude Insect Migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Gao; Lim, Ka Sing; Reynolds, Don R; Reynolds, Andy M; Chapman, Jason W

    2016-01-01

    Most insect migrants fly at considerable altitudes (hundreds of meters above the ground) where they utilize fast-flowing winds to achieve rapid and comparatively long-distance transport. The nocturnal aerial migrant fauna has been well studied with entomological radars, and many studies have demonstrated that flight orientations are frequently grouped around a common direction in a range of nocturnal insect migrants. Common orientation typically occurs close to the downwind direction (thus ensuring that a large component of the insects' self-powered speed is directed downstream), and in nocturnal insects at least, the downwind headings are seemingly maintained by direct detection of wind-related turbulent cues. Despite being far more abundant and speciose, the day-flying windborne migrant fauna has been much less studied by radar; thus the frequency of wind-related common orientation patterns and the sensory mechanisms involved in their formation remain to be established. Here, we analyze a large dataset of >600,000 radar-detected "medium-sized" windborne insect migrants (body mass from 10 to 70 mg), flying hundreds of meters above southern UK, during the afternoon, in the period around sunset, and in the middle of the night. We found that wind-related common orientation was almost ubiquitous during the day (present in 97% of all "migration events" analyzed), and was also frequent at sunset (85%) and at night (81%). Headings were systematically offset to the right of the flow at night-time (as predicted from the use of turbulence cues for flow assessment), but there was no directional bias in the offsets during the day or at sunset. Orientation "performance" significantly increased with increasing flight altitude throughout the day and night. We conclude by discussing sensory mechanisms which most likely play a role in the selection and maintenance of wind-related flight headings.

  8. The Use of Migrant Labour — Threat or Advantage for Russian Economical Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Aleksandrovna Koretskaya-Garmash

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to a relevant problem of labour migration, the potentially possible threats and advantages of attracting and using of foreign migrant labour in the framework of the Russian economy are considered. The purpose of this work is to establish the how the migration processes influence over the current state of the Russian economy, and whether it is possible to meet the demand in the labour force by attracting labour migrants. The research method is the analysis of the statistical indicators of the Russian regions’ development, of demographic, migratory and financial situations in the Russian Federation. The results of the study are presented in the form of a quantitative assessment of the potential threats to the internal market due to the use of external migrant labour, which has already led to the Russian economic disruption, the devaluation of the Russian ruble, the growth of current account deficit, the load on the pension system of Russia. Therefore, we must not forget the positive aspects — rejuvenation of the age composition of the population, occupation of vacant jobs by the workers in the disadvantaged Russian regions, the increasing size of tax revenues to the Russian budget system by filing patents on employment activity. The presented results of the study can be used by public authorities in the migration policy, labour and social work for the development of the state programme stimulating internal and external migrants for employment in the regions with a shortage of manpower. The conducted research allows to define the relationship between labour migrants and economic activity of local population, to characterize the reasons of external labour migration and to analyse the consequences of migration for the host country

  9. Wind-related orientation patterns in diurnal, crepuscular and nocturnal high-altitude insect migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao eHu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most insect migrants fly at considerable altitudes (hundreds of meters above the ground where they utilize fast-flowing winds to achieve rapid and comparatively long-distance transport. The nocturnal aerial migrant fauna has been well studied with entomological radars, and many studies have demonstrated that flight orientations are frequently grouped around a common direction in a range of nocturnal insect migrants. Common orientation typically occurs close to the downwind direction (thus ensuring that a large component of the insects’ self-powered speed is directed downstream, and in nocturnal insects at least, the downwind headings are seemingly maintained by direct detection of wind-related turbulent cues. Despite being far more abundant and speciose, the day-flying windborne migrant fauna has been much less studied by radar; thus the frequency of wind-related common orientation patterns and the sensory mechanisms involved in their formation remain to be established. Here we analyze a large dataset of >600,000 radar-detected ‘medium-sized’ windborne insect migrants (body mass from 10 to 70 mg, flying hundreds of meters above southern UK, during the afternoon, in the period around sunset, and in the middle of the night. We found that wind-related common orientation was almost ubiquitous during the day (present in 97% of all ‘migration events’ analyzed, and was also frequent at sunset (85% and at night (81%. Headings were systematically offset to the right of the flow at night-time (as predicted from the use of turbulence cues for flow assessment, but there was no directional bias in the offsets during the day or at sunset. Orientation ‘performance’ significantly increased with increasing flight altitude throughout the day and night. We conclude by discussing sensory mechanisms which most likely play a role in the selection and maintenance of wind-related flight headings.

  10. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE MENTAL HEALTH IN MIGRANTS: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Costanzo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This case report deals with a 30-year-old Brazilian woman who became anxious and depressed after her migration to Italy and two years of living there. At psychiatric assessment, she presented with mood deflection, difficulties in sleeping, sadness, anxiety and many somatic symptoms that began after her arrival in Italy and progressively worsened, eventually requiring psychiatric intervention.Today an increased number of mental disorders and somatisation symptoms tend to be observed among migrants, which are often related to stressful pre-migratory life events and Post-Migration Living Difficulties (PMLD. Management of these kinds of patients should be part of a program for Transcultural Psychiatry that integrates both medical treatment (pharmacological and nonpharmacological and addresses cultural differences to improve individual conditions of the patients.

  11. Hospital‑based case management for migrant patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølholm, Anne Mette; Christensen, Janne B; Kamionka, Stine Lundstrøm

    2016-01-01

    to patients with a refugee or immigrant background. Provision of specialized services for migrant patients, including case management with multidisciplinary physical, cognitive and social interventions, has been suggested as a way to tackle inequalities in response to a growing recognition of the complexity...... of both their health needs and the skills needed to meet these. However, categorical care is generally considered to be stigmatizing and to decrease care quality. The evidence base for both arguments is unclear. The aim of this review was therefore to investigate the effectiveness of specialized hospital...... - b ased case management for ethnic minority patients. Methods: This review used a health technology assessment model, including a systematic search of literature in the PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Sociological Abstracts, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases...

  12. Assessing the impact of climate change on water resources in a tropical West African catchment using an ensemble of CORDEX climate simulations (Dano, Burkina Faso)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yira, Yacouba; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Steup, Gero; Yaovi Bossa, Aymar

    2016-04-01

    This study assesses the potential impact of climate change on water resources in the Dano catchment (Burkina Faso, West Africa). There is now essential consensus on the importance of performing multi (climate)-model assessments in order to estimate the response of the West African climate to global change. Taking advantage of the results of the COordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX-Africa) project, this study evaluates climate change impacts on water resources using an ensemble of six Regional Climate Models (RCMs) in a catchment that is potentially vulnerable to climate change and presents a low adaptive capacity. The ensemble of RCMs was first evaluated to get an estimate of the historical simulated rainfall for the catchment by comparing RCM-based simulated historical rainfall to the observed rainfall data provided by the National Meteorological Service (DGM). In general, the simulated historical rainfall agrees within some degree of variability with the observed rainfall in regard to the mean annual cycle of precipitation. However, significant biases such as a double-peaked rainy season as well as the timing of the rainy season were exhibited by individual RCMs. A statistical bias correction (Quantile mapping) was then applied to the RCM-based simulated daily rainfall for the overlapping period of 1971-2000. The results confirm the effectiveness of the applied bias correction method for rainfall. Temperature and bias corrected rainfall data from the ensemble of RCMs was used as input for the Water flow and balance Simulation Model (WaSiM) to simulate river discharge, soil moisture, evapotranspiration and groundwater depth. To take into account the concern of the potential alteration of the climate change signal due to bias correction, uncorrected climate data for a single RCM was also applied to the hydrological model. The simulated hydrological variables show a similar behavior under observed and bias corrected climate data for the

  13. Stress, Depression, and Occupational Injury among Migrant Farmworkers in Nebraska

    OpenAIRE

    Athena K. Ramos; Gustavo Carlo; Kathleen Grant; Natalia Trinidad; Antonia Correa

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the most dangerous industries in the United States. Farmworkers, including migrant farmworkers, are at risk for work-related injuries. This study explores the association between stress, depression, and occupational injury among migrant farmworkers in Nebraska. Occupational injury was hypothesized to significantly increase the odds of farmworkers being stressed and depressed. Two hundred migrant farmworkers (mean age = 33.5 years, standard deviation (SD) = 12.53; 93.0% m...

  14. Migrant Workers and Elimination of Risks in Chinese Modern Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Firstly, risks in Chinese modern transformation are discussed from the perspective of gap between urban and rural areas and mobility of rural laborers. Secondly, the significant role of migrant works in elimination of risks in Chinese modern transformation is analyzed from two aspects, namely rural migrant workers pursuing equal economic and political status (identity and household registration) when working in cities. Finally, it is concluded that migrant works play a key role in Chinese modern transformation.

  15. End-of-life experiences and expectations of Africans in Australia: cultural implications for palliative and hospice care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiruy, Kiros; Mwanri, Lillian

    2014-03-01

    The ageing and frail migrants who are at the end of life are an increasing share of migrants living in Australia. However, within such populations, information about end-of-life experiences is limited, particularly among Africans. This article provides some insights into the sociocultural end-of-life experiences of Africans in Australia and their interaction with the health services in general and end-of-life care in particular. It provides points for discussion to consider an ethical framework that include Afro-communitarian ethical principles to enhance the capacity of current health services to provide culturally appropriate and ethical care. This article contributes to our knowledge regarding the provision of culturally appropriate and ethical care to African patients and their families by enabling the learning of health service providers to improve the competence of palliative care systems and professionals in Australia. Additionally, it initiates the discussion to highlight the importance of paying sufficient attention to a diverse range of factors including the migration history when providing palliative and hospice care for patients from African migrant populations.

  16. Migrants and health: a cultural dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshiett, Michael U A; Parry, Eldryd H O

    2003-01-01

    Culture profoundly affects what those who come to the UK as migrants believe about disease and thus how they behave during illness. Their beliefs may be very different from the beliefs of healthcare professionals and so there can be difficulties in understanding and barriers which inhibit effective clinical management. The behaviour of healthcare professionals towards those of a different race can lead to feelings of discrimination and lack of sympathy, so that a gulf can be allowed to develop. This gulf can be bridged if simple measures are adopted: training in communication, culturally sensitive health-promotion programmes, specific programmes relevant for those of defined ethnic groups and, as a basic means to increase confidence and trust, elementary skills in the language of the migrants.

  17. Migrant labor in agriculture: an international comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P L

    1985-01-01

    The May 1984 Conference on Migrant Labor in Agriculture at the University of California-Davis discussed papers by 22 farm labor experts from 12 nations. Each industrial nation utilizes a different set of public and private policies to supply workers for labor-intensive agriculture, but none is entirely satisfactory. Labor-intensive agriculture is becoming more dependent on workers who are shut out of labor markets. Some countries have simply accepted foreign workers in agriculture, while others have adopted policies to integrate farm and nonfarm labor markets. Polices to reduce agriculture's reliance on workers-without-options include restructuring employment practices to employ fewer seasonal workers for longer periods, mechanizing production, and importing fruits and vegetables from nearby developing countries. This article explains the salient features of labor-intensive agriculture, the various polices for obtaining seasonal farmworkers, and options to reduce farming's dependence on migrant labor.

  18. Migrant Integration: Case for a Necessary Shift of Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieu Donné HACK-POLAY

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the antagonism between the need for migrant communities to maintain their native culture and the necessity to integrate in the dominant community in order to achieve social harmony and socio-economic promotion. The article found thatcultural isolation could alienate some migrants who may see in the establishment of the community organisation a way of leading a migrant life that requires neither increased contacts with indigenous groups nor specific training. The migrants find themselves locked in menial jobs and do not experience upward social mobility. The situation points to a need to rethink the management of community organisations and support systems.

  19. Analysis on Management of Entrepreneurial Environment for Migrant Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong YANG

    2016-01-01

    Entrepreneurial behavior of returning migrant workers plays a significant role in development of rural areas. Management of entrepreneurial environment can stimulate enthusiasm of migrant workers for entrepreneurial activities,reducing their entrepreneurial costs,and increasing the probability of their success in entrepreneurial activities. Management of entrepreneurial environment includes management of financing,system,technology,and social network environment. It is recommended to improve fitting and mutual adaptation of different types of environment through consolidating various types of environment,and make overall environment management from the entrepreneurial process of migrant workers,so as to improve enthusiasm of migrant workers for entrepreneurial activities and increase the probability of successful entrepreneurial activities.

  20. On Migrant Children's Right to Equal Access to Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAN KAILIN; LIU XIAOLIANG

    2011-01-01

    @@ By "migrant children," we mean children living in cities with their parents who are migrants from the countryside.Under the current education system practiced in Chinese cities, the so-called "migrant children," as an underprivileged group, are often denied of the same right and opportunity to attend school as their counterparts in their host cities.While infringing upon a legitimate right of those "migrant children," this is adversely affecting the national endeavor to ensure fairness in education and the process of urbanization.

  1. Interactive Development of Community Education and Migrant Workers’ Continuing Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning; WANG

    2015-01-01

    Community education is an essential carrier of continuing education and plays a positive role in promoting continuing education of migrant workers. On the one hand,it can raise employment quality and labor skills of migrant workers; on the other hand,it manifests function of serving society of community education. Besides,it is also an important measure for building learning society and lifelong learning system.From the perspective of interactive development,it discusses interactive relationship between community education and migrant workers’ continuing education,analyzes their interactive mechanism,and comes up with recommendations for developing community education and migrant workers’ continuing education.

  2. Contextualizing Recognition, Absence of Recognition, and Misrecognition: The Case of Migrant Workers' Children in Daycares in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, Julia

    2009-01-01

    This paper advances the analysis of multiculturalism by examining multiculturalism in a contextualized manner. To understand multiculturalism and assess its effects on the recognition of migrant children, researchers need to analyse multicultural practices in schools by taking into account the social mirrors resulting from different social and…

  3. Good practice in health care for migrants: views and experiences of care professionals in 16 European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, S.; Sandhu, S.; Dias, S.; Gaddini, A.; Greacen, T.; Ioannidis, E.; Kluge, U.; Krasnik, A.; Lamkaddem, M.; Lorant, V.; Puigpinósi Riera, R.; Sarvary, A.; Soares, J.J.F.; Stankunas, M.; Straßmayr, C.; Wahlbeck, K.; Welbel, M.; Bogic, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Health services across Europe provide health care for migrant patients every day. However, little systematic research has explored the views and experiences of health care professionals in different European countries. The aim of this study was to assess the difficulties professionals ex

  4. Synthesis of Available Research and Databases on the Migrant Education Program. Volume I: Federal, State, and Local Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Babette; And Others

    This report examines federal, state, and local databases containing information on migrant workers and their children, identifies their common characteristics, and assesses their potential utility to inform educational policy analysis. General criteria used to evaluate each database's strengths and weaknesses include standardization, reliability,…

  5. The migrant worker: visible, yet invisible

    OpenAIRE

    Win, Aung

    2015-01-01

    Immigrant workers are a vulnerable and underserved population. The average life expectancy of the migrant worker is 49 years, compared to 77.2 years for most Americans. Immigrant workers have a higher disease burden than other populations and work in occupations with high hazard levels. In addition, they have low socioeconomic levels and face many barriers to accessing healthcare services. Undocumented immigrant workers are excluded in the Affordable Care Act. Health professionals must be att...

  6. Citizens’ attitudes towards migrant workers in Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Diopa, Abdoulaye; Trung Lea, Kien; Johnstonb, Trevor; Ewersa, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Public attitudes play a critical role in shaping policies towards immigration and the status of migrant workers. Facing growing pressure from international human rights organizations, media and other groups, the Gulf Cooperation Council states have begun efforts to reform the current kafala system, which prevails throughout the region. Yet despite these efforts, relatively little is known about what citizens actually think of this policy, let alone their more general attitudes ...

  7. Cardiovascular risk amongst migrant and non-migrant Greenland Inuit in a gender perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: The effects of migration on cardiovascular risk factors are often gender specific. The purpose of the present study was to analyse the association of migration from Greenland to Denmark with cardiovascular risk factors in a gender-specific perspective. METHODS: Cross-sectional population...... consumption differed significantly among migrants and non-migrants. Adjusted for the consumption of seal meat and alcohol, the difference in HDL cholesterol for men (1.44 and 1.66 mmol/l; p = 0.002) was of a similar magnitude to that of women. CONCLUSIONS: Migration was associated with cardiovascular risk...

  8. Violence against women migrant workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyanukij, Charnchao

    2004-10-01

    A paper on "Violence against Women Migrant Workers in Thailand" will show the situation of women migrant workers in Thailand, why they have to come to Thailand, what kind of job they do, how they are abused and exploited by employer in many types of violence and how the Thai government manages to solve the problems and assist them. The term or definition of "violence against women-VAW" and "discrimination against women" is provided and based on the definition stated in the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). Readers will see that violence against women is a form of discrimination committed on a basis of sex. In other words, VAW is a clear violation of women's inherent human rights including the rights to life, liberty, and security of person, equality, equal protection under the law and freedom from all forms of discrimination. More than one hundred thousands of women illegal migrant workers work in Thailand. They come from countries in the Mekong Sub-region namely Myanmar Lao PDR, Cambodia, Vietnam and China (Yunnan province). As they come illegally and have low level of education and working skills, they are vulnerable to exploitation, abuse or face violence. In general, they work in small factories, domestic work and restaurant. They are forced begging, forced prostitution or work in a slavery-like condition. Root causes of illegal migration and VAW are interrelated and occur in both sending and receiving countries of migrant workers. Poverty, demand and supply sides of labor, level of education, no knowledge of their own rights, impact of capitalism and gender issues, are mentioned as original factors of migration and VAW. The Thai government has national policy, plan, instrument and measures to cope with in- migration of illegal workers. Not only government agencies are active to solve the problems and assist the women migrant workers, but also non

  9. [Migrants from sub-Saharan Africa in France: some elements for the present discussion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassin, D

    1986-08-01

    Migrations in Africa have occurred since ancient times, but the 20th century migratory flows to Europe are a new phenomenon. After decolonization, the European economies needed cheap labor and African workers were attracted by the prospect of paying jobs. The 4 million foreigners in France comprise 7-8% of the population. Nearly 1/2 are of European origin, 1/3 are from Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco, and about 3.5%, or 150,000 persons, are from Africa south of the Sahara. The main African countries of origin are Mali, Senegal, and Mauritania. Burkina Faso, the Ivory Coast, Togo, and Cameroon are less well represented. The migration to Europe began after World War II with small groups of Malians and Senegalese who had learned to speak French through their contact with French colonists and were readily assimilated into the labor force, mainly as skilled workers. Beginning in the late 1950s, their numbers increased rapidly. Accords signed by France, Mali, Senegal, and Mauritania in 1960 and 1963 to regularize their influx were ignored by employers needing labor and by Africans entering on tourist visas to seek work. By the early 1970s there were about 50,000 Africans in France, over 80% of them male. At about the same time immigration came to be regarded as a serious social and political problem, where before it had been little noticed. The number of immigrants had increased, especially in some neighborhoods of large cities, but not as much as generally believed. A larger proportion of families made the immigrants more visible on the streets and in the schools. The world economic recession caused the migrants to be regarded as competitors for the few jobs available. Cultural differences between the French and the immigrants increased. On the whole, North Africans are more numerous and visible, but Malians and Senegalese have become numerous enough in some Parisian neighborhoods to be perceived as a threat. Some journalists and politicians have fanned existing tensions

  10. Reading the African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musonda Bwalya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is so much alienation, pain and suffering in our today�s world. In this vein, African Christianity, a voice amongst many voices, should seek to be a transformational religion for the whole of life, affecting all facets of human life towards a fuller life of all in Africa. This article sought to highlight and point to some of the major societal challenges in the African context which African Christianity, as a life-affirming religion, should continue to embrace, re-embrace and engage with, if it has to be relevant to the African context. In this vein, the article argued that a correct reading of the African context would lead to a more relevant theory and praxis of African Christianity for the benefit of all African peoples and their global neighbours. The contention of this article was that African Christianity has a significant role to play in the re-shaping of the African society and in the global community of humans, only that this role must be executed inclusively, responsibly and appropriately, together with all those who seek the holistic development of Africa towards one common destiny.

  11. Clandestine migrant workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, T

    1992-01-01

    The author assesses the problem of illegal labor migration to Japan. "Labor policies, regulations, types of immigration violations, and the role of the recruitment industry are described. Most of the estimated 200,000 illegal workers are employed in small and medium sized enterprises, especially construction and manufacturing, which pay them wages well below the normal rate. A key issue is the infringement of human rights of these illegal workers, who lack the protection of labor laws and the social security system."

  12. Self-Esteem and Anger among African-American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryujin, Donald H.; Abitia, Fred B.

    Self-esteem may be an issue for certain minority groups more than others. In particular, given their long and difficult history, this issue may be of more relevance to minorities of African-American descent. To assess whether renewed signs of racism at a college were negatively affecting the self-esteem of African-American students the Race…

  13. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  14. The African Self-Consciousness Scale: An Africentric Personality Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Joseph A.; Bell, Yvonne R.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the lack of reliable instruments for studying African American behavior and psychological functioning as a technical and philosophical flaw in Western psychology. Surveys the development of Africentric theory-based assessment instruments and presents the African Self-Consciousness Scale, a 42-item personalilty questionnaire designed to…

  15. Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Adam R; Boyko, Ryan H; Boyko, Corin M; Parker, Heidi G; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Liz; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D; Auton, Adam; Hedimbi, Marius; Kityo, Robert; Ostrander, Elaine A; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey; Todhunter, Rory J; Jones, Paul; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2009-08-18

    High genetic diversity of East Asian village dogs has recently been used to argue for an East Asian origin of the domestic dog. However, global village dog genetic diversity and the extent to which semiferal village dogs represent distinct, indigenous populations instead of admixtures of various dog breeds has not been quantified. Understanding these issues is critical to properly reconstructing the timing, number, and locations of dog domestication. To address these questions, we sampled 318 village dogs from 7 regions in Egypt, Uganda, and Namibia, measuring genetic diversity >680 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop, 300 SNPs, and 89 microsatellite markers. We also analyzed breed dogs, including putatively African breeds (Afghan hounds, Basenjis, Pharaoh hounds, Rhodesian ridgebacks, and Salukis), Puerto Rican street dogs, and mixed breed dogs from the United States. Village dogs from most African regions appear genetically distinct from non-native breed and mixed-breed dogs, although some individuals cluster genetically with Puerto Rican dogs or United States breed mixes instead of with neighboring village dogs. Thus, African village dogs are a mosaic of indigenous dogs descended from early migrants to Africa, and non-native, breed-admixed individuals. Among putatively African breeds, Pharaoh hounds, and Rhodesian ridgebacks clustered with non-native rather than indigenous African dogs, suggesting they have predominantly non-African origins. Surprisingly, we find similar mtDNA haplotype diversity in African and East Asian village dogs, potentially calling into question the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for dog domestication.

  16. Vision problems, eye care history, and ocular protection among migrant farmworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quandt, Sara A; Feldman, Steven R; Vallejos, Quirina M; Schulz, Mark R; Verma, Amit; Fleischer, Alan B; Arcury, Thomas A

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe the self-reported eye conditions, eyecare history, and eye safety practices of migrant farmworkers in eastern North Carolina. The authors administered interviews to 79 farmworkers recruited at migrant clinics. Data collected included eye-related complaints and diagnoses, self-assessed visual acuity, eye symptoms, use of protective gear during work, and attitudes toward eye protection gear. Fair or poor eyesight was reported by 21.3%. Only 4 (5.1%) reported wearing glasses or contact lenses. More than 11% reported difficulty in recognizing a friend across the street, and 19.5% reported difficulty in reading. About 20% reported each of several eye symptoms. Fewer than 1 in 10 wore eye protection at work. Of all, 38% reported never having visited any eyecare professional. Farmworkers have a high level of unmet need for both routine preventive eye care and treatment or correction of vision problems.

  17. Interactive Drawing Therapy and Chinese Migrants with Gambling Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenli; Everts, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Ethnic Chinese migrants in a country like New Zealand face a range of well-documented challenges. A proportion of such migrants find that recreational gambling turns into a pernicious gambling problem. This issue is addressed through illustrated case studies of Interactive Drawing Therapy, a drawing-based modality of therapy that facilitates…

  18. Toma el Tiempo: The Wisdom of Migrant Families in Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Mary M.; Jimenez, Anna; McClendon, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Children of migrant farm working families often live and learn in conditions that conspire against both health and education. At the same time, these children are as capable as any in our nation. Education and health care professionals are frequently in positions to support these capabilities and migrant families can be significant contributors to…

  19. Migrant Farmworkers' Perceptions of Schooling, Learning, and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Loida C.

    Migrant workers have the highest school dropout rate, larger than any other major sub-group, in the United States, and a very low rate of participation in adult basic education programs. This paper reports on an ethnographic study exploring the early schooling, education, and family support for learning in a migrant community in North Carolina.…

  20. Welfare Service Professionals, Migrants, and the Question of Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fersch, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze migrants’ interpretations of their encounters with welfare service professionals in Denmark, focusing on client trust and exploring its diversity across professions. It is based on qualitative interviews with migrants. Migrants as newcomers to the welfare state...

  1. The Use of Health Aides in Migrant Health Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Wilbur

    Intended for migrant project administrators and other professional workers, this document contains recommendations developed from a nationwide study for evaluating the utilization and effectiveness of health aides (indigenous workers) in migrant health programs. Recommendations are provided for five major phases of activity essential for effective…

  2. Texas State Department of Health Migrant Project. Annual Report 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Dept. of Health Resources, Austin.

    The Texas Migrant Health Project under the State Department of Health aims to: (1) promote and improve medical, dental, and public health services for the domestic agricultural worker and his dependents and (2) encourage and support migrant efforts to participate in and be responsible for personal and family health. During 1969-70, the state was…

  3. Reason for Visit: Is Migrant Health Care that Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, George F.; Graybill, Marie; George, John

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the reasons for which migrant agricultural workers in Pennsylvania seek health care. Methods: Participants were individuals 14 years of age and over, actively involved in agricultural labor and presenting for medical care at 6 migrant health care centers. Bilingual health care providers…

  4. Research on Migrant Farmworkers in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Peter S. K.; And Others

    This monograph represents a collection of reports generated by a state-wide collaborative research project begun in 1982. The reports, based on information collected by a literature review and two surveys of representative samples of migrant workers in New York State, systematically analyze relationships between migrant workers' health conditions,…

  5. THE HARVESTERS, THE STORY OF THE MIGRANT PEOPLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHOTWELL, LOUISA R.

    THIS BOOK DESCRIBING THE MIGRANT WORLD WAS WRITTEN TO (1) PORTRAY THE COMPLEX SETTING IN WHICH MIGRANT FAMILIES OF DIFFERENT ETHNIC BACKGROUNDS LIVE AND WORK, (2) IDENTIFY THE ISSUES THEIR MIGRANCY RAISES FOR THEMSELVES, FOR THE COMMUNITIES AND STATES THAT RECRUIT THEIR LABOR, AND FOR THE NATIONAL ECONOMY, AND (3) ATTEMPT A PREDICTION OF WHAT LIES…

  6. Migrant women's utilization of prenatal care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaman, M; Bayrampour, H; Kingston, D; Blondel, B; Gissler, M; Roth, C; Alexander, S; Gagnon, A

    2013-07-01

    Our objectives were to determine whether migrant women in Western industrialized countries have higher odds of inadequate prenatal care (PNC) compared to receiving-country women and to summarize factors that are associated with inadequate PNC among migrant women in these countries. We conducted searches of electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO), reference lists, known experts, and an existing database of the Reproductive Outcomes And Migration international research collaboration for articles published between January, 1995 and April, 2010. Title and abstract review and quality appraisal were conducted independently by 2 reviewers using established criteria, with consensus achieved through discussion. In this systematic review of 29 studies, the majority of studies demonstrated that migrant women were more likely to receive inadequate PNC than receiving-country women, with most reporting moderate to large effect sizes. Rates of inadequate PNC among migrant women varied widely by country of birth. Only three studies explored predictors of inadequate PNC among migrant women. These studies found that inadequate PNC among migrant women was associated with being less than 20 years of age, multiparous, single, having poor or fair language proficiency, education less than 5 years, an unplanned pregnancy, and not having health insurance. We concluded that migrant women as a whole were more likely to have inadequate PNC and the magnitude of this risk differed by country of origin. Few studies addressed predictors of PNC utilization in migrant women and this limits our ability to provide effective PNC in this population.

  7. Council of Europe Contribution to the Report on Migrants' Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    Designed as an information document, this report describes the activities of the Council in facilitating the settlement of migrant workers' children in the compulsory schooling systems of host countries. Experimental classes are discussed in terms of the basic aims of the integration of migrant children through language learning, maintenance of…

  8. Migrant Workers in Agriculture: A View from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thetkathuek, Anamai; Daniell, William

    2016-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in the global movement of workers during the last few decades. As Thailand has developed rapidly over the past 20 years, it has attracted laborers (both authorized and unauthorized) from the neighboring countries of Myanmar, People's Democratic Republic of Lao (Lao PDR), and Cambodia. Given that agriculture has been Thailand's most important industry, its continued growth has been dependent on migrant workers. Both crop agriculture and animal-production agriculture have employed migrant labor. Migrants have been hired to plant, weed, fertilize, spray pesticides, and harvest crops such as rice, corn, sugar cane, and cassava. They have worked at rubber and coffee plantations, as well as in the production of ornamental crops. Also, migrants have labored on pig, beef, and duck farms. There have been numerous documented health problems among migrant workers, including acute diarrhea, malaria, and fever of unknown causes. Occupational illness and injury have been a significant concern, and there has been limited health and safety training. This article reviewed the demographic changes in Thailand, studied the agricultural crops and animal production that are dependent on migrant labor, discussed the health status and safety challenges pertaining to migrant workers in agriculture, and described several recommendations. Among the recommendations, the conclusions of this study have suggested that addressing the cost for health care and solutions to health care access for migrant labor are needed.

  9. Bibliography: The Mexican American in the Migrant Labor Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, Susan; Priest, Rhea Pendergrass

    The bibliography presents 275 citations (some with annotations) dealing with Mexican Americans in a migrant labor setting. Dates of the bibliographic entries range from 1928 to 1967. Materials are grouped under 9 subject categories. These include cultural characteristics, education, employment, health, migrant farm labor, minorities (minority…

  10. Subcontracting, Posted Migrants and Labour Market Segmentation in Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lillie, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Using evidence from the shipbuilding and construction industries in Finland, this article shows how trade union responses to the introduction of migrant workers can be conditioned by product markets. Growing numbers of posted workers, or intra-European Union work migrants employed via transnational

  11. Citizenship experiences of young migrants: Optimism and disadvantages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, D.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyses the citizenship experiences of young non-western migrants in the Netherlands. Young migrants are in a disadvantaged position in education and in the labour market and this leads to concerns about their integration in Dutch society. The focus of this study is on the participation

  12. Recent Migrants and Education in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadan, Robert; Reid, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    European schools should improve their methods for teaching migrant students. The European Union has been making efforts to meet the needs of migrant students for some time. From the 2009 Eurydice report "Integrating Immigrant Children into Schools in Europe," which suggests measures to foster inclusion in the larger community and…

  13. Mobility Patterns of Children of Migrant Agricultural Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, J. Lamarr; And Others

    Narrative text, tables, and maps summarize information derived from a random sample of 20% of the Migrant Student Record Transfer System (MSRTS) data base as it existed in June 1976 related to the mobility patterns of migrant children in the contiguous United States and Puerto Rico from January 1975 to April 1976. The data base is a tabulation of…

  14. Problems and Strategies Regarding Reducing America's Migrant Student Dropout Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helge, Doris

    1993-01-01

    Overviews national data concerning the problems associated with the high dropout rate of migrant students. Stresses the importance of enhancing self-esteem of migrant children. Offers recommendations for national, state, and community action that emphasize empowering children and their families to break the cycles of poverty, abuse, and high…

  15. New Mexico Migrant Project Aides: Perceptions of Their Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Alma Maria Acevedo

    The doctoral dissertation focused on: the perceptions of school administrators, teachers, and aides on teacher aide functions in the New Mexico Migrant Project; comparing the results with student needs; functions not ascribed to aides within the State Department of Education and the National Migrant Project's guidelines; and making recommendations…

  16. Patterns of Cultural Adjustment among Young Migrants to Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonderegger, Robi; Barrett, Paula M.

    2004-01-01

    In response to appeals for empirical data on culture-specific differences and developmental pathways of acculturative stress among young migrants and refugees, the present study examines the cultural adjustment patterns of ethnically diverse migrants to Australia. Two hundred and seventy three primary and high school students (comprised of…

  17. Nutrition and health among migrants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussaard, J.H.; Erp-Baart, M.A. van; Brants, H.A.M.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Löwik, M.R.H.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This paper aims to give a broad overview of published data on nutrition and health among migrants in the Netherlands, as well as data on determinants of health. Results and conclusions: Depending on the definition, 9 to 17% of the population belongs to the group 'migrants' and this propor

  18. Problemes linguistiques des enfants de travailleurs migrants (Linguistic Problems of the Children of Migrant Workers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greve, Marcel, Ed.; Rosseel, Eddy, Ed.

    Papers on language difficulties encountered by migrant workers' children include: "Anomie in Bicultural Education" (Hugo Baetens Beardsmore); "An Investigation into Bilingual Education for Children from Favoured Socio-Economic Backgrounds" (Hugo Baetens Beardsmore); "Orientations of Foreign Children Relating to Placement in Special Classes" (in…

  19. Guide for Migrants in the State of Illinois = Guia para Migrantes en el Estado de Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langemach, Sharon; Koepplinger, Jessica

    Prepared for migrant farmworkers traveling in the State of Illinois, the booklet, written in English and Spanish, provides basic information on (1) employment conditions--requirements of crew leaders and employers, deductions from wages, and laws regulating child labor; (2) housing--conditions of the camp grounds and of living units; (3)…

  20. Calidad de vida vinculada a salud en población migrante rural-urbana y población urbana en Lima, Perú Health-related quality of life among urban and rural to urban migrant populations in Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianmarco Márquez-Montero

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Explorar si existe una diferencia en la percepción y autorreporte de calidad de vida en población migrante rural-urbana en comparación con un grupo urbano no migrante. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal, análisis secundario del estudio PERU-MIGRANT (PEru’s Rural to Urban MIGRANTs study. Utilizando la prueba de Kruskall- Wallis y evaluando magnitud de efectos se midieron y compararon los puntajes global y por dominios obtenidos en la encuesta WHOQOL-Brief. Resultados. Se encuestó a 307 individuos. La edad promedio de fue de 47 años, 57% correspondieron al sexo femenino y 62,2% a población migrante. Comparado con el grupo urbano, el grupo migrante reportó puntajes menores de calidad de vida a nivel global y en los dominios de salud psicológica y del ambiente en elque viven y a la vez, reportaron una mejor percepción en el dominio de salud física. Conclusiones. El impacto de la migración rural-urbana en la calidad de vida indica un efecto diferencial según sus distintos dominios.Objectives. To explore if there is a difference in the perception and self reported quality of life between rural-to-urban migrants and urban groups. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional study, secondary analysis of the PERU-MIGRANT study (PEru’s Rural to Urban MIGRANTs Study. WHOQOL-Brief survey’s global scores and per specific domains obtained in the survey were compared using Kruskall-Wallis’ test and assessing size effect. Results. A total of 307 subjects (62.2% migrants, 57% female, means age 47 years-old were surveyed. Compared with the urban group, migrants reported lower quality of life both on the global scores as well as in psychological health and the living environment domains. Migrants reported a higher score on the physical health’s domain. Conclusions. The impact of rural-to-urban migration on quality of life suggests a differential effect within its specific domains.

  1. Spectral analysis of HIV seropositivity among migrant workers entering Kuwait

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    Mohammad Hameed GHH

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is paucity of published data on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seroprevalence among migrant workers entering Middle-East particularly Kuwait. We took advantage of the routine screening of migrants for HIV infection, upon arrival in Kuwait from the areas with high HIV prevalence, to 1 estimate the HIV seroprevalence among migrant workers entering Kuwait and to 2 ascertain if any significant time trend or changes had occurred in HIV seroprevalence among these migrants over the study period. Methods The monthly aggregates of daily number of migrant workers tested and number of HIV seropositive were used to generate the monthly series of proportions of HIV seropositive (per 100,000 migrants over a period of 120 months from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2006. We carried out spectral analysis of these time series data on monthly proportions (per 100,000 of HIV seropositive migrants. Results Overall HIV seroprevalence (per 100,000 among the migrants was 21 (494/2328582 (95% CI: 19 -23, ranging from 11 (95% CI: 8 – 16 in 2003 to 31 (95% CI: 24 -41 in 1998. There was no discernable pattern in the year-specific proportions of HIV seropositive migrants up to 2003; in subsequent years there was a slight but consistent increase in the proportions of HIV seropositive migrants. However, the Mann-Kendall test showed non-significant (P = 0.741 trend in de-seasonalized data series of proportions of HIV seropositive migrants. The spectral density had a statistically significant (P = 0.03 peak located at a frequency (radians 2.4, which corresponds to a regular cycle of three-month duration in this study. Auto-correlation function did not show any significant seasonality (correlation coefficient at lag 12 = – 0.025, P = 0.575. Conclusion During the study period, overall a low HIV seroprevalence (0.021% was recorded. Towards the end of the study, a slight but non-significant upward trend in the proportions of HIV seropositive

  2. Prevalence of Chagas disease in Latin-American migrants living in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Ana Requena-Méndez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have assessed the burden of Chagas disease in non-endemic countries and most of them are based on prevalence estimates from Latin American (LA countries that likely differ from the prevalence in migrants living in Europe. The aim of this study was to systematically review the existing data informing current understanding of the prevalence of Chagas disease in LA migrants living in European countries.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting prevalence of Chagas disease in European countries belonging to the European Union (EU before 2004 in accordance with the MOOSE guidelines and based on the database sources MEDLINE and Global Health. No restrictions were placed on study date, study design or language of publication. The pooled prevalence was estimated using random effect models based on DerSimonian & Laird method.We identified 18 studies conducted in five European countries. The random effect pooled prevalence was 4.2% (95%CI:2.2-6.7%; and the heterogeneity of Chagas disease prevalence among studies was high (I2 = 97%,p<0.001. Migrants from Bolivia had the highest prevalence of Chagas disease (18.1%, 95%CI:13.9-22.7%.Prevalence of Chagas in LA migrants living in Europe is high, particularly in migrants from Bolivia and Paraguay. Data are highly heterogeneous dependent upon country of origin and within studies of migrants from the same country of origin. Country-specific prevalence differs from the estimates available from LA countries. Our meta-analysis provides prevalence estimates of Chagas disease that should be used to estimate the burden of disease in European countries.

  3. Study on Perception of Potential Condom Use among Unmarried Migrants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan SHEN; Chao-hua LOU; Er-sheng GAO; Ye-lin XU; Ling ZHANG

    2003-01-01

    Objective To understand the perception of potential condom use and its influencing factors so as to promote condom use among unmarried migrantsMethod A survey, using self-administered structured anonymous questionnaire, was conducted among 1 092 unmarried migrants aged 15~24 years old in urban area of Shanghai.Results The unmarried migrants had some knowledge of condom. However, their knowledge level and their attitude towards condom use were not so optimistic. Subjects' knowledge of contraceptives and STD/AIDS had a positive influe, nce on their attitude toward condom use. Subjects with positive attitude to condom use were more likely to use condom in sexual activity (OR=l.61).Conclusion Unmarried migrants have lower rate of condom use if they have insufficient knowledge of condom. Therefore, it is essential to strengthen the sexual health education among unmarried sex-active migrants in order to encourage contraceptive use, especially condom use.

  4. Сoping with stress in migrant workers

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    Granskaya J.V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Migration is an objective process in Russia as worldwide. It has always existed and played an important role in human history. The problem of migrant workers is acute in Russia, because it borders on 18 countries. The collapse of the USSR severely damaged the economy of many former socialist republics. Consequently, people who cannot find employment in their country are forced to migrate to Russia to earn money. Most migrant workers face social, economic and psychological problems. Often, lack of social skills adds more problems to their everyday life difficulties. These things cause stress reactions and slow down their adaptation process. On the other hand, one of the most difficult things for migrants is negative attitudes they encounter as newcomers. People around often associate migrants with illegal work, crime and terrorism. On a regular basis, media report about crimes committed by migrants.

  5. Are ethnic and gender specific equations needed to derive fat free mass from bioelectrical impedance in children of South asian, black african-Caribbean and white European origin? Results of the assessment of body composition in children study.

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    Claire M Nightingale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is a potentially valuable method for assessing lean mass and body fat levels in children from different ethnic groups. We examined the need for ethnic- and gender-specific equations for estimating fat free mass (FFM from BIA in children from different ethnic groups and examined their effects on the assessment of ethnic differences in body fat. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of children aged 8-10 years in London Primary schools including 325 South Asians, 250 black African-Caribbeans and 289 white Europeans with measurements of height, weight and arm-leg impedance (Z; Bodystat 1500. Total body water was estimated from deuterium dilution and converted to FFM. Multilevel models were used to derive three types of equation {A: FFM = linear combination(height+weight+Z; B: FFM = linear combination(height(2/Z; C: FFM = linear combination(height(2/Z+weight}. RESULTS: Ethnicity and gender were important predictors of FFM and improved model fit in all equations. The models of best fit were ethnicity and gender specific versions of equation A, followed by equation C; these provided accurate assessments of ethnic differences in FFM and FM. In contrast, the use of generic equations led to underestimation of both the negative South Asian-white European FFM difference and the positive black African-Caribbean-white European FFM difference (by 0.53 kg and by 0.73 kg respectively for equation A. The use of generic equations underestimated the positive South Asian-white European difference in fat mass (FM and overestimated the positive black African-Caribbean-white European difference in FM (by 4.7% and 10.1% respectively for equation A. Consistent results were observed when the equations were applied to a large external data set. CONCLUSIONS: Ethnic- and gender-specific equations for predicting FFM from BIA provide better estimates of ethnic differences in FFM and FM in children, while generic equations

  6. Empowering African States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China helps bring lasting peace and stability to Africa African think tanks expressed a high opinion of China’s role in helping build African peace and security at the first meeting of the China-Africa Think Tanks Forum. The

  7. African Literature as Celebration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achebe, Chinua

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Igbo tradition of "Mbari," a communal creative enterprise that celebrates the world and the life lived in it through art. Contrasts the cooperative, social dimension of pre-colonial African culture with the exclusion and denial of European colonialism, and sees new African literature again celebrating human presence and…

  8. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...

  9. African Peacekeepers in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...

  10. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...

  11. Social Capital and Economic Integration of Migrants in Urban China.

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    Lu, Yao; Ruan, Danching; Lai, Gina

    2013-07-01

    Based on data from a 2005 survey conducted in Shanghai, China, this research examines the role of social capital in income inequality between rural migrants and urbanites. We find strong income return on social capital, in particular on social capital from strong ties. We also observe a great disparity in social capital possession between rural migrants and urban local residents. Although social capital from strong ties seems to be more important for rural migrants than for urbanites, local ties and high-status ties do not seem to benefit rural migrants. Hence, migrants not only suffer severe social capital deficits but also capital return deficits. Given the strong income returns on social capital and the substantial differences in access to and return on social capital between migrants and urban residents, social capital is consequently found to explain a large part of the income inequality between the two groups. Overall, our findings reveal macro-structural effects on the role of social capital in labor market stratification. In China, the lack of formal labor market mechanisms continues to create both a strong need for and opportunities for economic actions to be organized around informal channels via social relations. Yet, the long-standing institutional exclusion of migrants caused by the household registration system has resulted in pervasive social exclusion and discrimination which have substantially limited rural migrants' accumulation and mobilization of social capital. Under these conditions, social capital reinforces the economic inequality between migrants and urban residents in China. Such empirical evidence adds to our understanding of the role of social capital in the economic integration of migrants and in shaping intergroup inequality in general.

  12. National Migrant Education Program: Reading Skills--English (Programa Nacional de Educacion Migrante: Destrezas de Lectura--Espanol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979

    Used as an integral part of the migrant student skills system operated by the Migrant Student Record Transfer System (MSRTS), the reading skills list contains a catalog of reading skills typical of the K-12 grade range. This catalog includes a sample of the MSRTS transmittal record which permits teachers to report the reading skills being worked…

  13. California Master Plan for Migrant Education, 1976 Edition (Plan Maestro de California para Educacion Migrante, Edicion de 1976).

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Div. of Compensatory Education.

    Based on the national migrant education plan, California's master plan aims to mobilize the necessary State and Federal resources, and to unify and assist the efforts of local educational agencies to end the migrant child's failure in school. The plan includes provisions for: instructional activities on a regular and extended year basis designed…

  14. Characteristics and determinants of sexual behavior among adolescents of migrant workers in Shangai (China

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    Xu Gang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background China is facing a critical challenge of rapid and widespread human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS increase. Rural-to-urban migration plays a crucial role in shifting the HIV/sexual transmitted infection (STI epidemic. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of sexual behaviors and the correlates among the early adolescents of migrant workers in China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 junior high schools from April to June of 2008. A total of 2821 adolescents aged 14.06 ± 0.93 years (8.9% of migrant workers vs. 91.1% of general residents participated in the survey. A self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect information on knowledge, attitude, and behaviors associated with increased risk for HIV/STI. Results The percentage of adolescents who ever had sexual intercourse or had sexual intercourse in last three months was 7.2% and 4.3% in adolescents of migrant workers, respectively; in contrast, 4.5% and 1.8% in their peers of general residents, respectively. 47.3% adolescents of migrant workers and 34.3% of those adolescents of general residents reported no condom use in sexual intercourse during last three months. Multivariate logistic regression analyses found that migration was a independent risk factor for sexual intercourse in last three months in our sampled adolescents (odds ratio [OR] = 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01–1.72. In adolescents of migrant workers, factors such as lower family income (OR: 2.22, CI: 1.09–3.05 for low level; OR:1.25, CI: 1.04–1.59 for medium level, younger age at first sexual intercourse (OR: 1.24, CI: 1.09–1.57, lower knowledge on HIV/AIDS (OR: 0.93, CI: 0.90–0.97, and fewer communication on HIV/AIDS related issues (OR: 0.79, CI: 0.90–0.97 were related to sexual intercourse in last three months. Conclusion Based on these results, we advocated that heightened concerns targeting the

  15. Epidemiology of Substance Use among Forced Migrants: A Global Systematic Review.

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    Danielle Horyniak

    Full Text Available Forced migration is occurring at unprecedented levels. Forced migrants may be at risk for substance use for reasons including coping with traumatic experiences, co-morbid mental health disorders, acculturation challenges and social and economic inequality. This paper aimed to systematically review the literature examining substance use among forced migrants, and identify priority areas for intervention and future research.Seven medical, allied health and social science databases were searched from inception to September 2015 in accordance with PRISMA guidelines to identify original peer-reviewed articles describing any findings relating to alcohol and/or illicit drug use among refugees, internally displaced people (IDPs, asylum seekers, people displaced by disasters and deportees. A descriptive synthesis of evidence from quantitative studies was conducted, focusing primarily on studies which used validated measures of substance use. Synthesis of evidence from qualitative studies focused on identifying prominent themes relating to the contexts and consequences of substance use. Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP checklists were used to assess methodological quality of included studies.Forty-four quantitative (82% cross-sectional, 16 qualitative and three mixed-methods studies were included. Ten studies were rated as high methodological quality (16%, 39 as moderate quality (62% and 14 as low quality (22%. The majority of research was conducted among refugees, IDPs and asylum seekers (n = 55, 87%, predominantly in high-income settings. The highest-quality prevalence estimates of hazardous/harmful alcohol use ranged from 17%-36% in camp settings and 4%-7% in community settings. Few studies collected validated measures of illicit drug use. Seven studies compared substance use among forced migrants to other migrant or native-born samples. Among eight studies which conducted multivariable analysis, male sex, trauma exposure and symptoms of

  16. Migrant workers spreading HIV in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-21

    Interruption of the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) across southeast Asian borders by legal and illegal migrant laborers is a major concern of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). ASEAN intends to move immediately to implement regional projects focused on education, information sharing, and improved surveillance. HIV transmission from laborers from poorer countries in search of jobs in economically booming regions underscores the global nature of the AIDS problem. Malaysia, for example, has over 1 million illegal workers. Moreover, many legal guest workers who enter Malaysia with letters from a physician stating they are not HIV-infected have falsified documents.

  17. [Undocumented migrant labor in the United States].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinand, J

    1985-09-01

    The author identifies two factors contributing to the increase in the number of illegal migrant workers in the United States. The first is the complex system of legal immigration, which contributes to massive evasion. The second is the preference by many employers for hiring illegal aliens. The author concludes that the proposed changes in U.S. immigration laws, even though they include employer sanctions, are likely to prove as ineffective as previous measures adopted in several states some 10 years ago that also penalized employers hiring illegal aliens. It is suggested that the economic pressures leading to large-scale labor immigration will prove stronger than political pressures to control such immigration

  18. Institutional difference affects and migrant entrepreneurs' innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Jensen, Kent Wickstrøm

    differences between home and host country affects migrants’ innovativeness. Our analyses are based on a sample of 3,803 migrant entrepreneurs in first generation who reside in 64 countries and come from 158 home countries, and which have been surveyed in Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2012-13. Linear mixed...... model analyses revealed that institutional difference in form of cultural and economic difference is marginally significant, as we hypothesized. We discuss the implications of our findings for theory of institutional impacts on migrants’ innovation....

  19. Youth as contested sites of culture: The intergenerational acculturation gap amongst new migrant communities—Parental and young adult perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzaho, Andre M. N.; Dhingra, Nidhi; Georgeou, Nichole

    2017-01-01

    Background Immigration often results in changes in family dynamics, and within this process of dynamic relational adjustment youth can be conceptualised as contested sites of culture and associated intergenerational conflicts. This paper considers the experiences of migrant youth in Greater Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia using conflict as a useful lens through which to view issues of migrant youth identity and their sense of social connectedness, belonging, and agency. The aim of this study was twofold: 1) to explore how migrant youth cope with acculturative stress and intergenerational conflicts, and 2) to better understand the systemic and family-related factors that facilitate positive settlement experiences for migrant youth. Methods A total of 14 focus group discussions, comprising 164 people, were carried out in Greater Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. These focus groups targeted newly arrived migrant parents and young adults (aged 18–24) of African, Burmese, Nepalese, Indian, Afghani, Bangladeshi and Iraqi backgrounds. Each focus group was 1.5 hours in duration and was conducted by a team of three people (an experienced facilitator, an accredited interpreter/bilingual worker, and a note taker). Data were collected using a standard interview schedule, and an accredited interpreter/bilingual worker asked the questions in the appropriate language and translated participant responses into English. Results The findings highlight how youth in new migrant families become contested sites of culture as they try to balance integration into the new culture while maintaining their originating country’s cultural values. Two themes and four subthemes emerged from the analysis: Intergenerational acculturation gap (loss of family capital and intergenerational conflicts); and factors that successfully protected positive family values while still allowing young people to integrate (the legal system that disarm authoritarian parenting practices and

  20. Psychiatric care in restricted conditions for work migrants, refugees and asylum seekers: experience of the Open Clinic for Work Migrants and Refugees, Israel 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Ido

    2009-01-01

    In the last few decades, the State of Israel has become a target for work migrants, refugees, asylum seekers and victims of human trafficking, as part of the trend of world immigration. Immigration is a process of loss and change with significant socio-psychological stress, with possible effects on the immigrants' mental health. The Physicians for Human Rights - Israel (PHR) Association operates a psychiatric clinic as part of the Open Clinic for Work Migrants and Refugees. This article will present major clinical issues regarding psychiatry and immigration in Israel according to the data collected at the clinic. Trauma and stress-related psychopathology was found to have a high prevalence in immigrant patients treated at the clinic; prevalence of PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) in immigrants was high (23%) and even higher in refugees (33%). Female immigrants are at higher risk for psychiatric hospitalization. The relative rate of African patients at the clinic is significantly higher than patients from other continents. A significant association was found between psychiatric hospitalization and suicide attempts. Immigrant patients present a combination of psychiatric, socio-economic and general medical conditions, which demands a holistic view of the patient. The evaluation of an immigrant patient must take into account the stress related to immigration, gender, culture of origin and the risk for suicide and hospitalization. Treatment recommendations include awareness of cultural diversities, acquiring information regarding the pre-immigration history, preferably using cultural consultants with background in the immigrants' culture and community. Decision-making about medication and diagnostic evaluation should be as inexpensive as possible. Basic human needs (food, shelter) and family support should be included in the decisions about treatment.