Fakoya, I; Reynolds, R; Caswell, G; Shiripinda, I
Migrant black Africans are disproportionately affected by HIV in Western Europe; we discuss the barriers to HIV testing for sub-Saharan migrants, with particular emphasis on the UK and the Netherlands. Cultural, social and structural barriers to testing, such as access to testing and care, fear of death and disease and fear of stigma and discrimination in the community, can be identified. Lack of political will, restrictive immigration policies and the absence of African representation in decision-making processes are also major factors preventing black Africans from testing. HIV testing strategies need to be grounded in outreach and community mobilisation, addressing fear of diagnosis, highlighting the success of treatment and tackling HIV-related stigma among black African migrant communities.
Lin, Lavinia; Brown, Katherine B; Yu, Fan; Yang, Jingqi; Wang, Jason; Schrock, Joshua M; Bodomo, Adams B; Yang, Ligang; Yang, Bin; Nehl, Eric J; Tucker, Joseph D; Wong, Frank Y
Guangzhou, one of China's largest cities and a main trading port in South China, has attracted many African businessmen and traders migrating to the city for financial gains. Previous research has explored the cultural and economic roles of this newly emerging population; however, little is known about their health care experiences while in China. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were used to assess health care experiences and perceived barriers to health care access among African migrants in Guangzhou, China. Overall, African migrants experienced various barriers to accessing health care and were dissatisfied with local health services. The principal barriers to care reported included affordability, legal issues, language barriers, and cultural differences. Facing multiple barriers, African migrants have limited access to care in Guangzhou. Local health settings are not accustomed to the African migrant population, suggesting that providing linguistically and culturally appropriate services may improve access to care for the migrants.
Henrickson, Mark; Brown, Derek Brian; Fouché, Christa; Poindexter, Cynthia C; Scott, Kay
Meaning-making has emerged as a core construct in addressing trauma, loss or crisis. This paper considers how diasporic Black Africans living with HIV, who come from interdependent collectivist cultures where the norm is one of implicit support, extend their meaning-making strategies when faced with a diagnosis of HIV. In this qualitative study, 13 Black African migrants and refugees living with HIV in New Zealand were interviewed and the transcripts analysed. After their diagnosis, participants began a journey of reconceptualising situational and global meaning. They extended their meaning-making strategies to include a community of like others to gain explicit support. Caregivers in host countries must understand the meaning-making processes of HIV-positive Black African migrants in order to provide competent services that lead to good social and health outcomes. All healthcare and social services workers should regularly assess Black African migrants and refugees living with HIV for positive social connectedness as well as medication adherence and more specific health concerns.
Fakoya, A.; Reynolds, R.; Caswell, G.; Shiripinda, I.
Migrant black Africans are disproportionately affected by HIV in Western Europe; we discuss the barriers to HIV testing for sub-Saharan migrants, with particular emphasis on the UK and the Netherlands. Cultural, social and structural barriers to testing, such as access to testing and care, fear of
Mabogunje, A L
important local opinion leaders, fostering social change and development in their areas. Possibly 1 of the most important areas of migrants' innovative activities in West Africa is in the spread of new agricultural crops. Institutional innovations due to the activities of migrants also abound in West Africa. Migrants in West Africa also have been known to influence social norms, attitudes, and behavior patterns in some of the areas to which they had migrated. Regarding research implications, it is argued that a more fruitful and insightful understanding of social change comes from the detailed examination of the role of migrants as innovators. An increasing number of studies on migrants in African countries can serve as a means of assessing the vital role of migrants in the development of different parts of a country.
Full Text Available Until recently migration was treated like a footnote in the Africa-China discourse. Previously researchers and the media had focused attention on the “cost-benefit analysis” of China‘ s economic penetration of the continent. However, since 2008 when over a hundred African migrants blocked a major street in Guangzhou protesting the death of a Nigerian in an immigration raid, researchers and the media have been falling over themselves to unpack the phenomenon of migrant exchange in the relationship. There are now about one million Chinese migrants in Africa as against about two hundred and fifty thousand African migrants in China. Migration is a two-edged sword. On the credit side, migration can be a bridge between peoples as well as a major contributor to economic development. On the debit side, it can be a source of dispute between peoples and a threat to the hosts’ social stability. This paper discusses the implications of Guangzhou’s African migrants for China’s social stability and China’s relationship with Africa.
Agyemang, Charles; Meeks, Karlijn; Boateng, Reynolds; Beune, Erik
The African migrant communities in Europe face many challenges including poor health outcomes. Migrant community leaders can play a crucial role in addressing the health needs of their community members. In this paper, we described Sub-Saharan African migrant community leaders' action to improve the
McQuilten, Z; Waters, N; Polonsky, M; Renzaho, A
To establish blood donation rates among African refugees and migrants and identify demographic and socio-economic factors that are associated with their blood donation. A cross-sectional survey of 425 migrants and refugees living in Victoria and South Australia was used to assess blood donation status. The association between blood donation and demographic and socio-economic factors was assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Overall, 73 participants (17·2%; 95% CI: 13·6-20·8) reported having donated blood previously. Of the total sample, 2·4% (95% CI: 0·9-3·8) reported having given blood in Australia; 12·9% (95% CI: 9·7-16·1) had given blood prior to migration to Australia (i.e. country of birth or transition); and 1·9% (95% CI: 0·6-3·2) indicated they had given blood in an unspecified country. In the univariate model, age, country of birth, blood donation knowledge, religion, educational attainment, migration and employment status were all associated with blood donation status. However, in the multivariate model, only age >45 years (odds ratio [OR] 5·72; 95% CI 2·11-15·46), African region of origin (OR 15·89; 95% CI 3·89-65) and blood donation knowledge (OR 4·46; 95% CI 1·57-12·7) were associated with blood donation. In order to increase the number of blood donors among African migrants, promoting knowledge and awareness of issues associated with blood donation in Australia should be emphasized. Consideration should be given to identifying these potential migrant donors to improve the availability of compatible blood for patients of African descent. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.
Chernet, A; Utzinger, J; Sydow, V; Probst-Hensch, N; Paris, D H; Labhardt, N D; Neumayr, A
The objective of this paper was to systematically review the literature on the prevalence of selected infectious diseases among migrants/refugees of African origin and to provide policy makers and health care professionals with evidence-based information. We pursued a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the prevalence of six selected infectious diseases (i.e., syphilis, helminthiasis, schistosomiasis, intestinal protozoa infections, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C) among migrants/refugees of African origin. Three electronic databases (i.e., PubMed, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Science) were searched without language restrictions. Relevant data were extracted and random-effects meta-analyses conducted. Only adjusted estimates were analyzed to help account for heterogeneity and potential confounding. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. The results were stratified by geographical region. Ninety-six studies were included. The evidence was of low quality due to the small numbers of countries, infectious diseases, and participants included. African migrants/refugees had median (with 95% confidence interval [95% CI]) prevalence for syphilis, helminthiasis, schistosomiasis, intestinal protozoa infection, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C of 6.0% [95% CI: 2.0-7.0%], 13.0% [95% CI: 9.5-14.5%], 14.0% [95% CI: 13.0-17.0%], 15.0% [95% CI: 10.5-21.0%], 10.0% [95% CI: 6.0-14.0%], and 3.0% [95% CI: 1.0-4.0%], respectively. We found high heterogeneity regardless of the disease (I 2 ; minimum 97.5%, maximum 99.7%). The relatively high prevalence of some infectious diseases among African migrants/refugees warrants for systematic screening. The large heterogeneity of the available published data does not allow for stratifying such screening programs according to the geographical origin of African migrants/refugees.
Wojczewski, Silvia; Poppe, Annelien; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Pentz, Stephen; Kutalek, Ruth
Migrant health workers fill care gaps in their destination countries, but they also actively engage in improving living conditions for people of their countries of origin through expatriate professional networks. This paper aims to explore the professional links that migrant health workers from sub-Saharan African countries living in five African and European destinations (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, and the United Kingdom) have to their countries of origin. Qualitative interviews were conducted with migrant doctors, nurses, and midwives from sub-Saharan Africa (N=66). A qualitative content analysis of the material was performed using the software ATLAS.ti. Almost all migrant health workers have professional ties with their countries of origin supporting health, education, and social structures. They work with non-governmental organizations, universities, or hospitals and travel back and forth between their destination country and country of origin. For a few respondents, professional engagement or even maintaining private contacts in their country of origin is difficult due to the political situation at home. The results show that African migrant health workers are actively engaged in improving living conditions not only for their family members but also for the population in general in their countries of origin. Our respondents are mediators and active networkers in a globalized and transnationally connected world. The research suggests that the governments of these countries of origin could strategically use their migrant health workforce for improving education and population health in sub-Saharan Africa. Destination countries should be reminded of their need to comply with the WHO Global Code of Practice for the international recruitment of health professionals.
asylum seekers, and the so-called 'economic migrants.' It is surprising, however ... Spanish enclaves, etc., this paper seeks to underline the major thesis that Africa-to-Europe .... This is the horrible aspect of the African condition. Of his aspect ...
Ogunsiji, Olayide Oluyemisi; Kwok, Cannas; Fan, Lee Chun
Breast cancer is the most diagnosed cancer among women and a leading cause of mortality and morbidity, globally. Breast cancer mortality can be improved through routine cancer screening, yet migrant populations have lower participation rates. While African migrants are among the fastest growing migrant population in Australia, their breast cancer screening behaviour is under-studied. The aims of this study were to report breast cancer screening status of African migrant women and factors associated with their breast cancer screening behaviour in Australia. A descriptive, cross-sectional approach was utilised for this study. Two hundred and sixty four African migrant women aged 18-69 years and recruited from a number of organisations responded to a self-reported African version of the Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs Questionnaire (BCSBQ). Main research variables are breast cancer screening practices and demographic characteristics and total scores on each of the BCSBQ subscales. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the impact of the demographic variables on the likelihood of women in the target age range 50-74 years having screening practices as recommended. While most of the participants heard of breast awareness (76.1%) and mammogram (85.2%), only 11.4% practised monthly breast awareness, whereas 65.9% had ever had a mammogram as frequently as recommended. Age and employment were determining factors for participating in mammogram. Significant different scores were found in the "Practical barriers" between women at the target age who had and had not performed breast awareness (80.4 versus 77.5, p-value = 0.002) and mammogram (77.1 versus 70.3, p-value = 0.009) regularly as recommended. Moreover, attitudes towards general health check-ups subscale scores were significantly higher in women who had performed clinical breast examination as frequently as recommended than those who had not. The research reveals that practical
Wojczewski, Silvia; Poppe, Annelien; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Pentz, Stephen; Kutalek, Ruth
Background Migrant health workers fill care gaps in their destination countries, but they also actively engage in improving living conditions for people of their countries of origin through expatriate professional networks. This paper aims to explore the professional links that migrant health workers from sub-Saharan African countries living in five African and European destinations (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, and the United Kingdom) have to their countries of origin. Design Qualitative interviews were conducted with migrant doctors, nurses, and midwives from sub-Saharan Africa (N=66). A qualitative content analysis of the material was performed using the software ATLAS.ti. Results Almost all migrant health workers have professional ties with their countries of origin supporting health, education, and social structures. They work with non-governmental organizations, universities, or hospitals and travel back and forth between their destination country and country of origin. For a few respondents, professional engagement or even maintaining private contacts in their country of origin is difficult due to the political situation at home. Conclusions The results show that African migrant health workers are actively engaged in improving living conditions not only for their family members but also for the population in general in their countries of origin. Our respondents are mediators and active networkers in a globalized and transnationally connected world. The research suggests that the governments of these countries of origin could strategically use their migrant health workforce for improving education and population health in sub-Saharan Africa. Destination countries should be reminded of their need to comply with the WHO Global Code of Practice for the international recruitment of health professionals. PMID:26652910
McLaughlin, Megan M; Simonson, Louis; Zou, Xia; Ling, Li; Tucker, Joseph D
Patient trust in physicians is a critical determinant of health seeking behaviors, medication adherence, and health outcomes. A crisis of interpersonal trust exists in China, extending throughout multiple social spheres, including the healthcare system. At the same time, with increased migration from Africa to China in the last two decades, Chinese physicians must establish mutual trust with an increasingly diverse patient population. We undertook a qualitative study to identify factors affecting African migrants' trust in Chinese physicians and to identify potential mechanisms for promoting trust. We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 40 African migrants in Guangzhou, China. A modified version of the social ecological model was used as a theoretical framework. At the patient-physician level, interpersonal treatment, technical competence, perceived commitment and motive, and language concordance were associated with enhanced trust. At the health system level, two primary factors influenced African migrants' trust in their physicians: the fee-for-service payment system and lack of continuity with any one physician. Patients' social networks and the broader socio-cultural context of interactions between African migrants and Chinese locals also influenced patients' trust of their physicians. These findings demonstrate the importance of factors beyond the immediate patient-physician interaction and suggest opportunities to promote trust through health system interventions.
Megan M McLaughlin
Full Text Available Patient trust in physicians is a critical determinant of health seeking behaviors, medication adherence, and health outcomes. A crisis of interpersonal trust exists in China, extending throughout multiple social spheres, including the healthcare system. At the same time, with increased migration from Africa to China in the last two decades, Chinese physicians must establish mutual trust with an increasingly diverse patient population. We undertook a qualitative study to identify factors affecting African migrants' trust in Chinese physicians and to identify potential mechanisms for promoting trust.We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 40 African migrants in Guangzhou, China. A modified version of the social ecological model was used as a theoretical framework. At the patient-physician level, interpersonal treatment, technical competence, perceived commitment and motive, and language concordance were associated with enhanced trust. At the health system level, two primary factors influenced African migrants' trust in their physicians: the fee-for-service payment system and lack of continuity with any one physician. Patients' social networks and the broader socio-cultural context of interactions between African migrants and Chinese locals also influenced patients' trust of their physicians.These findings demonstrate the importance of factors beyond the immediate patient-physician interaction and suggest opportunities to promote trust through health system interventions.
African skilled migrants and their circular and return migration strategies have received relatively little attention in the literature, with the previous focus of much African migration literature being on the net loss of skills to countries with developed economies in the global north. This article considers 13 interviews with African skilled…
Abstract By describing the everyday lives of African migrant mothers and their children in Morocco, this paper highlights how migration and "immobility" in transit countries are gendering and gendered experiences. Relying on migrants' narratives, the paper demonstrates how migrants' transition to motherhood is shaped by their particular, fractured journeys. It shows how motherhood creates both specific and gendered spaces for agency and particular and gendered constraints upon agen...
Renzaho, Andre M N; Halliday, Jennifer A; Mellor, David; Green, Julie
Although obesity among immigrants remains an important area of study given the increasing migrant population in Australia and other developed countries, research on factors amenable to intervention is sparse. The aim of the study was to develop a culturally-competent obesity prevention program for sub-Saharan African (SSA) families with children aged 12-17 years using a community-partnered participatory approach. A community-partnered participatory approach that allowed the intervention to be developed in collaborative partnership with communities was used. Three pilot studies were carried out in 2008 and 2009 which included focus groups, interviews, and workshops with SSA parents, teenagers and health professionals, and emerging themes were used to inform the intervention content. A cultural competence framework containing 10 strategies was developed to inform the development of the program. Using findings from our scoping research, together with community consultations through the African Review Panel, a draft program outline (skeleton) was developed and presented in two separate community forums with SSA community members and health professionals working with SSA communities in Melbourne. The 'Healthy Migrant Families Initiative (HMFI): Challenges and Choices' program was developed and designed to assist African families in their transition to life in a new country. The program consists of nine sessions, each approximately 1 1/2 hours in length, which are divided into two modules based on the topic. The first module 'Healthy lifestyles in a new culture' (5 sessions) focuses on healthy eating, active living and healthy body weight. The second module 'Healthy families in a new culture' (4 sessions) focuses on parenting, communication and problem solving. The sessions are designed for a group setting (6-12 people per group), as many of the program activities are discussion-based, supported by session materials and program resources. Strong partnerships and
Based on archival and ethnographic research, this paper examines the introduction, nature and implementation of a recent anti-immigrant act in Guangdong province and its implications in the regional, national and international contexts. Chinese state regulation of undocumented African migrants is
Lan, S.; Donggen Wang,; Shenjing He,
With China’s accession to the World Trade Organization in 2001 and the enormous growth of Sino-African trade, Guangzhou, a mega city in South China, has become the Promised Land for many African migrants seeking wealth and fortune in the global economy. Differing from the previous generation of
This paper analyses homecoming experiences of African labour migrants who lived in Israel and returned home. Using qualitative research methodologies, I discerned what factors - material and non-material - determine the relative success of the return process. Focusing on these factors’ effects, I offer a new understanding of labour migrants’ homecoming experiences: those who are “content,” “readjusting,” or “lost. Following Ulrich Beck's (2006) analysis of cosmopolitanism, I suggest that thes...
Whyte, James; Whyte, Maria D; Hires, Kimberly
Newly immigrated persons, whatever their origin, tend to fall in the lower socioeconomic levels. In fact, failure of an asylum application renders one destitute in a large proportion of cases, often resulting in a profound lack of access to basic necessities. With over a third of HIV positive failed asylum seekers reporting no income, and the remainder reporting highly limited resources, poverty is a reality for the vast majority. The purpose of the study was to determine the basic social processes that guide HIV positive undocumented migrant's efforts to gain health services in the UK. The study used the Grounded Theory Approach. Theoretical saturation occurred after 16 participants were included in the study. The data included reflections of the prominent factors related to the establishment of a safe and productive life and the ability of individuals to remain within the UK. The data reflected heavily upon the ability of migrants to enter the medical care system during their asylum period, and on an emerging pattern of service denial after loss on immigration appeal. The findings of this study are notable in that they have demonstrated sequence of events along a timeline related to the interaction between the asylum process and access to health-related services. The results reflect that African migrants maintain a degree of formal access to health services during the period that they possess legal access to services and informal access after the failure of their asylum claim. The purpose of this paper is to examine the basic social processes that characterize efforts to gain access to health services among HIV positive undocumented African migrants to the UK. The most recent estimates indicate that there are a total of 618,000 migrants who lack legal status within the UK. Other studies have placed the number of undocumented migrants within the UK in the range of 525,000-950,000. More than 442,000 are thought to dwell in the London metropolitan area. Even in
Full Text Available In Europe, migrants are at higher risk of common mental disorders or psychological distress than are natives. Little is known regarding the social determinants of migrant mental health, particularly the roles played by migration conditions and transnational practices, which may manifest themselves in different ways for men and for women. The goal of this paper was to understand the gendered roles of migration paths and transnational ties in mental health among sub-Saharan African migrants residing in the Paris, France, metropolitan area. This study used data from the Parcours study conducted in 2012–2013, which employed a life-event approach to collect data from a representative sample of migrants who visited healthcare facilities (n = 2468. We measured anxiety and depressive symptoms at the time of data collection with the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4. Reasons for migration, the living conditions in the host country and transnational ties after migration were taken into account by sex and after adjustment. Our study demonstrates that among sub-Saharan African migrants, mental health is related to the migratory path and the migrant’s situation in the host country but differently for women and men. Among women, anxiety and depressive symptoms were strongly related to having left one’s home country because of threats to one’s life. Among men, residing illegally in the host country was related to impaired mental health. For both women and men, cross-border separation from a child less than 18 years old was not independently associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms. In addition, social and emotional support from relatives and friends—both from the society of origin and of destination—were associated with lower anxiety and depressive symptoms. Migrant mental health may be impaired in the current context of anti-migrant policies and an anti-immigrant social environment in Europe.
Ukoli, Flora A; Smith, Ernest; Malin, Alecia; Zhao, Barbara; Osime, Usifo; Stain, Steven
The role of dietary fat and vitamin E in prostate cancer risk among African-Americans, African migrants and Africans is being investigated using a dietary assessment tool and by measuring plasma fatty...
Ukoli, Flora A; Smith, Ernest; Malin, Alecia; Zhao, Barbara; Osime, Usifo; Stain, Steven
The role of dietary fat and vitamin E in prostate cancer risk among African-Americans, African migrants and Africans is being investigated using a dietary assessment tool and by measuring plasma fatty...
Madhavan, Sangeetha; Landau, Loren B
Interest in migrant social networks and social capital has grown substantially over the past several decades. The relationship between “host” and “migrant” communities remains central to these scholarly debates. Recently urbanized cities in Africa, which include large numbers of “native-born” or internal migrants, challenge basic presumptions about host/migrant distinctions informing many of these discussions. Using comparable survey data from Johannesburg, Maputo, and Nairobi, we examine 1) the nature of social connectedness in terms of residence and nativity characteristics; and 2) the relationship between residence and nativity characteristics and three measures of trust within and across communities. Our findings suggest that the host/migrant distinction may not be particularly revealing in African cities where domestic mobility, social fragmentation and the absence of bridging institutions result in relatively low levels of trust both within and across communities. These findings underscore the need for new concepts to study “communities of strangers” and how people strategize their social mobility in urban contexts.
McCann, Terence V; Mugavin, Janette; Renzaho, Andre; Lubman, Dan I
Many young migrants and their parents are reluctant to seek help for mental health and substance use problems. Help-seeking delays can result in longer duration of untreated problems and poorer outcomes. In this study, we aimed to identify the help-seeking barriers and facilitators for anxiety, depression and alcohol and drug use problems in young people from recently established sub-Saharan African migrant communities. A qualitative study, incorporating individual, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, was undertaken in Melbourne, Australia. Twenty-eight young sub-Saharan African migrants participated in the individual interviews, and 41 sub-Saharan African-born parents and key community leaders participated in 4 focus groups. All participants were aged 16 years or over. A thematic analysis of the data was undertaken. Themes and related sub-themes were abstracted from the data, reflecting the young people's, parents' and key community leaders' beliefs about barriers and facilitators to help-seeking for mental health and substance use problems. Four help-seeking barriers were identified: stigma of mental illness, lack of mental health literacy in parents and young people, lack of cultural competency of formal help sources, and financial costs deterring access. Five help-seeking facilitators were abstracted: being open with friends and family, strong community support systems, trustworthiness and confidentiality of help-sources, perceived expertise of formal help-sources, increasing young people's and parents' mental health literacy. Programs that identify and build on help-seeking facilitators while addressing help-seeking barriers are needed to address mental health issues among young sub-Saharan African migrants. Strategies to address help-seeking barriers should consider counteracting stigma and increasing mental health literacy in sub-Saharan African communities, increasing health providers' cultural competency and perceived trustworthiness, and
Full Text Available The Blue Swallow (Hirundo atrocaerulea) is a threatened intra-African migrant with breeding populations in three geographically disjunct regions. We analysed stable hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios in feather keratin to determine whether...
Vammen, Ida Marie; Trans, Lars Ove
Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically on their tr......Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically...
Babatunde-Sowole, Olutoyin O; Jackson, Debra; Davidson, Patricia M; Power, Tamara
Migrating and establishing a new life in another culture can have diverse health effects especially for women. This article explores the struggles and social adjustment issues that might constitute negatively to the health of West African migrant women living in Australia. Qualitative storytelling. Audiotaped voluntary stories from 20 West African migrant women living in Sydney, Australia were transcribed and analyzed. Three themes are presented for discussion: (1) But it is different here: life in a new country; (2) I have to do it all by myself: communal versus individual living; and (3) They don't listen to parents: perceived threats to the family unit. The demand for and the importance of nurses and midwives in supporting migrant families is demonstrated by findings suggesting that social adjustment into the Australian culture has a significant impact on both the nuclear and extended family unit of women. © The Author(s) 2015.
Benkhalti Jandu, Maria, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [University of Ottawa, Institute of Population Health, 1 Stewart Street, Suite 201, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Canuto de Medeiros, Bruno, E-mail: email@example.com [University of Ottawa, Institute of Population Health, 1 Stewart Street, Suite 201, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Bourgeault, Ivy, E-mail: Ivy.Bourgeault@uottawa.ca [University of Ottawa, Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, 1 Stewart Street, Suite 207, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Tugwell, Peter, E-mail: Tugwell.BB@uottawa.ca [University of Ottawa, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, K1H 8M5 Ottawa (Canada); Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Clinical Epidemiology Program, K1Y 4E9 Ottawa (Canada); University of Ottawa, Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, K1H 8M5 Ottawa (Canada); Institute of Population Health, University of Ottawa, K1N 6N5 Ottawa (Canada)
This article reports the findings of a scoping review assessing the extent and ways in which migrants have been included in health impact assessments (HIAs) and HIA evaluations worldwide. A total of 117 HIAs and two HIA evaluations were included. Only 14% of hand-searched HIAs mentioned migrants, 5% analysed migrants and only 2% included them in their recommendations. Nonetheless, migrants would be expected to be part of the analysis based on the reasons for which migrants were most commonly mentioned. Although the majority of HIAs included in the review mentioned migrants in baseline conditions and impact analysis steps, migrants were seldom included in recommendations. Furthermore, the use of frameworks or tools guiding the completion of an HIA was negatively associated with the inclusion of migrants in recommendations. This is a pivotal risk of frameworks not mentioning migrants. Although workshops and stakeholder engagement were a frequent way of including migrants in HIAs, this usually involved organizations representing migrants, and only seldom included members of the migrant community themselves. The main barriers to including migrants in the HIA impact analysis were the lack of available data on migrants and the significant additional resources required to gather and analyse additional data on migrants. Guidance is needed on ways to optimally include migrants in HIAs and ensure that recommendations for mitigation measures are optimal. - Highlights: • Scoping review found 14% of hand-searched HIAs mentioned migrants • Migrants are seldom mentioned in recommendations even when analysed • Guiding frameworks can hinder the inclusion of migrants if not explicitly mentioned • Often migrants organizations are the ones included in engagement • Main barriers to including migrants are available data and resources required.
Benkhalti Jandu, Maria; Canuto de Medeiros, Bruno; Bourgeault, Ivy; Tugwell, Peter
This article reports the findings of a scoping review assessing the extent and ways in which migrants have been included in health impact assessments (HIAs) and HIA evaluations worldwide. A total of 117 HIAs and two HIA evaluations were included. Only 14% of hand-searched HIAs mentioned migrants, 5% analysed migrants and only 2% included them in their recommendations. Nonetheless, migrants would be expected to be part of the analysis based on the reasons for which migrants were most commonly mentioned. Although the majority of HIAs included in the review mentioned migrants in baseline conditions and impact analysis steps, migrants were seldom included in recommendations. Furthermore, the use of frameworks or tools guiding the completion of an HIA was negatively associated with the inclusion of migrants in recommendations. This is a pivotal risk of frameworks not mentioning migrants. Although workshops and stakeholder engagement were a frequent way of including migrants in HIAs, this usually involved organizations representing migrants, and only seldom included members of the migrant community themselves. The main barriers to including migrants in the HIA impact analysis were the lack of available data on migrants and the significant additional resources required to gather and analyse additional data on migrants. Guidance is needed on ways to optimally include migrants in HIAs and ensure that recommendations for mitigation measures are optimal. - Highlights: • Scoping review found 14% of hand-searched HIAs mentioned migrants • Migrants are seldom mentioned in recommendations even when analysed • Guiding frameworks can hinder the inclusion of migrants if not explicitly mentioned • Often migrants organizations are the ones included in engagement • Main barriers to including migrants are available data and resources required
Kate L Francis
Full Text Available Research suggests that African migrants are often positively predisposed towards blood donation, but are under-represented in participation. A culturally-tailored intervention targeting the African migrant community in Australia was developed and implemented, to enhance knowledge about blood donation, improve attitudes towards donating, increase intentions to donate blood, and increase the number of new African donors in Australia. Four weeks after a targeted campaign, a survey evaluation process commenced, administered face-to-face by bilingual interviewers from the African community in Melbourne and Adelaide, Australia (community survey. The questionnaires covered demographics, campaign awareness, blood donation knowledge and intentions, medical mistrust and perceived discrimination, and were analysed to evaluate changes in knowledge and intention. Sixty-two percent of survey participants (n = 454 reported being aware of the campaign. With increasing campaign awareness, there was a 0.28 increase in knowledge score (p = .005; previous blood donation was also associated with an increased blood donation knowledge score. Blood donation intention scores were not associated with campaign awareness (p = 0.272, but were associated with previous blood donation behaviour and a positive blood donation attitude score. More positive scores on the blood donation attitude measure were associated with increasing blood donation intentions, self-efficacy and campaign awareness (score increases of 0.27, 0.30 and 0.04, respectively, all p<0.05. Data were collected on the ethnicity of new blood donors in six blood collection centres before and after the intervention, and independent of the intervention evaluation survey. These data were also used to assess behavioural changes and the proportions of donors from different countries before and after the survey. There was no difference in the number of new African migrant donors, before and after the intervention. The
Ligia Moreira Almeida
Full Text Available Considering pregnancy and motherhood as periods of increased vulnerability in migrant women, to characterize the healthcare provided to this collective, we sought to identify and understand patterns of satisfaction and demand of maternal and child healthcare, assessing women’s perceptions about its quality. The study followed a qualitative methodology (semi-structured interviews for collecting and analysing data (content analysis and was conducted in Porto, the second largest city of Portugal. Participants were 25 recent immigrant mothers from Eastern European countries, Brazil, Portuguese-speaking African countries and six native Portuguese recent mothers (for comparison, contacted through social associations and institutions. Data suggests that healthcare depends not only on accessibility but especially on social opportunities. Equitable public health action must provide individuals and groups the equal opportunity to meet their needs, which may not be achieved by providing the same standard if care to all.
Carlos J. Gil-Hernández
Full Text Available Background: Minority students were found to have high educational aspirations, considering their background characteristics. This finding is often attributed to 'migrant optimism.' Yet, whether socioeconomic, educational, or demographic differences between and within ethnic groups mediate and/or moderate students' educational aspirations remains an inconclusive question. Objective: This study investigates the educational aspirations of children of African and Latin American migrants in Spain, looking at four critical factors: (1 family background, (2 educational performance, (3 years lived in Spain, and (4 language used at home. Methods: Data comes from the 2010 General Evaluation of Educational Diagnostic (GEED on lower-secondary students aged 14 (n = 19,293, on average. Multivariate logistic models are applied using mediation and moderation analyses. Results: Results show that (1 minority students have higher college aspirations than students of Spanish origin after accounting for parental socioeconomic status and educational performance; (2 ethnic differentials in aspirations - especially for pupils with Latin American origin - are concentrated among low-performing and disadvantaged students; (3 recent arrival in Spain is not significantly associated with differences in educational aspirations within minority groups; (4 speaking Spanish at home does not lead to differences in aspirations for pupils of African origin. Conclusions: Migrant optimism, as opposed to family language use and years of contact with the Spanish culture and society, seems to be an important factor for the high (net educational aspirations of students from African and Latin American backgrounds. Contribution: The article provides new evidence on ethnic heterogeneity in educational aspirations, being the first that uses representative data from the whole Spanish educational system.
This article interrogates the conditions of Nigerian labour diasporas and intending migrants to Liberia in the inter-war years in the light of the global economic crunch of the late 1920s and early 1930s. While highlighting the necessity of an intra-West African labour highway during the period, the article assesses the ...
Afulani, Patience A; Torres, Jacqueline M; Sudhinaraset, May; Asunka, Joseph
Recent scholarship has focused on the role that cross-border social and economic ties play in shaping health outcomes for migrant populations. Nevertheless, the extant empirical work on this topic has paid little attention to the health impacts of cross-border separation from close family members. In this paper we examine the association between cross-border ties-and cross-border separation-with the health of sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrant adults living in metropolitan France using data from the nationally representative "Trajectoire et Origines" survey (n = 1980 SSA migrants). In logistic regression analyses we find that remitting money and having a child abroad are each associated with poor health among women, but not men. The effect of remittances on health is also modified by the location of one's children: remittance sending is associated with poor health only for SSA-migrants separated from their children. These findings underscore the importance of examining both cross-border connection and cross-border separation in studies of immigrant health, and also underscore the heterogeneous relationships between cross-border ties and health for men and women. This is the first study to our knowledge that examines the relationship between cross-border ties and health for migrants in Europe, with a focus on SSA-migrants in France. These findings have important implications for the health of the growing immigrant and refugee populations in Europe and around the globe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stolte, I G; Gras, M; Van Benthem, B H; Coutinho, R A; van den Hoek, J A
This cross-sectional study among heterosexual migrant groups in south-eastern Amsterdam, the city area where the largest migrant groups live, provides an insight into HIV testing behaviour in this particular group. Participants were recruited at street locations (May 1997-July 1998) and interviewed using structured questionnaires. They also donated saliva for HIV testing. In total, 705 males and 769 females were included in this study (Afro-Surinamese (45%), Dutch-Antilleans (15%) and West Africans (40%)). Prior HIV testing was reported by 38% of all migrants (556/1479), of which only a minority (28%) had actively requested HIV testing. Multivariate logistic regression showed that not actively requesting HIV testing was more likely among younger (migrants, especially women (ORwomen: 4.79, p risk should be facilitated by promoting HIV testing and by improving accurate self-assessment of risk for HIV infection, especially among the groups that do not actively request HIV testing. This would increase HIV awareness and provide the opportunity of better medical care earlier in HIV infection.
Agyemang, Charles; Beune, Erik; Meeks, Karlijn; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Aikins, Ama de-Graft; Dodoo, Francis; Smeeth, Liam; Addo, Juliet; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; Amoah, Stephen K.; Schulze, Matthias B.; Danquah, Ina; Spranger, Joachim; Nicolaou, Mary; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Burr, Tom; Henneman, Peter; Mannens, Marcel M.; van Straalen, Jan P.; Bahendeka, Silver; Zwinderman, A. H.; Kunst, Anton E.; Stronks, Karien
Introduction Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are highly prevalent among African migrants compared with European descent populations. The underlying reasons still remain a puzzle. Gene-environmental interaction is now seen as a potential plausible factor contributing to the high prevalence of
Chadwick, D; Doyle, T; Ellis, S; Price, D; Abbas, I; Valappil, M; Geretti, A M
Occult (surface antigen-negative/DNA-positive) hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is common in areas of the world where HBV is endemic. The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of occult HBV infection in HIV-infected African migrants to the UK and to determine factors associated with occult coinfection. This anonymized point-prevalence study identified Africans attending three HIV clinics, focussing on patients naïve to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Stored blood samples were tested for HBV DNA. Prevalence was calculated in the entire cohort, as well as in subpopulations. Risk factors for occult HBV coinfection were identified using logistic regression analysis. Among 335 HIV-positive African migrants, the prevalence of occult HBV coinfection was 4.5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-7.4%] overall, and 6.5% (95% CI 3.9-10.6%) and 0.8% (95% CI 0.2-4.6%) in ART-naïve and ART-experienced patients, respectively. Among ART-naïve anti-HBV core (anti-HBc)-positive patients, the prevalence was 16.4% (95% CI 8.3-25.6%). The strongest predictor of occult coinfection was anti-HBc positivity [odds ratio (OR) 7.4; 95% CI 2.0-27.6]. Median HBV DNA and ALT levels were 54 IU/mL [interquartile range (IQR) 33-513 IU/mL] and 22 U/L (IQR 13-27 U/L), respectively. Occult HBV coinfection remains under-diagnosed in African HIV-infected patients in the UK. Given the range of HBV DNA levels observed, further studies are warranted to determine its clinical significance and to guide screening strategies and ART selection in these patients. © 2013 British HIV Association.
Oct 2, 2011 ... such social networks bind Nigerian migrants together in their new ... in Adjustment, Integration and Development' was presented at ... of intra-regional or intra-African migration dominance in the general African migration,.
Klinkenberg, E. F.; Huis In 't Veld, E. M. J.; de Wit, P. D.; van Dongen, A.; Daams, J. G.; de Kort, W. L. A. M.; Fransen, M. P.
The present study aimed to gain more insight into, and summarise, blood donation determinants among migrants or minorities of Sub-Saharan heritage by systematically reviewing the current literature. Sub-Saharan Africans are under-represented in the blood donor population in Western high-income
Pannetier, Julie; Ravalihasy, Andrainolo; Lydié, Nathalie; Lert, France; Desgrées du Loû, Annabel
Sub-Saharan African migrant women are a key population at risk of HIV infection in Europe. Using data from the ANRS-PARCOURS study, we aimed to assess the prevalence of forced sex after migration and its association with post-migration acquisition of HIV as well as the circumstances of forced sex after migration, including housing and administrative insecurity, among sub-Saharan African migrant women living in the Paris Region, France. The ANRS-PARCOURS study was a retrospective life-event survey done between February, 2012, and May, 2013, in health-care facilities in the Paris region of France. Women were eligible if they were born in sub-Saharan Africa, aged between 18 and 59 years, and had been diagnosed with HIV infection at least 3 months earlier for women receiving HIV care or not diagnosed with HIV. In this analysis, we used ANRS-PARCOURS study data to compare the incidence of forced sex after migration in three groups of sub-Saharan African migrant women: those who acquired HIV after migrating, those who acquired HIV before migrating, and those without HIV. We assessed the associations between forced sex, sexual partnerships, and living conditions after migration with mixed-effects logistic regression and generalised structural equation models. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02566148. We obtained data from 980 eligible individuals who participated in the ANRS-PARCOURS study (407 without HIV and 573 HIV-positive) from 54 randomly selected health-care facilities. We excluded 20 women whose HIV infection could not be dated and eight women with missing data from the analyses, for a total of 405 women in the reference group (without HIV) and 547 women in the HIV group (156 with post-migration HIV acquisition, 391 with pre-migration HIV). Women who acquired HIV after migration experienced forced sex after migration more frequently than women without HIV (24 [15%] vs 18 [4%]; p=0·001). Forced sex after migration was associated with
The article draws on 575 randomly selected articles from the South African Media database to explore the representation of Zimbabwean women migrants. Using critical discourse analysis (CDA), the article shows that some of the dominant construction types depict a picture of caricatured, stereotypical and stigmatised ...
Shehadeh, Nancy; McCoy, H Virginia
Migrant workers have been shown to be at a heightened level of risk for HIV, and ethnic identity has been posited to have an impact on engagement in risky sexual behaviors. Our longitudinal study examined associations between baseline and short-term changes in ethnic identity and high-risk sexual behaviors. Baseline (n = 431) and 6-month assessment (n = 270) data were obtained from a larger HIV prevention study conducted among African American and Hispanic migrant workers. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of covariance and multiple linear regressions were used. Ethnic identity explore, a subscale of ethnic identity, was a significant predictor of overall sexual risk [F(8, 422) = 6.953, p AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Débora B. Maehler
Full Text Available Abstract Background European countries, and especially Germany, are currently very much affected by human migration flows, with the result that the task of integration has become a challenge. Only very little empirical evidence on topics such as labor market participation and processes of social integration of migrant subpopulations is available to date from large-scale population surveys. The present paper provides an overview of the representation of the migrant population in the German Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC sample and evaluates reasons for the under-coverage of this population. Methods We examine outcome rates and reasons for nonresponse among the migrant population based on sampling frame data, and we also examine para data from the interviewers’ contact protocols to evaluate time patterns for the successful contacting of migrants. Results and Conclusions This is the first time that results of this kind have been presented for a large-scale assessment in educational research. These results are also discussed in the context of future PIAAC cycles. Overall, they confirm the expectations in the literature that factors such as language problems result in lower contact and response rates among migrants.
Johnston, Lisa; Oumzil, Hicham; El Rhilani, Houssine; Latifi, Amina; Bennani, Aziza; Alami, Kamal
Morocco has experienced a dramatic increase of migration from sub-Sahara Africa during the past decade. Recently included among the most vulnerable populations cited in the Morocco National Strategic Plans on HIV/TB for 2012-2016, sub-Saharan Africa migrants living in an irregular administrative situation participated in a survey to provide baseline data about their socio-demographic, sexual and HIV testing behaviors and HIV and syphilis prevalence. Two surveys using respondent driven sampling were conducted in 2013 among males and females, ≥18 years, originating from sub-Saharan African countries and living and/or working in an irregular administrative situation in Rabat and residing at least 3 months in Morocco. Analysis was conducted to evaluate differences between the two samples and between females and males within each sample using the successive sampling estimator in RDS Analyst. Roughly 3 % of francophone and anglophone migrants were infected with HIV, whereas a statistically significantly higher percentage of francophone (2.8 %), compared to anglophone (0.3 %), migrants were infected with syphilis. Females were found to have HIV infection rates three times higher and past year sexually transmitted infection signs and symptoms more than two times higher than their male counterparts. Female migrants also had statistically significantly higher percentages of ever testing for HIV and HIV testing and receiving results in the past year compared to males. We found distinct and important differences between migrants depending on whether they come from francophone versus anglophone countries and whether they were male or female. Future research should continue to explore these differences, while policies and programs should note these differences to best allocate resources in providing social and health services to these populations.
Full Text Available African Migrants in Buenos Aires: between Stigma and Exoticization Abstract Since the 1990s decade, but especially since 2000, immigrants coming mostly from West Africa, have gradually weaved the contours of a transatlantic south-south migration device between Africa and Latin America. In Buenos Aires they trade on the streets. This activity was initiated mainly by the Senegalese community.This article aims to expose the stereotypes and the relationships between the Argentine society and the African migrants in order to observe the reception of an unknown population in that part of the continent. To do this research, the ethnographic method and discourse analysis were used. The recent nature of the African migration to Argentina generates clichés and prejudices but the desire for exoticism also gives rise to fascination.
May 20, 2016 ... The findings have also built research and networking capacity, met the economic growth and poverty reduction goals of Southern African governments, and impacted ongoing policy implementation processes around migration, development, and urban management. Allowing migrant entrepreneurs to ...
Ukoli, Flora A. M
.... In 2002 the scope of the study was expanded to include African-Americans and African migrants in the United States so as to investigate the role of dietary nutrients associated with increased prostate cancer risk (fatty acids...
Halliday, Jennifer A; Green, Julie; Mellor, David
Obesity is an emerging problem for African migrants in Australia, but few prevention programs incorporate their cultural beliefs and values. This study reports on the application of community capacity-building and empowerment principles in 4 workshops with Sudanese families in Australia. Workshop...
Full Text Available Many “third country” migrants are recruited to the EU for unskilled labour, filling in positions that are unattractive to the “domestic” workforce. Current integration policies declare integration as a two-way process that should equalise migrants’ opportunities with those of the “nationals”. However, integration often appears blind to addressing specific migrant positions, in particular migrants as precarious and low-paid workers. This article discusses in a comparative perspective the precarious positions of migrants from “third countries” in six EU member states – Cyprus, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Italy and Slovenia. The article first addresses most recent data on migrant populations and discusses the sectors of migrant work. The assumption is that current migration and integration policies are to a large extent devoid of the migrants’ own perceptions and needs. It is therefore pivotal for the presented argument to provide visibility of migrants and discuss their own living and working experiences. Considering migrants as “partners in communication”, the article analyses interviews and focus groups engaging 150 migrants that were conducted in the six countries in 2009. Attention is devoted to discussing the themes that emerge in migrant narratives, analysing the cross-country similarities and differences in the economies that are largely sustained by a migrant workforce. By exploring the precarious labour market experiences of migrants, the article questions the validity of the concept of integration that remains an important objective of current EU migration regimes.
The world is regularly confronted in the media with dramatic images of African boat migrants. Seemingly desperate, these Africans, most of them males, are willing to risk a perilous journey at sea, hoping for a better life in Europe. And, even worse, hundreds more are believed to die each year,
Agnes Ebotabe Arrey
Full Text Available Spirituality/religion serves important roles in coping, survival and maintaining overall wellbeing within African cultures and communities, especially when diagnosed with a chronic disease like HIV/AIDS that can have a profound effect on physical and mental health. However, spirituality/religion can be problematic to some patients and cause caregiving difficulties. The objective of this paper was to examine the role of spirituality/religion as a source of strength, resilience and wellbeing among sub-Saharan African (SSA migrant women with HIV/AIDS. A qualitative study of SSA migrant women was conducted between April 2013 and December 2014. Participants were recruited through purposive sampling and snowball techniques from AIDS Reference Centres and AIDS workshops in Belgium, if they were 18 years and older, French or English speaking, and diagnosed HIV positive more than 3 months beforehand. We conducted semi-structured interviews with patients and did observations during consultations and support groups attendances. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. 44 women were interviewed, of whom 42 were Christians and 2 Muslims. None reported religious/spiritual alienation, though at some point in time many had felt the need to question their relationship with God by asking "why me?" A majority reported being more spiritual/religious since being diagnosed HIV positive. Participants believed that prayer, meditation, regular church services and religious activities were the main spiritual/religious resources for achieving connectedness with God. They strongly believed in the power of God in their HIV/AIDS treatment and wellbeing. Spiritual/religious resources including prayer, meditation, church services, religious activities and believing in the power of God helped them cope with HIV/AIDS. These findings highlight the importance of spirituality in physical and mental health and wellbeing among SSA women with HIV/AIDS that should be taken into
Chelpi-den Hamer, M.
This article explores the influence of support networks in the migration process of West African migrants to the Netherlands. Taking a case-oriented biographic approach, the article analyzes the migration stories of several West African migrants with a focus on the networks that facilitated their
Zhou, Min; Xu, Tao; Shenasi, Shabnam
Guangzhou is the most popular gateway city for African migration to China. Unlike stereotypical international migrants, Africans in Guangzhou are predominantly self-made entrepreneurs, doing business face-to-face with Chinese entrepreneurs who are predominantly internal migrants with truncated citizenship rights. African-Chinese encounters in local markets and residential neighborhoods offer a rare opportunity for studying interracial dynamics beyond the classic black-white dichotomy and trad...
Sangaramoorthy, Thurka; Kroeger, Karen
Recent studies have documented frequent use of female sex workers among Latino migrant men in the southeastern United States, yet little is known about the context in which sex work takes place, or the women who provide these services. As anthropologists working in applied public health, we use rapid ethnographic assessment as a technical assistance tool to document local understandings of the organization and typology of sex work and patterns of mobility among sex workers and their Latino migrant clients. By incorporating ethnographic methods in traditional public health needs assessments, we were able to highlight the diversity of migrant experiences and better understand the health needs of mobile populations more broadly. We discuss the findings in terms of their practical implications for HIV/STD prevention and call on public health to incorporate the concept of mobility as an organizing principle for the delivery of health care services.
Kietzmann, Diana; Knuth, Daniela; Schmidt, Silke
This study was designed to explore the utilization and non-utilization of pre-hospital emergency care by migrants and non-migrants, and the factors that influence this behaviour. A cross-sectional representative German survey was conducted in a sample of 2.175 people, 295 of whom had a migration background. An additional sample of 50 people with Turkish migration background was conducted, partially in the Turkish language. Apart from socio-demographics, the utilization of emergency services and the reasons for non-utilization were assessed. Migrants had a higher utilization rate of pre-hospital emergency care (RR = 1.492) than non-migrants. Furthermore, migrants who were not born in Germany had a lower utilization rate (RR = 0.793) than migrants who were born in Germany. Regarding non-utilization, the most frequently stated reasons belonged to the categories initial misjudgment of the emergency situation and acting on one's own behalf, with the latter stated more frequently by migrants than by non-migrants. To prevent over-, under-, and lack of supply, it is necessary to transfer knowledge about the functioning of the medical emergency services, including first aid knowledge.
Since South Africa's democratization in 1994, major spatial, social and economic changes have occurred in Sunnyside - a high-density inner city area of Pretoria. This period has also seen a dramatic increase in the flow of foreign, predominantly African migrants into the area. Sunnyside is becoming a vibrant, dynamic ...
Nijkamp, P.; Sahin, M.; Baycan, T.
Nowadays, migrants form a significant share of the urban population, and their business is critical for urban economic growth. This paper addresses the key factors determining the position of migrant entrepreneurs in the urban economy in the Netherlands. In order to develop a solid assessment of CSFs for migrant entrepreneurs, and to understand business performance in a competitive urban environment, this study will investigate the entrepreneurial behaviour of migrants in Dutch cities from a ...
Omoye Mary Akhagba
Full Text Available This article explores both the knowledge and perception of African women about the importance of screening as a recommended health action to counter the growing rate of cervical cancer in women. The theoretical framework is influenced by the postulations of behavioural theories, sociology of health and the health belief model (HBM on how people perceive health issues such as cervical cancer and its screening measures. In addition, this study tries to explore the acculturation challenges involved in migration, which adversely affects health knowledge and behaviour of African women. To achieve this, one focus group discussion was conducted with twelve women between the ages of 25 and 54 years old from Egypt, Eritrea, Kenya and Nigeria to share their knowledge of cervical cancer screening programmes in Poland. They constituted a mixture of women from different parts of Africa with cultural differences and different belief systems. Little or no in-depth understanding of Polish language, lack of information about the disease and its screening methods, lack of understanding of the Polish health care systems and social economic factors were issues discussed by these women as socio-cultural barriers to their non-participation in the organised cervical cancer screening programme in Poland. Based on this study, migrant women lack adequate information about cervical cancer, its causes, risk factors and its screening methods. Therefore, this study proposes that good understanding of health care systems, language translation support in the health care system, health awareness campaigns and social relationships are important motivating factors that could encourage migrant women to participate in the cancer screening programmes in Poland.
ns ɘ.001 Table 5: Pattern of consumption of ice cream, yogurt , salad dressing & mayonnaise in the past three months by ethnic subgroup...Food Item African- Americans African Migrants African Nigerians Total 947 p-value Ice Cream/ Yogurt Regular Low fat Fat...p-value Corn Flour 200 (80.6) 35 (60.3) 537 (83.8) 771 (81.4) ɘ.001 Corn Flour Form Corn Bread Corn Pudding * Fermented Pudding
Extracted from the April 3, 1980 Federal Register, revisions of the Migrant Education regulations are synthesized in this Spanish-English booklet. Revised regulations address program planning and evaluation; needs assessment; identification and recruitment of migrant children; and special discretionary projects for the coordination of migrant…
Gerbier-Aublanc, Marjorie; Gosselin, Anne
HIV in France particularly affects sub-Saharan migrants as they accounted for 31% of the new diagnoses in 2013. The objective of this study is to investigate the access to and the experience of employment among migrant women living with HIV in France. We use a mixed-method approach. The quantitative data come from the ANRS Parcours study, a life-event survey conducted in 2012-2013 in 70 health centres which collected year-by-year detailed information on living conditions about 755 sub-Saharan women migrants in the greater Paris region (470 with HIV and 285 without HIV). The qualitative data have been collected independently in the same region through socio-ethnographic observations and interviews conducted in 8 HIV-positive migrant organisations and among 35 women-members from 2011 to 2013. Two main results are noteworthy. First, being HIV-positive unexpectedly gives sub-Saharan migrant women a quicker access to employment thanks to the social support they find in migrant organisations: in the third year in France in median (versus 5th year among HIV-negative group). This effect of being HIV-positive on the access to employment remains all things being equal in a discrete-time logistic regression (aOR [95% CI] HIV+: 1.4[1.1;1.8]). Second, their employment situation remains strongly shaped by the racial division of work existing in France and they develop individual strategies to negotiate this constraint: for example, temporary jobs and working as health mediators. The type of jobs they find, mainly in the care sector, force them to carefully hide their HIV status because they fear discrimination at work. Not only migrant women endure structural discrimination in a segmented labour market, but they also anticipate HIV-related discrimination related to caring activities. Thus, the design and implementation of programmes that address stigma should consider structural discrimination to improve PLWHA's working experiences.
Georgina Mayela Núñez-Rocha
Full Text Available Objetivo. Comparar la prevalencia de desnutrición entre prescolares migrantes y no migrantes. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron al azar 160 infantes de 1-6 años de edad, de parvularios de muy alta marginación. Se excluyeron aquellos con malformaciones congénitas o bajo alguna intervención nutricional. La migración se definió como el desplazamiento geográfico Objective. To compare malnutrition rates between migrant and non-migrant children. Material and methods. One-hundred and sixty children 1-6 years old were selected at random from schools located in highly marginated areas. Excluded were infants with congenital malformations or under nutritional intervention. Migration was defined as any geographical movement during the last 6 years. Malnutrition was assessed through the weight/height and height/age indicators, as recommended by the World Health Organization. Results. Fifty-nine percent of the infants belonged to families whose father had a non-qualified occupation, 27.5% of them did not finish elementary school. Fifty-three referred migration; malnutrition rate was 51.3% among migrant infants and 28.8%, among non-migrant infants (OR= 2.6, CI95%= 1.2, 5.2, p= 0.006. Migrant children registered a mean Z score of -2.4±.40 and non-migrant children, -2.3±.33, based on the indicator height for age. Conclusions. Chronic malnutrition among migrant infants justifies a nutritional intervention, they constitute a specific group at risk. Migration should be considered for health planning.
Rubens, Muni; McCoy, H. Virginia; Shehadeh, Nancy
Consistent and correct use of condoms is important to prevent the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. We evaluated condom use skills on an 11-point scale in which participants were observed placing a condom on a penile model. Participants were 375 sexually active African American and Hispanic migrant workers. For analysis, subjects were divided into skilled and unskilled groups by a median split of the condom use skills score. Sexual risk behaviors were analyzed betwe...
Full Text Available This article investigates the prevalence of and responses to the rape of migrant women in South Africa through the analysis of legislation, secondary sources and interviews conducted by the author with migrant women raped in South Africa. The article considers the legal protections afforded to migrant women in South Africa and the extent to which these safeguard migrant women from rape. The article also assesses whether these legal protections are implemented in practise. It additionally suggests how migrant women could be better protected from rape in South Africa.
Nicolaou, Mary; Kunst, Anton E.; Busschers, Wim B.; van Valkengoed, Irene G.; Dijkshoorn, Henriette; Boateng, Linda; Brewster, Lizzy M.; Snijder, Marieke B.; Stronks, Karien; Agyemang, Charles
Background: Despite higher levels of obesity, West African migrant women appear to have lower rates of type 2 diabetes than their male counterparts. We investigated the role of body fat distribution in these differences. Methods: Cross-sectional study of Ghanaian migrants (97 men, 115 women) aged
Rubens, Muni; McCoy, H Virginia; Shehadeh, Nancy
Consistent and correct use of condoms is important to prevent the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. We evaluated condom use skills on an 11-point scale in which participants were observed placing a condom on a penile model. Participants were 375 sexually active African American and Hispanic migrant workers. For analysis, subjects were divided into skilled and unskilled groups by a median split of the condom use skills score. Sexual risk behaviors were analyzed between condom use skilled and unskilled groups and level of condom use skills between African Americans and Hispanics. African Americans showed better skills in using condoms, and participants in the condom-use skilled group used condoms more frequently. Finally, a logistic regression was conducted to find predictors of condom use skills. Significant predictors were ethnicity, language, and assistance-related social support (obtaining advice from people who could provide tangible assistance). Copyright © 2014 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pearce-Higgins, J W; Yalden, D W; Dougall, T W; Beale, C M
There is an urgent need to understand how climate change will impact on demographic parameters of vulnerable species. Migrants are regarded as particularly vulnerable to climate change; phenological mismatch has resulted in the local decline of one passerine, whilst variations in the survival of others have been related to African weather conditions. However, there have been few demographic studies on trans-Saharan non-passerine migrants, despite these showing stronger declines across Europe than passerines. We therefore analyse the effects of climate on the survival and productivity of common sandpipers Actitis hypoleucos, a declining non-passerine long-distant migrant using 28 years' data from the Peak District, England. Adult survival rates were significantly negatively correlated with winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), being lower when winters were warm and wet in western Europe and cool and dry in northwest Africa. Annual variation in the productivity of the population was positively correlated with June temperature, but not with an index of phenological mismatch. The 59% population decline appears largely to have been driven by reductions in adult survival, with local productivity poorly correlated with subsequent population change, suggesting a low degree of natal philopatry. Winter NAO was not significantly correlated with adult survival rates in a second, Scottish Borders population, studied for 12 years. Variation in climatic conditions alone does not therefore appear to be responsible for common sandpiper declines. Unlike some passerine migrants, there was no evidence for climate-driven reductions in productivity, although the apparent importance of immigration in determining local recruitment complicates the assessment of productivity effects. We suggest that further studies to diagnose common sandpiper declines should focus on changes in the condition of migratory stop-over or wintering locations. Where possible, these analyses should be repeated
Gonzalez, Ramon; Garcia, Jose D.
Written in Spanish and English for project personnel, parents, and others interested in migrant education, the booklet summarizes general concepts and requirements behind Title I-Migrant activities in Oregon, which has been allocated $4,439,341 in Title I-Migrant funds for fiscal year 1980. Following brief definitions of important terms,…
Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.
Because ill-clothed, sick, or hungry migrant children learn poorly, the Task Force has emphasized the migrant health situation in 1979. Migrant workers have a 33% shorter life expectancy, a 25% higher infant mortality rate, and a 25% higher death rate from tuberculosis and other communicable diseases than the national average. Common among…
Christiansen, Connie Carøe
migrants and non-migrants are not least in existence when it comes to the cultural style of consumption practices, behaviour and manners. The mutual stereotyping of migrants and non-migrants seems to confirm that at least one version of the meaning made locally of migration is that it has deepened...
Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Deboosere, Patrick; Stirbu, Irina
) is more affluent than the country of birth (COB). We obtained mortality data from 7 European countries. To assess migrant diabetes mortality, we used direct standardization and Poisson regression. First, migrant mortality was estimated for each country separately. Then, we merged the data from all......The first objective of this study was to determine and quantify variations in diabetes mortality by migrant status in different European countries. The second objective was to investigate the hypothesis that diabetes mortality is higher in migrant groups for whom the country of residence (COR...... mortality registers. Subsequently, to examine the second hypothesis, we introduced gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of COB in the models, as an indicator of socio-economic circumstances. The overall pattern shows higher diabetes mortality in migrant populations compared to local-born populations...
Agyemang, Charles; Meeks, Karlijn; Beune, Erik; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Addo, Juliet; de Graft Aikins, Ama; Bahendeka, Silver; Danquah, Ina; Schulze, Matthias B; Spranger, Joachim; Burr, Tom; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Amoah, Stephen K; Galbete, Cecilia; Henneman, Peter; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Nicolaou, Mary; Adeyemo, Adebowale; van Straalen, Jan; Smeeth, Liam; Stronks, Karien
Rising rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are impending major threats to the health of African populations, but the extent to which they differ between rural and urban settings in Africa and upon migration to Europe is unknown. We assessed the burden of obesity and T2D among Ghanaians living in rural and urban Ghana and Ghanaian migrants living in different European countries. A multi-centre cross-sectional study was conducted among Ghanaian adults (n = 5659) aged 25-70 years residing in rural and urban Ghana and three European cities (Amsterdam, London and Berlin). Comparisons between groups were made using prevalence ratios (PRs) with adjustments for age and education. In rural Ghana, the prevalence of obesity was 1.3 % in men and 8.3 % in women. The prevalence was considerably higher in urban Ghana (men, 6.9 %; PR: 5.26, 95 % CI, 2.04-13.57; women, 33.9 %; PR: 4.11, 3.13-5.40) and even more so in Europe, especially in London (men, 21.4 %; PR: 15.04, 5.98-37.84; women, 54.2 %; PR: 6.63, 5.04-8.72). The prevalence of T2D was low at 3.6 % and 5.5 % in rural Ghanaian men and women, and increased in urban Ghanaians (men, 10.3 %; PR: 3.06; 1.73-5.40; women, 9.2 %; PR: 1.81, 1.25-2.64) and highest in Berlin (men, 15.3 %; PR: 4.47; 2.50-7.98; women, 10.2 %; PR: 2.21, 1.30-3.75). Impaired fasting glycaemia prevalence was comparatively higher only in Amsterdam, and in London, men compared with rural Ghana. Our study shows high risks of obesity and T2D among sub-Saharan African populations living in Europe. In Ghana, similarly high prevalence rates were seen in an urban environment, whereas in rural areas, the prevalence of obesity among women is already remarkable. Similar processes underlying the high burden of obesity and T2D following migration may also be at play in sub-Saharan Africa as a consequence of urbanisation.
Agnes Ebotabe Arrey
Full Text Available Patients with HIV not only have to deal with the challenges of living with an incurable disease but also with the dilemma of whether or not to disclose their status to their partners, families and friends. This study explores the extent to which sub-Saharan African (SSA migrant women in Belgium disclose their HIV positive status, reasons for disclosure/non-disclosure and how they deal with HIV disclosure. A qualitative study consisting of interviews with twenty-eight SSA women with HIV/AIDS was conducted. Thematic content analysis was employed to identify themes as they emerged. Our study reveals that these women usually only disclose their status to healthcare professionals because of the treatment and care they need. This selective disclosure is mainly due to the taboo of HIV disease in SSA culture. Stigma, notably self-stigma, greatly impedes HIV disclosure. Techniques to systematically incorporate HIV disclosure into post-test counseling and primary care services are highly recommended.
Heeren, Martina; Wittmann, Lutz; Ehlert, Ulrike; Schnyder, Ulrich; Maier, Thomas; Müller, Julia
This study aimed to describe, compare, and predict mental health outcomes of different migrant groups and native residents in Switzerland. Asylum seekers (n=65); refugees holding permanent protection visas (n=34); illegal migrants (n=21); labor migrants (n=26); and residents (n=56) completed an assessment by questionnaire. Main outcome variables were symptoms of posttraumatic stress, anxiety and depression. It was tested whether resident status predicted psychopathology over and above the influence of control variables including social desirability, traumatic event types and post-migration resources. Asylum seekers (54.0%) and refugees (41.4%) fulfilled criteria of PTSD most frequently. Clinically relevant symptoms of anxiety and depression were most frequently reported by asylum seekers (84.6% and 63.1%, resp.) and illegal migrants (both 47.6%). Resident status contributed to psychopathology over and above the influence of control variables. Overall, asylum seekers, refugees, and illegal migrants showed high psychiatric morbidity. Differences in resident status appear to be specifically associated with mental health outcomes. This association persists even when controlling for social desirability, post-migration resources and traumatic events. This emphasizes the importance of current socio-political living conditions for mental health, even with respect to the psychopathological sequelae of past traumatic experiences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hiruy, Kiros; Mwanri, Lillian
The ageing and frail migrants who are at the end of life are an increasing share of migrants living in Australia. However, within such populations, information about end-of-life experiences is limited, particularly among Africans. This article provides some insights into the sociocultural end-of-life experiences of Africans in Australia and their interaction with the health services in general and end-of-life care in particular. It provides points for discussion to consider an ethical framework that include Afro-communitarian ethical principles to enhance the capacity of current health services to provide culturally appropriate and ethical care. This article contributes to our knowledge regarding the provision of culturally appropriate and ethical care to African patients and their families by enabling the learning of health service providers to improve the competence of palliative care systems and professionals in Australia. Additionally, it initiates the discussion to highlight the importance of paying sufficient attention to a diverse range of factors including the migration history when providing palliative and hospice care for patients from African migrant populations.
Gagnon, Anita J; DeBruyn, Rebecca; Essén, Birgitta
was undertaken to identify priority themes and questions as well as to clarify wording and format. Third, the draft questionnaire was translated from English to French and Spanish and back-translated and subsequently culturally validated (assessed for cultural appropriateness) by migrant women. Fourth...... Initiative; adaptations of these recommendations specific to maternity care have yet to be elucidated and validated. We aimed to develop a questionnaire measuring migrant-friendly maternity care (MFMC) which could be used in a range of maternity care settings and countries. METHODS: This study was conducted......, and perceptions of care, has been created--the Migrant Friendly Maternity Care Questionnaire (MFMCQ)--in three languages (English, French and Spanish). It is completed in 45 minutes via interview administration several months post-birth. CONCLUSIONS: A 4-stage process of questionnaire development...
van Faassen, M.
The whereabouts of migrants: a comparison of Dutch migrant registration systems. Today, one way of visualising the current refugee and migrant crisis on the outer borders of Europe is by showing a bottleneck in the processing of migrant flows: large groups of people waiting endlessly for their
Gagnon, Anita J; DeBruyn, Rebecca; Essén, Birgitta; Gissler, Mika; Heaman, Maureen; Jeambey, Zeinab; Korfker, Dineke; McCourt, Christine; Roth, Carolyn; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Small, Rhonda
Through the World Health Assembly Resolution, 'Health of Migrants', the international community has identified migrant health as a priority. Recommendations for general hospital care for international migrants in receiving-countries have been put forward by the Migrant Friendly Hospital Initiative; adaptations of these recommendations specific to maternity care have yet to be elucidated and validated. We aimed to develop a questionnaire measuring migrant-friendly maternity care (MFMC) which could be used in a range of maternity care settings and countries. This study was conducted in four stages. First, questions related to migrant friendly maternity care were identified from existing questionnaires including the Migrant Friendliness Quality Questionnaire, developed in Europe to capture recommended general hospital care for migrants, and the Mothers In a New Country (MINC) Questionnaire, developed in Australia and revised for use in Canada to capture the maternity care experiences of migrant women, and combined to create an initial MFMC questionnaire. Second, a Delphi consensus process in three rounds with a panel of 89 experts in perinatal health and migration from 17 countries was undertaken to identify priority themes and questions as well as to clarify wording and format. Third, the draft questionnaire was translated from English to French and Spanish and back-translated and subsequently culturally validated (assessed for cultural appropriateness) by migrant women. Fourth, the questionnaire was piloted with migrant women who had recently given birth in Montreal, Canada. A 112-item questionnaire on maternity care from pregnancy, through labour and birth, to postpartum care, and including items on maternal socio-demographic, migration and obstetrical characteristics, and perceptions of care, has been created--the Migrant Friendly Maternity Care Questionnaire (MFMCQ)--in three languages (English, French and Spanish). It is completed in 45 minutes via interview
Giannoni, Margherita; Franzini, Luisa; Masiero, Giuliano
Research on socio-economic determinants of migrant health inequalities has produced a large body of evidence. There is lack of evidence on the influence of structural factors on lives of fragile groups, frequently exposed to health inequalities. The role of poor socio-economic status and country level structural factors, such as migrant integration policies, in explaining migrant health inequalities is unclear. The objective of this paper is to examine the role of migrant socio-economic status and the impact of migrant integration policies on health inequalities during the recent economic crisis in Europe. Using the 2012 wave of Eurostat EU-SILC data for a set of 23 European countries, we estimate multilevel mixed-effects ordered logit models for self-assessed poor health (SAH) and self-reported limiting long-standing illnesses (LLS), and multilevel mixed-effects logit models for self-reported chronic illness (SC). We estimate two-level models with individuals nested within countries, allowing for both individual socio-economic determinants of health and country-level characteristics (healthy life years expectancy, proportion of health care expenditure over the GDP, and problems in migrant integration policies, derived from the Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX). Being a non-European citizen or born outside Europe does not increase the odds of reporting poor health conditions, in accordance with the "healthy migrant effect". However, the country context in terms of problems in migrant integration policies influences negatively all of the three measures of health (self-reported health status, limiting long-standing illnesses, and self-reported chronic illness) in foreign people living in European countries, and partially offsets the "healthy migrant effect". Policies for migrant integration can reduce migrant health disparities.
Keygnaert, Ines; Dialmy, Abdessamad; Manço, Altay; Keygnaert, Jeroen; Vettenburg, Nicole; Roelens, Kristien; Temmerman, Marleen
The European Union contracted Morocco to regulate migration from so-called “transit migrants” from Morocco to Europe via the European Neighbourhood Policy. Yet, international organisations signal that human, asylum and refugee rights are not upheld in Morocco and that many sub-Saharan migrants suffer from ill-health and violence. Hence, our study aimed at 1) investigating the nature of violence that sub-Saharan migrants experience around and in Morocco, 2) assessing which determinants they perceive as decisive and 3) formulating prevention recommendations. Applying Community-Based Participatory Research, we trained twelve sub-Saharan migrants as Community Researchers to conduct in-depth interviews with peers, using Respondent Driven Sampling. We used Nvivo 8 to analyse the data. We interpreted results with Community Researchers and the Community Advisory Board and commonly formulated prevention recommendations. Among the 154 (60 F-94 M) sub-Saharan migrants interviewed, 90% reported cases of multiple victimizations, 45% of which was sexual, predominantly gang rape. Seventy-nine respondents were personally victimized, 41 were forced to witness how relatives or co-migrants were victimized and 18 others knew of peer victimisation. Severe long lasting ill-health consequences were reported while sub-Saharan victims are not granted access to the official health care system. Perpetrators were mostly Moroccan or Algerian officials and sub-Saharan gang leaders who function as unofficial yet rigorous migration professionals at migration ‘hubs’. They seem to proceed in impunity. Respondents link risk factors mainly to their undocumented and unprotected status and suggest that migrant communities set-up awareness raising campaigns on risks while legal and policy changes enforcing human rights, legal protection and human treatment of migrants along with severe punishment of perpetrators are politically lobbied for. Sub-Saharan migrants are at high risk of sexual
Background Through the World Health Assembly Resolution, ‘Health of Migrants’, the international community has identified migrant health as a priority. Recommendations for general hospital care for international migrants in receiving-countries have been put forward by the Migrant Friendly Hospital Initiative; adaptations of these recommendations specific to maternity care have yet to be elucidated and validated. We aimed to develop a questionnaire measuring migrant-friendly maternity care (MFMC) which could be used in a range of maternity care settings and countries. Methods This study was conducted in four stages. First, questions related to migrant friendly maternity care were identified from existing questionnaires including the Migrant Friendliness Quality Questionnaire, developed in Europe to capture recommended general hospital care for migrants, and the Mothers In a New Country (MINC) Questionnaire, developed in Australia and revised for use in Canada to capture the maternity care experiences of migrant women, and combined to create an initial MFMC questionnaire. Second, a Delphi consensus process in three rounds with a panel of 89 experts in perinatal health and migration from 17 countries was undertaken to identify priority themes and questions as well as to clarify wording and format. Third, the draft questionnaire was translated from English to French and Spanish and back-translated and subsequently culturally validated (assessed for cultural appropriateness) by migrant women. Fourth, the questionnaire was piloted with migrant women who had recently given birth in Montreal, Canada. Results A 112-item questionnaire on maternity care from pregnancy, through labour and birth, to postpartum care, and including items on maternal socio-demographic, migration and obstetrical characteristics, and perceptions of care, has been created - the Migrant Friendly Maternity Care Questionnaire (MFMCQ) – in three languages (English, French and Spanish). It is
Full Text Available During the last decade African immigrants have been met with and exposed to severe forms of hostility towards their presence in this country. A significant number of these migrants have successfully applied their entrepreneurial flair in establishing small enterprises and employing workers, often to the envy of their local counterparts. This paper presents the findings of an empirical study conducted in 2007 on job creation by African immigrant entrepreneurs for South Africans with face-to-face interviews with 120 African immigrant entrepreneurs. These findings were triangulated 7 non-governmental organisations that interact with immigrants in Cape Town. A review of the literature on migration, entrepreneurship and immigrant entrepreneurs formed the basis for the study The findings indicate that more than 80% of African immigrant entrepreneurs interviewed employ South Africans in their businesses. Despite a generally negative national perception towards immigrants, this study has also revealed that entrepreneurial skills are transferred from immigrant entrepreneurs to their South African employees. Whilst the study was only conducted in the suburban areas of Cape Town, the researcher believes that the results represent the general trend for South Africa. Furthermore, the study only involved those migrants who come from African continent. The overall result is the acknowledgement of the contribution that non-citizens are making to the country’s growth and development. The findings suggest recommendations geared towards policy changes regarding South African immigration law, an inclusive research about the role of immigrants on job creation in South Africa, as well as the consideration of immigrant entrepreneurs when allocating financial support.
Relationship between body mass index and family functioning, family communication, family type and parenting style among African migrant parents and children in Victoria, Australia: a parent-child dyad study.
Cyril, S; Halliday, J; Green, J; Renzaho, A M N
Although childhood obesity prevalence is stabilised in developed countries including Australia, it is continuing to rise among migrants and socially disadvantaged groups in these countries. African migrants and refugees in particular, are at high risk of obesity due to changes in their family dynamics. The aim of this study was to examine the difference between children and parental perception of family functioning, family communication, family type and parenting styles and their relationship with body mass index. A cross-sectional parent-child dyad study was conducted among 284 African families from migrant and refugee backgrounds living in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Bilingual workers were trained to collect demographic, anthropometric and questionnaire data on family functioning, parenting, family type and family communication. Parents and children reported different levels of family dynamics. Children reported a higher prevalence of poor family functioning (61.5 %, 95 % CI: 55.6, 67.2 versus 56.8 %, 95 % CI: 49.7, 61.6) and protective family type (29 %, 95 % CI: 23.9, 34.5 vs. 13.4 %, 95 % CI: 9.9, 17.9), but a lower prevalence of authoritative parenting style (51.6 %, 95 % CI: 45.7, 57.5 vs. 63 %, 95 % CI: 57.5, 68.8) than parents. There was a positive relationship between poor family functioning and child BMI both before (β = 1.28; 95 % CI: 0.14, 2.41; p parental BMI and family functioning, communication, family type or parenting style. Children's perception of poor family functioning was associated with childhood obesity. Family interventions to reduce childhood obesity need to adopt an intergenerational approach to promote a clear understanding of family dynamics between children and parents. Unless these intergenerational challenges associated with family dynamics are clearly addressed in obesity interventions, current obesity prevention initiatives will continue to widen the childhood obesity gap in Australia.
There are strong pragmatic and moral reasons for receiving societies to address access to healthcare for migrants. Receiving societies have a pragmatic interest in sustaining migrants' health to facilitate integration; they also have a moral obligation to ensure migrants' access to healthcare...... according to international human rights principles. The intention of this thesis is to increase the understanding of migrants' access to healthcare by exploring two study aims: 1) Are there differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy I and II); and 2) Why...... are there possible differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy III and IV). The thesis builds on different methodological approaches using both register-based retrospective cohort design, cross-sectional design and survey methods. Two different measures of access were...
This dissertation presents the transit experiences of migrants from Sub-Saharan African countries in the Turkish metropolis of Istanbul. Although the narratives of the individuals met in the course of fieldwork in Istanbul are the primary focus, the thesis also outlines the larger macro-structural conditions faced. The overarching goal of this thesis is thus, through the experiences of the migrants themselves, to critically approach and discuss the concept of transit with the aid of the theor...
Julius Beneoluchi Odili
Full Text Available This is an introductory paper to the newly-designed African Buffalo Optimization (ABO algorithm for solving combinatorial and other optimization problems. The algorithm is inspired by the behavior of African buffalos, a species of wild cows known for their extensive migrant lifestyle. This paper presents an overview of major metaheuristic algorithms with the aim of providing a basis for the development of the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm which is a nature-inspired, population-based metaheuristic algorithm. Experimental results obtained from applying the novel ABO to solve a number of benchmark global optimization test functions as well as some symmetric and asymmetric Traveling Salesman’s Problems when compared to the results obtained from using other popular optimization methods show that the African Buffalo Optimization is a worthy addition to the growing number of swarm intelligence optimization techniques.
Sulaiman, Nabil; Albadawi, Salah; Abusnana, Salah; Mairghani, Maisoon; Hussein, Amal; Al Awadi, Fatheya; Madani, Abdulrazak; Zimmet, Paul; Shaw, Jonathan
In 2011, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) had the 10th highest diabetes prevalence globally, but this was based on data that excluded migrants who comprise 80% of the population. This study assessed diabetes prevalence across the UAE population. A random sample of migrants was recruited from the visa renewal centers. Data were collected using interviews, anthropometric measurements and fasting blood for glucose, lipids and genetic analyses. 2724 adults completed the questionnaires and blood tests. Of these, 81% were males, 65% were ≤40 years old and 3% were above 60 years. Diabetes, based on self-report or fasting plasma glucose ≥7.0 mmol/l, showed a crude prevalence of 15.5%, of whom 64.2% were newly diagnosed. Overall age- and sex-adjusted diabetes prevalence, according to the world mid-year population of 2013, was 19.1%. The highest prevalence was in Asians (16.4%) and non-Emirati Arabs (15.2%) and lowest in Africans and Europeans (11.9%). It increased with age: 6.3% in 18-30 years and 39.7% in 51 to 60 years. Lower education, obesity, positive family history, hypertension, dyslipidemia, snoring, and low HDL levels, all showed significant associations with diabetes. The high diabetes prevalence among migrants in the UAE, 64% of which was undiagnosed, necessitates urgent diabetes prevention and control programs for the entire UAE population.
Gerritsen, Debby; Maier, Robert
This article compares the perspectives of young migrants in the Netherlands with the dominant discourse on "migrants" at present. The integration of young "migrants" have been studied in the European research projects TRESEGY and PROFACITY with the help of a number of ethnographic studies and a questionnaire in the Netherlands.…
Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Brouillard, Pamela; Nikolić, Nebojga; Greiner, Nina
Due to their geographical mobility and long periods of separation from intimate partners, migrant workers are at increased risk for a variety of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS. This study sought to investigate patterns in HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitudes and sexual behaviour in migrant workers in Croatia. In 2003, 566 male migrant workers were recruited during regular required medical examinations and surveyed at seven locations throughout the country. Each participant was asked to complete a self-administered KABP (sexual knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices) questionnaire. The average age of respondents was 38.2 years and the majority worked as seafarers (77.3%) and construction workers (20.5%). Only 18.5% of respondents were able to correctly answer all 13 questions assessing knowledge of HIV/AIDS. Seafarers reported higher levels of knowledge than did construction workers. The average respondent reported having had two sexual partners in the last 12 months, with slightly over half of the respondents (55.3%) reporting condom use at their last intercourse with a casual partner. One fifth of the respondents (20.3%) who reported having had intercourse with a sex worker during the last year reported not using condoms at last intercourse. The number of sexual partners was correlated with age, marital status, faith in God, and personal HIV risk assessment. Attitudes toward condom use, co-workers' HIV/AIDS concerns and the duration of migrant status (within the last two years) were shown to be significant correlates of condom use at last intercourse with a casual partner. The effect of HIV/AIDS related knowledge on analyzed behaviors did not reach statistical significance. Inadequate patterns of migrant workers' condom use, gaps in knowledge about HIV transmission and modes of protection, as well as widespread ignorance regarding available anonymous HIV testing found by this study suggest a critical need for expert intervention to
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Although natural resources play a central role in rural livelihoods across the globe, little research has explored the relationship between migration and natural capital use, particularly in combination with other livelihood capitals (i.e., human, social, financial and physical. OBJECTIVE Grounded in the rural livelihood framework, this paper explores the association between the livelihood capital availability, especially natural capital, for migrants and non-migrants in rural Madagascar. METHODS Data from the 2008/2009 Demographic and Health Survey are used in combination with satellite imagery of vegetation coverage (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI to proxy natural resources. Hierarchical multilevel models allow for inclusion of cross-level interactions between migrant status and proximate natural resources as determinants of the status of livelihood assets. RESULTS Three key findings emerge. First, higher levels of proximate natural resources are associated with greater financial, human, and social capital for both migrants and non-migrants. Second, migrants have, on average, greater financial, physical, human, and social capital than non-migrants, and urban-to-rural migrants do exceptionally well on all capital asset categories. Third, migrants residing in areas with higher levels of natural capital tend to have significantly higher levels of human capital (education. CONCLUSIONS Although we cannot examine livelihood strategies per se, the results suggest variation in livelihood potential among migrants and non-migrants in rural Madagascar, with migrants tending to have greater capital assets. In addition, access to natural resources is a central livelihood strategy.
Tavassolie, Tanya; López, Claudia; De Feyter, Jessica; Hartman, Suzanne C.; Winsler, Adam
Little is known about the early educational performance of children in migrant farmworker families. The authors examined the school readiness and early school success of 289 four-year-old preschool children of migrant families attending Redlands Christian Migrant Association centers. Children's school readiness was assessed and public school…
Full Text Available This study documented the experiences of Chinese rural-urban migrant children and their parents living in the host city of Chengdu, China. It was informed by previous studies but applied a theoretical lens cultural reproduction theory—to reveal deeper understanding of rural-urban migrant families’ lives in the city of Chengdu. Participants in this study were 10 families—10 migrant parents, 10 local Chengdu resident parents, 5 local Chengdu children, and 5 migrant children. Through qualitative interviews and observations the researchers created 5 family case studies, documenting differences and similarities in the lives of migrant and local resident families in Chengdu. Results indicated that children in the two groups experienced unequal childhoods. Although the Chinese central government has issued a number of proactive policies to allow migrant children to attend local urban public schools since 2003, the negative effect of the longstanding Hukou residency policy still impacts migrant families’ lives in Chengdu. In this article we discuss an entrenched urban-rural divide between urban residents and rural-urban migrant families, in work, community, and schooling.
Hu, Jie; Wong, Kam Cheong; Wang, Zhiqiang
Traditionally, postal surveys or face to face interviews are the main approaches for health researchers to obtain essential research data. However, with the prevalence of information technology and Internet, Web-based surveys are gaining popularity in health research. This study aims to report the process and outcomes of recruiting Chinese migrants through social network sites in Australia and to examine the sample characteristics of online recruitment by comparing the sample which was recruited by an online survey to a sample of Australian Chinese migrants collected by a postal survey. Descriptive analyses were performed to describe and compare the process and outcomes of online recruitment with postal survey questionnaires. Chi square tests and t tests were performed to assess the differences between the two samples for categorical and continuous variables respectively. In total, 473 Chinese migrants completed the online health survey from July to October 2013. Out of 426 participants recruited through the three Chinese social network sites in Australia, over 86.6% (369/426) were recruited within six weeks. Participants of the Web-based survey were younger, with a higher education level or had resided in Australia for less time compared to those recruited via a postal survey. However, there was no significant difference in gender, marital status, and professional occupation. The recruitment of Chinese migrants through social network sites in our online survey was feasible. Compared to a postal survey of Chinese migrants, the online survey attracted different group of Chinese migrants who may have diverse health needs and concerns. Our findings provided insightful information for researchers who are considering employing a Web-based approach to recruit migrants and ethnic minority participants.
Spradley, Katherine; Stull, Kyra E; Hefner, Joseph T
Research by economists suggests that recent Mexican migrants are better educated and have higher socioeconomic status (SES) than previous migrants. Because factors associated with higher SES and improved education can lead to positive secular changes in overall body form, secular changes in the craniofacial complex were analyzed within a recent migrant group from Mexico. The Mexican group represents individuals in the act of migration, not yet influenced by the American environment, and thus can serve as a starting point for future studies of secular change in this population group. The excavation of a historic Hispanic cemetery in Tucson, Arizona, also allows for a comparison between historic Hispanics and recent migrants to explore craniofacial trends over a broad time period, as both groups originate from Mexico. The present research addresses two main questions: (1) Are cranial secular changes evident in recent Mexican migrants? (2) Are historic Hispanics and recent Mexican migrants similar? By studying secular changes within a migrant population group, secular trends may be detected, which will be important for understanding the biological variation of the migrants themselves and will serve as a preliminary investigation of secular change within Mexican migrants. The comparison of a sample of recent Mexican migrants with a historic Hispanic sample, predominantly of Mexican origin, allows us to explore morphological similarities and differences between early and recent Mexicans within the United States. Vault and face size and a total of 82 craniofacial interlandmark distances were used to explore secular changes within the recent Mexican migrants (females, n = 38; males, n = 178) and to explore the morphological similarities between historic Hispanics (females, n = 54; males, n = 58) and recent migrants. Sexes were separated, and multivariate adaptive regression splines and basis splines (quadratic with one knot) were used to assess the direction and magnitude
Purushottam A. Giri; Santosh B. Shirol; Abhiram M. Kasbe
Background: Population movements of the scale currently experienced by developing countries have significant implications on the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV/AIDS. Mumbai is a large industrial city and has experienced large influx of migrants in the past two decades. The prevalence of multiple risk-traits among the migrants differs significantly by age, marital status, educational level, and living arrangements. Addressing sexual health also requires understanding an...
Livia Elisa Ortensi
Full Text Available Background: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C is an emerging topic in immigrant countries as a consequence of the increasing proportion of African women in overseas communities. Objective: While the prevalence of FGM/C is routinely measured in practicing countries, the prevalence of the phenomenon in western countries is substantially unknown, as no standardized methods exist yet for immigrant countries. The aim of this paper is to present an improved method of indirect estimation of the prevalence of FGM/C among first generation migrants based on a migrant selection hypothesis. A criterion to assess reliability of indirect estimates is also provided. Methods: The method is based on data from Demographic Health Surveys (DHS and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS. Migrants' Selection Hypothesis is used to correct national prevalence estimates and obtain an improved estimation of prevalence among overseas communities. Results: The application of the selection hypothesis modifies national estimates, usually predicting a lower occurrence of FGM/C among immigrants than in their respective practicing countries. A comparison of direct and indirect estimations confirms that the method correctly predicts the direction of the variation in the expected prevalence and satisfactorily approximates direct estimates. Conclusions: Given its wide applicability, this method would be a useful instrument to estimate FGM/C occurrence among first generation immigrants and provide corresponding support for policies in countries where information from ad hoc surveys is unavailable.
This article is based on empirical research with West African migrant women working in prostitution in Paris. Given current migration regulations in Western Europe, as well as state policies on prostitution, the traffickers and people considered to be trafficking victims de facto form part of the
Reus-Pons, Matias; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Janssen, Fanny; Kibele, Eva U B
European societies are rapidly ageing and becoming multicultural. We studied differences in overall and cause-specific mortality between migrants and non-migrants in Belgium specifically focusing on the older population. We performed a mortality follow-up until 2009 of the population aged 50 and over living in Flanders and the Brussels-Capital Region by linking the 2001 census data with the population and mortality registers. Overall mortality differences were analysed via directly age-standardized mortality rates. Cause-specific mortality differences between non-migrants and various western and non-western migrant groups were analysed using Poisson regression models, controlling for age (model 1) and additionally controlling for socio-economic status and urban typology (model 2). At older ages, most migrants had an overall mortality advantage relative to non-migrants, regardless of a lower socio-economic status. Specific migrant groups (e.g. Turkish migrants, French and eastern European male migrants and German female migrants) had an overall mortality disadvantage, which was, at least partially, attributable to a lower socio-economic status. Despite the general overall mortality advantage, migrants experienced higher mortality from infectious diseases, diabetes-related causes, respiratory diseases (western migrants), cardiovascular diseases (non-western female migrants) and lung cancer (western female migrants). Mortality differences between older migrants and non-migrants depend on cause of death, age, sex, migrant origin and socio-economic status. These differences can be related to lifestyle, social networks and health care use. Policies aimed at reducing mortality inequalities between older migrants and non-migrants should address the specific health needs of the various migrant groups, as well as socio-economic disparities. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
This paper reviews: (i) trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) assessment instruments currently in use and (ii) trauma and PTSD studies in South African children and adolescents. Rates of trauma exposure in South African children and adolescents range from 40% to 100% and rates of PTSD range from 6% to ...
Southern Rhodesia were dominated by African men from neighbouring territories such as Nyasaland, Northern Rhodesia and Portuguese East Africa who had entered the regional migrant labour system. This included many with previous military experience. As the British South Africa Police (BSAP) evolved from a ...
Nwauche, C A; Akani, C I
A cross--sectional behavioural survey undertaken amongst migrant oil-workers of an oil exploration outfit operating in the Niger-Delta of Nigeria with the aim of assessing the interplay of migrancy, high-risk sexual behaviour and HIV transmission. A total of 300 randomly selected migrant oil workers were assessed using structured questionnaires to evaluate key high - risk sexual behavioral parameters such as multiplicity of sexual partners, bisexuality (closet homosexuality), high grade sexual behaviour and lesbianism. Sampling period was two months with a control cohort of 200. The prevalence of high risk sexual behaviour (HRSB) amongst the migrant oil workers was found to be 7.7% while low-risk sexual behaviour (LRSB) was 92.3%. There was no record of HRSB in the control group. We did not also encounter any lesbian sexual orientation in this study. The distribution of HRSB amongst the migrant oil workers showed that the commonest variety was bisexuality (closet homosexuality) with 10(43.5%) followed by high-risk sexual behaviour 7(30.4%), while the least common was multiplicity of sexual partners with 6 (26.1%). Furthermore, majority of these individuals 19 (82.6%) were above the age of 35 years. The index of condom-use and acceptance was high. Here 14 (60.9%) found condom-use convenient while 13 (56.5%) regularly used the condom. This study confirms the existence of HRSB among migrant oil workers in the Niger delta. It is therefore advisable to focus interventionist and prevention programmes on this group which appear to be pivotal in the transmission and spread of HIV/AIDS in this environment.
. It is pointed out that while the system facilitated speedy entry to the job market, the lack of inclusion in the Gulf economies of the migrants, the lack of long-term prospects of residing in the countries and the highly asymmetric power balance between sponsor and migrant, provides few incentives...... for the highly skilled migrants to fully contribute to the Gulf economies....
Lee, B S
Preliminary analysis of Cameroon fertility data suggests that rural stayers do not have a significantly higher fertility than rural-urban migrants in contrast to hypotheses suggested in the literature. Bongaarts and Caldwell both suggest that modernization plays a role in African fertility and migration patterns by increasing exposure to childbearing. Supply constraints are changed by higher levels of education, short duration of postpartum abstinence, less prevalence of polygamy, and more stable marriages. The influence of relatives may be weaker and the fear of losing a husband greater, which influence earlier returns to sexual relations. Because the levels of fertility of stayers and movers may be equal does not suggest that movers do not adapt fertility to urban norms. Analysis was conducted with d ata from the 1978 Cameroon World Fertility Survey on 8219 women aged 15-54 years for rural nonmigrants, rural-rural migrants, and rural-urban migrants. Rural-urban migrants were found to be better educated, have fewer cases of infertility, and have more stable first marriages. Descriptive statistics are provided for migrants and nonmigrants. Cross classification analysis shows that fertility is not lower for women with higher education, even when migration status is controlled for. Multivariate regression results in an autoregressive model in a first difference form indicated that the fertility rate of rural-urban migrant women was significantly higher than that of rural staryers during the period of 5-9 years after migration. The urban effect acts to reduce migrants' fertility by about .13 births. Comparisons are made with Mexican and Korean migration behavior, which reflect decreased fertility after migration of 1.5 births and 2.6 births, respectively. The suggestion is that the fertility-increasing effect of supply conditions in Cameroon is significantly offset by the fertility-depressing adaptation effect of migration to urban areas. It is expected that
Spruce, J.P.; Dowell, B.A.; Robbins, C.S.; Sader, S.A.; Doyle, Jamie K.; Schelhas, John
Central America offers a suite of neotropical habitats vital to overwintering migrant land birds. The recent decline of many forest dwelling avian migrants is believed to be related in part to neotropical deforestation and land use change. However, spatio-temporal trends in neotropical habitat availability and avian migrant habitat use are largely unknown. Such information is needed to assess the impact of agriculture conversion on migrant land birds. In response, the USDI Fish and Wildlife Service and the University of Maine began a cooperative study in 1988 which applies remote sensing and field surveys to determine current habitat availability and avian migrant habitat use. Study sites include areas in Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala and southern Mexico. Visual assessment of Landsat TM imagery indicates southern Belize forests are fragmented by various agricultural systems. Shifting agriculture is predominant in some areas, while permanent agriculture (citrus and mixed animal crops) is the primary system in others. This poster focuses on efforts to monitor forest to agriculture conversion in southern Belize using remote sensing, field surveys and GIS techniques. Procedures and avian migrant use of habitat are summarized.
Navkiran S Mahajan
Full Text Available Background: Migration is a risk factor for psychosis in international migrants. Objectives: We compared the psychiatric morbidity in first and second generation interstate migrants in India. Methods: Psychiatric morbidity was assessed in 18-64-year-old first and second generation migrants of both the gender using Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview. Total 70 subjects were included in the study. Males and females of both the generation compared. Results: Mood disorders are found to be most common disorder in second generation migrants. Where females of second generation migrants have a major depressive episode with melancholic features, as compared to males who have manic episode significantly higher in second generation migrants. Conclusion: Migration is a risk factor for mood disorders especially in second generation migrants. As adversity of migration, discrimination, and acculturation faced from birth and early life leads to higher rates of psychiatry morbidity in second generation migrants.
Despite an expansive body of research on health and access to medical care among Mexican immigrants in the United States, research on return migrants focuses primarily on their labor market mobility and contributions to local development. Motivated by recent scholarship that documents poor mental and physical health among Mexican return migrants, this study investigates return migrants' health insurance coverage and access to medical care. I use descriptive and multivariate techniques to analyze data from the 2009 and 2014 rounds of Mexico's National Survey of Demographic Dynamics (ENADID, combined n=632,678). Analyses reveal a large and persistent gap between recent return migrants and non-migrants, despite rising overall health coverage in Mexico. Multivariate analyses suggest that unemployment among recent arrivals contributes to their lack of insurance. Relative to non-migrants, recently returned migrants rely disproportionately on private clinics, pharmacies, self-medication, or have no regular source of care. Mediation analysis suggests that returnees' high rate of uninsurance contributes to their inadequate access to care. This study reveals limited access to medical care among the growing population of Mexican return migrants, highlighting the need for targeted policies to facilitate successful reintegration and ensure access to vital resources such as health care.
Wickramage, K; Galappaththy, G N L
The number of malaria cases among irregular migrants returning to Sri Lanka has not been investigated. In the first 6 months of 2012 we screened 287 irregular migrants returning from seven West African nations to Sri Lanka for malaria to ascertain the risk of infection during migration. Four men were diagnosed as having malaria: three with Plasmodium falciparum had travelled to Togo and one with P. vivax had travelled to Guinea. The risk of contracting malaria was 14 cases per 1000. Facilitating a safe return with selective screening for at-risk inbound migrants flows is desirable as Sri Lanka advances towards its goal of malaria elimination.
Concerned with varying definitions of migrants given by Federal agencies helping them, the 2 objectives of this study were to present migrant definitions utilized by these agencies and to initiate discussion on one standard definition of a migrant worker. Using standards of the Office of Economic Opportunity, the Department of Labor, the…
Busza, Joanna; Teferra, Sehin; Omer, Serawit; Zimmerman, Cathy
International migration has become a global political priority, with growing concern about the scale of human trafficking, hazardous work conditions, and resulting psychological and physical morbidity among migrants. Ethiopia remains a significant "source" country for female domestic workers to the Middle East and Gulf States, despite widespread reports of exploitation and abuse. Prior to introduction of a "safe migration" intervention, we conducted formative research to elicit lessons learned by women who had worked as domestic workers abroad. The aim of the study was to identify realistic measures future migrants could take to protect themselves, based on the collective insights and experience of returnees. We conducted a qualitative assessment among returnee domestic labour migrants in Amhara Region, Ethiopia, an area considered a "hotspot" for outmigration. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with a total of 35 female returnees, exploring risk and protective factors experienced by Ethiopian women during domestic work abroad. We used thematic content analysis to identify practical messages that could improve prospective migrants' preparedness. Returnees described the knowledge and skills they acquired prior to departure and during migration, and shared advice they would give to prospective migrants in their community. Facilitators of positive migration included conforming to cultural and behavioural expectations, learning basic Arabic, using household appliances, and ensuring safety in employers' homes. Respondents also associated confidence and assertiveness with better treatment and respect, and emphasized the importance of access to external communication (e.g. a mobile phone, local sim card, and contact details) for help in an emergency. Following their own challenging or even traumatic experiences, returnees were keen to support resilience among the next wave of migrants. There is little evidence on practices that foster safer
Galbete, Cecilia; Nicolaou, Mary; Meeks, Karlijn; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Addo, Juliet; Amoah, Stephen K; Smeeth, Liam; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Spranger, Joachim; Agyemang, Charles; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Beune, Erik; Stronks, Karien; Schulze, Matthias B; Danquah, Ina
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study the associations of dietary patterns (DPs) with type 2 diabetes (T2D) among Ghanaian adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In the multi-centre, cross-sectional RODAM (Research on Obesity and Diabetes among African Migrants) study (n = 4543), three overall DPs ("mixed",
Zimbabwe's Migrants and South Africa's Border Farms: The Root of Impermanence Maxim Bolt Wits University Press: Johannesburg, 2016. 270pp. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...
Dodd, Warren; Humphries, Sally; Patel, Kirit; Majowicz, Shannon; Little, Matthew; Dewey, Cate
Internal labour migration is an important and necessary livelihood strategy for millions of individuals and households in India. However, the precarious position of migrant workers within Indian society may have consequences for the health of these individuals. Previous research on the connections between health and labour mobility within India have primarily focused on the negative health outcomes associated with this practice. Thus, there is a need to better identify the determinants of internal migrant health and how these determinants shape migrant health outcomes. An exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in 26 villages in the Krishnagiri district of Tamil Nadu. Sixty-six semi-structured interviews were completed using snowball sampling, followed by 300 household surveys using multi-stage random sampling. For qualitative data, an analysis of themes and content was completed. For quantitative data, information on current participation in internal labour migration, in addition to self-reported morbidity and determinants of internal migrant health, was collected. Morbidity categories were compared between migrant and non-migrant adults (age 14-65 years) using a Fisher's exact test. Of the 300 households surveyed, 137 households (45.7%) had at least one current migrant member, with 205 migrant and 1012 non-migrant adults (age 14-65 years) included in this study. The health profile of migrant and non-migrants was similar in this setting, with 53 migrants (25.9%) currently suffering from a health problem compared to 273 non-migrants (27.0%). Migrant households identified both occupational and livelihood factors that contributed to changes in the health of their migrant members. These determinants of internal migrant health were corroborated and further expanded on through the semi-structured interviews. Internal labour migration in and of itself is not a determinant of health, as participation in labour mobility can contribute to an improvement in health, a
Arnholtz, Jens; Hansen, Nana Wesley
Based on a respondent driven sampling survey with 500 Polish migrant workers in Denmark, this article argues that specific labour market institutions and sector differences need to be taken into account when explaining the working conditions of migrant workers. Comparing the working conditions...... of Polish and Danish workers, it is shown that labour market institutional arrangements provide a better explanation for the differences found between the two groups than differences in individual characteristics of the migrants and the Danish workforce. In addition, the article argues that factors...... such as institutionalized wage variability within sectors and the decentralized regulation of working conditions are important when assessing the potential implication of migrant workers in the labour market....
Oberaigner, Willi; Leitner, Hermann; Oberaigner, Karin; Marth, Christian; Pinzger, Gerald; Concin, Hans; Steiner, Horst; Hofmann, Hannes; Wagner, Teresa; Mörtl, Manfred; Ramoni, Angela
Immigration plays a major role in obstetrics in Austria, and about 18 % of the Austrian population are immigrants. Therefore, we aimed to (1) test the feasibility of a proposed questionnaire for assessment of migrant status in epidemiological research and (2) assess some important associations between procedures and outcomes in obstetrics and migration in selected departments in Austria. We adapted a standardized questionnaire to the main immigration groups in Austria. Information on country of origin, length of residence in Austria and German-language ability was collected from eight selected obstetrics departments. Of the 1,971 questionnaires, 1,873 questionnaires of singleton births were selected and included in the analysis. We analyzed a total of 1,873 parturients with singleton births, of which 35 % had migrant status, 12 % were from ex-Yugoslavia, 12 % were from Turkey, and 12 % were from other countries. The proportion of parturients having their first care visit after the 12th week of pregnancy was higher in migrant groups (19 %). Smoking was highest in the migrants from ex-Yugoslavia (21 %). Vaginal delivery was more frequent in migrants from ex-Yugoslavia (78 %) and Turkey (83 %) than in nonmigrants (71 %) and episiotomy was more frequently performed in migrants from other countries. All differences are statistically significant. Administration of a standardized questionnaire for assessment of migrant status in obstetric departments in Austria was shown to be feasible. We assessed differences in obstetric care and outcome and consequently recommend that action should be initiated in Austria toward harmonizing obstetric procedures among the migrant and the nonmigrant groups and toward minimizing risk factors.
Robinson, W C; Lee, M K; Hill, K; Burnham, G M
A deteriorating economy, coupled with a series of natural disasters in 1995-97, led to a severe food crisis in North Korea. Although the country has received substantial international aid since 1996, demographic assessments of crisis impact have been limited. We assessed mortality trends in North Korea since 1995. At 15 randomly selected sites in China, 440 North Korean adult migrants were interviewed during July-September, 1998. Respondents were asked about births, deaths, and migration patterns in their households between mid-1994 and mid-1998, and about household food sources. The respondents also provided basic demographic information about the households of their relatives. We compared mortality rates from migrant households with data from the 1993 census and with data about households of non-migrant relatives. Households that included a recent migrant to China showed increasing mortality: crude death rates rose from 28.9 per 1000 in 1995, to 45.6 per 1000 in 1996, and to 56.0 per 1000 in 1997 (p=0.0001), with a 3-year average rate of 42.8 per 1000. The crude 3-year birth rate was 11.0 per 1000. Average household size declined from 4.0 at the beginning of 1995 to 3.4 at the end of 1997 (p=0.0002). Among 259 households of non-migrant relatives, the crude death rate was 43.2 per 1000 and the crude birth rate was 8.8 per 1000. In these households, the 3-year trend of increasing mortality was significant (p=0.001), as was the decline in average household size from 4.3 at the beginning of 1995 to 3.7 at the end of 1997 (p=0.0001). Among North Korean households that include a recent migrant to China, mortality has increased and household size has declined since 1995. This trend raises concern about the state of the general population, at least in the province of North Hamkyong, from where most of the migrants originated.
Huerta, Amarela Varela
Resumen Este texto aborda un ejemplo concreto de organización de migrantes, el Movimiento Migrante Mesoamericano, que trabaja por los derechos de los migrantes en tránsito por México, de forma coordinada con organizaciones y familiares de migrantes víctimas de desaparición en su tránsito hacia Estados Unidos. Este estudio de caso es un ejemplo de luchas migrantes en contextos de tránsito, tipo específico de movimiento social que ha sido poco abordado en la literatura que piensa la acción cole...
Amber Foreman Britt
Full Text Available Natural disasters including hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, tornadoes, and fires often involve substantial physical and mental impacts on affected populations and thus are public health priorities. Limited research shows that vulnerable populations such as the low-income, socially isolated migrant and seasonal farmworkers (MSFW are particularly susceptible to the effects of natural disasters. This research project assessed the awareness, perceived risk, and practices regarding disaster preparedness and response resources and identified barriers to utilization of community and government services during or after a natural disaster among Latino MSFWs’ and their families. Qualitative (N = 21 focus groups (3 and quantitative (N = 57 survey methodology was implemented with Latino MSFWs temporarily residing in rural eastern North Carolina to assess perceived and actual risk for natural disasters. Hurricanes were a top concern among the sample population, many participants shared they lacked proper resources for an emergency (no emergency kit in the house, no evacuation plan, no home internet, a lack of knowledge of what should be included in an emergency kit, etc.. Transportation and language were found to be additional barriers. Emergency broadcasts in Spanish and text message alerts were identified by the population to be helpful for disaster alerts. FEMA, American Red Cross, local schools and the migrant clinic were trusted places for assistance and information. In summary, tailored materials, emergency alerts, text messages, and news coverage concerning disaster threats should be provided in the population’s native language and when feasible delivered in a culturally appropriate mechanism such as “charlas” (talks and brochures.
Comparing international and South African work-based assessment of medical interns' practice. ... in the finding that most studies in SA have dealt with the assessment of core procedural skills related to acute clinical care, while the assessment of non-clinical competencies and non-procedural skills was poorly addressed.
Zhang, Guangzhen; Eisenberg, Nancy; Liang, Zongbao; Li, Yi; Deng, Huihua
The main goals of the present study were (a) to compare Chinese migrant and nonmigrant adolescents on mean levels of parenting, positive adjustment, and academic functioning, and to assess whether socioeconomic status (SES) accounted for any obtained differences, (b) to examine whether the relations of SES and migrant status to youths' positive…
Dalla Zuanna, Teresa; Spadea, Teresa; Milana, Marzio; Petrelli, Alessio; Cacciani, Laura; Simonato, Lorenzo; Canova, Cristina
The numbers of migrants living in Europe are growing rapidly, and has become essential to assess their access to primary health care (PHC). Avoidable Hospitalization (AH) rates can reflect differences across migrant and ethnic minority groups in the performance of PHC. We aimed to conduct a systematic review of all published studies on AH comparing separately migrants with natives or different racial/ethnic groups, in Europe and elsewhere. We ran a systematic search for original articles indexed in primary electronic databases on AH among migrants or ethnic minorities. Studies presenting AH rates and/or rate ratios between at least two different ethnic minority groups or between migrants and natives were included. Of the 35 papers considered in the review, 28 (80%) were conducted in the United States, 4 in New Zealand, 2 in Australia, 1 in Singapore, and none in Europe. Most of the studies (91%) used a cross-sectional design. The exposure variable was defined in almost all articles by ethnicity, race, or a combination of the two; country of birth was only used in one Australian study. Most of the studies found significant differences in overall AH rates, with minorities (mainly Black and Hispanics) showing higher rates than non-Hispanic Whites. AH has been used, mostly in the US, to compare different racial/ethnic groups, while it has never been used in Europe to assess migrants' access to PHC. Studies comparing AH rates between migrants and natives in European settings can be helpful in filling this lack of evidence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Mudrazija, Stipica; López-Ortega, Mariana; Vega, William A.; Robledo, Luis Miguel Gutiérrez; Sribney, William
Mexican return migrant population is increasing, yet our knowledge about their lives after resettlement in Mexico remains fragmentary. Using 2001–2012 longitudinal data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study, we investigate difference in household composition for older migrants who returned from the United States compared to nonmigrants. Furthermore, we fit a Cox proportional hazards model to assess the relationship between household composition and health and functional trajectories of return migrants and nonmigrants. The results indicate that return migrants with long duration of U.S. stay have different household composition than nonmigrants or short-term migrants: On average, they have smaller household size, including fewer females who may be available to offer assistance to older adults. Presence of middle-age females in the household has positive effects on health and functional trajectories. We highlight implications of this research for policy makers in Mexico and the United States. PMID:26966255
Guadamuz, Thomas E; Clatts, Michael C; Goldsamt, Lloyd A
There is scarce research on male sex workers in the context of alcohol use. While heavy alcohol use has been established as a risk factor for HIV and STI infections among men who have sex with men (MSM), men who engage in sex work with other men, particularly from the Global South, have not been included in these studies. Moreover, studies among male sex workers in Asia often do not explore migration contexts of these men. The objective of this exploratory study is to examine the prevalence and correlates of heavy alcohol use among migrant and non-migrant male sex workers in Bangkok and Pattaya, Central Thailand. Between August and October 2015, 18-24 year-old migrant and non-migrant male sex workers (n = 212) were recruited from various male sex work-identified venues (bars, clubs, massage parlors, and go-go bars) to take an interviewer-administered cross-sectional survey in Bangkok and Pattaya, Thailand. Measures were adapted from previous studies in similar populations and included structured questions across four domains, including demographic characteristics, alcohol use, stimulant use, and sexual behaviors. Multivariable logistic regression assessed the independent associations between heavy alcohol use (heavy versus not heavy) and demographic characteristics, stimulant use and sexual behavior. Heavy alcohol use was prevalent among one-third of participants. Heavy alcohol use was positively associated with male sex workers who were non-migrant and Thai, currently using stimulants, having 15 or more male clients in the past month and having first consumed alcohol at age 15 years or younger. Current HIV prevention efforts should consider subpopulations of MSM, including male sex workers and migrants, as well as other risk behaviors like alcohol, as important contexts for HIV and STI risks.
Amarela Varela Huerta
Full Text Available Resumen Este texto aborda un ejemplo concreto de organización de migrantes, el Movimiento Migrante Mesoamericano, que trabaja por los derechos de los migrantes en tránsito por México, de forma coordinada con organizaciones y familiares de migrantes víctimas de desaparición en su tránsito hacia Estados Unidos. Este estudio de caso es un ejemplo de luchas migrantes en contextos de tránsito, tipo específico de movimiento social que ha sido poco abordado en la literatura que piensa la acción colectiva de los migrantes. En el trabajo se analizan los actores, las prácticas, las alianzas y el contexto al que se enfrentan los activistas del movimiento en cuestión.
Villarreal, Gay Callaway
Migrant students graduation rates, although improving, are still significantly lower than those of their non-migrant peers. This manual is a comprehensive reference guide for Chapter 1 Migrant Program personnel counselors and teachers serving migrant students at the secondary level. Migrant students are those who move across school district…
Roman P. Bakanov
Full Text Available This article reveals the main approaches and methods of forming a perception stereotype of the migrant image as "other some" in the Russian mass media. The authors of this article analyzed three federal print publications - "Rossiyskaya Gazeta", "Trud" and "Komsomolskaya Pravda", characterized as mass editions, which enabled to make the most complete coverage of several segments of the readership and to highlight the most widespread meaning of the "migrant" concept in the public consciousness. The study of the dynamics of using the "migrant" concept for the period of 2000-2013 in the Russian print media made it possible to conclude that there were shifts towards a positive assessment of "other some". If the "language of enmity" was used in the public consciousness to form the migrant image at the beginning of the period under investigation, which led to the consolidation of migrant phobia, then the situation changed by 2013 - the migrant image was more often associated with a victim of interethnic tension and corruption. The new migrant image is the image of a migrant who has not found a better life, but has adopted Russia as a second home and therefore trying to adopt new standards and living conditions and helping to solve many of the social and economic problems of Russian society.
Relationship between body mass index and family functioning, family communication, family type and parenting style among African migrant parents and children in Victoria, Australia: a parent-child dyad study
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although childhood obesity prevalence is stabilised in developed countries including Australia, it is continuing to rise among migrants and socially disadvantaged groups in these countries. African migrants and refugees in particular, are at high risk of obesity due to changes in their family dynamics. The aim of this study was to examine the difference between children and parental perception of family functioning, family communication, family type and parenting styles and their relationship with body mass index. Methods A cross-sectional parent-child dyad study was conducted among 284 African families from migrant and refugee backgrounds living in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Bilingual workers were trained to collect demographic, anthropometric and questionnaire data on family functioning, parenting, family type and family communication. Results Parents and children reported different levels of family dynamics. Children reported a higher prevalence of poor family functioning (61.5 %, 95 % CI: 55.6, 67.2 versus 56.8 %, 95 % CI: 49.7, 61.6 and protective family type (29 %, 95 % CI: 23.9, 34.5 vs. 13.4 %, 95 % CI: 9.9, 17.9, but a lower prevalence of authoritative parenting style (51.6 %, 95 % CI: 45.7, 57.5 vs. 63 %, 95 % CI: 57.5, 68.8 than parents. There was a positive relationship between poor family functioning and child BMI both before (β = 1.28; 95 % CI: 0.14, 2.41; p < 0.05 and after (β = 1.73; 95 % CI: 0.53, 2.94; p < 0.001 controlling for confounders, and an inverse relationship between consensual family type and child BMI after adjustment (β = −1.92; 95 % CI: −3.59, −0.24; p < 0.05. There was no significant relationship between parental BMI and family functioning, communication, family type or parenting style. Conclusion Children’s perception of poor family functioning was associated with childhood obesity. Family interventions to reduce childhood obesity need
de Vries, Daniel H; Steinmetz, Stephanie; Tijdens, Kea G
This study used the global WageIndicator web survey to answer the following research questions: (RQ1) What are the migration patterns of health workers? (RQ2) What are the personal and occupational drivers of migration? (RQ3) Are foreign-born migrant health workers discriminated against in their destination countries? Of the unweighted data collected in 2006-2014 from health workers aged 15-64 in paid employment, 7.9 % were on migrants (N = 44,394; 36 countries). To answer RQ1, binary logistic regression models were applied to the full sample. To answer RQ2, binary logistic regression was used to compare data on migrants with that on native respondents from the same source countries, a condition met by only four African countries (N = 890) and five Latin American countries (N = 6356). To answer RQ3, a multilevel analysis was applied to the full sample to take into account the nested structure of the data (N = 33,765 individual observations nested within 31 countries). RQ1: 57 % migrated to a country where the same language is spoken, 33 % migrated to neighbouring countries and 21 % migrated to former colonizing countries. Women and nurses migrated to neighbouring countries, nurses and older and highly educated workers to former colonizing countries and highly educated health workers and medical doctors to countries that have a language match. RQ2: In the African countries, nurses more often out-migrated compared to other health workers; in the Latin American countries, this is the case for doctors. Out-migrated health workers earn more and work fewer hours than comparable workers in source countries, but only Latin American health workers reported a higher level of life satisfaction. RQ3: We did not detect discrimination against migrants with respect to wages and occupational status. However, there seems to be a small wage premium for the group of migrants in other healthcare occupations. Except doctors, migrant health workers reported a lower level
Creighton, Mathew J; Goldman, Noreen; Teruel, Graciela; Rubalcava, Luis
The purpose of this paper is twofold: 1) to assess the link between migrant networks and becoming overweight or obese and 2) to explore the pathways by which migrant networks may contribute to the increasing overweight and obese population of children in Mexico. Using two waves of the Mexican Family Life Survey (MxFLS), we find that children and adolescents (ages 3 to 15) living in households with migrant networks are at an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese over the period of observation, relative to their peers with no migrant networks. Sedentary behavior and household-level measures of economic wellbeing explain some of the association between networks and changes in weight status, but the role of extended networks remains significant. Community-level characteristics related to migration do not account for any of the observed relationship between household-level networks and becoming overweight or obese. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Loría Bolaños, Rocío; Partanen, Timo; Berrocal, Milena; Alvárez, Benjamín; Córdoba, Leonel
In the agroexport zone of Los Santos Zone in Costa Rica, coffee is harvested by migrant labor. Most migrants are from Panama and Nicaragua. We describe migrants' housing- and service-related health determinants, with analyses of ethnicity, nationality and geography. We used interviews, observation-based assessments, and the Geographic Information System to assess a population of 8,783 seasonal migrants and 1,099 temporary dwellings at a total of 520 farms during 2004-2005. We identified determinants of poor health including widespread deficiencies in the quality of grower-provided dwellings, geographical isolation, crowding, lack of radio and television, and deficient toilets and cooking facilities. The indigenous and non-Costa Ricans shared the poorest conditions. Reluctance to use mainstream public health services was widespread, especially among foreign and indigenous migrants and the geographically isolated. Post-study, researchers organized workshops for audiences including workers, coffee producers, public officials and service providers. Topics have included migration, preventive health and hygiene, and child labor. This work was successful in convincing Costa Rican social security authorities to implement reforms that improve access to and quality of health care for the migrants. Special projects on ergonomics, psychosocial health hazards, and water quality, as well as a literacy program, are ongoing.
Kassim, Azizah; Mat Zin, Ragayah Hj.
This paper examines Malaysia`s policy on irregular migrants and its implementation, and discusses its impact. A survey and interview covering 404 respondents was conducted between July 2010 and June 2011 to ascertain the real situations surrounding irregular migrants in Malaysia, which is one of the major host countries of international migrants from developing nations. The policy on foreign workers was formulated in the mid-1980s to deal with the large number of irregular migrants and their ...
Ronda Pérez, Elena; Benavides, Fernando G; Levecque, Katia; Love, John G; Felt, Emily; Van Rossem, Ronan
To determine migrant workers' exposure to select occupational risks and compare it with that of non-migrant workers in Europe. Based on the European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS-2005, n=29,654 workers, 31 countries) we examined differential prevalence amongst migrant and non-migrant workers' primary paid jobs in terms of employment arrangements (working >10 hours/day, working >5 days/week, on Sundays, without a contract, changes in the work schedule and not free to decide when to take holidays or days off) and working conditions (exposure to hazards including chemical, physical agents, physical load and psychological conditions). For the purpose of this study, a migrant is defined as a person without nationality of the country of residence (n=926). Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) for age, economic sector and education were calculated. Differences in employment arrangements and working conditions were noted by migration status, gender and occupational status. Among non-manual workers, migrant males are more exposed than non-migrant males to negative psychosocial conditions--working at a very high speed (aPR 1.23; 95% CI 1.07-1.42) and shift work (aPR 1.66; 95% CI 1.27-2.17)--and adverse employment arrangements: working on Sundays (aPR 1.91; 95% CI 1.42-2.55), variable starting/finishing times (aPR 1.17; 95% CI 1.04-1.32) and changes in work schedule (aPR 1.56; 95% CI 1.30-1.88). Compared with non-migrant males, male migrant manual workers are the group with a greater number of disparities in terms of exposure to negative working conditions. Female migrant non-manual workers are more exposed to psychosocial conditions - working at very high speed (aPR 1.26; 95% CI 1.10-1.44) and shift work (aPR 1.61; 95% CI 1.29-2.01) while female manual migrant workers were more likely to report standing or walking (aPR 2.43; 95% CI 1.98-2.97), not having a contract (aPR 2.94; 95% CI 2.07-4.10) and not being free to decide days off and holidays (aPR 1.25; 95% CI 1.07-1.48) than
Hannah M. Cross
Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between the EU migration regime and clandestine migration from West Africa to Europe. A review of the development of EU border and immigration policy reveals significant and sustained moves towards securitisation of migrants and the externalisation of border controls to countries of origin and transit. This emphasis on repression limits the scope of cooperation with ‘third countries’ (those outside Europe in co-development, labour mobility, sea patrols and repatriation, which are examined separately as deterrents to uncontrolled emigration. This paper then analyses the motivations and intentions of Senegalese youth around the Cap Vert peninsula. This analysis includes the role of emigration in development and more recently, the impact of human losses and repatriations resulting from the clandestine journey by pirogue (open fishing boat to the Canary Islands. This article argues that in this case, youth are excluded both from labour and asylum policies and instead are managed as a security threat, contradicting the factors driving this journey.
Poppe, Annelien; Wojczewski, Silvia; Taylor, Katherine; Kutalek, Ruth; Peersman, Wim
The negative consequences of the brain drain of sub-Saharan African health workers for source countries are well documented and include understaffed facilities, decreased standards of care and higher workloads. However, studies suggest that, if migrated health workers eventually return to their home countries, this may lead to beneficial effects following the transfer of their acquired skills and knowledge (brain gain). The present study aims to explore the factors influencing the intentions for return migration of sub-Saharan African health workers who emigrated to Austria and Belgium, and gain further insight into the potential of circular migration. Semi-structured interviews with 27 sub-Saharan African health workers in Belgium and Austria were conducted. As mentioned by the respondents, the main barriers for returning were family, structural crises in the source country, and insecurity. These barriers overrule the perceived drivers, which were nearly all pull factors and emotion driven. Despite the fact that only a minority plans to return permanently, many wish to return regularly to work in the healthcare sector or to contribute to the development of their source country. As long as safety and structural stability cannot be guaranteed in source countries, the number of return migrants is likely to remain low. National governments and regional organizations could play a role in facilitating the engagement of migrant health workers in the development of the healthcare system in source countries.
Adediran Daniel Ikuomola
Full Text Available In recent times many Nigerians have been singled out when it comes to criminal activities and xenophobic attacks in South Africa, which leads to disruption of the hitherto cordial relationship between South African host communities and Nigerian migrants. Nevertheless, the rate of Nigerians migrating to South Africa keeps soaring. Studies of migration between Nigeria and South Africa, have been scanty, often limited to the study of traditional economic disparity between the two countries with less emphasis on the social-cultural challenges facing Nigerian migrants in the host communities. This paper thus examined the socio-economic and cultural challenges facing Nigerian migrants in selected communities in Johannesburg, South Africa. Data for the study were collected through in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with Nigerian migrants in Hillbrow, Braamfontein and Alexandra suburbs in Johannesburg, South Africa.
After the European Union accession in 2004, Poland has been perceived by foreigners as an attractive destination of their migration, and also as a popular transit country for people going further to the Western Europe countries. The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine is involved in the implementation of the international project PROMOVAX (Promote Vaccinations among Migrant Populations in Europe). The objective of the project is to promote immunizations among migrant populations in Europe. This article presents the up-to-date legal regulations that are effective in Poland, taking into account their relevance to the issue of vaccinations in migrant population. The analysis of the Polish legislation concerning this problem shows that there are no specific regulations addressed to migrant population staying in our country. This issue seems to be popular in the European Union, where immunization of migrants is given high priority. From the point of view of health care professionals it is important to be aware of the fact that EU open borders favor the increased flow of people between countries. The scale of migration from outside the EU to its member states also contributes to the increase in potential contacts between health care workers and migrants working in Poland.
This article will be looking at the political and institutional structures in place, which either facilitate or constrain a sense of belonging and integration of professional migrants of African origin into the new democratic state of South Africa. Discussions in this article are based on a qualitative in-depth study conducted among ...
Bjerregaard, Peter; Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Borch-Johnsen, Knut
surveys among adult Inuit in Greenland and Inuit migrants in Denmark (n = 1542). General Linear Models adjusted for age, smoking, diet (seal, fish, and fruit), and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Blood pressure was significantly higher among Inuit migrants of either sex than among the Inuit in Greenland....... Among women, HDL-cholesterol concentrations were 1.59 mmol/l in Greenland and 1.83 among migrants (pSmoking, diet, and alcohol...
Gravel, Simon; Wang, Wei; Brisbin, Abra; Byrnes, Jake K.; Fadhlaoui-Zid, Karima; Zalloua, Pierre A.; Moreno-Estrada, Andres; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Comas, David
North African populations are distinct from sub-Saharan Africans based on cultural, linguistic, and phenotypic attributes; however, the time and the extent of genetic divergence between populations north and south of the Sahara remain poorly understood. Here, we interrogate the multilayered history of North Africa by characterizing the effect of hypothesized migrations from the Near East, Europe, and sub-Saharan Africa on current genetic diversity. We present dense, genome-wide SNP genotyping array data (730,000 sites) from seven North African populations, spanning from Egypt to Morocco, and one Spanish population. We identify a gradient of likely autochthonous Maghrebi ancestry that increases from east to west across northern Africa; this ancestry is likely derived from “back-to-Africa” gene flow more than 12,000 years ago (ya), prior to the Holocene. The indigenous North African ancestry is more frequent in populations with historical Berber ethnicity. In most North African populations we also see substantial shared ancestry with the Near East, and to a lesser extent sub-Saharan Africa and Europe. To estimate the time of migration from sub-Saharan populations into North Africa, we implement a maximum likelihood dating method based on the distribution of migrant tracts. In order to first identify migrant tracts, we assign local ancestry to haplotypes using a novel, principal component-based analysis of three ancestral populations. We estimate that a migration of western African origin into Morocco began about 40 generations ago (approximately 1,200 ya); a migration of individuals with Nilotic ancestry into Egypt occurred about 25 generations ago (approximately 750 ya). Our genomic data reveal an extraordinarily complex history of migrations, involving at least five ancestral populations, into North Africa. PMID:22253600
Brenna M Henn
Full Text Available North African populations are distinct from sub-Saharan Africans based on cultural, linguistic, and phenotypic attributes; however, the time and the extent of genetic divergence between populations north and south of the Sahara remain poorly understood. Here, we interrogate the multilayered history of North Africa by characterizing the effect of hypothesized migrations from the Near East, Europe, and sub-Saharan Africa on current genetic diversity. We present dense, genome-wide SNP genotyping array data (730,000 sites from seven North African populations, spanning from Egypt to Morocco, and one Spanish population. We identify a gradient of likely autochthonous Maghrebi ancestry that increases from east to west across northern Africa; this ancestry is likely derived from "back-to-Africa" gene flow more than 12,000 years ago (ya, prior to the Holocene. The indigenous North African ancestry is more frequent in populations with historical Berber ethnicity. In most North African populations we also see substantial shared ancestry with the Near East, and to a lesser extent sub-Saharan Africa and Europe. To estimate the time of migration from sub-Saharan populations into North Africa, we implement a maximum likelihood dating method based on the distribution of migrant tracts. In order to first identify migrant tracts, we assign local ancestry to haplotypes using a novel, principal component-based analysis of three ancestral populations. We estimate that a migration of western African origin into Morocco began about 40 generations ago (approximately 1,200 ya; a migration of individuals with Nilotic ancestry into Egypt occurred about 25 generations ago (approximately 750 ya. Our genomic data reveal an extraordinarily complex history of migrations, involving at least five ancestral populations, into North Africa.
Full Text Available In part due to its location on the North African coast, in conjunction with its history of being a former French protectorate, Tunisia has become an important country of emigration to the European Union. In particular, maritime arrivals have become a concern for European states, for both humanitarian and security reasons. The experiences of Tunisian irregular migrants arriving to the EU by sea, who are then detained and returned, highlights the multitude of human rights issues that arise across their journey as they interact with the various stakeholders involved—Tunisian and Libyan smugglers, EU and Tunisian authorities and NGOs, amongst others. The situation for these migrants at sea and during rescue and interception operations can most directly involve such issues as the right to life, access to food and water, access to emergency healthcare and access to information. The next stages of detention and return (either immediately or when later identified on EU territory can most directly involve human rights issues related to the identification and referral mechanisms for groups at risk, access to information and legal remedy, the right of “non-refoulement” and prohibition of torture, inhuman and degrading treatment and punishment. By examining Tunisian migrant experiences along the entirety of their trajectory, one can see the specific human rights issues that arise at each stage for maritime arrivals—from departure to return. The article will examine these human rights concerns in the context of the Tunisian migrant journey, focusing on the four identified stages of the situation at sea, rescue or interception, detention and return. The article will present results from qualitative in-depth interviews conducted for the EU Fundamental Rights Agency in 2011 with 15 Tunisian migrants who had arrived by sea to Italy between 2005 and 2011 and were returned to Tunisia between 2008 and 2011, complemented by interviews with two Tunisian
S. Kassa (Saba)
markdownabstractThis study examines the promotion of governance in the African Continent. It compares the Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) of the World Bank to the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) of the African Union. These governance assessments represent differing
Delavari, Maryam; Sønderlund, Anders Larrabee; Mellor, David; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Swinburn, Boyd
Although there are a number of studies examining the effect of migration on obesity, these studies tend to focus on the role of acculturation in this relationship. However, there are indications that the change in environment may also be an important factor. Indeed, there is a considerable lack of psychometric tools designed to assess the association between environment and migrant health behaviour. The current study aimed to assess the literature on the link between environment and health for migrants, and on the basis of this information, design and develop the Migrant Obesogenic Perception of the Environment questionnaire (MOPE-Q). The MOPE-Q is the first comprehensive measure of the impact of environmental factors on migrant health behaviour related to physical activity, food habits and body image concern, as well as weight change. Using a systematic approach, an initial pool of items for the questionnaire was developed and refined on the basis of rigorous content and face validity assessments and factor analysis. Further, reliability tests and test re-test studies were undertaken. Differences between Iranian and Australian environmental factors as they relate to obesogenic behaviour were explored using the developed measure. A total of 36 items were developed for the MOPE-Q. Principal factor analysis identified three similar factor structures of environmental factors related to obesity (categorized in terms of facilitators, barriers and pressures) for each country. The final questionnaire consisted of four distinct subscales pertaining specifically to the Australian environment and five subscales pertaining to the Iranian environment, accounting for 59% and 63%, respectively, of the total variance in obesity rates. Data suggests that the MOPE-Q is a reliable and valid self-report measure for assessing the relationship between environmental factors linked to obesity and obesogenic behaviour for this particular migrant group. The variations in environmental
As with every social phenomenon, migration has a gender dimension, and a gender analysis is therefore pertinent in understanding African migration. The nature, patterns, experiences and forms of interaction between female migrants and members of their host community has its uniqueness. The nature of interaction and ...
Assessing stocks in data-poor African fisheries: a case study on the white grouper Epinephelus aeneus of Mauritania. ... African Journal of Marine Science ... The lack of reliable stock assessment for numerous exploited stocks in West Africa often results from poor-quality data, high multi-specificity of captures, and the ...
Full Text Available Increasing HIV notifications amongst migrant and mobile populations to Australia is a significant public health issue. Generalizations about migrant health needs and delayed or deterred help-seeking behaviors can result from disregarding the variation between and within cultures including factors, such as drivers for migration and country of birth. This study explored barriers and enablers to accessing sexual health services, including experiences of stigma and discrimination, within a purposive sample of sub-Saharan African, Southeast Asian, and East Asian migrants. A qualitative design was employed using key informant interviews and focus group discussions. A total of 45 people with ages ranging from 18 to 50 years, participated in focus group discussions. Common barriers and enablers to help seeking behaviors were sociocultural and religious influence, financial constraints, and knowledge dissemination to reduce stigma. Additionally, common experiences of stigma and discrimination were related to employment and the social and self-isolation of people living with HIV. Overcoming barriers to accessing sexual health services, imparting sexual health knowledge, recognizing variations within cultures, and a reduction in stigma and discrimination will simultaneously accelerate help-seeking and result in better sexual health outcomes in migrant populations.
Agu, Josephine; Lobo, Roanna; Crawford, Gemma; Chigwada, Bethwyn
Increasing HIV notifications amongst migrant and mobile populations to Australia is a significant public health issue. Generalizations about migrant health needs and delayed or deterred help-seeking behaviors can result from disregarding the variation between and within cultures including factors, such as drivers for migration and country of birth. This study explored barriers and enablers to accessing sexual health services, including experiences of stigma and discrimination, within a purposive sample of sub-Saharan African, Southeast Asian, and East Asian migrants. A qualitative design was employed using key informant interviews and focus group discussions. A total of 45 people with ages ranging from 18 to 50 years, participated in focus group discussions. Common barriers and enablers to help seeking behaviors were sociocultural and religious influence, financial constraints, and knowledge dissemination to reduce stigma. Additionally, common experiences of stigma and discrimination were related to employment and the social and self-isolation of people living with HIV. Overcoming barriers to accessing sexual health services, imparting sexual health knowledge, recognizing variations within cultures, and a reduction in stigma and discrimination will simultaneously accelerate help-seeking and result in better sexual health outcomes in migrant populations.
Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Schøtt, Thomas; Pişkinsüt Şengüler, Ece
Migrants may become entrepreneurs in their host countries. They may utilize their dual embeddedness in both the home country and the host country, and also use transnational links to gain a competitive advantage in exporting compared to indigenous entrepreneurs. Migrant entrepreneurs’ advantage may......, however, be contingent on attributes such as gender and education, especially among the first generation of migrants, in that being male and educated is more advantageous for migrants than for indigenous entrepreneurs. A representative sample of 50,371 entrepreneurs establishing or operating enterprises...... around the world was surveyed in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, which reports on migration and exporting. Hierarchical linear modeling shows that migrant entrepreneurs export more than indigenous entrepreneurs, especially in the first generation, and especially among educated and male migrants...
Stefano degli Uberti
Full Text Available This paper is drawn from the data collected during the research fieldwork that I carried out between June and December 2003. The present article reconstructs and analyses the experience of a Senegalese migrant who arrived in Italy in 1987 and achieved the own social recognition as actor in a contemporary drama company. A first theoretical part draws a critical review of anthropological literature concerning the phenomenon of “migration” and the concept of “performance”. Sustained by these theoretical premises, the research will be directed toward the comprehension of his theatrical experience (by a human and professional point of view, and the genesis of a form of métis theatre (intercultural which develops from the common contribute of Italian and African migrant artists. To this regard, I focus the attention on the particular meanings and value assumed by the traditional figure of the griot (the core figure in the oral tradition of many African populations through his artistic dramatisation. This paper aims at shedding light on the transnational dynamics that shapes the experience of this Senegalese migrant and at showing how, in this case, the theatrical space can become both the common ground where people of different culture develop a confrontation and new means of expression, and the meaningful context where an immigrant is able to face and attribute a new sense to the dramatic existential condition that he had to endure after the forced decision of migrating.
Antinori, Spinello; Mediannikov, Oleg; Corbellino, Mario; Raoult, Didier
Louse-borne relapsing fever a neglected and forgotten disease by western physicians has recently re-emerged among East African migrants seeking asylum in Europe. We review here the cases observed so far together with a critical reappraisal of several issues regarding clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Miranda, J. Jaime; Gilman, Robert H.; Smeeth, Liam
Objectives To assess differences in cardiovascular risk profiles among rural-to-urban migrants and non-migrant groups. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Ayacucho and Lima, Peru Participants rural (n=201); rural-urban migrants (n=589) and urban (n=199). Main outcome measures Cardiovascular risk factors were assessed according to migrant status (migrants vs. non-migrants), age at first migration, length of residency in an urban area and lifetime exposure to an urban area. Results For most risk factors, the migrant group had intermediate levels of risk between those observed for the rural and urban groups. Prevalences, for rural, migrant and urban groups, was 3%, 20% and 33% for obesity and 0.8%, 3% and 6% for type-2 diabetes. This gradient of risk was not observed uniformly across all risk factors. Blood pressure did not show a clear gradient of difference between groups. The migrant group had similar systolic blood pressure (SBP) but lower diastolic blood pressure (DBP) than the rural group. The urban group had higher SBP but similar DBP than rural group. Hypertension was more prevalent among the urban (29%) compared to both rural and migrant groups (11% and 16% respectively). For HbA1c, although the urban group had higher levels, the migrant and rural groups were similar to each other. No differences were observed in triglycerides between the three groups. Within migrants, those who migrated when aged older than 12 years had higher odds of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose and metabolic syndrome compared to people who migrated at younger ages. Adjustment for age, sex and socioeconomic indicators had little impact on the patterns observed. Conclusions The impact of rural to urban migration on cardiovascular risk profile is not uniform across different risk factors, and is further influenced by the age at which migration occurs. A gradient in levels was observed for some risk factors across study groups. This observation indicates that urbanization is indeed
Full Text Available In 2014, 162 bird species were recorded during the bird ringing activities in Slovenia. Of 155 species, 62,275 birds were ringed, and 107 recoveries of birds ringed in Slovenia and found abroad, 148 foreign recoveries in Slovenia and 1395 local recoveries were recorded. The most frequently ringed species were Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla and Great Tit Parus major. As far as ringed nestlings are concerned, Great Tits and Barn Swalllows Hirundo rustica predominated. Considering the recoveries ringed of found birds abroad, the commonest were Black-headed Gulls Chroicocephalus ridibundus and Mute Swans Cygnus olor. The farthest recovery was a Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica found in the Democratic Republic of Congo (5171 km away. Among the more interesting finds was also the so far southernmost recovery of a Sand Martin Riparia riparia found in Israel. Let us also mention the first recovery of a Corncrake Crex crex, which bred and was ringed in 2013 at Planinsko polje (central Slovenia and was found in the 2014 breeding season in the Czech Republic. Among rare species, two Little Buntings Emberiza pusilla were caught and ringed. After nine years, the Roller Coracias garrulus bred again in Slovenia in 2014 and its nestlings were ringed. The paper also brings the description of the migration route of the first African migrant, the Black Stork Ciconia nigra, marked with a GPS/GSM telemetric device, which migrated across the Adriatic Sea, Sicily and Sahara to Nigeria.
Mou, Jin; Cheng, Jinquan; Griffiths, Sian M.; Wong, Samuel Y. S.; Hillier, Sheila; Zhang, Dan
There has been a dramatic increase in rural-urban migration in China over the last two decades but there are few studies on the mental health of Chinese internal migrants. This study assesses the prevalence of depressive symptoms (DS) and their associated factors among migrant factory workers in Shenzhen, China. A questionnaire survey was sent to…
Pavli, Androula; Maltezou, Helena
The number of migrants and refugees in Europe in the past few years has increased dramatically due to war, violence or prosecutions in their homeland. Migration may affect physical, mental and social health. The objective of this article is to assess migrants and refugees' health problems, and to recommend appropriate interventions. A PubMed search of published articles on health problems of newly arrived migrants and refugees was conducted from 2003 through 2016, focusing on the current refugee crisis in Europe. In addition to communicable diseases, such as respiratory, gastrointestinal and dermatologic infections, non-communicable diseases, including chronic conditions, mental and social problems, account for a significant morbidity burden in newly arrived migrants and refugees. Vaccine-preventable diseases are also of outmost importance. The appropriate management of newly arrived refugees and migrants' health problems is affected by barriers to access to health care including legal, communication, cultural and bureaucratic difficulties. There is diversity and lack of integration regarding health care provision across Europe due to policy differences between health care systems and social services. There is a notable burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases among newly arrived migrants and refugees. Provision of health care at reception and temporary centres should be integrated and provided by a multidisciplinary team Appropriate health care of migrants and refugees could greatly enhance their health and social status which will benefit also the host countries at large. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Andersen, Gregers Stig; Kamper-Jørgensen, Zaza; Carstensen, Bendix
Objective Studies of diabetes in migrant populations have shown a higher prevalence compared to their respective countries of origin and to people natively born in the host country, but there is little population-based data on diabetes incidence and mortality in migrant populations. The aim...... of the current study was (1) to describe the incidence rates and prevalence of diabetes among first generation migrants in Denmark compared to the Danish background population, and (2) to compare standardised mortality rates (SMRs) for individuals with and without diabetes according to country of origin...... to the part of the population without diabetes were calculated based on follow up of the entire Danish population. Results Compared with native born Danes, the incidence of diabetes was about 2.5 times higher among migrants from Africa, Asia, and the Middle East, and these migrant groups also showed...
Levecque, Katia; Van Rossem, Ronan
Objectives. Depression is a leading cause of ill health and disability. As migrants form an increasing group in Europe, already making up about 8.7% of the population in 2010, knowledge on migrant-related inequalities in depression is of main public health interest. In this study, we first assess whether migrants in Europe are at higher risk for depression compared to the native population. Second, we assess whether the association between migration and depression is dependent on different forms of migrant integration. Migrant integration is looked at both from the individual and from the national level. Design. Hierarchical linear regression analyses based on data for 20 countries in the European Social Survey 2006/2007 (N = 37,076 individuals aged 15 or more). Depression is measured using the center for Epidemiologic Depression Scale. We consider migrant integration over time (first- and second-generation migrants, differentiated according to European Union (EU) or non-EU origin), barriers to integration (low educational level, financial difficulties, being out of the labor market, ethnic minority status, discrimination), and the host country environment (national migrant integration policy). Controls are gender, age, partner relationship, social support, and welfare state regime. Results. Natives and second-generation migrants do not differ significantly in their risk profile for depression. First-generation migrants show higher levels of depression, with those born outside of Europe to be the worst off. This higher risk for depression is not attributable to ethnic minority status but is mainly due to experienced barriers to socioeconomic integration and processes of discrimination. A country's national policy on migrant integration shows not to soften the depressing effect of being a first-generation migrant nor does it have indirect beneficial health effects by reducing barriers to integration. Conclusion. In Europe, first-generation EU and non-EU migrants
Close, Ciara; Kouvonen, Anne; Bosqui, Tania; Patel, Kishan; O'Reilly, Dermot; Donnelly, Michael
First generation migrants are reportedly at higher risk of mental ill-health compared to the settled population. This paper systematically reviews and synthesizes all reviews on the mental health of first generation migrants in order to appraise the risk factors for, and explain differences in, the mental health of this population. Scientific databases were searched for systematic reviews (inception-November 2015) which provided quantitative data on the mental ill-health of first generation migrants and associated risk factors. Two reviewers screened titles, abstracts and full text papers for their suitability against pre-specified criteria, methodological quality was assessed. One thousand eight hundred twenty articles were identified, eight met inclusion criteria, which were all moderate or low quality. Depression was mostly higher in first generation migrants in general, and in refugees/asylum seekers when analysed separately. However, for both groups there was wide variation in prevalence rates, from 5 to 44 % compared with prevalence rates of 8-12 % in the general population. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder prevalence was higher for both first generation migrants in general and for refugees/asylum seekers compared with the settled majority. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder prevalence in first generation migrants in general and refugees/ asylum seekers ranged from 9 to 36 % compared with reported prevalence rates of 1-2 % in the general population. Few studies presented anxiety prevalence rates in first generation migrants and there was wide variation in those that did. Prevalence ranged from 4 to 40 % compared with reported prevalence of 5 % in the general population. Two reviews assessed the psychotic disorder risk, reporting this was two to three times more likely in adult first generation migrants. However, one review on the risk of schizophrenia in refugees reported similar prevalence rates (2 %) to estimates of prevalence among the settled majority (3
Abstract What can we infer from the legal status of migrants living in Denmark? This article argues that understanding recent developments in Danish immigration law is essential for comprehending contemporary political tensions in this policy area, including notably the cartoon incident. The anal......Abstract What can we infer from the legal status of migrants living in Denmark? This article argues that understanding recent developments in Danish immigration law is essential for comprehending contemporary political tensions in this policy area, including notably the cartoon incident....... The analysis offered focuses on general principles and practical notions of Danish immigration and refugee law, integration policies and regulations in light of international legal obligations, rules on family reunification, and the growing importance of citizenship status and anti-terrorism measures. Keywords...... Rights of migrants - Immigration Law - Citizenship Law - Integration policies - Denmark...
Shoshani, Anat; Nakash, Ora; Zubida, Hani; Harper, Robin A
This study aimed to explore the role of school engagement and the mediation effect of acculturation in predicting 1.5 and second-generation migrant adolescents' mental health and risk behaviors. Participants included 448 seventh to tenth grade Israeli students (mean age 14.50, 53% boys): 128 non-Jewish 1.5 generation migrant adolescents (children of migrants living in Israel), 118 second-generation migrants (children of migrants born and living in Israel), and an age-matched sample of 202 native-born Jewish adolescents. All participants completed a battery of questionnaires assessing mental health symptoms, engagement in risk behaviors, social adjustment, and school engagement. Both migrant adolescent groups also completed an acculturation questionnaire. Differences between groups in school engagement, mental health symptoms, and risk behavior were examined, and structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to investigate the hypothesized mediating effect of acculturation. Findings revealed substantially higher levels of mental health symptoms (p mental health symptoms and risk behaviors-older participants engaged in more risk behaviors (p = .02), and females had elevated mental health symptoms (p = .007). Identification with the host country mediated the relationships between school engagement and mental health symptoms (ps .006 and .008) and risk behaviors (ps .001 and .004) in 1.5 generation and second-generation migrants, respectively. The results are discussed in reference to current theories and research, as well as practical implications for prevention and intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Amirkhanian, Yuri A.; Kuznetsova, Anna V.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; DiFranceisco, Wayne J; Musatov, Vladimir B.; Avsukevich, Natalya A.; Chaika, Nikolay A.; McAuliffe, Timothy L.
Background Although the dire life circumstances of labor migrants working in Russia are well-known, their HIV risk vulnerability and prevention needs are understudied. Low socioeconomic status, lack of access to services, separation from family, and limited risk awareness all contribute to migrants’ HIV vulnerability. Methods Male labor migrants in St. Petersburg (n=499) were administered assessments of their sexual behavior practices, substance use, and psychosocial characteristics related to risk and well-being. Results Thirty percent of migrants reported multiple female partners in the past 3 months. Condom use was low, ranging from 35% with permanent to 52% with casual partners. Central Asian migrants had very low AIDS knowledge, low levels of substance use, moderate sexual risk, high depression, and poor social supports. Eastern European migrants had higher AIDS knowledge, alcohol and drug use, and sexual risk. Discussion Improved HIV prevention efforts are needed to reduce the risk vulnerability of migrants who relocate to high disease prevalence areas. PMID:20690041
Baycan, T.; Nijkamp, P.
The present paper aims to investigate and compare various modalities of migrant entrepreneurship in European countries in order to design a systematic classification of migrant entrepreneurship and to highlight key factors of migrant entrepreneurship in Europe. The paper is based on a comparative
Schallig Henk DFH
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is one of the most important infectious diseases in the world. Although most cases are found distributed in the tropical regions of Africa, Asia, Central and South Americas, there is in Europe a significant increase in the number of imported cases in non-endemic countries, in particular due to the higher mobility in today's society. Methods The prevalence of a possible asymptomatic infection with Plasmodium species was assessed using Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification (NASBA assays on clinical samples collected from 195 study cases with no clinical signs related to malaria and coming from sub-Saharan African regions to Southern Italy. In addition, base-line demographic, clinical and socio-economic information was collected from study participants who also underwent a full clinical examination. Results Sixty-two study subjects (31.8% were found positive for Plasmodium using a pan Plasmodium specific NASBA which can detect all four Plasmodium species causing human disease, based on the small subunit 18S rRNA gene (18S NASBA. Twenty-four samples (38% of the 62 18S NASBA positive study cases were found positive with a Pfs25 mRNA NASBA, which is specific for the detection of gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum. A statistically significant association was observed between 18S NASBA positivity and splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and leukopaenia and country of origin. Conclusion This study showed that a substantial proportion of people originating from malaria endemic countries harbor malaria parasites in their blood. If transmission conditions are available, they could potentially be a reservoir. Thefore, health authorities should pay special attention to the health of this potential risk group and aim to improve their health conditions.
Reyes-Uruena, J M; Noori, T; Pharris, A; Jansà, J M
Patterns of migration can change greatly over time, with the size and composition of migrant populations reflecting both, current and historical patterns of migration flows. The recent economic crisis has caused a decrease on migration flows towards the most affected areas, as well as cut offs in health interventions addressed to migrants. The objective of this paper is to review available data about interventions on migrants' health in Europe, and to describe changes in migrant health policies across Europe after the economic crisis, that can have a negative effect in their health status. Although migrants have the right to health care under legal settlements issued by the EU, there is no a standard European approach to offer health care to migrants, since; policies in each EU Member State are developed according to specific migrant experience, political climate, and attitudes towards migration. Migrants use to face greater health problems and major health care access barriers, compared with their counterparts from the EU. Therefore, migrant health policies should focus in protects this vulnerable group, especially during economic hardship, taking into account economic and socio-demographic risk factors. There is an especial need for research in the cost-effectiveness of investing in the health care of the migrant population, demonstrating the benefit of such, even in the health of the European native population, and the need for constant intervention despite of resource constraints.
Vang, Jan; Baklanov, Nikita; Rezaei, Shahamak
Recent studies on transnational entrepreneurship) suggest that migrant entrepreneur play an increasingly significant role as sources of economic activities and especially export revenue. The literature is, however, biased on the US experience, lacks a comparative perspective between migrants...... and non-migrants and is primarily anecdotal in nature (Saxenian, 2002; 2006, Ruzzlier et al, 2007; Honig and Drori, 2010, Drodi et al, 2010)). This paper aims at reducing this gap by mapping the recent changes in the role of migrant entrepreneurs as a source of increased economic activity and export...... in across ethic categories. Export revenue is proxied by the number of firms in the different ethnic categories that exports. The Danish context provides unique data allowing for a comparison across migrants and non-migrants, across sectors and across time. The paper reveals that migrants play a decreasing...
Lututala, M B
The author analyzes migration from Africa to the developed countries of the north, focusing on the underlying logic and methods of such migration. He suggests that Africans see migration to the northern countries as a survival strategy and as an attempt to integrate themselves into the world economic system. The methods employed by African migrants to circumvent the increasing efforts to limit their numbers are described, with a focus on their use of regulations designed to aid the reunification of families. The author suggests that rich countries may have a moral obligation to allow migration from Africa, since its causes lie in the history of colonialism and the present and past exploitation of the developing countries by those of the north.
Samantha R. Lattof
Full Text Available Background: Policymakers and program implementers require high-quality data on migrants and migration in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC; however, a shortage of high-quality data exists in these settings. Sampling migrant populations requires better techniques. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS may be one such solution. Objective: Using Ghana as a case study, the objectives of this paper are to: 1 assess RDS recruitment productivity, network size, and ties of internal migrants; 2 test for homophily; and 3 detail the successes of and challenges to implementing RDS in Ghana and how these lessons can be applied to migrant populations in other LMIC settings. Methods: This study used RDS to sample 625 rural-urban female migrants working as market porters (kayayei in Accra, Ghana. Results: This study generated the most comprehensive data set on kayayei to date. Network size increases as participants become more educated and migrate more often to Accra. Ethnic group membership is an important determinant of recruitment, with certain groups preferring to recruit from within. Employing members of the kayayei population to collect data built crucial trust. Conclusions: Whilst RDS is not a one-size-fits-all solution for sampling hard-to-reach migrants in LMIC, it can be a powerful tool to uncover and to recruit hard-to-reach migrant populations. In countries with multiple ethnolinguistic groups, recruiting a migrant population with greater ethnolinguistic overlap may facilitate quicker equilibrium. Contribution: This study expands the evidence base on use of RDS among migrant populations in LMIC and provides lessons learned to assist other researchers implementing RDS in LMIC settings.
Reus-Pons, Matias; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Janssen, Fanny; Kibele, Eva U.B.
Background: European societies are rapidly ageing and becoming multicultural, and Belgium is part of the countries ahead in this transition. Differences in mortality between migrants and non-migrants in Europe have been shown to depend on age, sex, socio-economic status, migrant background and
Eonomopoulou, Assimoula; Pavli, Androula; Stasinopoulou, Panagiota; Giannopoulos, Lambros A; Tsiodras, Sotirios
In March 2011, a migrant health project became operational that aimed to provide medical and psychosocial support to migrants at the Greek-Turkish border. The aim of this study is to describe common syndromes, the communicable disease profile and vaccination patterns in newly arrived migrants through a surveillance system that was based on medical records data as well as screening procedures. Data were collected prospectively using one standardized form per patient including demographic information, civil status, and medical and vaccination history. A tuberculin screening test (TST) and serological testing for HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C were performed after obtaining informed consent. A total of 6899 migrants were screened, the majority of whom were male (91%) and 18-31 years old (85%), with a mean age of 25.3 years. Of all patients, 2.5% received secondary care. Common complaints and diagnoses included respiratory infections (23%) and myalgia (18%). The tuberculin screening test (TST) was positive in 7.8% out of 1132 patients tested. Out of 632 migrants, 0.3%, 3.2% and 0.8% tested positive for HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C, respectively. Overall, 22.3% of adults were vaccinated against poliomyelitis. Irregular migrants that enter Greek borders are generally in good health. Nevertheless, the risk of spreading communicable diseases is an important issue to consider among migrants at the holding level due to severe overcrowding conditions. Therefore, there is a need to strengthen surveillance and implement harmonized screening procedures with the aim of providing sustainable and good quality services that are focused on prevention and early treatment. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eijsackers, Herman [Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Reinecke, Adriaan; Reinecke, Sophie [Department of Botany & Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602 (South Africa); Maboeta, Mark, E-mail: email@example.com [Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa)
In southern Africa arable soils are limited due to low rainfall and are threatened by anthropogenic activities like agriculture and mining making it susceptible to degradation. The aim of this study is to review the existing information available with regards to soil contamination and its possible threats towards biodiversity and quality of southern African soils. Some of the issues being addressed in this paper include the focus areas of ecotoxicological research in southern African countries, levels of contaminants in soils, the impacts of climate on soil animals and the representativity of standardised test species. In order to address this, we report on a literature search, which was done to determine the main focus areas of soil ecotoxicological research, highlighting strengths and research needs in comparison to approaches elsewhere in the world. Further, to address if the risk assessment approaches of Europe and the USA are valid for southern African environmental conditions; this in the light of differences in temperature, rainfall and fauna. It is concluded that risk assessment procedures for Europe and the USA were based on non-southern African conditions making it necessary to rethink risk assessment studies; although limited, in southern Africa. We recommend future research that has to be undertaken to address these issues. This research should include investigating species sensitivities in responses to contamination and including insects likes ants and termites in ecological risk assessment studies.
Eijsackers, Herman; Reinecke, Adriaan; Reinecke, Sophie; Maboeta, Mark
In southern Africa arable soils are limited due to low rainfall and are threatened by anthropogenic activities like agriculture and mining making it susceptible to degradation. The aim of this study is to review the existing information available with regards to soil contamination and its possible threats towards biodiversity and quality of southern African soils. Some of the issues being addressed in this paper include the focus areas of ecotoxicological research in southern African countries, levels of contaminants in soils, the impacts of climate on soil animals and the representativity of standardised test species. In order to address this, we report on a literature search, which was done to determine the main focus areas of soil ecotoxicological research, highlighting strengths and research needs in comparison to approaches elsewhere in the world. Further, to address if the risk assessment approaches of Europe and the USA are valid for southern African environmental conditions; this in the light of differences in temperature, rainfall and fauna. It is concluded that risk assessment procedures for Europe and the USA were based on non-southern African conditions making it necessary to rethink risk assessment studies; although limited, in southern Africa. We recommend future research that has to be undertaken to address these issues. This research should include investigating species sensitivities in responses to contamination and including insects likes ants and termites in ecological risk assessment studies.
Full Text Available Patterns of migration can change greatly over time, with the size and composition of migrant populations reflecting both, current and historical patterns of migration flows. The recent economic crisis has caused a decrease on migration flows towards the most affected areas, as well as cut offs in health interventions addressed to migrants. The objective of this paper is to review available data about interventions on migrants' health in Europe, and to describe changes in migrant health policies across Europe after the economic crisis, that can have a negative effect in their health status. Although migrants have the right to health care under legal settlements issued by the EU, there is no a standard European approach to offer health care to migrants, since; policies in each EU Member State are developed according to specific migrant experience, political climate, and attitudes towards migration. Migrants use to face greater health problems and major health care access barriers, compared with their counterparts from the EU. Therefore, migrant health policies should focus in protects this vulnerable group, especially during economic hardship, taking into account economic and socio-demographic risk factors. There is an especial need for research in the cost-effectiveness of investing in the health care of the migrant population, demonstrating the benefit of such, even in the health of the European native population, and the need for constant intervention despite of resource constraints.
Dawson, D.K.; Robbins, C.S.; Sauer, J.R.
We used mist nets and point counts to sample bird populations in 61 sites in Belize during January-March of 1987-1991. Sites were classified as forest, second growth, woody agricultural crops (citrus, mango, cacao, and cashew), or non-woody agricultural crops (rice and sugar cane). We evaluated patterns of occurence of wintering temperate migrant bird species in these habitats. Mist net captures of 22 of 31 migrant species differed significantly among habitats. Of these, 13 species were captured more frequently in the agricultural habitats. American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla), Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia), and Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica magnolia) were among the species captured most frequently in woody agricultural habitats; captures of Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and Northern (lcterus galbula) and Orchard orioles (I. spur/anus) were highest in the non-woody agricultural sites. We relate these occurrence patterns to trends in breeding populations in North America. While count data provide a wide picture of winter habitat distribution of migrants, more intensive work is necessary to assess temporal and geographic variation of migrant bird use of agricultural habitats.
Jampaklay, Aree; Vapattanawong, Patama
To date, research that includes children's views on parental migration has been insufficient. Based on the children's assessment of well-being, we use a case study of Thailand to ask whether children of overseas migrant parents are less or more resilient compared to children of non-migrant parents. We make use of data from the Child Health and Migrant Parents in South-East Asia (CHAMPSEA) Project, one of the few studies that provide space for children, both of migrant and non-migrant parents, to voice their views. Our sample includes 496 children aged 9 to 11 years old. The outcome variable captures children's subjective well-being as an indicator of whether they are a resilient child. Our multivariate analysis controls for other potential contributing factors, including the children's individual attributes, carer's mental health, parents' education, family functioning as reported by the children, and household economic status in order to investigate the effects of parental migration. Qualitative information from in-depth interviews with selected carers and group interviews with community leaders are also used to explain the results. Our findings highlight the importance of taking into account children's own perceptions. Compared to children of non-migrant parents, those of migrant parents are more likely to give a positive assessment of their own well-being. The other contributing factors include whether the child sees their family as functioning well. In Thailand, international migration is predominantly undertaken by fathers while childcare remains the responsibility of mothers, and public attitudes towards overseas migration, especially paternal migration, is generally favorable. This may help explain the positive perception of children of migrants towards themselves.
Fakoya, Ibidun; Álvarez-Del Arco, Débora; Monge, Susana; Copas, Andrew J; Gennotte, Anne-Francoise; Volny-Anne, Alain; Göpel, Siri; Touloumi, Giota; Prins, Maria; Barros, Henrique; Staehelin, Cornelia; Del Amo, Julia; Burns, Fiona M
Migrants form a substantial proportion of the population affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Europe, yet HIV prevention for this population is hindered by poor understanding of access to care and of postmigration transmission dynamics. We present the design and methods of the advancing Migrant Access to health Services in Europe (aMASE) study, the first European cross-cultural study focused on multiple migrant populations. It aims to identify the structural, cultural, and financial barriers to HIV prevention, diagnosis, and treatment and to determine the likely country of HIV acquisition in HIV-positive migrant populations. We delivered 2 cross-sectional electronic surveys across 10 countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, and United Kingdom). A clinic survey aimed to recruit up to 2000 HIV-positive patients from 57 HIV clinics in 9 countries. A unique study number linked anonymized questionnaire data to clinical records data (viral loads, CD4 cell counts, viral clades, etc). This questionnaire was developed by expert panel consensus and cognitively tested, and a pilot study was carried out in 2 countries. A Web-based community survey (n=1000) reached those living with HIV but not currently accessing HIV clinics, as well as HIV-negative migrants. It was developed in close collaboration with a community advisory group (CAG) made up of representatives from community organizations in 9 of the participating countries. The CAG played a key role in data collection by promoting the survey to higher-risk migrant groups (sub-Saharan Africans, Latin Americans, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs). The questionnaires have considerable content overlap, allowing for comparison. Questions cover ethnicity, migration, immigration status, HIV testing and treatment, health-seeking behavior, sexual risk, and drug use. The electronic questionnaires, which were available in 15
Nielsen, Dorthe Susanne; Minet, Lisbeth; Zeraiq, Lina
, Lost in language barriers and Having a national sense of belonging. The main findings emphasise the vulnerability of older migrants in a resettlement country. With an unclear national identity and without the local language, older migrants struggle to develop a clear vision of their role in a minority...
Florida State Board of Health, Jacksonville.
THIS ISSUE OF "FLORIDA HEALTH NOTES" DISCUSSES FLORIDA'S MIGRANTS AND THE MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES PROVIDED BY THE STATE BOARD OF HEALTH AND THE COUNTY HEALTH DEPARTMENTS. THE FOLLOWING TOPICS ARE DISCUSSED--THEIR HOUSING AND SANITATION FACILITIES, THEIR LONG WORKING HOURS AND LOW WAGES, THEIR SUMMER MIGRATION PATTERNS, THEIR HEALTH…
The Migrant Suitcase is a metaphor to understand how social remittances are taken, brought back and transformed. Migrants bring with them different cultural norms, food and eating practices. In this paper I review the concept of social remittances in light of material culture, food and eating
The Migrant Suitcase is a metaphor to understand how social remittances are taken, brought back and transformed. Migrants bring with them different cultural norms, food and eating practices. In this paper I review the concept of social remittances in light of material culture, food and eating
Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xiong, Qing; Chen, Xinguang; Lin, Danhua; Mathur, Ambika; Stanton, Bonita
Global literature has suggested a potential negative impact of social stigma on both physical and mental health among those who are being stigmatized. However, limited data are available regarding the form of stigma and stigmatization against rural-to-urban migrant workers in developing countries, including China. This study, employing qualitative data collected from focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews with rural-to-urban migrants in Beijing, China, was designed to understand the forms and context of stigmatization against rural migrant workers. The data in the current study show that rural-to-urban migrant workers in China had experienced various forms of stigmatization including labelling, stereotyping, separation, status loss and discrimination. Stigmatization occurred through different contexts of migrant workers' lives in urban destinations, including employment seeking, workplace benefits, and access to health and other public services. The current study is a necessary first step to assess the potential impact of stigmatization on both the physical and psychological well-being of rural-to-urban migrant workers.
Christiansen, Connie Carøe
Certain activities among migrants take place in a social space spanning the sending and receiving societies. Migrants who e.g. take part in activities in hometown associations or in Islamic activism tend to do so in these social spaces, increasingly conceptualized as transnational. Our understand......Certain activities among migrants take place in a social space spanning the sending and receiving societies. Migrants who e.g. take part in activities in hometown associations or in Islamic activism tend to do so in these social spaces, increasingly conceptualized as transnational. Our...... to explain. It has been suggested that transnational strategies are applied as a safety net to substitute for prospects of a secure future in the receiving society. Solidarities or obligations, sometimes in the shape of a social contract between stayers and leavers of a family, are another suggestion. While...... both these suggestions obviously have some resonance, against them goes the observation that those who take up transnational strategies are active and most capable of succeeding and managing their lives in the receiving society. In other words, the transnational engagements of migrants...
Vila-Real, Catarina; Pimenta-Martins, Ana; Gomes, Ana Maria; Pinto, Elisabete; Maina, Ndegwa Henry
Dietary patterns are often considered as one of the main causes of non-communicable diseases worldwide. It is of utmost importance to study dietary habits in developing countries since this work is scarce. To summarize the most recent research conducted in this field in African countries, namely the most used methodologies and tools. A systematic review was conducted on MEDLINE®/PubMed, aiming to identify scientific publications focused on studies of dietary intake of different African populations, in a ten-year period. Papers not written in English/Portuguese/Spanish, studies developed among African people but not developed in African countries, studies aiming to assess a particular nutrient/specific food/food toxin and studies that assessed dietary intake among children were excluded. Out of 99 included studies, the 24-hour recall and the food-frequency questionnaire were the most used dietary intake assessment tools, used to assess diet at an individual level. It was also observed that often country-unspecific food composition databases are used, and the methodologies employed are poorly validated and standardized. There is an emergent need to improve the existing food databases by updating food data and to develop suitable country-specific databases for those that do not have their own food composition table.
In November 1991, following a military coup in Haiti, thousands of Haitians fled that country in small open boats. Most migrants were intercepted by U.S. Coast Guard cutters and taken to the U.S. Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay (GTMO), Cuba (Figure 1), where the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) established a joint task force (JTF) migrant relief operation.* This report summarizes the results of health assessments of migrants conducted by the JTF.
Brand, Tilman; Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Ellert, Ute; Keil, Thomas; Krist, Lilian; Dragano, Nico; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Razum, Oliver; Reiss, Katharina; Greiser, Karin Halina; Zimmermann, Heiko; Becher, Heiko; Zeeb, Hajo
We assessed the association between acculturation and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among persons with a Turkish migrant background in Germany. 1226 adults of Turkish origin were recruited in four German cities. Acculturation was assessed using the Frankfurt Acculturation Scale resulting in four groups (integration, assimilation, separation and marginalization). Short Form-8 physical and mental components were used to assess the HRQoL. Associations were analysed with linear regression models. Of the respondents, 20% were classified as integrated, 29% assimilated, 29% separated and 19% as marginalized. Separation was associated with poorer physical and mental health (linear regression coefficient (RC) = -2.3, 95% CI -3.9 to -0.8 and RC = -2.4, 95% CI -4.4 to -0.5, respectively; reference: integration). Marginalization was associated with poorer mental health in descendants of migrants (RC = -6.4, 95% CI -12.0 to -0.8; reference: integration). Separation and marginalization are associated with a poorer HRQoL. Policies should support the integration of migrants, and health promotion interventions should target separated and marginalized migrants to improve their HRQoL.
Balasubramanian, M; Spencer, A J; Short, S D; Watkins, K; Chrisopoulos, S; Brennan, D S
Migrants occupy a significant proportion of the dental workforce in Australia. The objectives of this study were to assess the level of job satisfaction of employed migrant dentists in Australia, and to examine the association between various migrant dentist characteristics and job satisfaction. All migrant dentists resident in Australia were surveyed using a five-point Likert scale that measured specific aspects of job, career and satisfaction with area and type of practice. A total of 1022 migrant dentists responded to this study; 974 (95.4%) were employed. Responses for all scales were skewed towards strongly agree (scores ≥4). The overall scale varied by age group, marital status, years since arrival to Australia and specialist qualification (chi-square, p satisfaction amongst older age groups. Dentists who migrated through the examination pathway (mainly from low- and middle-income countries) had a lower probability of being satisfied with the area and type of practice (OR = 0.71; 0.51-0.98), compared with direct-entry migrant dentists (from high-income countries). The high level of job satisfaction of migrant dentists reflects well on their work-related experiences in Australia. The study offers policy suggestions towards support for younger dentists and examination pathway migrants, so they have appropriate skills and standards to fit the Australian health care environment. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.
Metulini, Rodolfo; Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Riccaboni, Massimo
Disentangling the relations between human migrations and water resources is relevant for food security and trade policy in water-scarce countries. It is commonly believed that human migrations are beneficial to the water endowments of origin countries for reducing the pressure on local resources. We show here that such belief is over-simplistic. We reframe the problem by considering the international food trade and the corresponding virtual water fluxes, which quantify the water used for the production of traded agricultural commodities. By means of robust analytical tools, we show that migrants strengthen the commercial links between countries, triggering trade fluxes caused by food consumption habits persisting after migration. Thus migrants significantly increase the virtual water fluxes and the use of water in the countries of origin. The flux ascribable to each migrant, i.e. the "water suitcase", is found to have increased from 321 m3/y in 1990 to 1367 m3/y in 2010. A comparison with the water footprint of individuals shows that where the water suitcase exceeds the water footprint of inhabitants, migrations turn out to be detrimental to the water endowments of origin countries, challenging the common perception that migrations tend to relieve the pressure on the local (water) resources of origin countries.
Bechtel, G A; Shepherd, M A; Rogers, P W
Migrant farmworkers and their families have restricted access to health and human services because of their frequent relocation between states, language and cultural barriers, and limited economic and political resources. Living and working in substandard environments, these families are at greater risk for developing chronic and communicable disease. In an assessment of health patterns among 225 migrant workers and their families, using personal observations, unstructured interviews, and individual and state health records, children's immunizations were found to be current, but dental caries and head lice were epidemic. Among adults, almost one third tested positive for tuberculosis exposure. Urinary tract infections were the most common health problem among women. Primary and secondary prevention were almost nonexistent because funds for these services were not readily available. The patriarchal system contributes to these problems by limiting access to family-health and social service needs. Although providing comprehensive health care to migrant communities presents unique challenges, nurses can demonstrate their effectiveness in reducing morbidity through strategic interventions and alternative uses of health delivery systems.
Australian Inst. of Multicultural Affairs, Melbourne (Australia).
The seven papers collected in this report cover the educational and labor market experiences of migrant youth in Australia. Most of the papers address the question of how these youths are affected by government labor programs and services. "Migrant Unemployment in the First Year of Labour Market Activity" (Paul W. Miller) reports that…
Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.
Written in both English and Spanish, this booklet briefly summarizes the general concepts and requirements behind Title I Migrant activities for use by project personnel, parents, and others interested in those projects. After a brief discussion of project funding and definitions of commonly used terms, there is an outline of requirements which…
Based on case studies in a fish processing plant and a demolition company, this article shows how strong and institutionally embedded unions interact with migrant workers in a precarious labour market position in order to safeguard their working conditions and organise them. It shows how strong...... in the IR-model. The dynamic relation between migrant workers and national unions in this high-density setting is discussed emphasising the need for building a trustful relation between the migrant workers and the unions in order to empower the migrants to better navigate in the national labour market...... unions are in a good position to include migrant workers and thereby resist labour market segmentation. The strong Danish unions, faced with the serious challenges of intra-European labour migration, have increased their attention and resources devoted to organising migrant workers and including them...
Hjern, Anders; Rajmil, Luis; Bergström, Malin; Berlin, Marie; Gustafsson, Per A; Modin, Bitte
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of migrant density in school on the well-being of pupils with a migrant origin in first as well as second generation. Cross-sectional analysis of data from a national classroom survey of 15-year-old Swedish schoolchildren. The study population included 76 229 pupils (86.5% participation) with complete data set from 1352 schools. Six dimensions of well-being from the KIDSCREEN were analysed in two-level linear regression models to assess the influence of migrant origin at individual level and percentage of students with a migrant origin at school level, as well as interaction terms between them. Z-scores were used to equalize scales. A high density (>50%) of pupils with a migrant origin in first or second generation was associated with positive well-being on all six scales for foreign-born pupils originating in Africa or Asia compared with schools with low (psychological well-being (Pschools with low (schools with few other migrant children. School interventions to improve peer relations and prevent bullying are needed to promote well-being in non-European migrant children.
Thela, Lindokuhle; Tomita, Andrew; Maharaj, Varsha; Mhlongo, Mpho; Burns, Jonathan K
There are few studies on the role of migration within sub-Saharan Africa and its relation to the development of mental illness. We investigated post-resettlement adaptation and mental health challenges of African refugees/migrants in Durban, South Africa. We interviewed 335 African help-seeking refugees/migrants for anxiety, depression (25-item Hopkins Symptom Checklist) and post-traumatic stress symptoms (30-item Harvard Trauma Questionnaire). Socio-demographic and migration history, focusing on post-migration circumstances and experiences of discrimination in the host country, were obtained. Association between migration and post-settlement factors and mental health outcomes were assessed using adjusted logistic regression models. Prevalence of mental distress was high: 49.4% anxiety, 54.6% depression and 24.9% post-traumatic stress symptoms. After adjustment for family separation since migration, recent arrival in South Africa was associated with increased risk for depression (aOR = 4.0, 95% CI:1.3-11.8) and post-traumatic stress (aOR = 5.2, 95% CI:1.7-15.9), while in unadjusted models, older age on arrival was associated with anxiety (aOR = 5.3, 95% CI:1.4-19.8) and depression (aOR = 6.2, 95% CI:1.6-24.3). History of family separation since migration was independently associated with depression and post-traumatic stress in all models. Discriminatory experiences since migration was also an independent risk factor for all three mental health outcomes. Finally, being divorced/widowed was associated with an increased risk for post-traumatic stress, while higher income earners were protected against post-traumatic symptoms, even after adjustment. Refugees/migrants in South Africa show a significant burden of mental distress that is linked to challenges of adjustment in an often hostile context. Services addressing these and other health-related, social-economic needs should be developed as a priority.
Nicholas L. Rodenhouse; Louis B. Best; Raymond J. O' Connor; Eric K. Bollinger
The ecology of Neotropical migrant landbirds in temperate farmland is reviewed to develop management recommendations for the conservation of migrants. Migrants constitute about 71% of bird species using farmland and 86% of bird species nesting there. The number and abundances of Neotropical migrants using farmland are greatest in uncultivated edges with trees and...
Abakumova I. V.
Full Text Available This article focuses on the role of the media in shaping the worldview of today’s youth. In Part 1, social attitudes and social stereotypes are described in the context of ethnic relations. Part 2 describes the research into social distance and ethnic and religious stereotypes conducted by I.V. Abakumova and A.V. Grishina. The study was conducted in two stages. First we analyzed various TV and radio programs, articles in the press and on the Internet, about migrant workers, published from March 2009 to March 2012, to identify the image of migrant workers in the Russian media, for further study of the perceptions of migrant workers by students in different professional fields. In the second stage, we modified E. Bogardus’s “Social Distance Scale” in order to assess respondents’ attitudes toward media images of migrant workers and, more importantly, to determine the social distance at which the respondent tolerates the images and therefore the migrants themselves. The last part of the article reports the main findings and conclusions of the study.
Full Text Available HIV transmission in rural areas of China is being fueled in part by migrant workers who acquire HIV outside of their hometowns. Recent surveillance statistics indicate that HIV prevalence among returning migrants has increased significantly.We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study to assess HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors among migrant returnees in Nantong, Jiangsu Province, one of the largest exporters of migrant laborers.A total of 1625 subjects were enrolled with a response rate of 89%. All participants were male and of the majority Han ethnicity. The mean age was 39.0 years (SD = 6.7; range: 18 to 63, and most had a stable partner (N = 1533, 94.3%. Most correctly identified the major modes of HIV transmission (68.9%-82.0%, but fewer were able to identify ways that HIV cannot be transmitted. Nearly one-third of participants held positive attitudes toward having multiple sex partners, and nearly half believed that sex work should be legalized. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that risky sexual behavior (defined as sex with a casual or commercial sex partner was associated with no stable partner; working abroad; correct condom use; age <22 at first sex; higher coital frequency; and having a positive attitude towards multiple sex partners.We found high levels of reported sex with a casual or commercial sex partner and low levels of consistent condom use. HIV prevention interventions among migrant workers need to focus on younger migrants, migrants without stable partners, and migrants who travel abroad for work.
Full Text Available BackgroundIn many European countries including Germany, migrants utilize preventive services less frequently than the majority population. This is also true for the utilization of dental checkups. Little is known about which demographic, social, behavioral, and health-related factors influence the decision of migrants to seek preventive dental health care and how these factors differ from those in non-migrants. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of these factors among migrants and non-migrants residing in Germany.MethodsData from cross-sectional national health surveys are used, providing information on preventive dental health behavior from n = 41,220 individuals, of which 15.0% are migrants. Andersen’s Behavioral Model of Health Services Use is the conceptual framework of the investigation. Multiple logistic regression models were applied to examine the role of different predisposing and enabling factors. Interaction terms were included in order to examine whether determinants differ between migrants and non-migrants. Average marginal effects (AMEs are reported in addition to odds ratios (ORs as measures of effect size which are robust against bias arising from unobserved heterogeneity.ResultsMigrants are at an about 36% lower chance of utilizing regular dental checkups than non-migrants [OR = 0.64 (95% confidence interval, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.68; AME = −0.081 (95% CI = −0.093, −0.069]. Differences are partly explained by the influence of demographic, social, behavioral, and health-related factors [adjusted OR = 0.69 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.73; AME = −0.065 (95% CI = −0.076, −0.053]. Younger age, being male, lower socioeconomic status, a non-statutory health insurance, not living in a relationship, living in the Western part of Germany and in an urban setting, and poor limited social support were associated with a lower chance of utilizing regular dental checkups. Interaction effects could be
Full Text Available Background: Migration, whether voluntary or forced, entails major adaptations. An elaborate insight into the circumstances helps to induce various interventions in migrants. Aims and Objectives: To elicit the psychological health, lifestyle variables, religiosity, spirituality and coping among migrants and compare it with non migrants in a rural locality. Material and Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was undertaken among 404 adults aged 20 years and above. The General Health Questionnaire–12, Religiosity scale by Wilkes, The Daily Spiritual Experience Scale and COPE scale were used as psychometric tools for data collection. Data was analysed using SPSS (ver. 20.0. Results: A sample of 137 migrants and 267 non migrants were analysed. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups for occupation and education (p=0.002 & 0.000 resp. The mean scores of the psychological health of migrants (10.58± 6.32 were slightly better than that of non migrants (11.49 ±5.69, p= 0.142. Spirituality scores showed migrants being more inclined towards spiritualism (p=0.016. Young age, religious and spiritual propensity showed a statistically significant correlation with better Psychological health (p=0.036, 0.000&0.013resp. Conclusion: Providing psychosocial assistance to migrant populations focussing on educational, occupational & religious-spiritual issues can reduce vulnerabilities especially for psychological health.
North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Compensatory Education.
The revised handbook provides specific references to the legislation and the National Migrant Program Guidelines, while setting forth the administrative procedures required for migrant projects in North Carolina. Specific topics of discussion in migrant program administration cover Public Law 89-750, state and local educational agency…
van Liempt, I.; Doomernik, J.
This paper focuses on migrants who have been smuggled to the Netherlands from three regions: Iraq, Horn of Africa, and the former Soviet Union. The central questions are: to what extent do smugglers give direction to migration; and how much autonomy do migrants themselves have in deciding where they
Agyei, Bernard; Nicolaou, Mary; Boateng, Linda; Dijkshoorn, Henriette; van den Born, Bert-Jan; Agyemang, Charles
Hypertension is highly prevalent among recent sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in western countries and some tend to associate their hypertension to psychosocial stress. However data on the relationship between hypertension and psychosocial stress among SSA migrants are rare. We assessed the
Full Text Available South Africa’s performance in international benchmark tests is a major cause for concern amongst educators and policymakers, raising questions about the effectiveness of the curriculum reform efforts of the democratic era. The purpose of the study reported in this article was to investigate the degree of alignment between the TIMSS 2003 Grade 8 Mathematics assessment frameworks and the Revised National Curriculum Statements (RNCS assessment standards for Grade 8 Mathematics, later revised to become the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements (CAPS. Such an investigation could help to partly shed light on why South African learners do not perform well and point out discrepancies that need to be attended to. The methodology of document analysis was adopted for the study, with the RNCS and the TIMSS 2003 Grade 8 Mathematics frameworks forming the principal documents. Porter’s moderately complex index of alignment was adopted for its simplicity. The computed index of 0.751 for the alignment between the RNCS assessment standards and the TIMSS assessment objectives was found to be significantly statistically low, at the alpha level of 0.05, according to Fulmer’s critical values for 20 cells and 90 or 120 standard points. The study suggests that inadequate attention has been paid to the alignment of the South African mathematics curriculum to the successive TIMSS assessment frameworks in terms of the cognitive level descriptions. The study recommends that participation in TIMSS should rigorously and critically inform ongoing curriculum reform efforts.
. Furthermore, an empowering motivational environment characterized by a mastery climate, supportive of the needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness, was positively linked to attitudes favoring migrants' maintenance of their culture and development of interaction with the host culture, whereas......In the era of globalization, multicultural societies are common-place in most developed countries. Therefore, new challenges at both national and international level have come to the fore, and successful acculturation appears to be the key for maintaining social cohesion and promoting...... the acculturation process and to identify factors that may regulate the acculturation process through sport participation. The second study focuses on adolescent migrants and aimed at identifying differences in acculturation attitudes and acculturative stress among young migrants who participate in sports and those...
Willie, Charles V., Ed.; Garibaldi, Antoine M., Ed.; Reed, Wornie L., Ed.
In 1987 a project was undertaken to assess the status of African Americans in the United States in the topical areas to be addressed by the National Research Council's Study Committee on the Status of Black Americans: education, employment, income and occupations, political participation and the administration of justice, social and cultural…
Junguo Zhang, PhD candidate
Full Text Available Background: Sexual frequency is associated with the quality of life. China’s internal migrants that are sexually active are more likely to participate in sexual behavior. However, less work has been undertaken to assess the sexual frequency and its predictors in migrants. Aim: This study seeks to explore which factors were related to sexual frequency in migrants and how the association varies with different levels of sexual frequency. Methods: A total of 10,834 men and 4,928 women aged 20–49 years from 5 cities in China were enrolled by multi-stage sampling during August 2013–August 2015. Outcomes: Sexual frequency among migrants was determined by asking: How many times have you had sexual intercourse with a man/woman in the past 30 days? Results: In this study, sexual frequency with an average age of 38.28 years was 5.06 (95% CI 5.01–5.11 time per month. Negative binomial showed that male gender, younger age, earlier age of sexual debut, masturbation, more knowledge of sexual and reproductive health, longer time together with a spouse, and higher school education and incomes were predictors of increased sexual frequency in migrants. Communicating with sexual partners frequently had the largest effect on sexual frequency compared with occasional communicating (β = 0.2419, incidence rate ratio = 1.27, 95% CI 1.23–1.31. In the quantile regression, months of cohabitation (β = 0.0999, 95% CI 0.08–0.12, frequent sexual communication (β = 0.4534, 95% CI 0.39–0.52, and masturbation (β = 0.2168, 95% CI 0.14–0.30 were positively related to lower levels of sexual frequency. Interestingly, migrants who had low and high sexual frequency would be affected in opposite directions by the knowledge of sexual and reproductive health. Clinical Translation: Clinicians can more understand the relationship between sexual frequency and its factors that can as the symptom basis of sexually-related diseases. Conclusions: The present findings
Shah, N M; Menon, I
"Labour migration to the Gulf countries is predominantly contract based and a majority of workers fall below the salary ceiling necessary for sponsoring family members. Despite this, social networks have expanded in Kuwait, primarily in the form of sponsorship of additional labour migrants by those already in the country. The objectives of the article are to describe how the process of arranging sponsorship works, to delineate the predictors of moving through a friend or relative, or arranging sponsorship for a subsequent labour migrant, and to assess the ¿multiplier' effect of the above process. The article is based on a survey among 800 South Asian skilled and unskilled male migrants, 200 each from Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka." (EXCERPT)
Ramirez, Adrian D.
The 7-year longitudinal study examined the College Assistance Migrant Program (CAMP) impact on migrant student achievement in the California State University system. Participants included migrant students, Latinos, and general student populations from 2002-2009. The analysis of variance and chi-square test of independence were used to explore…
Crawshaw, A F; Kirkbride, H
Approximately 13% of the UK population in 2015 was born overseas. Most migrants have come to the UK to work or study although there has been a small increase in the number of asylum applications in the UK in recent years, reflective of the ongoing humanitarian situation across Europe. Migrants in the UK tend to be young and healthy, but some may face unique health needs as a result of their experiences before, during and after migration. For these needs to be appropriately recognised and addressed, evidence-based advice is needed for UK professionals. The Migrant Health Guide is a free online tool for healthcare professionals. It was launched in 2011 and is widely used in the UK and internationally. It has four sections: 1) Migrants and the NHS-information on access and entitlements to the National Health Service (NHS); 2) Assessing patients-includes a checklist for initial healthcare assessments and advice for patients travelling abroad to visit friends and relatives; 3) Countries-country-specific advice on infectious diseases, women's health and nutritional and metabolic concerns; and 4) Health topics-information about communicable and non-communicable diseases and other health issues. The guide has undergone an extensive update in 2017. In particular, the pages on mental health and human trafficking have been expanded. A formal evaluation will obtain feedback on the guide and measure changes in awareness, knowledge, opinions, attitudes and behaviour of end users. Findings will inform future revisions and updates to the guide. Public Health England's Migrant Health Guide is a valuable resource for healthcare professionals. The relaunched guide builds on the previous version in raising awareness of key issues and providing evidence-based advice to improve the health of migrants and refugees internationally and in the UK. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Camacho, Juana; Gomez, Jose Luis
This exhibit guide (in Spanish, with translation in English printed on adjoining columns on each page), describes an exhibition of folk art by Mexican migrant farmworkers presented by thre Folk Arts Program of the BOCES Geneseo Migrant Center. The exhibit is divided into four major themes that farmworkers presented by the BOCES Geneseo Migrant…
Noble, Richard, III; Morton, Crystal Hill
This study investigated within group differences between African American female and male students who participated in the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress mathematics assessment. Using results from participating states, we compare average scale scores of African American students based on home regulatory environment and interest…
Shehadeh, Nancy; Rubens, Muni; Attonito, Jennifer; Jennings, Terri
Migrant workers are disproportionately affected by HIV due to poverty, social isolation, lack of access to and availability of health care services, acculturation, language barriers, constant mobility, and lack of knowledge. This study examined the impact of changes in social support on ethnic identity and HIV risk behaviors among migrant workers in South Florida. For this study, baseline and 6-month follow-up data were collected from an HIV intervention study among migrant workers in South Florida (n = 270) who reported unprotected sex in the past 30 days. The Multigroup Identity Measure was used to assess ethnic identity and the Social Provisions Scale examined the degree to which respondents' social relationships provide various dimensions of social support. Social support was a significant predictor of ethnic identity and of ethnic identity subscales, ethnic identity belonging and ethnic identity explore. There were small but statistically significant short-term changes in ethnic identity and ethnic identity subscales among the migrant workers over the 6-month time period assessed after controlling for the intervention. Future studies should be conducted over a longer period of time to better assess this relationship and possible factors to reduce HIV risk behaviors. There is a need to focus on improving the quality of health and reduce HIV and other risks experienced by this marginalized community.
This paper will investigate the production of knowledge regarding the number of illegalized migrants. Estimation of the number has been the common frame for production of this kind of knowledge, performed by social scientists, government officials, NGOs and others, but now biometric technology...... by biometric technology will produce increased objectivity and depolitization in numbers of irregular migrants which could not be obtained in the field of estimation. The level of truth reflects the level of control and surveillance fixed as a strategy of government of mobility in the biometric technology....
Bazinet, Suzanne C., Ed.
The Maine Department of Education contracts with local educational agencies to administer the Maine Migrant Education Program. The program's overall mission is to provide the support necessary for migrant children to achieve Maine's academic standards. In 1997-98, 73 local migrant programs served 9,838 students, and 63 summer programs served 1,769…
The study below is meant to focus on the migrant smuggling crime in Romania, especially analysis of the migrant smuggling infraction provided in the Romanian Criminal Code. Being a component of the human trafficking activity, the illegal migration is a phenomenon that is continuously extending and harder to stop due to the involvement of the organized crime networks and also due the ingenuousness and maliciousness of the people and the criminals. Therewith, the migrant smuggling is highly con...
Wang, Wenting; Chen, Ren; Ma, Ying; Sun, Xuehui; Qin, Xia; Hu, Zhi
There is a growing recognition of the need to provide HIV/AIDS prevention and care to migrant workers. Social involvement, a type of social capital, is considered a 'critical enabler' of effective HIV/AIDS prevention. Designated participation in formal community groups by the government (e.g., political parties) and informal, voluntary local networks by NGOs (e.g., alumni association, cultural & sports club) play different roles in HIV prevention. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of different types of social organizations on HIV/AIDS prevention knowledge among migrant workers. A cross-sectional study of 758 migrants was conducted in Hefei, Anhui Province, China. Data were collected through a self-reported questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between different social organizations and HIV/AIDS prevention. Migrants who participated in social organizations had a higher awareness of HIV/AIDS knowledge than migrants who do not participate in social organizations. Higher levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge is associated with positive HIV/AIDS behaviors for people who attended political parties (odds ratio [OR] = 3.49, 95% CI: 1.22-9.99). This effect is not significant for alumni association. For both political parties and alumni association members (OR = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.06-0.66, OR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.08-0.61, respectively), people who exhibited higher levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge had more negative attitudes than those with less knowledge. Social organizations play an important role in improving HIV/AIDS knowledge and behavior in migrants, providing a great opportunity for HIV/AIDS prevention.
MSc. Albulena Hajdari
Full Text Available Smuggling of migrants, as a serious type of criminality, takes an important place in legal science and criminal legislation. This is due to the fact that actions creating the image of these criminal offences also cause numerous individual, family and societal consequences. Smuggling migrants, with all its consequences, attracts the attention not only of the state authorities, but also the wider public, and numerous researchers and scholars. Nevertheless, despite this fact, this phenomenon has not been studied thoroughly. There is a dire lack of such research in recent years, specifically because of the presence of such crimes in a relatively higher number. This circumstance, specifically the fact that in Kosovo, smuggling migrants is a frequent occurrence, made me engage in studying this type of criminality. The aim of this paper is to research on criminal offences of migrant smuggling in Kosovo, and especially their causes. The causes of these criminal offences may be of numerous natures, but the main causes may be sought in social and economic circumstances, and other conditions related to the unstable political setting, weaknesses in operations of justice authorities, lack of implementation of criminal legislation, etc. In researching the criminal offences of smuggling migrants, I have used the method of historical materialism, legal-dogmatic method, statistical method, complaint method and interviews, and the method of studying individual cases. In the case of addressing criminal offences of smuggling migrants, I have concluded that these offences represent a serious type of crime, thereby resulting in dire individual, family and societal consequences. They are found in all modern societies, including Kosovo.
Taype-Rondan, Alvaro; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Alvarado, Germán F; Gilman, Robert H; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime
Previous studies have found mixed results about cigarette and alcohol consumption patterns among rural-to-urban migrants. Moreover, there are limited longitudinal data about consumption patterns in this population. As such, this study aimed to compare the smoking and heavy drinking prevalence among rural, urban, and rural-to-urban migrants in Peru, as well as the smoking and heavy drinking incidence in a 5-year follow-up. We analyzed the PERU MIGRANT Study data from rural, urban, and rural-to-urban migrant populations in Peru. The baseline study was carried out in 2006-2007 and follow-up was performed five years later. For the baseline data analysis, the prevalence of lifetime smoking, current smokers, and heavy drinking was compared by population group using prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). For the longitudinal analysis, the incidence of smoking and heavy drinking was compared by population group with risk ratios (RR) and 95% CI. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to calculate both PRs and RRs. We analyzed data from 988 participants: 200 rural dwellers, 589 migrants, and 199 urban dwellers. Compared with migrants, lifetime smoking prevalence was higher in the urban group (PR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.64-3.20), but lower in the rural group (PR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.31-0.99). Compared with migrants, the urban group had a higher current smoking prevalence (PR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.26-4.16), and a higher smoking incidence (RR = 2.75, 95% CI = 1.03-7.34). Current smoking prevalence and smoking incidence showed no significant difference between rural and migrant groups. The prevalence and incidence of heavy drinking was similar across the three population groups. Our results show a trend in lifetime smoking prevalence (urban > migrant > rural), while smoking incidence was similar between migrant and rural groups, but higher in the urban group. In addition, our results suggest that different
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have found mixed results about cigarette and alcohol consumption patterns among rural-to-urban migrants. Moreover, there are limited longitudinal data about consumption patterns in this population. As such, this study aimed to compare the smoking and heavy drinking prevalence among rural, urban, and rural-to-urban migrants in Peru, as well as the smoking and heavy drinking incidence in a 5-year follow-up. Methods We analyzed the PERU MIGRANT Study data from rural, urban, and rural-to-urban migrant populations in Peru. The baseline study was carried out in 2006–2007 and follow-up was performed five years later. For the baseline data analysis, the prevalence of lifetime smoking, current smokers, and heavy drinking was compared by population group using prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. For the longitudinal analysis, the incidence of smoking and heavy drinking was compared by population group with risk ratios (RR and 95% CI. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to calculate both PRs and RRs. Results We analyzed data from 988 participants: 200 rural dwellers, 589 migrants, and 199 urban dwellers. Compared with migrants, lifetime smoking prevalence was higher in the urban group (PR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.64–3.20, but lower in the rural group (PR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.31–0.99. Compared with migrants, the urban group had a higher current smoking prevalence (PR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.26–4.16, and a higher smoking incidence (RR = 2.75, 95% CI = 1.03–7.34. Current smoking prevalence and smoking incidence showed no significant difference between rural and migrant groups. The prevalence and incidence of heavy drinking was similar across the three population groups. Conclusions Our results show a trend in lifetime smoking prevalence (urban > migrant > rural, while smoking incidence was similar between migrant and rural groups, but higher in the
Graetz, V.; Rechel, B.; Groot, W.
: Compared with previous systematic reviews, the results indicate a clearer picture of the differences in health service utilization between migrants and non-migrants in Europe. Areas timely for developing research: A comprehensive comparison across European countries is impossible because the number......Introduction: Our study reviewed the empirical evidence on the utilization of health care services by migrants in Europe, and on differences in health service utilization between migrants and non-migrants across European countries. Sources of data: A systematic literature review was performed......, searching the databases Medline, Cinahl and Embase and covering the period from January 2009 to April 2016. The final number of articles included was 39. Areas of agreement: Utilization of accident and emergency services and hospitalizations were higher among migrants compared with non-migrants in most...
Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Herslund, Lise Byskov
East African cities are in the process of assessing their vulnerabilities to climate change, but face difficulties in capturing the complexity of the various facets of vulnerability. This holistic approach, captures four different dimensions of vulnerability to flooding - Assets, Institutions......, Attitudes and the Physical environment, with Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, as a case city. The methodology is actively involving the expertise of the stakeholders, and uses GIS to analyze and compile the data. The final output is presented as a comprehensible map, delineating the varying vulnerability...
Guinto, Ramon Lorenzo Luis R; Curran, Ufara Zuwasti; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Pocock, Nicola S
As the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) gears toward full regional integration by 2015, the cross-border mobility of workers and citizens at large is expected to further intensify in the coming years. While ASEAN member countries have already signed the Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers, the health rights of migrants still need to be addressed, especially with ongoing universal health coverage (UHC) reforms in most ASEAN countries. This paper seeks to examine the inclusion of migrants in the UHC systems of five ASEAN countries which exhibit diverse migration profiles and are currently undergoing varying stages of UHC development. A scoping review of current migration trends and policies as well as ongoing UHC developments and migrant inclusion in UHC in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand was conducted. In general, all five countries, whether receiving or sending, have schemes that cover migrants to varying extents. Thailand even allows undocumented migrants to opt into its Compulsory Migrant Health Insurance scheme, while Malaysia and Singapore are still yet to consider including migrants in their government-run UHC systems. In terms of predominantly sending countries, the Philippines's social health insurance provides outbound migrants with portable insurance yet with limited benefits, while Indonesia still needs to strengthen the implementation of its compulsory migrant insurance which has a health insurance component. Overall, the five ASEAN countries continue to face implementation challenges, and will need to improve on their UHC design in order to ensure genuine inclusion of migrants, including undocumented migrants. However, such reforms will require strong political decisions from agencies outside the health sector that govern migration and labor policies. Furthermore, countries must engage in multilateral and bilateral dialogue as they redefine UHC beyond the basis of
Cooke, Graham; Hargreaves, Sally; Natkunarajah, Jana; Sandhu, Gurjinder; Dhasmana, Devesh; Eliahoo, Joseph; Holmes, Alison; Friedland, Jon S
Abstract Background The UK has witnessed a considerable increase in immigration in the past decade. Migrant may face barriers to accessing appropriate health care on arrival and the current focus on screening certain migrants for tuberculosis on arrival is considered inadequate. We assessed the implications for an inner-city London Infectious Diseases Department in a high migrant area. Methods We administered an anonymous 20-point questionnaire survey to all admitted patients during a 6 week ...
Espinar Ruiz, Eva
Full Text Available Resumen: Al margen de las definiciones legales existentes, cada vez resulta más difícil mantener una clara distinción entre refugiados (políticos y migrantes (económicos. En concreto, las restrictivas políticas migratorias, de refugio y asilo están estrechamente relacionadas con lo que los expertos llaman the asylum-migration nexus. Así, la creación de múltiples categorías administrativas de personas protegidas, la presencia de refugiados no reconocidos como tales, la incorporación de refugiados en las redes ilegales de inmigración o la solicitud del status de refugiado por parte de población migrante colaboran en la confusión de realidades. Igualmente, los cambios sociales experimentados en las últimas décadas suponen un reto para las definiciones legales derivadas de la Convención de Ginebra de 1951 y que, desde diferentes sectores, vienen calificándose como excesivamente limitadas.Abstract: Apart from the existing legal definitions, the simple distinction between (politic refugees and (economic migrants is getting more difficult to maintain. Restrictive refugee and migration legislations are strong related with what different experts have called the asylum-migration nexus. The creation of multiple administrative categories of protected people; non recognized refugees; the incorporation of refugees to illegal networks of migration; economic migrants trying to enter a country through refugee status; etc. collaborate to the confusion of the realities. Recent social changes are also a challenge to legal definitions derived from the 1951 Geneva Convention, which are described as excessively restrictive by different actors.
Odone, Anna; Tillmann, Taavi; Sandgren, Andreas; Williams, Gemma; Rechel, Bernd; Ingleby, David; Noori, Teymur; Mladovsky, Philipa; McKee, Martin
Although tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been decreasing in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in the last decades, specific subgroups of the population, such as migrants, remain at high risk of TB. This study is based on the report 'Key Infectious Diseases in Migrant Populations in the EU/EEA' commissioned by The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. We collected, critically appraised and summarized the available evidence on the TB burden in migrants in the EU/EEA. Data were collected through: (i) a comprehensive literature review; (ii) analysis of data from The European Surveillance System (TESSy) and (iii) evidence provided by TB experts during an infectious disease workshop in 2012. In 2010, of the 73,996 TB cases notified in the EU/EEA, 25% were of foreign origin. The overall decrease of TB cases observed in recent years has not been reflected in migrant populations. Foreign-born people with TB exhibit different socioeconomic and clinical characteristics than native sufferers. This is one of the first studies to use multiple data sources, including the largest available European database on infectious disease notifications, to assess the burden and provide a comprehensive description and analysis of specific TB features in migrants in the EU/EEA. Strengthened information about health determinants and factors for migrants' vulnerability is needed to plan, implement and evaluate targeted TB care and control interventions for migrants in the EU/EEA. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.
Fang, Hai; Yang, Li; Zhang, Huyang; Li, Chenyang; Wen, Liankui; Sun, Li; Hanson, Kara; Meng, Qingyue
Immunization is the most cost-effective method to prevent and control vaccine-preventable diseases. Migrant population in China has been rising rapidly, and their immunization status is poor. China has tried various strategies to strengthen its health system, which has significantly improved immunization for migrants. This study applied a qualitative retrospective review method aiming to collect, analyze and synthesize health system strengthening experiences and practices about improving immunizations for migrants in China. A conceptual framework of Theory of Change was used to extract the searched literatures. 11 searched literatures and 4 national laws and policies related to immunizations for migrant children were carefully studied. China mainly employed 3 health system strengthening strategies to significantly improve immunization for migrant population: stop charging immunization fees or immunization insurance, manage immunization certificates well, and pay extra attentions on immunization for special children including migrant children. These health system strengthening strategies were very effective, and searched literatures show that up-to-date and age-appropriate immunization rates were significantly improved for migrant children. Economic development led to higher migrant population in China, but immunization for migrants, particularly migrant children, were poor. Fortunately various health system strengthening strategies were employed to improve immunization for migrants in China and they were rather successful. The experiences and lessons of immunization for migrant population in China might be helpful for other developing countries with a large number of migrant population.
Nakagawa, F; Delpech, V; Albert, J
were undiagnosed respectively. CONCLUSION: We have shown a working example to characterize the HIV population in a European context which incorporates migrants from countries with generalized epidemics. Despite all aspects of HIV care being free and widely available to anyone in need in the UK......OBJECTIVE: Migrants account for a significant number of people living with HIV in Europe, and it is important to fully consider this population in national estimates. Using a novel approach with the UK as an example, we present key public health measures of the HIV epidemic, taking into account...... of these people, 24 600 (15 000-36 200) were estimated to be undiagnosed; this number has remained stable over the last decade. An estimated 32% of the total undiagnosed population had CD4 cell count less than 350 cells/μl in 2013. Twenty-five and 23% of black African men and women heterosexuals living with HIV...
Migrant Whole Health Outreach (MWHO) is the recipient of a CARE Level I Cooperative Agreement to conduct a risk assessment of the entire John Deere area to ascertain the environmental hazards that exist.
Full Text Available Migration is an objective process in Russia as worldwide. It has always existed and played an important role in human history. The problem of migrant workers is acute in Russia, because it borders on 18 countries. The collapse of the USSR severely damaged the economy of many former socialist republics. Consequently, people who cannot find employment in their country are forced to migrate to Russia to earn money. Most migrant workers face social, economic and psychological problems. Often, lack of social skills adds more problems to their everyday life difficulties. These things cause stress reactions and slow down their adaptation process. On the other hand, one of the most difficult things for migrants is negative attitudes they encounter as newcomers. People around often associate migrants with illegal work, crime and terrorism. On a regular basis, media report about crimes committed by migrants.
Decat, Peter; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Delva, Wim; Moyer, Eileen; Cheng, Yimin; Wang, Zhi-Jin; Lu, Ci-Yong; Wu, Shi-Zhong; Nadisauskiene, Ruta Jolanta; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier
We conducted a comparative study in worksites to assess the impact of sexual health promoting interventions on contraceptive use among female rural-to-urban migrants. In Qingdao ten manufacturing worksites were randomly allocated to a standard package of interventions (SPI) and an intensive package of interventions (IPI). The interventions ran from July 2008 to January 2009. Cross-sectional surveys at baseline and end line assessed the sexual behaviour of young female migrants. To evaluate the impact of the interventions we assessed pre- and post-time trends. From the SPI group 721 (baseline) and 615 (end line) respondents were considered. Out of the IPI group we included 684 and 603 migrants. Among childless migrants, self-reported contraceptive use increased significantly after SPI and IPI (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.23; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.52-6.84; p interventions seem to have an added value if they are well targeted to specific groups.
Thetkathuek, Anamai; Daniell, William
There has been a dramatic increase in the global movement of workers during the last few decades. As Thailand has developed rapidly over the past 20 years, it has attracted laborers (both authorized and unauthorized) from the neighboring countries of Myanmar, People's Democratic Republic of Lao (Lao PDR), and Cambodia. Given that agriculture has been Thailand's most important industry, its continued growth has been dependent on migrant workers. Both crop agriculture and animal-production agriculture have employed migrant labor. Migrants have been hired to plant, weed, fertilize, spray pesticides, and harvest crops such as rice, corn, sugar cane, and cassava. They have worked at rubber and coffee plantations, as well as in the production of ornamental crops. Also, migrants have labored on pig, beef, and duck farms. There have been numerous documented health problems among migrant workers, including acute diarrhea, malaria, and fever of unknown causes. Occupational illness and injury have been a significant concern, and there has been limited health and safety training. This article reviewed the demographic changes in Thailand, studied the agricultural crops and animal production that are dependent on migrant labor, discussed the health status and safety challenges pertaining to migrant workers in agriculture, and described several recommendations. Among the recommendations, the conclusions of this study have suggested that addressing the cost for health care and solutions to health care access for migrant labor are needed.
Agyemang, Charles; van Oeffelen, AA; Nørredam, Marie Louise
Background and Purpose—Low socioeconomic status has been linked to high incidence of stroke in industrialized countries; therefore, reducing socioeconomic disparities is an important goal of health policy. The evidence on migrant groups is, however, limited and inconsistent. We assessed socioecon......Background and Purpose—Low socioeconomic status has been linked to high incidence of stroke in industrialized countries; therefore, reducing socioeconomic disparities is an important goal of health policy. The evidence on migrant groups is, however, limited and inconsistent. We assessed...... socioeconomic inequalities in relation to stroke incidence among major ethnic groups in the Netherlands. Methods—A nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted (n=2 397 446) between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2010, among ethnic Dutch and ethnic minority groups. Standardized disposable household...... income was used as a measure of socioeconomic position. Results—Among ethnic Dutch, the incidence of stroke was higher in the low-income group than in the high-income group (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.16–1.20). Similar socioeconomic inequalities in stroke incidence were found...
New Keywords Collective
Full Text Available The article highlights the fundamentally misleading and unstable nature of the distinctions between the terms ”refugees”, “asylum-seekers”, and “migrants”, all of whom experience the precariousness produced by the EU’s exclusionary politics on asylum – due to juridical instability and geographical hyper-mobility of migrants subjects. The “hotspot” system, first launched in May 2015, represents the restructuring of mechanisms of capture and identification in response to the migration “turmoil” at the external frontiers of Europe. On the other hand, transit zones such as the Eidomeni camp at the Greek-Macedonian border or the makeshift self-organized refugee / migrant camp at Calais operate informally as de facto “hotspots.” What is commonly called “the migrant crisis” or “the refugee crisis” actually reflects the frantic attempt by the EU and European nation-states to control, contain, and govern people’s (“unauthorized” transnational and inter-continental movements. Naming it a “refugee/migrant crisis” appears to be a device for the authorization of exceptional or “emergency” governmental measures – and then their normalization. The very terms “migrant crisis” and “refugee crisis” tend to personalize “crisis” and relocate “crisis” in the body and person of the figurative migrant / refugee, as if s/he is the carrier of a disease called “crisis,” and thus carries the contagion of “crisis” wherever she may go. The article calls for attention to the new spaces of “transit” opened up by the migrants and refugees themselves, and consequently the ways in which these “irregular” human mobilities have scrambled and re-shuffled the social and political geography of “Europe.”
Perlman, Amotz; Radomislensky, Irina; Peleg, Kobi
In recent years Israel has become a destination for many migrants from Africa that illegally cross the Egyptian-Israeli border. The objective of this paper is to describe the epidemiological characteristics of injuries among illegal migrants in Israel. The study was carried out retrospectively using data from 19 trauma centers that participated in the Israel National Trauma Registry between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2011. Illegal migrants from Africa were compared to the local population. Migrants were injured more often than the local population from intentional injuries (57.11 %). Migrants were also less likely than the local population (58.38 %) to sustain a minor injury (i.e., injury severity ≤8). The study also shows the hospitalization cost as a result of injuries among migrants from Africa. Preventive measures among illegal migrants from Africa should prioritize intentional injuries and industrial site injuries.
Full Text Available In this article we address the question of migrant women's experiences in accessing the labour market in Slovenia and examine how welfare policies, or the lack thereof, affect migrant workers' lives. By focusing the study on migrant women and their position in the labour market, we problematise these women's perpetual de-skilling and socio-economic exclusion. Drawing on migrant women’s narratives we also point to their activity in counteracting experiences of discrimination and downward social mobility.
Shehadeh, Nancy; Virginia McCoy, H; Rubens, Muni; Batra, Anamica; Renfrew, Roderick; Winter, Kelly
Among migrant workers (MWs) in the US, HIV/AIDS prevalence may be as high as 13.5%. This serial cross-sectional study examines associations between Ethnic Identity (EI) in African American and Hispanic MWs and short-term changes in high-risk sexual behaviors. Baseline and 3-month follow-up data was collected from a larger HIV intervention study among MWs in Immokalee, Florida (n = 119) who reported unprotected sex in the past 30 days. The Multigroup Identity Measure was used to assess EI. A high EI score indicates less acculturation to one's new surroundings. Females had higher levels of positive behavior change. Lower EI was associated with higher levels of positive change in relation to HIV/AIDS risk behavior. Among Hispanics, education was negatively correlated with EI. Education was a predictor of behavior change. Future interventions should focus on reducing acculturation stress, which may prompt harmful coping behaviors, such as high-risk sex and substance abuse.
Hassan, H. A.
Background The Middle East construction sector is heavily reliant on a migrant workforce that predominantly originates from South Asia. It is common practice for migrant construction workers to pay a local labour recruiter the equivalent of one or more years’ prospective overseas salary to secure employment, work and travel permits and transportation. The occupational health and safety implications of these financial arrangements remain unexplored. Aims To examine associations between payment to a labour recruiter, perceived general health and worksite accidents among migrant construction workers in the Middle East. Methods A questionnaire was completed by a convenience sample of predominantly Indian migrant construction workers drawn from a large construction project. The relationship between payment and risk of poor health and workplace accidents was assessed using multivariate logistic regression models (crude and adjusted for socio-demographic and occupational factors). Results There were 651 participants. The majority (58%) of migrant construction workers had paid a labour recruiter and ~40% had experienced a worksite accident. Between 3% (labourers) and 9% (foremen) perceived their health to be poor. Labourers and skilled workers who had paid a labour recruiter were significantly more likely to have experienced a worksite accident in the previous 12 months. Skilled workers, but not labourers and foremen, who had paid a labour recruiter were at increased risk of poor health. Conclusions The mechanisms linking labour recruiter payments to adverse safety and health outcomes warrant investigation with a view to developing interventions to erode these links. PMID:24668316
Lin, Danhua; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bo; Hong, Yan; Fang, Xiaoyi; Qin, Xiong; Stanton, Bonita
Status-based discrimination and inequity have been associated with the process of migration, especially with economics-driven internal migration. However, their association with mental health among economy-driven internal migrants in developing countries is rarely assessed. This study examines discriminatory experiences and perceived social inequity in relation to mental health status among rural-to-urban migrants in China. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,006 rural-to-urban migrants in 2004-2005 in Beijing, China. Participants reported their perceptions and experiences of being discriminated in daily life in urban destination and perceived social inequity. Mental health was measured using the symptom checklist-90 (SCL-90). Multivariate analyses using general linear model were performed to test the effect of discriminatory experience and perceived social inequity on mental health. Experience of discrimination was positively associated with male gender, being married at least once, poorer health status, shorter duration of migration, and middle range of personal income. Likewise, perceived social inequity was associated with poorer health status, higher education attainment, and lower personal income. Multivariate analyses indicate that both experience of discrimination and perceived social inequity were strongly associated with mental health problems of rural-to-urban migrants. Experience of discrimination in daily life and perceived social inequity have a significant influence on mental health among rural-to-urban migrants. The findings underscore the needs to reduce public or societal discrimination against rural-to-urban migrants, to eliminate structural barriers (i.e., dual household registrations) for migrants to fully benefit from the urban economic development, and to create a positive atmosphere to improve migrant's psychological well-being.
Nellums, Laura B; Thompson, Hayley; Holmes, Alison
in migrants in hospitals (24·3%, 16·1-32·6; I2 =98%). We did not find evidence of high rates of transmission of AMR from migrant to host populations. INTERPRETATION: Migrants are exposed to conditions favouring the emergence of drug resistance during transit and in host countries in Europe. Increased......, during, and after migration. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health Research Imperial Biomedical Research Centre, Imperial College Healthcare Charity, the Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare-associated Infections and Antimictobial...
... assessment are closely linked and that the Language-in-Education policy and other additive bilingual initiatives have failed to address educational equity in South African schools. Despite the aspirations of politicians to move towards a policy of multiculturalism through the additive approach to bilingualism in education, ...
initiative d'anciens migrants établis dans le champ associatif local. .... à contrôler ces projets, pour lesquels la question des moyens humains demeure ..... un ferment de l'idée nationale ; ils participent aussi au jeu politique factionnel.
Reid, P.C.; Davies, E.
Boron, a naturally occuring constituent of surface and ground water, is an essential plant nutrient. However, at relatively low concentrations, boron becomes toxic to plant growth. In order to assess the boron status in South African surface waters, the Department of Water Affairs launched a long-term boron water quality assessment programme in 1985, encompassing the analysis of water samples taken at 91 sites throughout South Africa. Results to date indicate that the boron concentration in South African surface waters varies between 0,02 to 0,33 mg l -1 . At these concentrations even the most boron sensitive crops can be grown without fear of boron toxicity. 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs
The paper provides an equilibrium analysis of how countries compete for migrants. The type of competition (tax or transfer competition) depends on whether the competing countries have similar policy preferences. With symmetric preferences, countries compete in taxes for migrants. With asymmetric...
Mergenova, Gaukhar; Shaw, Stacey A; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Gilbert, Louisa; Gensburg, Lenore; Primbetova, Sholpan; El-Bassel, Nabila
Migration processes are listed within the primary factors facilitating the heterosexual spread of HIV. The study examines the relationship between social support, sexual HIV risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among 1342 male migrant and non-migrant market workers from Barakholka Market in Almaty, Kazakhstan. (1) higher level of perceived social support [Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) Social Support Instrument (ESSI score)] was associated with a lower likelihood of having sex with a female sex worker (FSW) [OR = 0.952 (0.927, 0.978) p social support factors should be considered as a component of HIV and STI prevention programs for male migrant workers from Central Asia in Kazakhstan.
Eduardo Fernández Guzmán
Full Text Available You might think that by definition the migrant labor plays in less profitable niches and meager social mobility. However, a large group of migrants in different economically developed countries have successfully launched businesses of diverse nature and volume. This is why entrepreneurship of migrants is an issue that has received increasing attention in recent years. Compared to other immigrant groups in the United States, Mexicans show low levels of entrepreneurial activity. The aim of this paper is to, through a general literature review of official statistical data, a preliminary analysis of mexican migrant entrepreneurship in the United States, that is to say in recent years has been growing in importance.
McCauley, L A; Lasarev, M R; Higgins, G; Rothlein, J; Muniz, J; Ebbert, C; Phillips, J
There are few data on pesticide exposures of migrant Latino farmworker children, and access to this vulnerable population is often difficult. In this paper we describe a community-based approach to implement culturally appropriate research methods with a migrant Latino farmworker community in Oregon. Assessments were conducted in 96 farmworker homes and 24 grower homes in two agricultural communities in Oregon. Measurements included surveys of pesticide use and work protection practices and a...
Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Hallas, Peter
Health-care workers may experience uncertainty regarding legal matters when attending to medical needs of undocumented migrants. This paper applies a pragmatic focus when addressing the legal aspects involved in providing health-care services to undocumented migrants with examples from the Danish...
Full Text Available Prevention of HIV/AIDS Among Migrant Workers in Thailand – or “PHAMIT,” which in Thai means “friendly skies”. The program led by the Raks Thai Foundation with seven NGO partners and one government agency focuses on HIV prevention and health services for migrant workers from Burma and Cambodia in the fisheries, seafood and related industries. The program demonstrates the complexity of working with undocumented migrant workers and the need to address barriers to the access to health services, migrant rights and policy. The trained migrant health assistants play a significant role in implementation of the program at migrant communities and their workplaces. Migrant health volunteers distribute information, education and communication materials, as well as condoms. To increase migrant access to health and reproductive health care, all participating partners support the Department of Health Service Supports in organizing migrant-friendly health services at government health facilities. These activities include sexual transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment, and voluntary HIV counseling and testing. The services are based on the rights of migrant workers to basic services and migrants becoming aware of their rights and responsibilities. Over a five year period beginning in October 2003, the program has reached 442,000 migrants and more than 20,800 entertainment workers with information about HIV and reproductive health. A total of 6,878,500 condoms has been distributed. In addition, over 155,080 migrant workers received information on health and labor rights, including regular updates about migrant registration policy. At the same time, through PHAMIT activities, over 13,330 government officials, employers and journalists attended sensitization workshops on issues of migrants’ rights and policies.Le programme PHAMIT (Prevention of HIV/AIDS Among Migrant Workers in Thailand, qui signifie « cieux amicaux » en thaï, est
Full Text Available Migration of health professionals is an important policy issue for both source and destination countries around the world. The majority of migrant care workers in industrialized countries today are women. However, the dimension of mobility of highly skilled females from countries of the global south has been almost entirely neglected for many years. This paper explores the experiences of high-skilled female African migrant health-workers (MHW utilising the framework of Global Care Chain (GCC research. In the frame of the EU-project HURAPRIM (Human Resources for Primary Health Care in Africa, the research team conducted 88 semi-structured interviews with female and male African MHWs in five countries (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, UK from July 2011 until April 2012. For this paper we analysed the 34 interviews with female physicians and nurses using the qualitative framework analysis approach and the software atlas.ti. In terms of the effect of the migration on their career, almost all of the respondents experienced short-term, long-term or permanent inability to work as health-care professionals; few however also reported a positive career development post-migration. Discrimination based on a foreign nationality, race or gender was reported by many of our respondents, physicians and nurses alike, whether they worked in an African or a European country. Our study shows that in addition to the phenomenon of deskilling often reported in GCC research, many female MHW are unable to work according to their qualifications due to the fact that their diplomas are not recognized in the country of destination. Policy strategies are needed regarding integration of migrants in the labour market and working against discrimination based on race and gender.
Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Gundlund, Anna; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted
The risk of giving birth to a stillborn child or a child with severe congenital anomaly is higher for women who have immigrated to Europe as compared to the majority population in the receiving country. The literature, however, reveals great differences between migrant groups, even within migrants...... disparity is a result of the socioeconomic disadvantage most migrants face. Consanguinity has been considered as another cause for the increased stillbirth risk and the high risk of congenital anomaly observed in many migrant groups. Utilization and quality of care during pregnancy and childbirth...
Thapa, Subash; Bista, Nirmala; Hannes, Karin; Buve, Anne; Vermandere, Mieke; Mathei, Catharina
HIV risk is determined by the interaction between social and individual risk factors, but information about such factors among Nepalese women is not yet understood. Therefore, to assess the risk factors and vulnerability of the wives of Nepalese labor migrants to HIV infection, the authors conducted a mixed-methods study in which a descriptive qualitative study was embedded within a case-control study. Two hundred twenty-four wives of labor migrants were interviewed in the case-control study, and two focus group discussions (n = 8 and 9) were conducted in the qualitative study. The authors found that illiteracy, low socio-economic status, and gender inequality contributed to poor knowledge and poor sexual negotiation among the wives of labor migrants and increased their risk of HIV through unprotected sex. Among male labor migrants, illiteracy, low socio-economic status, migration to India before marriage, and alcohol consumption contributed to liaisons with female sex workers, increasing the risk of HIV to the men and their wives through unprotected sex. Both labor migrants and their wives feared disclosure of positive HIV status due to HIV stigma and thus were less likely to be tested for HIV. HIV prevention programs should consider the interaction among these risk factors when targeting labor migrants and their wives.
Betancourt, Theresa S; Yang, Frances; Bolton, Paul; Normand, Sharon-Lise
This study aimed to refine a dimensional scale for measuring psychosocial adjustment in African youth using item response theory (IRT). A 60-item scale derived from qualitative data was administered to 667 war-affected adolescents (55% female). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) determined the dimensionality of items based on goodness-of-fit indices. Items with loadings less than 0.4 were dropped. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to confirm the scale's dimensionality found under the EFA. Item discrimination and difficulty were estimated using a graded response model for each subscale using weighted least squares means and variances. Predictive validity was examined through correlations between IRT scores (θ) for each subscale and ratings of functional impairment. All models were assessed using goodness-of-fit and comparative fit indices. Fisher's Information curves examined item precision at different underlying ranges of each trait. Original scale items were optimized and reconfigured into an empirically-robust 41-item scale, the African Youth Psychosocial Assessment (AYPA). Refined subscales assess internalizing and externalizing problems, prosocial attitudes/behaviors and somatic complaints without medical cause. The AYPA is a refined dimensional assessment of emotional and behavioral problems in African youth with good psychometric properties. Validation studies in other cultures are recommended. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
La Fors, Karolina; Van der Ploeg, Irma; Van der Ploeg, Irma; Pridmore, Jason
International policy discourse on migration and practices geared toward the sorting out of entitlements for migrants to enter and reside in a country mobilize a discourse that increasingly frames them as posing risks to the societies of their host countries (Leers, 2012; Leers, 2011),
Huang, Wen; Dong, Yanyan; Chen, Lin; Song, Dandan; Wang, Jun; Tao, Haidong; Zaller, Nickolas; Zhang, Hongbo; Operario, Don
Sexual behavior is the dominant mode of HIV transmission in China, and young female migrants are among the populations at highest risk. This article examines how HIV-related risk behaviors among female migrants might vary according to workplace settings. Participants were young female migrants recruited from three workplace settings-factories, restaurants and entertainment venues. In a cross-sectional survey, we assessed 457 participants' sociodemographic characteristics, HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, condom use knowledge, sexual behaviors, condom use behavior and reproductive health factors. Participants working in entertainment venues were significantly more likely than those working in factories and restaurants to report sexual behavior, unprotected sex, multiple pregnancy terminations and sexually transmitted infections (STI). However, participants working in factories and restaurants reported significantly lower levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge, condom use knowledge, condom use self-efficacy and history of HIV/AIDS counseling and testing. Independent correlates of unprotected sex included employment in an entertainment venue, abortion history and sexual self-efficacy. Independent correlates of STI or genitourinary tract infection included employment in an entertainment venue, abortion history, recent migration and recent unprotected sex. These findings indicate a need for sexual and reproductive health interventions prioritizing young female migrants, and call for programs that can be incorporated into different workplace settings. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Migrant Rights in Fujian Province (China). China has the largest internal migrant population in the world, and women account for nearly half of it. Fujian province has been a traditional source of large numbers of Chinese migrants to Southeast Asia and the United States. Now, with the burgeoning economies of southeast ...
Gilbert, Michael B.
The report describes the objectives and accomplishments of a summer enrichment program, Migrantes Envueltos en Nuevos Temas de Educacion/Migrants Engaged in New Themes in Education (MENTE), for promising and talented migrant high schoolers. The program is a cooperative one with a university. Students selected by a review committee are tested for…
Dahlhaus, Anne; Gerlach, Ferdinand M; Blettner, Maria; Siebenhofer, Andrea; Guethlin, Corina; Schall, Arthur; Taubenroth, Maja; Ewijk, Reyn van; Zeeb, Hajo; Albay, Zeycan; Schulz-Rothe, Sylvia; Beyer, Martin
In Germany, about 20% of the total population have a migration background. Differences exist between migrants and non-migrants in terms of health care access and utilisation. Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignant tumour in Germany, and incidence, staging and survival chances depend, amongst other things, on ethnicity and lifestyle. The current study investigates whether stage at diagnosis differs between migrants and non-migrants with colorectal cancer in an area of high migration and attempts to identify factors that can explain any differences. Data on tumour and migration status will be collected for 1,200 consecutive patients that have received a new, histologically verified diagnosis of colorectal cancer in a high migration area in Germany in the previous three months. The recruitment process is expected to take 16 months and will include gastroenterological private practices and certified centres for intestinal diseases. Descriptive and analytical analysis will be performed: the distribution of variables for migrants versus non-migrants and participants versus non-participants will be analysed using appropriate χ2-, t-, F- or Wilcoxon tests. Multivariable, logistic regression models will be performed, with the dependent variable being the dichotomized stage of the tumour (UICC stage I versus more advanced than UICC stage I). Odds ratios and associated 95%-confidence intervals will be calculated. Furthermore, ordered logistic regression models will be estimated, with the exact stage of the tumour at diagnosis as the dependent variable. Predictors used in the ordered logistic regression will be patient characteristics that are specific to migrants as well as patient characteristics that are not. Interaction models will be estimated in order to investigate whether the effects of patient characteristics on stage of tumour at the time of the initial diagnosis is different in migrants, compared to non-migrants. An association of migration status or
Full Text Available The rise in African immigrants to the US provides an opportunity to assess relations between Africans and African Americans in college. An online survey of 322 current and recently-graduated college students (including 45 Africans, 160 African Americans, and 117 whites assessed respondents’ experiences of racism in US high schools and colleges. Semi-structured interviews of 30 students (10 African, 10 African American and 10 white students supplemented these data. Even within a sociopolitical context of more visible racial intolerance, Black intra-racial cohesion was absent. Although more first- and second-generation Africans (73% felt that they had been judged while living in the US compared to African Americans (34% or whites (20%, for 70–80% of respondents, this had occurred only in high school. Despite experiencing these judgments, Africans’ identity related more to their focus on education than their race, reflected in a higher proportion who felt intense family pressure to attend college (65% compared to African Americans (37% and whites (39%. Interview data confirmed previous reports in the literature that African Americans lack a sense of connection to Africans, attributed to Africans’ purported sense of superiority and disregard for African Americans’ ongoing struggle to end oppression. These mixed-methods data suggest that intermingling in the college environment has not resulted in first- and second-generation Africans and African Americans sharing a common in-group, race-based identity. We discuss the implications of overlooking ethnic distinctions due to presumptions of racial homogeneity that deprive Black individuals of their uniqueness.
Davis, Benjamin G.
The five counties of Madera, Merced, Contra Costa, San Joaquin and Stanislaus constitute Region 3 of the California Migrant Education Program. A study to evaluate movement patterns of migrant students from, to and within the state was conducted using data from the Migrant Student Record Transfer System. It indicates that in 1977 Region 3 ranked…
Marquette, Catherine M.
Full Text Available This document is the executive summary of a detailed document entitled, Nicaraguan Migrants and Poverty in Costa Rica, which was prepared for the World Bank in 2006. The more detailed background paper from which this summary is derived was commissioned as a background paper in preparation for an upcoming poverty mission by the World Bank to Costa Rica. This summary and the larger document from which it comes provides: (1 a general overview of the socioeconomic and health situation of Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica and (2 a review of the poverty characteristics of these migrants. The primary data sources for the larger paper were successive recent rounds of the Annual National Household Survey in Costa Rica and the 2000 Census. The more detailed report on which this summary is based also reviews issues of data quality, comparability, and methodological problems with respect to existing information on Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica. As a summary, the document below, does not include detailed citations, which are of course included in the larger report. Readers are thus, referred to the larger report for citations and more detailed information on the data included in this summary.
Catherine M. Marquette
Full Text Available This document is the executive summary of a detailed document entitled, Nicaraguan Migrants and Poverty in Costa Rica, which was prepared for the World Bank in 2006. The more detailed background paper from which this summary is derived was commissioned as a background paper in preparation for an upcoming poverty mission by the World Bank to Costa Rica. This summary and the larger document from which it comes provides: (1 a general overview of the socioeconomic and health situation of Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica and (2 a review of the poverty characteristics of these migrants. The primary data sources for the larger paper were successive recent rounds of the Annual National Household Survey in Costa Rica and the 2000 Census. The more detailed report on which this summary is based also reviews issues of data quality, comparability, and methodological problems with respect to existing information on Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica. As a summary, the document below, does not include detailed citations, which are of course included in the larger report. Readers are thus, referred to the larger report for citations and more detailed information on the data included in this summary.
Lolk, Mette; Byberg, Stine; Carlsson, Jessica
BACKGROUND: In a cohort of migrants in Denmark, we compared somatic disease incidence among migrants diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression with migrants without a diagnosed psychiatric disorder. METHODS: The study builds on a unique cohort of migrants who obtained...... for the implementation of the project (No 2012-41-0065). RESULTS: Our results showed that migrants diagnosed with PTSD and depression had significantly higher rates of somatic diseases compared with migrants without diagnosed psychiatric disorders - especially, infectious disease (IRR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.45-2.48; p ... with migrants without a diagnosed psychiatric disorder. The rates were especially high for infectious, neurological and pulmonary diseases. Our results further suggest difference in the rates of somatic comorbidity according to region of. Preventive and treatment services should pay special attention to improve...
Full Text Available In this paper an analytical model within the framework of life course analysis is outlined, aiming at the multidimensional analysis of professional careers of migrants. Additional to the work cycle, reproduction as well as migration processes are included in the analysis of the occupational biography of migrants. By this, gender and gender relations as well as migration are systematically included in the reconstruction of the life course. This model is presented with reference to a research project on the labour market integration in Germany of highly qualified migrant women from post-socialist states, being qualified in the natural sciences and technology. Focusing on the professional careers of migrant women, the significance within migration studies of labour and migrant women’s chances of employment according to their qualifications is highlighted. After sketching the research project in the context of migration history and the regulation of highly skilled migration in Germany, the analysis of professional careers of migrant women in the life course perspective is conceptualized and discussed.
Hargreaves, Sally; Friedland, Jon S; Gothard, Philip; Saxena, Sonia; Millington, Hugh; Eliahoo, Joseph; Le Feuvre, Peter; Holmes, Alison
Changing immigration trends pose new challenges for the UK's open access health service and there is considerable speculation that migrants from resource-poor countries place a disproportionate burden on services. Data are needed to inform provision of services to migrant groups and to ensure their access to appropriate health care. We compared sociodemographic characteristics and impact of migrant groups and UK-born patients presenting to a hospital A&E/Walk-In Centre and prior use of community-based General Practitioner (GP) services. We administered an anonymous questionnaire survey of all presenting patients at an A&E/Walk-In Centre at an inner-city London hospital during a 1 month period. Questions related to nationality, immigration status, time in the UK, registration and use of GP services. We compared differences between groups using two-way tables by Chi-Square and Fisher's exact test. We used logistic regression modelling to quantify associations of explanatory variables and outcomes. 1611 of 3262 patients completed the survey (response rate 49.4%). 720 (44.7%) were overseas born, representing 87 nationalities, of whom 532 (73.9%) were new migrants to the UK (immigration status' were: work permit (24.4%), EU citizens (21.5%), with only 21 (1.3%) political asylum seekers/refugees. 178 (11%) reported nationalities from refugee-generating countries (RGCs), eg, Somalia, who were less likely to speak English. Compared with RGCs, and after adjusting for age and sex, the Australians, New Zealanders, and South Africans (ANS group; OR 0.28 [95% CI 0.11 to 0.71]; p = 0.008) and the Other Migrant (OM) group comprising mainly Europeans (0.13 [0.06 to 0.30]; p = 0.000) were less likely to have GP registration and to have made prior contact with GPs, yet this did not affect mode of access to hospital services across groups nor delay access to care. Recently arrived migrants are a diverse and substantial group, of whom migrants from refugee-generating countries and
Thapa, Subash; Bista, Nirmala; Hannes, Karin
HIV risk is determined by the interaction between social and individual risk factors, but information about such factors among Nepalese women is not yet understood. Therefore, to assess the risk factors and vulnerability of the wives of Nepalese labor migrants to HIV infection, the authors...
Guinto, Ramon Lorenzo Luis R.; Curran, Ufara Zuwasti; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Pocock, Nicola S.
Background As the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) gears toward full regional integration by 2015, the cross-border mobility of workers and citizens at large is expected to further intensify in the coming years. While ASEAN member countries have already signed the Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers, the health rights of migrants still need to be addressed, especially with ongoing universal health coverage (UHC) reforms in most ASEAN countries. This paper seeks to examine the inclusion of migrants in the UHC systems of five ASEAN countries which exhibit diverse migration profiles and are currently undergoing varying stages of UHC development. Design A scoping review of current migration trends and policies as well as ongoing UHC developments and migrant inclusion in UHC in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand was conducted. Results In general, all five countries, whether receiving or sending, have schemes that cover migrants to varying extents. Thailand even allows undocumented migrants to opt into its Compulsory Migrant Health Insurance scheme, while Malaysia and Singapore are still yet to consider including migrants in their government-run UHC systems. In terms of predominantly sending countries, the Philippines's social health insurance provides outbound migrants with portable insurance yet with limited benefits, while Indonesia still needs to strengthen the implementation of its compulsory migrant insurance which has a health insurance component. Overall, the five ASEAN countries continue to face implementation challenges, and will need to improve on their UHC design in order to ensure genuine inclusion of migrants, including undocumented migrants. However, such reforms will require strong political decisions from agencies outside the health sector that govern migration and labor policies. Furthermore, countries must engage in multilateral and bilateral dialogue as they redefine UHC
Ramon Lorenzo Luis R. Guinto
Full Text Available Background: As the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN gears toward full regional integration by 2015, the cross-border mobility of workers and citizens at large is expected to further intensify in the coming years. While ASEAN member countries have already signed the Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers, the health rights of migrants still need to be addressed, especially with ongoing universal health coverage (UHC reforms in most ASEAN countries. This paper seeks to examine the inclusion of migrants in the UHC systems of five ASEAN countries which exhibit diverse migration profiles and are currently undergoing varying stages of UHC development. Design: A scoping review of current migration trends and policies as well as ongoing UHC developments and migrant inclusion in UHC in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand was conducted. Results: In general, all five countries, whether receiving or sending, have schemes that cover migrants to varying extents. Thailand even allows undocumented migrants to opt into its Compulsory Migrant Health Insurance scheme, while Malaysia and Singapore are still yet to consider including migrants in their government-run UHC systems. In terms of predominantly sending countries, the Philippines's social health insurance provides outbound migrants with portable insurance yet with limited benefits, while Indonesia still needs to strengthen the implementation of its compulsory migrant insurance which has a health insurance component. Overall, the five ASEAN countries continue to face implementation challenges, and will need to improve on their UHC design in order to ensure genuine inclusion of migrants, including undocumented migrants. However, such reforms will require strong political decisions from agencies outside the health sector that govern migration and labor policies. Furthermore, countries must engage in multilateral and bilateral dialogue as
The integration of migrant poplulations with the indigeneous population is regulated by the Italian Decree, D.Lgs 9/7/2003 n. 215 in enforcement of the directive 2000/43/EC implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of racial or ethnic origin. The Italian decree, D.Lgs 215/2003, at present in force, according to regulation stipulated as to the equal treatment of diverse cohabiting populations, explicitly forbids any form of discrimination whatsoever, be it direct or indirect. A first description of today's migrant panorama is offered by the Caritas Migrantes and the CNEL (Italian National Council of the Economy of Labour). The most critical aspects on the integration of migrants are described and discussed in the text.
Ishtiaque, A.; Nazem, N. I.; Jerin, T.
Given its geographical location Bangladesh frequently confronts natural disasters. Disaster induced losses often obligate socio-economic dislocation from rural areas to large urban centers. After incurring what type/amount of losses people migrate is still unknown. In this paper we focus on migrants who migrated due to natural disasters. Thus, the objectives of this paper are, first, ascertaining the proportion of disaster migrants in Dhaka city; second, determining types of natural disasters which compel rural out-migration; third, assessing the resource and economic losses stem from these disasters at household level. Using the slum database (N = 4966), we select eight slums randomly with a purpose to include migrants from maximum districts available. In order to identify the proportion of disaster affected migrants a census is conducted in 407 households of those 8 slums and the result demonstrates that 18.43% of the migrants are disaster affected, which was only 5% in 1993. Out of all hydro-meteorological disasters, river bank erosion (RBE), followed by flood, drives most people out of their abode. However, unlike RBE migrants, migrants affected by flood usually return to their origin after certain period. In-depth interviews on the disaster migrants reveal that RBE claims total loss of homestead land & agricultural land while flood causes 20% and 23% loss respectively. Agricultural income decreases 96% because of RBE whereas flood victims encounter 98% decrease. People also incur 79% & 69% loss in livestock owing to RBE and flood severally. These disasters cause more than eighty percent reduction in total monthly income. Albeit RBE appears more vigorous but total economic loss is greater in flood- on average each household experiences a loss of BDT 350,555 due to flood and BDT 300,000 on account of RBE. Receiving no substantial support from community or government the affected people are compelled to migrate.
Labree, Wim; Lötters, Freek; van de Mheen, Dike; Rutten, Frans; Rivera Chavarría, Ana; Neve, Madelon; Rodenburg, Gerda; Machielsen, Honorine; Koopmans, Gerrit; Foets, Marleen
Children from migrant origin are at higher risk for overweight and obesity. As limited physical activity is a key factor in this overweight and obesity risk, in general, the aim of this study is to assess to what degree children from migrant and native Dutch origin differ with regard to levels of physical activity and to determine which home environment aspects contribute to these differences. A cross-sectional survey among primary caregivers of primary school children at the age of 8-9 years old (n = 1943) from 101 primary schools in two urban areas in The Netherlands. We used bivariate correlation and multivariate regression techniques to examine the relationship between physical and social environment aspects and the child's level of physical activity. All outcomes were reported by primary caregivers. Outcome measure was the physical activity level of the child. Main independent variables were migrant background, based on country of birth of the parents, and variables in the physical and social home environment which may enhance or restrict physical activity: the availability and the accessibility of toys and equipment, as well as sport club membership (physical environment), and both parental role modeling, and supportive parental policies (social environment). We controlled for age and sex of the child, and for socio-economic status, as indicated by educational level of the parents. In this sample, physical activity levels were significantly lower in migrant children, as compared to children in the native population. Less physical activity was most often seen in Turkish, Moroccan, and other non-western children (p < .05). Although traditional home characteristics in both the physical, and the social environment are often associated with child's physical activity, these characteristics provided only modest explanation of the differences in physical activity between migrant and non-migrant children in this study. The question arises whether interventions aimed
Borrego, John G.; And Others
The intent of this report, as stated, is to bring about an awareness of the kinds of problems faced by migrant agricultural workers (Mexican Americans and Navajos), by farmers, and by agencies offering services to these migrants in New Mexico. An overview of the national and state migrant situation is presented, as well as case studies of various…
Porru, S; Arici, Cecilia
It is estimated that in Italy there are 4 million migrant workers, accounting for about 10 percent of the total workforce. They contribute to national economic development but they are also heavily involved in the so-called "3D jobs" (dangerous, dirty and demanding/degrading). To draw occupational physicians' (OP) attention to the necessity of dealing with occupational health and safety problems related to migrant workers, highlighting his/her role and opportunities, in order to guarantee access to health services and prevent occupational health inequalities. The available data on occupational diseases and accidents among migrant workers are discussed, as well as conditions of individual susceptibility; as an example, data are commented obtained in many years of health surveillance in a foundry. Migrant workers may suffer from occupational health inequalities. The OP, by means of focused risk assessment, health surveillance, fitness for work and health promotion, can substantially improve migrant workers' health. In fact, data from our experience showed how a migrant workforce may be well characterized and also represent an opportunity, instead of being a "risk factor". Within the framework of needs for further methodological and applied research, the OP can play a proactive role in workplaces, aimed at real integration of migrant workers, with overall benefits for workers, enterprises and society.
Full Text Available Objetivos. Explorar si existe una diferencia en la percepción y autorreporte de calidad de vida en población migrante rural-urbana en comparación con un grupo urbano no migrante. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal, análisis secundario del estudio PERU-MIGRANT (PEru’s Rural to Urban MIGRANTs study. Utilizando la prueba de Kruskall- Wallis y evaluando magnitud de efectos se midieron y compararon los puntajes global y por dominios obtenidos en la encuesta WHOQOL-Brief. Resultados. Se encuestó a 307 individuos. La edad promedio de fue de 47 años, 57% correspondieron al sexo femenino y 62,2% a población migrante. Comparado con el grupo urbano, el grupo migrante reportó puntajes menores de calidad de vida a nivel global y en los dominios de salud psicológica y del ambiente en elque viven y a la vez, reportaron una mejor percepción en el dominio de salud física. Conclusiones. El impacto de la migración rural-urbana en la calidad de vida indica un efecto diferencial según sus distintos dominios.Objectives. To explore if there is a difference in the perception and self reported quality of life between rural-to-urban migrants and urban groups. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional study, secondary analysis of the PERU-MIGRANT study (PEru’s Rural to Urban MIGRANTs Study. WHOQOL-Brief survey’s global scores and per specific domains obtained in the survey were compared using Kruskall-Wallis’ test and assessing size effect. Results. A total of 307 subjects (62.2% migrants, 57% female, means age 47 years-old were surveyed. Compared with the urban group, migrants reported lower quality of life both on the global scores as well as in psychological health and the living environment domains. Migrants reported a higher score on the physical health’s domain. Conclusions. The impact of rural-to-urban migration on quality of life suggests a differential effect within its specific domains.
Tarricone, Ilaria; Morgan, Craig; Boydell, Jane; Panigada, Serena; Morigi, Raffaele; Braca, Mauro; Sutti, Enrico; Boldri, Pierluigi; Di Forti, Marta; Murray, Robin M; Berardi, Domenico
Many studies show that migrants have a higher incidence of psychosis compared to natives, but the influence of migration on psychosis outcomes is little investigated. We aimed to evaluate the occupational outcomes of a first episode psychosis (FEP) sample in Bologna (Northern Italy). An incidence cohort of FEP patients presenting at the Bologna West Community Mental Health Centers between 2002 and 2009 was assessed at the baseline and at 12th month follow-up. Return to school or work was used as occupational outcome. Most of the patients (82.8%) were still in contact at 12 months. Migrants showed significantly higher rate of return to work compared to natives (adjusted OR 4.45, 95% CI 1.55-12.76). First generation migrants had better occupational outcomes. Further cross-cultural studies are needed to further explain these findings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Used as an integral part of the migrant student skills system operated by the Migrant Student Record Transfer System (MSRTS), the reading skills list contains a catalog of reading skills typical of the K-12 grade range. This catalog includes a sample of the MSRTS transmittal record which permits teachers to report the reading skills being worked…
Baklanov, Nikita; Rezaei, Shahamak; Vang, Jan
Recent studies on transnational entrepreneurship suggest that migrant entrepreneur plays an increasingly significant role as sources of economic activities and especially export revenue. The literature is, however, biased on the US experience, lacks a comparative perspective between migrants...... and non-migrants and is primarily anecdotal in nature. This paper aims to reduce this gap by mapping the recent changes in the role of migrant entrepreneurs as a source of increased economic activity and export revenue in the Danish context and thereby linking the challenges stemming from...... the transnational entrepreneurship literature to the immigration and internationalisation of entrepreneurship literature. Entrepreneurial economic activity in this paper is proxied by the changing share of self-owned firms across ethic categories. Export revenue is proxied by the number of firms in the different...
Mohammad Hameed GHH
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is paucity of published data on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seroprevalence among migrant workers entering Middle-East particularly Kuwait. We took advantage of the routine screening of migrants for HIV infection, upon arrival in Kuwait from the areas with high HIV prevalence, to 1 estimate the HIV seroprevalence among migrant workers entering Kuwait and to 2 ascertain if any significant time trend or changes had occurred in HIV seroprevalence among these migrants over the study period. Methods The monthly aggregates of daily number of migrant workers tested and number of HIV seropositive were used to generate the monthly series of proportions of HIV seropositive (per 100,000 migrants over a period of 120 months from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2006. We carried out spectral analysis of these time series data on monthly proportions (per 100,000 of HIV seropositive migrants. Results Overall HIV seroprevalence (per 100,000 among the migrants was 21 (494/2328582 (95% CI: 19 -23, ranging from 11 (95% CI: 8 – 16 in 2003 to 31 (95% CI: 24 -41 in 1998. There was no discernable pattern in the year-specific proportions of HIV seropositive migrants up to 2003; in subsequent years there was a slight but consistent increase in the proportions of HIV seropositive migrants. However, the Mann-Kendall test showed non-significant (P = 0.741 trend in de-seasonalized data series of proportions of HIV seropositive migrants. The spectral density had a statistically significant (P = 0.03 peak located at a frequency (radians 2.4, which corresponds to a regular cycle of three-month duration in this study. Auto-correlation function did not show any significant seasonality (correlation coefficient at lag 12 = – 0.025, P = 0.575. Conclusion During the study period, overall a low HIV seroprevalence (0.021% was recorded. Towards the end of the study, a slight but non-significant upward trend in the proportions of HIV seropositive
Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Hovell, Melbourne F; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Zhang, Xiao; Sipan, Carol L; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, J Eduardo
We conducted a probability-based survey of migrant flows traveling across the Mexico-US border, and we estimated HIV infection rates, risk behaviors, and contextual factors for migrants representing 5 distinct migration phases. Our results suggest that the influence of migration is not uniform across genders or risk factors. By considering the predeparture, transit, and interception phases of the migration process, our findings complement previous studies on HIV among Mexican migrants conducted at the destination and return phases. Monitoring HIV risk among this vulnerable transnational population is critical for better understanding patterns of risk at different points of the migration process and for informing the development of protection policies and programs.
Under the direction of the Pennsylvania Department of Migrant Education, an educational software company has adapted educational curricula to a video game format for use in video game consoles that hook into television sets. Migrant children using these at home have made significant gains in math, reading, English fluency, and critical thinking…
Berkhout, E.; Heyma, A.; Volkerink, M.; van der Werff, S.
Empirical analysis provides no evidence that the higher wage threshold for migrants aged 30 and above keep many highly skilled migrants from working in the Netherlands. At the same time, empirical evidence shows that these highly skilled migrants stay in the Netherlands longer if the partner is
Garnier, Denis; Simondon, Kirsten B; Hoarau, Thierry; Benefice, Eric
To describe the living conditions of Senegalese adolescent girls according to their migration status, and to define the main socio-economic and biological determinants of their nutritional and growth status. Health and living conditions, sexual maturation, and nutritional and growth status of adolescent girls were determined within the framework of a longitudinal study on growth. The capital city of Senegal (Dakar) and a rural community (Niakhar), 120 km south-east of Dakar. Three hundred and thirty-one girls, 14.5-16.6 years of age, were recruited from the same villages. Thirty-six per cent of the sample remained in the villages to attend school and/or to help with household subsistence tasks (non-migrants). The remaining (64%) migrated to cities to work as maids (migrants) and lived in two different socio-economic environments: at the home of a guardian during the night and in the house of the employer during the daytime. Family rural environment and guardian and employer urban environments were socio-economically different (P environment was socio-economically more favourable. Migrants had more advanced sexual maturation and higher body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI) and mid-upper arm circumference than non-migrants. However, migrants were smaller than non-migrants. BMI, FMI and weight-for-age were related to socio-economic levels and duration of migration. Schooling was positively related to height and negatively related to BMI. Migrants enjoyed better living conditions than non-migrants. This could be partly due to the better socio-economic environment of the employer. It was associated with earlier puberty and better nutritional status, but not with a better growth.
Flynn, Michael A; Wickramage, Kolitha
Work is a principal driver of current international migration, a primary social determinant of health, and a fundamental point of articulation between migrants and their host society. Efforts by international organizations to promote migrant health have traditionally focused on infectious diseases and access to healthcare, while international labor organizations have largely focused on issues of occupational health. The underutilization of the domain of work in addressing the health of migrants is truly a missed opportunity for influencing worker well-being and reducing societal economic burden. Understanding of the relationships among migration, work, and health would facilitate further integration of migrant health concerns into the policy agenda of governments and international agencies that work at the nexus of labor, health and development. The domain of work offers an opportunity to capitalize on the existing health and development infrastructure and leverage technical resources, programs and research to promote migrant health. It also provides the opportunity to advance migrant health through new and innovative approaches and partnerships.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural-to-urban migration involves a high proportion of females because job opportunities for female migrants have increased in urban industrial areas. Those who migrate may be healthier than those staying in the village and they may benefit from better health care services at destination, but the 'healthy' effect can be reversed at destination due to migration-related health risk factors. The study aimed to explore the need for health care services for reproductive tract infections (RTIs among female migrants working in the Sai Dong industrial zone as well as their services utilization. Methods The cross sectional study employed a mixed method approach. A cohort of 300 female migrants was interviewed to collect quantitative data. Two focus groups and 20 in-depth interviews were conducted to collect qualitative data. We have used frequency and cross-tabulation techniques to analyze the quantitative data and the qualitative data was used to triangulate and to provide more in-depth information. Results The needs for health care services for RTI were high as 25% of participants had RTI syndromes. Only 21.6% of female migrants having RTI syndromes ever seek helps for health care services. Barriers preventing migrants to access services were traditional values, long working hours, lack of information, and high cost of services. Employers had limited interests in reproductive health of female migrants, and there was ineffective collaboration between the local health system and enterprises. These barriers were partly caused by lack of health promotion programs suitable for migrants. Most respondents needed more information on RTIs and preferred to receive these from their employers since they commonly work shifts - and spend most of their day time at work. Conclusion While RTIs are a common health problem among female migrant workers in industrial zones, female migrants had many obstacles in accessing RTI care services. The findings
Hyatt, Amelia; Lipson-Smith, Ruby; Schofield, Penelope; Gough, Karla; Sze, Ming; Aldridge, Lynley; Goldstein, David; Jefford, Michael; Bell, Melanie L; Butow, Phyllis
Understanding the difficulties faced by different migrant groups is vital to address disparities and inform targeted health-care service delivery. Migrant oncology patients experience increased morbidity, mortality and psychological distress, with this tentatively linked to language and communication difficulties. The objective of this exploratory study was to investigate the communication barriers and challenges experienced by Arabic, Greek and Chinese (Mandarin and Cantonese) speaking oncology patients in Australia. This study employed a cross-sectional design using patient-reported outcome survey data from migrant and English-speaking Australian-born patients with cancer. Patients were recruited through oncology clinics and Australian state cancer registries. Data were collected regarding patient clinical and demographic characteristics and health-care and communication experiences. Data from the clinics and registries were combined for analysis. Significant differences were found between migrant groups in demographic characteristics, communication and health-care experiences, and information and care preferences. Chinese patients cited problems with understanding medical information, the Australian health-care system, and communicating with their health-care team. Conversely, Arabic- and Greek-speaking patients reported higher understanding of the health-care system, and less communication difficulties. Our study findings suggest that migrant groups differ from each other in their health communication expectations and requirements. Lower education and health literacy of some groups may play a role in poorer health outcomes. Public health interventions and assistance provided to migrants should be tailored to the specific needs and characteristics of that language or cultural group. Future research directions are discussed. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Starren, A.; Drupsteen, L.
This article explores Health and Safety aspects related to migrants working in multi-cultural settings (heterogeneous teams, working together on one location). Several assumptions can be made related to cultural differences and safe and healthy behaviour, but research evidence on this matter is very
Garcia Castro, M
To understand the situation of migrant women and their increased vulnerability, it is necessary to consider the structural factors--economic, political, and cultural--that have impelled the movement of labor, and specifically of women, from developing to developed, and also within capitalist countries. Unequal access to land and other resources has been the historic cause of rural men and women migrating, but it is the internationalization of former agrarian economies and their increased dependence on the world economic system that stand out as important new factors. In the US, about 40% of the women in domestic service work are Black women and the rest are predominantly foreigners, especially Latin Americans, Caribbeans, and to a lesser degree, Asians. Contrary to the myth that migrant women have been a passive labor force, the history of the garment industry shows that they have been in the forefront of labor issues in many developed nations. There is a need to guarantee conditions that will enable women to organize and work in labor and migrant organizations and still protect their special characteristics as women. Women migrants, because of their conditions as women and because of their status as citizens without citizenship, especially when they are undocumented, are greatly in need of a solidarity group to educate national populations of migrant worker's rights. It is essential to guarantee the autonomy of migrant women's organization without interfering with their specific demands, considering their race, nationality, and social class.
Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bearth-Carrari, Cinzia; Winkler Metzke, Christa
The aim of this study was to compare psychosocial adaptation in adolescent (first generation) migrants, double-citizens (mainly second generation with one migrant parent), and native Swiss, and to compare migrants from various European regions. Data from a community survey were based on 1,239 participants (mean age 13.8, SD = 1.6 years) with 996 natives, 55 double-citizens, and 188 migrants. The adolescents completed the youth self-report measuring emotional and behavioural problems, and various questionnaires addressing life events, personality variables, perceived parental behaviour (PPB), family functioning, school environment, and social network. Adolescent migrants had significantly higher scores for internalizing and externalizing problems. There was a pattern of various unfavourable psychosocial features including life events, coping, self-related cognitions, and PPB that was more common among adolescent migrants than natives. Double-citizens were similar to natives in all domains. Young adolescents from South and South-East Europe differed from natives in terms of more unfavourable psychosocial features. Migrant status was best predicted by adverse psychosocial features rather than emotional and behavioural problems. There is some indication that certain migrant adolescents are at risk of psychosocial mal-adaptation. Obviously, ethnic origin is an important moderator.
Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es hacer un recorrido histórico, rastreando la presencia africana y afrodescendiente en el actual territorio argentino, desde el período colonial hasta la actualidad. Centraremos nuestro análisis en los momentos más significativos de su llegada, observando ciertos parámetros que las caracterizan y, al mismo tiempo, identificaremos patrones de marginación o exclusión social de los migrantes africanos y sus descendientes.The purpose of this work is to make a historical journey, tracing presence of Africans and Afro-descendants in the Argentinean territory, from the colonial period to the present. We focus our analysis on the most significant moments of their arrivals, observing certain parameters that characterize them and at the same time, identifying patterns of marginalization and social exclusion of African migrants and their descendants.
Biering, Karin; Lander, Flemming; Rasmussen, Kurt
to methodological difficulties and cultural disparities. We set out to meet these challenges using population-based work injury registers, targeting a specific and representative region in Denmark. METHODS: This population-based study used data on work injuries from an emergency department (ED) and reported....... Workers who had migrated recently were at even higher risk. CONCLUSIONS: We found increased risk of work injuries among migrant workers. Studying migrants in registers is a methodological challenge as some migrants are not registered, for legal or illegal reasons; thus, only a selected group is studied......OBJECTIVES: Work migration into Denmark has increased during the recent decades, especially after the enlargement of the European Union (EU) in 2004. Whether or not migrant workers experience more work injuries than the native workforce has been debated and results are conflicting, most likely due...
Full Text Available Background: Estimates of fertility for the overseas-born based on the period Total Fertility Rate (TFR suggest that levels of childbearing are significantly higher among foreign-born women than women born in the UK. However, migration and timing of subsequent family formation mean that aggregate measures of fertility based on period TFRs may not be a useful indicator of the likely completed family size that migrant women will have at the end of their reproductive lives. Objective: The paper quantifies childbearing according to duration since migration among female migrants to England and Wales arriving between 2001 and 2011, and examines how these patterns differ according to age at arrival and country of birth. Methods: Data from the Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study, a 1Š sample of the population of England and Wales, are used to identify the reported date of arrival in the UK and to estimate childbearing prior to and subsequent to arrival. Results: Fertility rates peak in the first one to four years subsequent to arrival among migrants from Pakistan and Bangladesh. Migrants from India and Poland show a delay in childbearing after migration to England and Wales, and lower fertility rates compared to migrants from Pakistan and Bangladesh, who show high fertility after migration at least for the first five years. Conclusions: There are large differences in the timing of fertility among migrants according to age at arrival and migrant country of origin, which are likely to be related to the reason for migration. Tempo distortions among some migrant groups mean that the period TFR is not necessarily a useful summary measure of the likely lifetime fertility of migrant groups.
Gao, Xiao-Li; McGrath, Colman; Lin, Huan-Cai
In China, there is a massive rural-urban migration and the children of migrants are often unregistered residents (a 'floating population'). This pilot study aimed to profile the oral health of migrant children in South China's principal city of migration and identify its socio-demographic/behavioural determinants. An epidemiological survey was conducted in an area of Guangzhou among 5-year-old migrant children (n = 138) who received oral examinations according to the World Health Organization criteria. Parents' oral health knowledge/attitude, child practices, and impact of children's oral health on their quality-of-life (QoL) were assessed. The caries rate and mean (SD) dmft were 86% and 5.17 (4.16), respectively, higher than those national statistics for both rural and urban areas (P Oral hygiene was satisfactory (DI-S Oral health impacts on QoL were considerable; 60% reported one or more impacts. 58% variance in 'dmft' was explained by 'non-local-born', 'low-educated parents', 'bedtime feeding', 'parental unawareness of fluoride's effect and importance of teeth', and 'poor oral hygiene' (all P oral health-related QoL (both P Oral health is poor among rural-urban migrant children and requires effective interventions in targeted sub-groups. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2010 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Jizzo R Bosdriesz
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Smoking among migrants is known to differ from the host population, but migrants' smoking is rarely ever compared to the prevalence of smoking in their country of origin. The goal of this study is to compare the smoking prevalence among migrants to that of both the US-born population and the countries of origin. Further analyses assess the influence of sex, age at time of entry to the US and education level. METHODS: Data of 248,726 US-born and migrants from 14 countries were obtained from the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS from 2006-2007. Data on 108,653 respondents from the corresponding countries of origin were taken from the World Health Survey (WHS from 2002-2005. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking among migrants (men: 14.2%, women: 4.1% was lower than both the US-born group (men: 21.4%, women: 18.1% and countries of origin (men: 39.4%, women: 11.0%. The gender gap among migrants was smaller than in the countries of origin. Age at time of entry to the US was not related to smoking prevalence for migrants. The risk of smoking for high-educated migrants was closer to their US counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: The smoking prevalence among migrants is consistently lower than both the country of origin levels and the US level. The theory of segmented assimilation is supported by some results of this study, but not all. Other mechanisms that might influence the smoking prevalence among migrants are the 'healthy migrant effect' or the stage of the smoking epidemic at the time of migration.
Full Text Available In the context of the needs and rights of older migrants, migration history is particularly important where the elderly forced migrants are twice as vulnerable. Bearing in mind the intense process of population aging in Serbia which holds the attention of scientists and experts, and the large number of refugees who immigrated in the 90-ies from the former Yugoslav republics, selected sociodemographic structures of the elderly forced migrants in Serbia were analyzed as well as the relevant legal and strategic framework. The aim was to contribute to increasing knowledge of the demographic challenges of this subpopulation of forced migrants, as well as the differences relative to the domicile aging population. The data used in this study included a contingent of forced migrants aged 65 and over, on the basis of additionally processed Census data from 2011, based on questions about the place of birth of the person, year of arrival, the country in which the person lived and the reasons for migration. Hence, the category which is the subject of research, is not defined on the basis of formal refugee status. A comparison of selected sociodemographic characteristics was made in relation to the domicile population, which in the paper means the population of Serbia without forced migrants. The research results indicate that older forced migrants in Serbia have characteristics of the general population of older people in Serbia. Their age gender and marital structures are relatively similar. Most older women are widows who are heads of households, while a significant number are persons with disabilities as well. However, the process of aging of the elderly, present within the local population has not affected forced migrants yet, so this population is to some extent more vital. Data on the economic activity of the elderly forced migrants in Serbia point out to the lack of income as the main problem they are faced with. Older forced migrants are
Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, Austin.
THE MAJORITY OF TEXAS MIGRANTS LIVE IN SOUTH TEXAS AND APPROXIMATELY 95 PERCENT OF THEM ARE OF MEXICAN EXTRACTION. MOST OF THE OTHER FIVE PERCENT ARE EAST TEXAS NEGROES. THE MECHANIZATION OF COTTON HARVESTING AND THE EXPIRATION OF THE "BRACERO PROGRAM" IN 1964 HAVE CAUSED MORE TEXAS MIGRANTS TO SEEK EMPLOYMENT OUTSIDE OF THE STATE. DURING 1964,…
BROOKS, MELVIN S.; HILGENDORF, ROBERT L.
MIGRANT LABORERS WHO PICKED STRAWBERRIES IN SOUTHERN ILLINOIS IN THE SPRING OF 1958 WERE SURVEYED. THIS PARTICULAR SAMPLE WAS SELECTED FOR STUDY BECAUSE FAR MORE CHILDREN ARE INVOLVED IN THE HARVEST OF STRAWBERRIES THAN IN ANY OTHER FARM TASK OF THE AREA. MIGRANTS WHO WERE INTERVIEWED WERE SELECTED BY SYSTEMATIC RANDOM SAMPLING--A PROCEDURE THAT…
Piersma, Theunis; van de Kam, Jan
Marathon Migrants onderscheidt zich van alle andere vogelboeken door de combinatie van tekst van de trekvogelecoloog en waddenonderzoeker prof. dr. Theunis Piersma en de sublieme foto’s van de bekende vogelfotograaf Jan van de Kam. Door de wetenschappelijke blik van de fotograaf zijn de foto’s meer
The large contemporary French migrant population – estimated by the French Consulate at around 300,000–400,000 in the UK, the majority living in London and the South-East – remains ‘absent’ from studies on migration, and, in a study of migrant food history in Britain, is considered not to have left traces as a migrant community. Over the centuries, the presence of various French communities in London has varied significantly as far as numbers are concerned, but what does not change is their s...
Akhavan, Sharareh; Karlsen, Saffron
To investigate variations in explanations given for disparities in health care use between migrant and non-migrant groups, by clients and care providers in Sweden. Qualitative evidence collected during in-depth interviews with five 'migrant' health service clients and five physicians. The interview data generated three categories which were perceived by respondents to produce ethnic differences in health service use: "Communication issues", "Cultural differences in approaches to medical consultations" and "Effects of perceptions of inequalities in care quality and discrimination". Explanations for disparities in health care use in Sweden can be categorized into those reflecting social/structural conditions and the presence/absence of power and those using cultural/behavioural explanations. The negative perceptions of 'migrant' clients held by some Swedish physicians place the onus for addressing their poor health with the clients themselves and risks perpetuating their health disadvantage. The power disparity between doctors and 'migrant' patients encourages a sense of powerlessness and mistreatment among patients.
Li, Tian-Cheng; Chu, Chien-Chi; Meng, Fan-Cun; Li, Qin; Mo, Di; Li, Bin; Tsai, Sang-Bing
Happiness is a major factor that influences people’s perceptions and behavior. Two-stage least squares regression was applied to investigate the effect of happiness on the psychological integration of migrant workers in China. The data for a total of 1625 individuals were obtained from the 2014 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey (CLDS). This study describes happiness from three main aspects: happiness, life satisfaction, and economic satisfaction. The psychological integration includes two dimensions of settlement willingness, and trust level; these have gone through dimension-reduced processing by using the weighted average method. The empirical evidence shows, first, that happiness has a significantly positive effect on the psychological integration of migrant workers and second, that the sense of life satisfaction in particular plays a more significant role. The acceleration of the social and political integration in migrant workers will enhance their psychological integration. Additionally, social, cultural and economic integration is found to influence migrant workers’ psychological integration by promoting happiness. Happiness between different generations of migrant workers was found to have a noticeably positive impact on their psychological integration; however, the happiness of the younger migrant workers was more perceivable than that of the other generations. Preferential policies should therefore be provided to improve the happiness of migrant workers.
Data from 15 Demographic and Health Surveys are used to examine whether rural-urban migrants in developing countries experience higher child mortality after settling in towns and cities than do lifelong urban residents, and if so, what individual or household characteristics account for this. Findings indicate that children of female migrants from the countryside generally have much poorer survival chances than other urban children. This survival disadvantage is more pronounced in big cities than in smaller urban areas, among migrants who have lived in the city for many years than among recent migrants, and in urban Latin America than in urban North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa. Within big cities, higher child mortality among migrant women is clearly related to their concentration in low-quality housing, and in part to fertility patterns at early ages of children and mother's educational attainment at later ages. Excess child mortality among urban migrants may also result from factors associated with the migration process, that are outlined in this study but not included in the analysis. Evidence of moderately high levels of residential segregation of migrant women in big cities suggests that opportunities exist for urban health programs to direct interventions to this disadvantaged segment of city populations.
Li, Qin; Mo, Di; Li, Bin
Happiness is a major factor that influences people’s perceptions and behavior. Two-stage least squares regression was applied to investigate the effect of happiness on the psychological integration of migrant workers in China. The data for a total of 1625 individuals were obtained from the 2014 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey (CLDS). This study describes happiness from three main aspects: happiness, life satisfaction, and economic satisfaction. The psychological integration includes two dimensions of settlement willingness, and trust level; these have gone through dimension-reduced processing by using the weighted average method. The empirical evidence shows, first, that happiness has a significantly positive effect on the psychological integration of migrant workers and second, that the sense of life satisfaction in particular plays a more significant role. The acceleration of the social and political integration in migrant workers will enhance their psychological integration. Additionally, social, cultural and economic integration is found to influence migrant workers’ psychological integration by promoting happiness. Happiness between different generations of migrant workers was found to have a noticeably positive impact on their psychological integration; however, the happiness of the younger migrant workers was more perceivable than that of the other generations. Preferential policies should therefore be provided to improve the happiness of migrant workers. PMID:29751489
Nørredam, Marie Louise; Nielsen, Signe Smith; Krasnik, Allan
on the abstracts. Additional searches were conducted via the references of the selected articles. The final number of studies included was 21. Results: The results suggested a diverging picture regarding utilization of somatic healthcare services by migrants compared to non-migrants in Europe. Overall, migrants......Background: Utilization of services is an important aspect of migrants' access to healthcare. The aim was to review the European literature on utilization of somatic healthcare services related to screening, general practitioner, specialist, emergency room and hospital by adult first......-generation migrants. Our study question was: ‘Are there differences in migrants' utilization of somatic healthcare services compared to non-migrants?' Methods: Publications were identified by a systematic search of PUBMED and EMBASE. Appropriateness of the studies was judged independently by two researchers based...
Martinez-Donate, Ana P.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Zhang, Xiao; Sipan, Carol L.; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, J. Eduardo
We conducted a probability-based survey of migrant flows traveling across the Mexico–US border, and we estimated HIV infection rates, risk behaviors, and contextual factors for migrants representing 5 distinct migration phases. Our results suggest that the influence of migration is not uniform across genders or risk factors. By considering the predeparture, transit, and interception phases of the migration process, our findings complement previous studies on HIV among Mexican migrants conducted at the destination and return phases. Monitoring HIV risk among this vulnerable transnational population is critical for better understanding patterns of risk at different points of the migration process and for informing the development of protection policies and programs. PMID:25602882
Full Text Available The paradigm of rights, established throughout the academic, policy and migrant activism arenas, governs the protection of vulnerable migrant workers against abuse. To what extent this approach has achieved social justice for the migrant worker in the current global political economy climate is, however, uncertain. In analyzing the use of rights in migrant activism in Hong Kong, this paper shows the limitation of rights in the migrant experience at the same time as it shows how a new paradigm based on the Capablities Approach could provide a more appropriate framework from which to achieve social justice for the migrant worker.
Full Text Available
The paradigm of rights, established throughout the academic, policy and migrant activism arenas, governs the protection of vulnerable migrant workers against abuse. To what extent this approach has achieved social justice for the migrant worker in the current global political economy climate is, however, uncertain. In analyzing the use of rights in migrant activism in Hong Kong, this paper shows the limitation of rights in the migrant experience at the same time as it shows how a new paradigm based on the Capablities Approach could provide a more appropriate framework from which to achieve social justice for the migrant worker.
Sirilak, Supakit; Okanurak, Kamolnetr; Wattanagoon, Yupaporn; Chatchaiyalerk, Surut; Tornee, Songpol; Siri, Sukhontha
This is the first report of the large-scale utilization of migrants as health volunteers in a migrant primary-healthcare program. The program recruited migrants who volunteered to serve their communities. This study explores the identities of these volunteers, their relationship with program management, and their attitudes. The study also investigates the impact of the volunteers, from the migrants' and healthcare workers' perspective. The study was conducted in two provinces, Tak (northern Thailand) and Samut Sakhon (central Thailand). Primary and secondary information was collected. Mixed methods, comprising in-depth interviews, observation and questionnaires, were used to gather primary data from three groups of participants-migrant volunteers, migrants and healthcare workers. Secondary data, and in-depth interviews with healthcare workers, showed that migrant volunteers made a significant contribution to the provision of both preventive and curative services. The quantitative study covered 260 migrant volunteers and 446 migrants. The results found that <5% of volunteers were selected by the community. Almost all attended a training course. Most were assigned to be health communicators; four stated they did nothing. Volunteers' attitudes were very positive. Most migrants reported that the volunteers' work was useful. It was concluded that the migrant health-volunteer program did help deal with migrant health problems. However, management of the program should be closely considered for more effective outcomes.
Balasubramanian, Madhan; Spencer, A John; Short, Stephanie D; Watkins, Keith; Chrisopoulos, Sergio; Brennan, David S
The migration of dentists is a major policy challenge facing both developing and developed countries. Dentists from over 120 countries migrate to Australia, and a large proportion are from developing countries. The aim of the study was to assess the life story experience (LSE) of migrant dentists in Australia, in order to address key policy challenges facing dentist migration. A national survey of all migrant dentists resident in Australia was conducted in 2013. Migrant experiences were assessed through a suite of LSE scales, developed through a qualitative-quantitative study. Respondents rated experiences using a five-point Likert scale. A total of 1022 migrant dentists responded to the survey (response rate = 54.5%). LSE1 (health system and general lifestyle concerns in home country), LSE2 (appreciation towards Australian way of life) and LSE3 (settlement concerns in Australia) scales varied by migrant dentist groups, sex, and years since arrival to Australia (chi-square, P international agenda to address dentist migration. Better integration of dentist migration with the mainstream health workforce governance is a viable and opportunistic way forward. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Jaramillo, Senaida I.
When migrant children are enrolled in the Migrant Education Program, they are also enrolled in the Migrant Student Record Transfer System (MSRTS), a national system which accumulates educational and health information for each child on a computer located in Little Rock, Arkansas. The system affords teachers the opportunity to review the records,…
Lu, Yao; Ruan, Danching; Lai, Gina
Based on data from a 2005 survey conducted in Shanghai, China, this research examines the role of social capital in income inequality between rural migrants and urbanites. We find strong income return on social capital, in particular on social capital from strong ties. We also observe a great disparity in social capital possession between rural migrants and urban local residents. Although social capital from strong ties seems to be more important for rural migrants than for urbanites, local ties and high-status ties do not seem to benefit rural migrants. Hence, migrants not only suffer severe social capital deficits but also capital return deficits. Given the strong income returns on social capital and the substantial differences in access to and return on social capital between migrants and urban residents, social capital is consequently found to explain a large part of the income inequality between the two groups. Overall, our findings reveal macro-structural effects on the role of social capital in labor market stratification. In China, the lack of formal labor market mechanisms continues to create both a strong need for and opportunities for economic actions to be organized around informal channels via social relations. Yet, the long-standing institutional exclusion of migrants caused by the household registration system has resulted in pervasive social exclusion and discrimination which have substantially limited rural migrants' accumulation and mobilization of social capital. Under these conditions, social capital reinforces the economic inequality between migrants and urban residents in China. Such empirical evidence adds to our understanding of the role of social capital in the economic integration of migrants and in shaping intergroup inequality in general.
Padovese, Valeska; Egidi, Ada Maristella; Melillo Fenech, Tanya; Podda Connor, Marika; Didero, Daniele; Costanzo, Gianfranco; Mirisola, Concetta
Over recent years Malta has experienced a growing influx of migrants from Africa. With the aim of defining demographic characteristics and assessing the prevalence of conditions of public health significance among asylum seekers in Malta, a clinical research study was implemented in the framework of the European Union project 'Mare nostrum'. From August 2010 to June 2011 a dermatologist and an infectious diseases specialist performed general and specialist health assessment of migrants hosted in open centres. Migrants included in the study were 2216, 82.7% were males, their mean age was 25 years and 70.1% were from Somalia. Out of the total females, 42.5% had undergone some type of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting. A total of 5077 diagnoses were set, most common were skin diseases (21.9%), respiratory diseases (19.8%) and gastro-enteric diseases (14.2%), whereas 31% of migrants reported good health conditions. Immigrants have a lower morbidity burden compared with their fellow countrymen living in the origin country. However, living conditions during the journey, in transit countries and after arrival can influence their health status. The present study provides a comprehensive picture of this growing population that is in need for health promotion, mental health services and fair policy planning. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
The paradigm of rights, established throughout the academic, policy and migrant activism arenas, governs the protection of vulnerable migrant workers against abuse. To what extent this approach has achieved social justice for the migrant worker in the current global political economy climate is, however, uncertain. In analyzing the use of rights in migrant activism in Hong Kong, this paper shows the limitation of rights in the migrant experience at the same time as it shows how a ne...
When migrants remit, there is no expectation to receive a gift but such reciprocity is based on cultural norms, obligations and loyalty to one's kin and community. These cultural norms and obligations override selfinterest in reciprocal arrangements. Keywords: Solidarity, community projects, remittance, Ghanaian migrant ...
Organista, P B; Organista, K C; Soloff, P R
AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were assessed in female Mexican migrant laborers. Thirty-two women were administered a modified version of the Hispanic Condom Questionnaire. Respondents were knowledgeable about the major modes of HIV transmission, but one-third to one-half of the women believed that they could contract AIDS from unlikely casual sources. Although respondents reported few negative beliefs about condom use, actual condom use with sex partners was low and knowledge of proper condom use was problematic. Consequently, 75 percent reported never carrying condoms. Implications of these findings for future research and provision of services for female Mexican migrants are discussed.
Loret de Mola, Christian; Pillay, Timesh D.; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Gilman, Robert H.; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J. Jaime
Objective: This study aimed to compare self-reported weight and body mass index (BMI) in order to determine discrepancies between subjective and objective obesity-related markers, and possible explanatory factors of overweight and obesity underestimation, in urban, rural and migrant populations. Materials and Methods: Data from the PERU MIGRANT study, a cross-sectional study, in low-income settings, of urban, migrant (rural-to-urban), and rural groups, including BMI, self-reported weight and ...
Full Text Available In 2006 the South African Institution of Civil Engineering (SAICE), in partnership with the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), released the first ever “report card” assessment rating of the condition of engineering infrastructure...
Based on two consecutive studies (the Netherlands Working Condition Survey (NEA), TNO), a review (Discrimination Monitor, SCP) and literature it is concluded that non-western migrants experience more labour market problems than western migrants. In general non-western migrants experience more
Four colleges are now helping migrant students through the federally-funded College Assistance Migrant Program, which provides the children of migrant and seasonal farmworkers with the financial, academic, and psychological resources they need to compete with traditional middle-class students. (LBH)
Hargreaves, Sally; Friedland, Jon S; Gothard, Philip; Saxena, Sonia; Millington, Hugh; Eliahoo, Joseph; Le Feuvre, Peter; Holmes, Alison
Background Changing immigration trends pose new challenges for the UK's open access health service and there is considerable speculation that migrants from resource-poor countries place a disproportionate burden on services. Data are needed to inform provision of services to migrant groups and to ensure their access to appropriate health care. We compared sociodemographic characteristics and impact of migrant groups and UK-born patients presenting to a hospital A&E/Walk-In Centre and prior use of community-based General Practitioner (GP) services. Methods We administered an anonymous questionnaire survey of all presenting patients at an A&E/Walk-In Centre at an inner-city London hospital during a 1 month period. Questions related to nationality, immigration status, time in the UK, registration and use of GP services. We compared differences between groups using two-way tables by Chi-Square and Fisher's exact test. We used logistic regression modelling to quantify associations of explanatory variables and outcomes. Results 1611 of 3262 patients completed the survey (response rate 49.4%). 720 (44.7%) were overseas born, representing 87 nationalities, of whom 532 (73.9%) were new migrants to the UK (≤10 years). Overseas born were over-represented in comparison to local estimates (44.7% vs 33.6%; p immigration status' were: work permit (24.4%), EU citizens (21.5%), with only 21 (1.3%) political asylum seekers/refugees. 178 (11%) reported nationalities from refugee-generating countries (RGCs), eg, Somalia, who were less likely to speak English. Compared with RGCs, and after adjusting for age and sex, the Australians, New Zealanders, and South Africans (ANS group; OR 0.28 [95% CI 0.11 to 0.71]; p = 0.008) and the Other Migrant (OM) group comprising mainly Europeans (0.13 [0.06 to 0.30]; p = 0.000) were less likely to have GP registration and to have made prior contact with GPs, yet this did not affect mode of access to hospital services across groups nor delay access
Olga Mihailovna Komornikova
Full Text Available The article analyzes the specifics orientations of students in the tolerant interaction with educational migrants by conditions of migrant´s international educational intensification. This problem is considered in the context of the phenomenon of tolerance as a cultural value, consolidating for society the importance of methods and forms of conflict-free interaction. The article contains the definition of orientations on tolerant interaction. It was defined the characteristics features of tolerant interaction in modern conditions, external and internal factors that determine the orientation of students on tolerant interaction with migrants. Kurgan region is not experiencing a mass influx of migrants; however, the number of foreigners studying in Shadrinsk State Pedagogical University is quite significant. On the basis of the results of a social study in March-April 2016 among students SSPU, we came to the conclusion that more than half of them are focused tolerant interaction with educational migrants. The main area of cooperation is a learning activity. Friendly relationship with migrants is less attractive for young people. With decreasing of social distance, increases the number of negatively-minded students to co-education with migrant students. This is due to such factors as the social attitudes of the people in inter-ethnic relations, the presence of the negative experience of interaction with foreign student.
van Andel, Tinde; Fundiko, Marie-Cakupewa C
Maintaining cultural identity and preference to treat cultural bound ailments with herbal medicine are motivations for migrants to continue using medicinal plants from their home country after moving to Europe and the USA. As it is generally easier to import exotic food than herbal medicine, migrants often shift to using species that double as food and medicine. This paper focuses on the trade in African medicinal plants in a Congolese neighborhood in Brussels (Belgium). What African medicinal plants are sold in Matonge, where do they come from, and to which extent are they food medicines? Does vendor ethnicity influence the diversity of the herbal medicine sold? We hypothesized that most medicinal plants, traders, and clients in Matonge were of Congolese origin, most plants used medicinally were mainly food crops and that culture-bound illnesses played a prominent role in medicinal plant use. We carried out a market survey in 2014 that involved an inventory of medicinal plants in 19 shops and interviews with 10 clients of African descent, voucher collection and data gathering on vernacular names and uses. We encountered 83 medicinal plant species, of which 71% was primarily used for food. The shredded leaves of Gnetum africanum Welw., Manihot esculenta Crantz, and Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam were among the most frequently sold vegetables with medicinal uses. Cola nuts, shea butter, Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., and Mondia whitei (Hook.f.). Skeels were the main non-food medicines sold. Women's health, aphrodisiacs, and rituals were the most important medicinal applications, but culture-bound ailments did not entirely dominate the plant uses. While most clients in Matonge were Congolese, most vendors and plant species were not. The Pakistanis dominated the food trade, and typical Congolese plants were sometimes replaced by West African species, creating confusion in vernacular names. African-managed shops had significantly more species of medicinal plants in stock than shops
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Div. of Compensatory Education.
Based on the national migrant education plan, California's master plan aims to mobilize the necessary State and Federal resources, and to unify and assist the efforts of local educational agencies to end the migrant child's failure in school. The plan includes provisions for: instructional activities on a regular and extended year basis designed…
Derived from a marxist/liberal humanist view of power, conventional critiques of the South African gold mining industry's medical apparatus see only its power to repress and negate the true bodily attributes and authentic person of the African mine worker. In so doing, they ignore the productive capacity of medical practice as a manifestation of what Foucault termed "disciplinary" power, by which the human body is manufactured and made manageable as an object of medical knowledge and industrial utilization. Accordingly, this paper offers just such a Foucaultian reading of South African mining medicine to demonstrate how it has operated to fabricate the bodies of African miners as visible objects possessed of distinct attributes that provoked particular strategies for their surveillance in health and disease.
Full Text Available Migrants usually exhibit similar or better health outcomes than native-born populations despite facing socioeconomic disadvantages and barriers to healthcare use; this is known as the "migrant paradox." The migrant paradox among children is highly complex. This study explores whether the migrant paradox exists in the health of internal migrant children in China and the role of schools in reducing children's health disparities, using a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method. Participants were 1,641 student and parent pairs from Grades 4, 5, and 6 of eight primary schools in Beijing. The following school types were included: state schools with migrant children comprising over 70% of total children (SMS, private schools with migrant children comprising over 70% (PMS, and state schools with permanent resident children comprising over 70% (SRS. Children were divided into Groups A, B, C or D by the type of school they attended (A and B were drawn from SRSs, C was from SMSs, and D was from PMSs and whether they were in the migrant population (B, C, and D were, but A was not. Related information was collected through medical examination and questionnaires completed by parents and children. Prevalence of caries, overweight and obesity, poor vision, and self-reported incidence of colds and diarrhea in the previous month were explored as health outcomes. The results partially demonstrated the existence of the migrant paradox and verified the role of schools in lowering health disparities among children; there are theoretical and practical implications for improving the health of migrant children.
Ian M. Kysel
Full Text Available The rights and movement of people crossing international borders remain inadequately governed and incompletely protected by a fragmented patchwork of institutions and norms. In recent years, debates regarding migration law and practice globally have been focused on subcategories of migrants, such as refugees, or on particular migration contexts, such as migration as a result of crisis or climate change. In response, a transnational initiative housed at the Georgetown University Law Center has drafted a soft-law bill of rights — the International Migrants Bill of Rights (IMBR — that seeks to elaborate the law protecting all migrants, regardless of the cause of their movement across an international border. The bill draws its content from human rights, refugee, and labor law, among other areas, and is drafted to be a comprehensive and declarative tool that articulates a core set of rights to protect migrants and to apply in the migration context.This article articulates how such a tool could be used to promote the recognition and protection of the rights of all migrants, in law and in practice. It argues that a soft-law bill of rights could be leveraged to fill significant gaps and promote an improved normative and institutional infrastructure that better protects all migrants worldwide. Section I provides a brief overview of the gap that a soft-law bill of rights can address. Section II provides a brief overview of the history and content of the bill of rights and IMBR Initiative. Section III describes, specifically, how making use of a soft-law bill of rights stands to improve the recognition and protection of fundamental rights that protect all migrants — and how soft law can help fill specific protection gaps.
Ngum Chi Watts, Mimmie C; Liamputtong, Pranee; Carolan, Mary
To discuss the contraception knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of African Australian teenagers and women with a refugee background in Melbourne. The numbers of African Australian persons continue to increase, with a significant proportion being refugee women and children. Attitudes and behaviours towards contraception in this group continue to be influenced by culture, family and beliefs. This study is based on qualitative research that was underpinned by intersectionality theory, cultural competency and phenomenology. Sixteen teenagers and women who had experienced teenage pregnancy in Greater Melbourne, Australia, were interviewed. In-depth interviews were conducted with the sixteen African Australian teenagers and women. Following data collection, data were transcribed verbatim, and coded, and key themes identified and analysed using thematic analysis. Knowledge of contraception among this group of migrants was low and filled with myths. Attitudes towards contraception use were insufficient and influenced by beliefs and external factors such as partner, family and community attitudes towards contraception. Migration status and other instabilities in the lives of these participants all intersected to shape their health beliefs and contraception decision-making. Refugee teenage mothers' knowledge of contraception was low and their attitude towards contraceptive use was poor. Myths and external factors continued to influence teenagers' and women's attitudes towards contraceptives. The events and life experiences of African Australian teenagers/women, culture, and family and community influences should be taken into consideration when providing healthcare services and sexual health education to this migrant group. Service providers should consider the multiple intersections in the lives of these women when delivering healthcare services and information to them. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Dai, Wei; Gao, Jian; Gong, Jian; Xia, Xiuping; Yang, Hua; Shen, Yao; Gu, Jie; Wang, Tianhao; Liu, Yao; Zhou, Jing; Shen, Zhiping; Zhu, Shanzhu; Pan, Zhigang
Rapid urbanization of China has resulted in significant domestic migration. The purpose of the present study was to survey the sexual behavior of migrant workers in Shanghai and determine the risk factors for unprotected sex. A cross-sectional study of the sexual behavior of 5996 migrant workers was conducted in 7 administrative regions of Shanghai in 2012 from August to October. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Five thousand seven hundred seventy two out of the 5996 migrants enrolled into the present study were primarily young adults aged 34.3 ± 10.6 years. Of them, 73.5 % were married, 51.1 % graduated from junior high school, 46.0 % earned 1500-2500 yuan (RMB) monthly. The majority (82.3 %) of the migrants engaged in sexual behavior, and 58.0 % did not use condoms in sexual intercourse. Some of the participants (15.2 %) had casual extramarital partners within the previous 12 months; among them, 76.2 % never or only occasionally used condoms. The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that condom use was associated with age, occupation, monthly income, education, and housing conditions. Having temporary sexual partners was significantly associated with several factors such as unmarried (OR: 0.47, 95 % CI: 0.38-0.57), working at domestic (OR: 1.65,95 % CI: 1.17-2.34), working at wholesale/retail(OR: 1.65, 95 % CI: 1.13-2.13), and male migrants (OR: 2.37, 95 % CI: 1.96-2.85), but not with other factors such as age, monthly income, or education. Having casual extramarital partners was significantly associated with female migrants working at domestic (OR: 1.89, 95 % CI: 1.09-3.28), unmarried male migrants (OR: 0.51, 95 % CI: 0.36-0.74). Closer attention should be paid to sexual health education among migrant workers, especially women and those working in domestic and wholesale/retail occupations. The use of condoms should be promoted for older (>35 y), low-income, and less-educated individuals.
Kerkenaar, Marlies M E; Maier, Manfred; Kutalek, Ruth; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M; Ristl, Robin; Pichlhöfer, Otto
Although migrants form a large part of the Austrian population, information about mental health of migrants in Austria is scarce. Therefore, we compared the prevalence of dysphoric disorders (depression and anxiety) and the corresponding utilization of health care services of Eastern European, western and other migrants with the non-migrant population in Austria. We performed a telephone survey on a random sample of the general population of Austria aged 15 years and older (n=3509) between October 2010 and September 2011. Depression and anxiety were measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 and utilization of health care services in the last 4 weeks was inquired. 15.0% of our sample had a migration background. Female migrants from Eastern Europe, first and second generation, had a higher prevalence of dysphoric disorders (29.7% and 33.4% respectively) than Austrian women (15.2%) (p<0.001). The prevalence in the other migrant groups did not differ significantly from the Austrian population. There was no gender difference in dysphoric disorders in the Austrian population. After adjustment for age and chronic diseases, having a dysphoric disorder was associated with a higher utilization of health care services among migrant and Austrian women, but not among men. Because of the explorative nature of the study multiple testing correction was not performed. The reason for health care utilization was not assessed. Mental health of female migrants from Eastern Europe should be studied in more detail; men could be an underserved group, both in migrants and Austrians. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keygnaert, Ines; Vettenburg, Nicole; Roelens, Kristien; Temmerman, Marleen
Although migrants constitute an important proportion of the European population, little is known about migrant sexual health. Existing research mainly focuses on migrants' sexual health risks and accessibility issues while recommendations on adequate sexual health promotion are rarely provided. Hence, this paper explores how refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants in Belgium and The Netherlands define sexual health, search for sexual health information and perceive sexual health determinants. Applying Community-based Participatory Research as the overarching research approach, we conducted 223 in-depth interviews with refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants in Belgium and The Netherlands. The Framework Analysis Technique was used to analyse qualitative data. We checked the extensiveness of the qualitative data and analysed the quantitative socio-demographic data with SPSS. Our results indicate that gender and age do not appear to be decisive determinants. However, incorporated cultural norms and education attainment are important to consider in desirable sexual health promotion in refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants in Belgium and The Netherlands. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that these migrants have a predominant internal health locus of control. Yet, most of them feel that this personal attitude is hugely challenged by the Belgian and Dutch asylum system and migration laws which force them into a structural dependent situation inducing sexual ill-health. Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants in Belgium and The Netherlands are at risk of sexual ill-health. Incorporated cultural norms and attained education are important determinants to address in desirable sexual health promotion. Yet, as their legal status demonstrates to be the key determinant, the prime concern is to alter organizational and societal factors linked to the Belgian and Dutch asylum system. Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants
The main purpose of this article is to examine the understanding and experience of health and health care among rural-to-urban migrants in China, and to explain the impact of the internal factors of migrants themselves and the external factors of their social environment. Understanding the perceptions and consciousness of health issues among migrants is crucial to prevention, intervention, and other health-related measures for the migrant population in China, but this has rarely been explored in studies. On the basis of a case study of a migrant community in Beijing, I explore the migrants' understandings of health and health care and analyze factors in the social environment, including exclusion from the social system and the possibility of health participation, exclusion from social relation networks, obstructed channels of health maintenance, and exclusion of crowd psychology, which impact heavily on their health understanding and health behavior. I argue that the internal and the external factors are linked together closely and interact as reciprocal causation. However, the migrants should not be seen as primarily responsible, because their poor understanding of health mainly results from the socioeconomic environment in which they live and work.
Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Ramírez-Valdés, Carlos Jacobo; Cerecero-Garcia, Diego; Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza
OBJECTIVE To describe the health status and access to care of forced-return Mexican migrants deported through the Mexico-United States border and to compare it with the situation of voluntary-return migrants. METHODS Secondary data analysis from the Survey on Migration in Mexico’s Northern Border from 2012. This is a continuous survey, designed to describe migration flows between Mexico and the United States, with a mobile-population sampling design. We analyzed indicators of health and access to care among deported migrants, and compare them with voluntary-return migrants. Our analysis sample included 2,680 voluntary-return migrants, and 6,862 deportees. We employ an ordinal multiple logistic regression model, to compare the adjusted odds of having worst self-reported health between the studied groups. RESULTS As compared to voluntary-return migrants, deportees were less likely to have medical insurance in the United States (OR = 0.05; 95%CI 0.04;0.06). In the regression model a poorer self-perceived health was found to be associated with having been deported (OR = 1.71, 95%CI 1.52;1.92), as well as age (OR = 1.03, 95%CI 1.02;1.03) and years of education (OR = 0.94 95%CI 0.93;0.95). CONCLUSIONS According to our results, deportees had less access to care while in the United States, as compared with voluntary-return migrants. Our results also showed an independent and statistically significant association between deportation and having poorer self-perceived health. To promote the health and access to care of deported Mexican migrants coming back from the United States, new health and social policies are required. PMID:25119943
Robinson, Cendrine D; Muench, Christine; Brede, Emily; Endrighi, Romano; Szeto, Edwin H; Sells, Joanna R; Lammers, John P; Okuyemi, Kolawole S; Izmirlian, Grant; Waters, Andrew J
Many African Americans live in communities with a disproportionately high density of tobacco advertisements compared to Whites. Some research indicates that point-of-sale advertising is associated with impulse purchases of cigarettes and smoking. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) can be used to examine associations between tobacco advertisement exposure and smoking variables in the natural environment. Non-treatment seeking African American smokers were given a mobile device for 2weeks (N=56). They were prompted four times per day and responded to questions about recent exposure to tobacco advertisements. Participants were also asked to indicate the number of cigarettes smoked, and if they made any purchase, or an impulse purchase, since the last assessment. Linear mixed models (LMMs) analyzed between- and within-subject associations between exposure and outcomes. Participants reported seeing at least one advertisement on 33% of assessments. Of those assessments, they reported seeing menthol advertisements on 87% of assessments. Between-subject analyses revealed that participants who on average saw more advertisements were generally more likely to report purchasing cigarettes and to purchase cigarettes on impulse. Within-subject analyses revealed that when an individual participant reported seeing more advertisements than usual they were more likely to have reported purchasing cigarettes, making an impulse purchase and smoking more cigarettes during the same period, but not the subsequent time period. Many African American smokers are frequently exposed to pro-tobacco marketing. Advertisement exposure is cross-sectionally associated with impulse purchases and smoking. Future research should assess prospective associations in more detail. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Yang, Xiaozhao Yousef; Kelly, Brian C; Yang, Tingzhong
Some scholars argue that the maintenance of social networks contributes to the lower prevalence of deviant behaviours and fewer adverse health effects among migrants. But others suggest that if migrants are embedded in homogeneous networks, such networks may enable the formation of a deviant subculture that promotes risk taking. Facing this dilemma, the present study investigates how native-place networks influence sexual risk behaviours (SRBs), specifically the pursuit of commercial sex and condomless sex with sex workers, for male rural-urban migrants. Using a multi-stage sample of 1,591 male rural-urban migrants from two major migrant-influx cities within China, we assessed migrants' general friend network ties and native place networks (townsmen in migrants' local networks) and tested their associations with SRBs. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicate that native-place network ties are associated with paying for sex (OR = 1.33, p < 0.001) and condomless sex with sex workers (OR = 1.33, p < 0.001), while general friendship network ties reduce such risks (OR = 0.74, p < 0.001; OR = 0.84, p < 0.01) even after controlling for demographic background, housing conditions, length of stay, health beliefs and behaviours, and spousal companionship. Our findings suggest that native-place networks among Chinese male rural-urban migrants are associated with SRBs because homogenous networks may serve as a platform for the emergence of a deviant subculture that promotes risk behaviours. A Virtual Abstract of this paper is available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Wg20I6j8XQ. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.
Mipatrini, Daniele; Stefanelli, Paola; Severoni, Santino; Rezza, Giovanni
The decline of immunization rates in countries of origin of migrants and refugees, along with risky conditions during the journey to Europe, may threaten migrants' health. We performed a systematic review of the scientific literature in order to assess the frequency of vaccine preventable diseases, and vaccination coverage among migrants and refugees in Europe. To this end, Medline and Cochrane databases were considered. After the screening and the selection process, 58 papers were included in the review. We focused on the following vaccine-preventable diseases: hepatitis B, measles, rubella, mumps, tetanus, poliomyelitis, pertussis, diphtheria, meningitis, and varicella. The results were presented as a qualitative synthesis. In summary, several studies highlighted that migrants and refugees have lower immunization rates compared to European-born individuals. Firstly, this is due to low vaccination coverage in the country of origin. Then, several problems may limit migrants' access to vaccination in Europe: (i) migrants are used to move around the continent, and many vaccines require multiple doses at regular times; (ii) information on the immunization status of migrants is often lacking; (iii) hosting countries face severe economic crises; (iv) migrants often refuse registration with medical authorities for fear of legal consequences and (v) the lack of coordination among public health authorities of neighboring countries may determine either duplications or lack of vaccine administration. Possible strategies to overcome these problems include tailoring immunization services on the specific needs of the target population, developing strong communication campaigns, developing vaccination registers, and promoting collaboration among public health authorities of European Countries.
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Migrant Education Even Start Program definition. 200.80... DISADVANTAGED Even Start Family Literacy Program § 200.80 Migrant Education Even Start Program definition. Eligible participants under the Migrant Education Even Start Program (MEES) must meet the definitions of a...
Fernanda Mariel Sosa
Full Text Available RESUMEN: El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar las estrategias de aculturación psicológica y la percepción de bienestar social en estudiantes universitarios migrantes. El estudio es de tipo descriptivo de diferencias de grupos, de diseño transversal. La muestra es no probabilística intencional, compuesta por 214 estudiantes universitarios, migrantes externos e internos, de ambos sexos, con edades entre 18 y 35 años, residentes en la ciudad de Buenos Aires. En los resultados se aprecia el predominio en las estrategias de aculturación de integración y separación, y niveles medios de bienestar social. Asimismo, los estudiantes migrantes externos muestran predominio en estrategias de asimilación e integración y los estudiantes internos en estrategias de separación, tanto en el ámbito público como privado. ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to analyze the psychological acculturation strategies and social welfare perception in migrant college students. It is a descriptive group differences study with transversal design based on a convenience sample composed by 214 migrants (inner and external students of both genders aged between 18 and 35 years who live in the city of Buenos Aires. Results show that integration and separation prevail as acculturation strategies, and intermediate levels of social well being. Also, external migrant students show higher prevalence of assimilation and integration strategies and inner migrant students show higher prevalence of separation acculturation strategies, in both in the public and private spheres.
Badarulzaman, Muhammad Hafiz; Ayub, Zainal A; Yusoff, Zuryati M; Wahab, Harlida A
AbstractMigrant workers are often discriminated against in almost every aspect of life. Discrimination against them is due to irrational dislike of them and also negative perception towards them. It is alleged that migrant workers contribute to the crimes hike in Malaysia. Using doctrinal research methodology, this article discusses direct and perceptive discrimination against them. This article concludes that physical discriminations are mostly happened because ineffective enforcement of the...
Study protocol: a cluster randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a multi-pronged behavioural intervention to improve use of personal protective equipment among migrant workers exposed to organic solvents in small and medium-sized enterprises
Full Text Available Abstract Background In China, most of migrant workers work in the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs and are a vulnerable group for occupational health. Migrant workers are at increased risk of occupational health risks due to poor occupational health behaviours such as the low use of personal protective equipment (PPE. However, there is a lack of solid evidence regarding how to improve the use of PPE among migrant workers in SMEs. The current study will assess the effectiveness of a multi-pronged behavioural intervention designed to promote PPE utilization among migrant workers exposed to organic solvents in SMEs. Methods/Design This is a single blind, three-arm cluster randomized trial with 60 SMEs equally randomized to receive a top-down intervention (i.e. general health education and mHealth intervention provided by researchers or a comprehensive intervention (which includes both top-down intervention and peer education or a control condition (participants will not receive the intervention, but study measures will be obtained. Interventions will be conducted at the SMEs level for 6 months and all eligible migrant workers in these SMEs will be enrolled into the trial. The primary outcome is effective use of PPE during the last week. The secondary outcomes are occupational health knowledge and attitude and participation in occupational health check-up. Data will be collected and assessed at baseline; 3 months post baseline and the end of the intervention. Discussion This theory- and evidence based intervention will contribute to the limited evidence of behaviour change intervention in improving PPE utilization of migrant workers in SMEs, and provide timely evidence for the development of basic occupational health services in China and elsewhere with similar industrialization contexts. Trial registration ChiCTR-IOR-15006929 . Registered on 16 August 2015.
Simón Pedro Izcara Palacios
Full Text Available This article, based on a qualitative methodology that includes in depth interviews with eighty Central American women who used migrant smugglers to reach the United States, examines her point of view about migrant smuggling. This paper concludes that one-sixth of respondents were deceived by migrant smugglers, and seven women suffered some form of sexual abuse from them, however more than two-thirds of the interviewees expressed a positive opinion towards migrant smugglers. This does not mean that women always trust migrant smugglers, they generally only trust those who were recommended for relatives or friends.
Alves, Luís; Azevedo, Ana; Barros, Henrique; Paccaud, Fred; Marques-Vidal, Pedro
Most migrant studies have compared health characteristics between migrants and nationals of the host country. We aimed at comparing health characteristics of migrants with nationals from their home country. Portuguese national health survey (2005-6; 30,173 participants aged 18-75 years) and four national health surveys conducted in Switzerland (2002, 2004, 2007 and 2011, totalling 1,170 Portuguese migrants of the same age range). Self-reported data on length of stay, cardiovascular risk factors, healthcare use and health status were collected. Resident Portuguese were significantly older and more educated than migrants. Resident Portuguese had a higher mean BMI and prevalence of obesity than migrants. Resident Portuguese also reported more frequently being hypertensive and having their blood pressure screened within the last year. On the contrary, migrant Portuguese were more frequently smokers, had a medical visit in the previous year more frequently and self-rated their health higher than resident Portuguese. After adjustment for age, gender, marital status and education, migrants had a higher likelihood of smoking, of having a medical visit the previous year, and of self-rating their current health as good or very good than resident Portuguese. Compared to Portuguese residents, cholesterol screening in the previous year was more common only among migrants living in Switzerland for more than 17 years. Portuguese migrants in Switzerland do not differ substantially from resident Portuguese regarding most cardiovascular risk factors. Migrants consider themselves healthier than Portuguese residents and more often had a recent medical visit.
Núñez-Rocha Georgina Mayela
Full Text Available Objetivo. Comparar la prevalencia de desnutrición entre prescolares migrantes y no migrantes. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron al azar 160 infantes de 1-6 años de edad, de parvularios de muy alta marginación. Se excluyeron aquellos con malformaciones congénitas o bajo alguna intervención nutricional. La migración se definió como el desplazamiento geográfico <6 años, y la desnutrición, a partir de los indicadores peso/talla y talla/edad recomendados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados. El 59.4% de los niños provenía de familias cuyo jefe tenía una ocupación no calificada; 27.5% de los mismos contaba con primaria incompleta, y 52.8% refirió migración. La prevalencia de desnutrición fue de 51.3% en migrantes y de 28.8% en no migrantes (RP= 2.6, IC95%= 1.2,5.2, p= 0.006. Los infantes migrantes presentaron una media de puntaje Z de -2.4±.40, mientras que en los no migrantes fue de -2.3±.33, según el indicador talla/edad. Conclusiones. La desnutrición crónica en este grupo de riesgo justifica la prioridad de implantar estrategias de intervención alimentaria. Se recomienda considerar la migración en la planeación en salud.
Studies conducted by the National Rural Development Institute (NRDI) indicate that migrant students have a higher school dropout rate than non-migrant students. In addition, rural migrant students experience higher levels of family dysfunction and abuse, teen pregnancy, emotional difficulties such as depression or low self-esteem, poverty,…
Arcury, Thomas A; Weir, Maria M; Summers, Phillip; Chen, Haiying; Bailey, Melissa; Wiggins, Melinda F; Bischoff, Werner E; Quandt, Sara A
Safety, security, hygiene, and privacy in migrant farmworker housing have not previously been documented, yet these attributes are important for farmworker quality of life and dignity. This analysis describes the safety, security, hygiene, and privacy of migrant farmworker housing and delineates camp characteristics that are associated with these attributes, using data collected in 183 eastern North Carolina migrant farmworker camps in 2010. Migrant farmworker housing is deficient. For example, 73.8 percent of housing had structural damage and 52.7 percent had indoor temperatures that were not safe. Farmworkers in 83.5 percent of the housing reported that they did not feel they or their possessions were secure. Bathing or toileting privacy was absent in 46.2 percent of the housing. Camps with residents having H-2A visas or North Carolina Department of Labor certificates of inspection posted had better safety, security, and hygiene. Regulations addressing the quality of migrant farmworker housing are needed.
GARDNER, ANDREW; GARDNER, ANDREW; PESSOA, SILVIA; DIOP, ABDOULAYE; AL-GHANIM, KALTHAM; LE TRUNG, KIEN; HARKNESS, LAURA
Though transnational labor migration in the Gulf States has increasingly been of scholarly interest, that scholarship has to date relied largely on qualitative ethnographic methodologies or small non-representative sampling strategies. This paper presents the findings of a large representative sample of low-income migrant laborers in Qatar. The data describe the basic characteristics of the low-income migrant population in Qatar, the process by which migrants obtain employment, the frequency ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological migrants has a special background compared with other types of migrant. However, the mental health status of ecological migrants who were expected to benefit from a massive “ecological migration project” initiated by the Chinese government is unknown. This study aims to explore the influence of environmental change on individuals’ mental health and to improve current understanding of the mechanisms that mental disorders occurred. Methods The data were extracted from a cross-sectional study. Anxiety disorders, mood disorders and substance use disorders were assessed using the Chinese version WHO-CIDI. The prevalence of mental disorders was stratified by migration status into ecological migrant, local resident and original resident groups. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate the risk of prevalence among these three groups. Results After controlling for gender, ethnicity, age, marriage, and education, the migrants had lower risk of mental disorders than original residents [OR = 0.70 (95 % CI: 0.57–0.86], p < 0.001, but had a higher risk of mental disorders than local residents [OR = 1.29 (95 % CI: 1.06–1.55], p = 0.007. Conclusion The ecological migration project may be beneficial to people’s mental health by improving their living environment and social economy.
Bom, Reinier J M; van der Helm, Jannie J; Bruisten, Sylvia M; Grünberg, Antoon W; Sabajo, Leslie O A; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; de Vries, Henry J C
The large Surinamese migrant population in the Netherlands is a major risk group for urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Suriname, a former Dutch colony, also has a high prevalence of C. trachomatis. Surinamese migrants travel extensively between the Netherlands and Suriname. Our objective was to assess whether the Surinamese migrants in the Netherlands form a bridge population facilitating transmission of C. trachomatis between Suriname and the Netherlands. If so, joint prevention campaigns involving both countries might be required. Between March 2008 and July 2010, participants were recruited at clinics in Paramaribo, Suriname and in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants were grouped as native Surinamese, native Dutch, Surinamese migrant, Dutch migrant, or Other, based on country of residence and country of birth of the participant and of their parents. Risk behavior, such as sexual mixing between ethnic groups, was recorded and C. trachomatis positive samples were typed through multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A minimum spanning tree of samples from 426 participants showed four MLST clusters. The MLST strain distribution of Surinamese migrants differed significantly from both the native Surinamese and Dutch populations, but was not an intermediate state between these two populations. Sexual mixing between the Surinamese migrants and the Dutch and Surinamese natives occurred frequently. Yet, the MLST cluster distribution did not differ significantly between participants who mixed and those who did not. Sexual mixing occurred between Surinamese migrants in Amsterdam and the native populations of Suriname and the Netherlands. These migrants, however, did not seem to form an effective bridge population for C. trachomatis transmission between the native populations. Although our data do not seem to justify the need for joint campaigns to reduce the transmission of C. trachomatis strains between both countries, intensified preventive campaigns to
Kentikelenis, Alexander E; Shriwise, Amanda
International organizations have defined and managed different aspects of migrant health issues for decades, yet we lack a systematic understanding of how they reach decisions and what they do on the ground. The present article seeks to clarify the state of knowledge on the relationship between international organizations and migrant health in Europe. To do so, we review the operations of six organizations widely recognized as key actors in the field of migrant health: the European Commission, the Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization, the International Organization on Migration, Médecins du Monde, Médecins Sans Frontières, and the Open Society Foundation. We find that international organizations operate in a complementary fashion, with each taking on a unique role in migrant health provision. States often rely on international organizations as policy advisors or sub-contractors for interventions, especially in the case of emergencies. These linkages yield a complex web of relationships, which can vary depending on the country under consideration or the health policy issue in question.
Sole, C; Ribas, N; Bergalli, V; Parella, S
This article presents the irregular employment situation of non-European union immigrants in Spanish cities. Foreign labor is remarkable for its heterogeneity in terms of country of origin, demographic characteristics, and the different ways in which immigrants have entered the job market. Legal immigrants tend to concentrate in five different branches of activity, such as domestic service (mostly women), hotel and restaurant industry, agriculture, building and retail trade. Migrants who work in agriculture suffer the worst labor conditions than all other migrants. However, all migrants experience difficulty in obtaining residency and labor permits. Four integration strategies among Moroccan immigrants in Catalonia are discussed and can be viewed as support networks of the immigrants.
Moustgaard, Helene; Bjerregaard, Peter; Borch-Johnsen, Knut
The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose intolerance (IGT) among Inuit migrants living in Denmark, and to compare with findings from Greenland. Further, we analyzed determinants for diabetes and impaired glucose metabolism.......The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose intolerance (IGT) among Inuit migrants living in Denmark, and to compare with findings from Greenland. Further, we analyzed determinants for diabetes and impaired glucose metabolism....
Ta, Thi Minh Tam; Neuhaus, Andres H; Burian, Ronald; Schomerus, Georg; von Poser, Anita; Diefenbacher, Albert; Röttger-Rössler, Birgitt; Dettling, Michael; Hahn, Eric
Vietnamese migrants underutilize and are a "hard to reach group" within the existing mental health care system in Germany. We analyzed migration related and clinical data for all first-time Vietnamese migrants seeking psychiatric help, within the first 30 months of a newly established outpatient clinic, offering culture-sensitive psychiatric treatment in native Vietnamese language. Most first time patients were female, first generation Vietnamese migrants with poor German language skills. Only 1 /3 of all patients had a psychiatric history, while this number was higher in patients with schizophrenia. Over time, more first time patients with depression were seeking psychiatric care, accompanied with an increase of non-professional referrals within the Vietnamese communities. This first study on mental health care utilization in Vietnamese migrants in Germany points towards the fact that "migrants" cannot be considered as a homogeneous group. Mental health care utilization must be evaluated for specific migrant groups, and can be initially improved if offered in native language and when it is referred to by members of migrant communities. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Vengiau, Gwendalyn; Umezaki, Masahiro; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Siba, Peter; Watanabe, Chiho
Urban migrants in Papua New Guinea have undergone a nutritional transition. The present study investigated associations of socioeconomic status with dietary and physical activity patterns among migrant Bougainvilleans from Nassioi territory in the capital city of Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. All adults Naasioi migrants residing in Port Moresby were identified (N = 185) and 70 were included. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity, and dietary patterns were assessed by per-week consumption frequency of food items. Principal component analysis was applied to produce a composite score for socioeconomic status. Least square regression analysis indicated that socioeconomic status was positively correlated with consumption of a traditional diet (p = .03) and negatively with walking-related physical activity (p = .02), but it was not correlated with MET-minutes of moderate/vigorous activity. Different patterns of nutritional transition occur among migrants in urban Papua New Guinea, depending on socioeconomic status.
Gawde, Nilesh Chandrakant; Sivakami, Muthusamy; Babu, Bontha V
An intervention to improve migrants' access to healthcare was piloted in Mumbai with purpose of informing health policy and planning. This paper aims to describe the process of building partnership for improving migrants' access to healthcare of the pilot intervention, including the role played by different stakeholders and the contextual factors affecting the intervention. The process evaluation was based on Baranowski and Stables' framework. Observations in community and conversations with stakeholders as recorded in daily diaries, minutes of pre-intervention workshops, and stakeholder meetings served as data sources. Data were coded using the framework and descriptive summaries of evaluation components were prepared. Recruitment of stakeholders was easier than sustaining their interest. Community representatives led the intervention assisted by government officials. They planned community-level interventions to improve access to healthcare that involved predominantly information, education, and communication activities for which pre-existing formal and informal social networks and community events were used. Although the intervention reached migrants living with families, single male migrants neither participated nor did the intervention reach them consistently. Contextual factors such as culture differences between migrants and native population and illegality in the nature of the settlement, resulting in the exclusion from services, were the barriers. Inclusive multi-stakeholder partnership, including migrants themselves and using both formal and informal networks in community is a feasible strategy for health education and has potential to improve the migrants' access to healthcare. However, there are challenges to the partnership process and new strategies to overcome these challenges need to be tested such as peer-led models for involvement of single male migrants. For sustaining such efforts and mainstreaming migrants, addressing contextual factors and
Lin, Qiu-hong; Liu, Yi-min; Zhou, Jing-dong; Cao, Nai-qiong; Fang, Yuan-yu
To study the influential factors on psychosocial health of the migrant workers in Guangzhou. The Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) were used to investigate 518 migrant workers in Guangzhou. The rate of migrant workers with psychosocial problems was 36.5%. The scores of SCL-90 and positive rates in migrant workers with the different personality types had significant difference (P workers was significantly associated with the personality. The results of present study indicated that different vocation, sex, working years, smoking and drinking might interfere with the psychological states. The migrant workers with the personality of psychoticism, neuroticism and introversion may have unhealthy mental reaction.
The perspectives of migrant children and young people have been largely omitted in youth studies. Existing literature focuses predominantly on young people born to migrant parents in the host country, while the problems of first generation of migrant youth have received limited attention. This paper focuses on first-generation Polish migrants and their experiences in relation to school transition, new language learning and the changing family relationships in the new social environment. It dr...
Full Text Available Background: Extensive scholarly literature documents the decline in marriage and increase in non-marital cohabitation and divorce across regions and countries of Europe, but we know less about the extent to which these new family behaviours that have emerged in host societies are adopted by migrants. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine partnership transitions among the migrants and their descendants in Estonia, who mainly originate from the European part of Russia. By investigating an East European context, the study contributes to a more comprehensive account of migrant populations in different socio-economic and cultural settings. Methods: The study is based on the Estonian Generations and Gender Survey (2004/2005 and the Estonian Family and Fertility Survey (1994/1997, and employs proportional hazards models. Results: The results show that new family formation patterns, associated with the Second Demographic Transition, are less prevalent among migrants. The difference between migrants and native Estonians is most pronounced in the mode of partnership formation and outcomes of cohabiting unions, whereas the results pertaining to union dissolution reveal a less systematic difference between population groups. Reflecting the relatively slow integration, the second-generation migrants exhibit partnership behaviour that differs from that of the native population. The observed differences between migrants and the native population appear largely similar for both men and women. Conclusions: The results lend support to socialisation, cultural maintenance, and adaptation hypotheses, and underscore the importance of contextual factors. The analysis reveals disruption effects of migration on partnership processes.
Hudelson, Patricia; Dominice Dao, Melissa; Perneger, Thomas; Durieux-Paillard, Sophie
International migration poses important challenges to European health care systems. The development of "migrant friendly hospitals" has been identified as a priority in both Europe and Switzerland. A multi-pronged initiative was developed at Geneva University Hospitals (HUG) to improve staff knowledge and use of existing "migrant friendly" resources. A self-administered questionnaire was sent pre and post-intervention to random samples of 4 major professional groups with direct patient contact at the HUG. The questionnaire assessed staff knowledge, attitudes and reported practices regarding the care of migrant patients. Overall response rate was 51% (N = 1460) in 2010 but only 19% (N = 761) in 2013 owing to an institutionally imposed change in survey method. Despite these difficulties, and after adjusting for sample differences, we found that respondents in 2013 were significantly more likely to have received training in how to organize an appointment with an interpreter, how to work with an interpreter and about health and social services available for migrant patients. Respondents were also significantly more likely to have used several Migrant Friendly structures at the HUG. Use of, preference for and perceived skill at working with professional interpreters all improved, and respondents were both more likely to be encouraged by their supervisors to use professional interpreters, and less likely to be encouraged to look for alternative solutions for communicating with non francophone patients. Finally, 2013 respondents encountered fewer difficulties caring for migrant patients, although lack of time and language barriers continued to be the most important sources of difficulty. Our results suggest that an institution-wide information campaign may contribute to increased awareness and use of migrant friendly resources by clinical staff. Hospital commitment and financing, along with inter-departmental participation in all activities were important in creating and
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: International migration poses important challenges to European health care systems. The development of "migrant friendly hospitals" has been identified as a priority in both Europe and Switzerland. METHODS: A multi-pronged initiative was developed at Geneva University Hospitals (HUG to improve staff knowledge and use of existing "migrant friendly" resources. A self-administered questionnaire was sent pre and post-intervention to random samples of 4 major professional groups with direct patient contact at the HUG. The questionnaire assessed staff knowledge, attitudes and reported practices regarding the care of migrant patients. RESULTS: Overall response rate was 51% (N = 1460 in 2010 but only 19% (N = 761 in 2013 owing to an institutionally imposed change in survey method. Despite these difficulties, and after adjusting for sample differences, we found that respondents in 2013 were significantly more likely to have received training in how to organize an appointment with an interpreter, how to work with an interpreter and about health and social services available for migrant patients. Respondents were also significantly more likely to have used several Migrant Friendly structures at the HUG. Use of, preference for and perceived skill at working with professional interpreters all improved, and respondents were both more likely to be encouraged by their supervisors to use professional interpreters, and less likely to be encouraged to look for alternative solutions for communicating with non francophone patients. Finally, 2013 respondents encountered fewer difficulties caring for migrant patients, although lack of time and language barriers continued to be the most important sources of difficulty. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that an institution-wide information campaign may contribute to increased awareness and use of migrant friendly resources by clinical staff. Hospital commitment and financing, along with inter
Fitzgerald, Simon; Chen, Xin; Qu, Hui; Sheff, Mira Grice
Objectives This review considers the state of occupational injury surveillance and prevention among migrant workers in China and suggests areas of focus for future research on the topic. Methods Bibliographic databases were searched for qualitative and quantitative studies on surveillance of and interventions to prevent occupational injury among migrant workers in mainland China. Additional abstracts were identified from the citations of relevant articles from the database search. Studies fitting the inclusion criteria were evaluated, and findings were extracted and summarised. Results The search uncovered 726 studies in the English-language databases searched, and 3109 in the Chinese database. This article analyses a total of 19 research articles that fit the inclusion criteria with qualitative or quantitative data on occupational injury surveillance and prevention of migrant workers in China. Despite evidence of the vulnerability of migrant workers in the workplace, there is little systematic surveillance of occupational injury and few evaluated interventions. Conclusions Migrant workers account for a disproportionate burden of occupational injury morbidity and mortality in China. However, data are inconsistent and inadequate to detail injury incidence or to evaluate interventions. The following are suggestions to decrease injury incidence among migrants: strengthen the national system of occupational injury surveillance; focus surveillance and interventions on high-risk occupations employing migrants such as construction, manufacturing and small mining operations; improve occupational safety training and access to appropriate safety equipment; evaluate recent changes in occupational health and safety and evaluate outcome of multi-party interventions to reduce occupational injury among migrant workers. PMID:23710065
Shao, Cenyi; Meng, Xuehui; Cui, Shichen; Wang, Jingru; Li, Chengcheng
Background: Although migrant workers are a vulnerable group in China, they demonstrably contribute to the country's economic growth and prosperity. This study aimed to describe and assess the inequality of migrant worker health in China and its association with socioeconomic determinants. Methods: The data utilized in this study were obtained from the 2012 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey conducted in 29 Chinese provinces. This study converted the self-rated health of these migrant worker...
Community education is an essential carrier of continuing education and plays a positive role in promoting continuing education of migrant workers. On the one hand,it can raise employment quality and labor skills of migrant workers; on the other hand,it manifests function of serving society of community education. Besides,it is also an important measure for building learning society and lifelong learning system.From the perspective of interactive development,it discusses interactive relationship between community education and migrant workers’ continuing education,analyzes their interactive mechanism,and comes up with recommendations for developing community education and migrant workers’ continuing education.
In the last few decades, the State of Israel has become a target for work migrants, refugees, asylum seekers and victims of human trafficking, as part of the trend of world immigration. Immigration is a process of loss and change with significant socio-psychological stress, with possible effects on the immigrants' mental health. The Physicians for Human Rights - Israel (PHR) Association operates a psychiatric clinic as part of the Open Clinic for Work Migrants and Refugees. This article will present major clinical issues regarding psychiatry and immigration in Israel according to the data collected at the clinic. Trauma and stress-related psychopathology was found to have a high prevalence in immigrant patients treated at the clinic; prevalence of PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) in immigrants was high (23%) and even higher in refugees (33%). Female immigrants are at higher risk for psychiatric hospitalization. The relative rate of African patients at the clinic is significantly higher than patients from other continents. A significant association was found between psychiatric hospitalization and suicide attempts. Immigrant patients present a combination of psychiatric, socio-economic and general medical conditions, which demands a holistic view of the patient. The evaluation of an immigrant patient must take into account the stress related to immigration, gender, culture of origin and the risk for suicide and hospitalization. Treatment recommendations include awareness of cultural diversities, acquiring information regarding the pre-immigration history, preferably using cultural consultants with background in the immigrants' culture and community. Decision-making about medication and diagnostic evaluation should be as inexpensive as possible. Basic human needs (food, shelter) and family support should be included in the decisions about treatment.
Full Text Available China is facing the unprecedented challenge of rapidly increasing rural-to-urban migration. Migrants are in a vulnerable state when they attempt to access to primary care services. This study was designed to explore rural-to-urban migrants' experiences in primary care, comparing their quality of primary care experiences under different types of medical institutions in Guangzhou, China.The study employed a cross-sectional survey of 736 rural-to-urban migrants in Guangzhou, China in 2014. A validated Chinese version of Primary Care Assessment Tool--Adult Short Version (PCAT-AS, representing 10 primary care domains was used to collect information on migrants' quality of primary care experiences. These domains include first contact (utilization, first contact (accessibility, ongoing care, coordination (referrals, coordination (information systems, comprehensiveness (services available, comprehensiveness (services provided, family-centeredness, community orientation and culturally competent. These measures were used to assess the quality of primary care performance as reported from patients' perspective. Analysis of covariance was conducted for comparison on PCAT scores among migrants accessing primary care in tertiary hospitals, municipal hospitals, community health centers/community health stations, and township health centers/rural health stations. Multiple linear regression models were used to explore factors associated with PCAT total scores.After adjustments were made, migrants accessing primary care in tertiary hospitals (25.49 reported the highest PCAT total scores, followed by municipal hospitals (25.02, community health centers/community health stations (24.24, and township health centers/rural health stations (24.18. Tertiary hospital users reported significantly better performance in first contact (utilization, first contact (accessibility, coordination (information system, comprehensiveness (service available, and cultural competence
Detollenaere, Jens; Baert, Stijn; Willems, Sara
We study whether migrant health in Europe is associated with the cultural distance between their host country and country of origin. To this end, we run multilevel regression models on data merging self-rated health and social background of ≥3800 migrants from the European Social Survey with an index of cultural distance based on country differences in values, norms and attitudes measured in the World Values Survey. We find that higher levels of cultural distance are associated with worse migrant health. This association is comparable in size with the negative association between health and female (compared with male) gender but less important than the association between health and education level. In addition, this association is less significant among second-generation than first-generation migrants.
Full Text Available This paper examines the function of network as a tool of problem solving in Indonesian migrant entrepreneurship escaping labor market challenges and social-cultural adjustment process in Taiwan. As the essential key to social mobility of migrant, networks is considered not only used as a migrant strategic survival, but may help them get resources to spur entrepreneurship. By cohesive personal/social networks with local fellow or nationals and using social media, it facilitated the entrepreneur’s to capital, support (mentoring, knowledge (access to sufficient capital and a reliable supply and customer. In case social network Indonesian entrepreneur in Taiwan is formed through personal or group migrant ties, religion, ethnic and hometown, or group association depends home base city where they work.
Dieu Donné HACK-POLAY
Full Text Available This paper looks at the work experiences of forced migrants in the country of origin and the host country. The article builds on interviews with forced migrants from three nationalities, Congo (DRC, Kosovo and Somalia to contrast their experience of work in the labour market in the United Kingdom. The research found that the place the migrants occupy in the host labour market is not often commensurate with their qualifications and professional baggage from the country of origin. The forced migrants often landed in menial, unskilled or semi-skilled jobs. Ethnicity or racial origin had little impact on the degree of success in the host labour market. However the article concludes that the professional demise of the forced migrants is not only a loss to them but the host economy might be missing out on valuable human resources, given the high skills that the migrants harbour.
Stolte, I. G.; Gras, M.; van Benthem, B. H.; Coutinho, R. A.; van den Hoek, J. A. R.
This cross-sectional study among heterosexual migrant groups in south-eastern Amsterdam, the city area where the largest migrant groups live, provides an insight into HIV testing behaviour in this particular group. Participants were recruited at street locations (May 1997-July 1998) and interviewed
Tüzin Baycan-Levent; Peter Nijkamp
In the last decades migrant enterprises have become more embedded in the European urban economy. With the rising number of migrant entrepreneurs, the largest cities in Europe have acquired a more cosmopolitan outlook and have become dynamic multicultural economies. Actually, the Â‘ethnic economiesÂ’ are often seen as elements of a solution to structural labour market problems and ethnicity is increasingly regarded as a viable resource for economic advancement on the labour market in Europe. A...
Ehmsen, Boje Kvorning; Biswas, Dan; Jensen, Natasja Koitszch
on the International Classification of Primary Care, 2nd Edition (ICPC-2). RESULTS: A total of 830 patients (39.75% women and 60.25% men) visited the clinic, which led to a total of 2,088 visits and 1,384 ICPC-2 classifications. The patients seen had 94 different nationalities. The most common reasons for medical......INTRODUCTION: In 2008, 1.9-3.8 million undocumented migrants lived in Europe. We aimed to strengthen the evidence base on undocumented migrants' health problems by describing characteristics of undocumented migrant patients in a Danish non-governmental organisation (NGO) health clinic. MATERIAL...... contact correspond well with the pattern seen in general practice and several chronic and severe cases were observed in the NGO clinic. Furthermore, a larger share of pregnant women presented (11.6%) compared with a Danish general practice (5.1%), and these were seen first in a late gestational age...
Gawde, Nilesh C; Sivakami, Muthusamy; Babu, Bontha V
This study aimed to understand access to maternal health care and the factors shaping it amongst poor migrants in Mumbai, India. A cross-sectional mixed methods approach was used. It included multistage cluster sampling and face-to-face interviews, through structured interview schedules, of 234 migrant women who had delivered in the two years previous to the date they were interviewed. Qualitative in-depth interviews of migrant women, health care providers and health officials were also conducted to understand community and provider perspectives. The results showed that access to antenatal care was poor among migrants with less than a third of them receiving basic antenatal care and a quarter delivering at home. Multivariate analysis highlighted that amongst migrant women those who stayed in Mumbai during pregnancy and delivery had better access to maternal health care than those who went back to their home towns. Poor maternal health care was also due to weaker demand for health care as a result of the lack of felt-need among migrants due to socio-cultural factors and lack of social support for, and knowledge of, health facilities in the city. Supply-side factors such as inadequate health infrastructure at primary and secondary levels, lack of specific strategies to improve access to health care for migrants and cumbersome administrative procedures that exclude migrants from certain government programmes all need to be addressed. Migrants should be integral to the urban development process and policies should aim at preventing their exclusion from basic amenities and their entitlements as citizens.
Full Text Available Background: Recent trends show an unprecedented feminisation of migration in China, triggered by the increasing demand for cheap labour in big cities and the availability of women in the labour market. These trends corroborate the evidence that non-agricultural work and remittance from urban labour migrants have become the major sources of rural household income. Objective: This paper investigates the extent of gender inequalities in job participation and wage earning among internal labour migrants in China. We hypothesize that female migrants in cities are economically more disadvantaged than male migrants in the job market. Methods: We use data from the 2010 National Migrant Dynamics Monitoring Survey conducted in 106 cities representing all 31 provinces and geographic regions. The study applies the standard Heckman two-step Probit-OLS method to model job participation and wage-earning, separately for 59,225 males and 41,546 females aged 16-59 years, adjusting for demographic and social characteristics and potential selection effects. Results: Female migrants have much lower job-participation and wage-earning potential than male migrants. Male migrants earn 26Š higher hourly wages than their female counterparts. Decomposition analysis confirms potential gender discrimination, suggesting that 88Š of the gender difference in wages (or 12Š of female migrant wage is due to discriminatory treatment of female migrants in the Chinese job market. Migrants with rural hukou status have a smaller chance of participation in the job market and they earn lower wages than those with urban hukou, regardless of education advantage. Conclusions: There is evidence of significant female disadvantage among internal labour migrants in the job market in Chinese cities. Household registration by urban and rural areas, as controlled by the hukou status, partly explains the differing job participation and wage earning among female labour migrants in urban China
Andre M N Renzaho
Full Text Available Immigration often results in changes in family dynamics, and within this process of dynamic relational adjustment youth can be conceptualised as contested sites of culture and associated intergenerational conflicts. This paper considers the experiences of migrant youth in Greater Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia using conflict as a useful lens through which to view issues of migrant youth identity and their sense of social connectedness, belonging, and agency. The aim of this study was twofold: 1 to explore how migrant youth cope with acculturative stress and intergenerational conflicts, and 2 to better understand the systemic and family-related factors that facilitate positive settlement experiences for migrant youth.A total of 14 focus group discussions, comprising 164 people, were carried out in Greater Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. These focus groups targeted newly arrived migrant parents and young adults (aged 18-24 of African, Burmese, Nepalese, Indian, Afghani, Bangladeshi and Iraqi backgrounds. Each focus group was 1.5 hours in duration and was conducted by a team of three people (an experienced facilitator, an accredited interpreter/bilingual worker, and a note taker. Data were collected using a standard interview schedule, and an accredited interpreter/bilingual worker asked the questions in the appropriate language and translated participant responses into English.The findings highlight how youth in new migrant families become contested sites of culture as they try to balance integration into the new culture while maintaining their originating country's cultural values. Two themes and four subthemes emerged from the analysis: Intergenerational acculturation gap (loss of family capital and intergenerational conflicts; and factors that successfully protected positive family values while still allowing young people to integrate (the legal system that disarm authoritarian parenting practices and family rules; and
Renzaho, Andre M. N.; Dhingra, Nidhi; Georgeou, Nichole
Background Immigration often results in changes in family dynamics, and within this process of dynamic relational adjustment youth can be conceptualised as contested sites of culture and associated intergenerational conflicts. This paper considers the experiences of migrant youth in Greater Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia using conflict as a useful lens through which to view issues of migrant youth identity and their sense of social connectedness, belonging, and agency. The aim of this study was twofold: 1) to explore how migrant youth cope with acculturative stress and intergenerational conflicts, and 2) to better understand the systemic and family-related factors that facilitate positive settlement experiences for migrant youth. Methods A total of 14 focus group discussions, comprising 164 people, were carried out in Greater Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. These focus groups targeted newly arrived migrant parents and young adults (aged 18–24) of African, Burmese, Nepalese, Indian, Afghani, Bangladeshi and Iraqi backgrounds. Each focus group was 1.5 hours in duration and was conducted by a team of three people (an experienced facilitator, an accredited interpreter/bilingual worker, and a note taker). Data were collected using a standard interview schedule, and an accredited interpreter/bilingual worker asked the questions in the appropriate language and translated participant responses into English. Results The findings highlight how youth in new migrant families become contested sites of culture as they try to balance integration into the new culture while maintaining their originating country’s cultural values. Two themes and four subthemes emerged from the analysis: Intergenerational acculturation gap (loss of family capital and intergenerational conflicts); and factors that successfully protected positive family values while still allowing young people to integrate (the legal system that disarm authoritarian parenting practices and
Renzaho, Andre M N; Dhingra, Nidhi; Georgeou, Nichole
Immigration often results in changes in family dynamics, and within this process of dynamic relational adjustment youth can be conceptualised as contested sites of culture and associated intergenerational conflicts. This paper considers the experiences of migrant youth in Greater Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia using conflict as a useful lens through which to view issues of migrant youth identity and their sense of social connectedness, belonging, and agency. The aim of this study was twofold: 1) to explore how migrant youth cope with acculturative stress and intergenerational conflicts, and 2) to better understand the systemic and family-related factors that facilitate positive settlement experiences for migrant youth. A total of 14 focus group discussions, comprising 164 people, were carried out in Greater Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. These focus groups targeted newly arrived migrant parents and young adults (aged 18-24) of African, Burmese, Nepalese, Indian, Afghani, Bangladeshi and Iraqi backgrounds. Each focus group was 1.5 hours in duration and was conducted by a team of three people (an experienced facilitator, an accredited interpreter/bilingual worker, and a note taker). Data were collected using a standard interview schedule, and an accredited interpreter/bilingual worker asked the questions in the appropriate language and translated participant responses into English. The findings highlight how youth in new migrant families become contested sites of culture as they try to balance integration into the new culture while maintaining their originating country's cultural values. Two themes and four subthemes emerged from the analysis: Intergenerational acculturation gap (loss of family capital and intergenerational conflicts); and factors that successfully protected positive family values while still allowing young people to integrate (the legal system that disarm authoritarian parenting practices and family rules; and parental use
Wickramage, Kolitha; Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Vidanapathirana, Puwalani; Weerawarna, Sulochana; Jayasekara, Buddhini; Pannala, Gayani; Adikari, Anushka; Jayaweera, Kaushalya; Peiris, Sharika; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sumathipala, Athula
One-in-ten Sri Lankans are employed abroad as International Labor Migrants (ILM), mainly as domestic maids or low-skilled laborers. Little is known about the impact their migration has on the health status of the children they 'leave behind'. This national study explored associations between the health status of 'left-behind' children of ILM's with those from comparative non-migrant families. A cross-sectional study design with multi-stage random sampling was used to survey a total of 820 children matched for both age and sex. Socio-demographic and health status data were derived using standardized pre-validated instruments. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to estimate the differences in mental health outcomes between children of migrant vs. non-migrant families. Two in every five left-behind children were shown to have mental disorders [95%CI: 37.4-49.2, p migration of labour, where remittances from ILM's remain as the single highest contributor to the economy. These findings may be relevant for other labour 'sending countries' in Asia relying on contractual labor migration for economic gain. Further studies are needed to assess longitudinal health impacts on the children left-behind.
"The accelerating economic globalization has created a growing demand for highly skilled labourers. As a result, there has been an increase in highly skilled and high-status migrants to Germany, especially to the urban agglomerations with global city functions. This migration process is carried mostly by the internal labour and job movement of multinational companies. In the urban centres these groups of migrants follow specific patterns of spatial organization and segregation with regard to their place of residence. But they also have other distinctive difference to the migrants with a lower social status, such as higher social acceptance in their host country, the transitory character of their stay in Germany, and their intentions to return to their home countries." (EXCERPT)
Liu, Li-Juan; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Chun-Li; Wang, Yue; Guo, Qiang
Following the rapid increase of migrant workers in China, the number of "absent migrant parents" children is also rising fast. The "absent migrant parents" children might have an insecure relationship with their parents, have a different view of them, and be prone to have the feeling of loneliness. The purpose of the study was to compare the self-concept and loneliness between the "absent migrant parents" children and comparison children, to examine the relationship between self-concept and loneliness among the two groups, and to study the predictors of self-concept among the two groups. Participants were 230 "absent migrant parents" children and 250 comparison children in the rural area of a county, China. The self-concept and loneliness of children were assessed using Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale and Childhood Loneliness Scale. The "absent migrant parents" children were more likely to dislike their parents or be uncertain whether they like their parents, and they reported less time spent in physical and leisure time activities, higher loneliness and lower self-concept in comparison with the comparison children. Loneliness was significantly negatively correlated with all the dimensions of self-concept among the two groups. Regression analysis showed that self-concept was positively related to the relationship with parents and guardians and time spent in physical and leisure activities among the "absent migrant parents" children. The same factors (except the relationship with guardians) were found for self-concept among the comparison children. The "absent migrant parents" children were more inclined to have lower self-concept and higher loneliness. The lower self-concept seemed to contribute to the higher loneliness of the "absent migrant parents" children. The lower self-concept of the "absent migrant parents" children was mainly related with their relationship with parents and guardians. The acceptance and support from their parents could not be fully
Full Text Available Classical studies on migration as those of the Chicago school emphasized the social disorganization of migrants. However, migration researchers have regarded social networks as the key to understanding migration processes. Social capital generated by migrant networks is now considered as essential for the social mobility of migrants. Indeed, the contrasting views of migrant networks are too simple to clarify the dynamic processes of network formation. Few studies have tested how migrant networks are changing in host societies, which ties are transplanted from the home country, and which of them are utilized. This paper aims to clarify the missing link between pre-migration and post-migration social networks, examining the multiplicity of migrants’ social networks. This study tested three hypotheses of social capital on Brazilian entrepreneurs in Japan. By analyzing the social capital these migrant entrepreneurs mobilized to start businesses, this study found that while most depended on social capital in the initial phase of their businesses, they relied less on social relationships transplanted to Japan than on other sources. In addition, Brazilian entrepreneurs selectively used different sources of social capital. These results show that migrants selectively maintain and reconstruct social networks in the process of migration.
This article is based on a qualitative study that explored educational challenges and coping mechanisms of internal migrant girls whose families moved from the rural areas in the east to the western parts of Turkey. The study revealed that internal migrant girls have encountered a number of
Acceso a la justicia, migrantes y violencia de género: Municipio de Lanús; Acesso à justiça, os migrantes e violência de gênero: Municipio de Lanús; Access to justice, migrants and gender violence: Municipio de Lanús
Verónica Jaramillo Fonnegra
Full Text Available Resumen: La presente es una investigación-acción realizada en el Municipio de Lanús entre 2015 y 2016; que evalúa las formas de acceso a la justicia en casos de violencia machista contra las mujeres migrantes que residen en la zona a través del análisis del sistema de jurídico-institucional. Este sistema tiene un importante rol en las formas en que las mujeres migrantes perciben sus posibilidades de salir de sus situaciones de violencia. Ser pobre, ser migrante, no tener estudios, no tener trabajo registrado y ser víctima de violencia de género es un poderoso cóctel de desigualdades que ejerce un fuerte impacto en las formas de acercamiento a la justicia de las migrantes. A pesar de ello, también existen distintas formas de resistencia, algunas de las cuales mostraremos en el escrito. Palabras claves: accedo, justicia, migración, violencia, patriarcado. Resumo: Esta é uma pesquisa-ação realizada no Municipio de Lanús entre 2015 e 2016. Nela são avaliadas formas de acesso à justiça em casos de violência de género às mulheres migrantes habitantes desta área. Analisando o sistema legal e institucional que tem que tem um papel importante no caminho que as mulheres migrantes percebem suas chances de sair das situações de violência. Ser pobre, condição de migrante, baixa escolaridade, não ter trabalho registrado e ser vítima de violência doméstica, são um poderoso coquetel de desigualdades que impactam fortemente sobre maneiras de abordar a justiça de migrantes. Embora haja também várias formas de resistência, alguns dos quais evidenciaremos no presente documento. Palavras-chave: Acesso, justiça, migrantes, violência de gênero. Abstract: The following is an excerpt from an action-research carried out in the Municipality of Lanús between 2015 and 2016. In it, we evaluate the access to Justice in cases of gender violence against migrant women who live in the area through the analysis of
In view of the cultural diversity in German society today, the time has long since come when medical care must adjust to its new clientele. This article provides an overview for doctors, medical personnel and psychologists of approaches, backgrounds and networks of migration to Germany, in particular over the little known undocumented migration. This migration has steadily increased in recent years. The author deals with the circumstances which create psychological problems for migrants and what happens when migrants living in this shadow world fall ill. In addition, the article offers an agenda for interculturally competent action in caring for documented and undocumented migrants. Dimensions of cultural differences such as collectivism versus individualism (most of the countries of origin of these migrants in Germany with or without documents are collectivistic) are explained along with differences in styles of communication. The following styles with their impact in actual practice are analyzed: indirect versus direct communication; emotional control versus expressiveness; functionalism versus relationship orientation.
Data from a field survey of slum and squatter settlements in Dhaka, Bangladesh, are used to examine the social adjustment of poor, female migrants to work, occupational choice, work satisfaction, income, control over income, and women's role in the family economy. A "poor household," defined in terms of nutritional intake, included those families receiving under 2122 cal/person/day. 44% of the urban population in Bangladesh do not obtain the daily nutritional requirement. Findings indicate that 61% of all female migrants expected to find work on arrival in the city. 44% of female migrants were willing to take any kind of work available at the time of arrival. Over 66% of all females found work in less than 6 months. Almost 25% took 6 months to a year to find a job, and 15% found work after a year's time. Recent migrants, who were older, found work quicker. 16% of female migrants found their job with help from relatives and friends (23% of recent migrants and 14% of long-term migrants). Among female migrants who sought a job on their own, 14% found work within 6 months. 3% found work between 6 months and a year. The rest were engaged in family and home-based work or found a job much later. In Dhaka, most women migrants worked in the service or informal sector. 40% of the sample worked as domestics, 38% worked in the informal sector, 16% worked in other informal work, and 5% worked in export-based garment industries. Most female migrants lived in the British Dhaka zone and the post-British Dhaka zone. Those living in the Mughal Dhaka zone tended to work in home-based informal activities. Garment industry workers tended to have more education. Women in the informal sector did not receive cash income. Just over 33% received income in kind, about 25% received a low income, and another 25% received a moderate income. In 71% of cases, husbands or fathers handled the money. 29% handled income on their own. Their own earnings went mostly for survival needs. Over 70% changed
his study is devoted to the balance between work and life the Eastern European migrants manage to obtain. Work and life balance is considered as one of the core factors for the quality of life of the individual. Processes of migration and integration of migrants make the attainment of the work-life balance even more complicated and involve more resources. In this work the work and personal life balance of migrants is being analysed from the following perspectives: occupation, f...
Teariki, Mary Anne
Settlement is a complex process of adjustment for migrants and refugees. Drawing on recent research on the settlement experiences of Kiribati migrants and their families living in New Zealand, this article examines the role of housing as an influencer of the settlement and health of Kiribati migrants. Using qualitative methodology, in-depth interviews were conducted with fourteen Kiribati migrants (eight women and six men) representing 91 family members about the key issues and events that shaped their settlement in New Zealand. The stories told by participants affirm the association between housing and health. The study serves as an important reminder that children bear a great cost from living in poorly insulated and damp housing, and adults bear the mental costs, including social isolation resulting from inadequate rental housing. Detailed information about how this migrant group entered the private rental housing market, by taking over the rental leases of other Kiribati migrants vacating their rental properties, indicated some of the unintended consequences related to a lack of incentives for landlords to make improvements. With the most vulnerable families most at risk from inadequate housing, this research concludes that there is a need for minimum housing standards to protect tenants.
Lu, Hui; Chen, Jing; Wang, Wei; Wu, Laiwa; Shen, Xin; Yuan, Zhengan; Yan, Fei
Eight of 17 districts of Shanghai have offered transportation and living allowances subsidies to patients with tuberculosis (TB) among the migrant population. The study aimed to assess the impact of the subsidising initiative on the treatment success rate (TSR) and identify the social determinants of treatment outcomes. The participants included 7072 residents and 5703 migrants who were registered in the TB Information Management System with smear-positive pulmonary TB from January 2006 to December 2010. The Cochran-Armitage test was employed to test the trends of TSR and logistic regressions to identify the factors associated with treatment outcome. Without subsidies, migrant TB cases had lower odds of successful treatment [OR = 0.20 (95% CI 0.18-0.23)] than resident cases. Subsidisation was associated with a 65% increased odds ratio of success [1.65 (1.40-1.95)] among migrant cases. The TSR has stabilised at 87% for both permanent residents and temporary migrants since 2009. Living in districts with a population density ≥20,000/km(2) was associated with a low odds ratio [0.42 (0.26-0.68)] among resident cases, whereas among migrant cases those living in districts out of central downtown had a higher odds ratio of treatment success [peripheral downtown: 1.73 (1.36-2.20), suburban: 1.69 (1.16-2.46)]. The TB cases in districts with 2.0-2.9 TB specialists/100 cases had a higher odds ratio [2.99 (1.91-4.69)] of successful treatment than cases from districts with fewer specialists. Besides free medical services, transport and living allowance subsidies to migrant patients with TB improved the treatment outcome significantly. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lingscheid, Tilman; Kurth, Florian; Clerinx, Jan
Schistosomiasis remains one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases worldwide and the infection is frequently found in travelers and migrants. The European Network for Tropical Medicine and Travel Health conducted a sentinel surveillance study on imported schistosomiasis between 1997 and 2010...... or antigen testing. Schistosomiasis remains a frequent infection in travelers and migrants to Europe. Travelers should be made aware of the risk of schistosomiasis infection when traveling to sub-Saharan Africa. Posttravel consultations particularly for returning expatriates are useful given the high...
Bailey, A.; Channakki, H.R.; Hutter, I.
This article describes how migrants make places in host communities by inscribing these places with parts of their culture. The place making discussion in this article is situated within the cultural-temporal framework of liminality. Data are drawn from fieldwork carried out among migrant and mobile
This study analyses the citizenship experiences of young non-western migrants in the Netherlands. Young migrants are in a disadvantaged position in education and in the labour market and this leads to concerns about their integration in Dutch society. The focus of this study is on the participation
Henderson, Allison; Daft, Julie
States use federal Migrant Education Program (MEP) funds to provide migrant children with services that address the special needs related to continual educational disruption. MEP services can be instructional or supporting. This report summarizes MEP participation information provided by state education agencies for the 1998-99 school year. The…
Little is know about the educational, social, and psychological problems that migrant worker children experience. This paper juxtaposes what we know about domestic migrant worker children with what is being discovered about international migrant worker counterparts. The educational experiences in the country of origin and receiving nation are…
He, D.; Zhou, Y.; Ji, N.; Wu, S.; Wang, Z.; Decat, P.; Moyer, E.; Minkauskiene, M.; Pang, C.; Cheng, Y.
Aim: The purpose of this study was to broadly assess the level of knowledge, attitude and behaviors related to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) among unmarried female migrants in China. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted and a self-administered questionnaire was
V. I. Mukomel
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to analyze the extent of the presence of migrants and their behavior in the Russian labor market on the basis of largescale sociological surveys of migrants. This is especially important in the absence of reliable statistics on migrants in the labor market. The main attention is paid to the employment profiles of representatives of various socio-demographic and ethnic groups, illegal and informal employment, the intensity and wages of migrants from countries with a visa-free regime with Russia. Particular attention is paid to labor mobility of migrants. The main empirical basis for analysis was the results of sociological polls conducted by the Center for Ethnopolitical and Regional Studies for the Higher School of Economics in 2011. (8,5 thousand respondents and in 2017 (8,6 thousand migrants in 19 regions of Russia. The study showed that education, qualifications, professional knowledge of migrants are not in demand on the Russian market, the typical path of migrants in the labor market is downward labor mobility – occupying a job that is worse than previously occupied in the homeland. At the same time, migrants are adapted to changes in the labor market, which is largely facilitated by the differentiation of migrant employment and the vertical mobility of some of them. Innovations in Russian legislation which came into force in 2015, as well as the integration process within the framework of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEA, which greatly facilitated access to jobs in Russia for citizens of the countries of the EEA, had a positive impact on the Russian labor market. The share of illegally employed migrants has significantly decreased in comparison with previous years. At the same time, the problem of informal employment of foreign citizens, excessive exploitation of migrant labor remains. The problems of combating forced labor of migrants and ensuring their decent labor come to the fore. Civilized conditions should
El-Bassel, Nabila; Marotta, Phillip L
This paper examines the association between alcohol consumption and sexual risk behaviors (unprotected sex, multiple sex partners, sex under influence of drugs or alcohol and commercial sex) in a sample of Central Asian migrant and non-migrant laborers in the largest marketplace in Kazakhstan. We used data from The Silk Road Health Project, conducted from 2010 to 2013 with 1342 male migrant and non-migrant market workers. Participants were selected through respondent driven sampling at the Baraholka Market in Almaty, Kazakhstan. We used regression analyses adjusting for potential confounders to examine the relationship between alcohol consumption and sexual risk behavior. We found that hazardous drinking was associated with an increase in the odds of sex under the influence of drugs (aOR = 6.09, 95% CI 3.48, 10.65; p < .001) and purchasing commercial sex (aOR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.02, 4.02; p < .05). We identified potential targets for HIV interventions to reduce sexual risk behaviors among this key population.
Roberta Rosa Giovine
Full Text Available In recent decades, Italy has become a point of entry to the EU and, for many migrants from the Southern shores of the Mediterranean, a final destination (IOM Report, 2011. As massive inflows have often caused emergencies, the pressing needs of these populations in the areas of housing, healthcare, education, etc. have been examined and addressed (data: Regional Authority and Milan Diocese Observatories. Realizing that the cultural implications in the area of food, had not been systematically studied thus far, the author developed a three-year project, focusing on northwest African Muslim migrants and the change in their perception of food, particularly in light of the strong religious implications that food has historically had to Arab populations. After reviewing the key traits of Arab-Berber food history, their translation into contemporary life in the countries of origin and destination was investigated, through interviews with, primarily, cultural mediators, as well as anthropologists, food experts, food chain professionals, and the migrants themselves. The overall research delves into the migrants’ views of food back in Northern Africa and Maghrebi3 and other food in Italy, with an emphasis on ideas of purity and identity (in culinary practices, ingredients, celebrations, table manners, the restaurant system and distribution.
Full Text Available In recent decades, Italy has become a point of entry to the EU and, for many migrants from the Southern shores of the Mediterranean, a final destination (IOM Report 2011. As massive inflows have often caused emergencies, the pressing needs of these populations in the areas of housing, healthcare, education, etc. have been examined and addressed (data: Regional Authority and Milan Diocese Observatories. Realizing that the cultural implications in the area of food, had not been systematically studied thus far, the author developed a three-year project, focusing on northwest African Muslim migrants and the change in their perception of food, particularly in light of the strong religious implications that food has historically had to Arab populations. After reviewing the key traits of Arab-Berber food history, their translation into contemporary life in the countries of origin and destination was investigated, through interviews with, primarily, cultural mediators, as well as anthropologists, food experts, food chain professionals, and the migrants themselves. The overall research delves into the migrants’ views of food back in Northern Africa and Maghrebi and other food in Italy, with an emphasis on ideas of purity and identity (in culinary practices, ingredients, celebrations, table manners, the restaurant system and distribution.
Romanowski, Michael H.
A study examined the role played by cultural capital in the education of migrant students. Observations and interviews with administrators, faculty, and students during a summer migrant program in a rural Ohio school district indicate that the cultural capital of migrant students, particularly family loyalty, often conflicted with the cultural…
Osadan, Robert; Reid, Elizabeth
European schools should improve their methods for teaching migrant students. The European Union has been making efforts to meet the needs of migrant students for some time. From the 2009 Eurydice report "Integrating Immigrant Children into Schools in Europe," which suggests measures to foster inclusion in the larger community and…
Full Text Available Muslim migrants in Pangkoh society gain much success in education, work, and life as better in the third decade (2002-2011. In first decades (1982-1991, a small population of middle-level education, the primary school majority, started a new life. Migrant population who lives a mediocre gets better in term of theirself and children. Many of them send their children to learn. Education is consideredly urgent and important need for them. Child's success in education is a source of pride to the elderly (Tanya Basok. This study focused on issues of education and welfare ethos, which define: (1 how the ethos phenomenon of Muslim migrants toward education, and (2 how the image of success in educational and welfare ethos in Pangkoh. This research aims to describe and interpret ethos phenomena of education, success, and welfare through perspective of psychology and Islam. This study was descriptive qualitative research, especially related to culture. The approach used is ethnographic research in an effort to understand the ethos of education and achieve welfare of the migrant community of Pangkoh. Subjects were Muslim migrants living in Pangkoh. They are grouped in two sections of migrants namely migrant with secondary education by 12 families, and those with basic education, primary school or an equivalent amounting 11 families. Data collection techniques using primary techniques of in-depth interviews and observations related to the problem. In addition, participant observation is used as a supporting method to observe things that are related to the research objectives. Qualitative data analysis is performed by means of narrative and interpretive descriptions of the
Dikaiou, M; Sakka, D; Haritos-fatouros, M
This study examines groups of Greek migrant mothers and their attitudes towards their children in different stages of the migratory process. There were 2 lots of samples of Greek migrants mothers who had at least 2 children 8-10 years old, 1 from the home country (5 villages of the District Drama in East Macedonia) and 1 from the receiving country (the area of Baden-Wurtenberg, where most of the migrants from East Macedonia are living). The 4 groups are: 1) 20 mothers who have always lived with their child in the host country; 2) 20 mothers who live in the host country where their child has joined them in the last 2-4 years; 3) 27 mothers who have lived in the host country with their child and have returned home in the last 2-4 years; and 4) 24 non-migrant mothers who have always lived with their families in the home country (control group). Women were interviewed using 2 questionnaires: a survey and an attitude questionnaire. The range of mothers' ages was 20-50 years. The youngest mothers were in the control group whereas group 1 mothers were the oldest. Groups 1 and 2 were mostly unskilled workers; groups 3 and 4 were mostly housewives. The returnees stayed in the host country a mean of 10 years, whereas the other 2 migrant groups were there 14.6 years. There were significantly fewer children in the families of groups 1 and 2 than 3 and 4. The attitude questionnaire covered the following child rearing practices: 1) training the child to participate in home duties; 2) keeping clean and tidy; 3) self-reliance and social behavior towards visitors; 4) ways of dealing with a child's obedience/disobedience; 5) dealing with favor-seeking behavior, food, and sleeping problems; and 6) mother's degree of permissiveness, supervision, and intervention on child's personal and interpersonal sphere of life. Findings show that moving from home to host country and coming back home creates the most controlling mothers, probably because mothers and children face anxiety
Skov, Henrik; Desholm, Mark; Heinänen, Stefan; Kahlert, Johnny A; Laubek, Bjarke; Jensen, Niels Einar; Žydelis, Ramūnas; Jensen, Bo Præstegaard
Monitoring of bird migration at marine wind farms has a short history, and unsurprisingly most studies have focused on the potential for collisions. Risk for population impacts may exist to soaring migrants such as raptors with K-strategic life-history characteristics. Soaring migrants display strong dependence on thermals and updrafts and an affinity to land areas and islands during their migration, a behaviour that creates corridors where raptors move across narrow straits and sounds and are attracted to islands. Several migration corridors for soaring birds overlap with the development regions for marine wind farms in NW Europe. However, no empirical data have yet been available on avoidance or attraction rates and behavioural reactions of soaring migrants to marine wind farms. Based on a post-construction monitoring study, we show that all raptor species displayed a significant attraction behaviour towards a wind farm. The modified migratory behaviour was also significantly different from the behaviour at nearby reference sites. The attraction was inversely related to distance to the wind farm and was primarily recorded during periods of adverse wind conditions. The attraction behaviour suggests that migrating raptor species are far more at risk of colliding with wind turbines at sea than hitherto assessed. © 2016 The Author(s).
Bermejo, Isaac; Nicolaus, Leonhard; Kriston, Levente; Hölzel, Lars; Härter, Martin
To ensure an adequate health care of migrants, differentiated information on the association of cultural background and migration related factors and psychosomatic complaints are necessary. Cross-sectional questionnaire based survey regarding psychosomatic complaints of migrants from Turkey (n = 77), Italy (n = 95), and Spain (n = 67) and ethnic German resettled from the states of the former Soviet Union (n = 196). Questionnaires distributed by non-health specific counselling agencies of welfare associations. The cultural background was a relevant factor for psychosomatic complaints, showing higher complaints in Turkish and ethnic German resettled migrants, also compared to a sample of age corresponding Germans. In contrast, Spanish and Italian migrants showed a lower risk for psychosomatic complaints. Also gender, feeling unwell in Germany and fatalism showed a significant association with psychosomatic complaints. Migrants in Germany do not have per se a higher risk for psychosomatic complaints. A distinct differentiation by cultural background is necessary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Agergaard, Sine; Michelsen la Cour, Annette; Treumer Gregersen, Martin
understanding of the rationalities of specific political interventions, and the techniques used to monitor the leisure activities of particular target groups. This process of politicization is revealed here through a case study of an intervention that provides sporting activities in holiday periods...... for migrant children and adolescents living in so-called socially disadvantaged areas (DGI Playground). The analysis highlights the rationality that the leisure time of migrant youth is a potentially dangerous time slot and they must be engaged in organized sports; that is not only healthy but also civilizing...... and character forming leisure time activities. Techniques of monitoring the intervention are developed in a partnership between public institutions, regional umbrella organizations and local sports clubs leading to a need for employment of welfare professionals. Furthermore, the article illustrates...
McCann, Terence V; Renzaho, Andre; Mugavin, Janette; Lubman, Dan I
Stigma of mental illness and substance misuse can deter help seeking, especially in immigrants who are often reluctant to seek help early for these issues. The aim of the present study was to explore the stigma experience surrounding mental illness and substance misuse, and its implications for improving help seeking, for youths and parents from sub-Saharan African immigrant communities. A qualitative, descriptive design was used. Individual interviews were undertaken with 28 youths, and focus group discussions were held with 41 parents and community leaders in Melbourne, Australia. The findings indicated that public stigma and self-stigma were common and deterred participants' help seeking within sub-Saharan African communities. There was concern about the consequences of disclosure. Personal shame, fear of community rejection, and being labelled a 'lunatic' deterred help seeking. Programmes are needed to address stigma, promote help seeking, and increase mental health knowledge. Mental health nurses and other clinicians in the mental health and alcohol and other drug fields can make an important contribution. Steps are needed to employ more sub-Saharan African immigrant clinicians to help increase help seeking from their communities. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Full Text Available Background: Undocumented migrants are one of the most vulnerable groups in Swedish society, where they generally suffer from poor health and limited health care access. Due to their irregular status, such migrants are an under-researched group and are not included in the country's Cause of Death Register (CDR. Objective: To determine the causes of death among undocumented migrants in Sweden and to ascertain whether there are patterns in causes of death that differ between residents and undocumented migrants. Design: This is a cross-sectional study of death certificates issued from 1997 to 2010 but never included in the CDR from which we established our study sample of undocumented migrants. As age adjustments could not be performed due to lack of data, comparisons between residents and undocumented migrants were made at specific age intervals, based on the study sample's mean age at death±a half standard deviation. Results: Out of 7,925 individuals surveyed, 860 were classified as likely to have been undocumented migrants. External causes (49.8% were the most frequent cause of death, followed by circulatory system diseases, and then neoplasms. Undocumented migrants had a statistically significant increased risk of dying from external causes (odds ratio [OR] 3.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.83–4.52 and circulatory system diseases (OR 2.20, 95% CI: 1.73–2.82 compared to residents, and a lower risk of dying from neoplasms (OR 0.07, 95% CI: 0.04–0.14. Conclusions: We believe our study is the first to determine national figures on causes of death of undocumented migrants. We found inequity in health as substantial differences in causes of death between undocumented migrants and residents were seen. Legal ambiguities regarding health care provision must be addressed if equity in health is to be achieved in a country otherwise known for its universal health coverage.
Chauvin, S.; Garcés-Mascareñas, B.
Over the last two decades, research on unauthorized migration has departed from the equation of migrant illegality with absolute exclusion, emphasizing that formal exclusion typically results in subordinate inclusion. Irregular migrants integrate through informal support networks, the underground
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to explore the maternal health coping strategies of migrant women in Norway. The ethnic and cultural background of the Norwegian population have become increasingly diverse. A challenge in practice is to adjust maternal health services to migrant women’s specific needs. Previous studies have revealed that migrant women have difficulty achieving safe pregnancies and childbirths. Data were obtained by means of 17 semistructured interviews with women from South America, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and Africa. Qualitative content analysis was employed. One overall theme is as follows: keeping original traditions while at the same time being willing to integrate into Norwegian society, and four themes emerged as follows: balancing their sense of belongingness; seeking information and support from healthcare professionals; being open to new opportunities and focusing on feeling safe in the new country. The results were interpreted in the light of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model. To provide quality care, healthcare professionals should focus on the development of migrant women’s capabilities. Adaptation of maternal health services for culturally diverse migrant women also requires a culturally sensitive approach on the part of healthcare professionals.
Simon, Bernd; Reichert, Frank; Grabow, Olga
This article examines the role of dual identity in political radicalism among migrants. Dual identity is defined as identification with both one's ethnocultural minority in-group and one's society of residence. We employed a longitudinal research design using members of the two largest migrant groups in Germany (Turkish migrants and Russian migrants) as participants. We reasoned that when dual identity is burdened with incompatibility between component identifications, it may foster controversial or even destructive forms of political mobilization, such as radicalism. Multiple regression analysis controlling for other influences confirmed the hypothesized moderated relationship between dual identification and sympathy for radical action. When accompanied by high, as opposed to low, perceived identity incompatibility, dual identification predicted increases in sympathy for radical action among both Turkish migrants and Russian migrants. The implications for public life in ethnically and culturally heterogeneous societies are discussed.
Habib, Rima R; Fathallah, Fadi A
Little attention has been given to the vulnerable populations of migrant women agricultural workers. A systemic review in PubMed was carried out (1990-2008) using terms related to migrant agricultural workers, with specific focus on women. Case studies from Lebanon and California are presented to highlight key physical, psychosocial, and cultural risk factors among these working populations. The review revealed a host of potential problems that span from pesticide exposure and musculoskeletal disorders to socio-cultural barriers. Comprehensive exposure-outcome and intervention studies focusing specifically on migrant women in agriculture are lacking. In depth studies focusing on the work environment of migrant women workers in the agricultural sector are needed. Personal and environmental factors that influence health should be considered in any effective intervention aiming to influence policy making and have a positive impact on these vulnerable working populations.
Full Text Available The paper re-articulates the relation between immigration and citizenship in a gender perspective. The analysis of citizenship practices exercised by migrant women in the local context allows to make visible their mobilization and participation to the public sphere. The analysis, based on interviews with the presidents of the migrants associations in Campania, explores the reasons whereby migrants women undertake participatory activities within their associations, the ways in which they move from informal networks to formal associations and take leadership, as well as barriers and factors that can help to overcome them. The actions of migrant women engaged in the voluntary sector show their capacity to intervene politically and socially, even when they are not recognized as citizens, challenging our idea of citizenship and showing the growing importance of the practices of citizenship.
Henderson, Allison; Daft, Julie; Fong, Pauline
The Migrant Education Program (MEP) is a federal formula grant to states for educational services to migrant children, ages 3-21, who made an eligible move in the past 3 years. States use MEP funds to address effects of continual educational disruption by providing instructional or supporting services. This report summarizes participation…
N. Yu. Isayeva
Full Text Available Tuberculosis is one of the most dangerous infections. First of all it strikes socially unprotected part of the population. The migrants which number grows in St. Petersburg, represent stress expressive category of the people reducing protective forces of immunity. Incidence of tuberculosis among migrants usually significantly exceeds incidence of permanent residents of the city. There are the difficulties connected with problems of adaptation, shortcomings of lows, finance. Thus, the influencing on ecological system of the city more than one million arrived migrants undoubtedly. It is necessary to prevent development of tuberculosis epidemic among migrants by providing with preventive inspection and complete treatment of all new cases of tuberculosis irrespective of their legal and social status.
This thesis aims to explore migrant status as a determinant in register-based studies on migrant health. It is based on eight studies that investigate the following three main issues: 1) What is the importance of migrant status for morbidity patterns among migrants compared with Native Danes? 2) Do migrant status and ethnicity affect clinical indicators of access among migrants compared with native Danes? 3) What is the importance of migrant status for mortality patterns among migrants compared with Native Danes? The thesis builds on a register-based historical prospective cohort design. Through Statistics Denmark, all refugees (n = 29,174) and family reunification immigrants (n = 33,287) who received residence permits in Denmark from 1 January 1993 to 31 December 1999 were included and matched 4:1 on age and sex with Native Danes. Register linkage was obtained twice during follow-ups in 2004 and 2008 respectively. Personal identification numbers were cross-linked to the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, the National Patient Registry, the Registry of Coercive Measures in Psychiatric Treatment, the Register of Causes of Death, and the Danish Cancer Registry. Migrant status defined by legal grounds for obtaining a residence permit was dichotomised into refugees and family reunification immigrants and used as the determinant in most studies. Analyses involved both Poisson and Cox regression analysis. Most analyses were stratified by ethnicity and adjusted for age and sex. Some were also stratified for individual income. Three sub-themes were investigated: morbidity, clinical indicators of access, and mortality. The first sub-theme (Papers I-III) showed that refugees had a consistently higher morbidity from several mental health disorders in contrast to family reunification immigrants, whose morbidity from mental disorders was lower than or similar to native Danes. The cancer incidence study did not find an effect of migrant status but found, rather, that migrants
Brussa, Licia; Munk, Veronica
In recent years, Europe has witnessed a rise in the number of migrant sex workers, in part because of increased mobility for citizens of European Union member states. However, migrant sex workers find themselves in a highly vulnerable position in regard to having their rights respected and accessing HIV prevention services. In this article, based on a presentation at AIDS 2010, Licia Brussa and Veronica Munk outline the current situation of migrant sex workers in Europe and the steps that need to be taken to ensure that their rights are respected.
Mary Anne Teariki
Full Text Available Settlement is a complex process of adjustment for migrants and refugees. Drawing on recent research on the settlement experiences of Kiribati migrants and their families living in New Zealand, this article examines the role of housing as an influencer of the settlement and health of Kiribati migrants. Using qualitative methodology, in-depth interviews were conducted with fourteen Kiribati migrants (eight women and six men representing 91 family members about the key issues and events that shaped their settlement in New Zealand. The stories told by participants affirm the association between housing and health. The study serves as an important reminder that children bear a great cost from living in poorly insulated and damp housing, and adults bear the mental costs, including social isolation resulting from inadequate rental housing. Detailed information about how this migrant group entered the private rental housing market, by taking over the rental leases of other Kiribati migrants vacating their rental properties, indicated some of the unintended consequences related to a lack of incentives for landlords to make improvements. With the most vulnerable families most at risk from inadequate housing, this research concludes that there is a need for minimum housing standards to protect tenants.
¿Son diferentes los migrantes circulares? La integración, el bienestar y la intención de quedarse de los que migran por primera vez y de los migrantes circulares (Are circular migrants different? Integration, wellbeing, and intention to stay of first-time and circular migrants
Full Text Available ResumenCon datos tomados del proyecto PIONEUR sobre la migración interna en la Unión Europea, definiremos (una forma débil de migrantes circulares como el colectivo de aquellos migrantes que ya habían experimentado una estancia prolongada en el país de residencia (en lo sucesivo abreviado a PDR antes de su traslado definitivo. A continuación, se ofrecerá una descripción de este colectivo junto con sus características sociodemográficas y se emplearán análisis de regresión (multinivel para determinar si la migración circular explica las diferencias en algunas variables dependientes (como el dominio del idioma, el apego al PDR que arrojan esos migrantes teniendo en cuenta las características sociodemográficas. De este modo, la migración circular estaría relacionada con un mayor contacto con la cultura del PDR y con una decisión consciente de regresar al país.AbstractUsing data from the PIONEUR project on intra-European migration, (a weak form of circular migrants will be defined by the group of migrants who experienced a prolonged sojourn in the country of residence (in the following abbreviated as CoR already before the final move. Then this group will be described along socio-demographic characteristics and (multilevel regression analysis will be used to determine whether circular migration explains differences in some outcome variables (such as language proficiency, attachment to the CoR, net of the socio-demographic characteristics these migrants have. Circular migration would then be related to additional exposure to the culture of the CoR and a conscious decision to re-enter the country.
... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 34 CFR Chapter II Proposed Requirement--Migrant Education Program... educational agencies (SEAs) under the Migrant Education Program (MEP) Consortium Incentive Grant (CIG) Program... the interstate or intrastate coordination of migrant education programs by addressing key needs of...
González-Block, Miguel A; de la Sierra-de la Vega, Luz A
A total of 12.7 million Mexicans reside as migrants in the United States, of whom only 45% have health insurance in this country while access to health insurance by migrants in Mexico is fraught with difficulties. Health insurance has been shown to impact the use of health care in both countries. This paper quantifies hospitalizations by migrants who return from the US seeking medical care in public and private hospitals in the US-Mexico border area and in communities of origin. The proportion of bed utilization and the proportion of hospitalizations in Mexico out of the total expected by migrants in the US were estimated. The universe included 48 Ministry of Health and 47 private hospitals serving municipalities of high or very high migration in Mexico, where 17% of remittance-receiving households are located, as well as 15 public and 159 private hospitals in 10 Mexican cities along the border with the US. Hospitals were sampled through various methods to include 27% of beds. Patients and staff were interviewed and data triangulated to quantify migrants that returned to Mexico seeking medical care. Official hospital discharge statistics and secondary data from migration databases and published statistics were analyzed to identify bed occupancy, general migrant hospitalization rates and the size of the migrant population that maintains close relationships with households in communities of origin. Up to 1609 migrants were admitted to public hospitals (76.6%) and 492 to private hospitals (23.4%) serving municipalities of high and very high migration intensity in 2008. Up to 0.90% of public hospital capacity was used. In the border area up to 908 and 2416 migrants were admitted to public (27.3%) and private (72.7%) hospitals, respectively. Up to 1.18% of public hospital capacity was used. Between 2.4% and 20.4% of the expected hospitalization needs of migrants with dependent households are satisfied through these services. The most common diagnostic categories
de la Sierra-de la Vega Luz A
Full Text Available Abstract Background A total of 12.7 million Mexicans reside as migrants in the United States, of whom only 45% have health insurance in this country while access to health insurance by migrants in Mexico is fraught with difficulties. Health insurance has been shown to impact the use of health care in both countries. This paper quantifies hospitalizations by migrants who return from the US seeking medical care in public and private hospitals in the US-Mexico border area and in communities of origin. The proportion of bed utilization and the proportion of hospitalizations in Mexico out of the total expected by migrants in the US were estimated. Methods The universe included 48 Ministry of Health and 47 private hospitals serving municipalities of high or very high migration in Mexico, where 17% of remittance-receiving households are located, as well as 15 public and 159 private hospitals in 10 Mexican cities along the border with the US. Hospitals were sampled through various methods to include 27% of beds. Patients and staff were interviewed and data triangulated to quantify migrants that returned to Mexico seeking medical care. Official hospital discharge statistics and secondary data from migration databases and published statistics were analyzed to identify bed occupancy, general migrant hospitalization rates and the size of the migrant population that maintains close relationships with households in communities of origin. Results Up to 1609 migrants were admitted to public hospitals (76.6% and 492 to private hospitals (23.4% serving municipalities of high and very high migration intensity in 2008. Up to 0.90% of public hospital capacity was used. In the border area up to 908 and 2416 migrants were admitted to public (27.3% and private (72.7% hospitals, respectively. Up to 1.18% of public hospital capacity was used. Between 2.4% and 20.4% of the expected hospitalization needs of migrants with dependent households are satisfied through these
Full Text Available Internal migrants are the individuals who migrate between regions in one country. The number of internal migrants were estimated at 245 million in China in 2013. Results were inconsistent in the literature about the relationship between their health statuses and social integration. The main difference exists on how to measure the social integration and whether health statuses of internal migrants improve with years of residence. To complement the existing literature, this study measured social integration more comprehensively and estimated the internal migrants' health statuses with varying years of residence, and explored the associations between the migrants' social integration and health. We used the data from 2014 Internal Migrant Dynamic Monitoring Survey of Health and Family Planning in ZhongShan, China. Health status was measured from four aspects: self-reported health, subjective well-being, perception of stress, mental health. We measured social integration through four dimensions: economy, social communication, acculturation, and self-identity. The analyses used multiple linear regressions to examine the associations between self-reported health, subjective well-being, and perception of stress, mental health and social integration. The analytical sample included 1,999 households of the internal migrants and 1,997 local registered households, who were permanent residents in ZhongShan. Among the internal migrants, Adults in the labor force, who were aged 25 to 44 years old, accounted for 91.2% of the internal migrant population, while 74.6% of the registered population were in that age group. Median residential time among migrants was 2.8 (1.3-6.2 years, and 20.2% of them were migrating in the same Guangdong province. Except for mental health, other health statuses among migrants had significant differences compared with local registered population, e.g. self-reported health was better, but subjective well-being was worse. However, these
Full Text Available Forced migration is occurring at unprecedented levels. Forced migrants may be at risk for substance use for reasons including coping with traumatic experiences, co-morbid mental health disorders, acculturation challenges and social and economic inequality. This paper aimed to systematically review the literature examining substance use among forced migrants, and identify priority areas for intervention and future research.Seven medical, allied health and social science databases were searched from inception to September 2015 in accordance with PRISMA guidelines to identify original peer-reviewed articles describing any findings relating to alcohol and/or illicit drug use among refugees, internally displaced people (IDPs, asylum seekers, people displaced by disasters and deportees. A descriptive synthesis of evidence from quantitative studies was conducted, focusing primarily on studies which used validated measures of substance use. Synthesis of evidence from qualitative studies focused on identifying prominent themes relating to the contexts and consequences of substance use. Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP checklists were used to assess methodological quality of included studies.Forty-four quantitative (82% cross-sectional, 16 qualitative and three mixed-methods studies were included. Ten studies were rated as high methodological quality (16%, 39 as moderate quality (62% and 14 as low quality (22%. The majority of research was conducted among refugees, IDPs and asylum seekers (n = 55, 87%, predominantly in high-income settings. The highest-quality prevalence estimates of hazardous/harmful alcohol use ranged from 17%-36% in camp settings and 4%-7% in community settings. Few studies collected validated measures of illicit drug use. Seven studies compared substance use among forced migrants to other migrant or native-born samples. Among eight studies which conducted multivariable analysis, male sex, trauma exposure and symptoms of
Mor, Zohar; Raveh, Yuval; Lurie, Ido; Leventhal, Alex; Gamzu, Roni; Davidovitch, Nadav; Benari, Orel; Grotto, Itamar
Approximately 150,000 undocumented migrants (UM) who are medically uninsured reside in Israel, including ~50,000 originating from the horn of Africa (MHA). Free medical-care is provided by two walk-in clinics in Tel-Aviv. This study aims to compare the medical complaints of UM from different origins, define their community health needs and assess gaps between medical needs and available services. This cross-sectional study included a random sample of 610 UM aged 18-64 years, who were treated in these community clinics between 2008 and 2011. The study compared UM who had complex medical conditions which necessitated referral to more equipped medical settings with UM having mild/simple medical conditions, who were treated at the clinics. MHA were younger, unemployed and more commonly males compared with UM originating from other countries. MHA also had longer referral-delays and visited the clinics less frequently. UM with complex medical conditions were more commonly females, had chronic diseases and demonstrated longer referral-delays than those who had mild/simple medical conditions. The latter more commonly presented with complained of respiratory, muscular and skeletal discomfort. In multivariate analysis, the variables which predicted complex medical conditions included female gender, chronic illnes and self-referral to the clinics. The ambulatory clinics were capable of responding to mild/simple medical conditions. Yet, the health needs of women and migrants suffering from complex medical conditions and chronic diseases necessitated referrals to secondary/tertiary medical settings, while jeopardizing the continuity of care. The health gaps can be addressed by a more holistic social approach, which includes integration of UM in universal health insurance.
Littleton, Judith; Park, Julie; Thornley, Craig; Anderson, Anneka; Lawrence, Jody
Media portrayals of tuberculosis (TB) in New Zealand are of immigrants who enter the country with active disease and pose a threat to inhabitants, which fosters a popular perception that border control is the best and only response to disease control. This paper reviews both New Zealand and international data on TB rates, causes and transmission among migrant populations to elucidate the precise nature of the link between immigration and TB rates. Recent information from scholarly journals on immigration and TB was reviewed. Surveillance data from New Zealand and comparable information from other low-incidence countries were reviewed. The importation of active TB is only a minor part of the total TB burden. While effective border control is essential, equally, if not more important, are the circumstances that promote the reactivation of latent TB infection in migrant communities, including migrants' experiences in transit and after arrival, structural conditions, and personal characteristics. For sound prevention strategies, attention needs to be paid to the existence of transnational communities and the conditions for migrants, rather than placing a singular focus on place of birth.
1949 assisted the development of the migrant bride phenomenon in the 1960s. Catalytic, however, was the desperate situation of the marginalized Mainlander veterans who bought ethnically different wives for matrimony. Similarly, the development of large-scale cross-border and cross-ethnic marriage as we...... outside their own society. The upsurge of the migrant bride phenomenon in recent years is additionally supported by an increasing divergence of value orientations of men and women in Taiwan today, as well as the global rise of the internet, which not only enhances the mutual connectivity of buyers...
Ikram, Umar Z; Mackenbach, Johan P; Harding, Seeromanie
of destination. Most migrants had higher mortality due to infectious diseases and homicide while cancer mortality and suicide were lower. CVD mortality differed by migrant population. To conclude, mortality patterns varied across migrant populations in European countries. Future research should focus both...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Council on Migrant Health; Cancellation of Meeting Name: National Advisory Council on Migrant....m. STATUS: The meeting of the National Advisory Council on Migrant Health, scheduled for December 4...
Sadarangani, Sapna P; Lim, Poh Lian; Vasoo, Shawn
Approximately 1.4 million migrant workers reside in Singapore, presenting unique infectious disease challenges to both migrants and Singapore. A Pubmed, MEDLINE (Ovid), EBSCO Host (Global Health) and Google Scholar search was performed for both peer, non-peer reviewed articles and reports relevant to migrant health in Singapore, published between 1 January 1989 and 1 September 2016. Additional studies were identified from citations within searched articles. We also reviewed published data and policy documents from the Ministries of Health and Manpower, Singapore. A significant proportion of malaria, enteric fevers, hepatitis A and E and tuberculosis diagnosed in Singapore involve migrant workers. From the 1990-2000 through 2009-11, while malaria and hepatitis A cases have decreased and remain sporadic, enteric fevers and tuberculosis cases have increased, possibly due to greater influx of migrant workers. Hepatitis E numbers remain low but migrant workers account for half of diagnosed cases. In an interplay of immune naivete, work and living conditions, migrants in the construction industry are at higher risk of arboviral infections such as dengue, Zika and chikungunya. Infections such as chikungunya were likely introduced into Singapore by travellers including migrant workers from the Indian subcontinent but autochthonous transmission continued due to the presence of competent mosquito vectors. There is less data regarding sexual health, networks and infections amongst migrant workers, an area which merits further attention. Migrant workers appear to be at higher risk than Singaporeans for specific infectious diseases, probably due to a complex interplay of several factors, including higher disease prevalence in their countries of origin, socio-economic factors, their living conditions in Singapore and financial, language and cultural barriers to healthcare access. Receiving countries need improved surveillance, expansion of preventive measures and decreased
Abbott, Max W; Wong, Sai; Giles, Lynne C; Wong, Sue; Young, Wilson; Au, Ming
This study was conducted to identify risk factors for depressive symptomatology among older Chinese migrants. One hundred and sixty-two Chinese migrants aged 55 years or older, living in the community and recruited via Chinese community organizations and general practitioners, were interviewed using a Chinese version of the Geriatric Depression Scale and measures of stressful life events, morbid conditions, self-rated health, acculturation, social support and service utilization. Twenty-six percent of participants met the criteria for depressive symptomatology. No recent migrants showed symptoms of depression. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that lower emotional support, greater number of visits to a doctor, difficulties in accessing health services and low New Zealand cultural orientation increased the risk of showing symptoms of depression. Significant numbers of older Chinese migrants appear to be depressed or at risk for depression and, while participants with depressive symptoms consulted general practitioners more than their counterparts without such symptoms, they reported greater difficulty in accessing health services. The findings point to the need for further epidemiological study of this growing sector of the population and investigation of the nature of its engagement with health services. Social support and aspects of acculturation may play a significant role in preventing depression. This also requires further investigation.
Yang, Hua; Gao, Jian; Wang, Tianhao; Yang, Lihong; Liu, Yao; Shen, Yao; Gong, Jian; Dai, Wei; Zhou, Jing; Gu, Jie; Pan, Zhigang; Zhu, Shanzhu
The association between adverse mental health and unhealthy lifestyle behaviors in migrant workers remains poorly defined in Chinese rural-to-urban migrants. A cross-sectional study was conducted regarding health-related behaviors in 5484 migrants (51.3% males) employed in Shanghai for at least 6 months. The Chinese version of the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was used to assess migrant mental health status. Logistic regression was applied to determine the contribution of adverse mental health to lifestyle behaviors. Of the 5484 migrants, 21.1% had potential mental health problems and 63.1% had an unhealthy lifestyle. The three most prevalent mental disorders were obsessions-compulsions (O-C; 13.7%; 751/5484), interpersonal sensitivity (I-S; 11.0%; 603/5484), and hostility (HOS; 10.8%; 590/5484). Compared with the male participants, the female participants exhibited significantly increased mean scores for phobic anxiety (PHOB) and anxiety (ANX) (p unhealthy lifestyle score was significantly associated with all nine subscales of the SCL-90-R. The male participants with psychoticism [PSY; odds ratio (OR) = 4.908, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.474-9.735], ANX (OR = 4.022, 95% CI 2.151-7.518), or depression (DEP; OR = 3.378, 95% CI 2.079-5.487) were the most likely to have an unhealthy lifestyle. In the female participants, an unhealthy lifestyle was most associated with HOS (OR = 2.868, 95% CI 2.155-3.819), PSY (OR = 2.783, 95% CI 1.870-4.141), or DEP (OR = 2.650, 95% CI 1.960-3.582). Lifestyle behaviors were significantly associated with mental health in rural-to-urban migrant workers, and these findings indicate the need to develop targeted psychological interventions to foster healthy lifestyles in migrants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
This article analyzes the status quo of social security for migrant workers in China, and points out that there are deep system and concept reasons for the lack of labor rights and interests security, social security, equality and the right to development, political participation channels for the current migrant workers. This article then expounds the adverse effects of lack of social security for migrant workers on building a harmonious society: the lack of social security for migrant worker...
La Fors, Karolina
Record numbers of migrants and refugees fleeing violence and poverty in parts of Africa and the Middle East present the European Union with unprecedented challenges, including in determining their identity as well as status. In recent years problems of identifying immigrants have been addressed in
of the major processes that circulate memories across cultural and national borderlines. This paper will investigate the circulation of memories in Eastern Europe migrant-literature that since 2000 has become an increasingly influential literary tendency in Germany. Articulating an eastern perspective...... consciously follow the mission to “enlighten and inform Western readers about their eastern neighbours” (Haines 2008). Causing an “eastern enlargement” of German literature (Bürger-Koftis 2008), the wave of migrant authors broadens Germany’s cultural memory by supplementing it with “new” memories. Furthermore......The “transcultural turn” of memory studies focuses on the fluid and dynamic aspects of cultural memory. This paper is concerned with the traveling of memories along the paths of migration. As migrants carry along “collective images and narratives of the past” (Erll 2011), migration is one...
Thijs van den Broek
Full Text Available Background: Research using nonmigrant samples indicates that having a partner and children is protective against loneliness. Such beneficial effects may be weaker for migrants with partners and/or children living in different countries. Objective: We assess how feelings of loneliness among Polish migrants in the Netherlands compare to levels among the general Dutch population and how migrants' feelings of loneliness vary by presence and location of partners and offspring. Methods: We used weighted data from the Families of Poles in the Netherlands survey (n=1,129. Wald tests were used to compare levels of loneliness among Polish migrants with scores reported in a different study for the general Dutch population. Linear regression was used to estimate how presence and location of partners and children were associated with loneliness. Results: Polish migrants in the Netherlands were lonelier than the general Dutch population. Among men, those who had been in the Netherlands for longer were lonelier than those who had more recently arrived. Unpartnered men and men with a partner living abroad were lonelier than men with a partner living in the Netherlands. For women, no effects of presence and location of a partner were found. Presence and location of children made little difference. Conclusions: Although loneliness is often considered a problem for older individuals, feelings of loneliness are also strong among working-age Polish migrants. Consistent with studies on nonmigrant samples, we found that men with a partner were less lonely than unpartnered men, but only when the partner also resided in the Netherlands. Contribution: [see conclusions
Full Text Available Most insect migrants fly at considerable altitudes (hundreds of meters above the ground where they utilize fast-flowing winds to achieve rapid and comparatively long-distance transport. The nocturnal aerial migrant fauna has been well studied with entomological radars, and many studies have demonstrated that flight orientations are frequently grouped around a common direction in a range of nocturnal insect migrants. Common orientation typically occurs close to the downwind direction (thus ensuring that a large component of the insects’ self-powered speed is directed downstream, and in nocturnal insects at least, the downwind headings are seemingly maintained by direct detection of wind-related turbulent cues. Despite being far more abundant and speciose, the day-flying windborne migrant fauna has been much less studied by radar; thus the frequency of wind-related common orientation patterns and the sensory mechanisms involved in their formation remain to be established. Here we analyze a large dataset of >600,000 radar-detected ‘medium-sized’ windborne insect migrants (body mass from 10 to 70 mg, flying hundreds of meters above southern UK, during the afternoon, in the period around sunset, and in the middle of the night. We found that wind-related common orientation was almost ubiquitous during the day (present in 97% of all ‘migration events’ analyzed, and was also frequent at sunset (85% and at night (81%. Headings were systematically offset to the right of the flow at night-time (as predicted from the use of turbulence cues for flow assessment, but there was no directional bias in the offsets during the day or at sunset. Orientation ‘performance’ significantly increased with increasing flight altitude throughout the day and night. We conclude by discussing sensory mechanisms which most likely play a role in the selection and maintenance of wind-related flight headings.
Viktoria Aleksandrovna Koretskaya-Garmash
Full Text Available The article is devoted to a relevant problem of labour migration, the potentially possible threats and advantages of attracting and using of foreign migrant labour in the framework of the Russian economy are considered. The purpose of this work is to establish the how the migration processes influence over the current state of the Russian economy, and whether it is possible to meet the demand in the labour force by attracting labour migrants. The research method is the analysis of the statistical indicators of the Russian regions’ development, of demographic, migratory and financial situations in the Russian Federation. The results of the study are presented in the form of a quantitative assessment of the potential threats to the internal market due to the use of external migrant labour, which has already led to the Russian economic disruption, the devaluation of the Russian ruble, the growth of current account deficit, the load on the pension system of Russia. Therefore, we must not forget the positive aspects — rejuvenation of the age composition of the population, occupation of vacant jobs by the workers in the disadvantaged Russian regions, the increasing size of tax revenues to the Russian budget system by filing patents on employment activity. The presented results of the study can be used by public authorities in the migration policy, labour and social work for the development of the state programme stimulating internal and external migrants for employment in the regions with a shortage of manpower. The conducted research allows to define the relationship between labour migrants and economic activity of local population, to characterize the reasons of external labour migration and to analyse the consequences of migration for the host country
Full Text Available Abstract Background Migrant studies in France revealed that Mediterranean migrant men have lower mortality and morbidity than local-born populations for non-communicable diseases (NCDs. We studied overweight and NCDs among Tunisian migrants compared to the population of the host country and to the population of their country of origin. We also studied the potential influence of socio-economic and lifestyle factors on differential health status. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted to compare Tunisian migrant men with two non-migrant male groups: local-born French and Tunisians living in Tunisia, using frequency matching. We performed quota sampling (n = 147 based on age and place of residence. We used embedded logistic regression models to test socio-economic and lifestyle factors as potential mediators for the effect of migration on overweight, hypertension and reported morbidity (hypercholesterolemia, type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD. Results Migrants were less overweight than French (OR = 0.53 [0.33–0.84] and had less diabetes and CVD than Tunisians (0.18 [0.06–0.54] and 0.25 [0.07–0.88]. Prevalence of hypertension (grade-1 and -2 and prevalence of hypercholesterolemia were significantly lower among migrants than among French (respectively 0.06 [0.03–0.14]; 0.04 [0.01–0.15]; 0.11 [0.04–0.34] and Tunisians (respectively OR = 0.07 [0.03–0.18]; OR = 0.06 [0.02–0.20]; OR = 0.23 [0.08–0.63]. The effect of migration on overweight was mediated by alcohol consumption. Healthcare utilisation, smoking and physical activity were mediators for the effect of migration on diabetes. The effect of migration on CVD was mediated by healthcare utilisation and energy intake. No obvious mediating effect was found for hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Conclusion Our study clearly shows that lifestyle (smoking and cultural background (alcohol are involved in the observed protective effect of migration.
Using evidence from the shipbuilding and construction industries in Finland, this article shows how trade union responses to the introduction of migrant workers can be conditioned by product markets. Growing numbers of posted workers, or intra-European Union work migrants employed via transnational
Cooke, Graham; Hargreaves, Sally; Natkunarajah, Jana; Sandhu, Gurjinder; Dhasmana, Devesh; Eliahoo, Joseph; Holmes, Alison; Friedland, Jon S
The UK has witnessed a considerable increase in immigration in the past decade. Migrant may face barriers to accessing appropriate health care on arrival and the current focus on screening certain migrants for tuberculosis on arrival is considered inadequate. We assessed the implications for an inner-city London Infectious Diseases Department in a high migrant area. We administered an anonymous 20-point questionnaire survey to all admitted patients during a 6 week period. Questions related to sociodemographic characteristics and clinical presentation. Analysis was by migration status (UK born vs overseas born). 111 of 133 patients completed the survey (response rate 83.4%). 58 (52.2%) were born in the UK; 53 (47.7%) of the cohort were overseas born. Overseas-born were over-represented in comparison to Census data for this survey site (47.7% vs 33.6%; proportional difference 0.142 [95% CI 0.049-0.235]; p = 0.002): overseas born reported 33 different countries of birth, most (73.6%) of whom arrived in the UK pre-1975 and self-reported their nationality as British. A smaller number (26.4%) were new migrants to the UK (arrival and once settled through primary care services. A more organised and holistic approach to migrant health care is required.
Zhang, Hui; He, Yunfeng; Tao, Ting; Shi, Jian-Nong
The term "intellectually gifted rural-to-urban migrant children" refers to intellectually gifted children who are in migration from rural to urban areas. We compared performances on seven attention tasks among intellectually gifted (n = 26) and average (n = 30) rural-to-urban migrant and intellectually gifted urban children (n = 31). Our…
Full Text Available Towards the end of 2008, as the world economy slowed and export-demand declined due to the global financial crisis, news reports began to appear detailing the return of rural migrants in China to their provincial homes. It was reported that 20 million rural migrant workers were laid off, and social instability rose due to both economic hardship and to the withholding of the payment of wages. Over time, these circumstances have changed, due to both the Chinese government’s fiscal stimulus package and to those programmes that have been targeted specifically at assisting the country’s rural migrants. As a result, the situation for rural migrants is no longer dire; circumstances have been greatly ameliorated by proactive government policies. To confirm these results, in this paper we look both at the situation across China and briefly at a study carried out in Sichuan province.
Full Text Available Housing is an important determinant of quality of life and migrants are more likely to encounter poor quality housing than natives. This paper draws on the capabilities approach to welfare economics to examine how issues of housing and neighborhood conditions influence quality of life and opportunities for migrants in Western Europe. The analysis utilizes data from the second European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS to explore variation in life and housing satisfaction between migrants and non-migrants (natives in Western Europe and whether being a migrant and living in an ethnically diverse neighborhood contribute to lower satisfaction. The results show that migrants are more likely to experience lower levels of life and housing satisfaction and that living in a diverse neighborhood is negatively associated with life and housing satisfaction. While diverse, inner-city neighborhoods can increase opportunities for labor market access, social services and integration, the tendency towards clustered settlement by migrants can also compound housing inequality. Conversely, migrant homeowners are on average substantially more satisfied with the quality of public services and of their neighborhood and have lower material deprivation than both migrant and non-migrant renters. The findings draw attention to the need to address housing and neighborhood conditions in order to improve opportunities for integration and well-being.
With the deepening of economic restructuring and the expansion of higher education, skilled migrants comprise an increasingly significant part of the internal migrant population. With the aim to settle down permanently in the city, skilled migrants need to be considered “prospective citizens”, who
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Council on Migrant Health; Cancellation of Meeting Name: National Advisory Council on Migrant.... Status: The meeting of the National Advisory Council on Migrant Health, scheduled for May 21 and 22, 2013...
Full Text Available Almost a million people from Middle East and North Africa have passed through the territory of Serbia on their way to Western Europe during 2015 and 2016. Although Serbia has predominantly been a transit country for migrants, this recent passage of a large number of people, as well as a longer retention of some migrants, opened up a number of questions on capacities for emergent acceptance but also on long term integration of this population. The paper examines the characteristics of citizens’ attitudes towards the migrant population with the intention of determining which perspective - security, humanitarian or integrative - is being distinguished as a dominant one? Under the security perspective, it is understood that migrants pose a potential risk for the security of domestic population. The humanitarian perspective refers to a belief that migrants need to be provided with necessary assistance on their way to destination countries. The third, integrative perspective represents the “most open” attitude towards migrants and implies that it is necessary to provide the opportunity for more permanent integration of the migrant population. In addition to that, the paper examines the existence of statistically significant variations in the degree of acceptance of the attitudes measuring mentioned perspectives in terms of socio-demographic and socio-cultural factors. The analysis is based on the data collected through the survey conducted in the spring of 2016 on a representative sample of Serbian citizens (without Kosovo that numbered 998 respondents. Findings show that the humanitarian perspective is the most prevalent in the population, which is in line with the transitional character of migration. Ethnic distance is the most influential factor in shaping attitudes towards migrants. This finding indicates that attitudes toward migrants are more the result of the socio-psychological factors than the micro-structural factors or the demographic
Migrants account for a significant number of people living with HIV in Europe, and it is important to fully consider this population in national estimates. Using a novel approach with the UK as an example, we present key public health measures of the HIV epidemic, taking into account both in-country infections and infections likely to have been acquired abroad. Mathematical model calibrated to extensive data sources. An individual-based stochastic simulation model is used to calibrate to routinely collected surveillance data in the UK. Data on number of new HIV diagnoses, number of deaths, CD4 cell count at diagnosis, as well as time of arrival into the UK for migrants and the annual number of people receiving care were used. An estimated 106 400 (90% plausibility range: 88 700-124 600) people were living with HIV in the UK in 2013. Twenty-three percent of these people, 24 600 (15 000-36 200) were estimated to be undiagnosed; this number has remained stable over the last decade. An estimated 32% of the total undiagnosed population had CD4 cell count less than 350 cells/μl in 2013. Twenty-five and 23% of black African men and women heterosexuals living with HIV were undiagnosed respectively. We have shown a working example to characterize the HIV population in a European context which incorporates migrants from countries with generalized epidemics. Despite all aspects of HIV care being free and widely available to anyone in need in the UK, there is still a substantial number of people who are not yet diagnosed and thus not in care.
Humphries, Niamh; McAleese, Sara; Tyrrell, Ella; Thomas, Steve; Normand, Charles; Brugha, Ruairí
Research on health worker migration in the Irish context has categorized migrant health workers by country or region of training (for example, non-EU nurses or doctors) or recruitment mechanism (for example, actively recruited nurses). This paper applies a new typology of health worker migrants - livelihood, career-oriented, backpacker, commuter, undocumented and returner migrants (European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies and WHO, vol. 2:129-152, 2014) - to the experiences of non-EU migrant doctors in Ireland and tests its utility for understanding health worker migration internationally. The paper draws on quantitative survey (N = 366) and qualitative interview (N = 37) data collected from non-EU migrant doctors in Ireland between 2011 and 2013. Categorizing non-EU migrant doctors in Ireland according to the typology (European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies and WHO, vol. 2:129-152, 2014) offers insight into their differing motivations, particularly on arrival. Findings suggest that the career-oriented migrant is the most common type of doctor among non-EU migrant doctor respondents, accounting for 60 % (N = 220) of quantitative and 54 % (N = 20) of qualitative respondents. The authors propose a modification to the typology via the addition of two additional categories - the family migrant and the safety and security migrant. Employing a typology of health worker migration can facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the migrant medical workforce, a necessary prerequisite for the development of useful policy tools (European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies and WHO, vol. 2:129-152, 2014). The findings indicate that there is some fluidity between categories, as health worker motivations change over time. This indicates the potential for policy levers to influence migrant health worker decision-making, if they are sufficiently "tuned in" to migrant health worker motivation.
Vasquez del Aguila, Ernesto; Cantillon, Sara
This report analyses the situation of migrant workers and ethnic minorities in Ireland over the post-economic boom period. From the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s, Ireland experienced extraordinary economic growth and this brought with it an unprecedented increase in the migrant population. As a result of the economic crisis, the total number of migrants coming to Ireland has fallen dramatically. However, despite this situation, Ireland is likely to remain a multicultural society and ethnic diver...
Holguin, Fernando; Moughrabieh, M. Anas; Ojeda, Victoria; Patel, Sanjay R.; Peyrani, Paula; Pinedo, Miguel; Celedón, Juan C.; Douglas, Ivor S.; Upson, Dona J.
The crisis in the Middle East has raised awareness about the challenges encountered by migrant populations, in particular, health-care access and delivery. Similar challenges are encountered by migrant populations around the world, including those entering the United States as refugees and/or survivors of torture as well as Mexicans and other Latin Americans crossing the border. During the 2016 International American Thoracic Society Meeting held in San Francisco, California, a group of researchers and health-care providers discussed these challenges at a minisymposium devoted to the respiratory health of migrants. The discussion focused on the increased incidence of airway diseases among individuals migrating to more developed countries, the problems created by sleep disorders and their implications for cardiovascular and mental health, the challenges inherent in the control of infections in refugee populations, and the problems resulting from deportation. The group also discussed the potential impact of novel strategies made available by Internet-based technologies and how these strategies could be deployed to support worldwide efforts in assisting migrants and refugees, even in countries that find themselves in the direst circumstances. These presentations are summarized in this document, which is not meant to be exhaustive, but to improve awareness about the challenges confronted by migrants and their host nations regarding respiratory health-care access and delivery, and about the need for adequate investment of resources to better define these challenges through research and for the development of efficient strategies for intervention. PMID:28146384
Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the rapid increase of migrant workers in China, the number of "absent migrant parents" children is also rising fast. The "absent migrant parents" children might have an insecure relationship with their parents, have a different view of them, and be prone to have the feeling of loneliness. The purpose of the study was to compare the self-concept and loneliness between the "absent migrant parents" children and comparison children, to examine the relationship between self-concept and loneliness among the two groups, and to study the predictors of self-concept among the two groups. Methods Participants were 230 "absent migrant parents" children and 250 comparison children in the rural area of a county, China. The self-concept and loneliness of children were assessed using Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale and Childhood Loneliness Scale. Results The "absent migrant parents" children were more likely to dislike their parents or be uncertain whether they like their parents, and they reported less time spent in physical and leisure time activities, higher loneliness and lower self-concept in comparison with the comparison children. Loneliness was significantly negatively correlated with all the dimensions of self-concept among the two groups. Regression analysis showed that self-concept was positively related to the relationship with parents and guardians and time spent in physical and leisure activities among the "absent migrant parents" children. The same factors (except the relationship with guardians were found for self-concept among the comparison children. Conclusions The "absent migrant parents" children were more inclined to have lower self-concept and higher loneliness. The lower self-concept seemed to contribute to the higher loneliness of the "absent migrant parents" children. The lower self-concept of the "absent migrant parents" children was mainly related with their relationship with parents and guardians. The
Background Following the rapid increase of migrant workers in China, the number of "absent migrant parents" children is also rising fast. The "absent migrant parents" children might have an insecure relationship with their parents, have a different view of them, and be prone to have the feeling of loneliness. The purpose of the study was to compare the self-concept and loneliness between the "absent migrant parents" children and comparison children, to examine the relationship between self-concept and loneliness among the two groups, and to study the predictors of self-concept among the two groups. Methods Participants were 230 "absent migrant parents" children and 250 comparison children in the rural area of a county, China. The self-concept and loneliness of children were assessed using Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale and Childhood Loneliness Scale. Results The "absent migrant parents" children were more likely to dislike their parents or be uncertain whether they like their parents, and they reported less time spent in physical and leisure time activities, higher loneliness and lower self-concept in comparison with the comparison children. Loneliness was significantly negatively correlated with all the dimensions of self-concept among the two groups. Regression analysis showed that self-concept was positively related to the relationship with parents and guardians and time spent in physical and leisure activities among the "absent migrant parents" children. The same factors (except the relationship with guardians) were found for self-concept among the comparison children. Conclusions The "absent migrant parents" children were more inclined to have lower self-concept and higher loneliness. The lower self-concept seemed to contribute to the higher loneliness of the "absent migrant parents" children. The lower self-concept of the "absent migrant parents" children was mainly related with their relationship with parents and guardians. The acceptance and support from
The aim of this article is to analyze migrants’ interpretations of their encounters with welfare service professionals in Denmark, focusing on client trust and exploring its diversity across professions. It is based on qualitative interviews with migrants. Migrants as newcomers to the welfare state...
Full Text Available Abstract Johannesburg is home to a diverse migrant population and a range of urban health challenges. Locally informed and implemented responses to migration and health that are sensitive to the particular needs of diverse migrant groups are urgently required. In the absence of a coordinated response to migration and health in the city, the Johannesburg Migrant Health Forum (MHF – an unfunded informal working group of civil society actors – was established in 2008. We assess the impact, contributions and challenges of the MHF on the development of local-level responses to migration and urban health in Johannesburg to date. In this Commentary, we draw on data from participant observation in MHF meetings and activities, a review of core MHF documents, and semi-structured interviews conducted with 15 MHF members. The MHF is contributing to the development of local-level migration and health responses in Johannesburg in three key ways: (1 tracking poor quality or denial of public services to migrants; (2 diverse organisational membership linking the policy process with community experiences; and (3 improving service delivery to migrant clients through participation of diverse service providers and civil society organisations in the Forum. Our findings indicate that the MHF has a vital role to play in supporting the development of appropriate local responses to migration and health in a context of continued – and increasing – migration, and against the backdrop of rising anti-immigrant sentiments.
Full Text Available There are limitations in our capacity to interpret point estimates and trends of infectious diseases occurring among diverse migrant populations living in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA. The aim of this study was to design a data collection framework that could capture information on factors associated with increased risk to infectious diseases in migrant populations in the EU/EEA. The authors defined factors associated with increased risk according to a multi-dimensional framework and performed a systematic literature review in order to identify whether those factors well reflected the reported risk factors for infectious disease in these populations. Following this, the feasibility of applying this framework to relevant available EU/EEA data sources was assessed. The proposed multidimensional framework is well suited to capture the complexity and concurrence of these risk factors and in principle applicable in the EU/EEA. The authors conclude that adopting a multi-dimensional framework to monitor infectious diseases could favor the disaggregated collection and analysis of migrant health data.
Infante, César; Idrovo, Alvaro J; Sánchez-Domínguez, Mario S; Vinhas, Stéphane; González-Vázquez, Tonatiuh
Thousands of Mexican and Central American migrants converge at the Mexico-United States border. Undocumented migrants in transit to the United States are vulnerable due to their lack of access to health care and legal assistance. This study attempts to provide evidence on the violent-related consequences that migration has on migrants. A mixed-method study was conducted between April 2006-May 2007 in shelters in Baja California, Mexicali and Tijuana, Mexico. 22 in depth interviews were performed and fifteen hundred and twelve migrants responded a questionnaire. Results from both in-depth interviews and the analysis of the quantitative data shows the different types of violence experiences by migrants which include threats, verbal abuse, and arbitrary detention based on ethnicity, as well as assaults, beatings and sexual violence. It is crucial to stress the importance and the need to evidence the condition in which migrants' transit to the US and to effectively respond to the violence they experience.
A significant segment of the Latino migrant worker population in the United States is at high risk for alcohol abuse and related risk behaviors. Information about the prevalence of alcohol use and abuse and its association with sociodemographic and psychological variables is needed for designing effective intervention prevention strategies. Cross-sectional data were drawn from a baseline assessment that was part of a randomized controlled trial of 278 Latino migrant workers (LMWs) conducted between 2008 and 2010. About one-third (32%) of participants engaged in heavy drinking in the past 30 days prior to baseline interview. More females than males reported no alcohol use in the past 30 days (53.5% vs. 20.5%). On the other hand, more males reported drinking every day or nearly (25.2% vs. 7.1%). Five factors-gender, country of origin, relationship status, living arrangements, and acculturation-were significantly associated with frequency of alcohol consumption. Multivariate analyses indicated that gender, country of origin, education attainment, relationship status, living arrangement, living with children, length of stay in the US, religious beliefs, acculturation, and depression were associated with frequent heavy drinking, alcohol abuse/dependence, and unprotected sex under the influence of alcohol. There is significant variation in alcohol use among Latino migrant workers. Although a substantial proportion of this population abstains from alcohol, an equally substantial proportion report levels of alcohol use that pose significant risk. More research is needed to better understand drinking patterns in this community in order to design prevention strategies specifically tailored for this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Minkler, Elton D.
Migrant Education Programs are designed for those students who, because of the migratory nature of their parents' employment, are required to move from one school district to another during the school year. In many instances these students, because of sporadic attendance and discontinuity of their educational experiences, have found it difficult,…
... of the Burmese-Thai border; final technical report. Documents. Border industrialization and labour mobility : a case of Burmese migrant workers in border area factories. Rapports. Round Table Discussion on Past and Current Research on Migrant Workers in Thailand, Miracle Grand Convention Hotel, 17 January 2007 ...
Evans, Robert G
"A dead child" said stalin "is a tragedy. Two million are a statistic." A single photograph of a beach riveted world attention, converting syrian refugees from statistics to tragedy. But the statistics remain. Three Canadian columnists have offered contrasting interpretations. Eric Reguly argues that a static and aging Europe needs more manpower to sustain its economy. Margaret Wente, however, observes the failure of integration of migrants in Sweden. Migrants are drawn by open borders and a generous welfare state, but do not fit an advanced, high-skill economy. Gwynne Dyer notes that current inflows, IF evenly distributed, are a tiny proportion of the overall European Union. But economic migrants from Africa are a much larger issue. Their numbers are effectively inexhaustible. Copyright © 2015 Longwoods Publishing.
Hou, Zhiyuan; Lin, Senlin; Zhang, Donglan
Objectives We examined the association between structural social capital and public health services use, and explored the modifiable effect of neighbourhood factors on this association among domestic migrants in China. Methods Data were from a 2014 nationally representative cross-sectional sample of domestic migrants aged 15–59 years in China. Survey-weighted logistic regression models were applied to assess the association between structural social capital, measured by participation in social organisations and social activities, and use of public health services. Interaction terms between neighbourhood urban status, neighbourhood composition and social capital were further assessed in the models. Results Migrants who participated in social organisations were more likely to establish health records (OR 1.467, 95% CI 1.201 to 1.793) and receive health education information (OR 1.729, 95% CI 1.484 to 2.016) than those who did not. Participation in social activities was positively associated with establishing health records only in urban communities (OR 1.853, 95% CI 1.060 to 3.239), and it was positively linked to receiving health education information among those living with a higher percentage of local neighbours (OR 1.451, 95% CI 1.044 to 2.017). Conclusions Structural social capital was related to an increased utilisation of local public health services among migrants. The findings of this study provided new evidence for the differential influences of social capital by neighbourhood characteristics in China, which suggested the importance to enhance social capital in rural/suburban communities and communities where the majority of the residents were migrants. PMID:28821507
Aims: To determine the prevalence of homosexuality among migrant oil workers in Niger Delta. Methods: A prospective questionnaire – based study was conducted among migrant oil workers in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The design was to determine the prevalence of homosexuality in the workers in oil workers.
Bogin, Barry; Hermanussen, Michael; Scheffler, Christiane
Background: We define migrants as people who move from their place of birth to a new place of residence. Migration usually is directed by "Push-Pull" factors, for example to escape from poor living conditions or to find more prosperous socio-economic conditions. Migrant children tend to assimilate quickly, and soon perceive themselves as peers within their new social networks. Differences exist between growth of first generation and second generation migrants. Methods: We review body heights and height distributions of historic and modern migrant populations to test two hypotheses: 1) that migrant and adopted children coming from lower social status localities to higher status localities adjust their height growth toward the mean of the dominant recipient social network, and 2) social dominant colonial and military migrants display growth that significantly surpasses the median height of both the conquered population and the population of origin. Our analytical framework also considered social networks. Recent publications indicate that spatial connectedness (community effects) and social competitiveness can affect human growth. Results: Migrant children and adolescents of lower social status rapidly adjust in height towards average height of their hosts, but tend to mature earlier, and are prone to overweight. The mean height of colonial/military migrants does surpass that of the conquered and origin population. Conclusion: Observations on human social networks, non-human animal strategic growth adjustments, and competitive growth processes strengthen the concept of social connectedness being involved in the regulation of human migrant growth.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increase in urban migrants is one of major challenges for tuberculosis control in China. The different characteristics of tuberculosis cases between urban migrants and local residents in China have not been investigated before. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a retrospective study of all pulmonary tuberculosis patients reported in Songjiang district, Shanghai, to determine the demographic, clinical and microbiological characteristics of tuberculosis cases between urban migrants and local residents. We calculated the odds ratios (OR and performed multivariate logistic regression to identify the characteristics that were independently associated with tuberculosis among urban migrants. A total of 1,348 pulmonary tuberculosis cases were reported during 2006-2008, among whom 440 (32.6% were local residents and 908 (67.4% were urban migrants. Urban migrant (38.9/100,000 population had higher tuberculosis rates than local residents (27.8/100,000 population, and the rates among persons younger than age 35 years were 3 times higher among urban migrants than among local residents. Younger age (adjusted OR per additional year at risk = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.91-0.94, p<0.001, poor treatment outcome (adjusted OR = 4.12, 95% CI: 2.65-5.72, p<0.001, and lower frequency of any comorbidity at diagnosis (adjusted OR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.13-0.26, p = 0.013 were significantly associated with tuberculosis patients among urban migrants. There were poor treatment outcomes among urban migrants, mainly from transfers to another jurisdiction (19.3% of all tuberculosis patients among urban migrants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A considerable proportion of tuberculosis cases in Songjiang district, China, during 2006-2008 occurred among urban migrants. Our findings highlight the need to develop and implement specific tuberculosis control strategies for urban migrants, such as more exhaustive case finding, improved case management and follow-up, and use of
Weine, Stevan; Golobof, Alexandra; Bahromov, Mahbat; Kashuba, Adrianna; Kalandarov, Tohir; Jonbekov, Jonbek; Loue, Sana
This study aimed to build formative knowledge regarding HIV risks in female migrant sex workers in Moscow, focusing on gender and power. This was a collaborative ethnographic study, informed by the theory of gender and power, in which researchers conducted minimally structured interviews with 24 female sex workers who were migrants to Moscow and who provided sexual services to male migrant laborers. Overall, the female migrant sex workers engaged in HIV risk behaviors and practiced inadequate HIV protection with their clients. These behaviors were shaped by gender and power factors in the realms of labor, behavior, and cathexis. In the labor realm, because some female migrants were unable to earn enough money to support their families, they were pushed or pulled into sex work providing service to male migrants. In the behavior realm, many female migrant sex workers were intimidated by their male clients, feared violence, and lacked access to women's health care and prevention. In the cathexis realm, many had a sense of shame, social isolation, emotional distress, and lacked basic HIV knowledge and prevention skills. To prevent HIV transmission requires addressing the gender and power factors that shape HIV/AIDS risks among female migrant sex workers through multilevel intervention strategies.
Full Text Available Globalization has resulted in structural changes in the labor markets over the last decades. These changes have weakened some of the economic and social dimensions of work. At the same time, migration and especially labor migration have increased on the global level. This article looks at the situation of migrant workers in the cleaning industry in Finland. It is based on interviews with migrant workers who have experienced labor exploitation in the cleaning industry, representatives of cleaning industry employers, and representatives of labor unions. The primary aim is to give voice to the migrant workers themselves and to analyze how they experience their work and their position in working life. The findings suggest that there is a risk that migrant workers in the cleaning sector experience various forms of exploitation. This article argues that the demand and need for (employee flexibility may turn into forced flexibility that exploits the powerless and vulnerable migrant workers who have few other options than to agree to work on poor terms. The article suggests that the structural reasons that make the exploitation of migrant labor possible should be identified and addressed in order to prevent misuse of any workers, especially migrants.
Miguel MOCTEZUMA L.
Full Text Available Cuatro características identifican el nuevo retorno de migrantes a México: en 2000 el retorno de migrantes era un flujo formado por trabajadores jubilados y de aquellos que decidieron no mante - nerse en la migración. En la actualidad, los migrantes ya establecidos y en plena edad productiva son los que están alimentando el nuevo retorno a México. Estos retornos en su mayoría son de tipo familiar ya que destacan aquellos grupos de edades que se corresponden entre padres e hijos. Hay además un segundo elemento: el predominio del ingreso a México de los descendientes de migrantes nacidos en Estados Unidos. Cuando el migrante vuelve con todo y familia tiende a quedarse a vivir en México. Las familias de retorno llegan a los hogares de sus padres y con ello transforman su estructura y dinámica familiar.
Ünlü Ince, Burçin; Fassaert, Thijs; de Wit, Matty A S; Cuijpers, Pim; Smit, Jan; Ruwaard, Jeroen; Riper, Heleen
Turkish migrants in the Netherlands have a high prevalence of depressive and/or anxiety disorders. Acculturation has been shown to be related to higher levels of psychological distress, although it is not clear whether this also holds for depressive and anxiety disorders in Turkish migrants. This study aims to clarify the relationship between acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation and marginalization) and the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders as well as utilisation of GP care among Turkish migrants. Existing data from an epidemiological study conducted among Dutch, Turkish and Moroccan inhabitants of Amsterdam were re-examined. Four scales of acculturation strategies were created in combination with the bi-dimensional approach of acculturation by factor analysis. The Lowlands Acculturation Scale and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview were used to assess acculturation and mood and anxiety disorders. Socio-demographic variables, depressive, anxiety and co-morbidity of both disorders and the use of health care services were associated with the four acculturation strategies by means of Chi-Squared and Likelihood tests. Three two-step logistic regression analyses were performed to control for possible, confounding variables. The sample consisted of 210 Turkish migrants. Significant associations were found between the acculturation strategies and age (p acculturation strategies and depressive disorders (p = .049): integration was associated with a lower risk of depression, separation with a higher risk. Using the axis separately, participation in Dutch society showed a significant relationship with a decreased risk of depressive, anxiety and co-morbidity of both disorders (OR = .15; 95% CI: .024 - .98). Non-participation showed no significant association. No association was found between the acculturation strategies and uptake of GP care. Turkish migrants who integrate may have a lower risk of developing a
Full Text Available Based on ethnographic research conducted in Brussels, this article analyses gender-based constructions in relation to paid domestic work. We focus our attention on Latin American migrants who, unlike migrants from other regions, come from societies where paid domestic work has been the main occupation of women throughout the twentieth century, where it was strongly shaped by a colonial legacy. We identify two main tropes within the discourse of our informants regarding this kind of work: the ‘(gendered professional’ and the ‘(domestic worker’. In our analysis, particular attention is given to the participation of men in paid domestic work within the context of migratory experiences.Resumen: Trabajadores domésticos y fronteras generizadas entre migrantes latinoamericanos en BruselasA partir de una investigación etnográfica realizada en Bruselas, este artículo analiza las construcciones de género relacionadas con el trabajo doméstico remunerado. Focalizamos la mirada en migrantes latinoamericanos, quienes, a diferencia de migrantes de otras regiones, provienen de sociedades donde el trabajo doméstico remunerado ha sido la principal ocupación para las mujeres durante el siglo XX, fuertemente marcada por una herencia colonial. Identificamos dos tropos centrales en el discurso de nuestros informantes sobre dicho trabajo, el ‘profesional (generizado’ y el ‘trabajador (doméstico’. Merece atención particular en nuestro análisis la participación de los varones en el trabajo doméstico remunerado en el marco de experiencias migratorias.
Full Text Available Abstract:Using diverse conceptualizations of social capital, this paper will analyse qualitative data obtained from interviews with 49 Ar-gentine migrants to Spain and returnees. Unlike other Latin American migrants to Spain, this group of Argentines approached the migratory experience as a 'nuclear fami-ly'. In general, respondents tended to devel-op diversified networks, avoiding the con-straints experienced by other migrants. I argue that a number of factors including migratory status, certain 'feelings of enti-tlement', cultural affinity and physical fea-tures are all important as far as the inter-viewees' positioning within the 'field' of migrants is concerned. In general, most in-terviewees also pointed out that individuals tend to trust more in institutions and the community as a whole in Spain than in Ar-gentina. Even so, data also suggested that solidarity and friendship ties were stronger in Argentina than in Spain.Resumen: El peso de los activos sociales: ¿qué es lo diferente entre los/as argentinos/as en España? El peso de los activos sociales: ¿qué es lo diferente entre los/as argentinos/as en España?Utilizando diversas conceptualizaciones de capital social, este artículo analiza los datos obtenidos a través de 49 entrevistas con migrantes argentinos a España y retornados. A diferencia de otros grupos de migrantes latinoamericanos a España, los argentinos que formaron parte de este estudio empren-dieron la empresa migratoria como una ex-periencia de la 'familia nuclear'. En general, los entrevistados tendieron a desarrollar redes diversificadas, evitando las dificulta-des experimentadas por otros migrantes. Considero que una serie de factores, inclu-yendo el estatus migratorio, 'sentirse con derecho', la afinidad cultural y las caracte-rísticas físicas son muy importantes en cuan-to al posicionamiento de los entrevistados en el ámbito de los migrantes. En general, la mayoría de los entrevistados también señaló que
Sieberer, Marcel; Maksimovic, Sasa; Ersöz, Burcu; Machleidt, Wielant; Ziegenbein, Marc; Calliess, Iris T
Migrants in Europe may suffer from depression more often than the native-born population of the particular host country. Reports about the prevalence of depression in migrants are, however, heterogeneous and the possible causes are the subject of controversial discussion. The aims of this study are to determine the incidence of depressiveness in a large multi-ethnic working population with and without a history of migration, and to investigate possible connections with migration status and acculturation criteria. The cross-sectional study asked 7062 employees of a university hospital to complete a self-rating questionnaire concerning socio-demographic data, migration status and indicators of acculturation. Depressiveness was assessed by means of the German version of the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The response rate was 41.7% (N = 2932); 14.9% of the participants (n = 419) reported a history of migration, 275 (65.8%) of whom were first-generation (M1) and 143 (34.2%) second-generation (M2) migrants. According to the CES-D scores, 8.7% of non-migrants (n = 207) suffered from clinically relevant depressive symptoms, compared to 16% (n = 44) of the M1 group (OR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.44-3.04, p rate of depressiveness (χ (2) = 16.68, p < .001). Our results suggest that first- and second-generation female migrants are more likely to suffer from depressiveness than non-migrant females. In this model a history of migration is shown to be an independent risk factor for depressiveness.
Pan, Ning; Cai, Li; Xu, Caijuan; Guan, Han; Jin, Yu
Despite the growing number of rural-urban migrant children in China, follow-up observation on the oral health of migrant children is still scarce. This study described the changes of oral health knowledge, behaviors and parental practices in migrant children over a period of one year. Possible factors affecting changes were also investigated. The study used purposive sampling to select five private schools of migrant children in Guangzhou. A total of 1900 students in Grades 3 and 4 were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was used in November 2011 to understand their basic situations, including oral health knowledge, behaviors and parental practices. A final survey was conducted in April 2013 to detect any changes. The mean accuracy of oral health knowledge was 53.17% and 59.42% in 2011 and 2013, respectively (p oral hygiene, dietary habits and parental practices increased at the follow-up evaluation (p oral health knowledge were more likely to achieve significantly positive changes in score of knowledge (p oral hygiene (beta estimate = 0.68, p parental practices in the baseline survey were more likely to obtain beneficial changes. No significant associations between demographic characteristics and changes of oral health knowledge and behaviors (p > 0.05) were observed. Oral health knowledge, behaviors and parental practices among migrant children significantly improved at the follow-up assessment. However, the overall situation was still poor. Positive and effective health education and prevention programs tailored to rural-urban migrant children with varying levels of oral health knowledge, behaviors and parental practices will be needed.
Au Loong-Yu; Nan Shan
Au Loong-yu and Nan Shan examine the conditions of the women among the 150 million migrant workers who have left the rural areas in search of jobs in China. They underline that fierce social regression has accompanied Chinese enormous economic growth where women migrants particularly are exploited in ‘the ‘world's greatest sweatshop’. They argue that hukou system or household registration has proved to be as useful to ‘capitalist construction’ as it once was for ‘socialist construction’. It n...
This article probes into the health of migrants with a focus on the situation in the Nordic universal welfare states. The Nordic welfare states are further compared to each other with a comparison to the EU28 if possible, including investigation of the differences among the four Nordic countries...... socioeconomic factors, such as the impact of economic inequality. Moreover, the healthy migrant paradox cannot be confirmed....
Zhang, Wenli; Everts, Hans
Ethnic Chinese migrants in a country like New Zealand face a range of well-documented challenges. A proportion of such migrants find that recreational gambling turns into a pernicious gambling problem. This issue is addressed through illustrated case studies of Interactive Drawing Therapy, a drawing-based modality of therapy that facilitates…
Chang, Hsin-Chieh; Wallace, Steven P
Research on migrant health mostly examines labor migrants, with some attention paid to the trauma faced by refugees. Marriage migrants represent an understudied vulnerable population in the migration and health literature. Drawing on a Social Determinants of Health (SDH) approach, we use a large Korean national survey and stratified multivariate regressions to examine the link between migration processes and the self-rated health of Korea's three largest ethnic groups of marriage migrants: Korean-Chinese, Vietnamese, and Han Chinese. We find that post-migration socioeconomic status and several social integration factors are associated with the health of marriage migrants of all three groups. Specifically, having more social relationships with Koreans is associated with good health among marriage migrants, while having more social relationships with co-ethnics is associated with worse health. Marriage migrants' perceived social status of their natal and marital families is a better predictor of their health than more objective measures such as their education attainment and that of their Korean husbands. The post-migration social gradients among all ethnic groups demonstrate a dose-response effect of marital family's social standing on marriage migrants' health, independent of their own education and the social standing of their natal families. Lastly, we find some ethnicity-specific predictors such as the association between higher educational level and worse health status among the Vietnamese. This variability by group suggests a more complex set of SDH occurred during the marriage migration processes than a basic SDH framework would predict. Using a new immigrant destination, South Korea, as an example, we conclude that migration and health policies that reduce ethnicity-specific barriers and offer integration programs in early post-migration stages may offer a pathway to good health among marriage migrants.
... Advisory Council on Migrant Health; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Advisory Council on Migrant Health. Dates and Times: October 19, 2010, 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. October 20, 2010... of migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their families and to formulate recommendations for the...
... Advisory Council on Migrant Health; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Advisory Council on Migrant Health. Dates and Times: November 8, 2011, 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. November 9, 2011... health of migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their families and to formulate recommendations for the...
... Advisory Council on Migrant Health; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Advisory Council on Migrant Health. Dates and Times: February 7, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m.; February 8... health of migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their families and to formulate recommendations for the...
Full Text Available Migrant workers, who constitute a major work force, in the unorganized sector, face various psychological stresses and arrive in an aggravated mental position due to their habit of using different varieties of intoxicants. The researcher’s attempt in this paper is to find out the connection of addiction- related stress and social disintegration of the migrant workers with the wide web of exploitation of labour through an empirical analysis. The intoxicants are the only medium for the migrants to leave the sufferings behind them for a time being. This paper highlights the push factors as the fabricated trap to exploit the migrants physically, socially and mentally for surplus production with cheap labour.
Simonson, t.; Dubois-Arber, F.; Jeannin, A.; Bodenmann, P.; Bize, R.
L'enquête Internet ANSWER (African Net Survey WE Respond!) auprès des migrants provenant d'Afrique subsaharienne (ASS) a été menée entre septembre 2013 et février 2014, sur mandat de l'OFSP et avec la collaboration de l'ASS. Cette enquête s'inscrit dans le cadre du mandat de surveillance épidémiologique de deuxième génération du VIH et des autres IST auquel l'IUMSP participe activement. Le but de cette enquête a été de décrire dans cette population les connaissances, attitudes et comportement...
Boyko, Adam R; Boyko, Ryan H; Boyko, Corin M; Parker, Heidi G; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Liz; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D; Auton, Adam; Hedimbi, Marius; Kityo, Robert; Ostrander, Elaine A; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey; Todhunter, Rory J; Jones, Paul; Bustamante, Carlos D
High genetic diversity of East Asian village dogs has recently been used to argue for an East Asian origin of the domestic dog. However, global village dog genetic diversity and the extent to which semiferal village dogs represent distinct, indigenous populations instead of admixtures of various dog breeds has not been quantified. Understanding these issues is critical to properly reconstructing the timing, number, and locations of dog domestication. To address these questions, we sampled 318 village dogs from 7 regions in Egypt, Uganda, and Namibia, measuring genetic diversity >680 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop, 300 SNPs, and 89 microsatellite markers. We also analyzed breed dogs, including putatively African breeds (Afghan hounds, Basenjis, Pharaoh hounds, Rhodesian ridgebacks, and Salukis), Puerto Rican street dogs, and mixed breed dogs from the United States. Village dogs from most African regions appear genetically distinct from non-native breed and mixed-breed dogs, although some individuals cluster genetically with Puerto Rican dogs or United States breed mixes instead of with neighboring village dogs. Thus, African village dogs are a mosaic of indigenous dogs descended from early migrants to Africa, and non-native, breed-admixed individuals. Among putatively African breeds, Pharaoh hounds, and Rhodesian ridgebacks clustered with non-native rather than indigenous African dogs, suggesting they have predominantly non-African origins. Surprisingly, we find similar mtDNA haplotype diversity in African and East Asian village dogs, potentially calling into question the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for dog domestication.
Full Text Available Background: Migrant-vs.-native differentials in reproductive behavior are typically examined through the prism of socioeconomic and cultural constraints that characterize the migration process and experiences. However, the literature seldom factors in migrant legal status because necessary data is rarely available. Objective: The study seeks to fill this important gap by looking at variations in induced abortion and contraceptive use not only between migrants and nonmigrants but also among migrants of different legal statuses in the Russian Federation. Methods: We use unique survey data collected in urban Russia from Central Asian working migrant women of different legal statuses - regularized vs. irregular - as well as their native counterparts. Binomial and multinomial logistic regressions are fitted to model abortion experience and current contraceptive use and method choice. Results: The results point to higher overall use of abortion among natives, but also to significant differences between migrants with regularized and irregular legal statuses. With respect to contraception, while no variation in overall use between migrants and natives or between migrants of different legal statuses is detected, instructive migrant-vs.-native differences in method choice emerge. Conclusions: The findings underscore the importance of migrants' legal status, along with their other characteristics, for a better understanding of their reproductive behavior and for more effective corresponding policies. Contribution: The study offers pioneering insights into the intersection of migration, legality, and fertility in contemporary Russia and contributes to the cross-national scholarship on migration and reproductive behavior and health.
Full Text Available As states increasingly use detention as a means of controllingmigration flows, sexual minority migrants find themselves in detentionfacilities where they may face multiple violations of their human rights.
Kil, T.; Neels, K.; Wood, J.; de Valk, H.A.G.
Motherhood negatively affects female employment in majority populations across Europe. Although employment levels are particularly low among women of migrant origin, little is known about the motherhood–employment link in migrant populations. This paper investigates whether family formation
Conclusions: We may fear that migrants share an increased risk of uncontrolled diabetes. Individual migration could be a risk factor of uncontrolled diabetes. Knowing the migration history of migrant patients is fundamental to understand some barriers of care.
Athena K. Ramos
Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the most dangerous industries in the United States. Farmworkers, including migrant farmworkers, are at risk for work-related injuries. This study explores the association between stress, depression, and occupational injury among migrant farmworkers in Nebraska. Occupational injury was hypothesized to significantly increase the odds of farmworkers being stressed and depressed. Two hundred migrant farmworkers (mean age = 33.5 years, standard deviation (SD = 12.53; 93.0% men, 92.9% of Mexican descent were interviewed. In bivariate analyses, results indicated that stress and depression were positively associated with occupational injury. Two logistic regression models were developed. Occupational injury was a significant factor for depression, but not for stress. Participants who had been injured on the job were over seven times more likely to be depressed. These results highlight the interconnection between the work environment and mental health. More must be done to foster well-being in rural, agricultural communities. Improving occupational health and safety information and training, integrating behavioral health services into primary care settings, and strengthening the protections of the Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act may improve conditions for migrant farmworkers in the rural Midwest.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Illegal migration is an increasing problem worldwide and the so-called undocumented migrants encounter major problems in access to prevention and health care. The objective of the study was to compare the use of preventive measures and pregnancy care of undocumented pregnant migrants with those of women from the general population of Geneva, Switzerland. Methods Prospective cohort study including pregnant undocumented migrants presenting to the University hospital from February 2005 to October 2006. The control group consisted of a systematic sample of pregnant women with legal residency permit wishing to deliver at the same public hospital during the same time period. Results 161 undocumented and 233 control women were included in the study. Mean ages were 29.4 y (SD 5.8 and 31.1 y (SD 4.8 (p Conclusion Compared to women who are legal residents of Geneva, undocumented migrants have more unintended pregnancies and delayed prenatal care, use fewer preventive measures and are exposed to more violence during pregnancy. Not having a legal residency permit therefore suggests a particular vulnerability for pregnant women. This study underscores the need for better access to prenatal care and routine screening for violence exposure during pregnancy for undocumented migrants. Furthermore, health care systems should provide language- and culturally-appropriate education on contraception, family planning and cervical cancer screening.
Yi, Yingying; Liang, Ying
This article sought to explore the impacts of socioeconomic status and social inclusion on intra-provincial and interprovincial migrants' mental health by constructing the Bayesian structural equation model. A total of 14,584 migrants aged 15-59 years living in eight cities of China were selected. It was found that the impacts of socioeconomic status and social inclusion on mental health were converse for these two groups. And the manifest variables coefficients of socioeconomic status and social inclusion were also converse. Therefore, governments should make some policies to further improve the mental health of migrants, including strengthening the community cohesion, social atmosphere, and governmental support.
... Advisory Council on Migrant Health; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Advisory Council on Migrant Health. Dates and Times: August 19, 2013, 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. August 20... related to the health of migrant and seasonal agricultural workers and their families and to formulate...
... Advisory Council on Migrant Health; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Advisory Council on Migrant Health. Dates and Times: May 13, 2011, 2 p.m. to 5 p.m., May 14, 2011, 8:30 a.m... related to the health of migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their families and to formulate...
... Advisory Council on Migrant Health; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Advisory Council on Migrant Health. Dates and Times: December 10, 2013, 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. December 11... issues related to the health of migrant and seasonal agricultural workers and their families, and to...
... Advisory Council on Migrant Health; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Advisory Council on Migrant Health. Dates and Times: December 4, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. December 5... related to the health of migrant and seasonal agricultural workers and their families and to formulate...
... Advisory Council on Migrant Health; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Advisory Council on Migrant Health. Dates and Times: February 8, 2011, 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. February 9, 2011...: The purpose of the meeting is to discuss services and issues related to the health of migrant and...
Full Text Available The Internet offers a new chance for health professionals to reach population groups not usually reached through traditional information channels, for example, migrants. Criticism has, however, been raised that most health information on the Internet is not easy to read and lacks cultural sensitivity. We developed an Internet-based bilingual health assistant especially for Turkish migrants in Germany, tested its acceptance, and evaluated its usability in a participatory research design with families with and without Turkish migrant background. The interactive health assistant covered the following: nutrition, physical activity, overweight, diabetes, as well as pregnancy and pregnancy support. The idea of an Internet-based health assistant was generally accepted by all participants of the evaluation study, as long as it would be incorporated in existing appliances, such as smartphones. The bilingual nature of the assistant was welcomed especially by first generation migrants, but migrant participants also indicated that not all health information needed to be made available in a culture-specific way. The participants were least satisfied with the nutrition component, which they felt should include recipes and ingredients from the culture of origin, as well as specific aspects of food preparation.
Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Ernst, Sinja Alexandra; Klein-Ellinghaus, Funda; Brand, Tilman; Reeske-Behrens, Anna; Plumbaum, Till; Zeeb, Hajo
The Internet offers a new chance for health professionals to reach population groups not usually reached through traditional information channels, for example, migrants. Criticism has, however, been raised that most health information on the Internet is not easy to read and lacks cultural sensitivity. We developed an Internet-based bilingual health assistant especially for Turkish migrants in Germany, tested its acceptance, and evaluated its usability in a participatory research design with families with and without Turkish migrant background. The interactive health assistant covered the following: nutrition, physical activity, overweight, diabetes, as well as pregnancy and pregnancy support. The idea of an Internet-based health assistant was generally accepted by all participants of the evaluation study, as long as it would be incorporated in existing appliances, such as smartphones. The bilingual nature of the assistant was welcomed especially by first generation migrants, but migrant participants also indicated that not all health information needed to be made available in a culture-specific way. The participants were least satisfied with the nutrition component, which they felt should include recipes and ingredients from the culture of origin, as well as specific aspects of food preparation.
Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Ernst, Sinja Alexandra; Klein-Ellinghaus, Funda; Brand, Tilman; Reeske-Behrens, Anna; Plumbaum, Till; Zeeb, Hajo
The Internet offers a new chance for health professionals to reach population groups not usually reached through traditional information channels, for example, migrants. Criticism has, however, been raised that most health information on the Internet is not easy to read and lacks cultural sensitivity. We developed an Internet-based bilingual health assistant especially for Turkish migrants in Germany, tested its acceptance, and evaluated its usability in a participatory research design with families with and without Turkish migrant background. The interactive health assistant covered the following: nutrition, physical activity, overweight, diabetes, as well as pregnancy and pregnancy support. The idea of an Internet-based health assistant was generally accepted by all participants of the evaluation study, as long as it would be incorporated in existing appliances, such as smartphones. The bilingual nature of the assistant was welcomed especially by first generation migrants, but migrant participants also indicated that not all health information needed to be made available in a culture-specific way. The participants were least satisfied with the nutrition component, which they felt should include recipes and ingredients from the culture of origin, as well as specific aspects of food preparation. PMID:26633455
Spitzer, Denise L
"Voluntary migrants to Canada are generally healthier than the average Canadian, but after ten years in the country they report poorer health and higher rates of chronic disease than those born here...
McCauley, L A; Lasarev, M R; Higgins, G; Rothlein, J; Muniz, J; Ebbert, C; Phillips, J
There are few data on pesticide exposures of migrant Latino farmworker children, and access to this vulnerable population is often difficult. In this paper we describe a community-based approach to implement culturally appropriate research methods with a migrant Latino farmworker community in Oregon. Assessments were conducted in 96 farmworker homes and 24 grower homes in two agricultural communities in Oregon. Measurements included surveys of pesticide use and work protection practices and analyses of home-dust samples for pesticide residues of major organophosphates used in area crops. Results indicate that migrant farmworker housing is diverse, and the amounts and types of pesticide residues found in homes differ. Azinphos-methyl (AZM) was the pesticide residue found most often in both farmworker and grower homes. The median level of AZM in farmworker homes was 1.45 ppm compared to 1.64 ppm in the entry area of grower homes. The median level of AZM in the play areas of grower homes was 0.71 ppm. The levels of AZM in migrant farmworker homes were most associated with the distance from fields and the number of agricultural workers in the home. Although the levels of AZM in growers and farmworker homes were comparable in certain areas, potential for disproportionate exposures occur in areas of the homes where children are most likely to play. The relationship between home resident density, levels of pesticide residues, and play behaviors of children merit further attention.
Han, Lu; Shi, Leiyu; Lu, Liming; Ling, Li
Migrant workers have become a vital labor supply to China's economy. Their migration process and work conditions may influence their health and work ability. The work ability of migrant workers in China and the influence of the migration process on work ability have not been explored extensively in previous studies. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association of migration characteristics and work-related factors with work ability among migrant workers in the Pearl River Delta. In this cross-sectional survey, the study population consisted of 907 migrant workers from ten factories in the Pearl River Delta who were exposed to organic solvents during work. The primary dependent variable of the study was work ability, measured by the Work Ability Index (WAI). The independent variables were individual characteristics, migration characteristics, and work-related factors. Logistic regression models were used to determine the influence of different factors on work ability and three dimensions of WAI. The result shows that among migration characteristics, social support was significantly associated with all three dimensions of the work ability index. Permanent migration intention and longer length of migration were negatively associated with the mental resource dimension of WAI. WAI was also influenced by individual and work-related factors. The findings of this study suggest that expanding migrants' social networks and social support systems in their work place or living community, (i.e. expanding the functions of labor unions) would be an effective way to improve migrant workers' work ability. Improving of migrant workers' physical and psychosocial related work environments would also increase their work ability.
Von Reichert, C; Rudzitis, G
"A survey of residents of and migrants to 15 fast-growing wilderness counties [in the United States] showed that only 25 percent of the migrants increased their income, while almost 50 percent accepted income losses upon their moves to high-amenity counties. Concomitantly, amenities and quality of life were more important factors in the migration decision than was employment, for instance. We focused on migrants in the labor force and employed multinomial logistic regression to identify the impact of migrants' characteristics, their satisfaction/dissatisfaction with previous location (push), and the importance of destination features (pull) on income change." excerpt
Spreckelsen, Thees; Leschke, Janine; Seeleib-Kaiser, Martin
This papers examines the quantitative and qualitative labour market integration of recent young EU migrant citizens in Germany and the UK, separately for citizens from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), Romania and Bulgaria, and Southern European countries. It estimates weighted-proportions from...... market outcomes of all migrants, ignoring a potential double-labour market disadvantage of migrant youth. Routinely, EU migrants’ labour market outcomes are compared for EU-15 and CEE countries, rather than separately and against third country nationals. This paper finds two things: a high labour force...... participation of young EU migrants a labour market segmentation for young EU migrant citizen from CEE and Bulgaria, who experience more precarious work in both Germany and the UK....
Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Ahn, Hyunmi; Miller, Arlene; Park, Chang Gi; Kim, Sun Jung
The purposes of this study were to identify the relationships among acculturative stress, work-related psychosocial factors and depression in Korean-Chinese migrant workers living in Korea and to determine whether work-related psychosocial factors mediate the relationship between acculturative stress and depression. A descriptive correlational cross-sectional design was used. A convenience sample of 200 Korean-Chinese full-time migrant workers was recruited, and 170 completed questionnaires were included in the analysis. Acculturative stress was assessed by Sandh and Asrabadi's Acculturative Stress Scale. Work-related psychosocial factors were assessed by job demand, insufficient job control and interpersonal conflict measures from the Korean Occupational Stress Scale. Depression was assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Self-administered or face-to-face surveys were conducted by trained data collectors. Multiple regression and path analysis were used. Roughly 30% of the sample met the criteria for depression. Female workers had significantly higher depression scores than male workers. Acculturative stress and work-related psychosocial factors significantly predicted 26.3% of the variance in depression. A path model revealed the mediating effect of job demand on the relationship between acculturative stress and depression. Our results indicate that work-related psychosocial factors are salient factors that lead to depression among Korean-Chinese migrant workers living in Korea. The results suggest that occupational health-care professionals should promote the prevention and management of depression in this population and highlight the importance of acculturation context in the development of interventions designed to reduce work-related stress.
N.F. Izmerov; N.I. Izmerova; I.V. Bukhtiyarov; M. Khodzhiev
The article gives the results of determining peculiarities which are characteristic for adaptation in female migrants de-pending on a period of their staying in Moscow region. Adaptation was assessed as per variants of functional stress status and functional abilities of circulatory system. We detected that female migrants during their adaptation to impacts exerted by neuro-emotional factors, social-psychological factors, and physical (muscular) loads which varied in their intensity and lengt...
Full Text Available This article aims to approach the construction of gender in transnational spacesby focusing on the ritual practice of African Pentecostal migrants in Europeand in Africa. One dimension of African Pentecostalism is its insistence on thepractice of exorcism called ‘deliverance’ where malevolent spirits are expelledfrom one’s body. Within the Pentecostal demonology, several categories ofspirits carry implications for how gender is constructed. This article will analyseeffects of the appearance of these spirits on the construction of genderamong Ghanaian and Congolese Pentecostal churches in Geneva and in Accra.It will show that variations in the appearance of spirits within rituals can beinterpreted as a negotiation of gender roles in a migratory context. Shifts inPentecostal demonology can therefore be interpreted as a response to thereconfiguration of gender roles associated with the broader gender contextand work opportunities in Europe.
Following China's economic reforms in the early 1990s, the wave of internal North-to-South, West-to-East and rural-to-urban migration has still not subsided. The purpose of this study was to investigate how a local community in Shanghai supported migrants from other provinces in China in the process of their re-socialisation. By examining the component parts of re-socialisation (integration, assimilation and culturalisation), this paper analyses how the learning programmes and services provided in Shanghai's Zhabei District played a role in migrants' adaptation to their new community environment. The author conducted interviews with migrants of both rural and urban origin at two migrant clubs, and complemented her respondents' statements with formal and informal background research. Her findings indicate that participation in educational activity is only one aspect of migrants' re-socialisation. She demonstrates how educational activities merge into a larger community context and are mingled simultaneously with other activities which relate to employment, healthcare, setting up a business, etc. She argues that educational activity loses its backbone if the initial entry-level support given to migrants is not followed up with advanced development activities, such as providing migrants with lifelong learning opportunities tailored to their aptitudes and needs, motivating them to engage in learning which can serve as a pathway towards their career goals, and helping them improve their life circumstances.