Sample records for african middle belt

  1. Addressing diarrhea prevalence in the West African Middle Belt: social and geographic dimensions in a case study for Benin

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    Arouna Aminou


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In West Africa, the Northern Sahelian zone and the coastal areas are densely populated but the Middle Belt in between is in general sparsely settled. Predictions of climate change foresee more frequent drought in the north and more frequent flooding in the coastal areas, while conditions in the Middle Belt will remain moderate. Consequently, the Middle Belt might become a major area for immigration but there may be constraining factors as well, particularly with respect to water availability. As a case study, the paper looks into the capacity of the Middle Belt zone of Benin, known as the Oueme River Basin (ORB, to reduce diarrhea prevalence. In Benin it links to the Millennium Development Goals on child mortality and environmental sustainability that are currently farthest from realization. However, diarrhea prevalence is only in part due to lack of availability of drinking water from a safe source. Social factors such as hygienic practices and poor sanitation are also at play. Furthermore, we consider these factors to possess the properties of a local public good that suffers from under provision and requires collective action, as individual actions to prevent illness are bound to fail as long as others free ride. Methods Combining data from the Demographic Health Survey with various spatial data sets for Benin, we apply mixed effect logit regression to arrive at a spatially explicit assessment of geographical and social determinants of diarrhea prevalence. Starting from an analysis of these factors separately at national level, we identify relevant proxies at household level, estimate a function with geo-referenced independent variables and apply it to evaluate the costs and impacts of improving access to good water in the basin. Results First, the study confirms the well established stylized fact on the causes of diarrhea that a household with access to clean water and with good hygienic practices will, irrespective of

  2. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt (United States)


    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac#x2122;) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere. Un vaccin conjugué contenant un polysaccharide du sérogroupe A méningococcique et une anatoxine du tétanos (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac™) est en cours de déploiement dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite. L’ expérience avec d’ autres vaccins conjugués polysaccharide/protéine a montré qu’ une partie importante de leur succès a été leur capacité à empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé et donc à arrêter la transmission et à induire une immunité de group. Si PsA-TT doit d’ atteindre l’ objectif de prévenir les épidémies, il devrait être en mesure d’ empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé ainsi que la méningococcie invasive et le fait que PsA-TT puisse emp

  3. V-type asteroids in the middle Main Belt

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    Roig, F; Gil-Hutton, R; Lazzaro, D


    The recent discovery of the first V-type asteroid in the middle belt, (21238) 1995WV7, located at ~2.54 AU, raises the question of whether it came from (4) Vesta or not. In this paper, we present spectroscopic observations indicating the existence of another V-type asteroid at ~2.53 AU, (40521) 1999RL95, and we investigate the possibility that these two asteroids evolved from the Vesta family to their present orbits by drifting in semi-major axis due to the Yarkovsky effect. The main problem with this scenario is that the asteroids need to cross the 3/1 mean motion resonance with Jupiter, which is highly unstable. Combining numerical simulations of the orbital evolution, that include the Yarkovsky effect, with Monte Carlo models, we compute the probability of an asteroid of given diameter D to evolve from the Vesta family and to cross over the 3/1 resonance, reaching a stable orbit in the middle belt. Our results indicate that an asteroid like (21238) 1995WV7 has a low probability of having evolved through th...

  4. A Seroepidemiological Study of Serogroup A Meningococcal Infection in the African Meningitis Belt.

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    Olivier Manigart

    Full Text Available The pattern of epidemic meningococcal disease in the African meningitis belt may be influenced by the background level of population immunity but this has been measured infrequently. A standardised enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for measuring meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibodies was established at five centres within the meningitis belt. Antibody concentrations were then measured in 3930 individuals stratified by age and residence from six countries. Seroprevalence by age was used in a catalytic model to determine the force of infection. Meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibody concentrations were high in each country but showed heterogeneity across the meningitis belt. The geometric mean concentration (GMC was highest in Ghana (9.09 μg/mL [95% CI 8.29, 9.97] and lowest in Ethiopia (1.43 μg/mL [95% CI 1.31, 1.57] on the margins of the belt. The force of infection was lowest in Ethiopia (λ = 0.028. Variables associated with a concentration above the putative protective level of 2 μg/mL were age, urban residence and a history of recent vaccination with a meningococcal vaccine. Prior to vaccination with the serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibody concentrations were high across the African meningitis belt and yet the region remained susceptible to epidemics.

  5. Towards understanding the epidemiology of Neisseria meningitidis in the African meningitis belt: a multi-disciplinary overview

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    Lydiane Agier


    Conclusions: Efforts should focus on implementing multi-country, longitudinal seroprevalence and epidemiological studies, validating immune markers of protection, and improving surveillance, including more systematic molecular characterizations of the bacteria. Integrating climate and social factors into disease control strategies represents a high priority for optimizing the public health response and anticipating the geographic evolution of the African meningitis belt.

  6. Paleoproterozoic Greenstone-Granite Belts in Northern Brazil and the Former Guyana Shield - West African Craton Province

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    Ian McReath


    Full Text Available The mainly meta-volcano-sedimentary Vila Nova Group and associated granites constitute separate belts, which formpart of a large paleoproterozoic (mainly rhyacian province in the Guyana Shield of which northern Brazil forms a part, andthe West African Craton. In Brazil the southwestern Serra do Ipitinga and Serra Tumucumaque-Serra do Navio belts have noobvious geometrical extensions in the Guyanas or Venezuela, and may represent deposits formed at penecontemporaneouspassive continental margins and ocean floor spreading centres. To the Northeast the Serra Lombarda-Tartarugalzinho andOiapoque belts are continuations of Guianese belts. In the former the igneous rocks have geochemical characteristics ofsuprasubduction environments. Belts in the Guyana Shield and West African Craton have many similar features. Themegaprovince evolved in a number of stages, which may have started at about 2.3 Ga, and continued with diminished activityafter 2.11 Ga. Both major juvenile additions and (possibly minor reworking of earlier crust contributed to the growth of theprovince. The major transcurrent deformation, responsible for the present structure of the belts, probably occurred duringthe later stages of evolution of the province, but metamorphism and deformation are registered even in the oldest rocks.

  7. Comparative study on earthquake and ground based transmitter induced radiation belt electron precipitation at middle latitudes

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    N. F. Sidiropoulos


    Full Text Available We examined (peak-to-background flux ratio p/b > 20 energetic electron bursts in the presence of VLF activity, as observed from the DEMETER satellite at low altitudes (~700 km. Our statistical analysis of measurements during two 6-month periods suggests that: (a the powerful transmitter NWC causes the strongest effects on the inner radiation belts in comparison with other ground-based VLF transmitters, (b the NWC transmitter was responsible for only ~1.5 % of total electron bursts examined during the 6-month period (1 July 2008 to 31 December 2008, (c VLF transmitter-related electron bursts are accompanied by the presence of a narrow band emission centered at the radiating frequency emission, whereas the earthquake-related electron bursts are accompanied by the presence of broadband emissions from a few kHz to >20 KHz, (d daytime events are less preferable than nighttime events, but this asymmetry was found to be less evident when the powerful transmitter NWC was turned off and (d seismic activity most probably dominated the electromagnetic interactions producing the electron precipitation at middle latitudes. The results of this study support the proposal that the detection of radiation belt electron precipitation, besides other kinds of studies, is a useful tool for earthquake prediction research.

  8. Strong Lg-wave attenuation in the Middle East continental collision orogenic belt (United States)

    Zhao, Lian-Feng; Xie, Xiao-Bi


    Using Lg-wave Q tomography, we construct a broadband crustal attenuation model for the Middle East. The QLg images reveal a relationship between attenuation and geological structures. Strong attenuation is found in the continental collision orogenic belt that extends from the Turkish and Iranian plateau to the Pamir plateau. We investigate the frequency dependence of QLg in different geologic formations. The results illustrate that QLg values generally increase with increasing frequency but exhibit complex relationships both with frequency and between regions. An average QLg value between 0.2 and 2.0 Hz, QLg (0.2-2.0 Hz), may be a critical index for crustal attenuation and is used to infer the regional geology. Low-QLg anomalies are present in the eastern Turkish plateau and correlate well with low Pn-velocities and Cenozoic volcanic activity, thus indicating possible partial melting within the crust in this region. Very strong attenuation is also observed in central Iran, the Afghanistan block, and the southern Caspian Sea. This in line with the previously observed high crustal temperature, high-conductivity layers, and thick marine sediments in these areas, suggests the high Lg attenuation is caused by abnormally high tectonic and thermal activities.

  9. Teachers' Perception of African American Middle School Girls' Interest in Mathematics and Science (United States)

    Best, Bonnie M.

    Research into African American female underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields has become an area of interest due to the fact that a majority of African American middle school females do not possess the high levels of mathematics and science knowledge because of social and cultural barriers both inside and outside school that challenge their academic success. The purpose of this qualitative interpretative phenomenological study was to explore teachers' shared, lived experiences of teaching mathematics and science to African American middle school girls. Delgado and Stefancic's critical race theory, Pratt-Clarke's critical race feminism, and Baker-Miller's relational-cultural theory were used to guide this study. Research questions focused on the perceptions and experiences of teachers' lived experiences teaching mathematics and science to African American middle school females. Criterion, purposive, and maximum variation sampling techniques were used to recruit 10 teachers who have 3 or more years' experience teaching African American middle school girls. Semistructured face-to-face interviews were the primary data collection source. First cycle and second cycle coding methods were used to support the analysis of this study. Findings suggest that there is a connection between a positive student-teacher relationship and academic success. The results of this study contribute to positive social change by providing empirical evidence policymakers and teachers can use to improve the mathematics and science instruction and practices that are needed to meet the needs of African American middle school females and reduce the underrepresentation and underachievement of African American females in mathematics and science.

  10. Juxtaposition of Neoproterozoic units along the Baruda - Tulu Dimtu shear-belt in the East African Orogen of western Ethiopia (United States)

    Braathen, A.; Grenne, Tor; Selassie, M.G.; Worku, T.


    Amalgamation of East and West Gondwanaland during the Neoproterozoic East African Orogen is recorded by several shear-belts or 'suture zones', some of which are associated with ultramafic and mafic complexes that have been interpreted as ophiolite fragments. The Baruda shear-belt is a major structure of this type that belongs to the N-S trending Barka - Tulu Dimtu zone. The significance of this zone has been studied within a transect in western Ethiopia which covers a variety of metasedimentary and metavolcanic sequences, ultramafic rocks and synkinematic intrusive complexes. All rocks participated in the regional D1 event as reflected in a penetrative steep foliation in supracrustal rocks and marginal parts of the intrusions. Highly strained rocks contain a stretching lineation that plunge to the east. The several-km thick Baruda shear-belt, comprising mylonitic supracrustal and plutonic rocks including mafic-ultramafic mega-lenses, is the most prominent expression of this event. Shear-sense indicators demonstrate top-to-the-west shear. Subsequent D2 deformation is recorded in 2-300 m wide, N-S striking, subvertical shear-zones with subhorizontal stretching lineation relatable to sinistral transcurrent movements. Our data indicate that rock units on either side of the Baruda shear-belt are related, rather than being exotic to each other as implied in suture zone models, since there is no major lithologic or metamorphic difference, geochemical data on metavolcanic rocks and pre-tectonic intrusions suggest a paleotectonic link, and style and extent of deformation is similar across the shear-belt. A tentative model for the transect suggests an arc and back-arc setting which experienced later continental collision and tectonic shortening. The initial setting was that of a shallow marine platform characterised by carbonates and sandstones, which covered extensive areas prior to break-up of a pre-existing supercontinent. Continental convergence is first recorded in high

  11. Characterizing the learning styles and testing the science-related attitudes of African American middle school students: Implications for the underrepresentation of African Americans in the sciences (United States)

    Perine, Donald Ray

    African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans and women are underrepresented among the population of scientists and science teachers in the United States. Specifically, the shortage of African Americans teaching math and science at all levels of the educational process and going into the many science-related fields is manifested throughout the entire educational and career structure of our society. This shortage exists when compared to the total population of African Americans in this country, the population of African American students, and to society's demand for more math and science teachers and professionals of all races. One suggestion to address this problem is to update curricular and instructional programs to accommodate the learning styles of African Americans from elementary to graduate school. There is little in the published literature to help us understand the learning styles of African American middle school students and how they compare to African American adults who pursue science careers. There is also little published data to help inform us about the relationship between learning styles of African American middle school students and their attitudes toward science. The author used a learning styles inventory instrument to identify the learning style preferences of the African American students and adults. The preferences identified describe how African American students and African American adult science professionals prefer to function, learn, concentrate, and perform in their educational and work activities in the areas of: (a) immediate environment, (b) emotionality, (c) sociological needs, and (d) physical needs. The learning style preferences for the students and adults were not significantly different in key areas of preference. A Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) was used to measure seven distinct science-related attitudes of the middle school students. A comparison of the profile of the mean scores for the students in this study

  12. Examining science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools: A mixed methods study (United States)

    Topping, Kecia C.

    This dissertation examined factors that affected the science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools. The research literature informed that African American females are facing the barriers of race, gender, socioeconomic status, and cultural learning style preferences. Nationally used measurements of science achievement such as the Standardized Achievement Test, Tenth edition (SAT-10), National Assessment for Educational Progress, and National Center for Educational Statistics showed that African American females are continuing to falter in the areas of science when compared to other ethnic groups. This study used a transformative sequential explanatory mixed methods design. In the first, quantitative, phase, the relationships among the dependent variables, science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores, yearly averages, and the independent variables, attitude toward science scores obtained from the Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitudes toward Science Scale, socioeconomics, and caregiver status were tested. The participants were 150 African American females in grades 6 through 8 in four suburban middle schools located in the Southeastern United States. The results showed a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitude and their science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores and a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitudes and their yearly averages in science. The results also confirmed that attitude was a significant predictor of science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores for these females and that attitude and socioeconomics were significant predictors of the females' yearly averages in science. In the second, qualitative, phase, nine females purposefully selected from those who had high and low attitude towards science scores on the scale in the quantitative phase were interviewed. The themes that emerged revealed seven additional factors that impacted the females' science achievement. They were usefulness of science

  13. Celiac disease in Middle Eastern and North African countries:A new burden?

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    Kassem; Barada; Abbas; Bitar; Mohamad; Abdul-Razak; Mokadem; Jana; Ghazi; Hashash; Peter; Green


    Celiac disease(CD) is now recognized as a common disorder among Middle Eastern(ME) and North African(NA) populations.The aim of this review is to assess the available data regarding CD in the ME and NA and to compare this information with that of Western countries.A literature review was performed using the electronic databases PubMed and Medline(1950-2008) as search engines,and "celiac disease" was used as a Mesh term.The search was limited to ME and NA countries.The prevalence of CD in ME and NA countries...

  14. The Pan-African orogenic belt of southern Mauritanides and northern Rokelides (southern Senegal and Guinea, West Aftica): gravity evidence for a collisional suture (United States)

    Ponsard, J. F.; Roussel, J.; Villeneuve, M.; Lesquer, A.

    The geological history in southern Senegal and Guinea results in the existence, on the western margin of the West African craton, of a Pan-African orogenic belt which is capped in part with late Proterozoic and Paleozoic terranes. In addition to geological features, the gravity signature and deduced crustal model bear evidence of an eastern crustal block corresponding to the old rigid craton and a denser and thicker western block related to the reactivated basement province. The discontinuity in density between both is interpreted as the Pan-African suture which dips westward beneath the reactivated block. The short wavelength gravity highs superimposed to the gravity gradient in the central domain are interpreted as west-dipping wedge-shaped dense bodies squeezed at depth along the suture. These may reflect either remains of oceanic crust or granulite facies rocks derived from the crustal overthrusting process. Finally using both geological and geophysical materials, the Pan-African belt of southern Mauritanides and northern Rokelides appears to be consistent with a continental collision-basement reactivation model.

  15. The Nubian Complex of Dhofar, Oman: an African middle stone age industry in Southern Arabia.

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    Jeffrey I Rose

    Full Text Available Despite the numerous studies proposing early human population expansions from Africa into Arabia during the Late Pleistocene, no archaeological sites have yet been discovered in Arabia that resemble a specific African industry, which would indicate demographic exchange across the Red Sea. Here we report the discovery of a buried site and more than 100 new surface scatters in the Dhofar region of Oman belonging to a regionally-specific African lithic industry--the late Nubian Complex--known previously only from the northeast and Horn of Africa during Marine Isotope Stage 5, ∼128,000 to 74,000 years ago. Two optically stimulated luminescence age estimates from the open-air site of Aybut Al Auwal in Oman place the Arabian Nubian Complex at ∼106,000 years ago, providing archaeological evidence for the presence of a distinct northeast African Middle Stone Age technocomplex in southern Arabia sometime in the first half of Marine Isotope Stage 5.

  16. Sedimentary geochemistry and provenance of the Lower and Middle Devonian Laojunshan Formation,the North Qilian Orogenic Belt

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    The Laojunshan Formation is a suite of molasse formed during the rapid uplift of the North Qilian Orogenic Belt (NQOB). Forty-one samples of sandstone have been collected from the Sunan and Minle sections in the western sector and the Gulang and Jingyuan sections in the eastern sector of the NQOB belt. Geochemical analyses of those samples indicated: 1) The MgO+Fe2O3T and Al2O3/SiO2 values are higher, and K2O/Na2O ratios are lower in the western sector than those in the eastern sector. 2) All of them are depleted in Nb and Ta elements. The samples from the western sector are depleted in Rb element and enriched with Sc, Co, Ni, V, and Cr elements in the Upper Crust-normalized patterns. However, those from the eastern sector are depleted in Sr without enrichments of Sc, Co, Ni, V, and Cr. 3) All of the samples display a right-inclined REE pattern af- ter Chondrite-normalized REE pattern. But LaN/YbN and Eu/Eu* ratios of the samples from the western sector are lower than those of the samples from the eastern sector. These geochemical characteristics suggest the prominent input of mafic clast with minor granitic rocks into the Sunan area, felsic clast into the Gulang and Jingyuan area, and both mafic and felsic clast into the Minle area. The angular shapes of gravels imply that these ill-sorted sediments were deposited near their sources without recy- cling. Geochemical features above also demonstrated that no major chemical weathering occurred for the western provenance, but deposits in the eastern sector resulted from low or middle degree chemical weathering. Evidences combining tectonic discriminations and comparisons with potential provenances revealed that sediments in the Sunan area were derived mainly from the North Qilian Continental arc, whereas sediments in the Minle, Gulang, and Jingyuan areas were derived not only from the North Qilian Continental arc but also from the basement of the Middle Qilian block. Integrated with the characteristics of development

  17. How African American, Middle Class Parents Learn and Enact a Racism Resistant Critical Race Achievement Ideology in Their Adolescents in Gifted and AP Classes (United States)

    Fisher, Tracey Simmons


    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine African American, middle class parents' facilitation of an academic achievement ideology that is racism-resistant in their adolescent offspring in AP and Gifted Education classrooms. Three research questions guided the study: (1) how do African American, middle class parents come to acquire or…

  18. The nature of culturally responsive pedagogy in two urban African American middle school science classrooms (United States)

    Bondima, Michelle Harris

    This ethnographic in nature study explores how two middle school science teachers who have classes populated by urban African Americans teach their students and how their students perceive their teaching. Since urban African American students continue to perform lower than desired on measures of science achievement, there is an urgent need to understand what pedagogical methodologies assist and hinder urban African American students in achieving higher levels of success in science. A pedagogical methodology that theorists posit assists subordinated school populations is culturally responsive pedagogy. Culturally responsive pedagogy is defined as a teaching methodology concerned with preparing students to question inequality, racism, and injustice. Teachers who use culturally responsive pedagogy respect the culture students bring to the class, and require that the teachers willingly do whatever is necessary to educate students (Nieto, 2000). The teacher participants were two female African Americans who were identified by their school supervisors as being highly effective with urban African American students. The researcher presented the teachers in separate case studies conducted over a data collection period of nine months. Data were collected by participant observation, interviews, and artifact collection. Data were analyzed by application of grounded theory techniques. Findings of the teachers' (and the students') beliefs about pedagogy that both assisted and hindered the students' performance in science were reported in a rich and nuanced storytelling manner based on multiple perspectives (teachers', students', and the researcher's). Pedagogical methodologies that the teachers used that assisted their students were the use of cultural metaphors and images in science and applications of motivational techniques that encouraged a nurturing relationship between the teacher and her students. Pedagogical methodologies that hindered students varied by teacher

  19. Middle-Class African American Adolescents' and Parents' Conceptions of Parental Authority and Parenting Practices: A Longitudinal Investigation. (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.


    Examined longitudinally conceptions of parental authority and ratings of parental rules and decision-making among middle- class African American adolescents and their parents. Found that nearly all subjects affirmed parents' legitimate authority to regulate and children's obligation to comply regarding oral, conventional, prudential, friendship,…

  20. Dating Violence and Sexual Assault Prevention with African American Middle Schoolers: Does Group Gender Composition Impact Dating Violence Attitudes? (United States)

    Black, Beverly M.; Weisz, Arlene N.; Jayasundara, Dheeshana S.


    A dating violence and sexual assault prevention program was presented to 396, predominately African American, middle schoolers in two inner city schools in the United States. In one school the program was offered with a same-gender group composition; in the other school, the same program was offered with mixed-gender group composition. A…

  1. Gender differences in motivational pathways to college for middle class African American youths. (United States)

    Wood, Dana; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E


    Using a sample of predominantly middle-class African American adolescents and parents (N = 424), the authors tested a path model linking parental expectations for children's future educational attainment, youths' motivation during Grade 11, and youths' subsequent on-time postsecondary educational progress. Parents' expectations were positively related to adolescents' educational attainment aspirations, attainment expectations, utility values (i.e., beliefs about the usefulness of education), and perceptions of racial barriers to upward mobility. Relationships between parents' expectations and youths' aspirations and expectations were mediated by youths' perceptions of parents' expectations. For boys, but not girls, Grade 11 educational expectations and utility values each uniquely predicted college attendance 1 year after high school graduation. In addition, boys' perceptions of racial barriers were negatively related to subsequent postsecondary progress through their influence on values. Findings underscore the importance of academic achievement motivation as a developmental resource for African American boys and suggest that boys are especially likely to benefit from interventions promoting positive motivational beliefs.

  2. Middle Devonian Picrites of the Southern Margin of Altay Orogenic Belt and Implications for the Tectonic Setting and Petrogenesis

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    Zhang Zhaochong; Yan Shenghao; Chen Bailin; Zhou Gang; He Yongkang; Chai Fengmei; He Lixin


    The Altay orogenic belt of Xinjiang in NW China represents one of the important sites of juvenile crustal growth during the Phanerozoic. However, some important issues, e.g., tectonic evolution and petrogenesis, still remain controversial. The picrites in the south margin of the Altay orogenic belt were discovered in the lower part of marine volcanic-sedimentary sequences of the northwest-striking Middle Devonian Beitashan Formation (Fm.), which consists chiefly of intermediate-basic volcanic rocks intercalated minor carbonate, siltstone and siliceous rocks. The picrites are usually highly porphyritic, and contain abundant forsteritic olivine phenocrysts with minor clinopyroxene distributed in the groundmass, which consist of olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase with minor Fe-Ti oxides. The MgO contents of the picrites range from 14 wt% to 22 wt% with Mg# (atomic Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratio) of 0.75-0.80. They are characterized by slightly negative Ti anomalies, remarkably negative Nb and Ta anomalies and slightly positive P and Sm anomalies with the similar abundances of HFSE as MORB on the MORB-normalized trace element patterns, all of which characterize typical island arc magmas. In combing with the southwestward migration of the magmas of the Beitashan Fm., we propose that the magmas may result from the southwestward subduction of Junggar ocean plate. The Zr/Nb ratios (23-66) of both picrites and basalts resemble the MORB (10-66), suggesting that they were derived from the MORB-like sources. However, the basalts and picrites display some distinguishable element ratios and REE patterns, e.g., Ti/V (23-35) and Zr/Sm (18-23) ratios of basalts are higher than those of picrites (14-17 and 14-15 respectively), and the basalts display flat-type REE-chondrite patterns whereas the picrites are characterized by lower total REE concentrations ((26-34)×10-6) and slight enrichment of light REE. These distinguished geochemical characteristics could be interpreted by different

  3. Triassic tectonics of the Ailaoshan Belt (SW China): Early Triassic collision between the South China and Indochina Blocks, and Middle Triassic intracontinental shearing (United States)

    Faure, Michel; Lin, Wei; Chu, Yang; Lepvrier, Claude


    In SE Yunnan, the Ailaoshan Belt has been extensively studied for the ductile shearing coeval with the left-lateral Cenozoic activity of the Red River fault. However, the Late Triassic unconformity of the continental red beds upon metamorphic and ductilely deformed rocks demonstrates that the Ailaoshan Belt was already built up by Early Mesozoic tectonics. From West to East, the belt is subdivided into Western, Central, Eastern Ailaoshan, and Jinping zones. The Western Ailaoshan and Central Ailaoshan zones correspond to a Carboniferous-Permian magmatic arc, and an ophiolitic mélange, respectively. The Eastern Ailaoshan, and the Jinping zones consist of deformed Proterozoic basement and Paleozoic to Early Triassic sedimentary cover series both belonging to the South China Block. This litho-tectonic zonation indicates that the Ailaoshan Belt developed through a SW-directed subduction followed by the collision between Indochina and South China blocks. Crustal thickening triggered per-aluminous magmatism dated at ca 247-240 Ma. Field and microscope-scale top-to-the-NE ductile shearing observed only in the pre-Late Triassic formations, but never in Late Triassic or younger formations, complies with this geodynamic polarity. Furthermore, the late collisional two-mica granitoids and felsic per-aluminous volcanites record a ductile deformation that argues for a continuing crustal shearing deformation after the Early Triassic collision up to the Middle Triassic. Therefore, a two-stage tectonic evolution accounts well for the documented structural and magmatic features. The Triassic architecture of the Ailaoshan Belt, and its geodynamic evolution, correlate well to the South and North with the North Vietnam orogens and the Jinshajiang Belt, respectively.

  4. Large scale prediction of soil properties in the West African yam belt based on mid-infrared soil spectroscopy (United States)

    Baumann, Philipp; Lee, Juhwan; Paule Schönholzer, Laurie; Six, Johan; Frossard, Emmanuel


    Yam (Dioscorea sp.) is an important staple food in West Africa. Fertilizer applications have variable effects on yam tuber yields, and a management option solely based on application of mineral NPK fertilizers may bear the risk of increased organic matter mineralization. Therefore, innovative and sustainable nutrient management strategies need to be developed and evaluated for yam cultivation. The goal of this study was to establish a mid-infrared soil spectroscopic library and models to predict soil properties relevant to yam growth. Soils from yam fields at four different locations in Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso that were representative of the West African yam belt were sampled. The project locations ranged from the humid forest zone (5.88 degrees N) to the northern Guinean savannah (11.07 degrees N). At each location, soils of 20 yam fields were sampled (0-30 cm). For the location in the humid forest zone additional 14 topsoil samples from positions that had been analyzed in the Land Degradation Surveillance Framework developed by ICRAF were included. In total, 94 soil samples were analyzed using established reference analysis protocols. Besides soils were milled and then scanned by fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy in the range between 400 and 4000 reciprocal cm. Using partial least squares (PLS) regression, PLS1 calibration models that included soils from the four locations were built using two thirds of the samples selected by Kennard-Stones sampling algorithm in the spectral principal component space. Models were independently validated with the remaining data set. Spectral models for total carbon, total nitrogen, total iron, total aluminum, total potassium, exchangeable calcium, and effective cation exchange capacity performed very well, which was indicated by R-squared values between 0.8 and 1.0 on both calibration and validation. For these soil properties, spectral models can be used for cost-effective, rapid, and accurate predictions

  5. Tectono-metamorphic evolution of the internal zone of the Pan-African Lufilian orogenic belt (Zambia): Implications for crustal reworking and syn-orogenic uranium mineralizations (United States)

    Eglinger, Aurélien; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; André-Mayer, Anne-Sylvie; Goncalves, Philippe; Zeh, Armin; Durand, Cyril; Deloule, Etienne


    The internal zone of the Pan-African Lufilian orogenic belt (Zambia) hosts a dozen uranium occurrences mostly located within kyanite micaschists in a shear zone marking the contact between metasedimentary rocks attributed to the Katanga Neoproterozoic sedimentary sequence and migmatites coring domes developed dominantly at the expense of the pre-Neoproterozoic basement. The P-T-t-d paths reconstructed for these rocks combining field observations, microstructural analysis, metamorphic petrology and thermobarometry and geochronology indicate that they have recorded burial and exhumation during the Pan-African orogeny. Both units of the Katanga metasedimentary sequence and pre-Katanga migmatitic basement have underwent minimum peak P-T conditions of ~ 9-11 kbar and ~ 640-660 °C, dated at ca. 530 Ma by garnet-whole rock Lu-Hf isochrons. This suggests that this entire continental segment has been buried up to a depth of 40-50 km with geothermal gradients of 15-20 ° 1 during the Pan-African orogeny and the formation of the West Gondwana supercontinent. Syn-orogenic exhumation of the partially molten root of the Lufilian belt is attested by isothermal decompression under P-T conditions of ~ 6-8 kbar at ca. 530-500 Ma, witnessing an increase of the geothermal gradients to 25-30 °C·km- 1. Uranium mineralizations that consist of uraninite and brannerite took place at temperatures ranging from ~ 600 to 700 °C, and have been dated at ca. 540-530 Ma by U-Pb ages on uraninite. The main uranium deposition thus occurred at the transition from the syn-orogenic burial to the syn-orogenic exhumation stages and has been then partially transposed and locally remobilized during the post-orogenic exhumation accommodated by activation of low-angle extensional detachment.

  6. Social risk and protective factors for African American children's academic achievement and adjustment during the transition to middle school. (United States)

    Burchinal, Margaret R; Roberts, Joanne E; Zeisel, Susan A; Rowley, Stephanie J


    The transition to middle school is often marked by decreased academic achievement and increased emotional stress, and African American children exposed to social risk may be especially vulnerable during this transition. To identify mediators and protective factors, the authors related severity and timing of risk exposure to academic achievement and adjustment between 4th and 6th grade in 74 African American children. Longitudinal analyses indicated that severity more than timing of risk exposure was negatively related to all outcomes and that language skills mediated the pathway from risk for most outcomes. Transition to middle school was related to lower math scores and to more externalizing problems when children experienced higher levels of social risk. Language skills and parenting served as protective factors, whereas expectations of racial discrimination was a vulnerability factor. Results imply that promoting parenting and, especially, language skills, and decreasing expectations of racial discrimination provide pathways to academic success for African American children during the transition from elementary to middle school, especially those exposed to adversity.

  7. Eicosanoid Production following One Bout of Exercise in Middle-Aged African American Pre- and Stage 1 Hypertensives

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    Sheara Williamson


    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction and a sedentary lifestyle may be involved in the development of hypertension which is proliferative among middle-aged African Americans (AA. Signaling molecules derived from the oxidation of 20-carbon fatty acid molecules known as eicosanoids influence vascular tone. The relationship between aerobic fitness and eicosanoid formation following exercise in middle-aged African American hypertensives is unknown. Purpose. To determine the relationship between aerobic capacity and eicosanoid formation after a bout of moderate-intensity exercise in middle-aged AA hypertensives. Methods. Ten sedentary hypertensive AA underwent 50 min of aerobic exercise at 65% VO2max. Urine was collected for 24 hr on two occasions, prior to testing and immediately following the bout of exercise. Urinary metabolites of prostacyclin (6-keto PGF1α and thromboxane (11-dTXB2 were measured during the day and night periods by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results. 6-keto PGF1α levels significantly increased (=.04 following the bout of exercise compared to the control day. There was a significant relationship (=.49, <.05 between 6-keto PGF1α levels and VO2max during the exercise day. Conclusion. Based on this preliminary study, there appears to be a relationship between aerobic capacity and exercise-induced 6-keto PGF1α production in middle-aged hypertensive AAs. AAs with lower VO2max had lower 6-keto PGF1α formation.

  8. Researching the Link Between Biomass Burning and Drought Across the Northern Sub-Saharan African Savanna/Sahel Belt (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke


    The northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, bounded by the Sahara, Equator, and the West and East African coastlines, is subjected to intense biomass burning every year during the dry season. This is believed to be one of the drivers of the regional carbon and energy cycles, with serious implications for the water cycle anomalies that probably contribute to drought and desertification. In this presentation, we will discuss a new multi-disciplinary research in the NSSA region, review progress, evaluate preliminary results, and interact with the research and user communities to examine how best to coordinate with other research activities in order to address related environmental issues most effectively.

  9. The lithosphere architecture and geodynamic of the Middle and Lower Yangtze metallogenic belt in eastern China: constraints from integrated geophysical data (United States)

    Lü, Qingtian; Shi, Danian; Jiang, Guoming; Dong, Shuwen


    The lithosphere structure and deep processes are keys to understanding mineral system and ore-forming processes. Lithosphere-scale process could create big footprints or signatures which can be observed by geophysics methods. SinoProbe has conducted an integrated deep exploration across middle and lower reaches of Yangtze Metallogenic Belt (YMB) in Eastern China, these included broadband seismic, reflection seismic, wide-angle reflection and magnetotellurics survey. Seismic reflection profiles and MT survey were also performed in Luzong, Tongling and Ningwu ore districts to construct 3D geological model. The resulting geophysical data provides new information which help to better understanding the lithosphere structure, geodynamic, deformation and heat and mass transportation that lead to the formation of the Metallogenic Belt. The major results are: (1) Lower velocity body at the top of upper mantle and a SE dipping high velocity body were imaged by teleseismic tomography beneath YMB; (2) Shear wave splitting results show NE parallel fast-wave polarization direction which parallel with tectonic lineament; (3) The reflection seismic data support the crustal-detachment model, the lower and upper crust was detached during contraction deformation near Tanlu fault and Ningwu volcanic basin; (4) Broadband and reflection seismic confirm the shallow Moho beneath YMB; (5) Strong correlation of lower crust reflectivity with magmatism; (6) The lower crust below Luzong Volcanics shows obvious reflective anisotropy both at the crust-mantle transition and the brittle-ductile transition in the crust. All these features suggest that introcontinental subduction, lithosphere delamination, mantle sources magmatic underplating, and MASH process are responsible for the formation of this Mesozoic metallogenic belt. Acknowledgment: We acknowledge the financial support of SinoProbe by the Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Land and Resources, P. R. China, under Grant sinoprobe-03, and

  10. Petrogenesis of Middle-Late Triassic volcanic rocks from the Gangdese belt, southern Lhasa terrane: Implications for early subduction of Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Ding, Lin; Zhang, Li-Yun; Kapp, Paul; Pullen, Alex; Yue, Ya-Hui


    The Gangdese belt is dominantly composed of igneous rocks that formed during the northward subduction of Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere beneath the Lhasa terrane and has played a crucial role in understanding the pre-collisional evolution of southern Tibet. This paper presents new geochronological and geochemical (whole-rock major and trace element and Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotope) data for recently identified volcanic rocks exposed in Changguo area, southernmost part of the Lhasa terrane. Zircon U-Pb dating from six samples yields consistent ages of 237.1 ± 1.1 Ma to 211.7 ± 1.5 Ma for magma emplacement through volcanic eruption, showing the Middle-Late Triassic magmatic activity in the southernmost Gangdese Belt. The Changguo volcanic rocks are mainly composed of basaltic and andesitic rocks and exhibit LILE enrichment and HFSE depletion. They also exhibit relatively uniform Nd-Hf isotopic compositions (εNd(t) = + 5.20 to + 7.74 and εHf(t)zircon = + 10.2 to + 15.9). The basaltic magmas were likely sourced from partial melting of sub-arc mantle wedge that was metasomatized by not only the aqueous fluid derived from subducting altered oceanic crust but also hydrous melt derived from subducting seafloor sediments, and subsequently experienced fractional crystallization and juvenile crustal contamination during ascent. The andesitic magmas were generated by partial melting of mafic-ultramafic metasomes through melt/fluid-peridotite reaction at slab-mantle interface. Taking into account the temporal and spatial distribution of the Early Mesozoic magmatic rocks and regional detrital zircon data, we further propose that the northward subduction of Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere beneath the Lhasa terrane commenced by Middle Triassic.

  11. 伸缩带式输送机中问卸载式多点驱动装置的设计%The design of middle unload and multipoint driving device of extensible type belt conveyor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The article introduces the technological achievements and economic benefits of middle unload and multipoint driving of extensible type belt conveyor.%介绍伸缩带式输送机中间卸载式多点驱动装置的设计、应用,以及具有良好的技术和经济效益。

  12. Middle-class African American adolescents' and parents' conceptions of parental authority and parenting practices: a longitudinal investigation. (United States)

    Smetana, J G


    Conceptions of parental authority and ratings of parental rules and decision making were examined longitudinally among 82 middle-class African American adolescents and their parents (82 mothers and 52 fathers), who were divided into two groups according to family income. Adolescents were, on average, 13.14 years of age at Time 1 and 15.05 years of age at Time 2. Nearly all adolescents and parents affirmed parents' legitimate authority to regulate (and children's obligation to comply with) rules regarding moral, conventional, prudential, friendship, and multifaceted issues, but they were more equivocal in their judgments regarding personal issues. With age, adolescents increasingly judged personal issues to be beyond the bounds of legitimate parental authority, but judgments differed by family income. Adolescents from upper income families rejected parents' legitimate authority to regulate personal issues more at Time 1 than did adolescents from middle income families, but no differences were found at Time 2. Authority to regulate adolescents' behavior did not extend to other adults or to schools, churches, and the law. With adolescents' increasing age, African American families became less restrictive in regulating prudential, friendship, multifaceted, and personal issues. Adolescents', mothers', and fathers' judgments demonstrated significant continuity over time, but few cross- or within-generation associations in judgments were found. Conceptions of legitimate parental authority at Time 1 were found to predict family rules at Time 2.

  13. Self-reported experiences of discrimination and visceral fat in middle-aged African-American and Caucasian women. (United States)

    Lewis, Tené T; Kravitz, Howard M; Janssen, Imke; Powell, Lynda H


    The authors examined the association between self-reported experiences of discrimination and subtypes of abdominal fat (visceral, subcutaneous) in a population-based cohort of African-American and Caucasian women. Prior studies examining associations between discrimination and abdominal fat have yielded mixed results. A major limitation of this research has been the reliance on waist circumference, which may be a poor marker of visceral fat, particularly for African-American women. Participants were 402 (45% African-American, 55% Caucasian) middle-aged women from the Chicago, Illinois, site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Visceral and subcutaneous fat were assessed via computed tomography scans between 2002 and 2005. Linear regression models were conducted to test associations among discrimination and visceral and subcutaneous fat. After adjustment for age and race, every one-point increase on the discrimination scale was associated with a 13.03-cm(2) higher amount of visceral fat (P = 0.04). This association remained significant after further adjustments for total body fat and relevant risk factors, including depressive symptoms. Discrimination was not associated with subcutaneous fat in minimally (P = 0.95) or fully adjusted models. Associations did not differ by race. Findings suggest that visceral fat may be one potential pathway through which experiences of discrimination increase cardiovascular risk.

  14. Latent Patterns of Risk Behavior in Urban African-American Middle School Students in Baltimore City (United States)

    Hedden, Sarra L.; Whitaker, Damiya E.; von Thomsen, Sarah; Severtson, S. Geoffrey; Latimer, William W.


    Students who engage in high-risk behaviors, including early initiation of sexual intercourse, alcohol use, marijuana use, tobacco use, and externalizing behavior are vulnerable to a broad range of adverse outcomes as adults. Latent class analysis was used to determine whether varying patterns of risk behavior existed for 212 urban African-American…

  15. Zircon U-Pb ages, Hf isotope data, and tectonic implications of Early-Middle Triassic granitoids in the Ailaoshan high-grade metamorphic belt of Southeast Tibet (United States)

    Wu, Wenbin; Liu, Junlai; Chen, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Lisheng


    The Ailaoshan tectonic belt, where the effects of the Paleo-Tethyan ocean evolution and Indian-Eurasian plate collision are superimposed, is one of the most significant geological discontinuities in western Yunnan province of southeast Tibet. An Ailaoshan micro-block within the belt is bounded by the Ailaoshan suture zone to the west and the Red River Fault to the east, and consists of low- and high-grade metamorphic belts. Late Permian-Middle Triassic granitoids that are widely distributed to the west of the Ailaoshan suture zone and within the Ailaoshan micro-block may yield significant information on the Tethyan tectonic evolution of the Ailaoshan tectonic belt. This study reports new LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotope data of four granitoids from the Ailaoshan high-grade metamorphic belt. Zircon grains from the Yinjie granitoid do not have inherited cores and yield a weighted mean U-Pb age of 247.1 ± 2.0 Ma. The zircon ɛ Hf(t) values range from 7.8 to 12.1, and Hf model ages from 775 to 546 Ma, indicating that the granitoid was derived from juvenile crust. The rims of zircons from the Majie and Yuanjiang granitoids yield weighted mean U-Pb ages of 239.5 ± 1.8 and 237.9 ± 2.6 Ma, respectively, whereas the cores yield ages of 1608-352 Ma. The ɛ Hf(t) values of zircon rims range from -20.4 to -5.3, yielding Hf model ages from 2557 to 1606 Ma and suggesting that the source magma of the Majie and Yuanjiang granitoids was derived from ancient crust. An additional granitoid located near the Majie Village yields a zircon U-Pb age of 241.2 ± 1.0 Ma. Based on our geochronological and geochemical data, combined with geological observations, we propose that the Ailaoshan micro-block was derived from the western margin of the Yangtze block, and is comparable to the Zhongzan and Nam Co micro-blocks. The presence of late Permian mafic rocks with rift-related geochemical characteristics within the Ailaoshan micro-block, together with granitoids derived

  16. The Contribution of Student Perceptions of School Climate to Understanding the Disproportionate Punishment of African American Students in a Middle School (United States)

    Shirley, Erica L. M.; Cornell, Dewey G.


    This study investigated the contribution of student perceptions of school climate to racial differences in school discipline. Four hundred middle school students completed a school climate survey. Compared to Caucasian students, African-American students were referred to the office for discipline three times as frequently and received five times…

  17. The study of Spanish in the regulated plans middle and upper teachings on the African continent. Case Study: Gabon

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    Eugénie Eyeang


    Full Text Available Spanish as a foreign language (ELE, a school course taught in sub-Saharan Africa according to the inherited model of France, from content to assessments, through the levels of education and duration. The purpose of this article is to describe the study of Spanish in the regulated plans in middle and upper school teachings at the African continent as the case of Gabon, from a conceptual framework inspired by Parsons’ (1997 action theory. This is to show the interaction between organizational structures, physical and symbolic ones, in every level of  Spanish teaching. Then the paper sees if there is any consistency between existing structures and purpose of the teaching of Spanish in this country. We support the study analyzing contents: official documents and various administrative reports. The interest is to see how to improve internal and external efficiency in the teaching of this subject in Africa.

  18. Crustal structure and geodynamic of the Middle and Lower reaches of Yangtze metallogenic belt and neighboring areas: insights from deep seismic reflection profiling (United States)

    Lu, Q.; Shi, D.; Liu, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.


    A 300 km deep seismic reflection profile across the middle and lower Yangtze River metallogenic belt (YRMB) and its adjacent areas established the architecture and geodynamic framework of the region. Results based on the interpretation of the deep seismic data include the deep complicated geometry of the Tan-Lu fault and Zhangbaling uplift, appears as a subvertical thrust fault with its deep portion dip toward the southeast, and along which the Zhangbaling uplift is squeezed out; complex upper crust deformation structure beneath Chuquan depression, within which there are both kink bands, thrusts, imbrication and fold structures reflecting contraction deformation, and detachment fault and normal-fault structures reflecting extensional deformation; the "crocodile" reflection structure emerging beneath the Tan-Lu fault and Ningwu-Lishui volcanic basin, i.e., the upper crust reflection thrust upward, and the lower crust reflection thrust downward and offsetting the Moho discontinuity, which reflects the decoupled deformation process of the upper and lower crust, and is interpreted as an intracontinental subduction. Further to the southeast, the upper crust deformation shows a large-scale "wave-form" pattern, making crustal scale syncline and anticline. The entire section of the reflection Moho is clearly discernible at depth of 30.0-34.5 km, and the Moho beneath the YRMB is shallowest, while the Moho beneath the North China block is deeper than that beneath the Yangtze block. Moho offsets could be seen beneath the Ningwu volcanic basin. Overall, the seismic data show evidence for an intracontinental orogeny and imposes constraints on the deep geodynamic model applied to study region. Our interpretation of seismic profile supports the view that the Yanshanian orogeny, due to the northwest subduction of the paleo-Pacific plate during the Middle-Late Jurassic, is the major event that shaped the tectonic framework of the region. A geodynamic model is proposed for the

  19. Pre-collisional geodynamic context of the southern margin of the Pan-African fold belt in Cameroon (United States)

    Nkoumbou, C.; Barbey, P.; Yonta-Ngouné, C.; Paquette, J. L.; Villiéras, F.


    We reassess the geodynamic context close to the Congo craton during the pre-collisional period of the Pan-African orogeny from whole-rock major and trace element compositions and isotopic data obtained in the westward extension of the Yaounde series (Boumnyebel area, Cameroon). The series consists of metasediments (micaschists, minor calc-silicate rocks and marbles) and meta-igneous rocks (hornblende gneisses, amphibolites, metagabbros, pyroxenites and talcschists) recrystallized under high-pressure conditions. Chemically, the micaschists correspond to shales and greywackes similar to the Yaounde high-grade gneisses. 87Sr/86Sr initial ratios (0.7084-0.7134), moderately negative εNd(620 Ma) values (-5.75 to -7.81), Nd model ages (1.66 chemical precipitation in relation with submarine magmatic activity. Talcschists (orthopyroxenitic to harzburgitic in composition) show primitive-mantle-normalized multi-element patterns with significant negative Nb-Ta anomalies, and slopes similar to that of average metasomatically altered lithospheric mantle. These rocks could be mantle slices involved in the collision tectonics. Amphibolites show the compositions of island-arc basalts with systematic negative Nb-Ta anomalies, 87Sr/86Sr initial ratios mostly meta-igneous rocks seem to be representative of distinct magmatic events that accompanied the evolution of the Yaounde sedimentary basin, from opening and oceanisation to convergence and closure in relation with the collisional process. These data suggest that the Yaounde basin should not be considered as a back-arc basin, but more likely represents the expression of extensional processes to the north of the Congo craton, which led to rifting, fragmentation and limited oceanisation. In this view, the Adamawa-Yade block may represent a micro-continent detached from the Congo craton during the early Neoproterozoic.

  20. Molecular Characterization of Invasive Meningococcal Isolates from Countries in the African Meningitis Belt before Introduction of a Serogroup A Conjugate Vaccine (United States)

    Caugant, Dominique A.; Kristiansen, Paul A.; Wang, Xin; Mayer, Leonard W.; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Kandolo, Denis; Bougoudogo, Flabou; Sow, Samba; Bonte, Laurence


    Background The serogroup A conjugate meningococcal vaccine, MenAfriVac, was introduced in mass vaccination campaigns in December 2010 in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. In the coming years, vaccination will be extended to other African countries at risk of epidemics. To document the molecular characteristics of disease-causing meningococcal strains circulating in the meningitis belt of Africa before vaccine introduction, the World Health Organization Collaborating Centers on Meningococci in Europe and United States established a common strain collection of 773 isolates from cases of invasive meningococcal disease collected between 2004 and 2010 from 13 sub-Saharan countries. Methodology All isolates were characterized by multilocus sequence typing, and 487 (62%) were also analyzed for genetic variation in the surface antigens PorA and FetA. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested for part of the collection. Principal Findings Only 19 sequence types (STs) belonging to 6 clonal complexes were revealed. ST-5 clonal complex dominated with 578 (74.8%) isolates. All ST-5 complex isolates were remarkably homogeneous in their PorA (P1.20,9) and FetA (F3-1) and characterized the serogroup A strains which have been responsible for most epidemics during this time period. Sixty-eight (8.8%) of the 773 isolates belonged to the ST-11 clonal complex which was mainly represented by serogroup W135, while an additional 38 (4.9%) W135 isolates belonged to the ST-175 complex. Forty-eight (6.2%) serogroup X isolates from West Africa belonged to the ST-181 complex, while serogroup X cases in Kenya and Uganda were caused by an unrelated clone, ST-5403. Serogroup X, ST-181, emerged in Burkina Faso before vaccine introduction. Conclusions In the seven years preceding introduction of a new serogroup A conjugate vaccine, serogroup A of the ST-5 clonal complex was identified as the predominant disease-causing strain. PMID:23029368

  1. Early-Middle Paleozoic subduction-collision history of the south-eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from igneous and metasedimentary rocks of central Jilin Province, NE China (United States)

    Pei, Fu-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Cao, Hua-Hua; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Zi-Jin; Wang, Feng; Yang, Chuan


    To constrain the Early-Middle Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the south-eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), we undertook zircon U-Pb dating and analyzed major and trace elements and zircon Hf isotope compositions of Late Cambrian to Middle Devonian igneous and metasedimentary rocks in central Jilin Province, NE China. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the Early-Middle Paleozoic magmatism in central Jilin Province can be divided into four episodes: Late Cambrian (ca. 493 Ma), Middle Ordovician (ca. 467 Ma), Late Ordovician-Early Silurian (ca. 443 Ma), and Late Silurian-Middle Devonian (425-396 Ma). The progression from subduction initiation to maturity is recorded by Late Cambrian low-K tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician medium-K calc-alkaline pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician to Early Silurian low-K tonalite, which all have subduction-related characteristics and formed in an evolving supra-subduction zone setting. Late Silurian to Middle Devonian calc-alkaline igneous rocks, with the lithological association of granodiorite, monzogranite, rhyolite, dacite, and trachydacite, show progressively increasing K2O contents from medium K to shoshonite series. Furthermore, the Early-Middle Devonian monzogranites are characterized by high K2O, Sr/Y, and [La/Yb]N values, indicating they were generated by the melting of thickened lower crust. These results suggest a transition from subduction to post-orogenic setting during the Late Silurian-Middle Devonian. Our interpretation is supported by the maximum age of molasse deposition in the Zhangjiatun member of the Xibiehe Formation. Overall, we suggest that Late Cambrian tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician-Early Silurian tonalite formed above the northward-subducting and simultaneously seaward-retreating of Paleo-Asian Ocean plate. Subsequently, the northern arc collided with the North China Craton and post-orogenic extension occurred

  2. Burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the Middle Eastern and North African pediatric population

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    Duan Yinghui


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE is the most common cause of severe childhood diarrhea worldwide. Objectives were to estimate the burden of RVGE among children less than five years old in the Middle East (Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE, Yemen, North Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey. Methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted in major databases on the epidemiology and burden of rotavirus among children less than five years old between 1999 and 2009. Data from each country was extracted and compared. Results The search identified 43 studies. RVGE was identified in 16-61% of all cases of acute gastroenteritis, with a peak in the winter. RVGE-related hospitalization rates ranged from 14% to 45%, compared to 14%-28% for non-RVGE. Annually, RVGE caused up to 112 fatalities per 100,000 in certain countries in the region. Hospitalization costs ranged from $1.8 to $4.6 million annually, depending on the country. The most recent literature available showed that G1P[8] was the most prevalent genotype combination in 8 countries (range 23%-56%. G2P[4] was most prevalent in 4 countries (26%-48%. G9P[8] and G4P[8] were also frequently detected. Conclusions RVGE is a common disease associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. Given the variety and diverse rotavirus types in the region, use of a vaccine with broad and consistent serotype coverage would be important to help decrease the burden of RVGE in the Middle East and North Africa.

  3. Geological Fluid Mapping in the Tongling Area: Implications for the Paleozoic Submarine Hydrothermal System in the Middle-Lower Yangtze Metallogenic Belt, East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Tongling area is one of the 7 ore-cluster areas in the Middle-Lower Yangtze metallogenic belt, East China, and has tectonically undergone a long-term geologic history from the late Paleozoic continental rifting, through the Middle Triassic continent-continent collision to the Jurassic-Cretaceous intracontinental tectono-magmatic activation. The Carboniferous sedimentary-exhalative processes in the area produced widespread massive sulfides with ages of 303-321 Ma, which partly formed massive pyrite-Cu deposits, but mostly provided significant sulfur and metals to the skarn Cu mineralization associated with the Yanshanian felsic intrusions.To understand the Carboniferous submarine hydrothermal system, an area of about 1046 km2 was chosen to carry out the geological fluid mapping. Associated with massive sulfide formation, footwall sequences 948 m to 1146 m thick, composed of the Lower Silurian-Upper Devonian sandstone, siltstone and thin-layered shale, were widely altered. This hydrothermal alteration is interpreted to reflect largescale hydrothermal fluid flow associated with the late Paleozoic crustal rifting and subsidence. Three hydrothermal alteration types, i.e., deep-level semiconformable silicification (S1), fracture-controlled quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration (S2-3), and upper-level sub-discordant quartz-sericite-chlorite alteration (D3), were developed to form distinct zones in the mapped area. About 50-m thick semiconformable siliclfication zones are located at ~1-km depth below massive sulfides and developed between an impermeable shale caprock (S1) and the underlying Ordovician unaltered limestone.Comparisons with modern geothermal systems suggest that the alteration zones record a sub-seafloor aquifer with the most productive hydrothermal fluid flow. Fracture-controlled quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration formed transgressive zones, which downward crosscut the semiconformable alteration zones,and upwards grade into sub-discordant alteration zones

  4. Virtual industrial water usage and wastewater generation in the Middle East/North African region

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    S. R. Sakhel


    Full Text Available This study deals with the quantification of volumes of water usage, wastewater generation, virtual water export, and wastewater generation from export for eight export relevant industries present in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA. It shows that about 3400 million m3 of water is used per annum while around 793 million m3 of wastewater is generated from products that are meant for domestic consumption and export. The difference between volumes of water usage and wastewater generation is due to water evaporation or injecting underground (oil wells pressure maintenance. The wastewater volume generated from production represents a population equivalent of 15.5 million in terms of wastewater quantity and 30.4 million in terms of BOD. About 409 million m3 of virtual water flows from MENA to EU27 (resulting from export of eight commodities which is equivalent to 12.1% of the water usage of those industries and Libya is the largest virtual water exporter (about 87 million m3. Crude oil and refined petroleum products represent about 89% of the total virtual water flow, fertilizers represent around 10% and 1% remaining industries. EU27 poses the greatest indirect pressure on the Kuwaiti hydrological system where the virtual water export represents about 96% of the actual renewable water resources in this country. The Kuwaiti crude oil water use in relation to domestic water withdrawal is about 89% which is highest among MENA countries. Pollution of water bodies, in terms of BOD, due to production is very relevant for crude oil, slaughterhouses, refineries, olive oil, and tanneries while pollution due to export to EU27 is most relevant for crude oil industry and olive oil mills.

  5. Y-chromosome and mtDNA genetics reveal significant contrasts in affinities of modern Middle Eastern populations with European and African populations.

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    Danielle A Badro

    Full Text Available The Middle East was a funnel of human expansion out of Africa, a staging area for the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution, and the home to some of the earliest world empires. Post LGM expansions into the region and subsequent population movements created a striking genetic mosaic with distinct sex-based genetic differentiation. While prior studies have examined the mtDNA and Y-chromosome contrast in focal populations in the Middle East, none have undertaken a broad-spectrum survey including North and sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, and Middle Eastern populations. In this study 5,174 mtDNA and 4,658 Y-chromosome samples were investigated using PCA, MDS, mean-linkage clustering, AMOVA, and Fisher exact tests of F(ST's, R(ST's, and haplogroup frequencies. Geographic differentiation in affinities of Middle Eastern populations with Africa and Europe showed distinct contrasts between mtDNA and Y-chromosome data. Specifically, Lebanon's mtDNA shows a very strong association to Europe, while Yemen shows very strong affinity with Egypt and North and East Africa. Previous Y-chromosome results showed a Levantine coastal-inland contrast marked by J1 and J2, and a very strong North African component was evident throughout the Middle East. Neither of these patterns were observed in the mtDNA. While J2 has penetrated into Europe, the pattern of Y-chromosome diversity in Lebanon does not show the widespread affinities with Europe indicated by the mtDNA data. Lastly, while each population shows evidence of connections with expansions that now define the Middle East, Africa, and Europe, many of the populations in the Middle East show distinctive mtDNA and Y-haplogroup characteristics that indicate long standing settlement with relatively little impact from and movement into other populations.

  6. Blood vitamins and trace elements in Northern-East African cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringii) in captivity in the Middle East. (United States)

    Beckmann, Katie M; O'Donovan, Declan; McKeown, Sean; Wernery, Ulli; Basu, Puja; Bailey, Tom A


    There are few published data regarding the endangered Northern-East African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringii), held in captivity in the Middle East and Europe. Studies have demonstrated a high incidence of disease in captive cheetahs, in which vitamin and trace element imbalances have often been implicated. Blood vitamin and trace element reference values in cheetahs merit further investigation. In this study, blood samples were opportunistically collected from apparently healthy A. j. soemmeringii from two collections (A and B) with successful breeding programs in the United Arab Emirates. The cheetahs were fed whole prey of mixed species (and, in Collection B, goat muscle and bone as well) dusted with vitamin and mineral supplements. Mean serum vitamin and trace element values (for cheetahs > 4 mo in age) were as follows: vitamin A (retinol), 2.20 microM/L (n = 27); vitamin B1, 0.0818 microM/L (n = 45); vitamin C, 28.6 microM/L (n=10); vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), 35.6 microM/L (n = 27); copper (Cu), 12.53 microM/L (n = 27); selenium (Se), 3.10 microM/L (n = 27); and zinc (Zn), 10.87 microM/L (n = 27). Mean values of vitamin A, vitamin E, Cu, and Zn fell within ranges of published cheetah mean values, and mean Se was lower than range values for cheetahs presented in one previous study; blood vitamin B1 and vitamin C values of cheetahs have not previously been published. The values were taken to indicate that the cheetahs' nutritional status was adequate with regard to those nutrients analyzed. Serum vitamin E was particularly high in cheetahs fed fresh whole prey, and on this basis vitamin E supplementation of fresh whole prey appeared to have been unnecessary. There were differences (P < 0.05) between collections in serum vitamin B1, vitamin E, Cu, and 10 other hematologic and biochemical parameters. Nine hematologic and blood biochemical parameters differed among age categories.

  7. Structural setting of the Apennine-Maghrebian thrust belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PieroElter; MarioGrasso; MaurizioParotto; LivioVezzani


    The Apennine-Maghrebian fold-and-thrust belt devel-oped from the latest Cretaceous to Early Pleistocene at the subduction-collisional boundary between the Euro-pean and the westward-subducted Ionian and Adria plates. Large parts of the Mesozoic oceanic lithosphere were subducted during an Alpine phase from the Late Cretaceous to Middle Eocene. The chain developed through the deformation of major paleogeographic internal domains (tectono-sedimentary sequences of the Ligurian-Piedmont Ocean) and external domains (sedi-mentary sequences derived from the deformation of the continental Adria-African passive mareinL The continu-ity of the Apennine chain is abruptly interrupted in the Calabrian Arc by the extensive klippe of Kabylo-Calabrian crystalline exotic terranes, derived from deformation of the European passive margin.Major complexities (sharp deflections in the arcuate configuration of the thrust belt, out-of-sequence propagation of the thrusts) are referred to contrasting rheology and differential buoyancy of the subducted lithosphere (transitional from conti-nental to oceanic) and consequent differential roll-back of the Adria plate margin, and to competence contrasts in the Mesozoic stratigraphic sequences,where multiple décollement horizons at different stratigraphic levels may have favored significant differential shortening.From the Late Miocene, the geometry of the thrust belt was strongly modified by extensional fault-ing, volcanic activity, crustal thinning and formation of oceanic crust correlated with the development of the Tyrrhenian Basin.

  8. Early Cambrian Post-collisional volcanosedimentary Rey Bouba greenstone belt in northern Cameroun: LA-MC-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology and implications for the geodynamic evolution of the Central African Fold Belt (CAFB). (United States)

    Bouyo, Merlain


    The Rey Bouba Greenstone Belt (RBGB) is a greenschist volcanosedimentary basin representing the youngest accretion event that characterized the geodynamic evolution of the CAFB of Northern Cameroon. LA-MC-ICP-MS U-Pb detrital zircon data indicate that both older PP to MP and younger NP to Early Cambrian sources from ca 2000 to ca 540 Ma, with main provenance being zircon grains from Cryogenian igneous rocks (between ca 850 and ca 650 Ma) were involved in the formation of the RBGB basin. Considering the age of metamorphism inferred from high pressure granulites at ca 600 Ma within the CAFB of northern Cameroon as the most direct evidence for the timing of continental collision, we conclude that the deformation associated with migmatites and post-collisional granites which fed the Rey Bouba basin mostly with NP zircon lasts until post 540 Ma, in correlation with the final amalgamation of the Gondwana Supercontinent during Latest Neoproterozoic-Earliest Cambrian. Therefore, the RBGB may represent the youngest post-collisional metavolcanosedimentary basin within the CAFB.

  9. The Effects of Stakeholder Disconnect Related to the Achievement of Classified African American Males in Middle School (United States)

    Wilson, Roy T.


    This study examined the disconnect between child study teams, teachers, principals and parents in the monitoring of IEP's and effective implementation of interventions needed to move African American males from special education placements to mainstream classes. In addition, stakeholder attitudes, perceptions, opinions, and beliefs were examined…

  10. Perceptions of Parenting Practices as Predictors of Aggression in a Low-Income, Urban, Predominately African American Middle School Sample (United States)

    Murray, Kantahyanee W.; Haynie, Denise L.; Howard, Donna E.; Cheng, Tina L.; Simons-Morton, Bruce


    This research examined the relation between early adolescent aggression and parenting practices in an urban, predominately African American sample. Sixth graders (N = 209) completed questionnaires about their overt and relational aggressive behaviors and perceptions of caregivers' parenting practices. Findings indicated that moderate levels of…

  11. African-Centered Education in Middle Schools: The Decision-Making Process in a Parental Engagement Model (United States)

    Hicks Dunn, Latrice N.


    The ways in which key stakeholders influencing decision-making processes in African-centered schools in urban areas are qualitatively different from that of parental involvement in mainstream schools; these perceived differences influence decision-making in various ways. The purpose of this research is to investigate ways in which parents,…

  12. Belt conveyer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cwieczek, A.; Dembinski, C.


    The patented belt conveyor is distinguished by the fact that the rate of motion of the belt changes smoothly depending on the load: the greater the load the higher the rate. This makes it possible to prolong the service life of the belt, i.e., during idling of the conveyor it is exposed to deformation on the drive and tension drums a fewer number of times. The essence of the invention is based on the use for driving the drum of a friction transmission. One of the elements of this transmission is the drive drum of the conveyor, and the other is the drive wheel which is pressed to the inner (or outer) surface of the drum. Change in rotation velocity of the drum is reached by changing the diameter of the drive wheel. The rim of the latter has an elastic tire to which compressed air is fed. The diameter of the drive wheel depends on the quantity of air in the tire. It is set automatically by a regulating system depending on the conveyor load. Variants are patented for the belt conveyor which is distinguished by the design of the friction transmission. It contains 1, 2 or more drive wheels. It can have a cylindrical or conical inner surface of the drive drum, etc.

  13. Migration as a turning point in food habits: the early phase of dietary acculturation among women from South Asian, African, and Middle Eastern Countries living in Norway. (United States)

    Terragni, Laura; Garnweidner, Lisa M; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Mosdøl, Annhild


    This article explores the early phase of dietary acculturation after migration. South Asian, African and Middle Eastern women (N = 21) living in Norway were interviewed about their early experiences with food in a new context. The findings pointed to abrupt changes in food habits in the first period after migration. To various degrees, women reported unfamiliarity with foods in shops, uncertainty about meal formats and food preparation and fear of eating food prohibited by their religion. Their food consumption tended to be restricted to food items perceived as familiar or safe. Our findings indicate that the first period after migration represents a specific phase in the process of dietary acculturation. Early initiatives aimed at enhancing confidence in food and familiarity with the new food culture are recommended.

  14. Science self-efficacy of African American middle school students: Relationship to motivation self-beliefs, achievement, gender, and gender orientation (United States)

    Britner, Shari Lynn

    Motivation researchers have established that students' self-efficacy beliefs, the confidence they have in their academic capabilities, are related to academic outcomes. Self-efficacy has been amply researched in mathematics and language arts and nearly exclusively with White students. African American students and the area of science have each received scant attention. Typically, gender differences favor boys in mathematics and girls in language arts. Researchers have also found that these differences may be a function of gender orientation beliefs. The purpose of this study was to extend findings in science self-efficacy and to African American middle school students. I sought to determine whether self-efficacy assessed at differing levels of specificity (lab skills versus science grades) would each predict science achievement assessed at corresponding levels, to discover whether mean scores in academic motivation and achievement would differ by gender, and to determine whether these differences are a function of gender orientation (N = 268). Science grade self-efficacy was positively associated with the grades obtained by boys and by girls. For girls, grades were also associated positively with science self-concept and negatively with value of science. For reasons resulting from problematic instructional practices, lab skills self-efficacy was not associated with lab grades. Girls reported stronger science self-efficacy and received higher grades in science class. Gender orientation beliefs did not account for these differences, but masculinity and femininity were each associated with science grade self-efficacy, suggesting that androgyny is an adaptive orientation for the science self-efficacy beliefs of African American students. Findings are interpreted within the framework of A. Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory.

  15. Impact of Prosocial Behavioral Involvement on School Violence Perpetration Among African American Middle School and High School Students. (United States)

    McDade, Rhyanne S; King, Keith A; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Merianos, Ashley L


    The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with school violence perpetration among African American youth. African American students in 7th through 12th grade (n = 7488) in schools within one Metropolitan area completed the Pride National Drug Survey. Chi square analyses revealed school violence perpetration significantly differed based on grade and prosocial behavioral involvement. Students in 7th-8th grade (54.7%) were more likely to engage in school violence in comparison to 9th-12th grade students (48.8%). Students with low prosocial behavior (52.8%) involvement were more likely than their counterparts (48.9%) to engage in school violence perpetration. Logistic regression also indicated females and 9th-12th students with low prosocial behavior involvement were significantly less likely than their counterparts to engage in school violence. Findings should be considered by health educators and prevention specialists when developing programs and efforts to prevent in school violence perpetration among African American students.

  16. Longitudinal predictors of reading and math trajectories through middle school for African American versus Caucasian students across two samples. (United States)

    Hooper, Stephen R; Roberts, Joanne; Sideris, John; Burchinal, Margaret; Zeisel, Susan


    This study's primary purpose was to examine the relative contribution of social-behavioral predictors to reading and math skills. The study expands on Duncan et al.'s (2007) work by using longitudinal methodology from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K) databases, and by focusing on potential differences in patterns of early predictors of later reading and math trajectories for African American versus Caucasian students. Predictor measures were selected at kindergarten, and the outcomes included standardized reading and math scores obtained from Grades 1, 3, 5, and 9 for the SECCYD sample, and Grades 3, 5, and 8 for the ECLS-K sample. Consistent with Duncan et al.'s findings, results reflect the relative contributions of early reading and math skills to later functioning in these respective academic domains for both samples, and there are indications for the importance of early expressive language skills to both reading and math in the SECCYD sample. Findings related to the power of social-behavioral predictors, however, are not consistent across samples. Although the SECCYD sample evidenced no such predictors, several interactions in the ECLS-K sample suggested the moderating effects of early ratings of aggressive behaviors and internalizing behaviors on later reading and math for African American students. The moderating effects of early teacher ratings of attention and internalizing behaviors for African American students as compared with Caucasian students in later math growth also were noted. The importance of early social-behavioral functions as related to later academic skills remains an important area of inquiry.

  17. Physical activity among African American and Latino middle school girls: consistent beliefs, expectations, and experiences across two sites. (United States)

    Taylor, W C; Yancey, A K; Leslie, J; Murray, N G; Cummings, S S; Sharkey, S A; Wert, C; James, J; Miles, O; McCarthy, W J


    Physical inactivity is a major public health concern. Low levels of physical activity are reported in many subgroups of women including adolescent girls. More data are needed to better understand factors related to physical activity participation in adolescent girls. Therefore, we explored adolescent girls' reasons for participating and not participating in physical activity. Two independent samples were taken in California and Texas; the total sample included thirty-four African American and Latino girls. Six focus groups were conducted by trained facilitators. Based on independent qualitative analyses, six replicated themes emerged from the focus groups. Fun, social support, and concern with body image facilitated participation in activity. In contrast, negative experiences in physical education classes, concerns about appearance after activity, and lack of opportunity impeded participation in activity. Overall, the girls showed an interest in physical activity and identified activity motivators and barriers. We discuss the implications of our findings for future research.

  18. Neighborhood conditions, diabetes, and risk of lower-body functional limitations among middle-aged African Americans: A cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between presence of diabetes and adverse neighborhood and housing conditions and their effect on functional decline is unclear. We examined the association of adverse neighborhood (block face and housing conditions with incidence of lower-body functional limitations among persons with and those without diabetes using a prospective population-based cohort study of 563 African Americans 49-65 years of age at their 2000-2001 baseline interviews. Methods Participants were randomly sampled African Americans living in the St. Louis area (response rate: 76%. Physician-diagnosed diabetes was self reported at baseline interview. Lower-body functional limitations were self reported based on the Nagi physical performance scale at baseline and the three-year follow-up interviews. The external appearance of the block the respondent lived on and five housing conditions were rated by study interviewers. All analyses were done using propensity score methods to control for confounders. Results 109 (19.4% of subjects experienced incident lower-body functional limitations at three-year follow-up. In adjusted analysis, persons with diabetes who lived on block faces rated as fair-poor on each of the five conditions had higher odds (7.79 [95% confidence interval: 1.36-37.55] to 144.6 [95% confidence interval: 4.45-775.53] of developing lower-body functional limitations than the referent group of persons without diabetes who lived on block faces rated as good-excellent. At least 80 percent of incident lower-body functional limitations was attributable to the interaction between block face conditions and diabetes status. Conclusions Adverse neighborhood conditions appear to exacerbate the detrimental effects on lower-body functioning associated with diabetes.

  19. A new fossil cichlid from the Middle Miocene in the East African Rift Valley (Tugen Hills, Central Kenya: First record of a putative Ectodini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Altner


    Full Text Available Identification of fossil cichlids is difficult, because the currently used diagnostic morphological characters for living cichlids are mostly soft tissue based and such characters are hardly preserved in fossils. During our recent fieldwork in the Central Kenya Rift (E-Africa, we discovered several exceptionally well-preserved fossil cichlids, which can be assigned to different lineages among the African Pseudocrenilabrinae. Here we present one of those new specimens. Its most conspicuous character is a lateral line divided into three segments. This specimen was found in the lacustrine sediments of the Middle Miocene site Waril, Tugen Hills, Kenya. The site represents the deposits of an ancient freshwater lake ca. 9-10 million years ago. Previous work on fossil leaves from the same site allow for the reconstruction of open vegetation surrounding the lake and pronounced dry seasons. Among the main further characteristics of the new fossil cichlid is a lachrimal with six lateral line canals, big cycloid scales and a low number of dorsal fin spines (XIII. The latter two characters are traceable in several members of tribes within the Pseudocrenilabrinae. However, a lachrimal with six lateral line canals is exclusively found in certain tribes of the EAR (East African Radiation within the Pseudocrenilabrinae. Moreover, the unique lateral line pattern is solely present in two genera of the EAR tribe Ectodini. However, the fossil shows cycloid scales, while modern Ectodini have ctenoid scales. Taken all evidence together, this fossil may perhaps represent an ancient lineage related to the Ectodini. Up to date, there is no definite fossil record of the members of the EAR. Our fossil may represent the first reliable calibration point for this group, which would be consistent with the previously reconstructed diversification time of the H-lineage (EAR tribes, except Boulengerochromini, Bathybatini, Trematocarini and Lamprologini and the Lamprologini ca

  20. Mediterranean proto-sapropels in the Middle Miocene: implications for the strength of the African monsoon and link to Miocene glaciations (United States)

    John, C. M.; Mutti, M.; Adatte, T.; Laskar, J.


    The strength of the African monsoon is known to have played a major role in determining sedimentation patterns in the Mediterranean during the Plio-Pleistocene. Increased meteoric water input by strong monsoons reduced surface water salinity, and the resulting slower water-mixing rate triggered the deposition of organic-rich layers called "sapropels". Here we present some proxy data coming from a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate section outcropping on the Maltese Islands that suggests that sapropels deposits already existed in the Middle Miocene. This implies that an enhanced monsoonal climate was likely active at that time. Our primary evidences for the existence of "proto-sapropels" are runoff proxies (clay mineral assemblages and abundance) coupled with oxygen isotopes. These indicate that a direct link existed between increased runoff regarded here as a proxy for the strength of the Monsoon- and Miocene global climate (Antarctic glaciation). Each Miocene phase of glaciation is reflected in the section as an increased flux of continental-derived material. Moreover, stable isotopes of carbon and Corg:Norg ratio analyses of organic matter revealed a higher mixing rate of terrigenous and marine organic matters during times of increased sedimentation. This is in good agreement with a monsoon model where increased sedimentation is linked to increased continental runoff. Spectral analysis of the section revealed the presence of Milankovitch-scaled cycles with a strong 100 k.y. frequency. Astronomically calibrated age model for the section shows that the African monsoon has probably initiated around 16.7 Ma and underwent a major strengthening around 13.8 Ma, a time corresponding to enhanced siliciclastic deposition on the Malta-Ragusa platform and to the global cooling phase of the Mi3 Antarctic ice-buildup phase. We argue that the strong coherence between Miocene glaciation phases and increased runoff into the Mediterranean is due to a link between Antarctic cooling

  1. The middle Holocene climatic records from Arabia: Reassessing lacustrine environments, shift of ITCZ in Arabian Sea, and impacts of the southwest Indian and African monsoons (United States)

    Enzel, Yehouda; Kushnir, Yochanan; Quade, Jay


    A dramatic increase in regional summer rainfall amount has been proposed for the Arabian Peninsula during the middle Holocene (ca. 9-5 ka BP) based on lacustrine sediments, inferred lake levels, speleothems, and pollen. This rainfall increase is considered primarily the result of an intensified Indian summer monsoon as part of the insolation-driven, northward shift of the boreal summer position of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) to over the deserts of North Africa, Arabia, and northwest India. We examine the basis for the proposed drastic climate change in Arabia and the shifts in the summer monsoon rains, by reviewing paleohydrologic lacustrine records from Arabia. We evaluate and reinterpret individual lake-basin status regarding their lacustrine-like deposits, physiography, shorelines, fauna and flora, and conclude that these basins were not occupied by lakes, but by shallow marsh environments. Rainfall increase required to support such restricted wetlands is much smaller than needed to form and maintain highly evaporating lakes and we suggest that rainfall changes occurred primarily at the elevated edges of southwestern, southern, and southeastern Arabian Peninsula. These relatively small changes in rainfall amounts and local are also supported by pollen and speleothems from the region. The changes do not require a northward shift of the Northern Hemisphere summer ITCZ and intensification of the Indian monsoon rainfall. We propose that (a) latitudinal and slight inland expansion of the North African summer monsoon rains across the Red Sea, and (b) uplifted moist air of this monsoon to southwestern Arabia highlands, rather than rains associated with intensification of Indian summer monsoon, as proposed before, increased rains in that region; these African monsoon rains produced the modest paleo-wetlands in downstream hyperarid basins. Furthermore, we postulate that as in present-day, the ITCZ in the Indian Ocean remained at or near the equator all

  2. The Middle Neoproterozoic Sidi Flah Group (Anti-Atlas, Morocco): synrift deposition in a Pan-African continent/ocean transition zone (United States)

    Fekkak, A.; Pouclet, A.; Benharref, M.


    The Middle Neoproterozoic (Cryogenian) Sidi Flah Group rocks are located in the Saghro inlier of the Eastern Anti-Atlas and consists of siliciclastic detrital sediment, interbedded basaltic lavas and small ultramafic bodies. Sediment deposition occurred in three turbiditic formations of a deep-sea fan environment and was controlled by synsedimentary collapses. The composition of sandstones and typological study of zircons indicate that detrital material came from the gneisses and granites of a proximal craton. The lavas are synsedimentary subaqueous flows. They show chemical signatures of initial rift tholeiites and of plume-related alkaline intraplate basalts. The ultramafic rocks are serpentinized peridotites that were emplaced along N160° synsedimentary faults as numerous bodies 20-50 m in size. Their petrographical (Cr-spinel signature) and chemical features correspond to intracontinental ultramafic cumulates. The emplacement of the ultramafic rocks was associated with hydrothermal activity that generated calcareous and siliceous rocks such as ophicalcites and jaspers. All the features of the sediments, the lavas and the ultramafic bodies strongly suggest a continent-ocean transition geotectonic context, in an advanced stage of continental rifting that we attribute to the pre-Pan-African ocean passive margin extension.

  3. Seat belt reminders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Seat belts are an effective way of reducing the number or road deaths and severe road injuries in crashes. Seat belt reminders warn car drivers and passengers if the seat belt is not fastened. This can be done by a visual signal or an acoustic signal or by a combination of the two. Seat belt reminde

  4. Comparison of the reorganisations of BP and Shell and possible opportunities for Middle East and North African Oil companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, Gilbert


    A critical analysis is provided of the recent reorganisations of the downstream and petrochemical activities of BP and Shell. BP (or BP Amoco including Arco) and Shell are preparing for the next decade anticipating the environment and changing the companies to maximise their profitability in that environment. For the oil producing countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), there are lessons to be learned both from the forecasts which BP Amoco and Shell are making and from the way these companies intend to operate. BP Amoco's view of oil refining is that the surplus capacity is endemic; Shell's view is that it is transient. BP Amoco will market oil products selectively across the world; Shell is still intent on a global approach. Both BP Amoco and Shell will minimise their wholesaling activities in the retail market and expand their merchandising with ever better quality sites. In the petrochemicals sector, the companies are taking similar actions, ie concentrating on positions of strength and selling business activities with low market shares or poor profitability. Petrochemical sites will be favoured when they have access to company produced hydrocarbon feedstocks. From the analysis, it is suggested that MENA oil companies will need to consider carefully the timing of any new refinery building. The reorganisation of the major OECD-based oil companies should offer opportunities for MENA companies to secure outlets for LPG and condensates, to form marketing alliances in OECD markets and to become involved in OECD-based petrochemical businesses.

  5. Belt attachment and system (United States)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.


    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  6. Study on Development Technology of Production Drawing Gallery of Belt Conveyer Middle Frame Based on AutoLISP%基于AutoLISP的带式输送机中间架生产图图库的开发技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩素兰; 郭术义; 赵俊龙; 袁丽娟


    The DTⅡ( K) type of belt conveyer is a general series of product which should be designed by series components. Based on different terrain and transportation distance, the type of the belt conveyer middle frame which has standard length or opposite can be di-vided into three types of straight, convex arc and concave arc. AutoLISP is used to make AutoCAD secondary development to generate the production drawings for the middle frame. According to the type and length of the frame, different dialog boxes have been pro-grammed. After the belt width is determined, the corresponding parameters are input into the dialog boxes to generate production draw-ings for the middle frame with different type and length. Thus, the parametric design for the production drawing gallery of middle frame is achieved.%DTⅡ( K)型带式输送机是通用型系列产品,设计时按部件系列进行设计,根据地形和输送距离等情况的不同,机架部分的中间架有直型、凸弧型和凹弧型3种,种类有标准长度和非标准长度.为提高设计效率,针对带式输送机中间架生产图,运用AutoLISP语言对AutoCAD进行二次开发,根据不同的形式、种类,通过相应对话框,在确定带宽后,通过编制好的程序,输入相应参数,生成不同形式、不同种类的中间架等部件的生产图,实现中间架生产图的参数化设计.

  7. Neoproterozoic-middle Paleozoic tectono-magmatic evolution of the Gorny Altai terrane, northwest of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Constraints from detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf-isotope studies (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Cai, Keda; Zhao, Guochun; Zheng, Jianping; Rubanova, Elena S.; Voytishek, Elena E.


    The Gorny Altai terrane (GA) is a key area in understanding the crustal evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). This paper reports U-Pb and Hf-isotope data for detrital zircons from Cambrian to early Devonian sedimentary sequences to constrain their provenance, as well as the tectono-magmatic events and crustal growth in this region. Nearly all the detrital zircons are characterized by euhedral to subhedral morphology, high Th/U ratios (ca. 0.1-1.6) and typical oscillatory zoning, indicating a magmatic origin. The three samples from the Gorny Altai Group (middle Cambrian to early Ordovician) yield detrital zircon populations that are composed predominantly of 530-464 Ma grains, followed by a subordinate group of 641-549 Ma old. The Silurian and Devonian samples exhibit similar major zircon populations (555-456 Ma and 525-463 Ma, respectively), but a significant amount of additional 2431-772 Ma zircons occur in the early Devonian sample. Our results suggest that detritus from the nearby Kuznetsk-Altai intra-oceanic island arc served as a unitary source for the Cambrian-Silurian sedimentary sequences, but older detritus from other sources added to the early Devonian sequence. The low abundance of ca. 640-540 Ma detrital zircons may testify that this island arc was under a primitive stage in this period, when mafic volcanic rocks probably dominated. In contrast, the dominant population of ca. 530-470 Ma zircons may indicate an increased amount of granitic rocks in the source area, suggesting that the Kuznetsk-Altai island arc possibly evolved into a mature one in the Cambrian to early Ordovician. The ca. 530-470 Ma detrital zircons are almost exclusively featured by positive εHf(t) values and have two-stage Hf model ages of ca. 1.40-0.45 Ga, indicating that the precursor magmas were sourced predominantly from heterogeneous juvenile materials. We conclude that the late Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic magmatism in the Kuznetsk-Altai arc made a

  8. Geochemical characteristics of the Shujiadian Cu deposit related intrusion in Tongling: Petrogenesis and implications for the formation of porphyry Cu systems in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt, eastern China (United States)

    Wang, Shiwei; Zhou, Taofa; Yuan, Feng; Fan, Yu; Cooke, David R.; Zhang, Lejun; Fu, Bin; White, Noel C.


    Porphyry Cu deposits can form in intracontinental or post-collision settings; however, both the genesis of fertile magmas and the mechanism of metal enrichment remain controversial. The Shujiadian porphyry Cu deposit is located in the Tongling area of the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt. It is hosted by the Shujiadian complex, which mainly consists of quartz diorite porphyry (143.7 ± 1.7 Ma) and pyroxene diorite (139.8 ± 1.6 Ma). They both belong to the calc-alkaline series, with enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE), depletion in high field-strength elements (HFSE) and heavy rare earth elements (HREE), and slightly negative Eu anomalies. Both quartz diorite porphyry and pyroxene diorite have geochemical affinities with adakite, and their low MgO (1.5-3.7 wt%), and Ni (3.7-6.9 ppm), Cr (2.0-44 ppm), and Th/Ce contents (0.06-0.11) indicate that the intrusive rocks have some characteristics of adakite-like rocks derived from thickened lower crust and melts from metabasaltic rocks and eclogites. Plagioclases from the quartz diorite porphyry are andesine (An value = 31.8-40.5) and from the pyroxene diorite are felsic albite and oligoclase with large-scale zones and variable An value (An value = 8.9-18.3), Fe and Sr contents, which indicate that mixing of mafic and felsic magma may have occurred in the shallow magma chamber. Compared to the barren quartz diorite porphyry, relatively lower SiO2 contents (49.5-55.2 wt.%), higher εNd(t) values (- 7.4 to - 6.9), εHf(t) values (- 11.0 to - 9.1) compositions, Ti-in-zircon temperatures (714-785 °C), and variations of HREE contents of the mineralization-related pyroxene diorite suggest mixing with high-temperature mafic magma. Calculated Ce4 +/Ce3 + values of pyroxene diorite plot between the Ni-NiO buffer (NNO) and magnetite-hematite buffer (MH), and barren quartz diorite porphyry samples plot below the Ni-NiO buffer (NNO). Geochemical features of

  9. Geochronological, geochemical and mineralogical constraints of emplacement depth of TTG suite from the Sinassi Batholith in the Central African Fold Belt (CAFB) of northern Cameroon: Implications for tectonomagmatic evolution (United States)

    Houketchang Bouyo, M.; Penaye, J.; Njel, U. O.; Moussango, A. P. I.; Sep, J. P. N.; Nyama, B. A.; Wassouo, W. J.; Abaté, J. M. E.; Yaya, F.; Mahamat, A.; Ye, Hao; Wu, Fei


    The Sinassi Batholith in the Central African Fold Belt (CAFB) of northern Cameroon represents the largest volume of plutonic rocks or granitoids massif of the Western Cameroonian Domain. It is made up dominantly of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) suite and lesser granite which are locally more or less deformed, and composed of varying proportions of quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, biotite, hornblende, sphene, magnetite, apatite and zircon. Major and trace element compositions of fifteen rock samples of granitoids (Djourdé granodiorite, Sinassi quartz diorite and orthogneisses groups) indicate that investigated rocks from the Sinassi Batholith are characterized by medium- to high-K calc-alkaline affinity and metaluminous I-type signature. In addition, their chondrite- and primitive mantle-normalized trace element patterns are strongly fractionated ((La/Yb)N = 2.96-61.40) and show respectively enrichment in LREE relative to HREE and enrichment in LILE compared to HFSE with moderate to slight negative Nb-Ta, Ti and Eu anomalies consistent with a continental magmatic arc setting related to a subduction zone. Geothermobarometric calculations using hornblende-plagioclase thermometry and aluminum-in-hornblende barometry on eleven rock samples indicate that plutons from Sinassi Batholith were emplaced at average temperatures and pressures ranging between 698 and 720 °C and 4.06-5.82 kbar (Djourdé granitoids), 698-728 °C and 4.04-5.34 kbar (Sinassi granitoids) and 667-670 and 4.23-4.76 kbar (orthogneisses group) respectively. The average emplacement depths estimates for the investigated granitoids is constrained at ca 16-18 km, indicating that at least 16 km of crustal rocks of the Sinassi Batholith must have been eroded or uplifted at approximately exhumation rates of 0.08-0.10 mm/year. Regardless of their Th/U ratios, geochronological results highlight three main events characterizing the Neoproterozoic tectonomagmatic evolution within the Sinassi Batholith

  10. Ionospheric heating for radiation-belt control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, W.J.; Villalon, E.


    Pitch-angle scattering interactions of electromagnetic waves in the ELF/VLF bands with trapped electrons, as formulated by Kennel and Petschek 1, describe the dynamics of the freshly filled radiation belts flux tubes. The natural existence of a slot region with electron fluxes below the Kennel-Petschek limit requires non-local wave sources. We describe a set of planned, active experiments in which VLF radiation will be injected from ground and space based transmitters in conjunction with the CRRES satellite in the radiation belts. These experiments will measure the intensity of waves driving pitch-angle diffusion and the electron energies in gyroresonance with the waves. An ability to reduce the flux of energetic particles trapped in the radiation belts by artificial means could improve the reliability of microelectronic components on earth-observing satellites in middle-altitude orbits.

  11. Seat belt restraint system (United States)

    Garavaglia, A.; Matsuhiro, D.


    Shoulder-harness and lap-belt restraint system was designed to be worn by individuals of widely different sizes and to permit normal body motion except under sudden deceleration. System is divided into two basic assemblies, lap belt and torso or shoulder harness. Inertia-activated reels immediately lock when seat experiences sudden deceleration.

  12. A Comparative Study of the Learning Style Preferences among Gifted African-American, Mexican-American, and American-Born Chinese Middle Grade Students. (United States)

    Ewing, Norma J.; Yong, Fung Lan


    Analysis of the Learning Style Inventory scores of 155 gifted African-American, Mexican-American, and American-born Chinese students in grades 6-8 indicated significant group differences in preferences for noise, light, visual modality, studying in the afternoon, and persistence. Gender and grade differences were found for some variables.…

  13. A Fish Assemblage from the Middle Eocene from Libya (Dur At-Talah) and the Earliest Record of Modern African Fish Genera. (United States)

    Otero, Olga; Pinton, Aurélie; Cappetta, Henri; Adnet, Sylvain; Valentin, Xavier; Salem, Mustapha; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques


    In the early nineteen sixties, Arambourg and Magnier found some freshwater fish (i.e., Polypterus sp., Siluriformes indet. and Lates sp.) mixed with marine members in an Eocene vertebrate assemblage at Gebel Coquin, in the southern Libyan Desert. This locality, aged ca 37-39Ma and now known under the name of Dur At-Talah, has been recently excavated. A new fish assemblage, mostly composed of teeth, was collected by the Mission Paléontologique Franco-Libyenne. In this paper, we describe freshwater fish members including a dipnoan (Protopterus sp.), and several actinopterygians: bichir (Polypterus sp.), aba fish (Gymnarchus sp.), several catfishes (Chrysichthys sp. and a mochokid indet.), several characiforms (including the tiger fish Hydrocynus sp., and one or two alestin-like fish), and perciforms (including the snake-head fish Parachanna sp. and at least one cichlid). Together with the fossiliferous outcrops at Birket Qarun in Egypt, the Libyan site at Dur At-Talah reduces a 10-Ma chronological gap in the fossil record of African freshwater fish. Their fish assemblages overlap in their composition and thus constitute a rather homogenous, original and significant amount of new elements regarding the Paleogene African ichthyofauna. This supports the establishment of the modern African freshwater fish fauna during this time period because these sites mostly contain the earliest members known in modern genera.

  14. The structural evolution of the Zaghouan-Ressas Structural Belt, northern Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, M.A.; Grocott, J.; Moody, R.T.J. [Kingston University (United Kingdom). School of Geological Science


    From Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous time the African-European Rift Zone (AERZ), a seaway connecting the western part of the Tethys Ocean to the embryonic Atlantic Ocean, was characterized by sinistral transtension. On the African margin of the AERZ this cause brea-up of Tethyan Triassic and Lower Jurassic evaporite and carbonate platform sequences by linked, strike-slip and normal-slip fault displacements that delineated a system of sedimentary basins separated by horsts. The Zaghouan-Ressas Structural Belt (ZRSB) in northern Tunisia was initiated as a north-tapering horst in this system, bounded to the northwest by a pelagic basin (the Tunisian Trough) in which thick Lower Cretaceous sequences were deposited and to the east by a north-south trending system of reactived Tethyan margin faults. Two models for the structural evolution of the ZRSB during the Atlassic orogeny are evaluated. The first recognizes the importance of facies variation in controlling thrust geometry, but is essentially a thin-skinned model in which detachment on incompetent Triassic strata forms the main control of structural style. The second model emphasizes reactivation of AERZ-related basin margin faults during contraction and accounts for the major folds in the ZRSB at Djebel Zaghouan and Djebel Ressas as forced folds formed by fault inversion. (author)

  15. Discipline Referrals and Access to Secondary Level Support in Elementary and Middle Schools: Patterns across African-American, Hispanic-American, and White Students (United States)

    Vincent, Claudia G.; Tobin, Tary J.; Hawken, Leanne S.; Frank, Jennifer L.


    Given documented racial/ethnic disproportionality in disciplinary referrals and strong recommendations to base provision of secondary level supports on data, we explored whether students from various racial/ethnic groups have equitable access to secondary supports. We disaggregated discipline data from 155 elementary and 46 middle schools by…

  16. Dynamic characteristics of conveyor belts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU You-fu; MENG Qing-rui


    The dynamic characteristics of a belt conveyor are determined to a large extent by the properties of the belt. This paper describes experiments designed to establish the dynamic properties of belting material. The dynamic elastic modulus, viscous damping and theological constants of the belt were measured. Several properties were studied as a function of the tensile loading on the belt. These included longitudinal vibration, the natural vibration frequency in the transverse direction and the response to an impulse excitation. Vibration response was observed under several different excitation frequencies. Most of these properties have not been tested previously under conditions appropriate for the ISO/DP9856 standard. Two types of belt were tested, a steel reinforced belt and a fabric reinforced belt. The test equipment was built to provide data appropriate for designing belt conveyors. It was observed that the stress wave propagation speed increased with tensile load and that tensile load was the main factor influencing longitudinal vibrations.

  17. Learning to "see" sound: An investigation into the intellectual and linguistic resources that urban middle school African American boys utilize in the practice of representing sound transmission (United States)

    Wright, Christopher G.


    This research examines the intellectual and linguistic resources that a group of African American boys brought to the study of the science of sound and the practice of representation. By taking a resource-rich view of the boys' linguistic and representational practices, my objective is to investigate children's abilities in producing, using, critiquing, and modifying representations. Specifically, this research looks to explore and identify the varieties of resources that African American boys utilize in developing scientific understanding. Using transcripts from group sessions, as well as the drawings produced during these sessions, I utilized a combination of discourse analysis to explore the boys' linguistic interactions during the critique of drawings with a focus on the boys' manipulation of line segments in order to explore their representational competencies. Analysis of the transcripts and the boys' drawings revealed several important findings. First, elements of Signifying were instrumental in the group's collective exploration of each other's drawings, and the ideas of sound transmission being represented in the drawings. Thus, I found that the boys' use of Signifying was key to their engagement win the practice of critique. Second, the boys' ideas regarding sound transmission were not fixed, stable misconceptions that could be "fixed" through instruction. Instead, I believe that their explanations and drawings were generated from a web of ideas regarding sound transmission. Lastly, the boys exhibited a form of meta-representational competency that included the production, modification, and manipulation of notations used to represent sound transmission. Despite this competency, the negotiation process necessary in constructing meaning of a drawing highlighted the complexities in developing a conventional understanding or meaning for representations. Additional research is necessary for exploring the intellectual and lingustic resources that children from

  18. Self-reported safety belt use among emergency department patients in Boston, Massachusetts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Patricia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safety belt use is 80% nationally, yet only 63% in Massachusetts. Safety belt use among potentially at-risk groups in Boston is unknown. We sought to assess the prevalence and correlates of belt non-use among emergency department (ED patients in Boston. Methods A cross-sectional survey with systematic sampling was conducted on non-urgent ED patients age ≥18. A closed-ended survey was administered by interview. Safety belt use was defined via two methods: a single-item and a multiple-item measure of safety belt use. Each was scored using a 5-point frequency scale. Responses were used to categorize safety belt use as 'always' or less than 'always'. Outcome for multivariate logistic regression analysis was safety belt use less than 'always'. Results Of 478 patients approached, 381 (80% participated. Participants were 48% female, 48% African-American, 40% White, median age 39. Among participants, 250 (66% had been in a car crash; 234 (61% had a valid driver's license, and 42 (11% had been ticketed for belt non-use. Using two different survey measures, a single-item and a multiple-item measure, safety belt use 'always' was 51% and 36% respectively. According to separate regression models, factors associated with belt non-use included male gender, alcohol consumption >5 drinks in one episode, riding with others that drink and drive, ever receiving a citation for belt non-use, believing that safety belt use is 'uncomfortable', and that 'I just forget', while 'It's my usual habit' was protective. Conclusion ED patients at an urban hospital in Boston have considerably lower self-reported safety belt use than state or national estimates. An ED-based intervention to increase safety belt use among this hard-to-reach population warrants consideration.

  19. The Pattern and Evolution of the Permian Palaeobiogeography and Tectonic Palaeogeography in Jilin and Heilongjiang Orogenic Belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Xiangdong; Li Xiaomin; Liu Pengju


    The orogenic belt locates between the North China plate and Siberia plate. The Permian palaeobiogeography and tectonic palaeogeography changed quickly and clearly. The line from Changchun to Yanji is an important palaeobiogeographic provincing line, which may be the collission suture belt of the North China plate and north middle massifs. The orogenic belt has been divided into 2 regions: the North middle massif region and the North Margin of North China plate, the pattern and evolution of Permian palaeobiogeography in the present area were discussed and the Permian biota mixture and its significants were analysed. Then, Based on the above, the Permian tectonic palaeogeography of the orogenic belt is reconstructed.

  20. Post-Variscan evolution of the Anti-Atlas belt of Morocco constrained from low-temperature geochronology (United States)

    Gouiza, M.; Charton, R.; Bertotti, G.; Andriessen, P.; Storms, J. E. A.


    The Anti-Atlas belt of Morocco extends ENE-WSW, over more than 600 km, from the Atlantic margin in the west to the interior of the African plate in the east. It exhibits Precambrian rocks outcropping as basement inliers and surrounded by marine Ediacaran-Cambrian sequences around the axis of the mountain range. The belt, which has for a long time been interpreted as of Variscan age, is now revealed to have experienced major vertical movements through Mesozoic and Cenozoic times. Thereby, the Anti-Atlas domain appears to be affected by two episodes of exhumation separated by an episode of subsidence. The initial episode occurred in the Late Triassic and led to the exhumation of 7.5-10.5 km of crustal rocks by the end of the Middle Jurassic (ca. 160-150 Ma). The following phase resulted in 1-3 km of basement subsidence and occurred during the Late Jurassic and most of the Early Cretaceous. The basement rocks were then slowly brought to the surface after experiencing 2-3.5 km of exhumation throughout the Late Cretaceous and the Cenozoic. The timing of these episodes of exhumation and subsidence coincides with major tectonic and thermal events in relation with the evolution of the Atlantic and Tethys Oceans, indicating that the effects of their rifting and drifting extended beyond their presumed margins.

  1. Trace and rare-earth element geochemistry: A tool for petrogenetic and geotectonic modeling of ensi-matic ortho-amphibolites from Pan-African belt of Obudu Plateau, Southeastern Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ukaegbu V.U.; Beka F.T.


    A model for the petrogenetic affinity and original geotectonic setting of ortho-amphibolites from the Obudu Plateau was tested using the distribution patterns of trace and rare-earth elements from the geochemical analyses of twelve representative amphibolite samples. Discrimination plots, normalized patterns of the incompatible trace elements against average MORB, low ratios of Ba/Nb (9-23) and Ba/Ta (130-327) and other geochemical characteristics suggest that the protoliths were dominantly of tholeiitic MORB composition. The values of the ratios of La/Ta (8.13-10.8), Rb/Sr (0.044).07), Th/U (mainly 4.43-5.43) and Hf/Ta (2.35-2.88) further indicate that the ortho-amphibolites demonstrate E-type MORB characteristics. These features are related to substantial ocean floor divergent tectonic boundary setting rather than marginal basin tectonic setting. This evolutionary pattern appears to be controlled by limited progressive partial melting and fractional crystallization of a single mantle source region, irrespective, however, of variations due to local source heterogeneities. The tholeiitic magmas were most probably generated by hotspot activities on the constructive plate margins and subsequently modified by subduction-related low-K tholeiitic chemistry due to narrowing of a proto oceanic basin between the West African craton and eastern Sahara plate. A likely model, therefore, is that the amphibolites of the Obudu Plateau represent ophiolitic suites with characteristics of enriched mid-ocean floor tholeiites, which were deformed and metamorphosed during a reversed plate motion involving subduction and collision within the Obudu Plateau in the Pan-African orogenic episode.

  2. African Literature


    Recek, Denis


    The topic of this diploma is the formation and shaping of African literature. The first chapter is about the beginning of African literature. It describes oral literature and its transmission into written literature. Written African literature had great problems in becoming a part of world literature because of its diversity of languages and dialects. Christianity and Islam are mentioned as two religions which had a great impact on African literature. Colonialism is broadly described as an es...

  3. Radiation belts of jupiter. (United States)

    Stansberry, K G; White, R S


    Predictions of Jupiter's electron and proton radiation belts are based mainly on decimeter observations of 1966 and 1968. Extensive calculations modeling radial diffusion of particles inward from the solar wind and electron synchrotron radiation are used to relate the predictions and observations.

  4. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September. This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,aleading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  5. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September.This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,a leading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  6. Radiation Belt Dynamics (United States)


    document for any purpose other than Government procurement does not in any way obligate the U.S. Government. The fact that the Government...release; distribution is unlimited. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information...Radiation Belt Modeling,” co-lead by J. Albert (AFRL), W. Li (UCLA), S. Morley ( LANL ), and W. Tu (UWV). Figure 6. Precipitating Energy Flux, Simulated

  7. Kuiper Belt Occultation Predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Wesley C; Trujillo, Chad; Stephens, Andrew W; Kavelaars, JJ; Brown, Michael E; Bianco, Federica B; Boyle, Richard P; Brucker, Melissa J; Hetherington, Nathan; Joner, Michael; Keel, William C; Langill, Phil P; Lister, Tim; McMillan, Russet J; Young, Leslie


    Here we present observations of 7 large Kuiper Belt Objects. From these observations, we extract a point source catalog with $\\sim0.01"$ precision, and astrometry of our target Kuiper Belt Objects with $0.04-0.08"$ precision within that catalog. We have developed a new technique to predict the future occurrence of stellar occultations by Kuiper Belt Objects. The technique makes use of a maximum likelihood approach which determines the best-fit adjustment to cataloged orbital elements of an object. Using simulations of a theoretical object, we discuss the merits and weaknesses of this technique compared to the commonly adopted ephemeris offset approach. We demonstrate that both methods suffer from separate weaknesses, and thus, together provide a fair assessment of the true uncertainty in a particular prediction. We present occultation predictions made by both methods for the 7 tracked objects, with dates as late as 2015. Finally, we discuss observations of three separate close passages of Quaoar to field star...

  8. Preventive Effects of Seat Belt on Clinical Outcomes for Road Traffic Injuries. (United States)

    Kwak, Bong Hun; Ro, Young Sun; Shin, Sang Do; Song, Kyoung Jun; Kim, Yu Jin; Jang, Dayea Beatrice


    Proper seat belt use saves lives; however, the use rate decreased in Korea. This study aimed to measure the magnitude of the preventive effect of seat belt on case-fatality across drivers and passengers. We used the Emergency Department based Injury In-depth Surveillance (EDIIS) database from 17 EDs between 2011 and 2012. All of adult injured patients from road traffic injuries (RTI) in-vehicle of less than 10-seat van were eligible, excluding cases with unknown seat belt use and outcomes. Primary and secondary endpoints were in-hospital mortality and intracranial injury. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of seat belt use and driving status for study outcomes adjusting for potential confounders. Among 23,698 eligible patients, 15,304 (64.6%) wore seat belts. Driver, middle aged (30-44 yr), male, daytime injured patients were more likely to use seat belts (all P seat belt group had higher proportions of case-fatality and intracranial injury compared to seat belt group (both P seat belt group, AORs (95% CIs) of no seat belt group were 10.43 (7.75-14.04) for case-fatality and 2.68 (2.25-3.19) for intracranial injury respectively. In the interaction model, AORs (95% CIs) of no seat belt use for case-fatality were 11.71 (8.45-16.22) in drivers and 5.52 (2.83-14.76) in non-driving passengers, respectively. Wearing seat belt has significantly preventive effects on case-fatality and intracranial injury. Public health efforts to increase seat belt use are needed to reduce health burden from RTIs.

  9. Lap belt injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, N


    The use of adult seat belts without booster seats in young children may lead to severe abdominal, lumbar or cervical spine and head and neck injuries. We describe four characteristic cases of lap belt injuries presenting to a tertiary children\\'s hospital over the past year in addition to a review of the current literature. These four cases of spinal cord injury, resulting in significant long-term morbidity in the two survivors and death in one child, arose as a result of lap belt injury. These complex injuries are caused by rapid deceleration characteristic of high impact crashes, resulting in sudden flexion of the upper body around the fixed lap belt, and consequent compression of the abdominal viscera between the lap belt and spine. This report highlights the dangers of using lap belts only without shoulder straps. Age-appropriate child restraint in cars will prevent these injuries.

  10. Cenozoic intracontinental deformation of the Kopeh Dagh Belt, Northeastern Iran (United States)

    Chu, Yang; Wan, Bo; Chen, Ling; Talebian, Morteza


    arc magmatism. During the Jurassic to Eocene rifting, this belt acted as the southern boundary of the Amu Darya Basin with normal faulting, which is also widespread in the South Caspian Sea and the Black Sea. Moreover, such an extended area became a relatively weak zone within the Eurasian Plate, and could be easily reworked. Because of the collision in the Zagros Belt, the intracontinental compression commenced as early as Late Eocene to Early Oligocene, which is interpreted as tectonic inversion along this weak zone. The western zone of the Kopeh Dagh Belt was also affected by southerly indentation/extrusion of the South Caspian block since middle Miocene, possibly resulting in the different deformation patterns between the western and eastern zones.

  11. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abe


    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon- fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning

  12. Extensive Admixture and Selective Pressure Across the Sahel Belt. (United States)

    Triska, Petr; Soares, Pedro; Patin, Etienne; Fernandes, Veronica; Cerny, Viktor; Pereira, Luisa


    Genome-wide studies of African populations have the potential to reveal powerful insights into the evolution of our species, as these diverse populations have been exposed to intense selective pressures imposed by infectious diseases, diet, and environmental factors. Within Africa, the Sahel Belt extensively overlaps the geographical center of several endemic infections such as malaria, trypanosomiasis, meningitis, and hemorrhagic fevers. We screened 2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms in 161 individuals from 13 Sahelian populations, which together with published data cover Western, Central, and Eastern Sahel, and include both nomadic and sedentary groups. We confirmed the role of this Belt as a main corridor for human migrations across the continent. Strong admixture was observed in both Central and Eastern Sahelian populations, with North Africans and Near Eastern/Arabians, respectively, but it was inexistent in Western Sahelian populations. Genome-wide local ancestry inference in admixed Sahelian populations revealed several candidate regions that were significantly enriched for non-autochthonous haplotypes, and many showed to be under positive selection. The DARC gene region in Arabs and Nubians was enriched for African ancestry, whereas the RAB3GAP1/LCT/MCM6 region in Oromo, the TAS2R gene family in Fulani, and the ALMS1/NAT8 in Turkana and Samburu were enriched for non-African ancestry. Signals of positive selection varied in terms of geographic amplitude. Some genomic regions were selected across the Belt, the most striking example being the malaria-related DARC gene. Others were Western-specific (oxytocin, calcium, and heart pathways), Eastern-specific (lipid pathways), or even population-restricted (TAS2R genes in Fulani, which may reflect sexual selection).

  13. Dunlop Enerka Belting supplies and installs Europe's longest conveyor belt at British Coal-Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Dunlop Enerka Belting of Farington, U.K., has supplied a steel cord conveyor belt to the mine complex at Selby in North Yorkshire operated by RJB Mining plc. The new conveyor belt replaces the belt supplied and installed in 1981 by Dunlop Enerka Belting (then BTR Belting Ltd.).

  14. Coronal radiation belts

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, H S; Frewen, S F N; DeRosa, M L


    The magnetic field of the solar corona has a large-scale dipole character, which maps into the bipolar field in the solar wind. Using standard representations of the coronal field, we show that high-energy ions can be trapped stably in these large-scale closed fields. The drift shells that describe the conservation of the third adiabatic invariant may have complicated geometries. Particles trapped in these zones would resemble the Van Allen Belts and could have detectable consequences. We discuss potential sources of trapped particles.

  15. Geography of the asteroid belt (United States)

    Zellner, B. H.


    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  16. Fission Track Dating on the Paodaoling Gold Deposit in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Metallogenic Belt: Its significance to Tectonic Setting%长江中下游成矿带抛刀岭金矿裂变径迹研究及大地构造意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田朋飞; 杨晓勇; 袁万明; 刘海涛; 薛斌


    抛刀岭金矿位于长江中下游成矿带中的安庆贵池矿集区,是长江中下游多金属成矿带中首次发现的斑岩型独立金矿床.通过磷灰石裂变径迹研究分析区内的构造演化特征,裂变径迹长度处于11.9±1.8μm和13.2±1.6μm之间,表明样品在后期受构造热事件的影响,样品长时间处于退火带温度,长度直方图总体呈现单峰特征,受隆升冷却作用控制明显.通过对同组年龄(x2检验值>5%)和混合年龄(x2检验值<5%)进行分析,所测年龄位于123Ma和19Ma之间,可以将年龄分为5组:123.0Ma,107Ma,86Ma,52Ma,19Ma.裂变径迹热历史可以分为4个时期:缓慢冷却期,从150~90Ma;快速冷却期,从90Ma至65~58Ma;缓慢冷却期,从65~58Ma至18~12Ma;快速降温期,从18~12Ma至今.自中侏罗世以来,江南隆起带受控于太平洋板块构造,太平洋板块在不同时期有着不同的活动,其运移方向和活动强度直接控制着中国东部的构造演化.研究地区所测裂变径迹年龄划分时代与太平洋形成后不同产状洋岛链出现的时代吻合,热历史模拟结果和太平洋板块不同期次活动相关.通过热历史模拟和构造分析,可推测热历史不同阶段的形成是不同时期太平洋板块运动的结果,样品混合年龄亦证明了构造活动的多期次性.可以推断贵池地区自白垩纪以来的构造运动与太平洋构造带活动密切相关,其多期构造演化是对太平洋板块活动的响应.%The Paodaoling gold deposit regarding as an independent prophyry gold deposit is firstly found in Anqing-Guichi ore district within the middle-lower Yangtze River polymetallic metallogenetic belt. One the study of fission tracks, we analyze the characteristics of structural evolution in the Paodaoling gold deposit. Results show that the mean track lengths range between 11. 9±1. 8μm and 13. 2 + 1. 6μm, respectively! Indicating that intrusions are infulenced by tectonic-thermal events

  17. 海拉尔塔木察格盆地中部断陷带油气形成条件及富集规律%Formation and Accumulation Rules of Oil and Gas in Middle Fault Depression Belt of Hailar Tamtsag Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙启安; 刘一丹; 吴海波; 李军辉; 刘赫


    The oil and gas reservoir in the middle fault depression belt of Hailar-Tamtsag basin shows great potential and with large scale.They distribute widespread in the Cretaceous sequences. Although it has been provided with favorable geology and accumulation conditions of oil and gas,and serves as the key field of oil and gas exploration in the future,the formation and accumulation rules are not clear.Based on integrated statistic analysis and geological data, we focus on the formation, distribution,and accumulation of oil and gas reservoir in the area.The controlling factors are as follows.First,multi-period structural movement controlled the basin framework and established the structural pattern of depression with rich oil accumulation.Second,different tectonic phase controlled the sedimentary infilling evolution.The fault slope break belt and structural transfer zone controlled the fan body distribution.All of them supply advantageous reservoir for oil and gas accumulation with great scale.Third,clastic rock with high content of volcanic substance was easy to dissolve,which resulted in the development of secondary pore,and it created beneficial condition for the formation of favorable reservoirs.We therefore that concluded that the concave uplift belt of composite half-graben fault depression and the great gentle slope fault terrace belt served as favorable oil and gas reservoir. Hydrocarbon kitchen controlled the distribution of oil and gas reservoir.The favorable facies belt was an important factor for oil and gas enrichment.The results may be useful for the consideration in similar petroleum system exploration.%海拉尔塔木察格盆地中部断陷带油气藏具有很大的资源潜力和储量规模,在白垩系均有广泛的分布,具备良好的油气地质背景和成藏条件,是未来油气勘探的重点领域,其形成条件及富集规律不明。笔者在大量统计分析和地质研究的基础上,探讨了中部断陷带油气藏的

  18. Evaluation of the static belt fit provided by belt-positioning booster seats. (United States)

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert, Sheila M; Sherwood, Christopher P; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A


    Belt-positioning booster seats are recommended for children who use vehicle seat belts as primary restraints but who are too small to obtain good belt fit. Previous research has shown that belt-positioning boosters reduce injury risk, but the belt fit produced by the wide range of boosters in the US market has not previously been assessed. The present study describes the development of a method for quantifying static belt fit with a Hybrid-III 6-year-old test dummy. The measurement method was applied in a laboratory seat mockup to 31 boosters (10 in both backless and highback modes) across a range of belt geometries obtained from in-vehicle measurements. Belt fit varied widely across boosters. Backless boosters generally produced better lap belt fit than highback boosters, largely because adding the back component moved the dummy forward with respect to the lap belt routing guides. However, highback boosters produced more consistent shoulder belt fit because of the presence of belt routing guides near the shoulder. Some boosters performed well on both lap belt and shoulder belt fit. Lap belt fit in dedicated boosters was generally better than in combination restraints that also can be used with an integrated harness. Results demonstrate that certain booster design features produce better belt fit across a wide range of belt geometries. Lap belt guides that hold the belt down, rather than up, and shoulder belt guides integrated into the booster backrest provided better belt fit.

  19. African Muslim Youth and the Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihle, Annette Haaber

    , marked by economic decline and political instability. In Africa a weak or even failed state often means that young people have in reality no access to political, educational or economic positions and resources. In some countries like Nigeria, Ghana and the Ivory Coast the marginalisation of the youth...

  20. The Ivisartoq Greenstone Belt, Southwest Greenland: New Investigations (United States)

    Mader, M. M.; Myers, J. S.; Sylvester, P. J.


    The Ivisartoq greenstone belt is situated 40 km south of the Isua greenstone belt, within the Archean gneiss complex of southwest Greenland. The Isua region has been the focus of intense study because it contains some of the oldest known (~ 3.8-3.7 Ga) rocks on Earth. However, relatively little research has been conducted within the Ivisartoq belt. The Ivisartoq greenstone belt is exceptionally well-exposed in three dimensions, and primary features are better preserved here than in any other Archean greenstone belt in Greenland. The Ivisartoq greenstone belt provides a unique opportunity to characterise early-middle Archean mafic-ultramafic magmatism. The Ivisartoq greenstone belt forms a southwest-closing, V-shaped synform and was subjected to amphibolite facies metamorphic conditions. New field mapping has concentrated on the 3 km thick southern limb of the synform, where the most complete section of the tectonostratigraphy is preserved, and where pillow structures with unambiguous way-up indicators are observed. The southern limb has been divided into two units of amphibolites: a lower unit and an upper unit. The upper amphibolite unit is characterized by heterogeneously deformed pillow structures interlayered with ultramafic amphibole schists, meta-gabbro, and with boudins of olivine-bearing ultrabasic rocks. The lower amphibolite unit is more heterogenous and intensely deformed than the upper unit. Layers of quartz-feldspathic rocks with sulfides are abundant in both the upper and lower unit and are highly sheared. A thick (~ 500m) section of quartzo-feldspathic gneisses and schists in the lower unit has been the focus of preliminary geochronological work. Previously, only one U/Pb zircon age (~ 2580 Ma from a "paraschist") has been obtained from the Ivisartoq belt and was reported by Baadsgaard in 1976. Currently, laser ablation microprobe inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (LAM ICP-MS) and isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry

  1. Seat Belt Use and Stress in Adolescents. (United States)

    Schichor, Aric; And Others


    Explored adolescent seat belt use and psychosocial risk factors in urban minority population (n=541). Found seat belt use reported by 49 percent of respondents. Those reporting no or intermittent seat belt use were significantly more likely than seat belt users to feel down, have decreased home support, have problems with school and the law, and…

  2. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... the driver's seat and seat belt assembly anchorages that conform to the location and...

  3. Chaos on the conveyor belt

    CERN Document Server

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán


    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by spring to an external static point, and due to the dragging effect of the belt the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can only be achieved by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks, around five.

  4. Cultural aspects of African American eating patterns. (United States)

    Airhihenbuwa, C O; Kumanyika, S; Agurs, T D; Lowe, A; Saunders, D; Morssink, C B


    The high mortality from diet-related diseases among African Americans strongly suggests a need to adopt diets lower in total fat, saturated fat and salt and higher in fiber. However, such changes would be contrary to some traditional African American cultural practices. Focus group interviews were used to explore cultural aspects of eating patterns among low- and middle-income African Americans recruited from an urban community in Pennsylvania. In total, 21 males and 32 females, aged 13-65+ years were recruited using a networking technique. Participants identified eating practices commonly attributed to African Americans and felt that these were largely independent of socioeconomic status. They were uncertain about links between African American eating patterns and African origins but clear about influences of slavery and economic disadvantage. The perception that African American food patterns were characteristically adaptive to external conditions, suggest that, for effective dietary change in African American communities, changes in the food availability will need to precede or take place in parallel with changes recommended to individuals. Cultural attitudes about where and with whom food is eaten emerged as being equivalent in importance to attitudes about specific foods. These findings emphasize the importance of continued efforts to identify ways to increase the relevance of cultural context and meanings in dietary counseling so that health and nutrition interventions are anchored in values as perceived, in this case, by African Americans.

  5. Support Needs of Overweight African American Women for Weight Loss (United States)

    Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.


    Objectives: To examine social support needs of obese and overweight African American women for weight loss. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with overweight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results: Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD = 12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in…

  6. Discrimination, Mastery, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Men (United States)

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.


    Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…

  7. Northern Belt of Jupiter (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A four-panel frame shows a section of Jupiter's north equatorial belt viewed by NASA's Cassini spacecraft at four different wavelengths, and a separate reference frame shows the location of the belt on the planet.A fascinating aspect of the images in the four-panel frame is the small bright spot in the center of each. The images come from different layers of the atmosphere, so the spot appears to be a storm penetrating upward through several layers. This may in fact be a 'monster' thunderstorm, penetrating all the way into the stratosphere, as do some summer thunderstorms in the midwestern United States. These images were taken on Nov. 27, 2000, at a resolution of 192 kilometers (119 miles) per pixel. They have been contrast-enhanced to highlight features in the atmosphere.The top panel of the four-panel frame is an image taken in a near-infrared wavelength at which the gases in Jupiter's atmosphere are relatively non-absorbing. Sunlight can penetrate deeply into the atmosphere at this wavelength and be reflected back out, providing a view of an underlying region of the atmosphere, the lower troposphere.The second panel was taken in the blue portion of wavelengths detected by the human eye. At these wavelengths, gases in the atmosphere scatter a modest amount of sunlight, so the clouds we see tend to be at somewhat higher altitudes than in the top panel.The third panel shows near-infrared reflected sunlight at a wavelength where the gas methane, an important constituent of Jupiter's atmosphere, absorbs strongly. Dark places are regions without high-level clouds and consequently large amounts of methane accessible to sunlight. Bright regions are locations with high clouds in the upper troposphere shielding the methane below.The bottom panel was taken in the ultraviolet. At these very short wavelengths, the clear atmosphere scatters sunlight, and hazes in the stratosphere, above the troposphere, absorb sunlight. That

  8. Family Factors Associated with Language Competence among Toddlers in French, North African, and African Families in France. (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Park, Kyung-Ja

    Language adequacy was coded for 403 toddlers 24 months of age who had received medical and psychological examinations in a Bilan de Sante clinic in Paris, France. The children were from three cultures: native French middle class, immigrant North African Moslem, and immigrant Black African. Demographic, socioeconomic, medical, biological,…

  9. Silk or Spandex?: China’s Problematic One Road, One Belt Plan to Expand its Economic Boundaries as Seen Through the Lens of American, British, and Japanese Experience (United States)


    will apply both the original methodology and the insights from historical contextualization to the transportation hubs of the One Road One Belt plan...largest consumer of energy in the world, largely due to the rapid industrialization of the country and the growing divide between an urban middle class... urban middle class in China continues to grow and become more affluent this percentage will increase substantially, making the One Road One Belt even

  10. African America. (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.; Brown, Gloria


    Presents an annotated bibliography of quality materials by and about African Americans in the areas of poetry, music, folklore, women, picture books, history/collective biography, authors, and professional materials. Activities are suggested in each area for Black History Month. (LRW)


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖敏; 王伟力; 郭灵辉


    Nitrogen is an important component of protein and essential element for the growth of aquatic biomass. Excessive nitrogen input to natural water bodies leads to huge ecological pressure and environmental pollutions such as eutrophication. As point source pollution got effective control in the socio-economic system, agricultural non-point source pollution has become the main cause of eutrophication. Quantifying and regulating the agricultural non-point source pollution emissions throughout the entire socio-economic system is crucial to mitigate or avoid pro-ducing water pollution. Based on the inventory analysis method and emission coefficient method, this paper calcu-lated the nitrogen emission from the agricultural non-point source for the Urban Agglomeration in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Belt. The results showed that the total nitrogen emission from the agricultural non -point source in the whole area was 128. 27 × 104 t in 2011, of which agricultural emission accounted for 58. 92%, and e-mission from livestock and poultry was 33 . 53%. The sensitivity analysis method and scenario analysis method were then applied to simulate the emission situation during 2011 to 2020 and 2020 to 2030 . Some conclusions were drawn as follows:Under scenario 1, if more stringent pollution control efforts were not implemented, the nitrogen e-mission from the agricultural non-point source would increase 16 . 29% during 2011 to 2020 , and 18 . 78% during 2020 to 2030. Under scenario 2 and scenario 3, by contrast, the total nitrogen emission of the four urban agglomer-ations would be 15% fewer in 2020 than in 2011 , and 25% fewer in 2030 than in 2011 . The nitrogen emission re-duction effect in scenario 2 was better than that in scenario 3;Scenario 3 was considered to be more conducive to couple the relationship between regional economic growth and environmental protection. Finally, some recommen-dations were put forward to regional emission reduction, including reducing

  12. Effects of vehicle seat and belt geometry on belt fit for children with and without belt positioning booster seats. (United States)

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert-Hamilton, Sheila M; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A; Rupp, Jonathan D


    A laboratory study was conducted to quantify the effects of belt-positioning boosters on lap and shoulder belt fit. Postures and belt fit were measured for forty-four boys and girls ages 5-12 in four highback boosters, one backless booster, and on a vehicle seat without a booster. Belt anchorage locations were varied over a wide range. Seat cushion angle, seat back angle, and seat cushion length were varied in the no-booster conditions. All boosters produced better mean lap belt fit than was observed in the no-booster condition, but the differences among boosters were relatively large. With one midrange belt configuration, the lap belt was not fully below the anterior-superior iliac spine (ASIS) landmark on the front of the pelvis for 89% of children in one booster, and 75% of children failed to achieve that level of belt fit in another. In contrast, the lap belt was fully below the ASIS for all but two children in the best-performing booster. Child body size had a statistically significant but relatively small effect on lap belt fit. The largest children sitting without a booster had approximately the same lap belt fit as the smallest children experienced in the worst-performing booster. Increasing lap belt angle relative to horizontal produced significantly better lap belt fit in the no-booster condition, but the boosters isolated the children from the effects of lap belt angles. Reducing seat cushion length in the no-booster condition improved lap belt fit but changing cushion angle did not. Belt upper anchorage (D-ring) location had a strong effect on shoulder belt fit in conditions without shoulder belt routing from the booster. Unexpectedly, the worst average shoulder belt fit was observed in one highback booster with a poorly positioned shoulder belt routing clip. The shoulder belt was routed more outboard, on average, with a backless booster than without a booster, but raising the child also amplified the effect of D-ring location, such that children were

  13. Kuiper Belts Around Nearby Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, R; Brandeker, A; Olofsson, G; Pilbratt, G L; Risacher, C; Rodmann, J; Augereau, J -C; Bergman, P; Eiroa, C; Fridlund, M; Thébault, P; White, G J


    In order to detect and characterise cold extended circumstellar dust originating from collisions of planetesimal bodies in disks, belts, or rings at Kuiper-Belt distances (30--50\\,AU or beyond) sensitive submillimetre observations are essential. Measurements of the flux densities at these wavelengths will extend existing IR photometry and permit more detailed modelling of the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the disks spectral energy distribution (SED), effectively constraining dust properties and disk extensions. By observing stars spanning from a few up to several hundred Myr, the evolution of debris disks during crucial phases of planet formation can be studied. // We have performed 870\\,$\\mu$m observations of 22 exo-Kuiper-Belt candidates, as part of a Large Programme with the LABOCA bolometer at the APEX telescope. Dust masses (or upper limits) were calculated from integrated 870\\,$\\mu$m fluxes, and fits to the SED of detected sources revealed the fractional dust luminosities $f_{\\mathrm{dust}}$, dust temperatures...

  14. Partnerships in the Middle East: Interventionist Endeavors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarøe Jørgensen, Jakob


    This chapter aims to analyse NATO’s two Middle Eastern and North African (MENA)1 partnership programmes – the Mediterranean Dialogue (MD) and the Istanbul Cooperation Initiative (ICI). The chapter aims to answer the questions: (1) why does NATO engage with MENA partners; (2) what are the obstacles...... that MD and ICI face, and; (3) is the new flexible partnership policy a step towards more constructive Middle Eastern partnerships?...

  15. Ideal Body Size as a Mediator for the Gender-Specific Association between Socioeconomic Status and Body Mass Index: Evidence from an Upper-Middle-Income Country in the African Region (United States)

    Yepes, Maryam; Maurer, Jürgen; Stringhini, Silvia; Viswanathan, Barathi; Gedeon, Jude; Bovet, Pascal


    Background: While obesity continues to rise globally, the associations between body size, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES) seem to vary in different populations, and little is known on the contribution of perceived ideal body size in the social disparity of obesity in African countries. Purpose: We examined the gender and socioeconomic…

  16. African-American Biography. (United States)

    Martin, Ron


    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  17. African-American Women in History. (United States)

    Martin, Ron


    Describes two reference books suitable for middle/junior high school library media centers that present information about African-American women and suggests activities for Afro-American History Month. Library media skills objectives, social studies and art objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, activities and procedures,…

  18. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers (United States)

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay


    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  19. African Trypanosomiasis (United States)


    Histol. 1977;375:53- 70. 42. Poltera AA, Owor R, Cox JN. Pathological aspects of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) in Uganda. A post - mortem survey of...nodular lesions , including anthrax or tick bite associated with Rickettsia conorii infection. The chancre is followed by a hemolymphatic stage, dur- ing...electrocardiograph- ic changes and, at times, terminal cardiac insufficiency.41 Pulmonary lesions specifically related to trypanosomiasis are not

  20. French experience in seat belt use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassarre, S. & Page, Y.


    This paper concerns the French experience in seat belt use. As well as the seat belt regulations, the strategies employed to reinforce the wearing of seat belts by using information and encouragement campaigns and checks by the police and gendarmerie are described here along with their timetables an

  1. Appendiceal transection associated with seat belt restraint. (United States)

    Go, Seung Je; Sul, Young Hoon; Ye, Jin Bong; Kim, Joong Suck


    The seat belt is designed for safety in a motor vehicle and should be worn to prevent severe injuries. But, the seat belt itself can be an injury factor in combination with deceleration forces applied to fixation points of mobile viscera. Here, we present a 23-year-man with traumatic transection of the appendix, highly mobile viscera, following seat belt injury.

  2. The geology of the Matala Dome: an important piece of the Pan-African puzzle in Central Zambia (United States)

    Naydenov, K. V.; Lehmann, J.; Saalmann, K.; Milani, L.; Poterai, J.; Kinnaird, J. A.; Charlesworth, G.; Kramers, J. D.


    The Matala Dome (MD), an ENE-trending structure located at the junction between the Pan-African Lufilian and Zambezi belts, is cored by a Gneiss-Schist Unit with uncertain age overlain by a metasedimentary section (Quartzite-Schist Unit, Marble Unit and Carbonate-Siliciclastic Unit) of the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian Katanga Supergroup. The top of the Katangan stratigraphy is represented by synorogenic sedimentary rocks—Upper Siliciclastic Unit. An early event D1 resulted in the development of shallow-dipping metamorphic foliation S1 and pre- to syntectonic growth of garnet and kyanite in the schists of the Quartzite-Schist Unit. Pseudosections and garnet isopleth modelling on schist from this unit defined the peak metamorphism at P = 7.5-9.3 kbar and T = 620-700 °C. U-Pb detrital zircon dating revealed ca. 2.7 Ga source and a high-grade metamorphism during Pan-African times. The S1 foliation was affected by upright folding F2 with ENE-trending axes and associated subvertical crenulation fabric S2 development. The syn-D2 retrogression in the schists is marked by post-S1 staurolite crystallisation and further by chloritisation followed by sericitisation. The D2 event is interpreted to have exhumed the orogenic middle crust and to be responsible for the domal structure of the MD. 40Ar/39Ar dating of muscovite at 529.3 ± 5.6 to 526.3 ± 6.2 is interpreted to date the exhumation event. D2 is correlated with regional N-S shortening event at ca. 530-520 Ma. Based on the lithology, structural record, and time and facies of the metamorphism, a correlation between the MD and the northern part of the Zambezi Belt is suggested.

  3. Obesity and African Americans (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  4. Tectonic Evolution of the Northern Continental Margin of North China Platform in Middle Proterozoic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Zhongyuan; Liu Zhenghong


    An orogenic belt developed in late middle Proterozoic in the northern margin of North China Plate extends from Inner Mongolia to Western Liaoning Province and Eastern Jilin Province. It is over 2000km long. The orogenic belt was formed by collision between North China Platform and Siberia Platform during the Rodinian Super- Continent period. From sedimentary formation, magmatic activity and crustal tectonic deformation, it is suggested that along the tectonic belt the paleocontinental margin experienced four stages of tectonic evolution in middle Proterozoic, they are: continental margin rift,passive continental margin, active continental margin and collisional orogenic stages.

  5. Predicting Early Adolescent Gang Involvement from Middle School Adaptation (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; Yasui, Miwa


    This study examined the role of adaptation in the first year of middle school (Grade 6, age 11) to affiliation with gangs by the last year of middle school (Grade 8, age 13). The sample consisted of 714 European American (EA) and African American (AA) boys and girls. Specifically, academic grades, reports of antisocial behavior, and peer relations…

  6. Seat belt sign and its significance. (United States)

    Agrawal, Amit; Inamadar, Praveenkumar Ishwarappa; Subrahmanyam, Bhattara Vishweswar


    Safety belts are the most important safety system in motor vehicles and when worn intend to prevent serious injuries. However, in unusual circumstances (high velocity motor vehicle collisions) these safety measures (seat belts) can be the source and cause of serious injuries. The seat belt syndrome was first described as early by Garrett and Braunste in but the term "seat belt sign" was discussed by Doersch and Dozier. Medical personnel's involved in emergency care of trauma patients should be aware of seat belt sign and there should a higher index of suspicion to rule out underlying organ injuries.

  7. Spatial segmentation and the black middle class. (United States)

    Sharkey, Patrick


    Ethnographic studies of the black middle class focus attention on the ways in which residential environments condition the experiences of different segments of the black class structure. This study places these arguments in a larger demographic context by providing a national analysis of neighborhood inequality and spatial inequality of different racial and ethnic groups in urban America. The findings show that there has been no change over time in the degree to which majority-black neighborhoods are surrounded by spatial disadvantage. Predominantly black neighborhoods, regardless of socioeconomic composition, continue to be spatially linked with areas of severe disadvantage. However, there has been substantial change in the degree to which middle- and upper-income African-American households have separated themselves from highly disadvantaged neighborhoods. These changes are driven primarily by the growing segment of middle- and upper-income African-Americans living in neighborhoods in which they are not the majority group, both in central cities and in suburbs.

  8. Ring current and radiation belts (United States)

    Williams, D. J.


    Studies performed during 1983-1986 on the ring current, the injection boundary model, and the radiation belts are discussed. The results of these studies yielded the first observations on the composition and charge state of the ring current throughout the ring-current energy range, and strong observational support for an injection-boundary model accounting for the origins of radiation-belt particles, the ring current, and substorm particles observed at R less than about 7 earth radii. In addition, the results have demonstrated that the detection of energetic neutral atoms generated by charge-exchange interactions between the ring current and the hydrogen geocorona can provide global images of the earth's ring current and its spatial and temporal evolution.

  9. Men on the Move-Nashville: Feasibility and Acceptability of a Technology-Enhanced Physical Activity Pilot Intervention for Overweight and Obese Middle and Older Age African American Men. (United States)

    Dean, Donnatesa A L; Griffith, Derek M; McKissic, Sydika A; Cornish, Emily K; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki


    Men on the Move-Nashvillewas a quasi-experimental, 10-week pilot physical activity intervention. A total of 40 overweight or obese African American men ages 30 to 70 (mean age = 47) enrolled in the intervention. Participants attended 8 weekly, 90-minute small group sessions with a certified personal trainer. Each session consisted of discussions aimed to educate and motivate men to be more physically active, and an exercise component aimed to increase endurance, strength, and flexibility. Throughout each week, men used wearable activity trackers to promote self-monitoring and received informational and motivational SMS text messages. Of the 40 enrolled men, 85% completed the intervention, and 80% attended four or more small group sessions. Additionally, 70% of participants successfully used the activity tracker, but only 30% of men utilized their gym memberships. Participants benefited from both the small group discussions and activities through increasing social connection and guidance from their trainer and group members. These African American men reported being motivated to engage in physical activity through each of these technologies. Men reported that the activity trackers provided an important extension to their social network of physically active people. The intervention resulted in significant increases in men's self-reported levels of light, moderate, vigorous, and sports-related physical activities, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and significant decreases in weight and body fat percentage with small, moderate and large effects shown. Including technology and didactic components in small group-based interventions holds promise in motivating African American men to increase their physical activity.

  10. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, D.; Dean, J.; Acosta, J.


    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  11. 1962 Satellite High Altitude Radiation Belt Database (United States)


    TR-14-18 1962 Satellite High Altitude Radiation Belt Database Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. March...the Status of the High Altitude Nuclear Explosion (HANE) Trapped Radiation Belt Database”, AFRL-VS-PS-TR- 2006-1079, Air Force Research Laboratory...Roth, B., “Blue Ribbon Panel and Support Work Assessing the Status of the High Altitude Nuclear Explosion (HANE) Trapped Radiation Belt Database

  12. Trio of Neptunes and their Belt (United States)


    a rocky/gas structure for the middle one. The outer planet has probably accreted some ice during its formation, and is likely to be made of a rocky/icy core surrounded by a quite massive envelope. Further calculations have also shown that the system is in a dynamically stable configuration. ESO PR Photo 18e/06 ESO PR Photo 18e/06 Formation Process of the Planetary System The outer planet also appears to be located near the inner edge of the habitable zone, where liquid water can exist at the surface of rocky/icy bodies. Although this planet is probably not Earth-like due to its heavy mass, its discovery opens the way to exciting perspectives. "This alone makes this system already exceptional", said Willy Benz, from Bern University, and co-author. "But the recent discovery by the Spitzer Space Telescope that the star most likely hosts an asteroid belt is adding the cherry to the cake." With three roughly equal-mass planets, one being in the habitable zone, and an asteroid belt, this planetary system shares many properties with our own solar system. "The planetary system around HD 69830 clearly represents a Rosetta stone in our understanding of how planets form", said Michel Mayor. "No doubt it will help us better understand the huge diversity we have observed since the first extra-solar planet was found 11 years ago." High resolution images and their captions are available on this page. Video footage and animations are also available on this page.

  13. Heart Disease and African Americans (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  14. Beyond the Kuiper Belt Edge (United States)

    Sheppard, Scott


    Of the thousands of known objects beyond Neptune, only one has a perihelion significantly beyond 50 AU, Sedna at 75 AU. Most Kuiper Belt surveys to date either did not go faint enough, did not have the required long cadence to detect very slow moving objects or covered too small of an area of sky to efficiently detect objects beyond 50 AU. The dynamical and physical properties of objects in this region offer key constraints on the formation and evolution of our solar system. In order to probe the Sedna like population of objects with moderate radii (100 km) we are conducting a deep wide-field outer solar system survey. This survey will allow us to determine if the objects beyond 50 AU are fainter than expected, if there is truly a dearth of objects, or if the Kuiper Belt continues again after some sizable gap possibly caused by a planet sized object. We will be able to examine the origin of Sedna and determine if it is unique (as once believed for Pluto) or one of a new class of object. We request one night in 2013B to recover a very interesting object that we discovered at Subaru in July 2012 and complete the sky coverage needed to constrain the Sedna-like population. This one night was awarded to us in 2012B but lost because of instrument problems.

  15. Jupiter's radiation belts and atmosphere (United States)

    De Pater, I.; Dames, H. A. C.


    Maps and stripscans of the radio emission from Jupiter were made during the Pioneer 10 flyby in December 1973 at wavelengths of 6 cm, 21 cm, and 50 cm using the Westerbork telescope in the Netherlands. With this instrument the disk of the planet was resolved at 6 and 21 cm. The pictures are averaged over 15 deg of Jovian longitude. At 21 cm the stripscans clearly show the existence of a 'hot region' in the radiation belts at a System III longitude (1965.0) of 255 + or - 10 deg. Its flux is about 9% of the total nonthermal flux, and it has a volume emissivity enhanced by a factor of about 1.6 with respect to the general radiation belts. The temperature of the thermal disk at 21 cm appears to be 290 + or - 20 K. This is likely due to a high ammonia mixing ratio in the atmosphere, a factor of 4-5 larger than the expected solar value of 0.00015.

  16. Formation of Kuiper Belt Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Goldreich, P; Sari, R; Goldreich, Peter; Lithwick, Yoram; Sari, Re'em


    It appears that at least several percent of large Kuiper belt objects are members of wide binaries. Physical collisions are too infrequent to account for their formation. Collisionless gravitational interactions are more promising. These provide two channels for binary formation. In each, the initial step is the formation of a transient binary when two large bodies penetrate each other's Hill spheres. Stabilization of a transient binary requires that it lose energy. Either dynamical friction due to small bodies or the scattering of a third large body can be responsible. Our estimates favor the former, albeit by a small margin. We predict that most objects of size comparable to those currently observed in the Kuiper belt are members of multiple systems. More specifically, we derive the probability that a large body is a member of a binary with semi-major axis of order a. The probability depends upon sigma, the total surface density, Sigma, the surface density of large bodies having radius R, and theta=10^-4, t...

  17. Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Longmenshan fault belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; ErChie


    The giant earthquake(Ms=8.0) in Wenchuan on May 12,2008 was triggered by oblique convergence between the Tibetan Plateau and the South China along the Longmenshan fault belt.The Longmenshan fault belt marks an important component of the tectonic and geomorphological boundary between the eastern and western part of China and has a protracted tectonic history.It was first formed as an intracontinental transfer fault,patitioning the differential deformation between the Pacific and Tethys tectonic domains,initiated in late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic time,then served as the eastern boundary of the Tibetan Plateau to accommodate the growth of the plateau in Cenozoic.Its current geological and geomorphological frameworks are the result of superimposition of these two tectonic events.In Late Triassic,the Longmenshan underwent left-slip oblique NW-SE shortening due to the clockwise rotation of the Yangtze Block,which led to the flexural subsidence of the Sichuan foreland basin,but after that,the subsidence of the Sichuan Basin seems no longer controlled by the tectonic activity of the Longmenshan fault belt.The Meosozoic tectonic evolution of the Songpan-Ganzi fold belt differs significantly compared with that of the Yangtze Platform,featured by intensive northeast and southwest shortening and resulted in the close of the Paleo-Tethys.Aerial photos taken immediately after main shock of the giant May 12,2008 earthquake have documented extensive rock fall and landslides that represent one of the most destructive aspects of the earthquake.Both rock avalanches and landslides delivered a huge volume of debris into the middle part of the Minjiang River,and formed many dammed lakes.Breaching of these natural dams can be catastrophic,as occurred in the Diexi area along the upstream of the Minjiang River in the year of 1933 that led to devastating floodings.The resultant flood following the breaching of these dams flowed through and out of the Longmenshan belt into the Chengdu Plain

  18. Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Longmenshan fault belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ErChie; MENG QingRen


    The giant earthquake (MS=8.0) in Wenchuan on May 12, 2008 was triggered by oblique convergence between the Tibetan Plateau and the South China along the Longmenshan fault belt. The Longmenshan fault belt marks an important component of the tectonic and geomorphological boundary between the eastern and western part of China and has a protracted tectonic history. It was first formed as an intracontinental transfer fault, patitioning the differential deformation between the Pacific and Tethys tectonic domains, initiated in late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic time, then served as the eastern boundary of the Tibetan Plateau to accommodate the growth of the plateau in Cenozoic. Its current geological and geomorphological frameworks are the result of superimposition of these two tectonic events. In Late Triassic, the Longmenshan underwent left-slip oblique NW-SE shortening due to the clockwise rotation of the Yangtze Block, which led to the flexural subsidence of the Sichuan foreland basin, but after that, the subsidence of the Sichuan Basin seems no longer controlled by the tectonic activity of the Longmenshan fault belt. The Meosozoic tectonic evolution of the Songpan-Ganzi fold belt differs significantly compared with that of the Yangtze Platform, featured by intensive northeast and southwest shortening and resulted in the close of the Paleo-Tethys. Aerial photos taken immediately after main shock of the giant May 12, 2008 earthquake have documented extensive rock fall and landslides that represent one of the most destructive aspects of the earthquake. Both rock avalanches and landslides delivered a huge volume of debris into the middle part of the Minjiang River, and formed many dammed lakes. Breaching of these natural dams can be catastrophic, as occurred in the Diexi area along the upstream of the Minjiang River in the year of 1933 that led to devastating floodings. The resultant flood following the breaching of these dams flowed through and out of the Longmenshan belt

  19. What controls the growth and shape of the Himalayan foreland fold-and-thrust belt? (United States)

    Grujic, Djordje; Hirschmiller, John; Mallyon, Deirdre


    We provide empirical evidence for the impact of surface processes on the structure and geometry of the present-day foreland fold-and-thrust belt (FTB) of the Himalaya. We have reconstructed and analysed ten balanced cross sections distributed along the entire length of the Himalayan arc. Here, we focus on the Siwalik Group, which represents the deformed part of the foreland basin and consists of synorogenic middle Miocene to Pleistocene sediments that form the youngest and frontal part of the Himalayan orogen. Within the active foreland fold-and-thrust belt of the Himalaya, extension, strain rate, and belt morphology vary systematically from west to east. Strain rates correlate well with west-to east increases in convergence rates according to both long-term plate velocity data and GPS data, suggesting that Pliocene to Holocene shortening is externally imposed and related to plate convergence rates. Conversely, the eastward decrease in belt width corresponds to an eastward increase in rainfall rates and specific stream power. Although mass accretion rates have not been well constrained, we argue that they remain relatively constant along the FTB. We suggest that the morphology of the Himalayan FTB is controlled primarily by erosion, in accordance with the critical taper model. Surface material removal is mainly controlled through rainfall and runoff and can be expressed as specific stream power. Thus, we propose that climatically induced erosion is the principal control on Himalayan foreland fold-and-thrust belt morphology. We test this hypothesis through a series of 1D numerical models. Among the parameters controlling the form of a wedge, lithology, erodibility, and rock mechanical properties are relatively homogeneous throughout the belt. Hence, within the range of observed values in the Himalaya, we investigate the sensitivity of the shape of the Himalayan fold-and-thrust belt to the sole-out depth of the basal décollement, flux of tectonically added material

  20. The Administrator's "Handy Dandy" Tool Belt (United States)

    Anderson, Terry


    Every good leader needs a tool belt. Throughout the author's years of building early childhood programs, she has acquired a number of tools for her personal belt. These tools have helped her sharpen her skills in supporting teachers and staff, connecting with families, and educating children. This article focuses on those leadership skills that…

  1. Biomechanics of seat belt restraint system. (United States)

    Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Herbst, Brian; Meyer, Steve; Hock, Davis


    Seat belt system restrains and protects occupants in motor vehicle crashes and any slack in seat belt system induces additional loading on occupant. Signs of belt loading are more obvious in high-speed frontal collisions with heavy occupants. However subtle changes may occur at low speeds or with low forces from occupants during rollovers. In certain cases, the seat belt webbing is twisted and loaded by the occupant. The loading of webbing induces an observable fold/crimp on the seat belt. The purpose of the study is to biomechanically evaluate the force required to produce such marks using an anthropometric physical test dummy. Two tests were conducted to determine the amount of force required to put an observable fold/crimp in a shoulder belt. A head form designed by Voight Hodgson was used to represent the neck which interacted with the belt. The force was applied with a pneumatic pull ram (central hydraulic 89182 N) and the force was measured with a 44,000 N transducer load cell (DSM-10K). Results indicate that the force of over 1,000 N produced a fold or crimp in the belt.

  2. Seat Belts on School Buses: Some Considerations. (United States)

    Soule, David


    A representative of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration weighs advantages and discusses issues associated with installing seat belts in school buses. Federal regulations and research findings are considered. A list of guideline questions for school districts planning to install seat belts is included. (PP)

  3. Intelligent Belt Conveyor Monitoring and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, Y.


    Belt conveyors have been used worldwide in continuous material transport for about 250 years. Traditional inspection and monitoring of large-scale belt conveyors focus on individual critical components and response to catastrophic system failures. To prevent operational problems caused by the lack o

  4. Parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece. (United States)

    Yannis, G; Laiou, A; Vardaki, S; Papadimitriou, E; Dragomanovits, A; Kanellaidis, G


    The objective of this research is the exploration of seat belt use in Greece and particularly the identification of the parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece. A national field survey was conducted for the analytical recording of seat belt use. A binary logistic regression model was developed, and the impact of each parameter on seat belt use in Greece was quantified. Parameters included in the model concern characteristics of car occupants (gender, age and position in the car), the type of the car and the type of the road network. The data collection revealed that in Greece, the non-use of seat belt on the urban road network was higher than on the national and rural road network and young and older men use seat belts the least. The developed model showed that travelling on a national road is negative for not wearing the seat belt. Finally, the variable with the highest impact on not wearing a seat belt is being a passenger on the back seats.

  5. Yanshanian Magma-Tectonic-Metallogenic Belt in East China of Circum-Pacific Domain (Ⅰ):Igneous Rocks and Orogenic Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Yanshanian igneous rocks in the East China, on an orogenic belt scale, are characterized by the continental marginal arc in petrology and geochemistry as Andes and West USA, except for the Hercyn-type biotite-two mica-muscovite granite belt in the Nanling region. Three segments of the Yanshanian igneous rocks along the belt are recognized. In terms of magma-tectonic event sequence, the north, middle and south segments have counter-clockwise (ccw), clockwise (cw) and ccw+cw pTt paths of the orogenic process, respectively. A genetic model of the lithospheric delamination (loss of the lithospheric root in about 120 km) in combination with the oceanic subduction for the Yanshanian Andes-like orogenic belt and both the crust and lithosphere thickening for the Yanshanian Hercyn-type Nanling orogenic belt in the East China is suggested.

  6. Radiation belt dynamics during solar minimum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussenhoven, M.S.; Mullen, E.G. (Geophysics Lab., Air Force Systems Command, Hanscom AFB, MA (US)); Holeman, E. (Physics Dept., Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (US))


    Two types of temporal variation in the radiation belts are studied using low altitude data taken onboard the DMSP F7 satellite: those associated with the solar cycle and those associated with large magnetic storm effects. Over a three-year period from 1984 to 1987 and encompassing solar minimum, the protons in the heart of the inner belt increased at a rate of approximately 6% per year. Over the same period, outer zone electron enhancements declined both in number and peak intensity. During the large magnetic storm of February 1986, following the period of peak ring current intensity, a second proton belt with energies up to 50 MeV was found at magnetic latitudes between 45{degrees} and 55{degrees}. The belt lasted for more than 100 days. The slot region between the inner and outer electron belts collapsed by the merging of the two populations and did not reform for 40 days.

  7. Depression and African Americans (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Depression And African Americans Depression And African Americans Not “Just the Blues” Clinical ... or spiritual communities. Commonly Asked Questions about Clinical Depression How do I get help for clinical depression? ...

  8. Geological evolution of the Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt, northern Madagascar (United States)

    Thomas, Ronald J.; De Waele, B.; Schofield, D.I.; Goodenough, K.M.; Horstwood, M.; Tucker, R.; Bauer, W.; Annells, R.; Howard, K. J.; Walsh, G.; Rabarimanana, M.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.


    The broadly east-west trending, Late Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt in northern Madagascar has been re-surveyed at 1:100 000 scale as part of a large multi-disciplinary World Bank-sponsored project. The work included acquisition of 14 U-Pb zircon dates and whole-rock major and trace element geochemical data of representative rocks. The belt has previously been modelled as a juvenile Neoproterozoic arc and our findings broadly support that model. The integrated datasets indicate that the Bemarivo Belt is separated by a major ductile shear zone into northern and southern "terranes", each with different lithostratigraphy and ages. However, both formed as Neoproterozoic arc/marginal basin assemblages that were translated southwards over the north-south trending domains of "cratonic" Madagascar, during the main collisional phase of the East African Orogeny at ca. 540 Ma. The older, southern terrane consists of a sequence of high-grade paragneisses (Sahantaha Group), which were derived from a Palaeoproterozoic source and formed a marginal sequence to the Archaean cratons to the south. These rocks are intruded by an extensive suite of arc-generated metamorphosed plutonic rocks, known as the Antsirabe Nord Suite. Four samples from this suite yielded U-Pb SHRIMP ages at ca. 750 Ma. The northern terrane consists of three groups of metamorphosed supracrustal rocks, including a possible Archaean sequence (Betsiaka Group: maximum depositional age approximately 2477 Ma) and two volcano-sedimentary sequences (high-grade Milanoa Group: maximum depositional age approximately 750 Ma; low grade Daraina Group: extrusive age = 720-740 Ma). These supracrustal rocks are intruded by another suite of arc-generated metamorphosed plutonic rocks, known as the Manambato Suite, 4 samples of which gave U-Pb SHRIMP ages between 705 and 718 Ma. Whole-rock geochemical data confirm the calc-alkaline, arc-related nature of the plutonic rocks. The volcanic rocks of the Daraina and Milanoa groups also

  9. Developmental Processes in African American Families: An Application of McLoyd's Theoretical Model (United States)

    Nievar, M. Angela; Luster, Tom


    In accordance with McLoyd's model of African American children's development, we examined the linkages among family income, maternal psychological distress, marital conflict, parenting, and children's outcomes in early and middle childhood, using a sample of 591 African American children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Income…

  10. Racial Identity Attitudes, Self-Esteem, and Academic Achievement among African American Adolescents (United States)

    Bonvillain, Jocelyn Freeman; Honora, Detris


    The purpose of the present study was to explore the extent to which racial identity attitudes and self-esteem could predict academic performance for African American middle school students. A total of 175 African American adolescents in 7th grade attending one of two urban schools participated in the study. The Multi-Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM)…

  11. Male Gender Role Strain as a Barrier to African American Men's Physical Activity (United States)

    Griffith, Derek M.; Gunter, Katie; Allen, Julie Ober


    Despite the potential health consequences, African American men tend to treat their roles as providers, fathers, spouses, and community members as more important than engaging in health behaviors such as physical activity. We conducted 14 exploratory focus groups with 105 urban, middle-aged African American men from the Midwest to examine factors…

  12. Physical Activities and Sedentary Pursuits in African American and Caucasian Girls (United States)

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.; Felton, Gwen M.; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Trost, Stewart G.


    The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure…

  13. Linguistic Imperialism: African Perspectives. (United States)

    Phillipson, Robert


    Responds to an article on aspects of African language policy and discusses the following issues: multilingualism and monolingualism, proposed changes in language policy from the Organization for African Unity and South African initiatives, the language of literature, bilingual education, and whose interests English-language teaching is serving.…

  14. The Stratigraphy and Lithofacies of the Paleoproterozoic Volcaniclastic Sequences in the Cape Three Points Area- Akodda section of the Southern in Ashanti Belt in the Birimian of southwest Ghana (United States)

    Yoshimaru, S.; Kiyokawa, S.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.; Nyame, F. K.; Tetteh, G. M.


    volcaniclastic rocks in an oceanic island arc around the West African Craton. Preliminary δ13C analysis gave values of -23.7~ -36.5 ‰ for black shale occupying the middle to upper part of the whole section. The very light carbon isotope ratios suggest deposition of the black shale under highly euxinic conditions like today's Black sea.

  15. Mixed brittle-plastic deformation behaviour in a slate belt. Examples from the High-Ardenne slate belt (Belgium, Germany) (United States)

    Sintubin, Manuel; van Baelen, Hervé; van Noten, Koen; Muchez, Philippe


    again a blocky infill. The detachments reflect the late orogenic destabilisation of the slate belt, again suggesting vein development related to a tectonic inversion (from compression to extension). A kinematic model is developed in which brittle parental cracks are affected by a steady-state solid-state deformation within a creeping shear zone and evolve as plastically deforming fluid-filled cavities. Also this type of quartz veins reflects mixed brittle-plastic deformation behaviour in mid-crustal conditions. Both types of quartz vein demonstrate that fluid-assisted, mixed brittle-plastic deformation in a developing slate belt is strongly related to major changes in the overall stress regime. Both during the tectonic inversion in the earliest and late stages of the Variscan orogeny extensive veining occurred. This is in contrast to the main compression stage of the orogeny, during which vein development seems rather occasional. While the late orogenic vein occurrence can be linked directly to a mid-crustal detachment root of an upper-crustal fault system, the regional aspect of the early orogenic veins remains enigmatic. In both cases a transient strain-rate dependent deepening of the brittle-plastic transition is proposed to explain the formation of the brittle parental cracks. The plastic deformation of the fluid-filled cavities may be related to a recovery of the long-term brittle-plastic transition. The former deepening may thus be related to coseismic loading of the middle crust, while the latter recovery may reflect the postseismic relaxation. In this respect the different types of mixed brittle-plastic vein structures observed in the High-Ardenne slate belt may be seen as a reflection of earthquake-related deformation and fluid redistribution in the middle crust.

  16. Seat belt use law in developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective:To highlight the way to successful implementation of mandantory seat belt use law in developing countries particulary where have significant increase in number or cars and subsequent increase in car occupant casualties.Methods:Literatures concerning seat belt use were reviewed and experiences of the world.Satisfactory or not,investigated.It summed up general aspects of seat belt use as well as benefits,attitude toward legislation and measures to enhance the usage.Results:Seat belt use has been proven and stood time tested as the most effective means to protect car occupants from road crash injuries.It appears to be arduous to achieve the golal of seat belt use law in developing countries. but possible via strategies appropriately leading to legislation and promotion of the belt usage.Conclusions:It is prime necessity for the government authorities to recognize the importance of seat belt use.There needs an organizational structure composed of relevant professional from both private and government sectors which is able to carry out every steps toward successful legislation and implementation:education,publicity,enforcement,evaluation and dissemination of the law's benefits.

  17. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loftin, Laurel


    Full Text Available Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP, a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices.Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program.Results: Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001. The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention.Conclusion: Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(3: 280-283.

  18. Computer-aided design of conveyor belts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karolewski, B.; Pytel, J.


    Possibilities are discussed for using mathematical models of belt conveyors for development of computer-aided design of conveyors for coal mining. Examples of optimization tasks and methods for their solution using computerized simulation are analyzed. The analysis is illustrated by an algorithm used to design a starter for the drive system of a belt conveyor. Electromagnetic moment and starting current are used as optimization criteria. A simplified model of a belt conveyor is used. The model consists of an equation of motion with variable braking moment and variable moment of inertia. 3 references.

  19. Collisional evolution of the early asteroid belt (United States)

    Gil-Hutton, Ricardo; Brunini, Adrián


    We present numerical results obtained by a simulation of the collisional process between asteroids and scattered comets from the Uranus-Neptune zone. This mechanism allows the use of single exponent incremental size distributions for the initial belt reaching a final distribution that matches the observed population very well. Since the cometary bombardment was extremely efficient removing mass from the primordial asteroid belt in a very short time, we always obtained belts with total masses less than 0.001 M ⊕ after ≈ 2×10 7 yrs. This result allows processes with an important initial mass preserving Vestas basaltic crust.

  20. Age constraints of the Wassa and Benso mesothermal gold deposits, Ashanti Belt, Ghana, West Africa (United States)

    Parra-Avila, Luis A.; Bourassa, Yan; Miller, John; Perrouty, Stéphane; Fiorentini, Marco L.; Campbell McCuaig, T.


    The Ashanti Belt in Ghana hosts numerous multi-million ounce gold deposits and is one of the most richly gold endowed Paleoproterozoic belts of the West African Craton. This work shows that the Wassa mineralized intrusion is part of the Sefwi Group. This unit at Wassa is strongly magnetic and show a distinctly high response in regional magnetic data sets compared to other units of equivalent age within the belt. The unit is inferred to be a lateral extension of an exposed fragment of what defines the substrate to the Tarkwa Basin sediments. The Wassa deposit, located in the eastern limb of the belt, is hosted within mafic to intermediate volcanic flows that are interbedded with minor horizons of volcaniclastics, clastic sediments. The clastic sediments include wackes and magnetite rich sedimentary layers, presumably derived from banded iron formations. The previously described sequence is intruded by syn-volcanic mafic intrusives and felsic porphyries rocks that are all part of the Birimian stratigraphy. Two new key SHRIMP II U-Pb ages were determined as part of this study: a new age of 2191 ± 6 Ma was determined on magmatic zircon grains of the Wassa porphyry host rock, which now represents the oldest known felsic intrusion hosting gold mineralization in the Ashanti Belt region. The Benso gold deposit system, which is located in the eastern limb of the Ashanti Belt approximately 38 km southwest of Wassa is hosted within a series of volcanic units intruded by mafic to intermediate units. A SHRIMP II U-Pb age of 2157 ± 5 Ma was determined from magmatic zircons obtained from a granodiorite of the G-Zone of the Benso deposit. This granodiorite is the main host rock for gold mineralization and thus the age provides an upper constraint for mineral emplacement. The newly determined ages provide an upper constraint for the gold mineralization within this region of the Ashanti Belt. They also support recent structural studies that have interpreted that the Wassa

  1. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be maintained in...

  2. Simulation of engine auxiliary drive V-belt slip motion. Part 1. Development of belt slip model; Engine hoki V belt slip kyodo no simulation. 1. Belt slip model no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurisu, T. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)


    V-belts are widely used for driving auxiliary components of an engine. Inadequet design of such belt system sometimes results in troubles such as belt squeak, side rubber separation and/or bottom rubber crack. However, there has been no design tools which can predict belt slip quantitatively. The author developed a motion simulation program of Auxiliary Drive V-Belt System considering belt slip. The program showed good prediction accuracy for belt slip motion. This paper describes the simulation model. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  3. GCR as a source for Inner radiation belt of Saturn. (United States)

    Kotova, A.; Roussos, E.; Krupp, N.; Dandouras, I. S.


    During the insertion orbit of Cassini in 2004 the Ion and Neutron Camera measured significant fluxes of the energetic neutral atoms (ENA) coming from the area between the D-ring and the Saturn's atmosphere, what brought up the idea of the possible existence of the innermost radiation belt in this narrow gap (1). There are two main sources of energetic charged particles for such inner radiation belt: the interaction of the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) with the Saturn's atmosphere and rings, which due to CRAND process can produce the keV-MeV ions or electrons in the region, and the double charge exchange of the ENAs, coming from the middle magnetosphere, what can bring the keV ions to the region of our interest. Using the particles tracer, which was developed in our group, and GEANT4 software, we study in details those two processes. With a particle tracer we evaluate the GCR access to the Saturn atmosphere and rings. Simulation of the GCR trajectories allows to calculate the energy spectra of the arriving energetic particles, which is much more accurate, compare to the analytically predicted spectra using the Stoermer theory, since simulation includes effects of the ring shadow and non-dipolar processes in the magnetosphere. Using the GEANT4 software the penetration of the GCR through the matter of rings was simulated, and the production of secondaries particles was estimated. Finally, the motion of secondaries was simulated using the particles tracer, and evaluation of the energy spectrum of neutrons the decay of which leads to the production of final CRAND elements in the inner Saturnian radiation belts was done. We show that for inner radiation belt most energetic ions comes from GCR interaction with rings, it's penetration and from interaction of secondaries with Saturn's atmosphere. This simulation allows us to predict the fluxes of energetic ions and electrons, which particle detector MIMI/LEMMS onboard the Cassini can measure during the so-called "proximal

  4. The Compositional Structure of the Asteroid Belt

    CERN Document Server

    DeMeo, Francesca E; Walsh, Kevin J; Chapman, Clark R; Binzel, Richard P


    The past decade has brought major improvements in large-scale asteroid discovery and characterization with over half a million known asteroids and over 100,000 with some measurement of physical characterization. This explosion of data has allowed us to create a new global picture of the Main Asteroid Belt. Put in context with meteorite measurements and dynamical models, a new and more complete picture of Solar System evolution has emerged. The question has changed from "What was the original compositional gradient of the Asteroid Belt?" to "What was the original compositional gradient of small bodies across the entire Solar System?" No longer is the leading theory that two belts of planetesimals are primordial, but instead those belts were formed and sculpted through evolutionary processes after Solar System formation. This article reviews the advancements on the fronts of asteroid compositional characterization, meteorite measurements, and dynamical theories in the context of the heliocentric distribution of...

  5. Seat Belt Usage on School Buses. (United States)

    Farmer, Ernest


    Studies on seat belt usage conducted under contract with governmental organizations or prepared by professional societies, state and local organizations, and transportation specialists have made significant contributions, but none has successfully resolved the issue. (MLF)

  6. Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) Mission (United States)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Fox, N.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Mauk, B. H.


    Scheduled to launch in May 2012, NASA's dual spacecraft Living With a Star Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission carries the field and particle instrumentation needed to determine the processes that produce enhancements in radiation belt ion and electron fluxes, the dominant mechanisms that cause the loss of relativistic electrons, and the manner by which the ring current and other geomagnetic phenomena affect radiation belt behavior. The two spacecraft will operate in low-inclination elliptical lapping orbits around the Earth, within and immediately exterior to the Van Allen radiation belts. During course of their two year primary mission, they will cover the full range of local times, measuring both AC and DC electric and magnetic fields to 10kHz, as well as ions from 50 eV to 1 GeV and electrons with energies ranging from 50 eV to 10 MeV.

  7. Radiation Belt and Plasma Model Requirements (United States)

    Barth, Janet L.


    Contents include the following: Radiation belt and plasma model environment. Environment hazards for systems and humans. Need for new models. How models are used. Model requirements. How can space weather community help?

  8. Eccentricity distribution in the main asteroid belt

    CERN Document Server

    Malhotra, Renu


    The observationally complete sample of the main belt asteroids now spans more than two orders of magnitude in size and numbers more than 64,000 (excluding collisional family members). We undertook an analysis of asteroids' eccentricities and their interpretation with simple physical models. We find that Plummer's (1916) conclusion that the asteroids' eccentricities follow a Rayleigh distribution holds for the osculating eccentricities of large asteroids, but the proper eccentricities deviate from a Rayleigh distribution: there is a deficit of eccentricities smaller than $\\sim0.1$ and an excess of larger eccentricities. We further find that the proper eccentricities do not depend significantly on asteroid size but have strong dependence on heliocentric distance: the outer asteroid belt follows a Rayleigh distribution, but the inner belt is strikingly different. Eccentricities in the inner belt can be modeled as a vector sum of a primordial eccentricity vector of random orientation and magnitude drawn from a Ra...

  9. Handbook Timing Belts Principles, Calculations, Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Perneder, Raimund


    Timing belts offer a broad range of innovative drivetrain solutions; they allow low-backlash operation in robot systems, they are widely used in automated processes and industrial handling involving highly dynamic start-up loads, they are low-maintenance solutions for continuous operation applications, and they can guarantee exact positioning at high operating speeds. Based on his years of professional experience, the author has developed concise guidelines for the dimensioning of timing belt drives and presents proven examples from the fields of power transmission, transport and linear transfer technology. He offers definitive support for dealing with and compensating for adverse operating conditions and belt damage, as well as advice on drive optimization and guidelines for the design of drivetrain details and supporting systems. All market-standard timing belts are listed as brand neutral. Readers will discover an extensive bibliography with information on the various manufacturers and their websites. This...

  10. Eccentricity distribution in the main asteroid belt (United States)

    Malhotra, Renu; Wang, Xianyu


    The observationally complete sample of the main belt asteroids now spans more than two orders of magnitude in size and numbers more than 64 000 (excluding collisional family members). We undertook an analysis of asteroids' eccentricities and their interpretation with simple physical models. We find that a century old conclusion that the asteroids' eccentricities follow a Rayleigh distribution holds for the osculating eccentricities of large asteroids, but the proper eccentricities deviate from a Rayleigh distribution; there is a deficit of eccentricities smaller than ∼0.1 and an excess of larger eccentricities. We further find that the proper eccentricities do not depend significantly on asteroid size but have strong dependence on heliocentric distance; the outer asteroid belt follows a Rayleigh distribution, but the inner belt is strikingly different. Eccentricities in the inner belt can be modelled as a vector sum of a primordial eccentricity vector of random orientation and magnitude drawn from a Rayleigh distribution of parameter ∼0.06, and an excitation of random phase and magnitude ∼0.13. These results imply that when a late dynamical excitation of the asteroids occurred, it was independent of asteroid size and was stronger in the inner belt than in the outer belt. We discuss implications for the primordial asteroid belt and suggest that the observationally complete sample size of main belt asteroids is large enough that more sophisticated model-fitting of the eccentricities is warranted and could serve to test alternative theoretical models of the dynamical excitation history of asteroids and its links to the migration history of the giant planets.

  11. Jupiter's Radiation Belts: Can Pioneer 10 Survive? (United States)

    Hess, W N; Birmingham, T J; Mead, G D


    Model calculations of Jupiter's electron and proton radiation belts indicate that the Galilean satellites can reduce particle fluxes in certain regions of the inner magnetosphere by as much as six orders of magnitude. Average fluxes should be reduced by a factor of 100 or more along the Pioneer 10 trajectory through the heart of Jupiter's radiation belts in early December. This may be enough to prevent serious radiation damage to the spacecraft.

  12. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program


    Burkett, Katie M.; Davidson, Steve; Cotton, Carol; Barlament, James; Loftin, Laurel; Stephens, James; Dunbar, Martin; Butterfield, Ryan


    Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP), a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices. Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second compo...

  13. Decay rate of the second radiation belt. (United States)

    Badhwar, G D; Robbins, D E


    Variations in the Earth's trapped (Van Allen) belts produced by solar flare particle events are not well understood. Few observations of increases in particle populations have been reported. This is particularly true for effects in low Earth orbit, where manned spaceflights are conducted. This paper reports the existence of a second proton belt and it's subsequent decay as measured by a tissue-equivalent proportional counter and a particle spectrometer on five Space Shuttle flights covering an eighteen-month period. The creation of this second belt is attributed to the injection of particles from a solar particle event which occurred at 2246 UT, March 22, 1991. Comparisons with observations onboard the Russian Mir space station and other unmanned satellites are made. Shuttle measurements and data from other spacecraft are used to determine that the e-folding time of the peak of the second proton belt. It was ten months. Proton populations in the second belt returned to values of quiescent times within eighteen months. The increase in absorbed dose attributed to protons in the second belt was approximately 20%. Passive dosimeter measurements were in good agreement with this value.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Loinard


    Full Text Available Observaciones que utilizan la interferometría de muy larga línea de base (VLBI por sus siglas en ingl´es pueden proveer la posición de radiofuentes compactas con una precisión del orden de 50 micro-segundos de arco. Esto es suficiente para medir la paralaje trigonométrica y los movimientos propios de cualquier objeto localizado hasta 500 pc del Sol con una precisión mejor que unos porcientos. Por ser magnéticamente activas, las estrellas jóvenes a menudo emiten emisión radio compacta detectable usando técnicas VLBI. Aquí, mostraremos cómo observaciones VLBI ya han restringido la distancia a las regiones de formación estelar cercanas más frecuentemente estudiadas (Tauro, Ofiuco, Orión, etc. y han empezado a revelar su estructura y su cinemática interna. Luego, describiremos un gran proyecto (llamado The Gould's Belt Distance Survey diseñado para proveer una vista detallada de la formación estelar en la vecindad Solar, usando observaciones VLBI.

  15. Jupiter's magnetosphere and radiation belts (United States)

    Kennel, C. F.; Coroniti, F. V.


    Radioastronomy and Pioneer data reveal the Jovian magnetosphere as a rotating magnetized source of relativistic particles and radio emission, comparable to astrophysical cosmic ray and radio sources, such as pulsars. According to Pioneer data, the magnetic field in the outer magnetosphere is radially extended into a highly time variable disk-shaped configuration which differs fundamentally from the earth's magnetosphere. The outer disk region, and the energetic particles confined in it, are modulated by Jupiter's 10 hr rotation period. The entire outer magnetosphere appears to change drastically on time scales of a few days to a week. In addition to its known modulation of the Jovian decametric radio bursts, Io was found to absorb some radiation belt particles and to accelerate others, and most importantly, to be a source of neutral atoms, and by inference, a heavy ion plasma which may significantly affect the hydrodynamic flow in the magnetosphere. Another important Pioneer finding is that the Jovian outer magnetosphere generates, or permits to escape, fluxes of relativistic electrons of such intensities that Jupiter may be regarded as the dominant source of 1 to 30 MeV cosmic ray electrons in the heliosphere.

  16. Saturn Neutron Exosphere as Source for Inner and Innermost Radiation Belts (United States)

    Cooper, John; Lipatov, Alexander; Sittler, Edward; Sturner, Steven


    Energetic proton and electron measurements by the ongoing Cassini orbiter mission are expanding our knowledge of the highest energy components of the Saturn magnetosphere in the inner radiation belt region after the initial discoveries of these belts by the Pioneer 11 and Voyager 2 missions. Saturn has a neutron exosphere that extends throughout the magnetosphere from the cosmic ray albedo neutron source at the planetary main rings and atmosphere. The neutrons emitted from these sources at energies respectively above 4 and 8 eV escape the Saturn system, while those at lower energies are gravitationally bound. The neutrons undergo beta decay in average times of about 1000 seconds to provide distributed sources of protons and electrons throughout Saturn's magnetosphere with highest injection rates close to the Saturn and ring sources. The competing radiation belt source for energetic electrons is rapid inward diffusion and acceleration of electrons from the middle magnetosphere and beyond. Minimal losses during diffusive transport across the moon orbits, e.g. of Mimas and Enceladus, and local time asymmetries in electron intensity, suggest that drift resonance effects preferentially boost the diffusion rates of electrons from both sources. Energy dependences of longitudinal gradient-curvature drift speeds relative to the icy moons are likely responsible for hemispheric differences (e.g., Mimas, Tethys) in composition and thermal properties as at least partly produced by radiolytic processes. A continuing mystery is the similar radial profiles of lower energy (belt region. Either the source of these lower energy protons is also neutron decay, but perhaps alternatively from atmospheric albedo, or else all protons from diverse distributed sources are similarly affected by losses at the moon' orbits, e.g. because the proton diffusion rates are extremely low. Enceladus cryovolcanism, and radiolytic processing elsewhere on the icy moon and ring surfaces, are additional

  17. Pan-African Paleostresses and Reactivation of the Eburnean Basement Complex in Southeast Ghana (West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahaman Sani Tairou


    Full Text Available This faulting tectonics analysis concerns the southernmost segment of the Dahomeyide Orogen and the West-African craton eastern margin in southeast Ghana. The analysis of strike-slip faults in the frontal units of the Dahomeyide Belt indicates that four distinct compressive events (NE-SW, ENE-WSW to E-W, ESE-WNW to SE-NW and SE-NW to SSE-NNW originated the juxtaposition of the Pan-African Mobile Zone and the West-African craton. These paleostress systems define a clockwise rotation of the compressional axis during the structuring of the Dahomeyide Orogen (650–550 Ma. The SE-NW and SSE-NNW to N-S compressional axes in the cratonic domain and its cover (Volta Basin suggest that the reactivation of the eastern edge of the West African craton is coeval with the last stages of the Pan-African tectogenesis in southeast Ghana. An extensional episode expressed as late normal faulting is also recorded in this study. This E-W to SE-NW extension, which is particular to the southernmost part of the Dahomeyide Belt, appears to be post-Pan-African. This extension probably contributed to the formation of a major Jurassic rifting zone that originated the Central Atlantic and the Benue Trough.

  18. Discovery and Significance of Carbonate Mud Mounds from Cu-polymetallic Deposits in the Middle and Lower Yangtze Metallogenic Belt:Examples from the Wushan and Dongguashan Deposits%长江中下游成矿带铜多金属矿床中灰泥丘的发现及其意义——以武山和冬瓜山铜矿为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋少涌; 丁清峰; 杨水源; 朱志勇; 孙明志; 孙岩; 边立曾


    Bedded sulfide orebodies occur in the Wushan and Dongguashan Cu deposits in the Middle and Lower Yangtze mineralization belt. In this study, we found a typical circular or laminated texture in the bedded sulfide ores. Based on microscopic observation of thin sections of the ore samples, carbon and oxygen isotopic analysis, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation, we suggested that this type of sulfide ores belongs to a mineralized kind of carbonate mud mound. The macroscopic structures of these sulfide ores are quite similar to those of cavities system of typical carbonate mud mounds, and there are also bacteria structures found in some of the ore samples with SEM analysis. Previous studies show that the carbonate mud mound generally develops in a slope setting with water depth deeper than platform. It is also shown that the occurrence of carbonate mud mound has a close relationship with sea-floor hydrothermal exhalative ore-forming processes. The conservation conditions of the carbonate mud mounds in the two copper deposits are different, in the Dongguashan Cu deposit a lot of primary exhalative sedimentary textures are preserved, bacteria structures are found, and the carbon-oxygen isotopic compositions show primary sedimentary characteristics, while those in the Wushan Cu deposit show hydrothermal altered/overprinted textures, and no bacteria structures have been found so far, the carbon-oxygen isotopic compositions also indicate a hydrothermal reworking. In summary, the discoveries of carbonate mud mounds structure sulfide ores in the Wushan and Dongguashan Cu deposits provide new evidence for the Hercynian sedimentary hydrothermal-exhalative mineralization in the Middle and Lower Yangtze metallogenic belt.%通过对长江中下游成矿带中武山铜矿和冬瓜山铜矿层状硫化物矿体的详细研究,发现了大量具有层圈状构造、层纹状构造或不规则同心环状构造的矿石.在前人研究基础

  19. Differential Tectonic Deformation of the Longmen Mountain Thrust Belt,Western Sichuan Basin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Liangjie; YANG Keming; JIN Wenzheng; WAN Guime; L(U) Zhizhou; YU Yixin


    Field investigation and seismic section explanation showed that the Longmen Mountain Thrust Belt has obvious differential deformation:zonation,segmentation and stratification.Zonation means that, from NW to NE.the Longmen Mountain Thrust Belt can be divided into the Songpan. foreland depression.Segmentation means that it can be divided into five segments from north to South: the northern segment,the Anxian Transfer Zone,the center segment,the Guanxian Transfer Zone and the southern segment.Stratification means that the detachment layers partition the structural styles in profile.The detachment layers in the Longmen Mountain Thrust Belt can be classified into three categories:the deep-level detachment layers,including the crust-mantle system detachment layer. intracrustaI detachment layer.and Presinian system basal detachment layer;the middle.1evel detachment layers, including Cambrian-Ordovician detachment layer, Silurian detachment layer,etc.: and shallow-level detachment layers,including Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation detachment layer and the Jurassic detachment layers.The multi-level detachment layers have a very important effect on the shaping and evolution of Longmen Mountain Thrust Belt.

  20. Self-reported and observed seat belt use--A case study: Bosnia and Herzegovina. (United States)

    Lipovac, Krsto; Tešić, Milan; Marić, Bojan; Đerić, Miroslav


    The issue of seat belt use in middle- and low-income countries is strongly evident and has as a result higher rates of fatalities and seriously injured on the roads. The first systematic field research of the seat belt use while driving was carried out in Bosnia and Herzegovina, in 2011-2012. Research methodology consisted of two mutually conditioned parts (observation and self-reported behavior). Specific features of the methodology used are in the relationship between the observed and interviewed drivers which enabled the analysis of their observed and self-reported behavior while driving. The logistic regression method was used in this work to make the analysis of the influence of personal human characteristics (gender, age, education, exposure) and vehicles' characteristics (age) on the observed and self-reported driving behavior, from the point of view of seat belt use while driving. The influence of the listed factors on driving behavior, depending on road type (urban or rural), was given special attention in the analysis. The paper shows that certain factors do not have the same impact on driving behavior, in various conditions. Based on results from this study, it will be possible to define certain critical groups of road users and the way in which they must be addressed in order to increase the seat belt wearing rate.

  1. Fostering Meaningful Middle School Literacy Learning: Investigating Beliefs and Practices (United States)

    Brock, Cynthia H.; Boyd, Fenice B.


    This article takes us inside two urban middle school classrooms where the majority of students speak African American English. In addition to exploring the nature of literacy instruction inside Mrs. Baird's and Ms. Lawson's classrooms, we examine both teachers' underlying beliefs with respect to language, literacy, and learning. This inquiry…

  2. The Black Black Woman and the Black Middle Class. (United States)

    Jeffers, Trellie


    Reprint of a 1973 article that describes the discrimination that particularly dark-skinned Black women suffer, especially at the hands of a color-conscious Black middle class. Calls for dark women to look to the African appearance and working-class roots as sources of pride and strength. (GC)

  3. Reading the African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musonda Bwalya


    Full Text Available There is so much alienation, pain and suffering in our today�s world. In this vein, African Christianity, a voice amongst many voices, should seek to be a transformational religion for the whole of life, affecting all facets of human life towards a fuller life of all in Africa. This article sought to highlight and point to some of the major societal challenges in the African context which African Christianity, as a life-affirming religion, should continue to embrace, re-embrace and engage with, if it has to be relevant to the African context. In this vein, the article argued that a correct reading of the African context would lead to a more relevant theory and praxis of African Christianity for the benefit of all African peoples and their global neighbours. The contention of this article was that African Christianity has a significant role to play in the re-shaping of the African society and in the global community of humans, only that this role must be executed inclusively, responsibly and appropriately, together with all those who seek the holistic development of Africa towards one common destiny.

  4. Structural style of the Marathon thrust belt, West Texas (United States)

    Hickman, Robert G.; Varga, Robert J.; Altany, Robert M.


    The Marathon portion of the Ouachita thrust belt consists of a highly deformed allochthonous wedge of Cambrian-Pennsylvanian slope strata (Marathon facies) that was transported to the northwest and emplaced over Pennsylvanian foredeep sediments. The foredeep strata in turn overlie early-middle Paleozoic shelfal sediments which are deformed by late Paleozoic basement-involved reverse faults. The Dugout Creek thrust is the basal thrust of the allochthon. Shortening in this sheet and overlying sheets is ˜80%. Steep imbricate faults link the Dugout Creek thrust to upper level detachments forming complex duplex zones. Progressive thrusting and shortening within the allochthon folded the upper level detachments and associated thrust sheets. The Caballos Novaculite is the most competent unit within the Marathon facies and controlled development of prominent detachment folds. Deeper imbricate sheets composed of the Late Pennsylvanian foredeep strata, and possibly early-middle Paleozoic shelfal sediments developed concurrently with emplacement of the Marathon allochthon and folded the overlying allochthon. Following termination of thrusting in the earliest Permian, subsidence and deposition shifted northward to the Delaware, Midland and Val Verde foreland basins.

  5. Psychometric evaluations of the efficacy expectations and Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scales in African American women. (United States)

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Gary, Faye


    This secondary analysis tested the reliability and validity of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise (SEE) and the Outcome Expectations for Exercise (OEE) scales in 126 community dwelling, middle aged African American women. Social Cognitive Theory postulates self-efficacy is behavior age, gender and culture specific. Therefore, it is important to determine ifself-efficacy scales developed and tested in older Caucasian female adults are reliable and valid in middle aged, minority women. Cronbach's alpha and construct validity using hypothesis testing and confirmatory factor analysis supported the reliability and validity of the SEE and OEE scales in community dwelling, middle aged African American women.

  6. Seat belts, airbags and child protection devices. [previously: Seat belts and child restraint seats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    In the Netherlands, the use of seat belts results in a yearly reduction of hundreds of fatalities. Seat belts reduce the risk of fatal injury by 37 to 48%, depending on the position in the car. At 50%, the effect of child protection devices is even slightly higher. When last measured (in 2010), 97%

  7. Impact of African elephants on baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) population structure in northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupika, O.L.; Kativu, S.; Gandiwa, E.; Gumbie, A.


    The impact of African elephant (Loxodonta africana) on population structure of baobab trees (Adansonia digitata L.) was assessed in northern Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), southeast Zimbabwe. Baobabs were sampled in March 2008 and September 2012 using 11 randomly laid belt transects of variable len

  8. Flat belt continuously variable high speed drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumm, E.L.


    A study was undertaken at Kumm Industries funded by DOE in the NBS/DOE Energy-Related Inventions Program starting in August 1990 to design, construct and test a novel very high speed flat belt drive. The test arrangement as shown in Figure 1 consists of a multiple belt-pulley configuration that transmits power from a low speed (2000--4000 RPM) input to a small pulley turbine'' (27,000 to 55,000 RPM) and then to the low speed output variable radius pulley (2000--5000 RPM) via a special self-active tensioner. Transmitting 25 HP to and from the turbine'' corresponds to obtaining 50 HP in one direction only in a possible turbo compounded engine application. The high speed of the turbine'' belts, i.e. 100 meters/sec. at 55,000 RPM, while transferring substantial power is a new much higher operating regime for belts. The study showed that the available belts gave overall test rig efficiencies somewhat above 80% for the higher speeds (50,000 RPM) and higher powers (corresponding to above 90% in the turbocompound application) and a significantly better efficiencies at slightly lower speeds. The tests revealed a number of improved approaches in the design of such high speed drives. It appears that there is considerable possibility for further improvement and application of such equipment.

  9. The effects of Maine's change to primary seat belt law on seat belt use and public perception and awareness. (United States)

    Chaudhary, Neil K; Tison, Julie; Casanova, Tara


    Maine upgraded its seat belt law to primary enforcement on September 20, 2007. Belt observations during the day and night were conducted along with awareness surveys in state licensing offices. Both daytime and nighttime observed belt use increased in the months following implementation of the law (daytime 77-84%; night 69-81%). Although daytime belt use was generally higher, nighttime belt use showed a greater increase than daytime belt use. Awareness surveys indicated that Maine motorists were clearly aware of the law change and its consequences. Survey respondents also indicated having heard both messages about enforcement and messages encouraging belt use. Primary seat belt laws may have a stronger effect on belt use at night--when risk is higher--than during the day.

  10. Paleostructural geomorphology of the Paleozoic central uplift belt and its constraint on the development of depositional facies in the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Inclined eastward and consisting of the Hetianhe, Hetianhedong, Tazhong paleouplifts and Bachu paleoslope, the central paleouplift belt in the Tarim Basin was a large composite paleouplift and paleoslope belt with complicated palaeogeomorphic features during the Middle to early Late Ordovician. A number of paleostructural geomorphic elements have been identified in the paleouplift belt and surrounding areas, such as the high uplift belts, the faulted uplift platforms, the marginal slopes and slope break zones flanking the paleouplift belt, the surrounding shelf slopes or low relief ramps, the shelf slope break zones and deep basin plains. They exerted great influence on the development of paleogeography of the basin. The marginal slopes and slope break zones flanking the uplift belt constrained the formation and deposition of the high-energy facies including reefal and shoal deposits during the Late Ordovician, which comprise the major reservoirs of the Lower Paleozoic in the basin. Toward the end of the Ordovician, the Tazhong paleouplift hinged westward and became a westward-dipped nose as the southeastern margin of the basin was strongly compressed and uplifted. The tectono-paleogeomorphic framework of the central northern basin during the Early Silurian and the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous changed remarkably in topography from the initial low in east and high in west to high in northeast and low in southwest. The major paleogeomorphic elements developed in these periods included the strong eroded uplift high, the uplift marginal slope, the gentle ramp of the depression margin and the depression belt. The sandstones of the lowstand and the early transgressive systems tracts were deposited along the uplift marginal slopes and the gentle ramps of the depressions comprise the prolific reservoirs in the basin. The study indicates that the distribution patterns of the unconformities within the basin are closely related to the paleogeomorphic features and

  11. Paleostructural geomorphology of the Paleozoic central uplift belt and its constraint on the development of depositional facies in the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN ChangSong; YANG HaiJun; LIU JingYan; PENG Li; CAI ZhenZhong; YANG XiaoFa; YANG YongHeng


    Inclined eastward and consisting of the Hetianhe,Hetianhedong,Tazhong paleouplifts and Bachu pa-leoslope,the central paleouplift belt in the Tarim Basin was a large composite paleouplift and pa-leoslope belt with complicated palaeogeomorphic features during the Middle to early Late Ordovician.A number of paleostructural geomorphic elements have been identified in the paleouplift belt and sur-rounding areas,such as the high uplift belts,the faulted uplift platforms,the marginal slopes and slope break zones flanking the paleouplift belt,the surrounding shelf slopes or low relief ramps,the shelf slope break zones and deep basin plains.They exerted great influence on the development of paleo-geography of the basin.The marginal slopes and slope break zones flanking the uplift belt constrained the formation and deposition of the high-energy facies including reefal and shoal deposits during the Late Ordovician,which comprise the major reservoirs of the Lower Paleozoic in the basin.Toward the end of the Ordovician,the Tazhong paleouplift hinged westward and became a westward-dipped nose as the southeastern margin of the basin was strongly compressed and uplifted.The tec-tono-paleogeomorphic framework of the central northern basin during the Early Silurian and the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous changed remarkably in topography from the initial low in east and high in west to high in northeast and low in southwest.The major paleogeomorphic elements devel-oped in these periods included the strong eroded uplift high,the uplift marginal slope,the gentle ramp of the depression margin and the depression belt.The sandstones of the Iowstand and the early transgressive systems tracts were deposited along the uplift marginal slopes and the gentle ramps of the depressions comprise the prolific reservoirs in the basin.The study indicates that the distribution patterns of the unconformities within the basin are closely related to the paleogeomorphic features and evolution of the

  12. Empowering African States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China helps bring lasting peace and stability to Africa African think tanks expressed a high opinion of China’s role in helping build African peace and security at the first meeting of the China-Africa Think Tanks Forum. The

  13. African Literature as Celebration. (United States)

    Achebe, Chinua


    Describes the Igbo tradition of "Mbari," a communal creative enterprise that celebrates the world and the life lived in it through art. Contrasts the cooperative, social dimension of pre-colonial African culture with the exclusion and denial of European colonialism, and sees new African literature again celebrating human presence and…

  14. African American Suicide (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...

  15. African Peacekeepers in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.


    behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...

  16. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron


    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia M. Levashova


    Full Text Available The tectonic and paleogeographic evolution of the Ural-Mongol belt between the cratons of Baltica, Siberia, and Tarim is the key to the formation of the Eurasian supercontinent during Paleozoic time, but the views on this complicated process remain very disparate and sometimes controversial. Three volcanic formations of the Middle Silurian, LowertoMiddle Devonian and Middle Devonian age from the southwestern boundary of the Chingiz Range (NE Kazakhstan yields what are interpreted as primary paleomagnetic directions that help clarify the evolution of the belt. A singlepolarity characteristic component in midSilurian andesites yields a positive intraformational conglomerate test, whereas dualpolarity prefolding components are isolated from the two Devonian collections. These new data were evaluated together with previously published paleomagnetic results from Paleozoic rocks in the Chingiz Range, and allow us to establish with confidence the hemisphere in which the area was located at a given time. We conclude that NE Kazakhstan was steadily moving northward crossing the equator in Silurian time. These new paleomagnetic data from the Chingiz range also agree with and reinforce the hypothesis that the strongly curved volcanic belts of Kazakhstan underwent oroclinal bending between Middle Devonian and Late Carboniferous time. A comparison of the Chingiz paleolatitudes with those of Siberia shows similarities between the northward motion and rotational history of the Chingiz unit and those of Siberia, which imposes important constraints on the evolving paleogeography of the Ural-Mongol belt.

  18. Friction and Wear in Timing Belt Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Stojanovic


    Full Text Available Timing belt tooth goes into contact with a drive pulley, stretched to the maximum, because of the previous tension. When the contact begins the peak of the belt tooth makes the contact with the outer surface of the pulley teeth. The process of the teeth entering into the contact zone is accompanied with the relative sliding of their side surfaces and appropriate friction force. The normal force value is changing with the parabolic function, which also leads to the changes of the friction force. The biggest value of the normal force and of the friction force is at the tooth root. Hollow between teeth and the tip of the pulley teeth are also in contact. Occasionally, the face surface of the belt and the flange are also in contact. The friction occurs in those tribomechanical systems, also. Values of these friction forces are lower compared with the friction force, which occurs at the teeth root.

  19. Sedimentary features and exploration targets of Middle Permian reservoirs in the SW Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoming Xu


    Full Text Available The exploration direction and targets for the large-scale Middle Permian gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin are hot spots and challenges in current exploration researches. The exploration successes of large gas field of Cambrian Longwangmiao Formation in Gaoshiti-Moxi region, Central Sichuan Basin, indicated that prospective sedimentary facies belt was the basis for the formation of large gas fields. In this paper, based on seismic data, outcrop data and drilling data, the tectonic framework and sedimentary features of the Middle Permian in the SW Sichuan Basin were comprehensively studied. The following conclusions were reached from the perspective of sedimentary facies control: (1 during the Middle Permian, this region was in shallow water gentle slope belts with high energy, where thick reef flat facies were deposited; (2 the basement was uplifted during Middle Permian, resulting in the unconformity weathering crust at the top of Maokou Formation due to erosion; the SW Sichuan Basin was located in the karst slope belt, where epigenic karstification was intense; and (3 reef flat deposits superimposed by karst weathering crust was favorable for the formation of large-scale reef flat karst reservoirs. Based on the combination of the resources conditions and hydrocarbon accumulation conditions in this region, it was pointed out that the Middle Permian has great potential of large-scale reef flat karst gas reservoir due to its advantageous geological conditions; the Middle Permian traps with good hydrocarbon accumulation conditions were developed in the Longmen Mountain front closed structural belt in the SW Sichuan Basin and Western Sichuan Basin depression slope belt, which are favorable targets for large-scale reef flat karst reservoirs.

  20. Composite Microdiscs with a Magnetic Belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Høyer, Henrik; Helgesen, Geir


    We describe an emulsion-based preparation of patchy composite particles (diameter of 100-500 mu m) consisting of a disclike epoxy core and a belt of porous polystyrene particles (diameter of 30 mu m) with magnetite within the pores. Compared to the magnetically uniform polystyrene particles......, the spontaneous aggregation of composite particles is suppressed when dispersed into liquid, which is attributed to the increased particle size, reduced magnetic susceptibility, and the shape of the magnetic domain distribution within the particles (spherical versus a belt). When the composite particles...

  1. Ionospheric heating for radiation belt control (United States)

    Burke, William J.; Villalon, Elena


    Pitch-angle scattering interactions of electromagnetic waves in the ELF/VLF bands with trapped electrons describe the dynamics of the freshly filled radiation belts flux tubes. The natural existence of a 'slot' region with electron fluxes below the Kennel-Petschek limit requires non-local wave sources. A set of planned, active experiments is described in which VLF radiation is injected from ground and space band transmitters in conjunction with the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite in the radiation belts. These experiments can measure the intensity if waves driving pitch-angle diffusion and the electron energies in gyroresonance with the waves.

  2. The radiation belt of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Gruzinov, Andrei


    For a given solar magnetic field, the near-Sun (phase-space) density of cosmic ray electrons and positrons of energy above about 10GeV can be calculated from first principles, without any assumptions about the cosmic ray diffusion. This is because the sunlight Compton drag must be more important than diffusion. If the solar magnetic field has an appreciable dipole component, the electron/positron density should have a belt-like dent, perhaps extending to several solar radii. The belt structure appears because the quasi-bound orbits are depopulated by the sunlight Compton drag.

  3. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program


    Loftin, Laurel; Barlament, James; Cotton, Carol; Davidson, Steve M; Burkett, Katie M.; Stephens, James


    Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP), a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices.Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was t...

  4. Development of belt conveyor driving system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jun-qing(付峻青); WANG Cong(王聪); HUO Wei(霍伟)


    A short review for the existing various driving methods for belt conveyor was given, which include the analysis and comparison about the advantages, disadvantages and suitable application range of these methods. Based on this the variable-frequency-control(VFC) method for belt conveyor drive was fully discussed with focus on its application in medium-high voltage range. The principle of Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) Three-Level Inverter using high-voltage IGBTs together with the control strategy of rotor field-oriented vector control for induction motor drive were illustrated.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismet Ibishi


    Full Text Available In this paper is done the explanation on tension fashion of the belt conveyor which is employed in Kosovo Energy Corporation – KEK, for coal transportation to provide electric power plant. The aim of the paper enables to recognize tension forces not to pass with deformation of belt so that this problem will damage the workingprocess. Work principle is based on initial tension and tension during working process. The fact is known that the tension starts from the carriage on the way to tension mechanization, so forces on the rope passing through pulley there has to dominate the friction coefficient. All this process is related to economy of transportationmechanism.

  6. African American Diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Brown


    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. With regard to all historic migrations (forced and voluntary, the African Union defined the African diaspora as "[consisting] of people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union." Its constitutive act declares that it shall "invite and encourage the full participation of the African diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union." Keywords: literature concepts, African American abstracts

  7. Early to Middle Eocene vegetation dynamics at the Wilkes Land Margin (Antarctica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Contreras, L.; Pross, J.; Bijl, P.K.; Koutsodendris, A.; Raine, J.I.; van de Schootbrugge, B.; Brinkhuis, H.


    The early Eocene epoch was characterized by extreme global warmth, which in terrestrial settings was characterized by an expansion of near-tropical vegetation belts into the high latitudes. During the middle to late Eocene, global cooling caused the retreat of tropical vegetation to lower latitudes.

  8. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are available... share one approved safety belt and two persons occupying a multiple lounge or divan seat may share...

  9. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of seat belts. 392.16 Section 392.16... VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  10. Observed seat belt use in Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana. (United States)

    Afukaar, Francis K; Damsere-Derry, James; Ackaah, Williams


    We conducted an observational survey of seat belt use to determine the use rate of drivers and front-right passengers of vehicles in Kumasi, Ghana. Unobtrusive observations of seat belt use were made at 41 locations composed of signalized intersections and roundabouts where vehicles come to a halt or slow down considerably. The overall driver seat belt use rate was 17.6% compared to 4.9% for front-right passengers. Driver belt use was 33.2% for private cars, 9.0% for taxis, 8.3% for minibus (trotro), 13.1% for large buses and 9.7% for trucks. Overall seat belt use was higher for female drivers than for male drivers (44.8% versus 16.4%, p seat belt use rate increased with age. Passengers belted more often if drivers were belted, but about three-quarters of male passengers and 70-80% of female passengers were unbelted even when drivers were belted. In conclusion, the seat belt use rate was generally low in Kumasi, Ghana, and it is a function of occupant seating position, gender, vehicle type and usage, age group, and location setting. The results provide important preliminary data about seat belt use, particularly among male drivers and commercial vehicle occupant population. The study also suggests the need to develop effective strategies and programs that address low seat belt use in Ghana.

  11. The thrust belts of Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulton, F.C.


    Most of the Basin and Range physiographic province of western North America is now believed to be part of the overthrust. The more obvious overthrust belt along the eastern edge of the Basin and Range Province is named the Sevier orogenic belt, where older rocks are observed thrust onto younger rocks. More detailed surface geological mapping, plus deep multiple-fold geophysical work and many oil and gas wildcat wells, have confirmed an east-vergent shortened and stacked sequence is present in many places in the Basin and Range. This western compressive deformed area in east central Nevada is now named the Elko orogenic belt by the U.S. Geological Survey. This older compressed Elko orogenic belt started forming approximately 250 m.y. ago when the North American plate started to move west as the Pangaea supercontinent started to fragment. The North American plate moved west under the sediments of the Miogeocline that were also moving west. Surface-formed highlands and oceanic island arcs on the west edge of the North American plate restricted the westward movement of the sediments in the Miogeocline, causing east-vergent ramp thrusts to form above the westward-moving North American plate. The flat, eastward-up-cutting thrust assemblages moved on the detachment surfaces.

  12. School Buses & Seat Belts: A Discussion. (United States)

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Safety belts are not installed in school buses for several reasons. School buses are constructed differently from automobiles in terms of (1) the locations of doors and instrument panels relative to passengers, (2) outer construction, (3) seat design and padding, and (4) visibility on the road. Under current regulations, bus seats are constructed…

  13. Design aspects of multiple driven belt conveyors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuttall, A.J.G.


    Worldwide belt conveyors are used to transport a great variety of bulk solid materials. The desire to carry higher tonnages over longer distances and more diverse routes, while keeping exploitation costs as low as possible, has fuelled many technological advances. An interesting development in the r

  14. Belts and Chains. FOS: Fundamentals of Service. (United States)

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on belts and chain drives is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on theory, of operation, diagnosis, and repair of automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and…

  15. Imaging Jupiter Radiation Belts At Low Frequencies (United States)

    Girard, J. N.; de Pater, I.; Zarka, P.; Santos-Costa, D.; Sault, R.; Hess, S.; Cecconi, B.; Fender, R.; Pewg, Lofar


    The ultra-relativistic electrons, trapped in the inner radiation belts of Jupiter, generates a strong synchrotron radio emission (historically known as the jovian decimeter radiation (DIM)) which is beamed, polarized (~20% linear, ~1% circular) and broadband. It has been extensively observed by radio telescopes/ probes and imaged by radio interferometers over a wide frequency spectrum (from >300 MHz up to 22 GHz). This extended emission presents two main emission peaks constantly located on both sides of the planet close to the magnetic plane. High latitude emissions were also regularly observed at particular frequencies, times and in particular observational configurations. This region of the magnetosphere is "frozen" due to the strong magnetic field (~4.2 G as the equator) and therefore is forced to rotate at the planetary period (T≈9h55m). Due to the tilt (~ 10o) between the spin axis of the planet and the magnetic axis (which can be seen as dipolar in first approximation), the belts and the associated radio emission wobble around the planet center. The analysis of the flux at different frequencies highlighted spatial, temporal and spectral variabilities which origins are now partly understood. The emission varies at different time scales (short-time variations of hours to long-term variation over decades) due to the combination of visibility effect (wobbling, beaming, position of the observer in the magnetic rotating reference frame) [1], [2] and intrinsic local variations (interaction between relativistic electrons and satellites/dust, delayed effect of the solar wind ram pressure, impacts events) [3], [4], [5]. A complete framework is necessary to fully understand the source, loss and transport processes of the electrons originating from outside the belt, migrating by inward diffusion and populating the inner region of the magnetosphere. Only a few and unresolved measurements were made below 300 MHz and the nonsystematic observation of this radio emission

  16. VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lafon-Hughes


    Full Text Available Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR is a polymer of up to 400 ADP-ribose units synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs and degraded by poly-ADP-ribose-glycohydrolase (PARG. Nuclear PAR modulates chromatin compaction, affecting nuclear functions (gene expression, DNA repair. Diverse defined PARP cytoplasmic allocation patterns contrast with the yet still imprecise PAR distribution and still unclear functions. Based on previous evidence from other models, we hypothesized that PAR could be present in epithelial cells where cadherin-based adherens junctions are linked with the actin cytoskeleton (constituting the adhesion belt. In the present work, we have examined through immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the subcellular localization of PAR in an epithelial monkey kidney cell line (VERO. PAR was distinguished colocalizing with actin and vinculin in the epithelial belt, a location that has not been previously reported. Actin filaments disruption with cytochalasin D was paralleled by PAR belt disruption. Conversely, PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide, PJ34 or XAV 939, affected PAR belt synthesis, actin distribution, cell shape and adhesion. Extracellular calcium chelation displayed similar effects. Our results demonstrate the existence of PAR in a novel subcellular localization. An initial interpretation of all the available evidence points towards TNKS-1 as the most probable PAR belt architect, although TNKS-2 involvement cannot be discarded. Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications.

  17. China belting up or down? Seat belt wearing trends in Nanjing and Zhoushan. (United States)

    Routley, Virginia; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Li, Dan; Yu, Min; Wang, Jianyue; Zhang, Junhe; Tong, Zhendong; Wu, Ming; Wang, Peihua; Qin, Yu


    National seat belt wearing legislation became effective in China May 2004 and associated provincial and city regulations followed. Despite rapid motorisation seat belt studies in China have been scarce. Patterns and trends in urban seat belt wearing were observed for all driver, front and rear seating positions over the years 2005-2007 in two eastern cities Nanjing (Jiangsu Province) and Zhoushan (Zhejiang Province). There were 35,256 vehicles observed in Nanjing, 20,939 in Zhoushan and 95,933 occupants overall. Males dominated all seating positions, especially drivers. Seat belt wearing overall was significantly higher for drivers (49.9% Nanjing, 47.4% Zhoushan) than for front seat passengers (9.1% Nanjing, 1.0% Zhoushan) and virtually nonexistent for rear passengers (0.5% Nanjing, 0.2% Zhoushan). Generally levels declined significantly from year to year (drivers Nanjing 66.7%, 47.7%, 38.6%; Zhoushan 57.4%, 57.9%, 30.6%; front passengers Nanjing 19.2%, 6.6%, 3.2%). Zhoushan wearing did not initially decline, 2006 observations coinciding with anticipation of provincial regulations (July 2006). Observations revealed an absence of child restraints. Pretend wearing/belt tampering was observed almost exclusively in taxi drivers (14.2% of Nanjing taxi drivers, 11.3% of Zhoushan's). Awareness of and attitudes to urban seat belt laws should be investigated, appropriate countermeasures developed and enforcement reassessed.

  18. The Gould Belt, the de Vaucouleurs-Dolidze Belt, and the Orion Arm

    CERN Document Server

    Bobylev, V V


    Based on masers with measured trigonometric parallaxes, we have redetermined the spatial orientation parameters of the Local (Orion) arm. Using 23 sources (the Gould Belt objects were excluded), we have found that their spatial distribution can be approximated by a very narrow ellipsoid elongated in the direction L_1=77.1+/-2.9^o whose symmetry plane is inclined to the Galactic plane at an angle of 5.6+/-0.2^o. The longitude of the ascending node of the symmetry plane is l_\\Omega=70+/-3^o. A new estimate for the pitch angle of the Local spiral arm has been obtained by an independent method: i=12.9+/-2.9^o. Previously, a belt of young B stars, the de Vaucouleurs.Dolidze belt, was pointed out on the celestial sphere with parameters close to such an orientation. We have refined the spatial orientation parameters of this belt based on a homogeneous sample of protostars. The de Vaucouleurs.Dolidze belt can be identified with the Local arm, with the belt proper as a continuous band on the celestial sphere like the ...

  19. African Otter Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Reed-Smith


    Full Text Available All concerned thought this was an excellent workshop with important progress made towards creating a viable beginning of an African Otter Network. There is a long road ahead but the 2015 African Otter Workshop is a start on developing range country partners, activists and researchers as well as collaborating on issue identification and resolution which will assist in preserving at least some refugia for Africa’s otters. A list of actions was agreed on, including the creation of an African Otter Network website and social media network, apublic Otter Awareness facebook page, encouraging online reporting of otter sightings, conducting otter awareness surveys, and emphasising the need for communication with the public, other members of the network and other professionals. information not shared or documented is information LOST. A Second African Otter Workshop should be held in 2017 elsewhere in Africa to encourage attendance from a wider range of countries.

  20. African Americans and Glaucoma (United States)

    ... Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by ... and eventually, in developing more effective treatments. Does glaucoma treatment differ? Although treatment varies for all individuals, ...

  1. Seat Belt Use Among Adult Workers - 21 States, 2013. (United States)

    Boal, Winifred L; Li, Jia; Rodriguez-Acosta, Rosa L


    Roadway incidents involving motorized vehicles accounted for 24% of fatal occupational injuries in the United States during 2013 and were the leading cause of fatal injuries among workers.* In 2013, workers' compensation costs for serious, nonfatal injuries among work-related roadway incidents involving motorized land vehicles were estimated at $2.96 billion.(†) Seat belt use is a proven method to reduce injuries to motor vehicle occupants (1). Use of lap/shoulder seat belts reduces the risk for fatal injuries to front seat occupants of cars by 45% and the risk to light truck occupants by 60%.(§) To characterize seat belt use among adult workers by occupational group, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and found that not always using a seat belt was significantly associated with occupational group after controlling for factors known to influence seat belt use. Occupational groups with the highest prevalences of not always using a seat belt included construction and extraction; farming, fishing, and forestry; and installation, maintenance, and repair. To increase seat belt use among persons currently employed, states can enact and enforce primary seat belt laws, employers can set and enforce safety policies requiring seat belt use by all vehicle occupants, and seat belt safety advocates can target interventions to workers in occupational groups with lower reported seat belt use.

  2. Geoconservation - a southern African and African perspective (United States)

    Reimold, Wolf Uwe


    In contrast to Europe, where geoconservation is actively pursued in most countries and where two international symposia on this subject have been staged in 1991 and 1996, geoconservation in Africa has indeed a very poor record. Considering the wealth of outstanding geological sites and the importance African stratigraphy has within the global geological record, pro-active geoconservation on this continent has not featured very prominently to date. In the interest of science, education and tourism, unique and typical geosites need to be identified, catalogued, and prioritised with the aim being their protection. Most African countries do not have vibrant non-governmental organisations such as a strong geological society, which could drive projects like geoconservation, or strong support from the private sector for environmental work. Here, a case is made for the role that established National Geological Surveys, some of which are already involved with retroactive environmental geological work, could play in the forefront of pro-active geoconservation and site protection.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛河; 苏清祖; 马胜利


    The double drum drive is widely used on the mine belt conveyor, which are divided the rigid connected double drums and separately driving double drums according to connected method of two drums. Because of the change of real work condition, the load distribution is changed on the two drive drums, which may produce a slippage between a drum and belt. Slippage may intensify the wear of the drum, and sometimes causing the fire of the belt. This restricts the development toward narrow belt, high velocity and large power of belt conveyor. In this paper, the factors affecting the load distribution of two drums of double drum belt conveyor are'systematically analyzed and some computing formulas derived, by these formulas, the actual load distribution onthe two drums of rigid connected or separately driving belt conveyor can be separately calculated. These formulas also can be as the theory base for adjusting the driving force of two drums.

  4. Geometry and Kinematics of the Lamu Basin Deep-Water Fold-and-Thrust Belt (East Africa) (United States)

    Barchi, Massimiliano R.; Cruciani, Francesco; Porreca, Massimiliano


    Even if most thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belt are generated at convergent plate boundaries, in the last decades advances in seismic exploration and acquisition of large datasets have shown that they are also notably widespread along continental passive margins, driven by gravity processes in deep-water areas. In this study a composite set of modern and vintage reprocessed seismic reflection profiles is used to investigate the internal structure and kinematic evolution of the Lamu Basin Deep-Water Fold-and-Trust Belt (DW-FTB). The Lamu Basin is an example of giant-scale, gravity driven compressional belt developed in Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary along a still poorly explored sector of the East-African continental margin, at the Kenya-Somalia border. The compressional domain extends longitudinally for more than 450 km, is up to 180 km wide and shows remarkable structural complexity both along strike and along dip. The external part is dominated by ocean-verging imbricate thrusts, above a gently landward-dipping basal detachment. The internal part is characterised by almost symmetrical detachment folds and double verging structures, sustaining bowl-shaped syn-tectonic basins. Here the basal detachment surface is almost flat. The mean fold wavelength displays a progressive landward increase, from 2.5 km, at the toe of the belt, to about 10 km. This structural variability is thought to be related to the lateral variation of the section under shortening and particularly to the different thickness of the Early Cretaceous shaly unit involved in the deformations, increasing landward from about 400 m to more than 1 km. Through the sequential restoration of regional cross-sections, we evaluated that the northern portion of the thrust belt experienced a shortening of almost 50 km (corresponding to 20%), with a shortening rate (during the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene main event) of about 3.5 mm/yr. Under many respects, the dimensions and internal structure of this thrust belt

  5. Nutritional consequences of the African diaspora. (United States)

    Luke, A; Cooper, R S; Prewitt, T E; Adeyemo, A A; Forrester, T E


    Along with their foods and dietary customs, Africans were carried into diaspora throughout the Americas as a result of the European slave trade. Their descendants represent populations at varying stages of the nutrition transition. West Africans are in the early stage, where undernutrition and nutrient deficiencies are prevalent. Many Caribbean populations represent the middle stages, with undernutrition and obesity coexisting. African-Americans and black populations in the United Kingdom suffer from the consequences of caloric excess and diets high in fat and animal products. Obesity, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and certain cancers all follow an east-to-west gradient of increasing prevalence. Public health efforts must focus not only on eradicating undernutrition in West Africa and the Caribbean but also on preventing obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and their consequences. Fortunately, a coherent and well-supported set of recommendations exists to promote better nutrition. Implementation of it founders primarily as a result of the influence of commercial and political interests.

  6. Geology and Genesis of Peraluminous Granites in East Tianshan Upper Paleozoic Island Arc Belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾连兴; 严正富; 等


    A peraluminous granite belt occurs along the connecting zone between the Turpan Hami Precambrian block and the Upper Paleozoic island arc belt.Muscovite granite and twomica granite are the essential lithological components of that belt.All the potassium feldspars in these granites are microcline.Heavy minerals are dominated by magnetite,SiO2 contents of these granites are greater than 73% with most of the A/NKC values greater than 1,1,norma tive corundum values greater than 1 Plots of CIPW norms in the (Al-K-Na) Ca(Fe2++Mg) diagran are mostly situated in the plagioclase cordierite-muscovite region.The rocks are characterized by very low contents of minor elements and ∑REE with strong Eu depletion δ18 O values between 6.6‰and 7.0‰,Rb-Sr isochron age of 260.2±6.2Ma and an initial 87Sr/86 Sr ration of 0.7052,These granites might have been produced by partial melting of moderately acidic volcanites and low-maturity sediments in the basement sequences and could be genetically connected with the southware A-type subduction of the Turpan-Hami block following the closure of the Middle Carboniferous back-arc basin.

  7. A six-part collisional model of the main asteroid belt

    CERN Document Server

    Cibulková, Helena; Benavidez, Paula G


    In this work, we construct a new model for the collisional evolution of the main asteroid belt. Our goals are to test the scaling law of Benz and Asphaug (1999) and ascertain if it can be used for the whole belt. We want to find initial size-frequency distributions (SFDs) for the considered six parts of the belt (inner, middle, 'pristine', outer, Cybele zone, high-inclination region) and to verify if the number of synthetic asteroid families created during the simulation matches the number of observed families as well. We used new observational data from the WISE satellite (Masiero et al., 2011) to construct the observed SFDs. We simulate mutual collisions of asteroids with a modified version of the Boulder code (Morbidelli et al., 2009), where the results of hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations of Durda et al. (2007) and Benavidez et al. (2012) are included. Because material characteristics can significantly affect breakups, we created two models - for monolithic asteroids and for rubble-piles. To explain the obse...

  8. Morpho-structure and sedimentology of the Holocene Ebro prodelta mud belt (northwestern Mediterranean Sea) (United States)

    Diaz, J.I.; Palanques, A.; Nelson, C.H.; Guillen, J.


    The Ebro "mud belt" is a Holocene prodeltaic deposit which has developed around, and southwestward from, the present Ebro Delta plain, covering most of the inner and middle Ebro continental shelf. Seismic-reflection profiles of this mud belt exhibit a complex sigmoid-oblique configuration. Top-set strata dip gently seaward to the 20 m isobath, and overly the fore-set beds which are exposed in up to 40-60 m water depth. Top-set and fore-set beds have mostly parallel and high continuity reflectors. Thin, acoustically transparent bottom-set beds are present at the base of the fore-set beds and extend to the distal edge of the prodelta (60-80 m water depth), where they overly relict transgressive sand deposits. There is no evidence of mass movement. The suspended load discharged by the river is mainly transported alongshelf by advective processes. This dynamics produces thin clinoform deposits that extend alongshelf for tens of kilometres. Mud belt deposition began about 10,000-11,000 years BP. Accumulation rate ranges from less than 0.5 mm y-1 on the seaward and southern edges of the deposit to about 2.5 mm y-1 near the present river mouth. Copyright ?? 1995 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. African literature to-day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sulzer


    Full Text Available Being interested in African literature one seems to swim from the very beginning in a terminological maelstrom. What is African literature? Is it literature written by any African author in any language? That would mean approaching the question from a purely racial basis. It would imply the art of demonstrating that any piece of such literature could infallibly be recognised as African, a thing which, as far as I know has never been done. Or is African literature strictly bound to traditional African culture?

  10. Persistence of Salmonella on egg conveyor belts is dependent on the belt type but not on the rdar morphotype. (United States)

    Stocki, S L; Annett, C B; Sibley, C D; McLaws, M; Checkley, S L; Singh, N; Surette, M G; White, A P


    Commercial caged layer flocks in Alberta, Canada, are commonly monitored for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) by environmental sampling. In one recent case, a SE strain isolated from the egg conveyor belt was a source of persistent infection for the flock. This study was undertaken to examine Salmonella colonization on egg conveyor belts and to determine whether the rdar morphotype, a conserved physiology associated with aggregation and long-term survival, contributed to persistence. Four woven belts constructed of natural or nonnatural fibers and a 1-piece belt made of vinyl were tested with rdar-positive ST and SE strains and a rdar-negative ST DeltaagfD reference strain. The type of egg belt was the most important factor influencing Salmonella colonization and persistence. The vinyl belt, with the least surface area available for colonization, had the fewest Salmonella remaining after washing and disinfection, whereas the hemp-plastic belt, with the greatest surface area, had the most Salmonella remaining. Real-time gene expression indicated that the rdar morphotype was involved in colonizing the egg belt pieces; however, it was not essential for persistence. In addition, rdar-positive and rdar-negative strains were equally similarly to disinfection on the egg belt pieces. The results indicate that Salmonella can persist on a variety of egg belts by mechanisms other than the rdar morphotype, and that using egg conveyer belts with reduced surface area for bacterial colonization can lessen contamination problems.

  11. Thick-skinned tectonics and basement control on geometry, kinematics and mechanics of fold-and-thrust belts. Insights from some cenozoic belts worldwide (United States)

    Lacombe, Olivier; Bellahsen, Nicolas


    Fold-and-thrust belts (FTBs) form either in lower and upper plates at the expense of proximal parts of former passive margins during collision or within the upper plate of subduction orogens. In contrast, inner parts of mountain belts are likely made of stacked units from the distal passive margin domains that have undergone continental subduction and HP-LT metamorphism. There are increasing lines of evidence that the basement is involved in shortening in many FTBs worldwide, either pervasively (across the entire belt; tectonic inversion may even occur more forelandward than the mountain front) or mainly in their innermore domains where this basement is commonly exhumed. For thick-skinned FTBs that developed from former passive margins, the occurrence of weak mechanical layers within the proximal margin lithosphere (the middle and most of the lower crust are expectedly ductile) may explain that contractional deformation be distributed within most of the crust giving rise to basement-involved tectonic style. In contrast, because these weak crustal levels are usually lacking in distal parts of the margins as a result of thinning, these stronger lithospheric domains are more prone to localized deformation/subduction. Less understandable this way is the occurrence of thick-skinned wide domains within cold and strong interiors of upper plates of subduction zones, such as the Paleocene Laramide orogenic belt or the active Sierras Pampeanas belt. Structural, geophysical and thermochronological investigations within Cenozoic thick-skinned (or basement-involved thin-skinned) FTBs provide evidence for how the pre-orogenic and syn-orogenic deformation of the basement may control the geometry, kinematics and mechanics of FTBs. In this contribution, we examine some examples of FTBs where the basement is known to be involved in shortening and we review some aspects of the control exerted by the basement on the deformation. This control is demonstrated (1) at the scale of the

  12. Ionic composition of the earth's radiation belts (United States)

    Spjeldvik, W. N.


    Several different ion species have been positively identified in the earth's radiation belts. Besides protons, there are substantial fluxes of helium, carbon and oxygen ions, and there are measurable quantities of even heavier ions. European, American and Soviet space experimenters have reported ion composition measurements over wide ranges of energies: at tens of keV (ring-current energies) and below, and at hundreds of keV and above. There is still a gap in the energy coverage from several tens to several hundreds of keV where little observational data are available. In this review emphasis is placed on the radiation belt ionic structure above 100 keV. Both quiet time conditions and geomagnetic storm periods are considered, and comparison of the available space observations is made with theoretical analysis of geomagnetically trapped ion spatial, energy and charge state distributions.

  13. HP metamorphic belt of the western Alps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The understanding of the subduction-related processes benefited by the studies of the high-pressure (HP) meta-morphic rocks from the western Alps. The most stimu-lating information was obtained from the inner part of the western Alpine belt, where most tectonic units show an early Alpine eclogite-facies recrystallisation. This is especially true for the Austroalpine Sesia Zone and the Penninic Dora-Maira massif. From the Sesia zone,which consists of a wide spectrum of continental crust lithologies recrystallised to quartz-eclogite-facies min-eral assemblages, the first finding of a jadeite-bearingmeta-granitoid has been described, supporting evidencethat even continental crust may subduct into the mantle.From the Dora-Maira massif the first occurrence of regional metamorphic coesite has been reported, open-ing the new fertile field of the ultrahigh-pressure meta-morphism (UHPM), which is now becoming the rule in the collisional orogenic belts.

  14. Alien Asteroid Belt Compared to our Own (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Band of Light Comparison This artist's concept illustrates what the night sky might look like from a hypothetical alien planet in a star system with an asteroid belt 25 times as massive as the one in our own solar system (alien system above, ours below; see Figure 1). NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence for such a belt around the nearby star called HD 69830, when its infrared eyes spotted dust, presumably from asteroids banging together. The telescope did not find any evidence for a planet in the system, but astronomers speculate one or more may be present. The movie begins at dusk on the imaginary world, when HD 69830, like our Sun, has begun to set over the horizon. Time is sped up to show the onset of night and the appearance of a brilliant band of light. This light comes from dust in a massive asteroid belt, which scatters sunlight. In our solar system, anybody observing the skies on a moonless night far from city lights can see the sunlight that is scattered by dust in our asteroid belt. Called zodiacal light and sometimes the 'false dawn,' this light appears as a dim band stretching up from the horizon when the Sun is about to rise or set. The light is faint enough that the disk of our Milky Way galaxy remains the most prominent feature in the sky. (The Milky Way disk is shown perpendicular to the zodiacal light in both pictures.) In contrast, the zodiacal light in the HD 69830 system would be 1,000 times brighter than our own, outshining even the Milky Way.

  15. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger


    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  16. Seat belt use during pregnancy in Iran: attitudes and practices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mojgan Karbakhsh; Zahra Ershadi; Ali Khaji; Fatemeh Rahimi-Sharbaf


    Objective: Seat belt use during pregnancy reduces injury to the mother and her fetus. During recent years, the use of seat belts has been mandated by law in Iran. The purpose of this study was to determine the attitudes and practices of pregnant women regarding seat belt use.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we asked 335 pregnant women at a hospital-based prenatal care clinic on the use of safety belt before and during pregnancy. SPSS version 13.0 was used for data analysis.Results: The mean age of study subjects was 27.3 years±5.3 years with the median of 27 years. Compared with the seat belt use before pregnancy, no change was detected in 48.7% of the women; seat belt use had increased in 17.5 %of them and decreased in 33.8 %. Eighty-one percent of women knew the correct placing of both lap belt and shoulder belt. Only 4% of women had received education on proper restraint use during pregnancy.Conclusions: The prevalence of seat belt use during pregnancy is lower than reports which are mostly from developed nations. The fact that about one-third of women have decreased their seat belt usage during pregnancy highlights the importance of education of mothers on this topic.

  17. A six-part collisional model of the main asteroid belt (United States)

    Cibulková, H.; Brož, M.; Benavidez, P. G.


    In this work, we construct a new model for the collisional evolution of the main asteroid belt. Our goals are to test the scaling law of Benz and Asphaug (Benz, W., Asphaug, E. [1999]. Icarus, 142, 5-20) and ascertain if it can be used for the whole belt. We want to find initial size-frequency distributions (SFDs) for the considered six parts of the belt (inner, middle, “pristine”, outer, Cybele zone, high-inclination region) and to verify if the number of synthetic asteroid families created during the simulation matches the number of observed families as well. We used new observational data from the WISE satellite (Masiero et al., 2011) to construct the observed SFDs. We simulate mutual collisions of asteroids with a modified version of the Boulder code (Morbidelli, A., et al. [2009]. Icarus, 204, 558-573), where the results of hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations of Durda et al. (Durda, D.D., et al. [2007]. Icarus, 498-516) and Benavidez et al. (Benavidez, P.G., et al. [2012]. 219, 57-76) are included. Because material characteristics can significantly affect breakups, we created two models - for monolithic asteroids and for rubble-piles. To explain the observed SFDs in the size range D=1 to 10 km we have to also account for dynamical depletion due to the Yarkovsky effect. The assumption of (purely) rubble-pile asteroids leads to a significantly worse fit to the observed data, so that we can conclude that majority of main-belt asteroids are rather monolithic. Our work may also serve as a motivation for further SPH simulations of disruptions of smaller targets (with a parent body size of the order of 1 km).

  18. African-Americans and Alzheimer's (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  19. Mental Health and African Americans (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  20. African Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Jarita C; Medupe, R. Thebe; Current Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy research in Africa


    Astronomy is the science of studying the sky using telescopes and light collectors such as photographic plates or CCD detectors. However, people have always studied the sky and continue to study the sky without the aid of instruments this is the realm of cultural astronomy. This is the first scholarly collection of articles focused on the cultural astronomy of Africans. It weaves together astronomy, anthropology, and Africa. The volume includes African myths and legends about the sky, alignments to celestial bodies found at archaeological sites and at places of worship, rock art with celestial imagery, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions including ethnomathematics and the creation of calendars. Authors include astronomers Kim Malville, Johnson Urama, and Thebe Medupe; archaeologist Felix Chami, and geographer Michael Bonine, and many new authors. As an emerging subfield of cultural astronomy, African cultural astronomy researchers are focused on training students specifically for do...

  1. Fostering a Middle Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Though there is no official definition of "middle class" in China,the tag has become one few Chinese people believe they deserve anyway.In early August,the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences released a report on China's urban development,saying China had a middle-class population of 230 million in 2009,or 37 percent of its urban residents.It also forecast half of city dwellers in China would be part of the middle class by 2023.

  2. Beijing Tibet Middle School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The year marks the 20th anniversary of the Central Government decision to run Tibet middle schools in the hinterland. At present, there are such schools or Tibetan classes in 26 provinces and municipalities directly under the Central Government. They work to train technical personnel and teachers for Tibet. Launched in 1987, the Beijing Tibet Middle School has since trained more than 2,800 middle and high school students for Tibet. Many of them returned to Tibet for construction.

  3. English as an African Language. (United States)

    Desai, Gaurav


    Discusses the role of the English language in postcolonial African literature, focusing on the politics of language, "Africanized" English, and the social languages used in Chinua Achebe's novels and concludes that English today is as much an African language as a British or American one. (Contains 37 references.) (MDM)

  4. African names for American plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.


    African slaves brought plant knowledge to the New World, sometimes applying it to related plants they found there and sometimes bringing Old World plants with them. By tracing the linguistic parallels between names for plants in African languages and in communities descended from African slaves, pie

  5. The Struggles over African Languages (United States)

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter


    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  6. Suspended particulate layers and internal waves over the southern Monterey Bay continental shelf: an important control on shelf mud belts? (United States)

    Cheriton, Olivia M.; McPhee-Shaw, Erika E.; Shaw, William J.; Stanton, Timothy P.; Bellingham, James G.; Storlazzi, Curt D.


    Physical and optical measurements taken over the mud belt on the southern continental shelf of Monterey Bay, California documented the frequent occurrence of suspended particulate matter features, the majority of which were detached from the seafloor, centered 9–33 m above the bed. In fall 2011, an automated profiling mooring and fixed instrumentation, including a thermistor chain and upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler, were deployed at 70 m depth for 5 weeks, and from 12 to 16 October a long-range autonomous underwater vehicle performed across-shelf transects. Individual SPM events were uncorrelated with local bed shear stress caused by surface waves and bottom currents. Nearly half of all observed SPM layers occurred during 1 week of the study, 9–16 October 2011, and were advected past the fixed profiling mooring by the onshore phase of semidiurnal internal tide bottom currents. At the start of the 9–16 October period, we observed intense near-bed vertical velocities capable of lifting particulates into the middle of the water column. This “updraft” event appears to have been associated with nonlinear adjustment of high-amplitude internal tides over the mid and outer shelf. These findings suggest that nonlinear internal tidal motions can erode material over the outer shelf and that, once suspended, this SPM can then be transported shoreward to the middle and shallow sections of the mud belt. This represents a fundamental broadening of our understanding of how shelf mud belts may be built up and sustained.

  7. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron


    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... outside of tariffs. Impressive results were forecast by simulating both a 50% reduction in what can be considered traditional non-tariff barriers and a modest 20% reduction in the costs associated with transit time delays at customs, terminals and internal land transportation. Gains from tariff...

  8. High osteoporosis risk among East Africans linked to lactase persistence genotype. (United States)

    Hilliard, Constance B


    This ecological correlation study explores the marked differential in osteoporosis susceptibility between East and West Africans. African tsetse belt populations are lactase non-persistent (lactose intolerant) and possess none of the genetic polymorphisms carried by lactase persistent (lactose tolerant) ethnic populations. What appears paradoxical, however, is the fact that Niger-Kordofanian (NK) West African ethnicities are also at minimal risk of osteoporosis. Although East Africans share a genetic affinity with NK West Africans, they display susceptibility rates of the bone disorder closer to those found in Europe. Similar to Europeans, they also carry alleles conferring the lactase persistence genetic traits. Hip fracture rates of African populations are juxtaposed with a global model to determine whether it is the unique ecology of the tsetse-infested zone or other variables that may be at work. This project uses MINITAB 17 software for regression analyses. The research data are found on AJOL (African Journals Online), PUBMED and JSTOR (Scholarly Journal Archive). Data showing the risk of osteoporosis to be 80 times higher among East Africans with higher levels of lactase persistence than lactase non-persistence West Africans are compared with global statistics. Hip fracture rates in 40 countries exhibit a high Pearson's correlation of r=0.851, with P-value=0.000 in relation to dairy consumption. Lower correlations are seen for hip fracture incidence vis-à-vis lactase persistence, per capita income and animal protein consumption. Ethnic populations who lack lactase persistence single-nucleotide polymorphisms may be at low risk of developing osteoporosis.

  9. Modal analysis of coupled vibration of belt drive systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-jun; CHEN Li-qun


    The modal method is applied to analyze coupled vibration of belt drive systems. A belt drive system is a hybrid system consisting of continuous belts modeled as strings as well as discrete pulleys and a tensioner arm. The characteristic equation of the system is derived from the governing equation. Numerical results demenstrate the effects of the transport speed and the initial tension on natural frequencies.

  10. Polyphase Neoproterozoic orogenesis within the east Africa- Antarctica orogenic belt in central and northern Madagascar (United States)

    Key, R.M.; Pitfield, P.E.J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Goodenough, K.M.; Waele, D.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Horstwood, M.S.A.; Styles, M.T.; Conrad, J.; Encarnacion, J.; Lidke, D.J.; O'connor, E. A.; Potter, C.; Smith, R.A.; Walsh, G.J.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.


    Our recent geological survey of the basement of central and northern Madagascar allowed us to re-evaluate the evolution of this part of the East Africa-Antarctica Orogen (EAAO). Five crustal domains are recognized, characterized by distinctive lithologies and histories of sedimentation, magmatism, deformation and metamorphism, and separated by tectonic and/or unconformable contacts. Four consist largely of Archaean metamorphic rocks (Antongil, Masora and Antananarivo Cratons, Tsaratanana Complex). The fifth (Bemarivo Belt) comprises Proterozoic meta-igneous rocks. The older rocks were intruded by plutonic suites at c. 1000 Ma, 820-760 Ma, 630-595 Ma and 560-520 Ma. The evolution of the four Archaean domains and their boundaries remains contentious, with two end-member interpretations evaluated: (1) all five crustal domains are separate tectonic elements, juxtaposed along Neoproterozoic sutures and (2) the four Archaean domains are segments of an older Archaean craton, which was sutured against the Bemarivo Belt in the Neoproterozoic. Rodinia fragmented during the early Neoproterozoic with intracratonic rifts that sometimes developed into oceanic basins. Subsequent Mid- Neoproterozoic collision of smaller cratonic blocks was followed by renewed extension and magmatism. The global 'Terminal Pan-African' event (560-490 Ma) finally stitched together the Mid-Neoproterozoic cratons to form Gondwana. ?? The Geological Society of London 2011.

  11. East African institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja

    For the past decade security in East Africa has gained focus internationally. However there is a growing ambition among African states to handle such issues by themselves, sometimes through regional institutions. This has been supported by many Western states but potential risks are often forgotten....

  12. African Oral Tradition Literacy. (United States)

    Green, Doris


    Presents the basic principles of two systems for notating African music and dance: Labanotation (created to record and analyze movements) and Greenotation (created to notate musical instruments of Africa and to parallel Labanotation whereby both music and dance are incorporated into one integrated score). (KH)

  13. African Women Writing Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Browdy de Hernandez; Pauline Dongala; Omotayo; Jolaosho; Anne Serafin


    AFRICAN Women Writing Resistance is the first transnational anthology to focus on women's strategies of resistance to the challenges they face in Africa today.The anthology brings together personal narratives,testimony,interviews,short stories,poetry,performance scripts,folktales and lyrics.

  14. African tick bite fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jakob Aaquist; Thybo, Søren


    The incident of spotted fever imported to Denmark is unknown. We present a classic case of African Tick Bite Fever (ATBF) to highlight a disease, which frequently infects wildlife enthusiasts and hunters on vacation in South Africa. ATBF has a good prognosis and is easily treated with doxycyclin...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Classifying the middle class remains controversial despite its alleged growth China’s cities housed more than 230 million middle-class residents in 2009 or 37 percent of the urban population,according to the 2011 Blue Book of Cities in China released on August 3.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    China's cities housed more than 230 million middle-class residents in 2009ot 37 percent of the urban population,according to the 2011 Blue Book of Cities in China released on August 3.In China's main urban centers,Beijing and Shanghai,the middle class accounted for 46 percent and 38 percent,respectively,of the local population.

  17. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  18. The Middle East. (United States)

    Blouin, Virginia; And Others

    This sixth grade resource unit focuses on Middle East culture as seen through five areas of the social sciences: anthropology-sociology, geography, history, economics, and political science. Among objectives that the student is expected to achieve are the following: 1) given general information on the Middle East through the use of film, visuals,…

  19. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission: Advancing Our Understanding of the Earth's Radiation Belts (United States)

    Sibeck, David; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Kessel, Ramona; Fox, Nicola; Mauk, Barry


    We describe NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, whose primary science objective is to understand, ideally to the point of predictability, the dynamics of relativistic electrons and penetrating ions in the Earth's radiation belts resulting from variable solar activity. The overarching scientific questions addressed include: 1. the physical processes that produce radiation belt enhancement events, 2. the dominant mechanisms for relativistic electron loss, and 3. how the ring current and other geomagnetic processes affect radiation belt behavior. The RBSP mission comprises two spacecraft which will be launched during Fall 2012 into low inclination lapping equatorial orbits. The orbit periods are about 9 hours, with perigee altitudes and apogee radial distances of 600 km and 5.8 RE respectively. During the two-year primary mission, the spacecraft orbits precess once around the Earth and lap each other twice in each local time quadrant. The spacecraft are each equipped with identical comprehensive instrumentation packages to measure, electrons, ions and wave electric and magnetic fields. We provide an overview of the RBSP mission, onboard instrumentation and science prospects and invite scientific collaboration.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张年梅; 杨桂通


    The chaotic motions of axial compressed nonlinear elastic beam subjected totransverse load were studied. The damping force in the system is nonlinear. Consideringmaterial and geometric nonlinearity, nonlinear governing equation of the system wasderived. By use of nonlinear Galerkin method, differential dynamic system was set up.Melnikov method was used to analyze the characters of the system. The results showed thatchaos may occur in the system when the load parameters P0 and f satisfy some conditions.The zone of chaotic motion was belted. The route from subharmonic bifurcation to chaoswas analyzed. The critical conditions that chaos occurs were determined.

  1. Parametric resonances of convection belt system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-an YANG; Gao-feng LI


    Based on the Coriolis acceleration and the Lagrangian strain formula,a generalized equation for the transverse vibration system of convection belts is derived using Newton's second law.The method of multiple scales is directly applied to the governing equations,and an approximate solution of the primary parameter resonance of the system is obtained.The detuning parameter,cross-section area,elastic and viscoelastic parameters,and axial moving speed have a significant influences on the amplitudes of steady-state response and their existence boundaries.Some new dynamical phenomena are revealed.

  2. Orion revisited. III. The Orion Belt population (United States)

    Kubiak, K.; Alves, J.; Bouy, H.; Sarro, L. M.; Ascenso, J.; Burkert, A.; Forbrich, J.; Großschedl, J.; Hacar, A.; Hasenberger, B.; Lombardi, M.; Meingast, S.; Köhler, R.; Teixeira, P. S.


    Aims: This paper continues our study of the foreground population to the Orion molecular clouds. The goal is to characterize the foreground population north of NGC 1981 and to investigate the star formation history in the large Orion star-forming region. We focus on a region covering about 25 square degrees, centered on the ɛ Orionis supergiant (HD 37128, B0 Ia) and covering the Orion Belt asterism. Methods: We used a combination of optical (SDSS) and near-infrared (2MASS) data, informed by X-ray (XMM-Newton) and mid-infrared (WISE) data, to construct a suite of color-color and color-magnitude diagrams for all available sources. We then applied a new statistical multiband technique to isolate a previously unknown stellar population in this region. Results: We identify a rich and well-defined stellar population in the surveyed region that has about 2000 objects that are mostly M stars. We infer the age for this new population to be at least 5 Myr and likely 10 Myr and estimate a total of about 2500 members, assuming a normal IMF. This new population, which we call the Orion Belt population, is essentially extinction-free, disk-free, and its spatial distribution is roughly centered near ɛ Ori, although substructure is clearly present. Conclusions: The Orion Belt population is likely the low-mass counterpart to the Ori OB Ib subgroup. Although our results do not rule out Blaauw's sequential star formation scenario for Orion, we argue that the recently proposed blue streams scenario provides a better framework on which one can explain the Orion star formation region as a whole. We speculate that the Orion Belt population could represent the evolved counterpart of an Orion nebula-like cluster. The catalog (Full Table A.1) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  3. Period Determination of Six Main Belt Asteroids (United States)

    Ferrero, Andrea


    Observations of six main-belt asteroids (MBA) produced lightcurve parameters of: 487 Venetia, P = 13.34 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.20 mag; 684 Hildburg, P = 15.89 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.22 mag; 772 Tanete, P = 8.629 ± 0.001 h, A = 0.18 mag.; 1181 Lilith, P = 15.04 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.11 mag.; 1246 Chaka, P = 25.44 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.25 mag.; and 2834 Christy Carol, P = 12.79 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.39 mag.

  4. Water activities in the Kerala Khondalite Belt (United States)

    Chacko, Thomas; Kumar, G. R. Ravindra; Peterson, J. W.


    The author and colleagues presented their determinations of water activities in various granulite-facies rocks of the Kerala Khondalite Belt. Using mineral equilibria, thermodynamic data, and assumed geopressure-geotemperature conditions of 5.5 kbar and 750 C, they calculated uniformly low a(H2O) values of about 0.27 over a large geographic region. They suggested that these conditions were produced by the presence of abundant CO2-rich fluids, derived either from deeper levels or from metamorphic reactions involving graphite.

  5. Solar Neutrons and the Earth's Radiation Belts. (United States)

    Lingenfelter, R E; Flamm, E J


    The intensity and spectrum of solar neutrons in the vicinity of the earth are calculated on the assumption that the low-energy protons recently detected in balloon and satellite flights are products of solar neutron decay. The solar-neutron flux thus obtained exceeds the global average cosmic-ray neutron leakage above 10 Mev, indicating that it may be an important source of both the inner and outer radiation belts. Neutron measurements in the atmosphere are reviewed and several features of the data are found to be consistent with the estimated solar neutron spectrum.

  6. Linear Motor for Drive of Belt Conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Krasl


    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel approach on the design of a linear motor for drive of belt conveyor (LMBC. The motor is a simple combination of asynchronous motor in plane. The electromagnetic forces is one of the most important parameters of electrical machines. This parameter is necessary for the checking of the design. This paper describes several variants: linear motor with slots in platens, slots in one half of platens and optimization of slots. The electromagnetic force can be found with the help of a Finite Elements Method – based program. For solution was used QuickField program.

  7. Creativity in the late middle childhood : development and gender differences / Ester Corné Brink


    Brink, Ester Corné


    Many studies have been performed on creativity and the measurement of creativity. However, little is known about the relationship between gender differences and creativity, particularly in South Afnca. The current study aimed to investigate the difference in creativity between boys and girls, as well as the development of creativity in late middle childhood, in the South African context. From the random sample of 1000 primary school children in late middle childhood (grade 4 to...

  8. Female genital mutilation in African and African American women's literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Marinšek


    Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.

  9. Effects of driver characteristics on seat belt fit. (United States)

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert, Sheila M; Hallman, Jason J


    A laboratory study of posture and belt fit was conducted with 46 men and 51 women, 61% of whom were age 60 years or older and 32% age 70 years or older. In addition, 28% of the 97 participants were obese, defined as body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m^2. A mockup of a passenger vehicle driver's station was created and five belt anchorage configurations were produced by moving the buckle, outboard-upper (D-ring), and outboard-lower anchorages. An investigator recorded the three-dimensional locations of landmarks on the belt and the participant's body using a coordinate measurement machine. The location of the belt with respect to the underlying skeletal structures was analyzed, along with the length of belt webbing. Using linear regression models, an increase in age from 20 to 80 years resulted in the lap belt positioned 18 mm further forward relative to the pelvis, 26 mm greater lap belt webbing length, and 19 mm greater shoulder belt length. An increase in stature of 350 mm (approximately the range from 5th-percentile female to 95th-percentile male in the U.S. population) was associated with the lap belt 14 mm further forward relative to the pelvis, the shoulder belt 37 mm more outboard relative to the body centerline, and 38 mm less shoulder belt webbing length. Among the driver factors considered, body mass index had the greatest effects. An increase of BMI in 20 kg/m^2, which spans approximately the central 90% of U.S. adults, was associated with the lap belt being placed 102 mm further forward and 94 mm higher, relative to the pelvis, and increases in lap and shoulder belt webbing length of 276 and 258 mm, respectively. Gender did not have important effects on the analyzed belt fit measures after taking into account stature and body mass index. These results offer important considerations for future crash safety assessments and suggest that further research is needed to consider belt fit for older and obese occupants.

  10. Fading of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt (United States)

    Sola, Michael A.; Orton, Glenn; Baines, Kevin; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma


    One of Jupiter's most dominant features, the South Equatorial Belt, has historically gone through a "fading" cycle. The usual dark, brownish clouds turn white, and after a period of time, the region returns to its normal color. Understanding this phenomenon, the latest occurring in 2010, will increase our knowledge of planetary atmospheres. Using the near infrared camera, NSFCAM2, at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii, images were taken of Jupiter accompanied by data describing the circumstances of each observation. These images are then processed and reduced through an IDL program. By scanning the central meridian of the planet, graphs were produced plotting the average values across the central meridian, which are used to find variations in the region of interest. Calculations using Albert4, a FORTRAN program that calculates the upwelling reflected sunlight from a designated cloud model, can be used to determine the effects of a model atmosphere due to various absorption, scattering, and emission processes. Spectra that were produced show ammonia bands in the South Equatorial Belt. So far, we can deduce from this information that an upwelling of ammonia particles caused a cloud layer to cover up the region. Further investigations using Albert4 and other models will help us to constrain better the chemical make up of the cloud and its location in the atmosphere.

  11. Distribution of dust from Kuiper belt objects

    CERN Document Server

    Gorkavyi, N N; Taidakova, T; Mather, J C; Gorkavyi, Nick N.; Ozernoy, Leonid M.; Taidakova, Tanya; Mather, John C.


    (Abridged) Using an efficient computational approach, we have reconstructed the structure of the dust cloud in the Solar system between 0.5 and 100 AU produced by the Kuiper belt objects. Our simulations offer a 3-D physical model of the `kuiperoidal' dust cloud based on the distribution of 280 dust particle trajectories produced by 100 known Kuiper belt objects ; the resulting 3-D grid consists of $1.9\\times 10^6$ cells containing $1.2\\times 10^{11}$ particle positions. The following processes that influence the dust particle dynamics are taken into account: 1) gravitational scattering on the eight planets (neglecting Pluto); 2) planetary resonances; 3) radiation pressure; and 4) the Poynting-Robertson (P-R) and solar wind drags. We find the dust distribution highly non-uniform: there is a minimum in the kuiperoidal dust between Mars and Jupiter, after which both the column and number densities of kuiperoidal dust sharply increase with heliocentric distance between 5 and 10 AU, and then form a plateau betwee...

  12. The Dynamical Evolution of the Asteroid Belt

    CERN Document Server

    Morbidelli, Alessandro; O'Brien, David P; Minton, David A; Bottke, William F


    The asteroid belt is the leftover of the original planetesimal population in the inner solar system. However, currently the asteroids have orbits with all possible values of eccentricities and inclinations compatible with long-term dynamical stability, whereas the initial planetesimal orbits should have been quasi-circular and almost co-planar. The total mass in the asteroid population is a small fraction of that existing primordially. Also, asteroids with different chemical/mineralogical properties are not ranked in an orderly manner with mean heliocentric distance as one could expect from the existence of a radial gradient of the temperature in the proto-planetary disk, but they are partially mixed. These properties show that the asteroid belt has been severely sculpted by one or a series of processes during its lifetime. This paper reviews the processes that have been proposed so far, discussing the properties that they explain and the problems that they are confronted with. Emphasis is paid to the interpl...

  13. Young Stellar Objects in the Gould Belt

    CERN Document Server

    Dunham, Michael M; Evans, Neal J; Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Cieza, Lucas; Di Francesco, James; Gutermuth, Robert A; Harvey, Paul M; Hatchell, Jennifer; Heiderman, Amanda; Huard, Tracy; Johnstone, Doug; Kirk, Jason M; Matthews, Brenda C; Miller, Jennifer F; Peterson, Dawn E; Young, Kaisa E


    We present the full catalog of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) identified in the 18 molecular clouds surveyed by the Spitzer Space Telescope "cores to disks" (c2d) and "Gould Belt" (GB) Legacy surveys. Using standard techniques developed by the c2d project, we identify 3239 candidate YSOs in the 18 clouds, 2966 of which survive visual inspection and form our final catalog of YSOs in the Gould Belt. We compile extinction corrected SEDs for all 2966 YSOs and calculate and tabulate the infrared spectral index, bolometric luminosity, and bolometric temperature for each object. We find that 326 (11%), 210 (7%), 1248 (42%), and 1182 (40%) are classified as Class 0+I, Flat-spectrum, Class II, and Class III, respectively, and show that the Class III sample suffers from an overall contamination rate by background AGB stars between 25% and 90%. Adopting standard assumptions, we derive durations of 0.40-0.78 Myr for Class 0+I YSOs and 0.26-0.50 Myr for Flat-spectrum YSOs, where the ranges encompass uncertainties in the ado...

  14. Holocene palaeoenvironmental history of the Amazonian mangrove belt (United States)

    Cohen, Marcelo Cancela Lisboa; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz; Behling, Hermann; de Fátima Rossetti, Dilce; França, Marlon Carlos; Guimarães, José Tasso Felix; Friaes, Yuri; Smith, Clarisse Beltrão


    Wetland dynamic in the northern Brazilian Amazon region during the Holocene was reviewed using palynological, carbon and nitrogen isotopes records, and C/N ratio previously published. The integration of 72 radiocarbon dates recorded in 34 sediment cores sampled along the marine and fluvial littoral, and mainly influenced by the Amazon River, reveals that marine influence and mangrove vegetation were wider than today on the mouth of Amazon River between >8990-8690 and 2300-2230 cal yr BP, forming a continuous mangrove belt along the northern Brazilian Amazon littoral. The establishment of this mangrove strip is a direct consequence of the marine incursion caused by post-glacial sea-level rise possibly associated with tectonic subsidence during the Early and Middle Holocene. In the Late Holocene, in areas influenced by the Amazon River discharge, the mangroves were replaced by freshwater vegetation, and the coast morphology evolved from an estuarine dominated into a rectilinear coast due to coastal progradation. Nevertheless, the marine-influenced littoral, which is currently dominated by mangroves and salt-marsh vegetation, has persistently had brackish water vegetation over tidal mud flats throughout the entire Holocene. Likely, the fragmentation of this continuous mangrove line during the Late Holocene was caused by the increase of river freshwater discharge associated to the change from dry into wet climates in the Late Holocene. This caused a significant decrease of tidal water salinity in areas near the mouth of Amazon River. These changes in the Amazon discharge are probably associated with dry and wet periods in the northern Amazon region during the Holocene.

  15. Growth of the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt and Foreland Basin, Northern Iraq, Kurdistan (United States)

    Koshnaw, Renas; Horton, Brian; Stockli, Daniel; Barber, Douglas; Ghalib, Hafidh; Dara, Rebwar


    The Zagros orogenic belt in the Middle Eastern segment of the Alpine-Himalayan system is among the youngest seismically active continental collision zones on Earth. However, due to diachronous and incremental collision, the precise ages and kinematics of shortening and deposition remain poorly understood. The Kurdistan region of the Zagros fold-thrust belt and foreland basin contains well-preserved Neogene wedge-top and foredeep deposits that include clastic nonmarine fill of the Upper Fars, Lower Bakhtiari, and Upper Bakhtiari Formations. These deposits record significant information about orogenic growth, fold-thrust dynamics, and advance of the deformation front. Thermochronologic and geochronologic data from thrust sheets and stratigraphic archives combined with local earthquake data provide a unique opportunity to address the linkages between surface and subsurface geologic relationships. This research seeks to constrain the timing and geometry of exhumation and deformation by addressing two key questions: (1) Did the northwestern Zagros fold-thrust belt evolve from initial thin-skinned shortening to later thick-skinned deformation or vice-versa? (2) Did the fold-thrust belt advance steadily under critical/supercritical wedge conditions involving in-sequence thrusting or propagate intermittently under subcritical conditions with out-of-sequence deformation? From north to south, apatite (U-Th)/He ages from the Main Zagros Thrust, the Mountain Front Flexure (MFF), and additional frontal thrusts suggest rapid exhumation by ~10 Ma, ~5 Ma, and ~8 Ma respectively. Field observations and seismic sections indicate progressive tilting and development of growth strata within the Lower Bakhtiari Formation adjacent to the frontal thrusts and within the Upper Bakhtiari Formation near the MFF. In the Kurdistan region of Iraq, a regional balanced cross section constrained by new thermochronometric results, proprietary seismic reflection profiles, and earthquake hypocenters

  16. Methods for identifying Neisseria meningitidis carriers: a multi-center study in the African meningitis belt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E Basta

    Full Text Available Detection of meningococcal carriers is key to understanding the epidemiology of Neisseria meningitidis, yet no gold standard has been established. Here, we directly compare two methods for collecting pharyngeal swabs to identify meningococcal carriers.We conducted cross-sectional surveys of schoolchildren at multiple sites in Africa to compare swabbing the posterior pharynx behind the uvula (U to swabbing the posterior pharynx behind the uvula plus one tonsil (T. Swabs were cultured immediately and analyzed using molecular methods.One thousand and six paired swab samples collected from schoolchildren in four countries were analyzed. Prevalence of meningococcal carriage was 6.9% (95% CI: 5.4-8.6% based on the results from both swabs, but the observed prevalence was lower based on one swab type alone. Prevalence based on the T swab or the U swab alone was similar (5.2% (95% CI: 3.8-6.7% versus 4.9% (95% CI: 3.6-6.4% respectively (p=0.6. The concordance between the two methods was 96.3% and the kappa was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.50-0.73, indicating good agreement.These two commonly used methods for collecting pharyngeal swabs provide consistent estimates of the prevalence of carriage, but both methods misclassified carriers to some degree, leading to underestimates of the prevalence.

  17. Early Cenozoic Shortening and Foreland Basin Sedimentation in the Marañon Fold-thrust Belt, Central Peruvian Andes (United States)

    Jackson, L. J.; Carlotto, V.; Horton, B. K.; Rosell, L. N.


    The Marañon fold-thrust belt in the westernmost Andes of Peru has long been considered a robust signature of early Cenozoic shortening in the Andean orogenic belt. However, the structural details and potential records of coeval synorogenic sedimentation remain elusive. We report results from new geologic mapping (1:50,000), cross-section construction, and U-Pb geochronology for the Matucana-Ticlio region at 11-12°S along the Lima-La Oroya highway. Zircon U-Pb age data from volcanic rocks and clastic basin fill provide a maximum depositional age of ~43 Ma for a middle Eocene syndeformational unit that we identify as the Anta Formation, which overlies the Paleocene Casapalca Formation. Sedimentary lithofacies and unconformable relationships within the volcaniclastic Anta Formation reveal mixed fluvial, alluvial-fan, and volcanic depositional conditions during shortening accommodated by a NE-verging thrust/reverse fault and corresponding backthrust (here named the Chonta fault system). Our cross-section reconstruction and geochronological data indicate that the region is a critical, possibly unique, zone of the broader NE-directed Marañon fold-thrust belt where pre-Neogene synorogenic sediments and their associated structures are preserved. We interpret this combined structural and basin system as an Eocene-age (Incaic) frontal thrust belt and corresponding foredeep to wedge-top depozone in central Peru. As one of the better-constrained segments of the Marañon fold-thrust belt, this zone provides insight into potential linkages with elusive early Cenozoic (Incaic) structures and foreland basin fill of the Western Cordillera and Altiplano farther south in the central Andean plateau.

  18. The belt of metagabbros of La Pampa: Lower Paleozoic back-arc magmatism in south-central Argentina (United States)

    Chernicoff, Carlos J.; Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Villar, Luisa M.; Chemale, Farid, Jr.; Hernández, Laura


    Combined geological, geochronological, geochemical and geophysical studies have led to identification of a large (˜300 km long, ˜5 km wide) N-S trending belt of metagabbros in the province of La Pampa, south-central Argentina. This belt, though only poorly exposed in the localities of Valle Daza and Sierra de Lonco Vaca, stands out in the geophysical data (aeromagnetics and gravity). Modeling of the aeromagnetic data permits estimation of the geometry of the belt of metagabbros and surrounding rocks. The main rock type exposed is metagabbros with relict magmatic nucleii where layering is preserved. A counterclockwise P-T evolution affected these rocks, i.e., during the Middle Ordovician the protolith reached an initial granulite facies of metamorphism (M1), evolving to amphibolite facies (M2). During the Upper Devonian, a retrograde, greenschist facies metamorphism (M3) partially affected the metagabbros. The whole-rock Sm-Nd data suggest a juvenile source from a depleted mantle, with model ages ranging from 552 to 574 Ma, and positive Epsilon values of 6.51-6.82. A crystallization age of 480 Ma is based on geological considerations, i.e. geochronological data of the host rocks as well as comparisons with the Las Aguilas mafic-ultramafic belt of Sierra de San Luis (central Argentina). The geochemical studies indicate an enriched MORB and back-arc signature. The La Pampa metagabbros are interpreted to be originated as a result of the extension that took place in a back-arc setting coevally with the Famatinian magmatic arc (very poorly exposed in the western part of the study area). The extensional event was 'aborted' by the collision of the Cuyania terrane with Pampia-Gondwana in the Middle Ordovician, causing deformation and metamorphism throughout the arc-back-arc region. The similarities between the La Pampa metagabbros and the mafic-ultramafic Las Aguilas belt of the Sierra de San Luis are very conspicuous, for example, the age (Lower Paleozoic), geochemical

  19. The impact of seat-belts in limiting the severity of injuries in patients presenting to a university hospital in the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumuyiwa Joshua Ogundele


    Full Text Available Background: Road traffic injuries are major public health problems and a leading cause of death and injury around the world. Approximately 1.2 million people are killed each year in road crashes worldwide, with up to 50 million more injured. Over 95% of these deaths and injuries occur in the low- and middle-income countries of the world. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of the use of seat-belts in reducing the severity of injuries from road traffic crashes and to determine the compliance and awareness of the importance of the use of seat-belts among Nigerian motorists. Patients and Methods: The injury patterns and outcome of care in 140 patients who were seen at the emergency department of our tertiary hospital were evaluated. Initial care and resuscitation was carried out on all patients using the advanced trauma life support protocol. Results: A total of 81 (57% patients used seat-belts, while 59 (42.1% did not. Nineteen (13.6% patients died as a result of their injuries; 4 (21.1% of these had used seat-belts, while 15 (79% had not ( P = 0.001. The mortality rate of 79% for patients who did not use seat-belt was statistically significant. Conclusions: The seat-belt is an effective safety tool that not only saves lives, but also significantly reduces the severity of the injury that a vehicle occupant may have sustained if they were not wearing the device. More public enlightenment is needed to increase the awareness and compliance of use of seat-belts among Nigerian motorists.

  20. You Better Recognize!: The Arts as Social Justice for African American Students (United States)

    Hanley, Mary Stone


    Social justice is a complex theory and practice that includes the equitable redistribution of resources and the recognition of culture. This is a report about the Tubman Theater Project, a culturally relevant drama program in which African American middle and high school students confronted racism and classism, as well as their unexamined…

  1. Correlating Parental Involvement and Mathematics Achievement of African American Eighth-Grade Students (United States)

    Oyerinde, Bolanle Adenike


    Low involvement of African American parents in middle school education is a concern in a school district in the southeastern United States. The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the relationships between the explanatory variables of parental involvement, socioeconomic status, and level of education, and the achievement of…

  2. Latinas and African American Women at Work: Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality. (United States)

    Browne, Irene, Ed.

    The 13 chapters of this book, written by various sociologists, document how race and gender intersect to put African American and Latina women at a disadvantage in the workplace. The articles encompass 30 years of change for women at all levels of the workforce, from those who spend time on the welfare rolls to middle class professionals, and look…

  3. Hysteresis in the Central African Rainforest (United States)

    Pietsch, Stephan Alexander; Elias Bednar, Johannes; Gautam, Sishir; Petritsch, Richard; Schier, Franziska; Stanzl, Patrick


    Past climate change caused severe disturbances of the Central African rainforest belt, with forest fragmentation and re-expansion due to drier and wetter climate conditions. Besides climate, human induced forest degradation affected biodiversity, structure and carbon storage of Congo basin rainforests. Information on climatically stable, mature rainforest, unaffected by human induced disturbances, provides means of assessing the impact of forest degradation and may serve as benchmarks of carbon carrying capacity over regions with similar site and climate conditions. BioGeoChemical (BGC) ecosystem models explicitly consider the impacts of site and climate conditions and may assess benchmark levels over regions devoid of undisturbed conditions. We will present a BGC-model validation for the Western Congolian Lowland Rainforest (WCLRF) using field data from a recently confirmed forest refuge, show model - data comparisons for disturbed und undisturbed forests under different site and climate conditions as well as for sites with repeated assessment of biodiversity and standing biomass during recovery from intensive exploitation. We will present climatic thresholds for WCLRF stability, analyse the relationship between resilience, standing C-stocks and change in climate and finally provide evidence of hysteresis.

  4. Modulation of forelimb and hindlimb muscle activity during quadrupedal tied-belt and split-belt locomotion in intact cats. (United States)

    Frigon, A; Thibaudier, Y; Hurteau, M-F


    The modulation of the neural output to forelimb and hindlimb muscles when the left and right sides step at different speeds from one another in quadrupeds was assessed by obtaining electromyography (EMG) in seven intact adult cats during split-belt locomotion. To determine if changes in EMG during split-belt locomotion were modulated according to the speed of the belt the limb was stepping on, values were compared to those obtained during tied-belt locomotion (equal left-right speeds) at matched speeds. Cats were chronically implanted for EMG, which was obtained from six muscles: biceps brachii, triceps brachii, flexor carpi ulnaris, sartorius, vastus lateralis and medial gastrocnemius. During tied-belt locomotion, cats stepped from 0.4 to 1.0m/s in 0.1m/s increments whereas during split-belt locomotion, cats stepped with left-right speed differences of 0.1 to 0.4m/s in 0.1m/s increments. During tied-belt locomotion, EMG burst durations and mean EMG amplitudes of all muscles respectively decreased and increased with increasing speed. During split-belt locomotion, there was a clear differential modulation of the EMG patterns between flexors and extensors and between the slow and fast sides. Changes in the EMG pattern of some muscles could be explained by the speed of the belt the limb was stepping on, while in other muscles there were clear dissociations from tied-belt values at matched speeds. Therefore, results show that EMG patterns during split-belt locomotion are modulated to meet task requirements partly via signals related to the stepping speed of the homonymous limb and from the other limbs.

  5. Safety belt usage in Finland and in other Nordic countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valtonen, J.


    Legislation has played a significant role in increasing safety belt usage in Finland and in the other Nordic countries. Publicity and enforcement have, however, been required to support the legislation. The development of safety belt regulations has been nearly similar in all these countries, both i

  6. Canadian seat belt wearing rates, promotion programs, and future directions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant, B.A.


    On the basis of a national driver seat belt survey conducted in Canada each year, the most important results are presented. A number of programmes for increasing seat belt use has been evaluated in Canada. Finally, a description is given of some of the current and planned activities within Canada wh

  7. Ambient Response Analysis of the Great Belt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Frandsen, J. B.; Andersen, P.


    In this paper an ambient response analysis of the Great Belt Bridge is presented. The Great Belt Bridge is one of the largest suspension bridges in the world, and the analysis was carried out in order to investigate the possibilities of estimating reliable damping values from the ambient response...

  8. Biomechanical considerations for abdominal loading by seat belt pretensioners. (United States)

    Rouhana, Stephen W; El-Jawahri, Raed E; Laituri, Tony R


    While seat belts are the most effective safety technology in vehicles today, there are continual efforts in the industry to improve their ability to reduce the risk of injury. In this paper, seat belt pretensioners and current trends towards more powerful systems were reviewed and analyzed. These more powerful systems may be, among other things, systems that develop higher belt forces, systems that remove slack from belt webbing at higher retraction speeds, or both. The analysis started with validation of the Ford Human Body Finite Element Model for use in evaluation of abdominal belt loading by pretensioners. The model was then used to show that those studies, done with lap-only belts, can be used to establish injury metrics for tests done with lap-shoulder belts. Then, previously-performed PMHS studies were used to develop AIS 2+ and AIS 3+ injury risk curves for abdominal interaction with seat belts via logistic regression and reliability analysis with interval censoring. Finally, some considerations were developed for a possible laboratory test to evaluate higher-powered pretensioners.

  9. Policy Implications from an Evaluation of Seat Belt Use Regulation. (United States)

    Desai, Anand; You, Min-Bong


    Effects of Ohio's mandatory seat belt law on seat belt use, number of car accidents, and number of fatal and severe injuries were evaluated for January 1982 through March 1988. The monthly average number of accident victims was 2,002. Implications for public policy formulation and implementation are discussed. (SLD)

  10. An Evaluation of the Seat Belt Education Campaign. (United States)

    Rochon, James

    A seat belt education campaign conducted in Canada to dispel myths surrounding seat belts and promote a better understanding of their functions was evaluated. Two telephone surveys, each comprised of 4,000 respondents, were conducted. The first was done immediately before the campaign and the second immediately succeeding the campaign. Also, a…

  11. Teaching Taekwondo in Physical Education: Incorporating the Color Belt System (United States)

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Hannon, James C.; Banks, Aaron


    Taekwondo is an excellent lifetime physical activity that provides both physical and mental benefits to its participants. The color belt system may be creatively used in physical education to encourage improvement in all learning domains. This article provides information on incorporating the color belt system into physical education, and provides…


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Human interlimb coordination and the adaptations in leg muscle activity were studied during walking on a treadmill with split belts. Four different belt speeds (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 m/s) were offered in all possible combinations for the left and right leg. Subjects adapted automatically to a differenc

  13. Human neuronal interlimb coordination during split-belt locomotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, V.; Zijlstra, W.G.; Duysens, J.E.J.


    Human interlimb coordination and the adaptations in leg muscle activity were studied during walking on a treadmill with split belts. Four different belt speeds (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 m/s) were offered in all possible combinations for the left and right leg. Subjects adapted automatically to a differenc

  14. Respiratory Belt Transducer Constructed Using a Singing Greeting Card Beeper (United States)

    Bhaskar, Anand; Subramani, Selvam; Ojha, Rajdeep


    An article by Belusic and Zupancic described the construction of a finger pulse sensor using a singing greeting card beeper. These authors felt that this beeper made of piezoelectric material could be easily modified to function as a respiratory belt transducer to monitor respiratory movements. Commercially available respiratory belt transducers,…

  15. On middle cube graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dalfo


    Full Text Available We study a family of graphs related to the $n$-cube. The middle cube graph of parameter k is the subgraph of $Q_{2k-1}$ induced by the set of vertices whose binary representation has either $k-1$ or $k$ number of ones. The middle cube graphs can be obtained from the well-known odd graphs by doubling their vertex set. Here we study some of the properties of the middle cube graphs in the light of the theory of distance-regular graphs. In particular, we completely determine their spectra (eigenvalues and their multiplicities, and associated eigenvectors.

  16. The role of pleistocene strike-slip tectonics in the neogene-quaternary evolution of the southern Apennine orogenic belt: implications for oil trap development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monaco, C.; Tortorici, L.; Catalano, S. [Universita degli Studi di Catania (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Geologiche; Paltrinieri, W.; Steel, N. [British Gas Rimi, Milan (Italy)


    The Southern Apennine orogenic belt is composed of allochthonous continental units derived from the African and European palaeo-margins of NeoTethys (the Adria and Corsica-Sardinia Blocks, respectively), together with oceanic units derived from the intervening NeoTethyan domain. The frontal part of the belt has been thrust over a foredeep-foreland system consisting of the Bradano Trough and Apulian Platform. The belt can be divided into two structural levels which are separated by a major detachment surface. The upper level consists of a multilayer complex made up of allochthonous NeoTethyan nappes; these were deformed during oceanic subduction, and are now emplaced on the Adria Block as a consequence of continent-continent collision. The lower structural level is characterised by large-scale duplexes involving the Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary cover of the Adria Block which in recent years has formed an important target for oil exploration. On top of these allochthonous terranes, a series of small Plio-Pleistocene basins developed during the final phases of the thrust belt's migration into the foreland. During the last stages of orogenesis, thrust migration became locked as a result of collisional thickening of the continental crust, and deformation in the southern Apennines was taken up by strike-slip faults which now cut across the fold and thrust belt. In this paper, we describe the major Pleistocene strike-slip structures in the southern Apennines between the Pollino Mountains in the south and the Potenza region in the north, and investigate the role of wrench tectonics in the belt's Neogene-Quaternary evolution. The study combines field mapping with analyses of satellite images and aerial photographs. Sinistral WNW-ESE trending strike-slip faults are accommodated by thrusts and folds which cross-cut the preexisting tectonic layering, giving rise to an interference pattern in which culminations may act as structural traps suitable for oil and gas

  17. Seeking the Middle Way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Trevor Maisiri


    @@ THE involvement of the African Union (AU) in Cote d'Ivoire has indeed further exposed the already entrenched perception of the complexity of conflict mediation processes across the continent.These processes require capacity for contextualization as well as the need for instilled urgency and the AU has thus been faced with such challenges.

  18. Landscape distribution characteristics of northern foothill belts of Tianshan Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The foothill belts of Tianshan Mountains are about 280 km long and 60 km wide, and the study area extends from Kuitun city to Fukang city. They are transitional belts between mountains and plains, appearing in three rows of folds with different morphologies and their age becoming younger from south to north. Based on GIS and RS methods, and materials of the previous researchers, this paper deals with the genetics of the foothill belts and their landscape features resulting from folding by neotectonic movements, and also describes their length, width and slope by remote sensing image interpretation. The characteristics of the foothill belts are found to be very important for the surrounding environment by preventing groundwater from flowing into plains, changing groundwater, increasing flow of surface runoff, in addition to their roles in protecting the surrounding environment. The purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth understanding of the foothill belts and influence on its surrounding environment.

  19. Heads for shifting new generation of belt conveyors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembinski, M.


    New design of belt conveyors characterized by rigid section joints and conveyor to pontoon joints significantly influences loading of machines shifting belt conveyors to new locations. A new belt conveyor shifting machine head design, called SGP12 (selflocking head for vertical loads up to 120 kN) is described. Design is shown in 4 diagrams. It is stressed that in the SGP-12 the force clamping rollers on rails is automatically controlled depending on the height to which the rails are lifted. Clamping force is proportional to the height. This means of controlling the clamping force excludes damage to the head and reduces wear of the rollers. The SGP12 is, therefore, superior to the GP-12 shifting head of similar capacity. It is suggested that the SGP-12 is characterized by simple design, easier operation, higher reliability and greater safety. The SGP-12 can be used to shift belt conveyors with belts 2250 mm to 3000 mm wide.

  20. Detecting extrasolar asteroid belts through their microlensing signatures (United States)

    Lake, Ethan; Zheng, Zheng; Dong, Subo


    We propose that extrasolar asteroid belts can be detected through their gravitational microlensing signatures. Asteroid belt + star lens systems create so-called 'pseudo-caustics', regions in the source plane where the magnification exhibits a finite but discontinuous jump. These features allow such systems to generate distinctive signatures in the microlensing light curves for a wide range of belt configurations, with source trajectories as far as tenths of the Einstein ring radius from the centre of the lens. Sample light curves for a range of asteroid belt parameters are presented. In the near future, space-based microlensing surveys like WFIRST, which will have the power of detecting per cent-level changes in microlensing light curves even with subminute exposure times, may be able to discover extrasolar asteroid belts with masses of the order of an earth mass.

  1. Experimental Measurements of Belt Gears in Newly Developed Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Mascenik


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the alternative of determination of state of the belt gear. To realize themeasurements a newly developed device was designed for measurement and diagnostics of the belt gears. The main task is to detect the V-belt slip expressed by the coefficient of elastic creep and of specific slip with a measuring device. The measurements regarding can be performed if input revolutions of the electric motor and torque of the belt gear are constant whereas the tensioning force of the belt gear changes. It is also possible to perform the measurement if the input revolutions of the electric motor and the tensioning forces are constant and the torque changes.

  2. a Wave Model for a Pneumatic Tyre Belt (United States)



    A one-dimensional wave equation of an infinite flattened tyre belt is generated. The belt vibration is controlled by bending, tension, shear and the sidewall stiffness. The dispersion relations for two waves in the belt are calculated and used to find both the input impedance and attenuation on a tyre belt of infinite extent. Tension and the sidewall controls the deformation and stiffness below 100Hz. Waves propagate around the belt above this frequency. The wave speeds due to bending and shear were predicted and measured. The model presented here should be valid for the prediction of tyre response above about 400 Hz when for a car tyre the modal behaviour is observed to cease. In this high-frequency region, the tyre at the input appears to be of infinite extent.

  3. Nonoperative management of pediatric aortic injury with seat belt syndrome. (United States)

    Parrish, Dan W; Barnhorst, Amanda; Trebska-McGowan, Katarzyna; Amendola, Michael; Haynes, Jeffrey H


    "Seat belt syndrome" was first described by Garret and Braunstein in 1962. The syndrome involves skin and abdominal wall ecchymosis (seat belt sign) intra-abdominal solid organ and visceral injuries, as well as Chance fractures (compression and/or wedging deformity of the anterior portion of the vertebral body with disruption or fracture of the posterior elements, generally at L1-L3). We present a case of a 12-year-old male involved in a high-speed motor vehicle collision wearing only a lap belt resulting in seat belt syndrome, with disruption of the abdominal wall, mesenteric avulsion with multiple intestinal perforations, abdominal aortic dissection, and an L2 Chance fracture with cord transection. Intraoperative decision making is outlined with this scenario of complex injuries, and the literature of seat belt syndrome associated with blunt aortic injuries and its management is reviewed.

  4. Survey of current situation in radiation belt modeling (United States)

    Fung, Shing F.


    The study of Earth's radiation belts is one of the oldest subjects in space physics. Despite the tremendous progress made in the last four decades, we still lack a complete understanding of the radiation belts in terms of their configurations, dynamics, and detailed physical accounts of their sources and sinks. The static nature of early empirical trapped radiation models, for examples, the NASA AP-8 and AE-8 models, renders those models inappropriate for predicting short-term radiation belt behaviors associated with geomagnetic storms and substorms. Due to incomplete data coverage, these models are also inaccurate at low altitudes (e.g., radiation data from modern space missions and advancement in physical modeling and data management techniques have now allowed the development of new empirical and physical radiation belt models. In this paper, we will review the status of modern radiation belt modeling. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  5. Radiation-belt dynamics during solar minimum. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussenhoven, M.S.; Mullen, E.G.; Holeman, E.


    Two types of temporal variation in the radiation belts are studied using low altitude data taken onboard the DMSP F7 satellite: those associated with the solar cycle and those associated with large magnetic storm effects. Over a three-year period from 1984 to 1987 and encompassing solar minimum, the protons in the heart of the inner belt increased at a rate of approximately 6% per year. Over the same period, outer zone electron enhancements declined both in number and peak intensity. During the large magnetic storm of February 1986, following the period of peak ring current intensity, a second proton belt with energies up to 50 MeV was found at magnetic latitudes between 45 deg. and 55 deg. The belt lasted for more than 100 days. The slot region between the inner and outer electron belts collapsed by the merging of the two populations and did not reform for 40 days.

  6. A Study on the Vibration of the Charging Belt in an Electrostatic Accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The vibration of the charging belt in an electrostatic accelerator has intense influences on the accelerator operation. A calculating model was set up in this paper to study the belt vibration. The results show that the belt tension, belt velocity and belt current all contribute to the belt vibration. There is an optimal relationship among the three factors by which the belt would run most smoothly. There exists a minimum value of optimal tension for various belt velocities. The vibrating frequency of the is generally around several Hz.

  7. The African Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas; Mandrup, Bjørn


    . Moreover, the ‘African Security Architecture’, of which it is the central component, also includes sub-regional organisations to which responsibility is to be devolved for dealing with armed confl ict and other matters. These so-called Regional Economic Communities (RECs) are, likewise, constantly changing......The African Union (AU) is a young international organisation, founded in 2002, which is still in the process of setting up its various institutions, while constantly having to face up to new challenges, such as civil wars breaking out and military coups being undertaken in its member states......, just as they have very different strengths. Hence, any account of the AU and the RECs can only provide a ‘snapshot’ of the organisation at any given time, one which may soon become outdated. In contrast with regional and sub-regional organisations in the North, those in Africa are facing an additional...

  8. Steps to African Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The development of Africa is vital to the world’s sustainable development.However,African countries still face key challenges in achieving the meaningful expansion of their economies.At the High-Level Symposium on China-Africa Investment Cooperation in Xiamen,southeast China’s Fujian Province,held from September 8 to 10,Chen Deming,Minister of Commerce of China,elaborates on these challenges and sees

  9. Quiet time enhancements over African latitudes (United States)

    Orford, Nicola; Katamzi, Zama; Buresova, Dalia


    F2 layer disturbances not related to geomagnetic activity are known as quiet time enhancements (QTEs). The phenomenon of QTEs has not yet been studied over African latitudes. We therefore explore the occurrence of QTEs over Africa in order to expand our knowledge on the behaviour of the ionosphere over this region. Several GPS stations in the middle to equatorial latitudes, during the solar minimum (2009) and near solar maximum (2013), are used. This data was examined for possible trends in variation with solar cycle, season and latitude as well as time of commencement of enhancements. Over the southern mid-latitude region of Africa we have observed that the QTEs are more likely to commence during the night in both solar minimum and maximum, however a slightly larger portion of daytime commencements during solar minimum than during solar maximum were observed. The total number of enhancements for the solar minimum period appears greater than during solar maximum. A seasonal trend is seen with the maximum number of enhancements occurring in summer during solar minimum and in winter during solar maximum. We explore further whether these trends are mirrored or different at low latitude/equatorial African regions.

  10. Human African trypanosomiasis. (United States)

    Lejon, Veerle; Bentivoglio, Marina; Franco, José Ramon


    Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is a neglected tropical disease that affects populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by infection with the gambiense and rhodesiense subspecies of the extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, and is transmitted to humans by bites of infected tsetse flies. The disease evolves in two stages, the hemolymphatic and meningoencephalitic stages, the latter being defined by central nervous system infection after trypanosomal traversal of the blood-brain barrier. African trypanosomiasis, which leads to severe neuroinflammation, is fatal without treatment, but the available drugs are toxic and complicated to administer. The choice of medication is determined by the infecting parasite subspecies and disease stage. Clinical features include a constellation of nonspecific symptoms and signs with evolving neurological and psychiatric alterations and characteristic sleep-wake disturbances. Because of the clinical profile variability and insidiously progressive central nervous system involvement, disease staging is currently based on cerebrospinal fluid examination, which is usually performed after the finding of trypanosomes in blood or other body fluids. No vaccine being available, control of human African trypanosomiasis relies on diagnosis and treatment of infected patients, assisted by vector control. Better diagnostic tools and safer, easy to use drugs are needed to facilitate elimination of the disease.

  11. Diversity among African pygmies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando V Ramírez Rozzi

    Full Text Available Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies.

  12. Economic costs of fever to households in the middle belt of Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tawiah, Theresa; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Dwommoh, Rebecca Akua;


    BACKGROUND: Malaria is one of the main health problems in the sub-Saharan Africa accounting for approximately 198 million morbidity and close to 600,000 mortality cases. Households incur out-of-pocket expenditure for treatment and lose income as a result of not being able to work or care for family...

  13. Equilibria and Free Vibration of a Two-Pulley Belt-Driven System with Belt Bending Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieyu Ding


    Full Text Available Nonlinear equilibrium curvatures and free vibration characteristics of a two-pulley belt-driven system with belt bending stiffness and a one-way clutch are investigated. With nonlinear dynamical tension, the transverse vibrations of the translating belt spans and the rotation motions of the pulleys and the accessory shaft are coupled. Therefore, nonlinear piecewise discrete-continuous governing equations are established. Considering the bending stiffness of the translating belt spans, the belt spans are modeled as axially moving beams. The pattern of equilibria is a nontrivial solution. Furthermore, the nontrivial equilibriums of the dynamical system are numerically determined by using two different approaches. The governing equations of the vibration near the equilibrium solutions are derived by introducing a coordinate transform. The natural frequencies of the dynamical systems are studied by using the Galerkin method with various truncations and the differential and integral quadrature methods. Moreover, the convergence of the Galerkin truncation is investigated. Numerical results reveal that the study needs 16 terms after truncation in order to determine the free vibration characteristics of the pulley-belt system with the belt bending stiffness. Furthermore, the first five natural frequencies are very sensitive to the bending stiffness of the translating belt.

  14. Socioeconomic Status, Parenting, and Externalizing Problems in African American Single-Mother Homes: A Person-Oriented Approach


    Anton, Margaret T.; Jones, Deborah J.; Youngstrom, Eric A.


    African American youth, particularly those from single-mother homes, are overrepresented in statistics on externalizing problems. The family is a central context in which to understand externalizing problems; however, reliance on variable-oriented approaches to the study of parenting, which originate from work with intact, middle-income, European American families, may obscure important information regarding variability in parenting styles among African American single mothers, and in turn, v...

  15. Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior Problems, Peer Affiliations, and Bullying Involvement across the Transition to Middle School (United States)

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Motoca, Luci M.; Leung, Man-Chi; Hutchins, Bryan C.; Brooks, Debbie S.; Hall, Cristin M.


    Continuity and change in children's involvement in bullying was examined across the transition to middle school in relation to externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in fifth grade and peer affiliations in fifth and sixth grades. The sample consisted of 533 students (223 boys, 310 girls) with 72% European American, 25% African American,…

  16. Middle School Youth: Satisfaction with and Responses to a Dating Violence and Sexual Assault Prevention Program (United States)

    Elias-Lambert, Nada; Black, Beverly; Sharma, Yasoda


    This study examined how group composition influences students' level of satisfaction with a dating violence and sexual assault prevention program. A 10- to 12-session program was presented to 396 urban African American middle school students in mixed- and same-gender groups. Both males and females were significantly more satisfied with the…

  17. Institution Building for African Regionalism


    Khadiagala, Gilbert M.


    Since the 1960s, African states have embraced regional integration as a vital mechanism for political cooperation and for pooling resources to overcome problems of small and fragmented economies. In building meaningful institutions for regionalism, however, Africans have faced the challenges of reconciling the diversities of culture, geography, and politics. As a result, African regional institutions are characterized by multiple and competing mandates and weak institutionalization. This stud...

  18. Personal Safety and Teacher/Student Relationships Viewed through Black/White Framework in a Suburban Middle School, an Exploratory Study (United States)

    Mester, Dana C.; Spruill, Sherill A.; Giani, Joseph; Morote, Elsa-Sofia; Inserra, Albert


    This study explored the perceptions of teacher-student relationships and personal student safety differences between Caucasian and African-American middle school students. The research was conducted using a survey in a suburban middle class school on Long Island, New York. Twenty-eight of 176 Caucasian students were chosen through random sampling…

  19. Rescuing Middle School Astronomy (United States)

    Mayo, L. A.; Janney, D.


    There is a crisis in education at the middle school level (Spellings, 2006). Recent studies point to large disparities in middle school performance in schools with high minority populations. The largest disparities exist in areas of math and science. Astronomy has a universal appeal for K-12 students but is rarely taught at the middle school level. When it is taught at all it is usually taught in isolation with few references in other classes such as other sciences (e.g. physics, biology, and chemistry), math, history, geography, music, art, or English. The problem is greatest in our most challenged school districts. With scores in reading and math below national averages in these schools and with most state achievement tests ignoring subjects like astronomy, there is little room in the school day to teach about the world outside our atmosphere. Add to this the exceedingly minimal training and education in astronomy that most middle school teachers have and it is a rare school that includes any astronomy teaching at all. In this presentation, we show how to develop and offer an astronomy education training program for middle school teachers encompassing a wide range of educational disciplines that are frequently taught at the middle school level. The prototype for this program was developed and launched in two of the most challenged and diverse school systems in the country; D.C. Public Schools, and Montgomery County (MD) Public Schools.

  20. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Understanding the influence of molecular outflows on Gould Belt clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Drabek-Maunder, E; Buckle, J V; Di Francesco, J; Richer, J


    Using JCMT Gould Belt Survey data from CO J=3-2 isotopologues, we present a meta-analysis of the outflows and energetics of star-forming regions in several Gould Belt clouds. The majority of the regions are strongly gravitationally bound. There is evidence that molecular outflows transport large quantities of momentum and energy. Outflow energies are at least 20 per cent of the total turbulent kinetic energies in all of the regions studied and greater than the turbulent energy in half of the regions. However, we find no evidence that outflows increase levels of turbulence, and there is no correlation between the outflow and turbulent energies. Even though outflows in some regions contribute significantly to maintaining turbulence levels against dissipation, this relies on outflows efficiently coupling to bulk motions. Other mechanisms (e.g. supernovae) must be the main drivers of turbulence in most if not all of these regions.

  1. Main-belt comets: sublimation-driven activity in the asteroid belt

    CERN Document Server

    Hsieh, Henry H


    Our knowledge of main-belt comets (MBCs), which exhibit comet-like activity likely due to the sublimation of volatile ices, yet orbit in the main asteroid belt, has increased greatly since the discovery of the first known MBC, 133P/Elst-Pizarro, in 1996, and their recognition as a new class of solar system objects after the discovery of two more MBCs in 2005. I review work that has been done over the last 10 years to improve our understanding of these enigmatic objects, including the development of systematic discovery methods and diagnostics for distinguishing MBCs from disrupted asteroids (which exhibit comet-like activity due to physical disruptions such as impacts or rotational destabilization). I also discuss efforts to understand the dynamical and thermal properties of these objects.

  2. African Diaspora Associations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vammen, Ida Marie; Trans, Lars Ove


    Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically on their tr......Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically...

  3. East Central Uplift Belt of Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Mosuowandong ( Z3 ) and Dongdaohaizi (Z4) are two bidding blocks located in the east part of central uplift Belt, the hinterland of Junggar Basin. Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. It totally covers an area of 8 100km2. Topographically, the two blocks are quite gentle with elevation of 380-400 m on average. The north part is desert and the south area is good for farming. There are three ephemeral streams flowing across the desert from south to north. The ground water is buried at the depth ranging from 6 to 8 m. It belongs to continental climate with the annually averaged precipitation of 80 mm. The traffic is rather convenient in the south part of both blocks. There are several sand-paved roads and two asphalt roads connected with the highway from Karamay to Urumqi City.

  4. Subsurface Meridional Circulation in the Active Belts

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, I Gonzalez; Hill, F; Howe, R; Komm, R


    Temporal variations of the subsurface meridional flow with the solar cycle have been reported by several authors. The measurements are typically averaged over periods of time during which surface magnetic activity existed in the regions were the velocities are calculated. The present work examines the possible contamination of these measurements due to the extra velocity fields associated with active regions plus the uncertainties in the data obtained where strong magnetic fields are present. We perform a systematic analysis of more than five years of GONG data and compare meridional flows obtained by ring-diagram analysis before and after removing the areas of strong magnetic field. The overall trend of increased amplitude of the meridional flow towards solar minimum remains after removal of large areas associated with surface activity. We also find residual circulation toward the active belts that persist even after the removal of the surface magnetic activity, suggesting the existence of a global pattern o...

  5. NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe Mission (United States)

    Sibeck, David G.


    NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, comprising two identically-instrumented spacecraft, is scheduled for launch in May 2012. In addition to identifying and quantifying the processes responsible for energizing, transporting, and removing energetic particles from the Earth's Van Allen radiation, the mission will determine the characteristics of the ring current and its effect upon the magnetosphere as a whole. The distances separating the two RBSP spacecraft will vary as they move along their 1000 km altitude x 5.8 RE geocentric orbits in order to enable the spacecraft to separate spatial from temporal effects, measure gradients that help identify particle sources, and determine the spatial extent of a wide array of phenomena. This talk explores the scientific objectives of the mission and the manner by which the mission has been tailored to achieve them.

  6. Ambient tremors in a collisional orogenic belt (United States)

    Chuang, Lindsay Yuling; Chen, Kate Huihsuan; Wech, Aaron G.; Byrne, Timothy; Peng, Wei


    Deep-seated tectonic tremors have been regarded as an observation tied to interconnected fluids at depth, which have been well documented in worldwide subduction zones and transform faults but not in a collisional mountain belt. In this study we explore the general features of collisional tremors in Taiwan and discuss the possible generation mechanism. In the 4 year data, we find 231 ambient tremor episodes with durations ranging from 5 to 30 min. In addition to a coseismic slip-induced stress change from nearby major earthquake, increased tremor rate is also highly correlated with the active, normal faulting earthquake swarms at the shallower depth. Both the tremor and earthquake swarm activities are confined in a small, area where the high attenuation, high thermal anomaly, the boundary between high and low resistivity, and localized veins on the surfaces distributed, suggesting the involvement of fluids from metamorphic dehydration within the orogen.

  7. Exhalative Lead-Zinc Deposits in Shallow Sea, Southern Xicheng Belt, Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xinyou; WANG Dongbo; WEI Zhiguo; QIU Xiaoping; WANG Ruiting


    SEDEX-type lead-zinc deposits in the southern belt of the Xicheng Devonian basin, GansuProvince has been already identified. However, the sedimentary environment of the limestone andphilite of the Xihanshui Group within which the lead-zinc deposits occur is littoral and shallow sea.This is different from those in the northern belt such as the Changba-Lijiagou lead-zinc deposits, whichwere formed in deep sea. The reef and bioclastic limestone are widespread in the southern belt.Particularly they are associated with lead-zinc ores and there are no striae and banding but massive ordisseminated structures. It is discovered that the black chimney consists of sphalerite, ankerite, pyriteand galena, in which black, coarse and radial sphalerite occurs as irregularly veins or cylindricafitywith a width of 10-40 cm in the center, and it is surround by fine ankerite and minor celestite withribbon structure. The immediate wall rock of the chimney, reef limestone, was unaltered and theoutside reef and bioclastic limestone were intensively silicified. Those silicified reef and bioclasticlimestone host disseminated lead-zinc ores of the Lnoba and Bijiashan type. It is concluded that theexhalative system occurred in a shallow sea in the Givetian of the middle Devonian. Brine is boiled dueto low pressure, and a great deal of lead and zinc was dispersed in the interface between the limestoneand phyllite and formed a source bed. In the Triassic period, meta-hydrothermai fluids leached andextracted metals from the source bed, and then moved and mineralized in open space such as archesand inverse limbs of anticlines, and formed massive and vein ores such as the Jianyagou andDengjiashan type deposits.

  8. Geometry, kinematics and evolution of the Tongbai orogenic belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Shaoying; XU Bei; WANG Changqiu; ZHAN Sheng; DENG Rongjing


    The Tongbai orogenic belt (TOB) is composed of six tectonic units. From south to north these units are: Tongbai gneiss rise (TGR); Hongyihe-Luozhuang eclogite belt (HLE); Maopo-Hujiazhai igneous rock belt (MHI); Zhoujiawan flysch belt (ZFB); Yangzhuang greenschist belt (YGB); and Dongjiazhuang marble belt (DMB).The geometry and kinematic images of the TOB include: the antiformal structures caused by a later uplift process, the top-to-north ductile shear structure that related to a process that the ultrahigh pressure rocks are brought to surface, the top-to-south ductile shear thrust and the sinistrial shear structures related to a south-north direction compression, and the east-west direction fold structures in the upper crust. In the view of the multistage subduction-collision orogenic belt, according to the characters of petrology and its distribution, geometry, kinematics and structural chronology in these tectonic units, tectonic evolution of the TOB can be divided into four stages: oceanic crust subduction during 400-300 Ma, continental collision during 270-250 Ma, continental deep subduction and uplift during 250-205 Ma and doming deformation during 200-185 Ma.

  9. A preliminary study of NW Zhejiang foreland fold and thrust belt in Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖文交; 李继亮; 何海清; 陈海泓


    The Upper Permian Dalong Formation (P2d) and Changxing Formation (P2c), and the Lower Tri-assic Zhengtang Formation (Tiz) are of deep-water turbidites. The sedimentary features of the NW Zhejiang are of SE-dipping passive continental margin from the Paleozoic to the early Triassic. Together with the foreland molasse basin during the late Triassic (T3w), the tectonics of the NW Zhejiang is characterised by a tectogenesis which took place in the middle Triassic. From SE to NW, the structural style varies from multi-duplex, antiformal stack to imbricate fans, and then to Jura Mountain-type fold zone with fold-style varying gradually from large-scale tight fold to mid-scale chevron fold, then to cylindrical fold, reviewing a preliminary scenario of foreland fold and thrust belt. The space-distributed structures and the tectonic vergence indicate the significance of deformation in (T1-T3).

  10. Late-Neoproterozoic hydrothermal fluid activity in the Tandilia belt, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Martínez


    Full Text Available In the Barker - Villa Cacique area, Tandilia belt, alteration mineral assemblages were studied by petrography, XRD and EMPA at three different stratigraphic levels: (1 a phyllic alteration at the unconformity palaeoproterozoic basement-neoproterozoic sedimentary succession (TLPU; (2 an advanced argillic alteration in the Las Águilas Formation (middle level; and (3 a phyllic alteration on pyroclastic rocks of the Olavarría Formation (upper level. Special emphasize was placed on the chemical characterization of K-white micas and chlorites. Secondary K-white micas of altered migmatites, from the Las Aguilas and Olavarría Formations have a low paragonite content (Na* 9.5 km for the entire sedimentary pile. Hot fluids would rise from deep-seated realms, metamorphic and/or hidden igneous sources. A correlation with a Brasiliano thermo-tectonic event is hypothesized.

  11. Depositional environment and provenance of Middle Siwalik sediments in Tista valley, Darjiling District, Eastern Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhik Kundu; Abdul Matin; Malay Mukul


    The frontal part of the active, wedge-shaped Indo-Eurasian collision boundary is defined by the Himalayan fold-and-thrust belt whose foreland basin accumulated sediments that eventually became part of the thrust belt and is presently exposed as the sedimentary rocks of the Siwalik Group. The rocks of the Siwalik Group have been extensively studied in the western and Nepal Himalaya and have been divided into the Lower, Middle and Upper Subgroups. In the Darjiling–Sikkim Himalaya, the Upper Siwalik sequence is not exposed and the Middle Siwalik Subgroup exposed in the Tista river valley of Darjiling Himalaya preserves a ∼325 m thick sequence of sandstone, conglomerate and shale. The Middle Siwalik section has been repeated by a number of north dipping thrusts. The sedimentary facies and facies associations within the lithostratigraphic column of the Middle Siwalik rocks show temporal repetition of sedimentary facies associations suggesting oscillation between proximal-, mid- and distal fan setups within a palaeo-alluvial fan depositional environment similar to the depositional setup of the Siwalik sediments in other parts of the Himalaya. These oscillations are probably due to a combination of foreland-ward movement of Himalayan thrusts, climatic variations and mountain-ward shift of fanapex due to erosion. The Middle Siwalik sediments were derived from Higher- and Lesser Himalayan rocks. Mineral characteristics and modal analysis suggest that sedimentation occurred in humid climatic conditions similar to the moist humid climate of the present day Eastern Himalaya.

  12. The African Diaspora, Civil Society and African Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opoku-Mensah, Paul Yaw

    This paper, a work-in-progress, makes a contribution to the discussions on the appropriate modalities for incorporating the African diaspora in the African integration project.  It argues that the most appropriate entry points for incorporating the African diaspora into the integration project...... might not, necessarily, be in the formal political structures, although this is important. To the contrary, the most effective and sustainable might be within civil society---that is the links between the peoples and organizations of Africa and the diaspora. Using the case of the African academy......-- as an institution of civil society--- the paper outlines a conceptual framework for incorporating the diaspora into the African integration project....

  13. Resistance and other parameters of belt conveyor shifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembinski, M.


    Discusses a method developed by Poltegor for calculating energy consumption of belt conveyor shifting in brown coal surface mines in Poland. A program for simulating effects of all significant factors that represent the environment, physical and mechanical properties of soil, effects of weather and atmospheric precipitations, design of belt conveyors, effects of soil or coal buildup and conveyor wear is used. Indices that describe effects of major groups of factors are used for calculating resistance to belt conveyor shifting considering local conditions. Investigations carried out in the Belchatow brown coal mine show the method to be accurate and reliable.

  14. North Florida is part of the stroke belt.


    Siegel, P. Z.; Wolfe, L E; Wilcox, D.; Deeb, L C


    Florida is the only State in the southeastern United States that is not part of the "stroke belt." The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institutes of Health, defines the stroke belt as those States with an age-adjusted stroke mortality rate for the years 1979 to 1981 that is more than 10 percent above the national annual rate of 40.3 per 100,000 population. By reproducing at the county level the methods that were used at the State level to describe the stroke belt, ...

  15. Human neuronal interlimb coordination during split-belt locomotion


    Dietz, V; Zijlstra, W G; Duysens, J.E.J.


    Human interlimb coordination and the adaptations in leg muscle activity were studied during walking on a treadmill with split belts. Four different belt speeds (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 m/s) were offered in all possible combinations for the left and right leg. Subjects adapted automatically to a difference in belt speed within 10–20 stride cycles.This adaptation was achieved by a reorganization of the stride cycle with a relative shortening of the duration of the support and lengthening of the swin...

  16. Radiation Belt Storm Probes: Resolving Fundamental Physics with Practical Consequences (United States)

    Ukhorskiy, Aleksandr Y.; Mauk, Barry H.; Fox, Nicola J.; Sibeck, David G.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.


    The fundamental processes that energize, transport, and cause the loss of charged particles operate throughout the universe at locations as diverse as magnetized planets, the solar wind, our Sun, and other stars. The same processes operate within our immediate environment, the Earth's radiation belts. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission will provide coordinated two-spacecraft observations to obtain understanding of these fundamental processes controlling the dynamic variability of the near-Earth radiation environment. In this paper we discuss some of the profound mysteries of the radiation belt physics that will be addressed by RBSP and briefly describe the mission and its goals.

  17. Power Transmission Through Timing Belt In Two Wheeler Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurumurthy Veerapathiran


    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of noise and friction on performance of the chain drive system for motor bikes. Experiment shows that chain transmission in chain drive system leads to poor overall performance, due to its noise and chain gets loose due to aging and sprockets wear due to chain friction etc., the proposed system consists of drive and driven pulley with timing belt transmission. Compared to conventional method, proposed method give improved tension in pulleys and belt by the additional arrangement called belt tensioner. This gives good overall performance of the system, and reduces noise, vibration and gives high transmission speed.

  18. Middle managers service leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Roberto Lescano Duncan


    Full Text Available A big challenge in modern service organization is to focus on customers and to forge their satisfaction and loyalty. Innovation, information technology and value added are decisive factors, however the main aspect to consider is the human factor. It is necessary to focus on people in order to improve the service capability within the organization.Middle manager is the link between the strategy designed by top management and the execution to deliver services, that is realized by employees guided by leaders of middle level. Our study is focused on middle manager service orientation as the pillar to get a customer focus and to forge the service employees' performance.We consider that middle managers have to asume a service leadership in order to foster the productivity and employees' commitment. In that sense we focus especially on middle managers' main roles. Those are the key aspect to deploy a service culture, and at the same time to promote employees' satisfaction that drives their performance and development.

  19. Evolution of fold-thrust belts and Cenozoic uplifting of the South Tianshan Mountain range in the Kuqa region, Northwest China (United States)

    Wen, Lei; Li, Yue-Jun; Zhang, Guang-Ya; Tian, Zuo-Ji; Peng, Geng-Xin; Qiu, Bin; Huang, Zhi-Bin; Luo, Jun-Cheng; Zhang, Qiang


    The evolution of the Kuqa fold-thrust belt is accompanied with the Cenozoic uplifting of South Tianshan Mountain range. The critical Coubomb wedge theory can be well applied to the structural evolution of the Kuqa fold-thrust belt where the décollement structures are well developed. Following the initial hypotheses of this theory, with the base of the taper wedge (not the sea level) as the reference level, we propose a geometric relationship between the evolution of fold-thrust belt and tectonic uplifting of orogen, and deduce a calculation formula between orogen tectonic uplifting amount (very different from the topographic uplifting) (∂H), fold-thrust belt extending distance (∂S) and crustal shortening amount (∂L): ∂H = (∂S - ∂L) ∗ tan(α + ∂α) + [tan(α + ∂α)/tanα - 1] ∗ H0. In this paper we select two representative seismic profiles across the Kuqa fold-thrust belt to reconstruct the structural evolution, and use the calculation formula to get the uplifting amount of the South Tianshan Mountain range in Kuqa region during two geological periods. The results showed: during the end of Miocene to the end of Pliocene, the uplifting amount of the South Tianshan Mountain range in the middle segment of Kuqa (∂HM1) is 4.1 km; during the end of Pliocene to the present, the uplifting amount of the South Tianshan Mountain range in the middle segment of Kuqa (∂HM2) is 4.7 km, and in the east segment of Kuqa (∂HE) is 5.0 km.

  20. Detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data from the Liuling Group in the South Qinling belt: Provenance and tectonic implications (United States)

    Liao, Xiao-ying; Wang, Ya-wei; Liu, Liang; Wang, Chao; Santosh, M.


    The Liuling Group is exposed in the Northern part of the South Qinling orogenic belt. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb analysis of detrital zircons from the meta-sandstones in this Group yields ages ranging between 400 Ma and 3200 Ma, with three prominent age clusters at 500-400 Ma, 850-700 Ma and 1000-900 Ma. A few older zircon populations with U-Pb ages of 1750-1450 Ma, 2000 Ma and 2600-2400 Ma are also present. Age data integrated with cathodoluminescence, trace element data and εHf(t) values of zircon grains show that the Liuling sediments have a complex source. Source rocks mainly include Early Neoproterozoic and Early Paleozoic granitoids, together with minor ultra-high pressure/high pressure (HP-UHP) metamorphic rocks, and paragneiss in the North Qinling belt, and Middle-Late Neoproterozoic magmatic rocks in the South Qinling belt. The dominant population of detrital zircon grains with ages between 500 Ma and 400 Ma show the characteristics of both magmatic and metamorphic zircons. They show three age clusters at 497 Ma, 451 Ma, and ca. 420 Ma and show marked correlation with the three stages of Palaeozoic magmatism, as well as with the peak and retrograde HP-UHP metamorphic stages in the North Qinling belt. This correlation demonstrates that these Early Palaeozoic granitoids and HP-UHP metamorphic rocks in the North Qinling belt were already exhumed to the surface, underwent erosion prior to Middle Devonian time and were then deposited in an extensional basin. Based on the results from detrital zircon U-Pb dating, combined with geochemical data and the regional geology, the deposition of Liuling sediments is inferred to have occurred in a post-orogenic extensional basin, rather than a subduction-related fore-arc basin or a foreland basin formed during or after continental collision.

  1. A Call to African Unity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    This month's paper, written by Professor Mammo Muchie, examines the necessity for a pan-African monetary union.  Professor Muchie argues for the "the creation of a unified African strategy and unified approach to dealing with the outside donor world by neutralising the poison of money as honey...

  2. African Conservation Tillage Network Website


    African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT)


    Metadata only record Maintained by the African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT), this website provides information on Conservation Agriculture in an African context and gathered by stakeholders (NGOs) native to the continent. Resources on projects, practices, reports, and training courses are provided.

  3. Central African Republic. (United States)


    Focus in this discussion of the Central African Republic is on: geography; the people; history and political conditions; government; the economy; foreign relations; and relations with the US. The population of the Central African Republic totaled 2.7 million in 1985 with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate is 134/1000 with life expectancy at 49 years. The Central African Republic is at almost the precise center of Africa, about 640 km from the nearest ocean. More than 70% of the population live in rural areas. There are more than 80 ethnic groups, each with its own language. The precolonial history of the area was marked by successive waves of migration, of which little is known. These migrations are responsible for the complex ethnic and linguistic patterns today. United with Chad in 1906, it formed the Oubangui-Chari-Chad colony. In 1910, it became 1 of the 4 territories of the Federation of French Equatorial Africa, along with Chad, Congo, and Gabon. After World War II, the French Constitution of 1946 inaugurated the first of a series of reforms that led eventually to complete independence for all French territories in western and equatorial Africa. The nation became an autonomous republic within the newly established French Community on December 1, 1958, and acceded to complete independence as the Central Africa Republic on August 13, 1960. The government is made up of the executive and the judicial branches. The constitution and legislature remain suspended. All executive and legislative powers, as well as judicial oversight, are vested in the chief of state. The Central African Republic is 1 of the world's least developed countries, with an annual per capita income of $310. 85% of the population is engaged in subsistence farming. Diamonds account for nearly 1/3 of export earnings; the industrial sector is limited. The US terminated bilateral assistance programs in 1979, due to the human rights violations of the Bokassa regime, but modest

  4. Booster for African Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China’s investment is fueling African growth SINCE 2000,driven by the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation,China’s foreign direct investment(FDI) in Africa has been growing rapidly.In the face of the global financial crisis,which led to global FDI flows falling,China’s investment in Africa has been on a steady, upbeat rise without any interruption.In 2009,China’s direct investment in Africa reached $1.44 billion,of which nonfinancial direct investment soared by 55.4 percent from the previous year.Africa

  5. Understanding the Rise of African Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorem, Kaja Tvedten; Jeppesen, Søren; Hansen, Michael W.

    In light of recent enthusiasm over the African private sector, this paper reviews the existing empirical literature on successful African enterprises and proposes an analytical framework for understanding African firm success. Overall, it is argued that we need to develop an understanding...... of African firm strategy and performance that takes into account the specificities of the African business environment and African firm capabilities. The paper starts by juxtaposing the widespread pessimistic view of African business with more recent, optimistic studies on African firms’ performance....... The latter suggests that profound improvements in African business performance are indeed under way: with the private sector playing a more important role as an engine of growth, with the rise of a capable African entrepreneurial class, and with the emergence of dynamic and competitive African enterprises...

  6. The history of African trypanosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steverding Dietmar


    Full Text Available Abstract The prehistory of African trypanosomiasis indicates that the disease may have been an important selective factor in the evolution of hominids. Ancient history and medieval history reveal that African trypanosomiasis affected the lives of people living in sub-Saharan African at all times. Modern history of African trypanosomiasis revolves around the identification of the causative agents and the mode of transmission of the infection, and the development of drugs for treatment and methods for control of the disease. From the recent history of sleeping sickness we can learn that the disease can be controlled but probably not be eradicated. Current history of human African trypanosomiasis has shown that the production of anti-sleeping sickness drugs is not always guaranteed, and therefore, new, better and cheaper drugs are urgently required.

  7. Practical and medical aspects of the use of car seat belts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, A. & Kampen, L.T.B. van


    An analysis is made of the influence of use and non-use of seat belts on type and severity of injuries to drivers and of the influence of seat belt type on type and severity of injuries to drivers. Users of lap belts and users of 3-point belts enjoy a comparable and considerable reduction of injury

  8. 30 CFR 57.14131 - Seat belts for surface haulage trucks. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seat belts for surface haulage trucks. 57.14131... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14131 Seat belts for surface haulage trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be...

  9. Middle matching mining algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ping; CHEN Li


    A new algorithm for fast discovery of sequential patterns to solve the problems of too many candidate sets made by SPADE is presented, which is referred to as middle matching algorithm. Experiments on a large customer transaction database consisting of customer_id, transaction time, and transaction items demonstrate that the proposed algorithm performs better than SPADE attributed to its philosophy to generate a candidate set by matching two sequences in the middle place so as to reduce the number of the candidate sets.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Zhongli; DENG Yongfu; LIAO Guangyu


    The Jinping orogenic belt in Sichuan, China consists mainly of the Jinpingshan intracontinental thrust-nappe belt, foreland thrust-nappe belt and foreland uplift belt. Based on analyses about the characteristics of the structural units in this area, the authors propose in this paper that Chapuzi-Bazhe revival fault belt is the regional boundary fault, and points out that after the formation of the Pre-Sinian basement, the western edge of the Yangtze paraplatform was turned into the passive continental margin in Sinian to Triassic, then into the Mesozoic collision orogenic belt, and finally into the Cenozoic orogenic belt through intracontinental orogeny.

  11. East African ROAD (United States)

    Tekle, Kelali


    In the developing world astronomy had been treated as the science of elites. As a result of this overwhelming perception, astronomy compared with other applied sciences has got less attention and its role in development has been insignificant. However, the IAU General Assembly decision in 2009 opened new opportunity for countries and professionals to deeply look into Astronomy and its role in development. Then, the subsequent establishment of regional offices in the developing world is helping countries to integrate astronomy with other earth and space based sciences so as to progressively promote its scientific and development importance. Gradually nations have come to know that space is the frontier of tomorrow and the urgency of preeminence on space frontier starts at primary school and ascends to tertiary education. For this to happen, member nations in east African region have placed STEM education at the center of their education system. For instance, Ethiopian has changed University enrollment strategy to be in favor of science and engineering subjects, i.e. every year seventy percent of new University entrants join science and engineering fields while thirty percent social science and humanities. Such bold actions truly promote astronomy to be conceived as gateway to science and technology. To promote the concept of astronomy for development the East African regional office has actually aligned it activities to be in line with the focus areas identified by the IAU strategy (2010 to 2020).

  12. Bioenergy and African transformation. (United States)

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H


    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures.

  13. Wrench tectonics control on Neogene-Quaternary sedimentation along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt (United States)

    Pogacsas, Gyorgy; Juhász, Györgyi; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit; Simon, Szilvia; Lukács, Szilveszter; Csizmeg, János


    The Neogene Pannonian basin is underlain by a large orogenic collage which is built up by several tectonostratigraphic terrains. The basement of the Pannonian Basin became imbricate nappes during the Cretaceous Alpine collision. Nappes of Late Cretaceous in age have been proven below the Great Hungarian Plain (Grow et al 1994). The boundary of the two main terrains, the northwestern ALCAPA (Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian) and the southeastern TISZA, is the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt. It is the most significant neotectonic zone of the Pannonian Basin. The structural analysis of the middle section of the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt was carried out on a 120km x 50km area, between the Danube and the Tisza river, on the basis of interpretation of seismic data. The structural analysis of the Neogene-Quaternary sediments was supported by sequence stratigraphic interpretation of seismic, well log and core-sample data. Regional seismic profiles were both oriented in the dip direction, which highlights sediment supply routes into the basin, and strike-oriented. The studied segment of the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt consists of several long (some ten kilometres long) strike slip fault zones. The offset lengths of the individual strike slipe faults varies between a few and a dozens of kilometres. Activity along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt can be characterised by four periods, the size and shape of facies zones of each development period were controlled by tectonics: 1. During the early Miocene, the ALPACA moved eastward, bounded by sinistral strike-slipe system along its northern side and dextral strike-slipe fault system along its contact with the Southern Alps and the TISZA terrain. The largest movement took part during the Ottnangian-Karpatian (19-16.5 Ma). The TISZA unit moved northeastward over the remnant Carpathian Flysch Basin (Nemcok et al 2006). These terrains movements resulted in right lateral, convergent wide wrench along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt. The ALPACA

  14. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Laysan 2004 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at Laysan in the Northwest...

  15. Periumbilical allergic contact dermatitis: blue jeans or belt buckles? (United States)

    Byer, Tara T; Morrell, Dean S


    Nickel is the most ubiquitous contact allergen among children and adolescents. Metal blue jeans buttons and belts have been noted to cause nickel dermatitis around the umbilicus. For these children, traditional teaching is strict avoidance of all pants with metal snaps/buttons, particularly blue jeans. In this study we tested 90 pairs of blue jeans and 47 belts for nickel using the dimethylglyoxime spot test. Only 10% of blue jeans tested positive, while 53% of belts tested positive. Furthermore, 10 pairs of nickel-negative blue jeans remained negative after 10 washings. Overall we found no resistance to testing in clothing stores. From these results, we recommend that patients with allergic contact dermatitis secondary to nickel need not strictly avoid blue jeans and metal belt buckles. Rather, families should be encouraged to use the dimethylglyoxime spot test to test these items for nickel prior to purchase.

  16. Back belts in occupational setting: what are the evidences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcos Bernardes


    Full Text Available Although, widely used the mechanisms of action and the effectiveness of back belts in the prevention of occupational low back disorders remains uncertain, generating controversy about its use. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to do a critical literature review about back belts use in the prevention of occupational low back pain in the occupational setting. In order to do that, a bibliographic research in the following data basis: Medline, SciELO and LILACS was conducted. There is evidence that back belts use reduces spine range of motion, however the studies about intra-abdominal pressure and muscle activity presented contradictory results, as the epidemiologic studies, not allowing the recommendation of its use in the prevention of occupational low back pain. Based on this literature review it is suggested therefore, the implementation of new studies, to confirm or not the effectiveness of back belts as personal protective equipment, in the prevention of occupational low back disorders.

  17. "Abomination"--life as a Bible belt gay. (United States)

    Barton, Bernadette


    Drawing on observation, autoethnography, and audio-taped interviews, this article explores the religious backgrounds and experiences of Bible Belt gays. In the Bible Belt, Christianity is not confined to Sunday worship. Christian crosses, messages, paraphernalia, music, news, and attitudes permeate everyday settings. Consequently, Christian fundamentalist dogma about homosexuality-that homosexuals are bad, diseased, perverse, sinful, other, and inferior-is cumulatively bolstered within a variety of other social institutions and environments in the Bible Belt. Of the 46 lesbians and gay men interviewed for this study (age 18-74 years), most describe living through spirit-crushing experiences of isolation, abuse, and self-loathing. This article argues that the geographic region of the Bible Belt intersects with religious-based homophobia. Informants explained that negative social attitudes about homosexuality caused a range of harmful consequences in their lives including the fear of going to hell, depression, low self-esteem, and feelings of worthlessness.

  18. 5m Main Belt Asteroid Population Estimation Using Vesta Imagery (United States)

    Rynders, Michael; Trilling, David E.


    The Main Belt is the largest source of Near-Earth asteroids, but objects 2 pixels in diameter that were counted in a 33km 2 region to give a crater density. By knowing the crater density and making some reasonable assumptions about the orbital distribution of asteroids and the age of Vesta's surface, an estimate of the population of small asteroids in the inner main belt was made. It was found that the inner region of the main asteroid belt contains approximately 20 billion asteroids larger than 5 m. These results agree well with the measured inner Main Belt Size distribution derived by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, WISE (Masiero et al. 2011).

  19. Jupiter's radiation belt ions - A comparison of theory and observation (United States)

    Summers, Danny; Thorne, Richard M.; Mei, YI


    Radial profiles are constructed for the Jovian radiation belt flux-tube content Y-asterisk from the reported phase-space density of energetic particles obtained from Voyager 1 data over the range L = 6 to L = 9. These experimental profiles are compared with theoretical solutions for Y-asterisk from an interchange-diffusion model of the coupled radiation belt and Iogenic ion populations. Subject to certain limitations of the Voyager 1 data, the model solutions are found to be consistent with the data for a variety of input parameters. Model solutions are also found corresponding to radiation belt ions that are expected to be mainly responsible for the auroral energy input. Comparison of the present theoretical profiles with the data implies that the energetic radiation belt ions should have a peak loss rate within a factor of three of that for strong diffusion scattering.

  20. Design of MGA trajectories for main belt asteroid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔祜涛; 乔栋; 崔平远; 栾恩杰


    Asteroid exploration is one of the most sophisticated missions currently being investigated. Gravityassist trajectories have proven valuable in interplanetary missions such as the Pioneer, Voyager and Galileo. In this paper, we design interplanetary trajectory for main belt asteroid exploration mission with the Mars gravityassist (MGA) using "pork chop" plots and patched-conic theory and give some initial valuable trajectory parameters on main belt asteroid exploration mission with MGA.

  1. The Role of Plasma in Radiation Belt Loss. (United States)

    Jahn, J. M.; Bonnell, J. W.; Kurth, W. S.; Millan, R. M.; Goldstein, J.; Jaynes, A. N.; Blake, J. B.; Denton, R. E.


    The radiation belts are zones of relativistic electrons encircling the Earth. Their radial structure is controlled by the competition between source and loss processes. Most commonly, a two-belt structure prevails, though a more complicated three-belt structure - an inner belt plus two outer electron belts - have repeatedly been observed. The plasma conditions that enable and enhance loss-facilitating wave activity in the inner magnetosphere are still under discussion. Relativistic electrons have been thought to more easily resonate with electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves (EMIC) when the total plasma density is large (i.e., in the plasmasphere and plume). However, there is evidence that this interaction may be not as strong as thought, and that instead the field-aligned motion of lower energy ring current ions (up to a few 10's keV) may play a key role. Similarly, the exact influence of large heavy ion (O+) concentrations remains unsettled. We use 2.5+ years of Van Allen Probes observations to study the region of plasmasphere-outer belt overlap (and its vicinity). By now, the Van Allen Probes provide a complete and very dense coverage of the complete magnetosphere inside geosynchronous orbit We focus our interest on understanding the plasma conditions that can favor EMIC wave growth. We investigate the temperature anisotropy A (modified by plasma β) of the warm/hot plasma, and contrast it with the location specifics of the plasmasphere (i.e., very high total density) and the occurrence of high O+ concentrations in the overlap regions with the radiation belt(s). We present both average conditions for all parameters during a variety of geomagnetic conditions, and highlight specific loss and overlap events in an effort to establish favorable plasma conditions for relativistic electron loss during those times.

  2. 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop was held from 10 May to 18 June 2002 at Hangzhou Regional Center for Small Hydro Power(HRC). Attended altogether 9 participants from 5 African countries, i.e. Burundi, Nigeria, South African, Tanzania and Tunisia. This is the second training workshop on SHP that HRC conducted for African countries.

  3. The Gould Belt, the de Vaucouleurs-Dolidze Belt, and the Orion Arm


    Bobylev, V. V.; Bajkova, A. T.


    Based on masers with measured trigonometric parallaxes, we have redetermined the spatial orientation parameters of the Local (Orion) arm. Using 23 sources (the Gould Belt objects were excluded), we have found that their spatial distribution can be approximated by a very narrow ellipsoid elongated in the direction L_1=77.1+/-2.9^o whose symmetry plane is inclined to the Galactic plane at an angle of 5.6+/-0.2^o. The longitude of the ascending node of the symmetry plane is l_\\Omega=70+/-3^o. A ...

  4. Lithospheric seismic fabrics of Sulu ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Wencai; YANG; Wuyang; JIN; Zhenmin; CHENG; Zhenyan


    Calibration of seismic reflectors appearing in the crust of the Chinese continent scientific drilling site can be completed through the correlation studies between direct evidences, such as the drill cores, and geophysical signatures; therefore the interpretation of geophysical data could produce reliable results of crustal structure and composition. On the other hand, there are two Cenozoic volcanoes close to the scientific drilling site; analyzing composition of xenoliths existent in the volcanoes and evaluating their seismic velocities can also offer information about the mantle and lower crust. After the calibration via cores and well-logging data, the seismic reflectors appearing in the UHP belt can be caused by lithological changes within the UHP rock slice, ductile shearing rock-suites, and later fracture zones. Among these sources, ductile shearing resulted in displacement and detachment of original rock-sheets, producing some rock-interbeds of several hundred meters thick that are named the ductile shearing rock-suites. A suite consists of mylonized gneiss and eclogite slices that underwent shearing, becoming the major mechanism responsible to generate regional strong reflections. The UHP rock-slice is characterized by complicated structures and high density, high seismic velocity and high electrical resistivity, its thickness is usually less than 11 km. Velocity and density of the gneiss-layer beneath gradually tend to normal with increasing depth. Based on the xenoliths we can infer that the middle crust contains a lot of gneisses, and the lower crust consists of different granulites. The lithospheric mantle has multi-layer structures and consists mainly of spinal lherzolite and harzburgite, implying late Mesozoic lithospheric thinning. The seismic fabrics with different origins were possible products of different geodynamic processes. For instance, the UHP rock-slice was produced by the UHP metamorphic process and the exhumation of subducted

  5. Forming the Cold Classical Kuiper Belt in a light Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Shannon, Andrew; Lithwick, Yoram


    Large Kuiper Belt Objects are conventionally thought to have formed out of a massive planetesimal belt that is a few thousand times its current mass. Such a picture, however, is incompatible with multiple lines of evidence. Here, we present a new model for the conglomeration of Cold Classical Kuiper belt objects, out of a solid belt only a few times its current mass, or a few percent of the solid density in a Minimum Mass Solar Nebula. This is made possible by depositing most of the primordial mass in grains of size centimetre or smaller. These grains collide frequently and maintain a dynamically cold belt out of which large bodies grow efficiently: an order-unity fraction of the solid mass can be converted into large bodies, in contrast to the ~0.1% efficiency in conventional models. Such a light belt may represent the true outer edge of the Solar system, and it may have effectively halted the outward migration of Neptune. In addition to the high efficiency, our model can also produce a mass spectrum that pe...

  6. Orion revisited III. The Orion Belt population

    CERN Document Server

    Kubiak, K; Bouy, H; Sarro, L M; Ascenso, J; Burkert, A; Forbrich, J; Großschedl, J; Hacar, A; Hasenberger, B; Lombardi, M; Meingast, S; Köhler, R; Teixeira, P S


    This paper continues our study of the foreground population to the Orion molecular clouds. The goal is to characterize the foreground population north of NGC 1981 and to investigate the star formation history in the large Orion star-forming region. We focus on a region covering about 25 square degrees, centered on the $\\epsilon$ Orionis supergiant (HD 37128, B0\\,Ia) and covering the Orion Belt asterism. We used a combination of optical (SDSS) and near-infrared (2MASS) data, informed by X-ray (\\textit{XMM-Newton}) and mid-infrared (WISE) data, to construct a suite of color-color and color-magnitude diagrams for all available sources. We then applied a new statistical multiband technique to isolate a previously unknown stellar population in this region. We identify a rich and well-defined stellar population in the surveyed region that has about 2\\,000 objects that are mostly M stars. We infer the age for this new population to be at least 5\\, Myr and likely $\\sim10$\\,Myr and estimate a total of about 2\\,500 mem...

  7. Dark nebulae, dark lanes, and dust belts

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Antony


    As probably the only book of its type, this work is aimed at the observer who wants to spend time with something less conventional than the usual fare. Because we usually see objects in space by means of illumination of one kind or another, it has become routine to see them only in these terms. However, part of almost everything that we see is the defining dimension of dark shading, or even the complete obscuration of entire regions in space. Thus this book is focused on everything dark in space: those dark voids in the stellar fabric that mystified astronomers of old; the dark lanes reported in many star clusters; the magical dust belts or dusty regions that have given so many galaxies their identities; the great swirling 'folds' that we associate with bright nebulae; the small dark feature detectable even in some planetary nebulae; and more. Many observers pay scant attention to dark objects and details. Perhaps they are insufficiently aware of them or of the viewing potential they hold, but also it may be...

  8. Politicians and Epidemics in the Bible Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geurt Henk Spruyt


    Full Text Available The Netherlands has a high vaccination coverage, but due to a concentration of people objecting to vaccination on religious grounds in the Bible belt, several polio and measles epidemics have occurred there in the past. This article analyses how and in what way Dutch politicians responded to parents refusing to have their children vaccinated. First, during these epidemics Members of Parliament mainly addressed written questions of a highly technical or procedural nature to the responsible State Secretary or Minister of Public Health. Secondly, the government always requested advice from an advisory body with regard to matters of health after an epidemic. These reports were opposed to mandatory vaccination mainly by using practical arguments. However, by advocating the idea of strengthening the position of minors in public healthcare these reports contributed to legislation codifying the rights of minors concerning public health. The most important rationale behind this response is the complexity of the issue of mandatory vaccination, because different human rights are involved. On the one hand, mandatory vaccination infringes the constitutional rights to the freedom of thought, conscience and religion and encroaches on parental autonomy. On the other hand, children have a right to physical integrity. To find a way out of this unsolvable dilemma, the government and its advisory bodies mainly used practical arguments against mandatory vaccination.

  9. Trapped radiation belts of saturn: first look. (United States)

    Fillius, W; Ip, W H; McIlwain, C E


    Pioneer 11 has made the first exploration of the magnetosphere and trapped radiation belts of Saturn. Saturn's magnetosphere is intermediate in size between Earth's and Jupiter's, with trapped particle intensities comparable to Earth's. The outer region of Saturn's magnetosphere contains lower energy radiation and is variable with time; the inner region contains higher energy particles. The pitch angle distributions show a remarkable variety of field-aligned and locally mirroring configurations. The moons and especially the rings of Saturn are effective absorbers of trapped particles; underneath the rings, the trapped radiation is completely absorbed. We confirm the discovery of a new ring, called the F ring, a new division, the Pioneer division, and a moon, called 1979 S 2. The latter has probably been seen from Earth. There may be evidence for more bodies like 1979 S 2, but at this stage the interpretation of the data is ambiguous. Using particle diffusion rates, we estimate that the cross-sectional area of the F ring is > 7 x 10(13) square centimeters and that the opacity is > 10(-5). Cosmic-ray albedo neutron decay should be looked into as a source of energetic particles in the inner magnetosphere of Saturn.

  10. Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics: Modeling Atmospheric Losses (United States)

    Selesnick, R. S.


    The first year of work on this project has been completed. This report provides a summary of the progress made and the plan for the coming year. Also included with this report is a preprint of an article that was accepted for publication in Journal of Geophysical Research and describes in detail most of the results from the first year of effort. The goal for the first year was to develop a radiation belt electron model for fitting to data from the SAMPEX and Polar satellites that would provide an empirical description of the electron losses into the upper atmosphere. This was largely accomplished according to the original plan (with one exception being that, for reasons described below, the inclusion of the loss cone electrons in the model was deferred). The main concerns at the start were to accurately represent the balance between pitch angle diffusion and eastward drift that determines the dominant features of the low altitude data, and then to accurately convert the model into simulated data based on the characteristics of the particular electron detectors. Considerable effort was devoted to achieving these ends. Once the model was providing accurate results it was applied to data sets selected from appropriate periods in 1997, 1998, and 1999. For each interval of -30 to 60 days, the model parameters were calculated daily, thus providing good short and long term temporal resolution, and for a range of radial locations from L = 2.7 to 3.9. .

  11. Trapped radiation belts of Saturn - First look (United States)

    Fillius, W.; Ip, W. H.; Mcilwain, C. E.


    Data on the magnetosphere of Saturn obtained with the trapped radiation detector package on board the Pioneer 11 spacecraft is reported. Radiation belt profiles determined by the trapped radiation detectors on Pioneer 10 and 11 indicate that Saturn's magnetosphere is intermediate in size between those of the earth and Jupiter, with particle intensities similar to those of the earth. The outer region of the Saturn magnetosphere is found to contain particles of lower energy than the outer region, being strongly influenced by the time-varying solar wind. The moons and rings of Saturn are observed to be effective absorbers of trapped particles, confirming the discoveries of the F ring, the Pioneer ring division and the moon 1979 S 2. Particle diffusion rates are used to estimate a cross-sectional area of greater than 7 x 10 to the 13th sq cm and an opacity greater than 0.00001 for the F ring. It is suggested that cosmic-ray albedo neutron decay be studied as a possible source of energetic particles in the inner magnetosphere of Saturn.

  12. Fostering a Middle Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Though there is no official definition of "middle class" in China, the tag has become one few Chinese people believe they deserve anyway.In early August, the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences released a report on China’s urban development,

  13. Middle East Reform Halts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The chaos in Iraq poses a great threat to the U.S. plan in the Middle East While the fighting between Israel and Lebanon-based Hezbollah becomes fiercer, security in Iraq also keeps deteriorating, making the region a petrol can that may blow up anytime.

  14. Utopia Middle School (United States)

    Cloud, Michelle


    The following excerpt allows the reader to briefly peer into an ideal school setting: For the purposes of this paper, the fictitious school will be named Utopia Middle School or U.M.S. U.M.S embodies and exemplifies the perfect school. At U.M.S., the campus administrators perform at a level of excellence that motivates, empowers and supports all…

  15. Model Middle Schools (United States)

    Shapiro, Arthur; And Others


    Provides three models as approaches to organizing the middle school in a variety of exciting ways: (1) an oscillating system, where students in communities move between basic studies and related arts and physical education, (2) an immersion system, where students in communities spend full time moving between interdisciplinary areas, and (3) a…

  16. Deformation geometry and timing of theWupoer thrust belt in the NE Pamir and its tectonic implications (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaogan; Chen, Hanlin; Lin, Xiubin; Yang, Shufeng; Chen, Shenqiang; Zhang, Fenfen; Li, Kang; Liu, Zelin


    The Pamir region, located to the northwest of the Tibetan Plateau, provides important information that can aid the understanding of the plateau's tectonic evolution. Here we present new findings on the deformation geometry and timing of the Wupoer thrust belt at the northeastern margin of Pamir. Field investigations and interpretations of seismic profiles indicate that the eastern portion of the Wupoer thrust belt is dominated by an underlying foreland basin and an overlying piggy-back basin. A regional unconformity occurs between the Pliocene (N2) and the underlying Miocene (N1) or Paleogene (Pg) strata associated with two other local unconformities between Lower Pleistocene (Q1) and N2 and between Middle Pleistocene (Q2-4) and Q1 strata. Results of structural restorations suggest that compressional deformation was initiated during the latest Miocene to earliest Pliocene, contributing a total shortening magnitude of 48.6 km with a total shortening rate of 48.12%, most of which occurred in the period from the latest Miocene to earliest Pliocene. These results, combined with previous studies on the Kongur and Tarshkorgan extensional system, suggest an interesting picture of strong piedmont compressional thrusting activity concurrent with interorogen extensional rifting. Combining these results with previously published work on the lithospheric architecture of the Pamir, we propose that gravitational collapse drove the formation of simultaneous extensional and compressional structures with a weak, ductile middle crustal layer acting as a décollement along which both the extensional and compressional faults merged.

  17. Deformation geometry and timing of theWupoer thrust belt in the NE Pamir and its tectonic implications (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaogan; Chen, Hanlin; Lin, Xiubin; Yang, Shufeng; Chen, Shenqiang; Zhang, Fenfen; Li, Kang; Liu, Zelin


    The Pamir region, located to the northwest of the Tibetan Plateau, provides important information that can aid the understanding of the plateau's tectonic evolution. Here we present new findings on the deformation geometry and timing of the Wupoer thrust belt at the northeastern margin of Pamir. Field investigations and interpretations of seismic profiles indicate that the eastern portion of the Wupoer thrust belt is dominated by an underlying foreland basin and an overlying piggy-back basin. A regional unconformity occurs between the Pliocene (N2) and the underlying Miocene (N1) or Paleogene (Pg) strata associated with two other local unconformities between Lower Pleistocene (Q1) and N2 and between Middle Pleistocene (Q2-4) and Q1 strata. Results of structural restorations suggest that compressional deformation was initiated during the latest Miocene to earliest Pliocene, contributing a total shortening magnitude of 48.6 km with a total shortening rate of 48.12%, most of which occurred in the period from the latest Miocene to earliest Pliocene. These results, combined with previous studies on the Kongur and Tarshkorgan extensional system, suggest an interesting picture of strong piedmont compressional thrusting activity concurrent with interorogen extensional rifting. Combining these results with previously published work on the lithospheric architecture of the Pamir, we propose that gravitational collapse drove the formation of simultaneous extensional and compressional structures with a weak, ductile middle crustal layer acting as a décollement along which both the extensional and compressional faults merged.

  18. Structural inversion of the Tamworth Belt: Insights into the development of orogenic curvature in the southern New England Orogen, Australia (United States)

    Phillips, G.; Robinson, J.; Glen, R.; Roberts, J.


    The middle to late Permian Hunter Bowen Event is credited with the development of orogenic curvature in the southern New England Orogen, yet contention surrounds the structural dynamics responsible for the development of this curvature. Debate is largely centred on the roles of orogen parallel strike-slip and orogen normal extension and contraction to explain the development of curvature. To evaluate the dynamic history of the Hunter Bowen Event, we present new kinematic reconstructions of the Tamworth Belt. The Tamworth Belt formed as a Carboniferous forearc basin and was subsequently inverted during the Hunter Bowen Event. Kinematic reconstructions of the Tamworth Belt are based on new maps and cross-sections built from a synthesis of best-available mapping, chronostratigraphic data and new interpretations of depth-converted seismic data. The following conclusions are made from our study: (i) the Hunter Bowen Event was dominantly driven by margin normal contraction (east-west shortening; present-day coordinates), and; (ii) variations in structural style along the strike of the Tamworth Belt can be explained by orthogonal vs. oblique inversion, which reflects the angular relationship between the principal shortening vector and continental-arc margin. Given these conclusions, we suggest that curvature around the controversial Manning Bend was influenced by the presence of primary curvature in the continental margin, and that the Hastings Block was translated along a sinistral strike-slip fault system that formed along this oblique (with respect to the regional east-west extension and convergence direction) part of the margin. Given the available temporal data, the translation of the Hastings Block took place in the Early Permian (Asselian) and therefore preceded the Hunter Bowen Event. Accordingly, we suggest that the Hunter Bowen Event was dominantly associated with enhancing curvature that was either primary in origin, or associated with fault block translation

  19. Magmatism and polymetallic mineralization in southwestern Qinzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt, South China (United States)

    Huang, Xudong; Lu, Jianjun; Wang, Rucheng; Ma, Dongsheng


    As Neoproterozoic suture zone between the Yangtze Block and Cathaysia Block, Qinzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt is one of the 21 key metallogenic belts in China. Intensive multiple-aged felsic magmatism and related polymetallic mineralization take place in this belt. Although Neoproterozoic, Paleozoic, Triassic granites and associated deposits have been found in southwestern Qinzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt, Middle-Late Jurassic (150-165 Ma) magmatism and related mineralization is of the most importance. Three major kinds of Middle-Late Jurassic granitoids have been distinguished. (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids are slightly differentiated, calc-alkaline and metaluminous dioritic to granodioritic rocks. Sn-(W)-bearing granites contain dark microgranular enclaves and have high contents of REE and HFSE, suggesting affinities of aluminous A-type (A2) granites. W-bearing granites are highly differentiated and peraluminous rocks. (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids have ɛNd(t) values of -11 ˜ -4 and ɛHf(t) values of -12 ˜ -7, corresponding to TDMC(Nd) from 1.4 to 1.8 Ga and TDMC(Hf) from 1.6 to 2.0 Ga, respectively. The ɛNd(t) values of W-bearing granites vary from -11 to -8 with TDMC(Nd) of 1.6 ˜ 1.9 Ga and ɛHf(t) values change from -16 to -7 with TDMC(Hf) of 1.5 ˜ 2.0 Ga. Compared with (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids and W-bearing granites, the Sn-(W)-bearing granites have higher ɛNd(t) (-8 ˜ -2) and ɛHf(t) (-8 ˜ -2) values and younger TDMC(Nd) (1.1 ˜ 1.6 Ga) and TDMC(Hf) (1.2 ˜ 1.8 Ga) values, showing a more juvenile isotopic character. Sn-(W)-bearing granites originate from partial melting of granulitized lower crust involved with some mantle-derived materials. W-bearing granites are derived from partial melting of crust. (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids are also derived from crust but may be influenced by more mantle-derived materials. For (Cu)-Pb-Zn deposits, skarn and carbonate replacement are the most important mineralization types. Cu ore bodies mainly

  20. Surfaces on African sculpture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Mack


    Full Text Available Review of: Leonard Kahan, Donna Page, and Pascal James Imperato (eds in collaboration with Charles Bordogna and Bolaji Campbell with an introduction by Patrick McNaughton, Surfaces: Color, Substances, and Ritual Applications on African Sculpture, Indiana University Press, 2009.The book reviewed here has potential interest to a wide range of readers, whether researchers and academics, museum, curators, conservators or connoisseurs. It examines the perception of surface as an aspect of the indigenous understanding of sculpted objects in sub-Saharan Africa, treating of questions of materials, patination, colouration and use. It includes both survey essays and case studies (on the Bamana of Mali and the Yoriuba of Nigeria in a compendium which has suggestive implications beyond the immediate field of the Africanists to whom it is principally addressed.

  1. The distribution and composition characteristics of siliceous rocks from Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt, South China: constraint on the tectonic evolution of plates in South China. (United States)

    Li, Hongzhong; Zhai, Mingguo; Zhang, Lianchang; Zhou, Yongzhang; Yang, Zhijun; He, Junguo; Liang, Jin; Zhou, Liuyu


    The Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt is a significant tectonic zone between the Yangtze and Cathaysian plates, where plentiful hydrothermal siliceous rocks are generated. Here, the authors studied the distribution of the siliceous rocks in the whole tectonic zone, which indicated that the tensional setting was facilitating the development of siliceous rocks of hydrothermal genesis. According to the geochemical characteristics, the Neopalaeozoic siliceous rocks in the north segment of the Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt denoted its limited width. In comparison, the Neopalaeozoic Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt was diverse for its ocean basin in the different segments and possibly had subduction only in the south segment. The ocean basin of the north and middle segments was limited in its width without subduction and possibly existed as a rift trough that was unable to resist the terrigenous input. In the north segment of the Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt, the strata of hydrothermal siliceous rocks in Dongxiang copper-polymetallic ore deposit exhibited alternative cycles with the marine volcanic rocks, volcanic tuff, and metal sulphide. These sedimentary systems were formed in different circumstances, whose alternative cycles indicated the release of internal energy in several cycles gradually from strong to weak.

  2. The Distribution and Composition Characteristics of Siliceous Rocks from Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay Joint Belt, South China: Constraint on the Tectonic Evolution of Plates in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhong Li


    Full Text Available The Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt is a significant tectonic zone between the Yangtze and Cathaysian plates, where plentiful hydrothermal siliceous rocks are generated. Here, the authors studied the distribution of the siliceous rocks in the whole tectonic zone, which indicated that the tensional setting was facilitating the development of siliceous rocks of hydrothermal genesis. According to the geochemical characteristics, the Neopalaeozoic siliceous rocks in the north segment of the Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt denoted its limited width. In comparison, the Neopalaeozoic Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt was diverse for its ocean basin in the different segments and possibly had subduction only in the south segment. The ocean basin of the north and middle segments was limited in its width without subduction and possibly existed as a rift trough that was unable to resist the terrigenous input. In the north segment of the Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt, the strata of hydrothermal siliceous rocks in Dongxiang copper-polymetallic ore deposit exhibited alternative cycles with the marine volcanic rocks, volcanic tuff, and metal sulphide. These sedimentary systems were formed in different circumstances, whose alternative cycles indicated the release of internal energy in several cycles gradually from strong to weak.

  3. Evaluation of legislation on seat belt use on rear seats : social persuasion as a new measure to promote seat belt use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l.


    In the Netherlands, the use of seat belts for front seat passengers was made compulsory in 1975, and on April 1st 1992 the use of rear seat belts, if fitted, became a legal requirement. Since 1968, an annual survey of the presence and use of seat belts on front seats - extended in 1989 to include re

  4. Seat Belts Pay Off. The Use of Economic Incentives and Public Education to Increase Seat Belt Use in a Community. Final Report. (United States)

    Campbell, B. J.; And Others

    A six-month campaign to increase seat belt use in Chapel Hill and Carrboro, North Carolina centered around the idea of giving out economic incentives for seat belt wearing. The approach was to stop vehicles at random and give all belted vehicle occupants a small prize and a chance for a large cash prize. Precampaign activities involve collecting…

  5. Pan-Africanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Diaz Guevara


    Full Text Available This essaic-article goes against established conventions that there is anything ethno-cultural (and hence national about the so-called African tribes. Drawing largely from the culture history of precolonial/prepolitical Africans—that is, the Bantu/Cushitic-Ethiopians (Azanians—the author has demonstrated vividly that far from being distinct ethno-culture national communities, the so-called tribes of African states are better considered subculture groups, whose regional culture practices erstwhile paid tribute to their nation’s main culture center in Karnak. For example, using the culture symbols and practices of some local groups and linking them to the predynastic and dynastic Pharaonic periods, I argued that there is compelling evidence against qualifying Africa’s tribes as distinct ethno-culture national entities. In genuine culture context, I stressed that the Ritual of Resurrection and its twin culture process of the mummification of deceased indigenous Pharaohs tend to suggest that the object of the Bantu/Cushitic-Ethiopians national culture was life (in its eternal manifestation and then resurrection later, and that there are recurring (culturally sanctioned ethical examples among the culture custodians of these subculture groups that generally pay tribute to the overarching culture norm. Furthermore, the fact that the Ritual of Resurrection began in the Delta region and ended at the Sources of the Nile, where the spirit of the deceased indigenous Pharaohs was introduced into the spiritual world of their ancestors, contradicts conventional perceptions that ancient Egypt was a distinct national community isolated from precolonial/prepolitical Africa/Azania.

  6. Central African Republic. (United States)


    The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices.

  7. The 40Ar/39Ar dating of magmatic activity in the Donbas Fold Belt and the Scythian Platform (Eastern European Craton) (United States)

    Alexandre, P.; Chalot-Prat, F.; Saintot, A.; Wijbrans, J.; Stephenson, R.; Wilson, M.; Kitchka, A.; Stovba, S.


    The Donbas Fold Belt is the compressionally deformed southeasternmost part of the intracratonic late Paleozoic Dniepr-Donets rift basin. It is situated in an intracratonic setting but close to the southern margin of the East European Craton, south of which lies the Scythian Platform. A range of igneous rocks from the Donbas Fold Belt and the Scythian Platform were dated by the 40Ar/39Ar method in order to constrain the ages of magmatic activity in these areas, and compare them. The plateau ages from the south margin of the Donbas Fold Belt vary from 151.4 +/- 4.7 Ma to 278.1 +/- 5.3 Ma, and define three main age groups: Middle-Late Jurassic, Middle-Late Triassic, and Early Permian. The age spectra obtained from the Scythian Platform samples are often disturbed as a result of limited alteration. The proposed ages (plateau and pseudoplateau) vary from 174.4 +/- 2.1 Ma to 243.7 +/- 1.4 Ma, and two major age groups are defined, in Early Carboniferous and Triassic/Jurassic times. The Early Permian (285-270 Ma) and Early Triassic (245-250 Ma) ages of magmatic activity are the same in both areas; in the Late Triassic, the ages of magmatic activity are slightly different (220 and 205 Ma), and they are entirely different thereafter. These data can be interpreted as indicating a mantle plume as common deep magmatic source.

  8. Middle Ear Infections (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Middle Ear Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Middle Ear Infections ... Look at the Ear The Eustachian Tube About Middle Ear Infections Causes Signs ... the common cold , ear infections are the most frequently diagnosed childhood illness in the United States. Most kids will ...

  9. The relationship between the plasmapause and outer belt electrons (United States)

    Goldstein, J.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; De Pascuale, S.; Funsten, H. O.; Jaynes, A. N.; Jahn, J.-M.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Li, W.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.


    We quantify the spatial relationship between the plasmapause and outer belt electrons for a 5 day period, 15-20 January 2013, by comparing locations of relativistic electron flux peaks to the plasmapause. A peak-finding algorithm is applied to 1.8-7.7 MeV relativistic electron flux data. A plasmapause gradient finder is applied to wave-derived electron number densities >10 cm-3. We identify two outer belts. Outer belt 1 is a stable zone of >3 MeV electrons located 1-2 RE inside the plasmapause. Outer belt 2 is a dynamic zone of plasma density. Belt 1 decayed on hiss timescales prior to a disturbance on 17 January and suffered only a modest dropout, perhaps owing to shielding by the plasmasphere. Afterward, the partially depleted belt 1 continued to decay at the initial rate. Belt 2 was emptied out by strong disturbance-time losses but restored within 24 h. For global context we use a plasmapause test particle simulation and derive a new plasmaspheric index Fp, the fraction of a circular drift orbit inside the plasmapause. We find that the locally measured plasmapause is (for this event) a good proxy for the globally integrated opportunity for losses in cold plasma. Our analysis of the 15-20 January 2013 time interval confirms that high-energy electron storage rings can persist for weeks or even months if prolonged quiet conditions prevail. This case study must be followed up by more general study (not limited to a 5 day period).

  10. Biomechanics of 4-point seat belt systems in farside impacts. (United States)

    Rouhana, Stephen W; Kankanala, Sundeep V; Prasad, Priya; Rupp, Jonathan D; Jeffreys, Thomas A; Schneider, Lawrence W


    The biomechanical behavior of a harness style 4-point seat belt system in farside impacts was investigated through dummy and post mortem human subject tests. Specifically, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the inboard shoulder belt portion of a 4-point seat belt on the risk of vertebral and soft-tissue neck injuries during simulated farside impacts. Two series of sled tests simulating farside impacts were completed with crash dummies of different sizes, masses and designs to determine the forces and moments on the neck associated with loading of the shoulder belt. The tests were also performed to help determine the appropriate dummy to use in further testing. The BioSID and SID-IIs reasonably simulated the expected kinematics response and appeared to be reasonable dummies to use for further testing. Analysis also showed that dummy injury measures were lower than injury assessment reference values used in development of side impact airbags. Six post-mortem human subjects, three small females and three medium sized males, were tested under conditions similar to those used for the dummy tests. The carotid arteries were pressurized in an attempt to simulate the corresponding neck vascular response of living humans. Post-test autopsies conducted on all test subjects indicated an absence of test-induced arterial or vertebral injuries. Further, comparative analysis of kinematics confirmed the adequacy of the BioSID and SID-IIs in simulating cadaveric response in farside impacts with harness style 4-point belts. A number of issues remain to be solved before the implementation of 4-point seat belts in vehicles, including, among others, the risk of injury to a pregnant woman and her fetus in frontal crashes. The risk of fetal injury in pregnant occupants may be related to the location of the 4-point seat belt's buckle and latch junction at the centerline of the mother's abdomen.

  11. African Ethnobotany in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egleé L. Zent


    Full Text Available Review of African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Edited by Robert Voeks and John Rashford. 2013. Springer. Pp. 429, 105 illustrations, 69 color illustrations. $49.95 (paperback. ISBN 978‐1461408352.

  12. Evidences for multiple remagnetization of Proterozoic dykes from Iguerda inlier (Anti-Atlas Belt, Southern Morocco) (United States)

    Neres, Marta; Silva, Pedro F.; Ikene, Moha; Martins, Sofia; Hafid, Ahmid; Mata, João; Almeida, Francisco; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Boumehdi, Ahmed


    Paleomagnetic data able to constrain the paleoposition of the West African Craton (WAC) during Paleo-Mesoproterozoic are absent, mainly due to gaps on the sedimentary record and intense remagnetizations. Dykes that intrude several Proterozoic inliers of WAC in the Anti-Atlas Belt (southern Morocco) have recently been subjected to geochronological studies, which revealed ages between Paleoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic. Therefore, these dykes represent a window of opportunity for paleomagnetic studies aiming to infer about the paleoposition of WAC during Proterozoic. On this scope we conducted a paleomagnetic study on seven Proterozoic dykes of the Iguerda inlier. We determined the paleomagnetic directions and evaluated their meaning by rock magnetic and mineral analyses, complemented by petrographic observations. Results revealed that these rocks record the presence of a complex history of remagnetization events, mostly assigned to several Phanerozoic thermal/chemical events. In particular, we found components assigned to the late stages of Pan African orogeny (s.l.), to the Late Carboniferous Variscan orogeny, and to more recent events. The recognized remagnetization processes are related to widespread metamorphic events under greenschist facies followed by low-temperature oxidation, both responsible for the formation of new magnetic phases (magnetite and hematite). The primary (magmatic) thermo-remanent magnetization of the dykes was obliterated during these events through multiple thermal and chemical remagnetizations. For only one dyke the presence of primary magnetization is possible to infer, though not to confirm, and would place WAC at an equatorial position around 1750 Ma. The authors wish to acknowledge FCT (Portugal) - CNRST (Morocco) bilateral agreement for its major contribution without which this work wouldn't be possible. Publication supported by project FCT UID/GEO/50019/2013 - Instituto Dom Luiz.

  13. Digital Spectra and Analysis of Altitudinal Belts in Tianshan Mountains,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Baiping; MO Shenguo; WU Hongzhi; XIAO Fei


    Based on the framework of the geo-info spectra of montane altitudinal belts, this paper firstly reviews six classification systems for the spectra of mountain altitudinal belts in China and considers that detailed regional study of altitudinal belts is the key for reaching standardization and systemization of mountain altitudinal belts. Only can this furtheridentify and resolve problems with the study of altitudinal belts. The factors forming the spectra of altitudinal belts are analyzed in the Tianshan Mountains of China, and a digital altitudinal belt system is constructed for the northern flank, Southern flank, the heartland, and Ilivalley in the west. The characteristics of each belt are revealed with a summarization of the pattern of areal differentiation of altitudinal belts.

  14. My Middle School Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高懿; 吕静


    It is generally believed that the best time of one's hfe is their youth, and we spend most of it in our schools. So school is like a cradle which supports us from our childhood through adulthood. It also serves as a bridge between family and society. As a teenager, I have already studied more than 6 years in middle school, during which period I have gained notonly a great deal of knowledge but some valuable experience as well. The most important of all are the many unforgettable activities of school, which make my hfe more colorful.Looking back on my nearly 7 years' middle school hfe, I'd hke to divide it into two parts,that is, help and enjoyment.

  15. 23 CFR 1240.12 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond. (United States)


    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.12 Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond. (a) State seat belt use survey....

  16. From Brilliant Baby to Child Placed at Risk: The Perilous Path of African American Boys in Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Rashid, Hakim M.


    The preschool and early elementary years play a major role in transforming young African American boys from "brilliant babies" into "children placed at risk". A preschool to prison pipeline now exists that is becoming increasingly apparent. It runs from preschool settings through elementary and middle school, into the high schools from which young…

  17. Sociocultural Factors and School Engagement among African American Youth: The Roles of Racial Discrimination, Racial Socialization, and Ethnic Identity (United States)

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.


    This study investigated the links between racial discrimination and school engagement and the roles of racial socialization and ethnic identity as protective factors in those linkages in a sample of 148, sixth through twelfth grade African American adolescents from working and middle-class two-parent families. In home interviews, youth described…

  18. Stuck in the Middle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Sun Lijun works as a software engineer at a Beijing-based IT company and earns around 8,000 yuan ($1254)a month.His relative y high income means his friends and colleagues,as well as China's statistical agencies,regard him as middle class.Sun,however,does not think he is worthy of being included in a category that is traditionally associated with security and comfort.

  19. Addressing health disparities in middle school students' nutrition and exercise. (United States)

    Frenn, Marilyn; Malin, Shelly; Bansal, Naveen; Delgado, Mary; Greer, Yvonne; Havice, Michael; Ho, Mary; Schweizer, Heidi


    Those with low income, especially women of African American and Hispanic heritage have the greatest risk of inactivity and obesity. A 4-session (Internet and video) intervention with healthy snack and gym labs was tested in 2 (gym lab in 1) urban low-middle-income middle schools to improve low fat diet and moderate and vigorous physical activity.1 The gym lab was particularly beneficial (p =.002). Fat in diet decreased with each Internet session in which students participated. Percentage of fat in food was reduced significantly p =.018 for Black, White, and Black/Native American girls in the intervention group. Interventions delivered through Internet and video may enable reduction of health disparities in students by encouraging those most at risk to consume 30% or less calories from fat and to engage in moderate and vigorous physical activity.

  20. Tectono-magmatic evolution of the Hutti-Maski Greenstone Belt, India: Constrained using geochemical and geochronological data (United States)

    Rogers, A. J.; Kolb, J.; Meyer, F. M.; Armstrong, R. A.


    The Hutti-Maski Greenstone Belt (HMGB), situated in the eastern block of the Dharwar Craton, India is dominated by bimodal volcanics with a minimum magmatic age of 2586 ± 59 Ma. Two phases of granitoid intruded into the belt, the syn-tectonic Kavital granitoid, homogeneous, medium-grained porphyritic granodiorite, with an intrusion age of 2543 ± 9 Ma, followed by the post-tectonic Yelagatti granitoid, heterogeneous, fine- to medium-grained granite to granodiorite. The extensively altered zircons from the Yelagatti granitoid have significant enrichments of U, Th (>1%) and common-Pb (up to 47%). Only two of the analyses were reproducible, providing a minimum 207Pb/ 206Pb age of 2221 ± 99 Ma, this may indicate an approximate magmatic age or more realistically a subsequent event. Felsic metavolcanic rocks contain cross-cutting veinlets, which formed during the Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1180 Ma), the final closure of the Pb system occurred between the Neoproterozoic and Ordovician, possibly related to the Pan-African orogeny. The tectono-magmatic evolution of the HMGB can be correlated with the collision between the eastern and western blocks of the Dharwar Craton subsequent to 2658 Ma and the craton wide magmatism from 2613 to 2513 Ma. These events can be accounted for by combining uniformitarian and non-uniformitarian models.

  1. Zār Spirit Possession in Iran and African Countries: Group Distress, Culture-Bound Syndrome or Cultural Concept of Distress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Mianji


    Full Text Available Zār is the term used to describe a form of spirit possession common in northern African, eastern African, and some Middle-Eastern societies. Although these regions share some cultural similarities arising from their history of slavery, in these places, zār varies in prevalence, clinical characteristics, and social context. Based on a selective review of the literature, this paper looks at the place of zār spirit possession in both DSM-IV and DSM-V; it also examines how zār is manifested in Iran and in African countries including Sudan, Ethiopia, and Egypt; and it aims to provide practical information to mental health clinicians so that they can better understand how this cultural concept is practiced by Iranians and Middle Eastern and African immigrants living near the Persian Gulf coast.

  2. Formation and Dynamical Evolution of the Asteroid Belt (United States)

    Bottke, William F.


    Asteroids are critical to our desire to unravel the origin of the Solar System because they supply unique, relatively pristine snapshots of the environment in which the Earth formed and evolved. This is due to the fact that, although the asteroids and Earth have followed very different evolutionary pathways, they all formed from the same set of physical processes and share a common ancestry. The asteroid belt presents a particular challenge to understanding terrestrial planet formation because of its small mass. Models of the protoplanetary disk suggest the region between 2-3 AU should contain roughly 3 Earth masses, while less than 0.001 of an Earth mass is actually found there.A long-standing explanation for the asteroid belt's small mass is that it is due to the gravitational influence of Jupiter and Saturn. Some have suggested protoplanets grew there before they were dynamically removed from the asteroid belt by resonances with the gas giants. This left the asteroid belt dynamically excited (which is observed) and heavily depleted in mass. More recently, however, detailed models have shown that this process produces an asteroid belt that is inconsistent with observations.Two recent models propose new ways to match asteroid belt constraints. The first, the so-called ‘Grand Tack’ scenario, uses the results of hydrodynamic simulations to show that Jupiter (and Saturn) migrated both inward and outward across the asteroid belt while interacting with the protoplanetary gas disk. The Grand Tack not only reproduces the mass and mixture of spectral types in the asteroid belt, but it also truncates the planetesimal disk from which the terrestrial planets form, potentially explaining why Mars is less massive than Earth. In a second scenario, planetesimals that form directly from cm- to meter-sized objects, known as “pebbles”, are rapidly converted to 100 to 1000 km asteroid-like object that subsequently grow by accreting even more pebbles. Pebble accretion models

  3. A Physical Model of Electron Radiation Belts of Saturn (United States)

    Lorenzato, L.; Sicard-Piet, A.; Bourdarie, S.


    Radiation belts causes irreversible damages on on-board instruments materials. That's why for two decades, ONERA proposes studies about radiation belts of magnetized planets. First, in the 90's, the development of a physical model, named Salammbô, carried out a model of the radiation belts of the Earth. Then, for few years, analysis of the magnetosphere of Jupiter and in-situ data (Pioneer, Voyager, Galileo) allow to build a physical model of the radiation belts of Jupiter. Enrolling on the Cassini age and thanks to all information collected, this study permits to adapt Salammbô jovian radiation belts model to the case of Saturn environment. Indeed, some physical processes present in the kronian magnetosphere are similar to those present in the magnetosphere of Jupiter (radial diffusion; interaction of energetic electrons with rings, moons, atmosphere; synchrotron emission). However, some physical processes have to be added to the kronian model (compared to the jovian model) because of the particularity of the magnetosphere of Saturn: interaction of energetic electrons with neutral particles from Enceladus, and wave-particle interaction. This last physical process has been studied in details with the analysis of CASSINI/RPWS (Radio and Plasma Waves Science) data. The major importance of the wave particles interaction is now well known in the case of the radiation belts of the Earth but it is important to investigate on its role in the case of Saturn. So, importance of each physical process has been studied and analysis of Cassini MIMI-LEMMS and CAPS data allows to build a model boundary condition (at L = 6). Finally, results of this study lead to a kronian electrons radiation belts model including radial diffusion, interactions of energetic electrons with rings, moons and neutrals particles and wave-particle interaction (interactions of electrons with atmosphere particles and synchrotron emission are too weak to be taken into account in this model). Then, to

  4. Evolution of the Bhandara-Balaghat granulite belt along the southern margin of the Sausar Mobile Belt of central India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H M Ramachandra; Abhinaba Roy


    The Bhandara-Balaghat granulite (BBG) belt occurs as a 190 km long, detached narrow, linear, NE-SW to ENE-WSW trending belt that is in tectonic contact on its northern margin with the Sausar Group of rocks and is bordered by the Sakoli fold belt in the south. The Bhandara part of the BBG belt is quite restricted, comprising a medium to coarse grained two-pyroxene granulite body that is of gabbroic composition and preserves relic igneous fabric. The main part of the belt in Arjuni-Balaghat section includes metasedimentary (quartzite, BIF, Al- and Mg-Al metapelites) and metaigneous (metaultramafic, amphibolite and two-pyroxene granulite) protoliths interbanded with charnockite and charnockitic gneiss. These rocks, occurring as small bands and enclaves within migmatitic and granitic gneisses, show polyphase deformation and metamorphism. Geochemically, basic compositions show tholeiitic trend without Fe-enrichment, non-komatitic nature, continental affinity and show evolved nature. Mineral parageneses and reaction textures in different rock compositions indicate early prograde, dehydration melt forming reactions followed by orthopyroxene stability with or without melt. Coronitic and symplectitic garnets have formed over earlier minerals indicating onset of retrograde IBC path. Evidences for high temperature ductile shearing are preserved at places. Retrogressive hydration events clearly post-date the above paths. The present study has shown that the BBG belt may form a part of the Bastar Craton and does not represent exhumed oceanic crust of the Bundelkhand Craton. It is further shown that rocks of the BBG belt have undergone an earlier high-grade granulite metamorphism at 2672 ± 54 Ma (Sm-Nd age) and a post-peak granulite metamorphism at 1416 ± 59 Ma (Sm-Nd age, 1380 ± 28 Ma Rb-Sr age). These events were followed by deposition of the Sausar supracrustals and Neoproterozoic Sausar orogeny between 973 ± 63 Ma and 800 ± 16 Ma (Rb-Sr ages).

  5. Out-of-sequence thrusting in polycyclic thrust belts: An example from the Mesozoic Yanshan belt, North China Craton (United States)

    Li, Chengming; Zhang, Changhou; Cope, Tim D.; Lin, Yi


    The EW trending Yanshan belt, an intraplate fold-thrust belt located in the northern North China Craton that has experienced several episodes of deformation widely separated in time, is characterized by out-of-sequence thrusts. According to detailed mapping in the central Yanshan belt, five geometric and stratigraphic criteria used to aid in determining whether a thrust has an out-of-sequence geometry or not can be recognized. They are (1) unconformable relationships, (2) inclination of fault surfaces, (3) irregular changes in apparent offset along strike, (4) short fault length relative to apparent offset, and (5) in-sequence geometry. With the help of these criteria, two generations of out-of-sequence thrusts that postdate the original in-sequence thrusting in the central Yanshan belt are recognized. The ancestral southward verging fold-and-thrust belt that formed prior to 180 Ma was deformed and cut by two younger generations of faults that are probably more deeply rooted and are constrained to between 172-165 Ma and 152-135 Ma. A series of thrusts with opposite vergence formed during the last period, resulting in abundant abnormal field relationships such as younger-on-older thrust relations, fold truncation, and cutting down-section. The nature and occurrence of faults in the Yanshan belt implies that superimposed deformation, a common feature in polycyclic orogenic belts, is a mechanism for the generation of out-of-sequence thrusting. This adds to mechanisms already described in the literature, such as maintaining constant critical taper at an orogenic scale, inhibition of the deformation front, and lateral changes in the nature of the décollement horizons.

  6. Flat belt continuously variable high speed drive. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumm, E.L.


    A study was undertaken at Kumm Industries funded by DOE in the NBS/DOE Energy-Related Inventions Program starting in August 1990 to design, construct and test a novel very high speed flat belt drive. The test arrangement as shown in Figure 1 consists of a multiple belt-pulley configuration that transmits power from a low speed (2000--4000 RPM) input to a small pulley ``turbine`` (27,000 to 55,000 RPM) and then to the low speed output variable radius pulley (2000--5000 RPM) via a special self-active tensioner. Transmitting 25 HP to and from the ``turbine`` corresponds to obtaining 50 HP in one direction only in a possible turbo compounded engine application. The high speed of the ``turbine`` belts, i.e. 100 meters/sec. at 55,000 RPM, while transferring substantial power is a new much higher operating regime for belts. The study showed that the available belts gave overall test rig efficiencies somewhat above 80% for the higher speeds (50,000 RPM) and higher powers (corresponding to above 90% in the turbocompound application) and a significantly better efficiencies at slightly lower speeds. The tests revealed a number of improved approaches in the design of such high speed drives. It appears that there is considerable possibility for further improvement and application of such equipment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The car is the second (40% most common mode of transportation in Malaysia. In terms of fatal road accidents, car drivers constitute about 9.0% and passengers 13.6% of fatalities. The major cause of car occupants' fatality in such accidents is head injuries, which consist of more than half (56.4% of the fatalities. Thus restraining the head and body, the initial position is the most important injury control strategy for car users. The use of seat belts was deemed one of the most effective ways to reduce road accident fatalities in Malaysia and consequently the mandatory seat belt law was enforced in the early seventies. Therefore, a study on factors influencing the compliance behaviour of seat belt use among cars is needed as to date no such research has been undertaken in Malaysia. A questionnaire study was carried out in Selangor, Malaysia on the compliance behaviour of car occupants in relation to seat belt use. A total of 237 respondents were interviewed and the data analysed using logistic regression method. Six variables were found to be significant at 5 percent level (p<0.05: seating position, location of travel, education level, speeding, night-time driving and enforcement. Compliance with the seat belt law was higher among drivers, educated car users, in the presence of enforcement activities, travelling in city-center areas and car users with a positive attitude towards the risks of speeding and night driving.

  8. Reliability models of belt drive systems under slipping failure mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Gao


    Full Text Available Conventional reliability assessment and reliability-based optimal design of belt drive are based on the stress–strength interference model. However, the stress–strength interference model is essentially a static model, and the sensitivity analysis of belt drive reliability with respect to design parameters needs further investigations. In this article, time-dependent factors that contribute the dynamic characteristics of reliability are pointed out. Moreover, dynamic reliability models and failure rate models of belt drive systems under the failure mode of slipping are developed. Furthermore, dynamic sensitivity models of belt drive reliability based on the proposed dynamic reliability models are proposed. In addition, numerical examples are given to illustrate the proposed models and analyze the influences of design parameters on dynamic characteristics of reliability, failure rate, and sensitivity functions. The results show that the statistical properties of design parameters have different influences on reliability and failure rate of belt drive in cases of different values of design parameters and different operational durations.

  9. Research on Dynamic Tension for Belt Conveyor with Constant Force Automatic Take-Up Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Guo-ying; CHEN Jing-li; LI Yu-jin


    The article Provides a dynamic model for belt conveyor. Based on the drive-force of conveyor, take-up tension of take-up assembly, gravity of conveyor belt and material, and friction between belt and idlers, it gives a viscoelastic dynamic equation for conveyor belt. It presents a calculation method of analytic solution to both viscoelastic dynamic equation and geometric dynamic equation when automatic take-up assembly is applied to belt conveyor. The article also makes a study of design method of limiting and eliminating the conveyor belt's elastic vibration.

  10. An Analysis of Computer-Mediated Communication between Middle School Students and Scientist Role Models: A Pilot Study. (United States)

    Murfin, Brian


    Reports on a study of the effectiveness of computer-mediated communication (CMC) in providing African American and female middle school students with scientist role models. Quantitative and qualitative data gathered by analyzing messages students and scientists posted on a shared electronic bulletin board showed that CMC could be an effective…

  11. Modelling middle pliocene warm climates of the USA (United States)

    Haywood, A.M.; Valdes, P.J.; Sellwood, B.W.; Kaplan, J.O.; Dowsett, H.J.


    The middle Pliocene warm period represents a unique time slice in which to model and understand climatic processes operating under a warm climatic regime. Palaeoclimatic model simulations, focussed on the United States of America (USA), for the middle Pliocene (ca 3 Ma) were generated using the USGS PRISM2 2?? ?? 2?? data set of boundary conditions and the UK Meteorological Office's HadAMS General Circulation Model (GCM). Model results suggest that conditions in the USA during the middle Pliocene can be characterised as annually warmer (by 2?? to 4??C), less seasonal, wetter (by a maximum of 4 to 8 mm/day) and with an absence of freezing winters over the central and southern Great Plains. A sensitivity experiment suggests that the main forcing mechanisms for surface temperature changes in near coastal areas are the imposed Pliocene sea surface temperatures (SST's). In interior regions, reduced Northern Hemisphere terrestrial ice, combined with less snow cover and a reduction in the elevation of the western cordillera of North America, generate atmospheric circulation changes and positive albedo feedbacks that raise surface temperatures. A complex set of climatic feedback mechanisms cause an enhancement of the hydrological cycle magnifying the moisture bearing westerly wind belt during the winter season (Dec., Jan., Feb.). Predictions produced by the model are in broad agreement with available geological evidence. However, the GCM appears to underestimate precipitation levels in the interior and central regions of the southern USA. Copyright: Palaeontological Association, 22 June 2001.

  12. Cross-Race Preferences for Same-Race Faces Extend Beyond the African Versus Caucasian Contrast in 3-Month-Old Infants


    Kelly, David J.; Liu, Shaoying; Ge, Liezhong; Quinn, Paul C.; Slater, Alan M.; Lee, Kang; Liu, Qinyao; Pascalis, Olivier


    A visual preference procedure was used to examine preferences among faces of different ethnicities (African, Asian, Caucasian, and Middle Eastern) in Chinese 3-month-old infants exposed only to Chinese faces. The infants demonstrated a preference for faces from their own ethnic group. Alongside previous results showing that Caucasian infants exposed only to Caucasian faces prefer same-race faces (Kelly et al., 2005) and that Caucasian and African infants exposed only to native faces prefer th...

  13. Aggression, academic behaviors, and popularity perceptions among boys of color during the transition to middle school. (United States)

    Xie, Hongling; Dawes, Molly; Wurster, Tabitha J; Shi, Bing


    The transition to middle school often presents behavioral and academic challenges to youths. Boys of color (i.e., African American and Hispanic in this study) may be especially vulnerable. In this study, peer nominations of aggressive and academic behaviors as well as youths' perceptions of how these behaviors were related to popularity in peer networks were obtained from the spring semester of fifth grade through the spring semester of seventh grade, with the transition occurring as the students entered the sixth grade. The sample included 188 boys (71 Caucasian, 90 African American, and 27 Hispanic) from an urban school district in the northeastern United States. Trajectory analyses showed that African American boys scored lower in studentship and higher in rule-breaking and aggressive (both physical and social) behaviors prior to the transition, and such differences among ethnic groups were largely maintained during the transition. Hispanic boys displayed decreases in their studentship during the transition. African American boys' perception of how studentship affects popularity was more positive than other boys prior to the transition, but it decreased during the transition. African American boys also endorsed rule breaking and physical and social aggression more positively for popularity prior to the transition, whereas Caucasian and Hispanic boys' endorsement increased during the transition and eventually caught up with those of African American boys in seventh grade. A positive within-individual association was found between youths' popularity perception and their behavior for studentship, rule breaking, and physical aggression, which did not differ by ethnicity.

  14. Spectrophotometry of Kuiper Belt Objects and Centaurs (United States)

    Lederer, S. M.; Vilas, F.


    We present an ongoing study of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) and Centaurs. We acquired broadband (UBVRI) and medium band photometry with the 4m Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak and the 1.8m Perkins telescope at Lowell Observatory. We present broadband colors of these objects and discuss the results of our search for absorption bands in the visible spectral region. Vilas (Icarus, 111) demonstrated that the existence of the 0.7um absorption feature in asteroids with solar-like colors was strongly correlated with the presence of the 3.0um water of hydration feature. The broad 0.7um absorption band is attributed to a charge-transfer in Fe-bearing hydrated silicates (phyllosilicates), which are a product of aqueous alteration. For aqueous alteration to take place, one must have water ice present in an object, and an energy source to heat the water ice to a liquid water phase. Water ice has already been discovered in some Centaurs (Luu et al. ApJ, 531; Brown AJ, 119), and Durda and Stern (Icarus, 145) estimate that KBOs experience collisional processing regularly throughout their lifetimes. The estimated impact energies are high enough to induce aqueous alteration. We undertook this study to search for evidence of the 0.7um feature in KBOs and Centaurs. We employed medium band Windhorst filters, located at 0.527, 0.666, 0.705, 0.755 and 0.848 um in conjunction with the Mosaic CCD to search for this absorption band, which extends from 0.57-0.83um. Initial analysis suggests that an absorption feature exists near 0.7um in the greyer objects but not the redder objects, following the correlations observed in asteroids. These data are consistent with the absorption band detected near 0.7um by de Bergh et al. (ACM 2002, Berlin) in visible spectra of 2000 EB173 and 2000 GN171. However, further analysis is required to confirm whether the absorption we see is due to phyllosilicates or another source. We will present the results from this analysis. This research was supported through the

  15. The New African Civil-Military Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on the African continent to embark upon the New African Civil Military Relations (ACMR). In the last decade and half, the implosion of African states exposed to forces of democratization has escalated, manifest in Algeria, Egypt, Mali, Madagascar, Somalia, South Sudan, Central African Republic and Lesotho...... accorded the responsibility of organizing a Session on ACMR. From amongst some of the exciting Abstracts presented, authors submitted these as full chapters for this book which captures International African Studies Perspectives, managed by the African Public Policy & Research Institute (APPRI...

  16. Belt(s) of debris resolved around the Sco-Cen star HIP 67497 (United States)

    Bonnefoy, M.; Milli, J.; Ménard, F.; Vigan, A.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Delorme, P.; Boccaletti, A.; Lazzoni, C.; Galicher, R.; Desidera, S.; Chauvin, G.; Augereau, J. C.; Mouillet, D.; Pinte, C.; van der Plas, G.; Gratton, R.; Beust, H.; Beuzit, J. L.


    Aims: In 2015, we initiated a survey of Scorpius-Centaurus A-F stars that are predicted to host warm-inner and cold-outer belts of debris similar to the case of the system HR 8799. The survey aims to resolve the disks and detect planets responsible for the disk morphology. In this paper, we study the F-type star HIP 67497 and present a first-order modelization of the disk in order to derive its main properties. Methods: We used the near-infrared integral field spectrograph (IFS) and dual-band imager IRDIS of VLT/SPHERE to obtain angular-differential imaging observations of the circumstellar environnement of HIP 67497. We removed the stellar halo with PCA and TLOCI algorithms. The disk emission was modeled with the GRaTeR code. Results: We resolve a ring-like structure that extends up to 450 mas ( 50 au) from the star in the IRDIS and IFS data. It is best reproduced by models of a non-eccentric ring with an inclination of 80 ± 1°, a position angle of -93 ± 1°, and a semi-major axis of 59 ± 3 au. We also detect an additional, but fainter, arc-like structure with a larger extension (0.65 arcsec) South of the ring that we model as a second belt of debris at 130 au. We detect ten candidate companions at separations ≥1''. We estimate the mass of putative perturbers responsible for the disk morphology and compare this to our detection limits. Additional data are needed to find those perturbers, and to relate our images to large-scale structures seen with HST/STIS. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory under programme ID 097.C-0060(A)This work is based on data products produced at the SPHERE Data Center hosted at OSUG/IPAG, Grenoble.

  17. Mafic dykes at the southwestern margin of Eastern Ghats belt: Evidence of rifting and collision

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Bhattacharya; A K Chaudhary; W Teixeira


    The southwestern margin of the Eastern Ghats Belt characteristically exposes ma fic dykes intruding massif-type charnockites. Dykes of olivine basalt of alkaline composition have characteristic trace element signatures comparable with Ocean Island Basalt (OIB). Most importantly strong positive Nb anomaly and low values of Zr/Nb ratio are consistent with OIB source of the mafic dykes. K –Ar isotopic data indicate two cooling ages at 740 and 530 Ma. The Pan-African thermal event could be related to reactivation of major shear zones and represented by leuco-granite vein along minor shear bands. And 740 Ma cooling age may indicate the low grade metamorphic imprints, noted in some of the dykes. Although no intrusion age could be determined from the present dataset, it could be constrained by some age data of the host charnockite gneiss and Alkaline rocks of the adjacent Prakasam Province. Assuming an intrusion age of ∼1 .3 Ga, Sr –Nd isotopic composition of the dykes indicate that they preserved time-integrated LREE enrichment. In view of the chemical signatures of OIB source, the ma fic dykes could as well be related to continental rifting, around 1.3 Ga, which may have been initiated by intra-plate volcanism.

  18. Jovian Early Bombardment: planetesimal erosion in the inner asteroid belt

    CERN Document Server

    Turrini, Diego; Magni, Gianfranco


    The asteroid belt is an open window on the history of the Solar System, as it preserves records of both its formation process and its secular evolution. The progenitors of the present-day asteroids formed in the Solar Nebula almost contemporary to the giant planets. The actual process producing the first generation of asteroids is uncertain, strongly depending on the physical characteristics of the Solar Nebula, and the different scenarios produce very diverse initial size-frequency distributions. In this work we investigate the implications of the formation of Jupiter, plausibly the first giant planet to form, on the evolution of the primordial asteroid belt. The formation of Jupiter triggered a short but intense period of primordial bombardment, previously unaccounted for, which caused an early phase of enhanced collisional evolution in the asteroid belt. Our results indicate that this Jovian Early Bombardment caused the erosion or the disruption of bodies smaller than a threshold size, which strongly depen...

  19. Regional Fault Systems of Qaidam Basin and Adjacent Orogenic Belts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the regional fault systems of Qaidam basin and adjacent orogenic belts. Field investigation and seismic interpretation indicate that five regional fault systems occurred in the Qaidam and adjacent mountain belts, controlling the development and evolution of the Qaidam basin. These fault systems are: (1)north Qaidam-Qilian Mountain fault system; (2) south Qaidam-East Kunlun Mountain fault system; (3)Altun strike-slip fault system; (4)Elashan strike-slip fault system, and (5) Gansen-Xiaochaidan fault system. It is indicated that the fault systems controlled the orientation of the Qaidam basin, the formation and distribution of secondary faults within the basin,the migration of depocenters and the distribution of hydrocarbon accumulation belt.

  20. Gravity inferred subsurface structure of Gadwal Schist belt, Andhra Pradesh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Ramadass; I B Ramaprasada Rao; N Srinivasulu


    Detailed gravity data collected across the Gadwal schist belt in the state of Andhra Pradesh show an 8.4 mgal residual gravity anomaly associated with meta-sediments/volcanics of the linear NNW-SSE trending schist belt that shows metamorphism from green schist to amphibolite facies. This schist belt is flanked on either side by the peninsular gneissic complex. The elevation and slab Bouguer corrected residual gravity profile data were interpreted using 2-D prism models. The results indicate a synformal structure having a width of 1.8 km at the surface, tapering at a depth of about 2.6 km with a positive density contrast of 0.15 gm/cc with respect to the surrounding peninsular gneissic complex.

  1. Two new basaltic asteroids in the Outer Main Belt

    CERN Document Server

    Duffard, R


    The identification of other basaltic objects in the asteroid belt is mandatory to explain the diversity in the collection of basaltic meteorites. This diversity requires more than one differentiated parent body, a fact that is consistent with the diversity of differentiated parent bodies implied by the iron meteorites. Based on a list of previously identified candidate basaltic (V-type) asteroids, two asteroids in the outer main belt, (7472) Kumakiri and (10537) 1991 RY16, were spectroscopically observed during an observational run in Calar Alto Observatory, Spain. We confirm the V-type character of these two asteroids that, together with (1459) Magnya, become the only known traces of basaltic found in the outer main belt up to now. We also demonstrate that the searching for candidate V-type asteroids using a photometric survey, like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, produces reliable results.

  2. The Living with a Star Radiation Belt Storm Probes (United States)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Mauk, B. H.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Fox, N. J.


    The goal of NASA's Living With a Star Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission is to understand, ideally to the point of predictability, how populations of relativistic electrons and ions in space form or change in response to the variable inputs of energy from the Sun. The investigations selected for this 2-spacecraft mission scheduled for launch in early 2012 address this task by making extensive observations of the plasma waves, thermal, ring current, and relativistic particle populations, and DC electric and magnetic fields within the Earth's inner and outer radiation belts. We first describe the current mission concept within the scope of NASA's strategic plan and the Vision for Exploration, and then consider how its observations will be used to define and quantify the processes that accelerate, transport, and remove particles in the Earth's radiation belts.

  3. Recent Developments in the Radiation Belt Environment Model (United States)

    Fok, M.-C.; Glocer, A.; Zheng, Q.; Horne, R. B.; Meredith, N. P.; Albert, J. M.; Nagai, T.


    The fluxes of energetic particles in the radiation belts are found to be strongly controlled by the solar wind conditions. In order to understand and predict the radiation particle intensities, we have developed a physics-based Radiation Belt Environment (RBE) model that considers the influences from the solar wind, ring current and plasmasphere. Recently, an improved calculation of wave-particle interactions has been incorporated. In particular, the model now includes cross diffusion in energy and pitch-angle. We find that the exclusion of cross diffusion could cause significant overestimation of electron flux enhancement during storm recovery. The RBE model is also connected to MHD fields so that the response of the radiation belts to fast variations in the global magnetosphere can be studied.Weare able to reproduce the rapid flux increase during a substorm dipolarization on 4 September 2008. The timing is much shorter than the time scale of wave associated acceleration.

  4. Radiation Belt Environment Model: Application to Space Weather and Beyond (United States)

    Fok, Mei-Ching H.


    Understanding the dynamics and variability of the radiation belts are of great scientific and space weather significance. A physics-based Radiation Belt Environment (RBE) model has been developed to simulate and predict the radiation particle intensities. The RBE model considers the influences from the solar wind, ring current and plasmasphere. It takes into account the particle drift in realistic, time-varying magnetic and electric field, and includes diffusive effects of wave-particle interactions with various wave modes in the magnetosphere. The RBE model has been used to perform event studies and real-time prediction of energetic electron fluxes. In this talk, we will describe the RBE model equation, inputs and capabilities. Recent advancement in space weather application and artificial radiation belt study will be discussed as well.

  5. Relativistic surfatron process for Landau resonant electrons in radiation belts

    CERN Document Server

    Osmane, A


    Recent theoretical studies of the nonlinear wave-particle interactions for relativistic particles have shown that Landau resonant orbits could be efficiently accelerated along the mean background magnetic field for propagation angles $\\theta$ in close proximity to a critical propagation $\\theta_\\textrm{c}$ associated with a Hopf--Hopf bifurcation condition. In this report, we extend previous studies to reach greater modeling capacities for the study of electrons in radiation belts by including longitudinal wave effects and inhomogeneous magnetic fields. We find that even though both effects can limit the surfatron acceleration of electrons in radiation belts, gains in energy of the order of 100 keV, taking place on the order of ten milliseconds, are sufficiently strong for the mechanism to be relevant to radiation belt dynamics.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Suglobov


    Full Text Available Purpose. In the study is necessary: 1 to justify aligning drums of a new design of belt conveyors; 2 to develop a method for calculating and determining the rational design parameters of drums depending on the technical parameters of the conveyor belt (the length of the conveyor, belt width, the performance of the conveyor, the diameter of the drive and tension drums, etc.; 3 to carry out pilot studies of efficiency conveyor belt in a production environment in order to determine the magnitude of dynamic loads and a comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of the centering ability of conventional and new designs of drums. Methodology. To substantiate the effectiveness of the centering ability of the drums of a new design by the authors developed a mathematical model of interaction of the tape with the drum. Mathematical simulation of tape reels with new design comes to drawing up a differential equation of the belt based on the dynamic component and restoring force. This model allowed us to estimate the movement of the tape in the transverse direction based on the calculated additional dynamic loads and forces on the investigated centering a conveyor belt with given specifications. For the first time the technique of calculating and determining the rational parameters of the drums, which allows determining the design parameters of the centering portions, depending on the mechanical properties and geometric parameters of the tape. Findings. With the help of mathematical modeling the scientifically substantiated effect of centering the ability of the new design of the drum, which ensures stable tape running along the longitudinal axis of the conveyor. The authors made the following conclusions: 1 the mathematical model of interaction with the new belt design of the drum, which allowed to describe the belt in the transverse direction in view of additional dynamic loads and renewable power was developed; 2 the method of calculation and

  7. An African ethic for nursing? (United States)

    Haegert, S


    This article derives from a doctoral thesis in which a particular discourse was used as a 'paradigm case'. From this discourse an ethic set within a South African culture arose. Using many cultural 'voices' to aid the understanding of this narrative, the ethic shows that one can build on both a 'justice' and a 'care' ethic. With further development based on African culture one can take the ethic of care deeper and reveal 'layers of understanding'. Care, together with compassion, forms the foundation of morality. Nursing ethics has followed particular western moral philosophers. Often nursing ethics has been taught along the lines of Kohlberg's theory of morality, with its emphasis on rules, rights, duties and general obligations. These principles were universalistic, masculine and noncontextual. However, there is a new ethical movement among Thomist philosophers along the lines to be expounded in this article. Nurses such as Benner, Bevis, Dunlop, Fry and Gadow--to name but a few--have welcomed the concept of an 'ethic of care'. Gilligan's work gave a feminist view and situated ethics in the everyday aspects of responsiveness, responsibility, context and concern. Shutte's search for a 'philosophy for Africa' has resulted in finding similarities in Setiloane and in Senghor with those of Thomist philosophers. Using this African philosophy and a research participant's narrative, an African ethic evolves out of the African proverb: 'A person is a person through other persons', or its alternative rendering: 'I am because we are: we are because I am.' This hermeneutic narrative reveals 'the way affect imbues activity with ethical meaning' within the context of a black nursing sister in a rural South African hospital. It expands upon the above proverb and incorporates the South African constitutional idea of 'Ubuntu' (compassion and justice or humanness).





    The deposition of Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous carbonates in the Pontides was controlled mainly by the evolution of an Atlantic-type continental margin in the Tethys. The study of several stratigraphic sections from allochthonous slices and blocks of the North Anatolian Ophiolitic Melange provided insight into the Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous paleogeographic evolution of the Central Pontide Belt. The Callovian-Aptian successions span the Globuligerina gr. oxfordiana, Clypeina jurassica (equi...

  9. Aqueous alteration on main-belt asteroids (United States)

    Fornasier, S.; Lantz, C.; Barucci, M.; Lazzarin, M.


    The study of aqueous alteration is particularly important for unraveling the processes occurring during the earliest times in Solar System history, as it can give information both on the thermal processes and on the localization of water sources in the asteroid belt, and for the associated astrobiological implications. The aqueous alteration process produces the low temperature (< 320 K) chemical alteration of materials by liquid water which acts as a solvent and produces materials like phyllosilicates, sulphates, oxides, carbonates, and hydroxides. This means that liquid water was present in the primordial asteroids, produced by the melting of water ice by heating sources, very probably by ^{26}Al decay. Hydrated minerals have been found mainly on Mars surface, on primitive main-belt asteroids (C, G, B, F, and P-type, following the classification scheme by Tholen, 1984) and possibly also on few transneptunian objects. Reflectance spectroscopy of aqueous altered asteroids shows absorption features in the 0.6-0.9 and 2.5-3.5-micron regions, which are diagnostic of, or associated with, hydrated minerals. In this work, we investigate the aqueous alteration process on a large sample of 600 visible spectra of C-complex asteroids available in the literature. We analyzed all these spectra in a similar way to characterize the absorption-band parameters (band center, depth, and width) and spectral slope, and to look for possible correlations between the aqueous alteration process and the asteroids taxonomic classes, orbital elements, heliocentric distances, albedo, and sizes. We find that 4.6 % of P, 7.7 % of F, 9.8 % of B, 50.5 % of C, and 100 % of the G-type asteroids have absorption bands in the visible region due to hydrated silicates. Our analysis shows that the aqueous alteration sequence starts from the P-type objects, practically unaltered, and increases through the P → F → B → C → G asteroids, these last being widely aqueously altered, strengthening thus

  10. The Belt voice: Acoustical measurements and esthetic correlates (United States)

    Bounous, Barry Urban

    This dissertation explores the esthetic attributes of the Belt voice through spectral acoustical analysis. The process of understanding the nature and safe practice of Belt is just beginning, whereas the understanding of classical singing is well established. The unique nature of the Belt sound provides difficulties for voice teachers attempting to evaluate the quality and appropriateness of a particular sound or performance. This study attempts to provide answers to the question "does Belt conform to a set of measurable esthetic standards?" In answering this question, this paper expands on a previous study of the esthetic attributes of the classical baritone voice (see "Vocal Beauty", NATS Journal 51,1) which also drew some tentative conclusions about the Belt voice but which had an inadequate sample pool of subjects from which to draw. Further, this study demonstrates that it is possible to scientifically investigate the realm of musical esthetics in the singing voice. It is possible to go beyond the "a trained voice compared to an untrained voice" paradigm when evaluating quantitative vocal parameters and actually investigate what truly beautiful voices do. There are functions of sound energy (measured in dB) transference which may affect the nervous system in predictable ways and which can be measured and associated with esthetics. This study does not show consistency in measurements for absolute beauty (taste) even among belt teachers and researchers but does show some markers with varying degrees of importance which may point to a difference between our cognitive learned response to singing and our emotional, more visceral response to sounds. The markers which are significant in determining vocal beauty are: (1) Vibrancy-Characteristics of vibrato including speed, width, and consistency (low variability). (2) Spectral makeup-Ratio of partial strength above the fundamental to the fundamental. (3) Activity of the voice-The quantity of energy being produced. (4

  11. Devonian to Triassic Successions of the Changning-Menglian Belt,Western Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xiaochi; WANG Yizhao; XIE Guanglian


    Phanerozoic strata are distributed in several north-south trending zones in the central part of the Changning-Menglian Belt. Four types of Devonian to Triassic stratigraphic successions can be identified: (1) clastics with limestonelenses in the mid-section, changing up-section into alternations of fine clastics and cherts; (2) clastics with chertintercalations and limestone lenses, and topped by Permian basic volcanics; (3) clastics-basicvolcanics-carbonates-clastics; and (4) limestones, dolomitic limestones-dark gray thin-bedded limestones, argillaceouslimestones, mudstones and siliceous mudstones. Devonian to Triassic cherts occur in different horizons and differentzones from east to west. These cherts are usually transitional to their neighboring clastics. There is no continuousDevonian to Middle Triassic chert sequence in the central zone of the Changning-Menglian Belt as Liu et al. (1991, 1993)reported. Volcanics and the overlying carbonates described by some workers as "seamount" sequences are more likely tohave formed in a marine environment on continental crust. Succession (4) is newly recognized in the area from Menglai toYong'an in Cangyuan County and further north to Padi of Gengma County. Basalts, cherts and clastics also appear in thisarea. Mid-Triassic (very probably Ladinian) radiolarians extracted from bedded cherts in the Ganzhejidi section indicatethat they are in higher stratigraphic positions. The change from bedded cherts via siltstones to thick-bedded sandstoneswith thin-bedded fine intercalations in the Ganzhejidi section and (some other outcrops along the road from Cangyuan toGengma) suggests a fundamental change of sedimentary environment caused by a rapid increase of a large quantity ofdetritus supply. These siliciclastic sediments are possibly syn-orogenic deposits.

  12. Possible influence of Arctic oscillation on precipitation along the East Asian rain belt during boreal spring (United States)

    Qu, Jingxuan; Gong, Daoyi; Mao, Rui; Yang, Jing; Li, Sang


    In this study, the possible influence of the springtime Arctic oscillation (AO) on precipitation along the East Asian rain belt has been studied for the period of 1979 to 2014. To capture the features of the large-scale variability of the atmospheric circulation and precipitation, singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis was performed. The domain for precipitation is from 21.25 to 33.75° N and 111.25 to 133.25° E, and the 1000 hPa heights are from 20° N northward. Prior to analysis, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signals were linearly fitted and subtracted from the variables of interest. The first paired modes explain 51.1 % of the total squared covariance. The spatial feature of the pressure mode is almost identical to that of the positive AO pattern, while the precipitation mode displays an overall less-than-normal anomaly along the rain belt. The AO indices are highly correlated with the time coefficients of the pressure mode at a value of 0.91, and for the time coefficients of the precipitation mode, the correlation is -0.44, both of which are significant at the 99 % level. The regional atmospheric circulation anomalies in association with the negative phase AO mode display consistent changes, including the anomalous southerly winds and vapor flux convergence in the lower troposphere over East Asia, the stronger East Asian westerly jet stream, and the enhanced ascending air motion between 20 and 30° N. There are two possible mechanisms linking the AO and East Asian circulation and precipitation, i.e., the wave-trains along the westerly jet stream from North Africa to the Middle East and East Asia and the dipole of an anti-cyclone and a cyclone over the North Pacific.



    Dr. K. Sravana Kumar


                The middle class is placed between labour and capital. It neither directly awns the means of production that pumps out the surplus generated by wage labour power, nor does it, by its own labour, produce the surplus which has use and exchange value. Broadly speaking, this class consists of the petty bourgeoisie and the white-collar workers. The former are either self-employed or involved in the distribution of commodities and t...

  14. Intestinal stricture following seat belt injury in children. (United States)

    Lynch, J M; Albanese, C T; Meza, M P; Wiener, E S


    The most commonly reported intestinal injury from seat belts in children is perforation. A rarely reported late sequela following this type of injury is posttraumatic intestinal stricture (PTIS). A review of the literature reveals a common clinical pattern of presentation in children and adults but an apparent difference in the pathophysiologic mechanism between the pediatric and adult patient. Recently, we treated two children with PTIS. Each case is discussed, and a pathophysiological mechanism for this injury in children is proposed. Recommendations are made for the evaluation and treatment of these uncommon complications of seat belt-related blunt intestinal injury.

  15. Seat belt trauma: pectoralis muscle rupture and delayed mesh repair. (United States)

    Harvey, Kyle P; Adair, James D; Ali, M Azhar


    To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a seat belt-related rupture of the pectoralis major muscle and its successful delayed repair using mesh. We report a case of a 34-year-old white man who sustained a right pectoralis major muscle rupture from a seat belt during a motor vehicle crash. The patient presented to us 2 years after the injury. We introduce a technique using mesh that results in a successful repair of a cosmetically disfiguring chest wall defect.

  16. Photometry and Lightcurve Analysis of 7 Main-Belt Asteroids (United States)

    Violante, Renata; Leake, M. A.


    We report the synodic periods and lightcurves for three main-belt asteroids and provide lightcurves for four other main-belt asteroids. 676 Melitta has a period of 8.35 ± 0.05 hours, with an amplitude of 0.056 ± 0.026 magnitude; 688 Melanie has a period of 16.10 ± 0.05 hours, and an amplitude of 0.091 ± 0.019 magnitude; 1677 Tycho Brahe has a period of 3.89 ± 0.06 hours, and an amplitude of 0.564 ± 0.011 magnitude.

  17. Active Asteroids: Main-Belt Comets and Disrupted Asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Hsieh, Henry H


    The study of active asteroids has attracted a great deal of interest in recent years since the recognition of main-belt comets (which orbit in the main asteroid belt, but exhibit comet-like activity due to the sublimation of volatile ices) as a new class of comets in 2006, and the discovery of the first disrupted asteroids (which, unlike MBCs, exhibit comet-like activity due to a physical disruption such as an impact or rotational destabilization, not sublimation) in 2010. In this paper, I will briefly discuss key areas of interest in the study of active asteroids.

  18. A Spectroscopically Unique Main Belt Asteroid: 10537 (1991 RY16)

    CERN Document Server

    Moskovitz, Nicholas A; Jedicke, Robert; Willman, Mark; Haghighipour, Nader; Bus, Schelte J; Gaidos, Eric


    We present visible and near-infrared reflectance spectra and interpreted surface mineralogy for asteroid 10537 (1991 RY16). The spectrum of this object is without precedent amongst the Main Belt asteroids. A unique absorption band centered at 0.63 microns could be attributed to one of several mineralogies. Pronounced 1- and 2-micron absorption bands suggest that the composition of 10537 is a mixture of pyroxenes and olivine and that it originated from a parent body that was partially or fully differentiated. The closest available analog is the large Main Belt asteroid 349 Dembowska but 10537 may be an isolated fragment from a completely eroded parent body.

  19. Traffic restrictions due to wind on the Fehmarn Belt bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, E.; Mann, Jakob; Rosenhagen, G.


    This report documents the calculations carried out in order to estimate the wind climate at the site where the Fehmarn Belt bridge is planned. Further, an estimate of how often and for how long traffic restrictions will be enforced according to statedcriteria (sec. 3.2) is given. This estimate...... is given both as a total percentage of time and as a mean distribution of restrictions over the year. We perform the same analysis for the Øresund and the Great Belt bridge and compare the result with the actualfractions. Only during the last year of operation of the Øresund bridge the criteria...

  20. Revisions to the original extent of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System (United States)

    Enomoto, Catherine B.; Rouse, William A.; Trippi, Michael H.; Higley, Debra K.


    Technically recoverable undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in continuous accumulations are present in Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian strata in the Appalachian Basin Petroleum Province. The province includes parts of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama. The Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian strata are part of the previously defined Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System (TPS) that extends from New York to Tennessee. This publication presents a revision to the extent of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic TPS. The most significant modification to the maximum extent of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic TPS is to the south and southwest, adding areas in Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi where Devonian strata, including potential petroleum source rocks, are present in the subsurface up to the outcrop. The Middle to Upper Devonian Chattanooga Shale extends from southeastern Kentucky to Alabama and eastern Mississippi. Production from Devonian shale has been established in the Appalachian fold and thrust belt of northeastern Alabama. Exploratory drilling has encountered Middle to Upper Devonian strata containing organic-rich shale in west-central Alabama. The areas added to the TPS are located in the Valley and Ridge, Interior Low Plateaus, and Appalachian Plateaus physiographic provinces, including the portion of the Appalachian fold and thrust belt buried beneath Cretaceous and younger sediments that were deposited on the U.S. Gulf Coastal Plain.

  1. Eclogite-High-Pressure Granulite Belt in Northern Edge of the Archean North China Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The discovery of retrograded eclogites and high-pressure basic granulites in the joining region of Hebei-Shanxi-Inner Mongolia (HSIM) abandon the old thoughts that Archean granulites in the North China craton are of middle or low pressure facies and promote the reconsideration of Early Precambrian cratonization tectonic process, and reveal the geological fact that the scale, rigid behavior and geological structure of Archean cratonic blocks have strong similarities to the present fundamental plate tectonics, which suggest new tectonic mechanism to understand the early continental evolution of the North China craton. (1) The retrograded eclogites and high-pressure granulites constitute a ENE-NE-striking structure-rock zone termed as the Sanggan structural belt. (2) The retrograded eclogites are closely associated with high-pressure granulites. We can call this belt a transitional eclogite-granulite facies metamorphic belt. Petrographically three metamorphic stages, at least, in the retrograded eclogite can be distinguished. ① The main mineral assemblage is composed of garnet+clinopyroxene+quartz+rutile. The mineral inclusions in garnet are fine-grained quartz, rutile and small inclusions of fine-grained second stage mineral aggregate. This aggregate consists of hypersthene+albite, and has the typical texture of small hypersthene core surrounded by albite micro-grained grains. ② The second mineral assemblage is represented by corona of garnet and symplectite of clinopyroxene. The corona of garnet is composed of hypersthene+plagioclase+clinopyroxene+a minor amount of quartz and magnetite. The symplectite of clinopyroxene is composed of hypersthene + albite+clinopyroxene. The secondary mineral assemblage along boundaries between quartz and garnet (or clinopyroxene) is fine-grained aggregate of hypersthene and clinopyroxene. ③ The third retrograded metamorphic minerals are mainly amphiboles replacing pyroxenes and plagioclases replacing garnets. The estimated

  2. Prices of second-line antiretroviral treatment for middle-income countries inside versus outside sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryony Simmons


    Full Text Available Introduction: Antiretrovirals are available at low prices in sub-Saharan Africa, but these prices may not be consistently available for middle-income countries in other regions with large HIV epidemics. Over 30% of HIV infected people live in countries outside sub-Saharan Africa. Several key antiretrovirals are still on patent, with generic production restricted. We assessed price variations for key antiretroviral drugs inside versus outside sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: HIV drug prices used in national programmes (2010–2014 were extracted from the WHO Global Price Reporting Mechanism database for all reporting middle-income countries as classified by the World Bank. Treatment costs (branded and generic were compared for countries inside sub-Saharan Africa versus those outside. Five key second-line antiretrovirals were analysed: abacavir, atazanavir, darunavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, raltegravir. Results: Prices of branded antiretrovirals were significantly higher outside sub-Saharan Africa (p<0.001, adjusted for year of purchase (see Table 1. For example, the median (interquartile range price of darunavir from Janssen was $732 (IQR $732-806 per person-year in sub-Saharan Africa versus $4689 (IQR $4075-5717 in non-African middle-income countries, an increase of 541%. However, when supplied by generic companies, most antiretrovirals were similarly priced between countries in sub-Saharan Africa and other regions. Conclusions: Pharmaceutical companies are selling antiretrovirals to non-African middle-income countries at prices 74–541% higher than African countries with similar gross national incomes. However, generic companies are selling most of these drugs at similar prices across regions. Mechanisms to ensure fair pricing for patented antiretrovirals across both African and non-African middle-income countries need to be improved, to ensure sustainable treatment access.

  3. Nonsanction seat belt law enforcement: a modern day tale of two cities. (United States)

    Hunter, W W; Stewart, J R; Stutts, J C; Marchetti, L M


    This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of a nonsanction seat belt law enforcement program in two experimental communities of contrasting size in a state with a mandatory belt law. The main ingredients of the program were seat belt "salutes," public information and education, and limited use of inexpensive economic incentives. Driver shoulder belt use data collected before, during, and after the experimental programs, compared to similar data collected in a comparison community, showed the approach to be effective. While standard seat belt enforcement activities without incentives have been shown to be effective, many police departments, especially in smaller communities, are reluctant to make wholesale increases in seat belt citations. Although requiring some additional level of manpower and resources, a nonsanction approach to seat belt law enforcement can provide an alternate way of increasing belt use in these communities.

  4. Tectonics and structure of Qinling orogenic belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国伟; 孟庆任; 赖绍聪


    The Qinling orogen has 2 kinds of orogenic basements.The main orogenic phase wascharacterized by the oblique subduction and collision of 3 plates at 2 suture zones.There are a numberof vertical accretionary structures under the control of deep-seated thermo-tectonic processes.The present 3-Dmodel of the.Qinling is a "flyover-like" framework.Deep geophysical field is featured by nearlysouth-north-trending anomalies,while the upper crust is dominated by east-west-trending structures.Betweenthem are the middle and lower crusts which are in a rheologieal state of the horizontally flattening.Fundamental structures of the upper crust was built during the main orogenic phase,which contains residualstructures and is intensively superposed by the late intracontinental tectonism.This tectonic model for theQinling orogen is distinct from the existing ones in that it represents a complicated development of diversetectonic regimes.This model cannot be either interpreted by an individual existing model.

  5. African horse sickness. (United States)

    Mellor, Philip Scott; Hamblin, Christopher


    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a non-contagious, infectious insect-borne disease of equids and is endemic in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa and possibly Yemen in the Arabian Peninsula. However, periodically the virus makes excursions beyond its endemic areas and has at times extended as far as India and Pakistan in the east and Spain and Portugal in the west. The vectors are certain species of Culicoides biting midge the most important of which is the Afro-Asiatic species C. imicola. This paper describes the effects that AHSV has on its equid hosts, aspects of its epidemiology, and present and future prospects for control. The distribution of AHSV seems to be governed by a number of factors including the efficiency of control measures, the presence or absence of a long term vertebrate reservoir and, most importantly, the prevalence and seasonal incidence of the major vector which is controlled by climate. However, with the advent of climate-change the major vector, C. imicola, has now significantly extended its range northwards to include much of Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece and has even been recorded from southern Switzerland. Furthermore, in many of these new locations the insect is present and active throughout the entire year. With the related bluetongue virus, which utilises the same vector species of Culicoides this has, since 1998, precipitated the worst outbreaks of bluetongue disease ever recorded with the virus extending further north in Europe than ever before and apparently becoming endemic in that continent. The prospects for similar changes in the epidemiology and distribution of AHSV are discussed.

  6. Anterior inferior iliac spine fracture: Another component of seat belt syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paisal HUSSIN


    Full Text Available Seat belt syndrome occurs when seat belts are used improperly, and it is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. The spectrum of seat belt syndrome includes spinal, intra-abdominal and vascular injury. Here, we report the case of anterior inferior iliac spine avulsion fracture in association with seat belt injuries in a 24-year old man involved in a head on motor vehicle collision. 

  7. Explaining the dynamics of the ultra-relativistic third Van Allen radiation belt


    Mann, Ian R.; Ozeke, L. G.; Murphy, Kyle R; Clauderpierre, S. G.; Turner, D. L.; Baker, D. N.; Rae, I. J.; Kale, A; Milling, David; Boyd, A. J.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; H. J. Singer; Dimitrakoudis, S.; Daglis, I. A.


    Since the discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts over 50 years ago, an explanation for their complete dynamics has remained elusive. Especially challenging is understanding the recently discovered ultra-relativistic third electron radiation belt. Current theory asserts that loss in the heart of the outer belt, essential to the formation of the third belt, must be controlled by high-frequency plasma wave–particle scattering into the atmosphere, via whistler mode chorus, plasmaspheric hiss,...

  8. Safety belt promotion at community swimming pools :effects of policy, rewards, prompts, and education


    Gilmore, Michael Richard


    Data on safety belt use were collected at two swimming pools over three consecutive summers. The impact of several variables upon safety belt use was examined. First, an Intervention Program (IP) was designed, comprised of Promotional, Reward, and Feedback components. Second, an Awareness/Education (AE) strategy was introduced to children enrolled in swim lessons. Third, belt use was examined before and after a mandatory safety belt use law (BUL) was enacted in Virginia. The moderating ef...

  9. A reappraisal of polymetamorphism in the Eastern Ghats belt - A view from north of the Godavari rift

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Bhattacharya; S Gupta


    Evidence collated from different parts of the Eastern Ghats belt north of the Godavari rift (barring the ``Western Charnockite Zone") indicates that this sector evolved through a series of compressive structures (1 to 3), with prolific migmatization in quartzofeldspathic and metapelitic gneisses synchronous with 1 shortening, as was the syn- 1 emplacement of profuse megacrystic K-feldspar-bearing granitoid bodies. Thereafter, melt productivity of the rocks (synchronous with 2 - 3 folding) sharply decreased. Mineral parageneses stable in the 1, 2 and 3 fabrics indicate persistence of granulite facies conditions. P-T estimates on orthopyroxene + garnet + plagioclase + quartz assemblages anchored to recrystallized mosaic that overgrow all penetrative fabric elements in mafic granulites, granitoids and quartzofeldspathic gneisses are in the range of 900°-950°C and P ≅ 8-9 kbar. This estimate is comparable to those retrieved from sapphirine-bearing paragenesis in Mg-Al metapelites that appear to be diachronous in relation to the fabric elements, and arguably disrupt the granoblastic mosaic. These facets in the northern sector of the orogenic belt are compatible with either a single cycle of tectonic events (i.e., 1, 2 and 3 in continuum), or temporally-separate thermo-tectonic events, with the peak of earlier metamorphism (pre- to syn-1) at lower temperature (in the granulite facies) in comparison to the record of high post-3-max values. It is suggested on the basis of the above evidence that the late Proterozoic/Pan-African granulites in the Eastern Ghats belt north of the Godavari rift, are unlikely to be reworked equivalents of any older granulitic crust, such as the ∼1.6 Ga granulites south of the rift. Instead, the temporally disparate sectors may represent different crustal segments with unconnected pre-amalgamation tectonic history. However, if the ∼1.6 Ga granulites of the Western Charnockite Zone continue northwards across the rift, as suggested by

  10. Calderas of the Central Sector of the Mexican Volcanic Belt (United States)

    Aguirre-Diaz, G. J.


    The central sector of the Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB) (-99 to -103, Long W) has the largest number of calderas so far identified in this province. The calderas (with their age range in Ma, and distance to the Middle America Trench in km, in parenthesis) are: Amazcala (7-6, 480), Apaseo (7-6, 440), Huichapan (5-4, 420), Agustinos (5-4, 400), Amealco (5-4, 400), Macua (4-3, 410), Muerta (?, 380), Catedral (6-5, 370), Azufres (4.5-0.03, 370 -Pradal & Robin, 1994), and Zitácuaro (12-0.5, 320 -Capra et al., 1997). Most calderas completed their activity in about 1 Ma, but Azufres and Zitácuaro had longer lives, mostly as post-caldera lava domes and associated pyroclastic flows. Amazcala is rhyolitic, peraluminous-peralkaline, and 10x14 km in diameter. Apaseo is a 11x14 km center that started as andesitic-dacitic and ended rhyolitic and mildly peraluminous; Huichapan started with dacitic ignimbrites and ended with a major rhyolitic ignimbrite; Agustinos is a > 6 km open semi-circle structure that erupted first an andesitic ignimbrite and then a rhyolitic one; Amealco is 10 km in size and erupted a succession of three ignimbrites with mingled glasses with compositions from trachyandesite to rhyolite; Macua is a summit crater structure, 3x5 km, that erupted an unwelded rhyolitic ignimbrite; Muerta is a sector collapse caldera, 4x5 km, associated to lithics-rich ignimbrite eruptions; next to Mexico-City is Catedral, a 9x6 km in diameter caldera with silicic ignimbrites and rim and central lava domes, some of which erupted block-and-ash flows; Azufres has being a matter of debate, but according to Padral and Robin (1994), is a long-lived structure, about 20 km in diameter, with the major caldera eruption at 4.5-3.4 Ma, and repeated dome and pyroclastic flow activity until 26 Ka ago; Zitácuaro (Capra et al., 1997) is another long-lived center, with eruptive cycles at 12 Ma (the caldera-forming event), 5 Ma and 0.5 Ma (mostly domes and associated pyroclastic flows). Most

  11. Increasing Reading Engagement in African American Boys (United States)

    Husband, Terry


    Much has been written concerning the challenges many teachers face in engaging African American males in reading practices. While much of this extant scholarship focuses on African American males at the pre-adolescent stage of development and beyond, little has been written regarding increasing reading engagement in African American boys in P-5…

  12. African Centered Knowledge: A British Perspective. (United States)

    Christian, Mark


    Considers the impact of African centered knowledge within the United Kingdom. Recent development of African Diaspora studies has forged links between various black Atlantic communities. The United Kingdom has experienced positive grassroots community response to the work of noted African centered scholars, yet within the British academy,…

  13. Empowering African genomics for infectious disease control. (United States)

    Folarin, Onikepe A; Happi, Anise N; Happi, Christian T


    At present, African scientists can only participate minimally in the genomics revolution that is transforming the understanding, surveillance and clinical treatment of infectious diseases. We discuss new initiatives to equip African scientists with knowledge of cutting-edge genomics tools, and build a sustainable critical mass of well-trained African infectious diseases genomics scientists.

  14. African American Teaching and the Matriarchal Performance. (United States)

    Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes

    This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta-Maria MIHUT


    Full Text Available In this work we make a study of the improvement methods of quantity of material transported by conveyor belt. Determination of discharge of solids entail establish of the parameters of the conveyor belt. As a result, we determine the belt speed who provide maximum discharge of solids materials.

  16. The use of seat belts and contributing factors : an international comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkinen, T. Wittink, R.D. & Hagenzieker, M.P.


    The purpose of this study was to define factors that contribute to the use or non-use of seat belts. Legislation prescribing compulsory seat belt usage is one of the most important factors. Promotion of the use of seat belts without this legislation is very difficult and time-consuming. So far, the

  17. 75 FR 4509 - Uniform Criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use (United States)


    ... Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA... amendments to the regulations establishing the criteria for designing and conducting State seat belt use... seat belt use rates to NHTSA. NHTSA proposes these amendments so that future surveys will give...

  18. 23 CFR 1240.13 - Determination of national average seat belt use rate. (United States)


    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of national average seat belt use rate... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.13 Determination of national...

  19. Seat Belt Education Program--A Model for Public Health Settings. (United States)

    Saunders, Stephen; Pine, Jeffrey


    The purpose of the study was to determine whether a brief seat belt group educational intervention could be incorporated into an existing public health program and result in increased use of seat belts. Seat belt use increased from 4.9 to 12.6 percent among 268 low-income mothers during the study. (Author/CH)

  20. 48 CFR 1252.223-73 - Seat belt use policies and programs. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seat belt use policies and....223-73 Seat belt use policies and programs. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1223.7000(c), insert the following clause: Seat Belt Use Policies and Programs (APR 2005) In accordance with Executive Order...

  1. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.166 Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners. (a... an inflatable bag assembly. A seat-belt pre-tensioner contains similar hazardous materials and...

  2. Seat Belt Law Experience in Four Foreign Countries Compared to the United States. (United States)

    Campbell, B. J.; Campbell, Frances A.

    This report examines the process of enacting laws requiring the use of seat belts in the United States. It assesses these laws against the perspective of benefits realized from such mandates in other nations. Chapter one is an introduction; chapter two provides background on seat belt installation in U.S. vehicles, introduction of belt use laws,…

  3. 30 CFR 56.14130 - Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts. (United States)


    ... protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts. (a) Equipment included. Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts shall be installed on— (1) Crawler tractors and crawler loaders; (2) Graders; (3) Wheel... October 24, 1988, that is equipped with ROPS and seat belts that meet the installation and...

  4. 76 FR 36890 - Clarification of Prior Interpretations of the Seat Belt and Seating Requirements for General... (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 91 Clarification of Prior Interpretations of the Seat Belt and... clarify prior interpretations of the seat belt and seating requirements of 14 CFR 91.107(a)(3). These... clarification states that the use of a seat belt and/or seat by more than one occupant is appropriate only...

  5. 77 FR 20550 - Uniform Criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use (United States)


    ... State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... implementation date for use of the revised uniform criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use... Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use.'' 76 FR 18042. That final rule amended the regulation...

  6. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 1240 - Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate (United States)


    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate D... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Pt. 1240, App. D Appendix D to Part 1240—Determination of National...

  7. 77 FR 30885 - Clarification of Prior Interpretations of the Seat Belt and Seating Requirements for General... (United States)


    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 91 [Docket No. FAA-2011-0628] Clarification of Prior Interpretations of the Seat Belt... interpretations of FAA's seat belt and seating requirements. These prior interpretations state that the shared use of a single restraint may be permissible. This clarification states that the use of a seat belt...

  8. Using naturalistic driving data to identify variables associated with infrequent, occasional, and consistent seat belt use. (United States)

    Reagan, Ian J; McClafferty, Julie A; Berlin, Sharon P; Hankey, Jonathan M


    Seat belt use is one of the most effective countermeasures to reduce traffic fatalities and injuries. The success of efforts to increase use is measured by road side observations and self-report questionnaires. These methods have shortcomings, with the former requiring a binary point estimate and the latter being subjective. The 100-car naturalistic driving study presented a unique opportunity to study seat belt use in that seat belt status was known for every trip each driver made during a 12-month period. Drivers were grouped into infrequent, occasional, or consistent seat belt users based on the frequency of belt use. Analyses were then completed to assess if these groups differed on several measures including personality, demographics, self-reported driving style variables as well as measures from the 100-car study instrumentation suite (average trip speed, trips per day). In addition, detailed analyses of the occasional belt user group were completed to identify factors that were predictive of occasional belt users wearing their belts. The analyses indicated that consistent seat belt users took fewer trips per day, and that increased average trip speed was associated with increased belt use among occasional belt users. The results of this project may help focus messaging efforts to convert occasional and inconsistent seat belt users to consistent users.

  9. Late Middle Eocene primate from Myanmar and the initial anthropoid colonization of Africa. (United States)

    Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Chavasseau, Olivier; Beard, K Christopher; Kyaw, Aung Aung; Soe, Aung Naing; Sein, Chit; Lazzari, Vincent; Marivaux, Laurent; Marandat, Bernard; Swe, Myat; Rugbumrung, Mana; Lwin, Thit; Valentin, Xavier; Zin-Maung-Maung-Thein; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques


    Reconstructing the origin and early evolutionary history of anthropoid primates (monkeys, apes, and humans) is a current focus of paleoprimatology. Although earlier hypotheses frequently supported an African origin for anthropoids, recent discoveries of older and phylogenetically more basal fossils in China and Myanmar indicate that the group originated in Asia. Given the Oligocene-Recent history of African anthropoids, the colonization of Africa by early anthropoids hailing from Asia was a decisive event in primate evolution. However, the fossil record has so far failed to constrain the nature and timing of this pivotal event. Here we describe a fossil primate from the late middle Eocene Pondaung Formation of Myanmar, Afrasia djijidae gen. et sp. nov., that is remarkably similar to, yet dentally more primitive than, the roughly contemporaneous North African anthropoid Afrotarsius. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that Afrasia and Afrotarsius are sister taxa within a basal anthropoid clade designated as the infraorder Eosimiiformes. Current knowledge of eosimiiform relationships and their distribution through space and time suggests that members of this clade dispersed from Asia to Africa sometime during the middle Eocene, shortly before their first appearance in the African fossil record. Crown anthropoids and their nearest fossil relatives do not appear to be specially related to Afrotarsius, suggesting one or more additional episodes of dispersal from Asia to Africa. Hystricognathous rodents, anthracotheres, and possibly other Asian mammal groups seem to have colonized Africa at roughly the same time or shortly after anthropoids gained their first toehold there.

  10. 1991 National campaign to increase safety belt usage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NHTSA


    The central theme of this paper is the national campaign of the USA to be conducted in 1991 and 1992, in order to reach the goal of 70 percent safety belt usage by 1992. Among other things, it is shown that visible enforcement of existing laws offers the greatest potential for achieving this goal. F

  11. Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chris Fromme


    This document details progress on the project entitled ''Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity'' during the period from November 15, 2004 to May 14, 2004. Highlights include fabrication of an improved LED lightbar, fabrication of a line-scan sensor head for the Smart-Camera based prototype, and development of prototype vulcanized splice detection algorithms.

  12. On the Dynamics of Resonant Kuiper Belt Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, I G; Jiang, Ing-Guey; Yeh, Li-Chin


    We propose a new mechanism of drag-induced resonant capture, which can explain the resonant Kuiper Belt Objects in a natural way. A review and comparison with the traditional mechanism of sweeping capture by the migrating Neptune will be given.

  13. Resolving the Planetesimal Belt of HR 8799 with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, Mark; Casassus, Simon; Hales, Antonio S; Dent, William R F; Faramaz, Virginie; Matrà, Luca; Barkats, Denis; Brahm, Rafael; Cuadra, Jorge


    The star HR 8799 hosts one of the largest known debris discs and at least four giant planets. Previous observations have found evidence for a warm belt within the orbits of the planets, a cold planetesimal belt beyond their orbits and a halo of small grains. With the infrared data, it is hard to distinguish the planetesimal belt emission from that of the grains in the halo. With this in mind, the system has been observed with ALMA in band 6 (1.34 mm) using a compact array format. These observations allow the inner edge of the planetesimal belt to be resolved for the first time. A radial distribution of dust grains is fitted to the data using an MCMC method. The disc is best fit by a broad ring between $145^{+12}_{-12}$ AU and $429^{+37}_{-32}$ AU at an inclination of $40^{+5}_{-6}${\\deg} and a position angle of $51^{+8}_{-8}${\\deg}. A disc edge at ~145 AU is too far out to be explained simply by interactions with planet b, requiring either a more complicated dynamical history or an extra planet beyond the orb...

  14. Preservation of meandering river channels in uniformly aggrading channel belts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Lageweg, W.I.; Schuurman, F.; Cohen, K.M.; van Dijk, W. M.; Shimizu, Y.; Kleinhans, M.G.


    Channel belt deposits from meandering river systems commonly display an internal architecture of stacked depositional features with scoured basal contacts due to channel and bedform migration across a range of scales. Recognition and correct interpretation of these bounding surfaces is essential to

  15. Radiation Belt Storm Probes—Observatory and Environments (United States)

    Kirby, Karen; Artis, David; Bushman, Stewart; Butler, Michael; Conde, Rich; Cooper, Stan; Fretz, Kristen; Herrmann, Carl; Hill, Adrian; Kelley, Jeff; Maurer, Richard; Nichols, Richard; Ottman, Geffrey; Reid, Mark; Rogers, Gabe; Srinivasan, Dipak; Troll, John; Williams, Bruce


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) is an Earth-orbiting mission that launched August 30, 2012, and is the latest science mission in NASA's Living with a Star Program. The RBSP mission will investigate, characterize and understand the physical dynamics of the radiation belts, as well as the influence of the Sun on the Earth's environment, by measuring particles, electric and magnetic fields and waves that comprise geospace. The mission is composed of two identically instrumented spinning observatories in an elliptical orbit around earth with 600 km perigee, 30,000 km apogee and 10∘ inclination to provide full sampling of the Van Allen radiation belts. The twin RBSP observatories (recently renamed the Van Allen Probes) will follow slightly different orbits and will lap each other four times per year, offering simultaneous measurements over a range of observatory separation distances. A description of the observatory environment is provided along with protection for sensitive electronics to support operations in the harsh radiation belt environment. Spacecraft and subsystem key characteristics and instrument accommodations are included that allow the RBSP science objectives to be met.

  16. Structural appraisal of the Gadag schist belt from gravity investigations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Ramadass; D Himabindu; N Srinivasulu


    Semi-detailed gravity investigations were carried out over an area of approximately 2750 sq km with maximum N-S and E-W extents of 55 and 50km respectively in the Gadag region in the Dharwar craton with a view to obtain a clearer perception of the structural configuration of the region. From qualitative analysis of the gravity data, several tectonic features are inferred: the high density Gadag schist belt is characterized by a gravity high and occurs in two discontinuous segments — the main N-S trending segment, and its thinner NW-SE trending extension, the two separated by a NE-SW trending deep seated fault. While the N-S trend of the Gadag schist belt is bounded on its east by the NW-SE trending Chitradurga thrust fault and on its west by another major NNW-SSE trending fault, the NW-SE extension is likewise bounded by two other NW-SE major faults. Quantitative evaluation from forward modeling/inversion of five profiles in the region, assuming a density contrast of 0.29 gm/cc of the anomalous schistose body with the gneissic host rocks indicated a synclinal structure plunging to the southeast along its axis for the Gadag schist belt. The maximum width and depth from surface of the schist belt are 22km and 5.6km respectively.

  17. Chaos in Mean Motion Resonances of the Kuiper Belt

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Fred


    In this paper on mean motion resonances in the Kuiper belt we consider effects on resonant bodies captured in an earlier migration by determining levels of chaos as a function of eccentricity, e, at the most stable orbital configuration. We find the the maximum observed e's at resonance very closely correspond to orbits with Lyapunov times ~ 1000 orbital periods of Neptune--much the same number as applies in the asteroid belt with Neptune's period replaced by Jupiter's. The fact that this number caps the e's of markedly chaotic but still existing bodies, implies that the great majority of escapes at equal and larger e's have already occurred. Yet escapes must continue at some level if the small population in the outermost belt is to be maintained because typical lifetimes of bodies there are only ~ 1/10 of the solar system's age. A study of stability at resonance also reinforces the claim that the post-migration boundary of the inner Kuiper belt lies near 34 AU and that the primordial, or pre-migration, outer...

  18. Structure of Possible Long-lived Asteroid Belts

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, N W


    High resolution simulations are used to map out the detailed structure of two long-lived stable belts of asteroid orbits in the inner Solar system. The Vulcanoid belt extends from 0.09 to 0.20 astronomical units (au), though with a gaps at 0.15 and 0.18 au corresponding to de-stabilising mean motion resonances with Mercury and Venus. As collisional evolution proceeds slower at larger heliocentric distances, kilometre-sized or larger Vulcanoids are most likely to be found in the region between 0.16 and 0.18 au. The optimum location in which to search for Vulcanoids is at geocentric ecliptic longitudes roughly between 9 and 10 degrees. Dynamically speaking, the Earth-Mars belt between 1.08-1.28 au is an extremely stable repository for asteroids on nearly circular orbits. It is interrupted at 1.21 au due to the 3:4 commensurability with the Earth, while secular resonances with Saturn are troublesome beyond 1.17 au. These detailed maps of the fine structure of the belts can be used to plan search methodologies. S...

  19. Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Payload Safety Introduction Briefing (United States)

    Loftin, Chuck; Lampert, Dianna; Herrburger, Eric; Smith, Clay; Hill, Stuart; VonMehlem, Judi


    Mission of the Geospace Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) is: Gain s cientific understanding (to the point of predictability) of how populations of relativistic electrons and ions in space form or change in response to changes in solar activity and the solar wind.

  20. Wave acceleration of electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts. (United States)

    Horne, Richard B; Thorne, Richard M; Shprits, Yuri Y; Meredith, Nigel P; Glauert, Sarah A; Smith, Andy J; Kanekal, Shrikanth G; Baker, Daniel N; Engebretson, Mark J; Posch, Jennifer L; Spasojevic, Maria; Inan, Umran S; Pickett, Jolene S; Decreau, Pierrette M E


    The Van Allen radiation belts are two regions encircling the Earth in which energetic charged particles are trapped inside the Earth's magnetic field. Their properties vary according to solar activity and they represent a hazard to satellites and humans in space. An important challenge has been to explain how the charged particles within these belts are accelerated to very high energies of several million electron volts. Here we show, on the basis of the analysis of a rare event where the outer radiation belt was depleted and then re-formed closer to the Earth, that the long established theory of acceleration by radial diffusion is inadequate; the electrons are accelerated more effectively by electromagnetic waves at frequencies of a few kilohertz. Wave acceleration can increase the electron flux by more than three orders of magnitude over the observed timescale of one to two days, more than sufficient to explain the new radiation belt. Wave acceleration could also be important for Jupiter, Saturn and other astrophysical objects with magnetic fields.

  1. Dynamics of the low altitude secondary proton radiation belt. (United States)

    Gusev, A A; Kohno, T; Spjeldvik, W N; Martin, I M; Pugacheva, G I; Turtelli, A


    At the interface between the upper atmosphere and the radiation belt region, there exists a secondary radiation belt consisting mainly of energetic ions that have become neutralized in the ring current and the main radiation belt and then re-ionized by collisions in the inner exosphere. The time history of the proton fluxes in the 0.64-35 MeV energy range was traced in the equatorial region beneath the main radiation belts during the three year period from 21 February 1984 to 26 March 1987 using data obtained with the HEP experiment on board the Japanese OHZORA satellite. During most of this period a fairly small proton flux of -1.2 cm-2 S-1 sr-1 was detected on geomagnetic field lines in the range 1.05 < L < 1.15. We report a few surprisingly deep and rapid flux decreases (flux reduction by typically two orders of magnitude). These flux decreases were also long in duration (lasting up to three months). We also registered abrupt flux increases where the magnitude of the proton flux enhancements could reach three orders of magnitude with an enhancement duration of 1-3 days. Possible reasons for these unexpected phenomena are discussed.

  2. Influence of the Gould Belt on Interstellar Extinction

    CERN Document Server

    Gontcharov, George


    A new analytical 3D model of interstellar extinction within 500 pc of the Sun as a function of the Galactic spherical coordinates is suggested. This model is physically more justified than the widely used Arenou model, since it takes into account the presence of absorbing matter both in the layer along the equatorial Galactic plane and in the Gould Belt. The extinction in the equatorial layer varies as the sine of the Galactic longitude and in the Gould Belt as the sine of twice the longitude in the Belt plane. The extinction across the layers varies according to a barometric law. It has been found that the absorbing layers intersect at an angle of 17 deg and that the Sun is located near the axial plane of the absorbing layer of the Gould Belt and is probably several parsecs below the axial plane of the equatorial absorbing layer but above the Galactic plane. The model has been tested using the extinction of real stars from three catalogs.

  3. Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization (United States)

    Daglis, I. A.; Bourdarie, S.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Santolik, O.; Horne, R.; Mann, I.; Turner, D.


    We present the concept, objectives and expected impact of the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization) project, which is being implemented by a consortium of seven institutions (five European, one Canadian and one US) with support from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme. The MAARBLE project employs multi-spacecraft monitoring of the geospace environment, complemented by ground-based monitoring, in order to analyze and assess the physical mechanisms leading to radiation belt particle energization and loss. Particular attention is paid to the role of ULF/VLF waves. A database containing properties of the waves is being created and will be made available to the scientific community. Based on the wave database, a statistical model of the wave activity dependent on the level of geomagnetic activity, solar wind forcing, and magnetospheric region will be developed. Multi-spacecraft particle measurements will be incorporated into data assimilation tools, leading to new understanding of the causal relationships between ULF/VLF waves and radiation belt dynamics. Data assimilation techniques have been proven as a valuable tool in the field of radiation belts, able to guide 'the best' estimate of the state of a complex system. (The members of the MAARBLE team are: I. A. Daglis, S. Bourdarie, Y. Khotyaintsev, O. Santolik, R. Horne, I. Mann, D. Turner, A. Anastasiadis, V. Angelopoulos, G. Balasis, E. Chatzichristou, C. Cully, M. Georgiou, S. Glauert, B. Grison, I. Kolmasova, D. Lazaro, E. Macusova, V. Maget, C. Papadimitriou, G. Ropokis, I. Sandberg, M. Usanova.)

  4. Developing programs for african families, by african families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halliday, Jennifer A; Green, Julie; Mellor, David


    Obesity is an emerging problem for African migrants in Australia, but few prevention programs incorporate their cultural beliefs and values. This study reports on the application of community capacity-building and empowerment principles in 4 workshops with Sudanese families in Australia. Workshop...

  5. Paired Magmatic-Metallogenic Belts in Myanmar - an Andean Analogue? (United States)

    Gardiner, Nicholas; Robb, Laurence; Searle, Michael; Morley, Christopher


    Myanmar (Burma) is richly endowed in precious and base metals, having one of the most diverse collections of natural resources in SE Asia. Its geological history is dominated by the staged closing of Tethys and the suturing of Gondwana-derived continental fragments onto the South China craton during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. The country is located at a crucial geologic juncture where the main convergent Tethyan collision zone swings south around the Namche Barwa Eastern Himalayan syntaxis. However, despite recent work, the geological and geodynamic history of Myanmar remains enigmatic. Plate margin processes, magmatism, metasomatism and the genesis of mineral deposits are intricately linked, and there has long been recognized a relationship between the distribution of certain mineral deposit types, and the tectonic settings which favour their genesis. A better knowledge of the regional tectonic evolution of a potential exploration jurisdiction is therefore crucial to understanding its minerals prospectivity. This strong association between tectonics and mineralization can equally be applied in reverse. By mapping out the spatial, and temporal, distribution of presumed co-genetic mineral deposits, coupled with an understanding of their collective metallogenetic origin, a better appreciation of the tectonic evolution of a terrane may be elucidated. Identification and categorization of metallotects within a geodynamically-evolving terrane thus provides a complimentary tool to other methodologies (e.g. geochemical, geochronological, structural, geophysical, stratigraphical), for determining the tectonic history and inferred geodynamic setting of that terrane through time. Myanmar is one such study area where this approach can be undertaken. Here are found two near-parallel magmatic belts, which together contain a significant proportion of that country's mineral wealth of tin, tungsten, copper, gold and silver. Although only a few 100 km's apart, these belts exhibit a

  6. Designing as middle ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt; Binder, Thomas


    The theoretical background in this chapter is science and technology studies and actor network theory, enabling investigation of heterogeneity, agency and perfor-mative effects through ‘symmetric’ analysis. The concept of design is defined as being imaginative and mindful to a number of actors...... in a network of humans and non-humans, highlighting that design objects and the designer as an authority are constructed throughout this endeavour. The illustrative case example is drawn from product development in a rubber valve factory in Jutland in Denmark. The key contribution to a general core of design...... research is an articulation of design activity taking place as a middle ground and as an intermixture between a ‘scientific’ regime of knowledge transfer and a capital ‘D’ ‘Designerly’ regime of authoring....

  7. Multi-level decollement zones and detachment deformation of Longmenshan thrust belt,Sichuan Basin,southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    As is well known that many decollement layers were developed in the Longmenshan thrust belt,Si-chuan Basin,China. Through field investigation,explanation of seismic profiles and analysis of the balanced sections,we can divide the decollement zones into 3 categories: (1) the deep level decolle-ment zones,including the crust-mantle decollement layer,intracrustal decollement layer,and presinian basal decollement layer. The main structural styles of their deformation are the crust-mantle decoup-ling detachment deformation,the basal ductile shear deformation,etc.; (2) the middle level decollement zones,including the Cambrian-Ordovician decollement layer,the Silurian decollement layer,etc.,the main structural styles of their deformation are the isopachous fold,the angular fold,the saddle struc-ture,and the combination styles of them; and (3) the shallow level decollement zones,including the Xujiahe Formation decollement layer of Upper Triassic and the Jurassic decollement layers,the main structural styles of their deformation are the thrust-nappe tectonic,the pop-up,the triangle zone ,the duplex,etc. Multi-level decollement zones not only made the Longmenshan thrust belt develop many different deformation styles from deep place to shallow place,but also made some local areas have the superimposition of the tectonic deformation apparently. This study indicates that the multi-level de-collement zones have a very important effect on the shaping and evolution of the Longmenshan thrust belt.

  8. Imaging lithosphere structure and dynamic processes of a world-class metallogenic belt with passive and active seismic methods (United States)

    Lu, Q.; Gu, Y.; Shi, D.; Yan, J.


    The lithosphere structure and deep processes are keys to understanding mineral system and ore-forming processes. Lithosphere-scale process could create big footprints or signatures which can be observed by geophysics methods. SinoProbe-03 has conducted a Transect exploration across middle and lower Yangtze Metallogenic Belt (YMT) in Eastern China. Broadband seismic, reflection seismic, wide-angle reflection and magnetotellurics survey were carried out along the Transect. Seismic reflection profiles and MT survey were also performed in Luzong, Tongling and Ningwu ore districts to construct 3D geological model. The resulting geophysical data provides new information which help to better understanding the lithosphere structure, deep processes and deformation history of the Metallogenic Belt. The major results are: (1) Lower velocity body at the top of upper mantle and a SE dipping high velocity body were imaged by teleseismic tomography beneath YMB; (2) Shear wave splitting results show NE parallel fast-wave polarization direction which parallel with tectonic lineament; (3) The reflection seismic data support the crustal-detachment model, the lower and upper crust was detached during contraction deformation near Tanlu fault and Ningwu volcanic basin; (4) Broadband and reflection seismic confirm the shallow Moho beneath YMB; (5) Strong correlation of lower crust reflectivity with magmatism. All these features suggest that introcontinental subduction, lithosphere delamination, mantle sources magmatic underplating, and MASH process are responsible for the formation of wild-class metallogenic belt. Acknowledgment: We acknowledge the financial support of SinoProbe by the Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Land and Resources, P. R. China, under Grant sinoprobe-03, and financial support by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 40930418

  9. How student teachers understand African philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsephe M. Letseka


    Full Text Available The question ‘What constitutes African philosophy?’ was first raised with the publication of Placide Tempels’s seminal work Bantu philosophy in 1959. Tempels’s book inevitably elicited considerable critical response from African philosophers, which culminated in a wide range of publications such as Wiredu’s (1980 Philosophy and an African culture, Hountondji’s (1983 African philosophy: Myth and reality, Oruka’s (1990 Sage philosophy: Indigenous thinkers and modern debate on African philosophy, Shutte’s (1993 Philosophy for Africa, Masolo’s (1994 African philosophy in search of identity and Gyekye’s (1995 An essay of African philosophical thought: The Akan conceptual scheme. It has been over 60 years since the publication of Temples’s book and there continues to be serious debate about African philosophy. This article sought to contribute to the debate on the various conceptions of African philosophy, but with a focus on the challenges of teaching African philosophy to Philosophy of Education students at an open distance learning institution in South Africa. This article discussed the tendency amongst undergraduate Philosophy of Education students to conflate and reduce African philosophy to African cultures and traditions, and to the notion of ubuntu, and sought to understand the reasons for students’ inclination to treat African philosophy in this way. It examined students’ background knowledge of African philosophy, their critical thinking skills and whether their official study materials are selected and packaged in a manner that, in fact, adds to the challenges they face. Finally, the article explored the ways in which Philosophy of Education lecturers can adapt their pedagogy to provide students with a better understanding of African philosophy.

  10. Belt(s) of debris resolved around the Sco-Cen star HIP 67497

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnefoy, M; Ménard, F; Vigan, A; Lagrange, A -M; Delorme, P; Boccaletti, A; Lazzoni, C; Galicher, R; Desidera, S; Chauvin, G; Augereau, J C; Mouillet, D; Pinte, C; van der Plas, G; Gratton, R; Beust, H; Beuzit, J L


    In 2015, we initiated a survey of Scorpius-Centaurus A-F stars that are predicted to host warm-inner and cold-outer belts of debris similar to the case of the system HR~8799. The survey aims to resolve the disks and detect planets responsible for the disk morphology. In this paper, we study the F-type star HIP~67497 and present a first-order modelisation of the disk in order to derive its main properties. We used the near-infrared integral field spectrograph (IFS) and dual-band imager IRDIS of VLT/SPHERE to obtain angular-differential imaging observations of the circumstellar environnement of HIP~67497. We removed the stellar halo with PCA and TLOCI algorithms. We modeled the disk emission with the GRaTeR code. We resolve a ring-like structure that extends up to $\\sim$450 mas ($\\sim$50 au) from the star in the IRDIS and IFS data. It is best reproduced by models of a non-eccentric ring with an inclination of $80\\pm1^{\\circ}$, a position angle of $-93\\pm1^{\\circ}$, and a semi-major axis of $59\\pm3$ au. We also ...

  11. The Kuqa late Cenozoic fold-thrust belt on the southern flank of the Tian Shan Mountains (United States)

    Li, Yue-Jun; Wen, Lei; Zhang, Hong-An; Huang, Tai-Zhu; Li, Hui-Li; Shi, Yuan-Yuan; Meng, Qing-Long; Peng, Geng-Xin; Huang, Shao-Ying; Zhang, Qiang


    The Kuqa fold-thrust belt (KFTB), a late Cenozoic fold-thrust belt on the southern flank of the Tian Shan Mountains, consists of several deformation zones trending nearly W-E. The main décollement fault of the KFTB gradually rises southwards. There are three regional main décollement faults in the Triassic dark mudstone, Paleogene gypsum salt (Kumugeliemu Formation), and Neogene gypsum salt (Jidike Formation), respectively, and possibly a fourth in the Jurassic coalbed. Laterally, thin-skinned structures are developed in the main segments of the KFTB, whereas thick-skinned structures are in the root zone. Vertically, the structural deformation above the Cenozoic gypsum-salt layers (Paleogene gypsum salt in the middle segment of the KFTB and Neogene gypsum salt in the eastern segment) is characterized by décollement folding, whereas that below is characterized by thrusting. The KFTB was resulted from the late Cenozoic intra-continental orogeny in the Tian Shan area under the far-field effect of the India-Asia collision. The deformation of KFTB began (folding and thrusting) ca. 23 Ma, when the far-field effect of the India-Asia collision reached the Tian Shan area. The deformation of KFTB accelerated ca. 10, 5-2, and 1-0 Ma. In general, the evolution of the KFTB is forward propagating, and the hinter parts of the KFTB continue to deform, while its front propagates southwards.

  12. Feedback between erosion and active deformation: geomorphic constraints from the frontal Jura fold-and-thrust belt (eastern France) (United States)

    Madritsch, Herfried; Fabbri, Olivier; Hagedorn, Eva-Marie; Preusser, Frank; Schmid, Stefan M.; Ziegler, Peter A.


    A regional tectono-geomorphic analysis indicates a Pliocene to recent rock uplift of the outermost segment of the Jura fold-and-thrust belt, which spatially coincides with the intra-continental Rhine-Bresse Transfer Zone. Elevated remnants of the partly eroded Middle Pliocene Sundgau-Forêt de Chaux Gravels identified by heavy mineral analyses allow for a paleo-topographic reconstruction that yields minimum regional Latest Pliocene to recent rock uplift rates of 0.05 ± 0.02 mm/year. This uplift also affected the Pleistocene evolution of the Ognon and Doubs drainage basins and is interpreted as being tectonically controlled. While the Ognon River was deflected from the uplifted region the Doubs deeply incised into it. Focused incision of the Doubs possibly sustained ongoing deformation along anticlines which were initiated during the Neogene evolution of the thin-skinned Jura fold-and-thrust belt. At present, this erosion-related active deformation is taking place synchronously with thick-skinned tectonics, controlling the inversion of the Rhine-Bresse Transfer Zone. This suggests local decoupling between seismogenic basement faulting and erosion-related deformation of the Mesozoic cover sequences.

  13. Calculus in the Middle School? (United States)

    Barger, Rita H.; McCoy, Ann C.


    This article presents an example of how middle school teachers can lay a foundation for calculus. Although many middle school activities connect directly to calculus concepts, the authors have decided to look in depth at only one: the concept of change. They will show how teachers can lead their students to see and appreciate the calculus…

  14. East African odontopygid millipedes 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Sara B.; Enghoff, Henrik


    Five new species of the endemic East African genus Xystopyge are described: X. pelecys, X. frontieri, X. proplicatus, X. biacanthus, and X. zanzibarensis. Three are from the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania, two are from the Usambara Mtns. and one is from the Uluguru Mtns. One further species is f...

  15. Classic African American Children's Literature (United States)

    McNair, Jonda C.


    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  16. Evaluation of legislation on seat belt use on rear seats : social persuasion as a new measure to promote seat belt use.



    In the Netherlands, the use of seat belts for front seat passengers was made compulsory in 1975, and on April 1st 1992 the use of rear seat belts, if fitted, became a legal requirement. Since 1968, an annual survey of the presence and use of seat belts on front seats - extended in 1989 to include rear seats - has been conducted in the Netherlands. An evaluation of compliance with the law stipulating the use of rear seat belts was conducted by comparing the observation and surveys carried out ...

  17. Intensity of African Humid Periods Estimated from Saharan Dust Fluxes (United States)

    Ehrmann, Werner; Schmiedl, Gerhard; Beuscher, Sarah; Krüger, Stefan


    North Africa experienced dramatic changes in hydrology and vegetation during the late Quaternary driven by insolation-induced shifts of the tropical rain belt and further modulated by millennial-scale droughts and vegetation-climate feedbacks. While most past proxy and modelling studies concentrated on the temporal and spatial dynamics of the last African humid period, little is known about the intensities and characteristics of pre-Holocene humid periods. Here we present a high-resolution record of fine-grained eastern Saharan dust from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea spanning the last 180 kyr, which is based on the clay mineral composition of the marine sediments, especially the kaolinite/chlorite ratio. Minimum aeolian kaolinite transport occurred during the African Humid Periods because kaolinite deflation was hampered by increased humidity and vegetation cover. Instead, kaolinite weathering from kaolinite-bearing Cenozoic rocks was stored in lake basins, river beds and soils during these periods. During the subsequent dry phases, fine-grained dust was mobilised from the desiccated lakes, rivers and soils resulting in maximum aeolian uptake and transport of kaolinite. The kaolinite transport decreased again when these sediment sources exhausted. We conclude that the amount of clay-sized dust blown out of the Sahara into the Eastern Mediterranean Sea is proportional to the intensity of the kaolinite weathering and accumulation in soils and lake sediments, and thus to the strength of the preceding humid period. These humid periods provided the windows for the migration of modern humans out of Africa, as postulated previously. The strongest humid period occurred during the Eemian and was followed by two weaker phases centred at ca. 100 ka and ca. 80 ka. PMID:28129378

  18. Miocene metamorphism of pan-African granites in the Edough Massif (NE Algeria); Metamorphisme miocene de granites panafricains dans le massif de l`Edough (Nord-Est de l`Algerie)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammor, D. [Universite d`Annaba, El Hadjar Annaba (Algeria). Dept. de Geologie; Lancelot, J. [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France). Laboratoire de Geochimie Isotopique


    The Edough Massif is the eastern most crystalline core of the Maghrebides that represents the African segment of the west Mediterranean Alpine belt. U-Pb zircon dating provides upper intercept ages of 595{+-} My and 606{+-}55 My and orthogneiss of the lower unit and a deformed leucogranite of the upper pelitic unit, respectively. These ages suggest emplacement of the two granitoids during the Pan-African orogeny. Monazites from a paragneiss sample gave a 18{+-} My U-Pb age that points to a Miocene age of the high-temperature metamorphism. (authors) 18 refs.

  19. Origin of hominids: European or African origin, neither or both?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senut, B.


    Full Text Available For the last twenty years, some scientists have suggested that the African ape and humans lineages emerged in Europe, a scenario known as the “Back to Africa Hypothesis”. Even though hominoids were widespread in Eurasia during the Middle and Upper Miocene due to the tropical conditions which prevailed in this region, we cannot dismiss the fact that they were present in Africa (contra some authors. Actually, they were highly diverse at that same time (at least 10 lineages represented even if the fossil record is less complete than in Eurasia. Postcranial elements from African species suggest that some features of modern hominoids were already present in the Lower and Middle Miocene of Africa and were not restricted to European ones. Considering the available evidence, it is not possible at this stage to favour a European origin over an African one. Hominoids were living in the tropical areas of Northern Africa and Southern Eurasia and faunal exchanges between the two continents occurred throughout the Middle and Upper Miocene, as the Tethys did not act as an effective barrier to interchanges between Europe and Asia.

    Durante los últimos veinte años, algunos científicos han sugerido que los grandes monos africanos y los linajes humanos surgieron en Europa, un escenario conocido como la “ Hipótesis de la vuelta a Africa”. A pesar de que los homínidos se extendieron en Eurasia durante el Mioceno Medio y Superior debido a las condiciones tropicales que prevalecian en esta region, no podemos descartar el hecho de que ellos estuvieron presentes en Africa (contra algunos autores. En realidad, ellos tuvieron una alta diversidad al mismo tiempo (al menos 10 líneas representadas, incluso si el registro fosil es menos completo que el de Eurasia. Elementos postcraneales de especies africanas sugieren que en algunos carácteres los homínidos modernos estaban ya presentes en el Mioceno Inferior y Medio de Africa, no sólo restringidos a

  20. Seismic stratigraphy of the Heuksan mud belt in the southeastern Yellow Sea, Korea (United States)

    Lee, Gwang-Soo; Yoo, Dong Geun; Bae, Sung Ho; Min, Gun-Hong; Kim, Seong-Pil; Choi, Hunsoo


    To establish the seismic stratigraphy of the Heuksan mud belt (HMB) and reconstruct its depositional history, approximately 1,600 km of high-resolution seismic data were newly obtained using chirp acoustic sub-bottom profiler, sparker, and air-gun seismic systems. Based on seismic stratigraphic analysis, the HMB can be divided into three major seismic units (I, II, and III, from top to bottom) and four subunits (II-a, II-b, III-a, and III-b) overlying transgressive sands, pre-last glacial maximum (LGM) deposits, and the acoustic basement. Each unit and subunit show different seismic facies and geometry, being clearly separated from each other by bounding surfaces formed since the LGM. The spatial distribution, thicknesses and volumes of the seismic units were determined and plotted to document the sequential formation of the HMB. The correlation between deep drill core data (HMB-101, HMB-102, HMB-103, YSDP-101, and YSDP-102) and the seismic data suggests that subunits III-b and III-a were formed by the continuous accumulation of fine-grained sediment with partial sandy sediment in an estuarine/deltaic environment during the early to middle transgressive stage, accompanied by landward migration of the shoreline. Subunits II-b and II-a were probably formed by re-deposition of large volumes of sediment eroded from unit III during the middle transgressive to early highstand stage. Unit I is interpreted as the most recent mud deposit representing the highstand systems tract when sea-level rise terminated. The careful definition of seismic units and their interpretation proposed in this study, on the basis of the large and partly new seismic dataset covering the entire HMB together with deep drill core data, have been instrumental in reconstructing the depositional environment and formation mechanisms of the HMB.