Sample records for african middle belt

  1. Pan-African reactivation of the Lurio segment of the Kibaran Belt system: a reappraisal from recent age determinations in northern Mozambique (United States)

    Sacchi, R.; Cadoppi, P.; Costa, M.


    The role of the Lurio Belt in northern Mozambique, and the geological evolution of its foreland in the Proterozoic are discussed in the light of recent, single zircon age determinations showing Pan-African age for the granulite-facies metamorphism. The following tentative conclusions are reached, and evidence for and against them is reviewed. The Lurio Belt had a two-fold history, as a crust-forming orogen during the Kibaran and as a transpressive suture in Pan-African times. Together with the Zambezi Belt and the Schlesien-Mwembeshi Lineament, it formed a 3000 km discontinuity which underwent an embryonic oceanic development before being sutured during the Pan-African collisional event. The Lurio Belt foreland had a tectonic-metamorphic evolution at ca 1000 Ma, prior to major, Pan-African overprinting and was probably continuous with the basement of Queen Maud Land (Antarctica) and Natal. In Pan-African times, clockwise transpressive movements along the Lurio Belt brought about emplacement of granulite klippen in its foreland. If there is a southward continuation of the Pan-African Mozambique Belt beyond Mozambique, it is probably to be found in Antarctica.

  2. A Seroepidemiological Study of Serogroup A Meningococcal Infection in the African Meningitis Belt.

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    Olivier Manigart

    Full Text Available The pattern of epidemic meningococcal disease in the African meningitis belt may be influenced by the background level of population immunity but this has been measured infrequently. A standardised enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for measuring meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibodies was established at five centres within the meningitis belt. Antibody concentrations were then measured in 3930 individuals stratified by age and residence from six countries. Seroprevalence by age was used in a catalytic model to determine the force of infection. Meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibody concentrations were high in each country but showed heterogeneity across the meningitis belt. The geometric mean concentration (GMC was highest in Ghana (9.09 μg/mL [95% CI 8.29, 9.97] and lowest in Ethiopia (1.43 μg/mL [95% CI 1.31, 1.57] on the margins of the belt. The force of infection was lowest in Ethiopia (λ = 0.028. Variables associated with a concentration above the putative protective level of 2 μg/mL were age, urban residence and a history of recent vaccination with a meningococcal vaccine. Prior to vaccination with the serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibody concentrations were high across the African meningitis belt and yet the region remained susceptible to epidemics.

  3. Addressing diarrhea prevalence in the West African Middle Belt: social and geographic dimensions in a case study for Benin. (United States)

    Pande, Saket; Keyzer, Michiel A; Arouna, Aminou; Sonneveld, Ben G J S


    In West Africa, the Northern Sahelian zone and the coastal areas are densely populated but the Middle Belt in between is in general sparsely settled. Predictions of climate change foresee more frequent drought in the north and more frequent flooding in the coastal areas, while conditions in the Middle Belt will remain moderate. Consequently, the Middle Belt might become a major area for immigration but there may be constraining factors as well, particularly with respect to water availability. As a case study, the paper looks into the capacity of the Middle Belt zone of Benin, known as the Oueme River Basin (ORB), to reduce diarrhea prevalence. In Benin it links to the Millennium Development Goals on child mortality and environmental sustainability that are currently farthest from realization. However, diarrhea prevalence is only in part due to lack of availability of drinking water from a safe source. Social factors such as hygienic practices and poor sanitation are also at play. Furthermore, we consider these factors to possess the properties of a local public good that suffers from under provision and requires collective action, as individual actions to prevent illness are bound to fail as long as others free ride. Combining data from the Demographic Health Survey with various spatial data sets for Benin, we apply mixed effect logit regression to arrive at a spatially explicit assessment of geographical and social determinants of diarrhea prevalence. Starting from an analysis of these factors separately at national level, we identify relevant proxies at household level, estimate a function with geo-referenced independent variables and apply it to evaluate the costs and impacts of improving access to good water in the basin. First, the study confirms the well established stylized fact on the causes of diarrhea that a household with access to clean water and with good hygienic practices will, irrespective of other conditions, not suffer diarrhea very often. Second

  4. Addressing diarrhea prevalence in the West African Middle Belt: social and geographic dimensions in a case study for Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arouna Aminou


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In West Africa, the Northern Sahelian zone and the coastal areas are densely populated but the Middle Belt in between is in general sparsely settled. Predictions of climate change foresee more frequent drought in the north and more frequent flooding in the coastal areas, while conditions in the Middle Belt will remain moderate. Consequently, the Middle Belt might become a major area for immigration but there may be constraining factors as well, particularly with respect to water availability. As a case study, the paper looks into the capacity of the Middle Belt zone of Benin, known as the Oueme River Basin (ORB, to reduce diarrhea prevalence. In Benin it links to the Millennium Development Goals on child mortality and environmental sustainability that are currently farthest from realization. However, diarrhea prevalence is only in part due to lack of availability of drinking water from a safe source. Social factors such as hygienic practices and poor sanitation are also at play. Furthermore, we consider these factors to possess the properties of a local public good that suffers from under provision and requires collective action, as individual actions to prevent illness are bound to fail as long as others free ride. Methods Combining data from the Demographic Health Survey with various spatial data sets for Benin, we apply mixed effect logit regression to arrive at a spatially explicit assessment of geographical and social determinants of diarrhea prevalence. Starting from an analysis of these factors separately at national level, we identify relevant proxies at household level, estimate a function with geo-referenced independent variables and apply it to evaluate the costs and impacts of improving access to good water in the basin. Results First, the study confirms the well established stylized fact on the causes of diarrhea that a household with access to clean water and with good hygienic practices will, irrespective of

  5. Neighborhood Conditions and Psychosocial Outcomes Among Middle-Aged African Americans. (United States)

    Tabet, Maya; Sanders, Erin A; Schootman, Mario; Chang, Jen Jen; Wolinsky, Fredric D; Malmstrom, Theodore K; Miller, Douglas K


    We examined associations between observed neighborhood conditions (good/adverse) and psychosocial outcomes (stress, depressive symptoms, resilience, and sense of control) among middle-aged and older African Americans. The sample included 455 middle-aged and older African Americans examined in Wave 10 of the African American Health (AAH) study. Linear regression was adjusted for attrition, self-selection into neighborhoods, and potential confounders, and stratified by the duration at current address (stress (standardized β = -0.18; P = .002) and depressive symptoms (standardized β = -0.12; P = .048). Among those who lived at their current address for stress (standardized β = 0.18; P = .305) or depressive symptoms (standardized β = 0.36; P = .080). Neighborhood conditions appear to have significant, complex associations with psychosocial factors among middle-aged and older African Americans. This holds important policy implications, especially since adverse neighborhood conditions may still result in adverse physical health outcomes in individuals with >5 years at current residence despite being associated with better psychosocial outcomes.

  6. Triple junction orogeny: tectonic evolution of the Pan-African Northern Damara Belt, Namibia (United States)

    Lehmann, Jérémie; Saalmann, Kerstin; Naydenov, Kalin V.; Milani, Lorenzo; Charlesworth, Eugene G.; Kinnaird, Judith A.; Frei, Dirk; Kramers, Jan D.; Zwingmann, Horst


    Trench-trench-trench triple junctions are generally geometrically and kinematically unstable and therefore can result at the latest stages in complicated collisional orogenic belts. In such geodynamic sites, mechanism and timescale of deformations that accommodate convergence and final assembly of the three colliding continental plates are poorly studied. In western Namibia, Pan-African convergence of three cratonic blocks led to pene-contemporaneous closure of two highly oblique oceanic domains and formation of the triple junction Damara Orogen where the NE-striking Damara Belt abuts to the west against the NNW-striking Kaoko-Gariep Belt. Detailed description of structures and microstructures associated with remote sensing analysis, and dating of individual deformation events by means of K-Ar, Ar-Ar (micas) and U-Pb (zircon) isotopic studies from the Northern Damara Belt provide robust constraints on the tectonic evolution of this palaeo-triple junction orogeny. There, passive margin sequences of the Neoproterozoic ocean were polydeformed and polymetamorphosed to the biotite zone of the greenschist facies to up to granulite facies and anatexis towards the southern migmatitic core of the Central Damara Belt. Subtle relict structures and fold pattern analyses reveal the existence of an early D1 N-S shortening event, tentatively dated between ~635 Ma and ~580 Ma using published data. D1 structures were almost obliterated by pervasive and major D2 E-W coaxial shortening, related to the closure of the Kaoko-Gariep oceanic domain and subsequent formation of the NNW-striking Kaoko-Gariep Belt to the west of the study area. Early, km-scale D1 E-W trending steep folds were refolded during this D2 event, producing either Type I or Type II fold interference patterns visible from space. The D2 E-W convergence could have lasted until ~533 Ma based on published and new U-Pb ages. The final D3 NW-SE convergence in the northernmost Damara Belt produced a NE-striking deformation

  7. Paleomagnetism and tectonic evolution of the Pan-African Damara Belt, southern Africa (United States)

    McWilliams, M. O.; KröNer, A.


    Paleomagnetic results are reported from the Nosib, Otavi, and Mulden groups of the Damara Supergroup, a late Precambrian shelf sequence on the southern margin of the Congo craton in Namibia. Three magnetizations were isolated in the Nosib group samples. In order of decreasing blocking temperature they are NQ1 (n = 6 sites, λ = 28°N, ϕ = 323°E, α95 = 15°), NQ2 (n = 7 sites, λ = 51°S, ϕ = 213°E, α95 = 12°), and NQ3 (n = 13 samples, λ = 09°N, ϕ = 295°E, α95 = 13°). Overall precision of all three magnetizations upon tectonic correction suggests that they predate Pan-African (650-450 Ma) folding. Two magnetizations were isolated in the Otavi group samples, above the Nosib in stratigraphic sequence. The DC1 component of possible prefolding age (n = 4 sites, λ = 52°S, ϕ = 186°E, α95 = 35°) has been over-printed by the DC2 magnetization (n = 10 sites, λ = 55°S, ϕ = 044°E, α95 = 15°) of probable postfolding age. A single magnetization of probable pre-folding age was isolated in the overlying Mulden Group samples (n = 6 sites, λ = 12°S, ϕ = 090°E, α95 = 16°). Together with previously published paleomagnetic data from Africa, the new data showed that no great relative movements have occurred between the Congo and Kalahari cratons during the interval of Pan-African tectonism in the Damara belt (McElhinny and McWilliams, 1977). Continental collision preceded by large relative displacements and closure of a wide ocean (e.g., a Himalayan analog) is effectively ruled out for the Damara belt. We develop an alternative model consistent with the available paleomagnetic and geologic data, which invokes rifting, heating, and stretching of the lithosphere underneath the Damara belt, followed by delamination of the subcrustal lithosphere. Hot asthenospheric material rises to take the place of the detached and sinking lithospheric base, inducing subduction and interstacking of continental crust. The much thickened continental crust is partially melted

  8. Measuring Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Knowledge and Perceptions of Risk in Middle-Class African Americans (United States)

    Spears, Erica C.; Guidry, Jeffrey J.; Harvey, Idethia S.


    There is a paucity in the literature examining the African American middle-class. Most studies of African Americans and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) have concentrated on lower-SES individuals, or make no distinction between African Americans of varying socio-economic positions. Middle-class African Americans are vulnerable in ways often…

  9. Teachers' Perception of African American Middle School Girls' Interest in Mathematics and Science (United States)

    Best, Bonnie M.

    Research into African American female underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields has become an area of interest due to the fact that a majority of African American middle school females do not possess the high levels of mathematics and science knowledge because of social and cultural barriers both inside and outside school that challenge their academic success. The purpose of this qualitative interpretative phenomenological study was to explore teachers' shared, lived experiences of teaching mathematics and science to African American middle school girls. Delgado and Stefancic's critical race theory, Pratt-Clarke's critical race feminism, and Baker-Miller's relational-cultural theory were used to guide this study. Research questions focused on the perceptions and experiences of teachers' lived experiences teaching mathematics and science to African American middle school females. Criterion, purposive, and maximum variation sampling techniques were used to recruit 10 teachers who have 3 or more years' experience teaching African American middle school girls. Semistructured face-to-face interviews were the primary data collection source. First cycle and second cycle coding methods were used to support the analysis of this study. Findings suggest that there is a connection between a positive student-teacher relationship and academic success. The results of this study contribute to positive social change by providing empirical evidence policymakers and teachers can use to improve the mathematics and science instruction and practices that are needed to meet the needs of African American middle school females and reduce the underrepresentation and underachievement of African American females in mathematics and science.

  10. Determinants of patronage of traditional bone setters in the middle belt of Nigeria. (United States)

    Nwadiaro, H C; Ozoilo, K N; Nwadiaro, P O; Kidmas, A T; Oboiren, M


    Traditional bone setting is a practice that is common in our environment. This is a community based survey of opinions concerning orthodox and traditional fracture management in four states of the middle belt of Nigeria. We set out to ascertain the factors influencing preference of treatment of fractures among populations in the middle belt of Nigeria. A community based questionnaire survey of randomly selected adults regarding preference of choice of treatment between orthodox and traditional fracture management. One hundred and eighty-six questionnaires were found analyzable with a male to female ratio of 2:1. There was a preponderance of preference for orthodox fracture management (70.4%). Decisions were mainly collegiate, outside the influence of the individual; only 9.9% decided to attend traditional bone setters on their own. Reasons adduced for preference of traditional bone setters were incongruous and inconsistent. A fixated cultural outlook was recognized as being the motivating factor for patronage of traditional bone setters. Need for enlightenment campaign of the public against patronage of traditional bone setters is emphasized. A gradual phasing out of traditional bone setting with a road map towards making orthodox fracture management available to all is advocated.

  11. Pan-African U-Pb zircon age from apatite-magnetite veins of eastern ghats granulite belt, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, V.P.; Salnikova, E.B.; Kotov, A.B.; Yakovleva, S.Z.; Rao, A.T.


    206 Pb/ 238 U ages of zircon correspond to 502±3 Ma and 207 Pb/ 206 Pb ages are equal to 508±14 Ma. U-Pb isotopic study of the Kasipatnam zircon has led to the recognition of pan-African thermal event in the eastern ghats granulite belt, India. (author)

  12. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt (United States)


    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac#x2122;) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere. Un vaccin conjugué contenant un polysaccharide du sérogroupe A méningococcique et une anatoxine du tétanos (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac™) est en cours de déploiement dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite. L’ expérience avec d’ autres vaccins conjugués polysaccharide/protéine a montré qu’ une partie importante de leur succès a été leur capacité à empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé et donc à arrêter la transmission et à induire une immunité de group. Si PsA-TT doit d’ atteindre l’ objectif de prévenir les épidémies, il devrait être en mesure d’ empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé ainsi que la méningococcie invasive et le fait que PsA-TT puisse emp

  13. African Muslim Youth and the Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihle, Annette Haaber

    this African tradition of religious scholarship in the Middle East. The paper will, with the help of Pierre Bourdieu's notion of forms of capital related to various fields, analyse the challenges which Muslim students encounter during their stay in the Middle East and the forms of capital they bring back......, marked by economic decline and political instability. In Africa a weak or even failed state often means that young people have in reality no access to political, educational or economic positions and resources. In some countries like Nigeria, Ghana and the Ivory Coast the marginalisation of the youth...

  14. Geophysical anomalies associated with Imjin River Belt (IRB) in the middle Korean Peninsula revealed by geomagnetic depth sounding and seismological data (United States)

    Yang, J.; Choi, H.; Noh, M.; Im, C.


    Imjin River Belt (IRB), located in the middle of the Korean Peninsula, has been one of long-standing geological issues because it is a very important tectonic link to understand a tectonic evolution of north-eastern Asia including China, Korea and Japan. Although the IRB has been considered as an extension of collision belt between the North China Block (NCB) and South China Block (SCB), there is little geophysical observation or study on this issue. In recent, we compiled a new induction arrow map for the Korean Peninsula, on the basis of long-period magneto-telluric (MT) data and the geomagnetic depth sounding data performed since the late 1990's. This newly compiled map has finer spatial resolution expecially in the middle area of the peninsula, which helps us to present the geophysical evidence that the IRB is the continuation or extension of the collision belt to the peninsula. The overall pattern of induction arrows in the peninsula appears to indicate a northwest-southeast direction, which is well-known 'sea effect' by the surrounding seas. However, the results of observations in the middle of the peninsula distinctly show an anomalous pattern around the IRB, which can not be explained only by the surrounding seas. This anomalous pattern may be attributed to enhanced conductivity associated with tectonic events that Imjin River Belt has experienced. The 3-D electromagnetic modeling results, considering both surrounding seas and enhanced conductivity of the IRB, explain well the anomalous observations around the IRB. Furthermore, recent seismological study demonstrates that focal mechanism around the IRB is mainly normal faulting event, which may be interpreted as the reactivation of paleo structures that are related to the post collisional lithospheric delamination. All the geophysical evidences convince us that the IRB is an extension of the collision belt between the NCB and SCB to the peninsula.

  15. Identifying optimal vaccination strategies for serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis conjugate vaccine in the African meningitis belt.

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    Sara Tartof

    Full Text Available The optimal long-term vaccination strategies to provide population-level protection against serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis (MenA are unknown. We developed an age-structured mathematical model of MenA transmission, colonization, and disease in the African meningitis belt, and used this model to explore the impact of various vaccination strategies.The model stratifies the simulated population into groups based on age, infection status, and MenA antibody levels. We defined the model parameters (such as birth and death rates, age-specific incidence rates, and age-specific duration of protection using published data and maximum likelihood estimation. We assessed the validity of the model by comparing simulated incidence of invasive MenA and prevalence of MenA carriage to observed incidence and carriage data.The model fit well to observed age- and season-specific prevalence of carriage (mean pseudo-R2 0.84 and incidence of invasive disease (mean R2 0.89. The model is able to reproduce the observed dynamics of MenA epidemics in the African meningitis belt, including seasonal increases in incidence, with large epidemics occurring every eight to twelve years. Following a mass vaccination campaign of all persons 1-29 years of age, the most effective modeled vaccination strategy is to conduct mass vaccination campaigns every 5 years for children 1-5 years of age. Less frequent campaigns covering broader age groups would also be effective, although somewhat less so. Introducing conjugate MenA vaccine into the EPI vaccination schedule at 9 months of age results in higher predicted incidence than periodic mass campaigns.We have developed the first mathematical model of MenA in Africa to incorporate age structures and progressively waning protection over time. Our model accurately reproduces key features of MenA epidemiology in the African meningitis belt. This model can help policy makers consider vaccine program effectiveness when determining the

  16. Tectonometamorphic evolution of Ghana, Togo and Benin in the light of the Pan-African/Brasiliano orogeny (United States)

    Castaing, C.; Triboulet, C.; Feybesse, J. L.; Chèvremont, P.


    The South Pan-African belt of West Africa (Ghana, Togo and Benin province) can be divided into three domains: (1) the external nappes thrust over the West African craton, derived from passive-margin sedimentary deposits (Middle to Late Proterozoic) and displaying middle- to high-pressure metamorphism, such as the Kanté and Atacora nappes; (2) the intermediate nappes including the suture-zone rocks with eclogitic assemblages (protoliths ca. 800 Ma), and mainly monocyclic metasedimentary rock and orthogneiss, that are found in central Togo and northwest Benin; (3) the internal nappes composed of high-grade commonly anatectic gneiss (anatexis ca. 600 Ma), including orthogneiss (Eburnian plutons), elongated granulite belts, reworked Archean basement, and an intrusive granite and charnockite association (ca. 600 Ma), which are exposed in Benin and Nigeria. The P- T- t- d paths calculated from rocks in these three domains show a prograde-retrograde evolution: (1) an initial clockwise evolution related to an early burial stage ( HP- HT in the intermediate nappes) followed by oblique thrusting in a SW direction, that caused nappe stacking and subsequent uplift; (2) a second anti-clockwise evolution with late temperature and pressure increases, only recorded in the more internal units. This temperature increase was a consequence of the previous crustal thickening with subsequent doming, extension and anatexis. The pressure increase was related to movement along the Kandi fault, working as a dextral strike-slip fault with a transpressional component under late E-W shortening. The retrograde trend corresponds to the final uplift. The evolution of the belt can thus be divided into three successive stages: (1) a first stage was characterized by an oblique collision inducing SW oblique thrusting with associated syn-foliation reverse metamorphism; (2) during a second stage anatectic doming took place; followed by (3) a third stage at still high temperature with dextral wrench

  17. The housing careers of black middle-class residents in a South African metropolitan area

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marais, L


    Full Text Available Africans was restored in the mid-1980s and the Group Areas Act was repealed in 1991. Democracy opened up economic opportunities previously unavailable to black people. This paper investigates the effect on black middle-class South African households...

  18. Some factors contributing to protein-energy malnutrition in the middle belt of Nigeria. (United States)

    Ighogboja, S I


    A number of risk factors leading to malnutrition were investigated among 400 mothers of malnourished children in the middle belt of Nigeria. Poverty, family instability, poor environmental sanitation, faulty weaning practices, illiteracy, ignorance, large family size and preventable infections are the main factors responsible for malnutrition. The strategies for intervention are in the area of health education emphasizing the importance of breastfeeding, family stability, responsible parenthood and small family sizes through culturally acceptable family planning methods. There is need to improve weaning methods through nutrition education, growth monitoring and food demonstration with community participation. Political will is needed to improve literacy status, farming methods and general living conditions.

  19. Introduction and Rollout of a New Group A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PsA-TT) in African Meningitis Belt Countries, 2010–2014 (United States)

    Djingarey, Mamoudou H.; Diomandé, Fabien V. K.; Barry, Rodrigue; Kandolo, Denis; Shirehwa, Florence; Lingani, Clement; Novak, Ryan T.; Tevi-Benissan, Carol; Perea, William; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; LaForce, F. Marc


    Background. A group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) was developed specifically for the African “meningitis belt” and was prequalified by the World Health Organization (WHO) in June 2010. The vaccine was first used widely in Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger in December 2010 with great success. The remaining 23 meningitis belt countries wished to use this new vaccine. Methods. With the help of African countries, WHO developed a prioritization scheme and used or adapted existing immunization guidelines to mount PsA-TT vaccination campaigns. Vaccine requirements were harmonized with the Serum Institute of India, Ltd. Results. Burkina Faso was the first country to fully immunize its 1- to 29-year-old population in December 2010. Over the next 4 years, vaccine coverage was extended to 217 million Africans living in 15 meningitis belt countries. Conclusions. The new group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine was well received, with country coverage rates ranging from 85% to 95%. The rollout proceeded smoothly because countries at highest risk were immunized first while attention was paid to geographic contiguity to maximize herd protection. Community participation was exemplary. PMID:26553672

  20. Nature, geochemistry and petrogenesis of the syn-tectonic Amspoort suite (Pan-African Boundary Igneous Complex, Kaoko Belt, NW Namibia) (United States)

    Janousek, Vojtech; Konopasek, Jiri; Ulrich, Stanislav


    Crucial information on the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian amalgamation of Western Gondwana is provided by studies of the large Pan-African collisional belt in central-northern Namibia. This so-called Damara Orogen (Miller, 1983) can be subdivided into two branches, the SW-NE trending Damara Belt and a roughly perpendicular, NNW-SSE trending Kaoko Belt further north. The Kaoko Belt consists of two principal crustal units. The easterly part has a Congo Craton affinity (a basement built mostly by ≥ 1.5 Ga granitic gneisses with Neoproterozoic metasedimentary cover), whereas the westerly Coastal Terrane consists of Neoproterozoic (c.850-650 Ma) metapsammites and minor metabasic bodies; no exposures of the basement were found. The at least 180 km long, NNW-SSE trending suture between both units was intruded by numerous syn-tectonic magmatic bodies with ages spanning the interval 580-550 Ma (Seth et al., 1998; Kröner et al., 2004) designated as the Boundary Igneous Complex by Konopásek et al. (2008). The most typical representatives of this syn-collision igneous association are c.550 Ma old K-feldspar-phyric, Bt ± Cam granites-granodiorites of the Amspoort suite, with minor Cpx gabbro and rare two-pyroxene dolerite bodies. The petrological character, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopic signatures of the scarce Opx-Cpx-Bt dolerites indicate an origin from a CHUR-like mantle-derived melts (87Sr/86Sr550 ~ 0.7045, ɛNd550 ~ 0) modified by extensive (?Ol-) Cpx fractionation. The rest of the suite is interpreted as a product of a high-temperature anatexis of a heterogeneous lower crust, built mainly by immature metapsammites - rich in arc-derived detritus - with minor metabasite and intermediate metaigneous bodies. The most likely source appears to be the anatectic Coastal Terrane gneisses. Yet, partial melting of the so far little constrained Congo Craton cover, if formed by immature and youthful detritus unrelated to the basement, cannot be discounted. In any case, the

  1. Low Utilization of Insecticide-Treated Bed Net among Pregnant Women in the Middle Belt of Ghana


    Grace Manu; Ellen Abrafi Boamah-Kaali; Lawrence Gyabaa Febir; Emmanuel Ayipah; Seth Owusu-Agyei; Kwaku Poku Asante


    Background. Malaria in pregnancy leads to low birth weight, premature birth, anaemia, and maternal and neonatal mortality. Use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) during pregnancy is one of the proven interventions to reduce the malaria burden. However, Ghana has not achieved its target for ITN use among pregnant women. Methods. A qualitative study was conducted in seven communities purposively selected from the middle belt of Ghana. Participants who had delivered in the six months prior to th...

  2. Eicosanoid Production following One Bout of Exercise in Middle-Aged African American Pre- and Stage 1 Hypertensives


    Williamson, Sheara; Varma, Deepti; Brown, Michael; Jansen, Susan


    Endothelial dysfunction and a sedentary lifestyle may be involved in the development of hypertension which is proliferative among middle-aged African Americans (AA). Signaling molecules derived from the oxidation of 20-carbon fatty acid molecules known as eicosanoids influence vascular tone. The relationship between aerobic fitness and eicosanoid formation following exercise in middle-aged African American hypertensives is unknown. Purpose. To determine the relationship between aerobic capaci...

  3. Uranium cycle and tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Lufilian Pan-African orogenic belt (Zambia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eglinger, Aurelien


    Uranium is an incompatible and lithophile element, and thus more concentrated in silicate melt produced by the partial melting of the mantle related to continental crust formation. Uranium can be used as a geochemical tracer to discuss the generation and the evolution of continental crust. This thesis, focused on the Pan-African Lufilian belt in Zambia, combines structural geology, metamorphic petrology and thermos-barometry, fluid inclusions, geochemistry and geochronology in order to characterize the uranium cycle for this crustal segment. Silici-clastic and evaporitic sediments have been deposited within an intra-continental rift during the dislocation of the Rodinia super-continent during the early Neo-proterozoic. U-Pb ages on detrital zircon grains in these units indicate a dominant Paleo-proterozoic provenance. The same zircon grains show sub-chondritic εHf (between 0 and -15) and yield Hf model ages between ∼2.9 and 2.5 Ga. These data suggest that the continental crust was generated before the end of the Archean (< 2.5 Ga) associated with uranium extraction from the mantle. This old crust has been reworked by deformation and metamorphism during the Proterozoic. Uranium has been re-mobilized and reconcentrated during several orogenic cycles until the Pan-African orogeny. During this Pan-African cycle, U-Pb and REY (REE and Yttrium) signatures of uranium oxides indicate a first mineralizing event at ca. 650 Ma during the continental rifting. This event is related to late diagenesis hydrothermal processes at the basement/cover interface with the circulation of basinal brines linked to evaporites of the Roan. The second stage, dated at 530 Ma, is connected to metamorphic highly saline fluid circulations, synchronous to the metamorphic peak of the Lufilian orogeny (P=9±3 kbar; T=610±30 deg. C). These fluids are derived from the Roan evaporite dissolution. Some late uranium re-mobilizations are described during exhumation of metamorphic rocks and their

  4. A Descriptive Qualitative Study Exploring Teacher and Parental Perceptions of African-American Middle School Male Students Related to Mathematics Performance (United States)

    Fowler, Crystal Nicole


    This qualitative descriptive case study explored the perceptions of parents and teachers of the academic achievement gap in mathematics between African-American middle school males and their White counterparts. Ten parents, both African-American and White, with students attending middle school in the Cherokee County School District and 5 teachers…

  5. Some characteristics of uranium distribution in granular phosphorites of Arabian-African phosphorite-bearing Province and the Middle Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokryshkin, V I; Bol' shov, V A; Kharitonova, R Sh; Bojko, V S; Berman, I B


    The comprative characteristic of uranium distribution regula-Arities in phosphorites of Arabian-African province and the Middle Asia is given. The data on radioactivity of phosphorites of Arabian-African province are borrowed for the published papers, the laboratory U and Th determinations are partially performed. Radioactivity of the Middle Asia phosphorites is studied by field radiometric and gamma spectrometric methods. Spatial uranium distribution in granular phosphorites has been determined by the f-radiography method. At the presence of general for granular phosphorites of both regions of increased radioactivity, uranium confinement to phosphate matter and identicity of uranium distribution in them, higher uranium content of Arabian-African province is pointed out. By K and Th quatities being due to a radioactivity unit, Arabian-African phosphorites are similar to authigenous phosphorites of the Middle Asia, by uranium content Arabian phosphorites are richer than the Asian ones. Allothigenous phosphorites differ from authigenous and African ones, relative (per radioactivity unit) uranium contents in them are 2.2-1.3 times less, while thorium and potassium 5.2-6.8 times higher. This fact reflects their poverty in phosphate matter and enrichment by terrigenous sandy-argillaceous material.

  6. A reappraisal of polymetamorphism in the Eastern Ghats belt – A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    African granulites in the Eastern Ghats belt north of the ... Partial resetting during a late, Pan-African ther- mal overprint at ∼550 Ma has also been ... geochronologic studies in the southern sector imply that north of the Godavari, the Eastern ...

  7. High- and middle-energy geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    High and middle energy geothermal resources correspond to temperature intervals of 220-350 C and 90-180 C, respectively, and are both exploited for electricity production. Exploitation techniques and applications of high and of middle energy geothermics are different. High energy geothermics is encountered in active volcanic and tectonic zones, such as the circum-Pacific fire-belt, the lesser Antilles, the peri-Mediterranean Alpine chain or the African rift zone. The geothermal steam is directly expanded in a turbine protected against gas and minerals corrosion. About 350 high energy plants are distributed in more than 20 different countries and represent 6000 M We. The cost of high energy installed geothermal kWh ranges from 0.20 to 0.50 French Francs. Middle energy geothermics is encountered in sedimentary basins (between 2000 and 4000 m of depth), in localized fractured zones or at lower depth in the high energy geothermal fields. Heat exchangers with organic fluid Rankine cycle technology is used to produce electricity. Unit power of middle energy plants generally ranges from few hundreds of k W to few MW and correspond to a worldwide installed power of about 400 M We. The annual progression of geothermal installed power is estimated to 4 to 8 % in the next years and concerns principally the circum-Pacific countries. In France, geothermal resources are mainly localized in overseas departments. (J.S.). 3 photos

  8. Tibet- Himalayan Analogs of Pan-African Shear Zones : Implications for Neoproterozoic Tectonics (United States)

    Attoh, K.; Brown, L. D.


    Large-scale shear zones are distinct features of Tibet-Himalayan orogen and the Pan-African Trans-Saharan belt. Prominent examples in the Pan-African-belt extend for ~2500 km from the Sahara to the Gulf of Guinea and are characterized by right-slip movements. The NS shear zones, such as 4°50’-Kandi shear zone (KSZ) are complemented by NE-SW shear zones that preserve a record of sinistral movements and are represented by the Central Cameroon shear zone (CCSZ) in the eastern part of the Pan-African domain. The West African shear zones project into similar structures in the Borborema Province of northeast Brazil. In addition, the Pan-African belt preserves structures and rock assemblages that indicate subduction-collision tectonics We propose that structures of Tibet-Himalayan collisional orogen are instructive analogs of the Pan-African structures where: (i) the Pan-African front corresponds to the Main Himalayan thrust and it’s splays; (ii) the main Pan-African suture zone is analogous to the Indus-Tsangpo suture in the Tibet-Himalayan belt; (iii) the 4°50’-KSZ corresponds to Karakoram and it’s linkages with Jiali fault system and (iv) left-slip CCSZ and related shear zones are analogs of Altyn Tagh and Kumlun faults and their splays. This suggests the operation of escape-type tectonics in the Neoproterozoic belt of West-Africa and predicts the nature of the deep structures in the Cenozoic Tibet-Himalayan orogen.

  9. Job satisfaction: An analysis of middle managers in the South African Police Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Bellingan-Timmer


    Full Text Available The organised crime units in the South African Police Service (SAPS have experienced major restructuring over the past two years. The impact which the restructuring would have on the middle managers was never determined This unique organisational situation provided the foundation for the consideration of measuring which factors would impact on the job satisfaction of middle managers. The middle manager serves as an intermediary between top management and lower levels, and is influenced by organisational factors (the organisational climate, policies, and procedures and individual factors (i.e. needs, abilities, role perception, and values. These factors cause the middle manager to develop a certain attitude towards his work and, given the effort he exerts, a certain level of performance will be reached. This performance is rewarded intrinsically and/or extrinsically and, if the reward is equitably perceived, the middle manager will experience feelings of satisfaction which would impact positively on the management of lower levels in the organisation, thereby increasing overall work efficiency.

  10. Evaluation of immittance testing for the identification of middle ear pathology in South African mineworkers.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Habig, A


    Full Text Available The study evaluated immittance measures, specifically tympanometry and acoustic reflex testing, for the identification of middle ear pathology among South African mineworkers. The outcomes of medical history reviews, otoscopy, tympanometry, acoustic...

  11. Training Middle Managers of South African Public Schools in Leadership and Management Skills (United States)

    Mampane, Sharon Thabo


    The purpose of this conceptual explanatory research is to highlight the importance of training of Middle Managers or Heads of Department (HoDs) in leadership and management in South African public schools. Leadership responsibilities in schools are becoming more complex to the extent that principals can no longer be sole leaders in schools. The…

  12. Examining science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools: A mixed methods study (United States)

    Topping, Kecia C.

    This dissertation examined factors that affected the science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools. The research literature informed that African American females are facing the barriers of race, gender, socioeconomic status, and cultural learning style preferences. Nationally used measurements of science achievement such as the Standardized Achievement Test, Tenth edition (SAT-10), National Assessment for Educational Progress, and National Center for Educational Statistics showed that African American females are continuing to falter in the areas of science when compared to other ethnic groups. This study used a transformative sequential explanatory mixed methods design. In the first, quantitative, phase, the relationships among the dependent variables, science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores, yearly averages, and the independent variables, attitude toward science scores obtained from the Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitudes toward Science Scale, socioeconomics, and caregiver status were tested. The participants were 150 African American females in grades 6 through 8 in four suburban middle schools located in the Southeastern United States. The results showed a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitude and their science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores and a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitudes and their yearly averages in science. The results also confirmed that attitude was a significant predictor of science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores for these females and that attitude and socioeconomics were significant predictors of the females' yearly averages in science. In the second, qualitative, phase, nine females purposefully selected from those who had high and low attitude towards science scores on the scale in the quantitative phase were interviewed. The themes that emerged revealed seven additional factors that impacted the females' science achievement. They were usefulness of science

  13. Meningococcal disease in the Middle East and Africa: Findings and updates from the Global Meningococcal Initiative. (United States)

    Borrow, Ray; Caugant, Dominique A; Ceyhan, Mehmet; Christensen, Hannah; Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Findlow, Jamie; Glennie, Linda; Von Gottberg, Anne; Kechrid, Amel; Vázquez Moreno, Julio; Razki, Aziza; Smith, Vincent; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Tali-Maamar, Hassiba; Zerouali, Khalid


    The Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) has recently considered current issues in Middle Eastern and African countries, and produced two recommendations: (i) that vaccination of attendees should be considered for some types of mass-gathering events, as some countries mandate for the Hajj, and (ii) vaccination of people with human immunodeficiency virus should be used routinely, because of increased meningococcal disease (MD) risk. Differences exist between Middle Eastern and African countries regarding case and syndrome definitions, surveillance, and epidemiologic data gaps. Sentinel surveillance provides an overview of trends and prevalence of different capsular groups supporting vaccine selection and planning, whereas cost-effectiveness decisions require comprehensive disease burden data, ideally counting every case. Surveillance data showed importance of serogroup B MD in North Africa and serogroup W expansion in Turkey and South Africa. Success of MenAfriVac ® in the African "meningitis belt" was reviewed; the GMI believes similar benefits may follow development of a low-cost meningococcal pentavalent vaccine, currently in phase 1 clinical trial, by 2022. The importance of carriage and herd protection for controlling invasive MD and the importance of advocacy and awareness campaigns were also highlighted. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Possible zircon U-Pb evidence for Pan-African granulite-facies metamorphism in the Mozambique belt of southern Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolen, J.J.M.M.M.


    Four zircon fractions of garnet-bearing two-pyroxene granulite, from the Furua granulite complex of southern Tanzania, plot very close to concordia. A discordia yields a lower intercept at 652 +- 10 Ma, an age slightly higher than the Rb-Sr whole-rock and mineral ages reported from the surrounding amphibolite-facies rocks. The U-Pb systematics indicate the presence of a very small amount of older (2-3 Ga) radiogenic lead. The zircon data may be interpreted as indicating an event of granulite-facies metamorphism during the Pan-African thermotectonic episode. This interpretation is at variance with current models postulating that the granulite complexes in the Mozambique belt are relicts of older, possibly Archaean events of metamorphism. (Auth.)

  15. Isotopic dating of low-grade metamorphic shales in northern Namibia (South West Africa) and implications for the orogenic evolution of the Pan-African Damara Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroener, A.; Clauer, N.


    The fine mineral fractions (<2 μm) from pelitic sediments of the molasse-type Mulden Group in the Pan-African Damara belt of Namibia were dated by the Rb-Sr and K-Ar methods. The sediments contain two major parageneses of metamorphic origin which can be related to two separate low-grade regional tectono-thermal events of anchizonal intensity at about 535 (545) Ma and 455 (465) Ma respectively. (Auth.)

  16. A Phenomenological Examination of Middle School African American Adolescent Men's Experiences with Professional School Counselors (United States)

    Washington, Ahmad Rashad


    This qualitative study was conducted with a sample of five (5) middle school African American adolescent men from two different schools in the same school district to explore their perceptions of and experiences with their professional school counselors. Phenomenological qualitative methodology was used to complete this study. To gather research…

  17. Middle East and North African Health Informatics Association (MENAHIA): Building Sustainable Collaboration. (United States)

    Al-Shorbaji, Najeeb; Househ, Mowafa; Taweel, Adel; Alanizi, Abdullah; Mohammed, Bennani Othmani; Abaza, Haitham; Bawadi, Hala; Rasuly, Hamayon; Alyafei, Khalid; Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Shouman, Mohamed; El-Hassan, Osama; Hussein, Rada; Alshammari, Riyad; Mandil, Salah; Shouman, Sarah; Taheri, Shahrad; Emara, Tamer; Dalhem, Wasmiya; Al-Hamdan, Zaid; Serhier, Zineb


    There has been a growing interest in Health Informatics applications, research, and education within the Middle East and North African Region over the past twenty years. People of this region share similar cultural and religious values, primarily speak the Arabic language, and have similar health care related issues, which are in dire need of being addressed. Health Informatics efforts, organizations, and initiatives within the region have been largely under-represented within, but not ignored by, the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA). Attempts to create bonds and collaboration between the different organizations of the region have remained scattered, and often, resulted in failure despite the fact that the need for a united health informatics collaborative within the region has never been more crucial than today. During the 2017 MEDINFO, held in Hangzhou, China, a new organization, the Middle East and North African Health Informatics Association (MENAHIA) was conceived as a regional non-governmental organization to promote and facilitate health informatics uptake within the region endorsing health informatics research and educational initiatives of the 22 countries represented within the region. This paper provides an overview of the collaboration and efforts to date in forming MENAHIA and displays the variety of initiatives that are already occurring within the MENAHIA region, which MENAHIA will help, endorse, support, share, and improve within the international forum of health informatics. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  18. Isotopic signature of Pan-African rejuvenation in the Kerala Khondalite belt, southern India: implications for east Gondwana reassembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan Warrier, C.


    Sm-Nd isotope systematics on mineral separates from sillimanite-and cordierite-bearing metapelite (khondalite), and garnet-and biotite-bearing gneiss (leptynite) from the Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB), southern India, yielded mineral isochron ages (wr-feld-bio-gar) of 537±27 Ma (MSWD=0.9) and 534±26 Ma (MSWD=1.23) respectively. Rb-Sr systematics in the same samples gave wr-feld-bio mineral isochron ages of 437±9 Ma (MSWD=0.67) and 467±9 Ma (MSWD=0.76). These results provide the first mineral isochron ages for the regional metasedimentaries in the KKB. The ε (Nd T) values at 550 Ma for khondalite and leptynite are -22.7 and -21.8 respectively. These results demonstrate a complete rejuvenation of the crust during Pan-African times. Coeval alkaline plutons emplaced along fault-lineaments in this area suggest an extensional tectonic regime. Geochronologic correlations with the Lutzow-Holm bay complexes in east Antarctica, and the highland and southwestern complex of Sri Lanka show that a similar Pan-African tectono-thermal event manifested in all the east Gondwana crustal fragments. (author)

  19. Isotopic evidence for two neoproterozoic high-grade metamorphic events in the Brazilia belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Piuzanna, Danielle; Moraes, Renato de; Gioia, Simone Maria C.L


    The Brasilia Belt is part of a Brasiliano/Pan African orogen developed between the Amazon and Sao Francisco cratons. The stabilization of the belt occurred after the last metamorphic event at ca. 620 Ma. There has been increasing geochronological evidence, however, for an older Neoproterozoic metamorphic event at ca. 780 Ma, observed mainly in high grade rocks of three large mafic-ultramafic complexes in the northern part of the belt. In this study we present: (i) new U-Pb and Sm-Nd geochronological data, (ii) a review of the existing metamorphic ages in the Brasilia Belt, and (iii) a discussion on the tectonic model to explain the two Neoproterozoic metamorphic ages (au)

  20. Reconstructing the size distribution of the primordial Main Belt (United States)

    Tsirvoulis, G.; Morbidelli, A.; Delbo, M.; Tsiganis, K.


    In this work we aim to constrain the slope of the size distribution of main-belt asteroids, at their primordial state. To do so we turn out attention to the part of the main asteroid belt between 2.82 and 2.96 AU, the so-called "pristine zone", which has a low number density of asteroids and few, well separated asteroid families. Exploiting these unique characteristics, and using a modified version of the hierarchical clustering method we are able to remove the majority of asteroid family members from the region. The remaining, background asteroids should be of primordial origin, as the strong 5/2 and 7/3 mean-motion resonances with Jupiter inhibit transfer of asteroids to and from the neighboring regions. The size-frequency distribution of asteroids in the size range 17 size distribution slope q = - 1.43 . In addition, applying the same 'family extraction' method to the neighboring regions, i.e. the middle and outer belts, and comparing the size distributions of the respective background populations, we find statistical evidence that no large asteroid families of primordial origin had formed in the middle or pristine zones.

  1. Eicosanoid Production following One Bout of Exercise in Middle-Aged African American Pre- and Stage 1 Hypertensives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheara Williamson


    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction and a sedentary lifestyle may be involved in the development of hypertension which is proliferative among middle-aged African Americans (AA. Signaling molecules derived from the oxidation of 20-carbon fatty acid molecules known as eicosanoids influence vascular tone. The relationship between aerobic fitness and eicosanoid formation following exercise in middle-aged African American hypertensives is unknown. Purpose. To determine the relationship between aerobic capacity and eicosanoid formation after a bout of moderate-intensity exercise in middle-aged AA hypertensives. Methods. Ten sedentary hypertensive AA underwent 50 min of aerobic exercise at 65% VO2max. Urine was collected for 24 hr on two occasions, prior to testing and immediately following the bout of exercise. Urinary metabolites of prostacyclin (6-keto PGF1α and thromboxane (11-dTXB2 were measured during the day and night periods by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results. 6-keto PGF1α levels significantly increased (=.04 following the bout of exercise compared to the control day. There was a significant relationship (=.49, <.05 between 6-keto PGF1α levels and VO2max during the exercise day. Conclusion. Based on this preliminary study, there appears to be a relationship between aerobic capacity and exercise-induced 6-keto PGF1α production in middle-aged hypertensive AAs. AAs with lower VO2max had lower 6-keto PGF1α formation.

  2. The Nubian Complex of Dhofar, Oman: an African middle stone age industry in Southern Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey I Rose

    Full Text Available Despite the numerous studies proposing early human population expansions from Africa into Arabia during the Late Pleistocene, no archaeological sites have yet been discovered in Arabia that resemble a specific African industry, which would indicate demographic exchange across the Red Sea. Here we report the discovery of a buried site and more than 100 new surface scatters in the Dhofar region of Oman belonging to a regionally-specific African lithic industry--the late Nubian Complex--known previously only from the northeast and Horn of Africa during Marine Isotope Stage 5, ∼128,000 to 74,000 years ago. Two optically stimulated luminescence age estimates from the open-air site of Aybut Al Auwal in Oman place the Arabian Nubian Complex at ∼106,000 years ago, providing archaeological evidence for the presence of a distinct northeast African Middle Stone Age technocomplex in southern Arabia sometime in the first half of Marine Isotope Stage 5.

  3. Social Relationships and Salivary Telomere Length Among Middle-Aged and Older African American and White Adults. (United States)

    Lincoln, Karen D; Lloyd, Donald A; Nguyen, Ann W


    A common mechanism underlying premature morbidity may be accelerated biological aging as reflected by salivary telomere length (STL). This study examined the extent to which social relationships, both positive and negative, can be protective or confer risk relative to biological aging. Data from the Health and Retirement Study and multiple regression were used to examine cross-sectional associations between STL, self-reported social support, and negative interaction (e.g., conflict, criticism) with family in a nationally representative sample of African American and non-Hispanic White middle-aged and older adults (N = 4,080). Social support from family was associated with shorter STL. Negative interaction with family had no main effect on STL but interactions characterized by high social support and more frequent negative interactions were associated with longer STL. Negative interaction with family was negatively associated with STL for African Americans and Whites but the magnitude of the effect was greater for African Americans. Study findings highlight the role of social relationships in physiological deterioration among middle-aged and older adults and identify a potential mechanism whereby race is linked to accelerated biological aging. Findings highlight the importance of considering positive and negative aspects of social relationships to understand the consequences of social connections for cellular aging in diverse populations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  4. Burden of road traffic injuries related to delays in implementing safety belt laws in low- and lower-middle-income countries. (United States)

    Martin, Aurélie; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Salmi, L Rachid


    Delayed implementation of effective road safety policies must be considered when quantifying the avoidable part of the fatal and nonfatal injuries burden. We sought to assess the avoidable part of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to road traffic injuries related to delays in implementing road safety laws in low- and lower-middle-income countries. We chose one country for each of the regions of the World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank (WB) country income levels. We used freely available data sets (WHO, International Traffic Safety Data and Analysis Group, the WB). Delays in implementation were calculated until 2013, from the year mandatory use of safety belts by motor vehicle front seat occupants was first introduced worldwide. We used life expectancy tables and age groups as social values in the DALY calculation model. From the estimated total burden, avoidable DALYs were calculated using estimates of the effectiveness of seat belt laws on fatal and nonfatal injuries combined, as extracted from published international reviews of evidence. From the reference year 1972, implementation delays varied from 27 years (Uzbekistan) to 41 years in Bolivia (no seat belt law as of 2013). During delays, total absolute numbers of DALYs lost due to road traffic injuries reached 8,462,099 in Nigeria, 7,203,570 in Morocco, 4,695,500 in Uzbekistan, 3,866,391 in Cambodia, 3,253,359 in Bolivia, and 3,128,721 in Sri Lanka. Using effectiveness estimates ranging from 3 to 20% reduction, the avoidable burden of road traffic injuries for car occupants was highest in Uzbekistan (avoidable part from 1.2 to 10.4%) and in Morocco (avoidable part from 1.5 to 12.3%). In countries where users of public transport and pedestrians were the most affected by the burden, the avoidable parts ranged from 0.5 to 4.4% (Nigeria) and from 0.5 to 3.4% (Bolivia). Burden of road traffic injuries mostly affected motorcyclists in Sri Lanka and Cambodia where the avoidable parts were

  5. Some problems of geologic relations between the Amazon craton and east margins fold belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, F.F.M. de


    This paper deals with some geologic problems related to the limits between the Amazon craton and the fold belts developed at its margins during the Precambrian. These limits are diversified but clearly recognized. To the north, the Araguaia-Tocantins fold belt, of presumed Middle Proterozoic age, is separated from the cratonic block by a deep marginal fracture zone permeated by mafic and ultramafic rocks. The geologic, magmatic and aeromagnetic characteristics of this zone point out the presence of deep faults, supposed to be of Middle Proterozoic age. The southern Paraguay fold belt constitutes and accurated zone of linear structures supposed to be of Late Proterozoic development. Despite the great increase of knowledge during the last ten years many tectonic, stratigraphic and geochronologic problems remain unsolved. The aim of this paper is to point out some of these problems and suggest specific studies to solve them. (author)

  6. Africa’s Role in Chinese People's Republic Initiative “One Belt and One Road”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Кристина Михайловна Михайличенко


    Full Text Available The article analyses the role, place and forms of African countries’ participation in the new China’s strategy “One Belt and One Road”. The author describes the existing partnership between China and African countries and their future interaction within the New Silk Road. China’s initiative pays special attention to identification of positive and negative sides of China-Africa cooperation.

  7. A Tale of Two Classes: The Black Poor and the Black Middle Class. (United States)

    Lewin, Arthur


    To understand the African-American family, the African-American poor and middle class must be investigated. Extra costs mean that it is much harder for African Americans to reach the middle class. Ways to improve the economic status of African-American families and to increase the middle class are discussed. (SLD)

  8. Sedimentary features and exploration targets of Middle Permian reservoirs in the SW Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoming Xu


    Full Text Available The exploration direction and targets for the large-scale Middle Permian gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin are hot spots and challenges in current exploration researches. The exploration successes of large gas field of Cambrian Longwangmiao Formation in Gaoshiti-Moxi region, Central Sichuan Basin, indicated that prospective sedimentary facies belt was the basis for the formation of large gas fields. In this paper, based on seismic data, outcrop data and drilling data, the tectonic framework and sedimentary features of the Middle Permian in the SW Sichuan Basin were comprehensively studied. The following conclusions were reached from the perspective of sedimentary facies control: (1 during the Middle Permian, this region was in shallow water gentle slope belts with high energy, where thick reef flat facies were deposited; (2 the basement was uplifted during Middle Permian, resulting in the unconformity weathering crust at the top of Maokou Formation due to erosion; the SW Sichuan Basin was located in the karst slope belt, where epigenic karstification was intense; and (3 reef flat deposits superimposed by karst weathering crust was favorable for the formation of large-scale reef flat karst reservoirs. Based on the combination of the resources conditions and hydrocarbon accumulation conditions in this region, it was pointed out that the Middle Permian has great potential of large-scale reef flat karst gas reservoir due to its advantageous geological conditions; the Middle Permian traps with good hydrocarbon accumulation conditions were developed in the Longmen Mountain front closed structural belt in the SW Sichuan Basin and Western Sichuan Basin depression slope belt, which are favorable targets for large-scale reef flat karst reservoirs.

  9. Geometry and kinematics of Majiatan Fold-and-thrust Belt, Western Ordos Basin: implication for Tectonic Evolution of North-South Tectonic Belt (United States)

    He, D.


    The Helan-Chuandian North-South Tectonic Belt crossed the central Chinese mainland. It is a boundary of geological, geophysical, and geographic system of Chinese continent tectonics from shallow to deep, and a key zone for tectonic and geomorphologic inversion during Mesozoic to Cenozoic. It is superimposed by the southeastward and northeastward propagation of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in late Cenozoic. It is thus the critical division for West and East China since Mesozoic. The Majiatan fold-and-thrust belt (MFTB), locating at the central part of HCNSTB and the western margin of Ordos Basin, is formed by the tectonic evolution of the Helan-Liupanshan Mountains. Based on the newly-acquired high-resolution seismic profiles, deep boreholes, and surface geology, the paper discusses the geometry, kinematics, and geodynamic evolution of MFTB. With the Upper Carboniferous coal measures and the pre-Sinian ductile zone as the detachments, MFTB is a multi-level detached thrust system. The thrusting was mainly during latest Jurassic to Late Cretaceous, breaking-forward in the foreland, and resulting in a shortening rate of 25-29%. By structural restoration, this area underwent extension in Middle Proterozoic to Paleozoic, which can be divided into three phases of rifting such as Middle to Late Proterozoic, Cambiran to Ordovician, and Caboniferous to early Permian. It underwent compression since Late Triassic, including such periods as Latest Triassic, Late Jurassic to early Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous to early Paleogene, and Pliocene to Quaternary, with the largest shortening around Late Jurassic to early Cretaceous period (i.e. the mid-Yanshanian movement by the local name). However, trans-extension since Eocene around the Ordos Basin got rise to the formation the Yingchuan, Hetao, and Weihe grabens. It is concluded that MFTB is the leading edge of the intra-continental Helan orogenic belt, and formed by multi-phase breaking-forward thrusting during Late Jurassic to Cretaceous

  10. Platinum, palladium, and rhodium in volcanic and plutonic rocks from the Gravina-Nutzotin belt, Alaska (United States)

    Page, Norman J; Berg, Henry C.; Haffty, Joseph


    The Gravina-Nutzotin belt of Middle (?) Jurassic to middle Cretaceous sedimentary and volcanic rocks in south and southeastern Alaska includes concentrically zoned ultramafic complexes known to contain platinum-group metals. Previous isotopic, petrologic, and geologic studies suggested a close relation in time and space between the volcanic rocks and the ultramafic complexes. Interpretation of 40 analyses for platinum, palladium, and rhodium in volcanic and plutonic rocks of the belt indicates a strong geochemical correlation between the two groups of rocks and is in support of their being cogenetic either from directly connected magma chambers and flows or indirectly by selective concentration processes from similar mantle material.

  11. Scheelite distribution a long of amphibolitic belt from greenstone belt Barbacena, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.M.; Alexandre, C.A.


    In the middle southern portion of the Minas Gerais state a 60 Km long and 12 Km wide tungsten belt was discovered, and related to the amphibolitic rocks of the Barbacena Greenstone. Tungsten, present as scheelite, is associated with amphibolites, amphibole schists and amphibole gneisses, with chemical characteristics indicating an igneous origin. Chemical analyses on pan concentrates by I.C.P. showed high values on lead, tin, yttrium, lanthanum, cerium and zirconium, and average values for zinc and copper. The scheelite mineralization is probably strata bound and has a possible submarine exhalative origin. (author)

  12. Middle East and North African Oil. (United States)

    Al-Quazzaz, Ayad


    Traces the history of oil and natural gas in the Middle East and relates the importance of the Middle East's current stores of oil to economic development. Information is presented on the relationship of major oil companies and local governments, OPEC, rate of production, and the impact of oil on the societies of the Middle East and North Africa.…

  13. Analysis of Ozone (O3 and Erythemal UV (EUV measured by TOMS in the equatorial African belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Frette


    Full Text Available We presented time series of total ozone column amounts (TOCAs and erythemal UV (EUV doses derived from measurements by TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer instruments on board the Nimbus-7 (N7 and the Earth Probe (EP satellites for three locations within the equatorial African belt for the period 1979 to 2000. The locations were Dar-es-Salaam (6.8° S, 39.26° E in Tanzania, Kampala (0.19° N, 32.34° E in Uganda, and Serrekunda (13.28° N, 16.34° W in Gambia. Equatorial Africa has high levels of UV radiation, and because ozone shields UV radiation from reaching the Earth’s surface, there is a need to monitor TOCAs and EUV doses. In this paper we investigated the trend of TOCAs and EUV doses, the effects of annual and solar cycles on TOCAs, as well as the link between lightning and ozone production in the equatorial African belt. We also compared clear-sky simulated EUV doses with the corresponding EUV doses derived from TOMS measurements. The TOCAs were found to vary in the ranges 243 DU − 289 DU, 231 DU − 286 DU, and 236 DU − 296 DU, with mean values of 266.9 DU, 260.9 DU, and 267.8 DU for Dar-es-Salaam, Kampala and Serrekunda, respectively. Daily TOCA time series indicated that Kampala had the lowest TOCA values, which we attributed to the altitude effect. There were two annual ozone peaks in Dar-es-Salaam and Kampala, and one annual ozone peak in Serrekunda. The yearly TOCA averages showed an oscillation within a five-year period. We also found that the EUV doses were stable at all three locations for the period 1979−2000, and that Kampala and Dar-es-Salaam were mostly cloudy throughout the year, whereas Serrekunda was mostly free from clouds. It was also found that clouds were among the major factors determining the level of EUV reaching the Earth´s surface. Finally, we noted that during rainy seasons, horizontal advection effects augmented by lightning activity may be responsible for enhanced ozone production in the tropics.

  14. Geological characters and petrological characters of metamorphosed medium-acidic intrusive complexes in Ludong Orogenic Belt,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌贤长; 胡庆立; 王丽霞


    Ludong orogenic belt in China is an importantal continent collision orogenic belt in eastern Asia, between Sino-Korean landmass and Yangtze landmass. The host rock of the orogenic belt is metamorphosed medium-acidic intrusive complexes, which can be divided into four types, that's, quartz dioritz, granite dioritz, monzonitic granite and undertint monzonitic granite, principal minerals are plagioclases, potassium feldspars and quartzs, minor minerals are hornblendes, biotites, clinopyxenes and garnets, accessory mineral types and assemblages are very similar, specially, various rocks are mainly fine-grained textures. They have the history of regional amphibolite facies metamorphism and deep-middle-shallow structural layer deformation, and are changed into various gneiss and tectonic system. There are many xenolithes of middle Proterozoic eclogite-host rock extrahigh-high pressure metamorphic complexes, a small xenolithes of early Proterozoic layered metamorphite system and granulites, and ultrabasic-basic rocks of various epoches in the metamorphosed medium-acidic intrusive complexes.

  15. The lithosphere architecture and geodynamic of the Middle and Lower Yangtze metallogenic belt in eastern China: constraints from integrated geophysical data (United States)

    Lü, Qingtian; Shi, Danian; Jiang, Guoming; Dong, Shuwen


    The lithosphere structure and deep processes are keys to understanding mineral system and ore-forming processes. Lithosphere-scale process could create big footprints or signatures which can be observed by geophysics methods. SinoProbe has conducted an integrated deep exploration across middle and lower reaches of Yangtze Metallogenic Belt (YMB) in Eastern China, these included broadband seismic, reflection seismic, wide-angle reflection and magnetotellurics survey. Seismic reflection profiles and MT survey were also performed in Luzong, Tongling and Ningwu ore districts to construct 3D geological model. The resulting geophysical data provides new information which help to better understanding the lithosphere structure, geodynamic, deformation and heat and mass transportation that lead to the formation of the Metallogenic Belt. The major results are: (1) Lower velocity body at the top of upper mantle and a SE dipping high velocity body were imaged by teleseismic tomography beneath YMB; (2) Shear wave splitting results show NE parallel fast-wave polarization direction which parallel with tectonic lineament; (3) The reflection seismic data support the crustal-detachment model, the lower and upper crust was detached during contraction deformation near Tanlu fault and Ningwu volcanic basin; (4) Broadband and reflection seismic confirm the shallow Moho beneath YMB; (5) Strong correlation of lower crust reflectivity with magmatism; (6) The lower crust below Luzong Volcanics shows obvious reflective anisotropy both at the crust-mantle transition and the brittle-ductile transition in the crust. All these features suggest that introcontinental subduction, lithosphere delamination, mantle sources magmatic underplating, and MASH process are responsible for the formation of this Mesozoic metallogenic belt. Acknowledgment: We acknowledge the financial support of SinoProbe by the Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Land and Resources, P. R. China, under Grant sinoprobe-03, and

  16. Dating Violence and Sexual Assault Prevention with African American Middle Schoolers: Does Group Gender Composition Impact Dating Violence Attitudes? (United States)

    Black, Beverly M.; Weisz, Arlene N.; Jayasundara, Dheeshana S.


    A dating violence and sexual assault prevention program was presented to 396, predominately African American, middle schoolers in two inner city schools in the United States. In one school the program was offered with a same-gender group composition; in the other school, the same program was offered with mixed-gender group composition. A…

  17. The Pan-African Kekem gabbro-norite (West-Cameroon), U-Pb zircon age, geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes: Geodynamical implication for the evolution of the Central African fold belt (United States)

    Kwékam, Maurice; Affaton, Pascal; Bruguier, Olivier; Liégeois, Jean-Paul; Hartmann, Gerald; Njonfang, Emmanuel


    The Kekem shoshonitic gabbro-norite association is part of the high-K calc-alkaline (HKCA) post-collisional magmatism, a major feature of the Pan-African Belt in Cameroon. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon analyses provide an age of 576 ± 4 Ma for the Kekem complex. This age is interpreted as dating the emplacement of the massif during the waning stage of the Pan-African orogeny. The latter is related to dextral movements along the Central Cameroon Shear Zone (CCSZ). The REE patterns display enriched LREE (LaN/YbN = 14.2-23.5) while HREE present a nearly flat profile (DyN/YbN = 1.3-1.7), and the La/Sm and Sm/Yb ratios led to propose that the Kekem gabbro-norites have been derived from the partial melting of a garnet-spinel lherzolite mantle source. The negative Nb-Ta and Ti anomalies and the positive Pb anomalies indicate that this mantle source was modified by contribution of a subduction-related material. The low Ce/Pb (2.6-10.4) and Th/Yb ratios associated to high Ba/La ratios, indicate that source enrichment could be related to slab derived fluids. As a whole, the Kekem geochemical features suggest that primary gabbro-noritic magmas derived from a subduction-modified mantle source (metasomatised lithospheric mantle). Moderately high 86Sr/87Sr initial ratios (0.7068-0.7082), low ɛNd (-5 to -9) and old Nd TDM model ages (1.6-1.8 Ga) are interpreted to result from contamination of Neoproterozoic mantle by the Paleoproterozoic crust. The ca. 576 Ma movements along the CCSZ are related to a Neoproterozoic metacratonization of the northern margin of the Congo craton during the Pan-African orogeny. This metacratonization led to vertical planar lithospheric delamination along lithospheric transcurrent faults, asthenospheric uprise and partial melting of the Paleoproterozoic lithospheric mantle.

  18. New developments of belt conveyor systems; Inclined belt systems, vertical pipe elevators, vibration belts, oscillating tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahke, E.A. (Universitaet Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Foerdertechnik)


    Factors that have influenced the design of belt conveyor systems are discussed - these include strength and shaping. Belt conveyor systems for inclined, steep-angle and vertical conveying are described and comparison made between cable belt and steel cord belt conveyors used in coal mines. Hose-belt or tube conveyors such as are used in the PWH/Conti-Rollgurt Conveyor System for feeding boilers in German coal fired power stations are mentioned and advantages of the pipe-belt conveyor for vertical transport discussed. Design of the vibratory conveyor for transporting solids upwards by pulses is described. 29 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. On the evolution of the Kazaure Schist Belt of NW Nigeria: a re ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Geological Sciences ... Abstract. All previous models of evolution of the Kazaure Schist Belt (KZSB) invoked a simple ensialic mechanism in the context of Pan-African deformation which led to the formation of a marginal back-arc basin floored by continental materials that accepted sediments. The closure ...

  20. Satellite Gravity Transforms Unmask Tectonic Pattern of Arabian-African Region (United States)

    Eppelbaum, Lev; Katz, Youri


    central parts of the Arabian and Somalian plates. Both these plates are countered by low-thickness lithospheric zones corresponding to the active rift zones. As it is indicated in the map, the thick lithospheric zones are associated with collisional zones at boundaries between the cratons and mobile belts. We suggest that the lowered values in the northern boundaries of the Arabian Plate correspond to subduction zones. The zones of lowered values in the middle of western part of the region correspond to the Neoproterozoic belt where ophiolitic and back-arc complexes with a thinned crust (e.g., Stern et al., 2004) are developed. Compiled satellite derived gravity field and a set of SGT were utilized for development of a novel tectono-geophysical zonation map of the Arabian-African region. Structurally- geodynamically this region is one of the key Earth's megastructures where are closely disposed remain elements of the Tethys Ocean crust (Ben-Avraham et al., 2002; Robertson, 2004), most ancient Early Permian reversly magnetized Kiama zone (Eppelbaum and Katz, 2012b; Eppelbaum et al., 2014), and the youngest modern oceanic crust of the Afar triangle developed among the continental lumps (Yirgu et al., 2006; Bastow et al., 2011). The tectonic zonation was carried out with application of three main principles of tectonic analysis: (1) classic basis of space-temporary reflection of structural complexes, (2) modern structural-geodynamic approach derived from the plate tectonic reconstructions where essential role plays analysis of rift, tectonic transform and collision forms of Earth's development, (3) revealing of intricate correlation between the mapped tectono-structural elements and lithospheric-mantle complexes delineated by using both conventional geophysical methods (seismic, seismological, thermal data, etc.) and comprehensive analysis of satellite derived gravity data. Compiled tectonic map of the region (00 - 35.60 north, and 300 - 570 east) indicates that Precambrian

  1. Basement control in the development of the early cretaceous West and Central African rift system (United States)

    Maurin, Jean-Christophe; Guiraud, René


    The structural framework of the Precambrian basement of the West and Central African Rift System (WCARS) is described in order to examine the role of ancient structures in the development of this Early Cretaceous rift system. Basement structures are represented in the region by large Pan-African mobile belts (built at ca. 600 Ma) surrounding the > 2 Ga West African, Congo and Sao Francisco cratons. Except for the small Gao trough (eastern Mali) located near the contact nappe of the Pan-African Iforas suture zone along the edge of the West African craton, the entire WCARS is located within the internal domains of the Pan-African mobile belts. Within these domains, two main structural features occur as the main basement control of the WCARS: (1) an extensive network of near vertical shear zones which trend north-south through the Congo, Brazil, Nigeria, Niger and Algeria, and roughly east-west through northeastern Brazil and Central Africa. The shear zones correspond to intra-continental strike-slip faults which accompanied the oblique collision between the West African, Congo, and Sao Francisco cratons during the Late Proterozoic; (2) a steep metamorphic NW-SE-trending belt which corresponds to a pre-Pan-African (ca. 730 Ma) ophiolitic suture zone along the eastern edge of the Trans-Saharian mobile belt. The post-Pan-African magmatic and tectonic evolution of the basement is also described in order to examine the state of the lithosphere prior to the break-up which occurred in the earliest Cretaceous. After the Pan-African thermo-tectonic event, the basement of the WCARS experienced a long period of intra-plate magmatic activity. This widespread magmatism in part relates to the activity of intra-plate hotspots which have controlled relative uplift, subsidence and occasionally block faulting. During the Paleozoic and the early Mesozoic, this tectonic activity was restricted to west of the Hoggar, west of Aïr and northern Cameroon. During the Late Jurassic

  2. The Contribution of Student Perceptions of School Climate to Understanding the Disproportionate Punishment of African American Students in a Middle School (United States)

    Shirley, Erica L. M.; Cornell, Dewey G.


    This study investigated the contribution of student perceptions of school climate to racial differences in school discipline. Four hundred middle school students completed a school climate survey. Compared to Caucasian students, African-American students were referred to the office for discipline three times as frequently and received five times…

  3. A cost benefit analysis of an enhanced seat belt enforcement program in South Africa. (United States)

    Harris, G T; Olukoga, I A


    To examine whether a program to increase the wearing of seat belts in a South African urban area would be worthwhile in societal terms. A cost benefit analysis of a one year enhanced seat belt enforcement program in eThekwini (Durban) Municipality. Data were drawn from two main sources--a 1998 study of the cost of road crashes in South Africa and, given the absence of other data, a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of various types of interventions to reduce road crash casualties in the United States--and were analyzed using cost benefit analysis. A program designed to enforce greater wearing of seat belts, estimated to cost 2 million rand in one year, could be reasonably expected to increase seat belt usage rates by 16 percentage points and reduce fatalities and injuries by 9.5%. This would result in saved social costs of 13.6 million rand in the following year or a net present value of 11.6 million rand. There would also be favorable consequences for municipal finances. Investment in a program to increase seat belt wearing rates is highly profitable in societal terms.

  4. Multiple crust reworking in the French Armorican Variscan belt: implication for the genesis of uranium-fertile leucogranites (United States)

    Ballouard, C.; Poujol, M.; Zeh, A.


    Muscovite peraluminous granites (MPGs) form by partial melting of the continental crust and can be related to metalliferous deposits such as tin, tungsten, and uranium (U). Metal enrichment in MPGs commonly results from fractional crystallization, but the metal contents of the source play a major role for their fertility. Between ca. 320 and 300 Ma (Late Carboniferous), the French Armorican Variscan belt was intruded by numerous U-fertile MPGs that contain inherited zircon grains with a wide range of ages from Archean-to-Carboniferous. U-Pb and Hf isotopic data of zircon grains from Brioverian-to-Carboniferous sediments, Cambrian-to-Early Carboniferous granitoids, and Late Carboniferous MPGs indicate that the crust of the Armorican Massif is made up by detritus mainly derived from the West African craton (3500-1600 Ma; T DM = 3.8-2.3 Ga), Grenvillian belt (1200-900 Ma; T DM = 2.7-1.2 Ga), and Avalonian-Cadomian belt (800-550 Ma; T DM = 2.5-0.8 Ga) and that the crust was affected by magmatic events at 510-470 Ma (T DM = 1.6-0.6 Ga), 410-330 Ma (T DM = 1.6-1 Ga), and 320-300 Ma. Furthermore, they reveal that the Late Carboniferous MPGs were mainly formed by partial melting of Brioverian sediments with Cambro-Ordovician and Devonian-Carboniferous granitoids, which are all genetically linked with each other and characterized by Th/U < 4. The new data suggest that the U-fertile MPGs result from multiple reworking of U-rich Brioverian sediments, deposited ca. 550 Ma ago on the northern margin of Gondwana, and partially molten during several Paleozoic events, causing a successive increase in U content in the middle-upper crust.

  5. Gendered power in cultural contexts: Part II. Middle class African American heterosexual couples with young children. (United States)

    Cowdery, Randi S; Scarborough, Norma; Knudson-Martin, Carmen; Seshadri, Gita; Lewis, Monique E; Mahoney, Anne Rankin


    When race and gender intersect, understanding gendered power may be complicated. The authors first describe the historical context that serves as important background for understanding gender and power in heterosexual African American relationships. Then they show how family solidarity in the face of social injustices often overrides gender equality as a goal for middle class African American couples with young children. The findings illustrate pragmatic equality within couple relationships and the willful suspension of gender roles for the well-being of the family as a whole. However, gendered power impacts couples in a variety of ways. Sometimes a woman's fear that the man might leave, for example, diminished her power in the relationship. Often a woman accommodated a man's greater power in the family because of her perception that he was often denied power in the larger society. Societal discrimination of women was less visible to couples. Implications for practice are provided.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia M. Levashova


    Full Text Available The tectonic and paleogeographic evolution of the Ural-Mongol belt between the cratons of Baltica, Siberia, and Tarim is the key to the formation of the Eurasian supercontinent during Paleozoic time, but the views on this complicated process remain very disparate and sometimes controversial. Three volcanic formations of the Middle Silurian, LowertoMiddle Devonian and Middle Devonian age from the southwestern boundary of the Chingiz Range (NE Kazakhstan yields what are interpreted as primary paleomagnetic directions that help clarify the evolution of the belt. A singlepolarity characteristic component in midSilurian andesites yields a positive intraformational conglomerate test, whereas dualpolarity prefolding components are isolated from the two Devonian collections. These new data were evaluated together with previously published paleomagnetic results from Paleozoic rocks in the Chingiz Range, and allow us to establish with confidence the hemisphere in which the area was located at a given time. We conclude that NE Kazakhstan was steadily moving northward crossing the equator in Silurian time. These new paleomagnetic data from the Chingiz range also agree with and reinforce the hypothesis that the strongly curved volcanic belts of Kazakhstan underwent oroclinal bending between Middle Devonian and Late Carboniferous time. A comparison of the Chingiz paleolatitudes with those of Siberia shows similarities between the northward motion and rotational history of the Chingiz unit and those of Siberia, which imposes important constraints on the evolving paleogeography of the Ural-Mongol belt.

  7. Low Utilization of Insecticide-Treated Bed Net among Pregnant Women in the Middle Belt of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Manu


    Full Text Available Background. Malaria in pregnancy leads to low birth weight, premature birth, anaemia, and maternal and neonatal mortality. Use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs during pregnancy is one of the proven interventions to reduce the malaria burden. However, Ghana has not achieved its target for ITN use among pregnant women. Methods. A qualitative study was conducted in seven communities purposively selected from the middle belt of Ghana. Participants who had delivered in the six months prior to this study were selected. In all, seven focus group discussions and twenty-four in-depth interviews were conducted between June and August 2010. Results. Respondents knew of the importance of ITNs and other malaria-preventive strategies. Factors such as financial access and missed opportunities of free distribution denied some pregnant women the opportunity to own or use an ITN. Reasons for not using ITNs during pregnancy included discomfort resulting from heat, smell of the net, and difficulty in hanging the net. Participants maintained their ITNs by preventing holes in the nets, retreatment, and infrequent washing. Conclusion. Pregnant women know about the causes and prevention of malaria. However, this knowledge is not transformed into practice due to lack of access to ITNs and sleeping discomforts among other logistical constraints.

  8. The African upper mantle and its relationship to tectonics and surface geology (United States)

    Priestley, Keith; McKenzie, Dan; Debayle, Eric; Pilidou, Sylvana


    This paper focuses on the upper-mantle velocity structure of the African continent and its relationship to the surface geology. The distribution of seismographs and earthquakes providing seismograms for this study results in good fundamental and higher mode path coverage by a large number of relatively short propagation paths, allowing us to image the SV-wave speed structure, with a horizontal resolution of several hundred kilometres and a vertical resolution of ~50 km, to a depth of about 400 km. The difference in mantle structure between the Archean and Pan-African terranes is apparent in our African upper-mantle shear wave model. High-velocity (4-7 per cent) roots exist beneath the cratons. Below the West African, Congo and Tanzanian Cratons, these extend to 225-250 km depth, but beneath the Kalahari Craton, the high wave speed root extends to only ~170 km. With the exception of the Damara Belt that separates the Congo and Kalahari Cratons, any high-speed upper-mantle lid below the Pan-African terranes is too thin to be resolved by our long-period surface wave technique. The Damara Belt is underlain by higher wave speeds, similar to those observed beneath the Kalahari Craton. Extremely low SV-wave speeds occur to the bottom of our model beneath the Afar region. The temperature of the African upper mantle is determined from the SV-wave speed model. Large temperature variations occur at 125 km depth with low temperatures beneath west Africa and all of southern Africa and warm mantle beneath the Pan-African terrane of northern Africa. At 175 km depth, cool upper mantle occurs below the West African, Congo, Tanzanian and Kalahari Cratons and anomalously warm mantle occurs below a zone in northcentral Africa and beneath the region surrounding the Red Sea. All of the African volcanic centres are located above regions of warm upper mantle. The temperature profiles were fit to a geotherm to determine the thickness of the African lithosphere. Thick lithosphere exists

  9. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All other...

  10. Lap belts and three-point belts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van & Edelman, A.


    Results of the swov-accident investigation prove that if there are any differences in the effectiveness of lap belts and three-point belts, these are so small that they cannot form a basis for giving preference to one type over the other. Furthermore, in spite of the results of this investigation

  11. Transpressional granite-emplacement model: Structural and magnetic study of the Pan-African Bandja granitic pluton (West Cameroon) (United States)

    Sandjo, A. F. Yakeu; Njanko, T.; Njonfang, E.; Errami, E.; Rochette, P.; Fozing, E.


    The Pan-African NE-SW elongated Bandja granitic pluton, located at the western part of the Pan-African belt in Cameroon, is a K-feldspar megacryst granite. It is emplaced in banded gneiss and its NW border underwent mylonitization. The magmatic foliation shows NE-SW and NNE-SSW strike directions with moderate to strong dip respectively in its northern and central parts. This mostly, ferromagnetic granite displays magnetic fabrics carried by magnetite and characterized by (i) magnetic foliation with best poles at 295/34, 283/33 and 35/59 respectively in its northern, central and southern parts and (ii) a subhorizontal magnetic lineation with best line at 37/8, 191/9 and 267/22 respectively in the northern, central and southern parts. Magnetic lineation shows an `S' shape trend that allows to (1) consider the complete emplacement and deformation of the pluton during the Pan-African D 2 and D 3 events which occurred in the Pan-African belt in Cameroon and (2) reorganize Pan-African ages from Nguiessi Tchakam et al. (1997) compared with those of the other granitic plutons in the belt as: 686 ±17 Ma (Rb/Sr) for D 1 age of metamorphism recorded in gneiss; and the period between 604-557 Ma for D 2-D 3 emplacement and deformation age of the granitic pluton in a dextral ENE-WSW shear movement.

  12. Simulation of engine auxiliary drive V-belt slip motion. Part 1. Development of belt slip model; Engine hoki V belt slip kyodo no simulation. 1. Belt slip model no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurisu, T [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)


    V-belts are widely used for driving auxiliary components of an engine. Inadequet design of such belt system sometimes results in troubles such as belt squeak, side rubber separation and/or bottom rubber crack. However, there has been no design tools which can predict belt slip quantitatively. The author developed a motion simulation program of Auxiliary Drive V-Belt System considering belt slip. The program showed good prediction accuracy for belt slip motion. This paper describes the simulation model. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  13. Seat belt reminders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Seat belts are an effective way of reducing the number or road deaths and severe road injuries in crashes. Seat belt reminders warn car drivers and passengers if the seat belt is not fastened. This can be done by a visual signal or an acoustic signal or by a combination of the two. Seat belt

  14. When did the Penglai orogeny begin on Taiwan?: Geochronological and petrographic constraints on the exhumed mountain belts and foreland-basin sequences (United States)

    Chen, W. S.; Syu, S. J.; Yeh, J. J.


    Foreland basin receives large amounts of synorogenic infill that is eroded from the adjacent exhumed mountain belt, and therefore provides the important information on exhumation evolution. Furthermore, a complete stratigraphic sequence of Taiwan mountain belt consists of five units of Miocene sedimentary rocks (the Western Foothills and the uppermost sequence on the proto-Taiwan mountain belt), Oligocene argillite (the Hsuehshan Range), Eocene quartzite (the Hsuehshan Range), Eocene-Miocene slate and schist (Backbone Range), and Cretaceous schist (Backbone Range) from top to bottom. Based on the progressive unroofing history, the initiation of foreland basin received sedimentary lithic sediments from the uppermost sequence of proto-Taiwan mountain belt, afterwards, and receiving low- to medium-grade metamorphic lithic sediments in ascending order of argillite, quartzite, slate, and schist clasts. Therefore, the sedimentary lithics from mountain belt were deposited which represents the onset of the mountain uplift. In this study, the first appearance of sedimentary lithic sediments occurs in the Hengchun Peninsula at the middle Miocene (ca. 12-10 Ma). Thus, sandstone petrography of the late Miocene formation (10-5.3 Ma) shows a predominantly recycled sedimentary and low-grade metamorphic sources, including sandstone, argillite and quartzite lithic sediments of 10-25% which records erosion to slightly deeper metamorphic terrane on the mountain belt. Based on the results of previous thermogeochronological studies of the Yuli belt, it suggests that the middle Miocene occurred mountain uplift. The occurrence of low-grade metamorphic lithic sediments in the Hengchun Peninsula during late Miocene is coincident with the cooling ages of uplift and denuded Yuli schist belt at the eastern limb of Backbone Range.

  15. Belt Aligning Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurchenko Vadim


    parts of the conveyor, the sides of the belt wear intensively. This results in reducing the life of the belt. The reasons for this phenomenon are well investigated, but the difficulty lies in the fact that they all act simultaneously. The belt misalignment prevention can be carried out in two ways: by minimizing the effect of causes and by aligning the belt. The construction of aligning devices and errors encountered in practice are considered in this paper. Self-aligning roller supports rotational in plan view are recommended as a means of combating the belt misalignment.

  16. Condition-Based Conveyor Belt Replacement Strategy in Lignite Mines with Random Belt Deterioration (United States)

    Blazej, Ryszard; Jurdziak, Leszek


    In Polish lignite surface mines, condition-based belt replacement strategies are applied in order to assure profitable refurbishment of worn out belts performed by external firms specializing in belt maintenance. In two of three lignite mines, staff asses belt condition subjectively during visual inspections. Only one mine applies specialized diagnostic device (HRDS) allowing objective magnetic evaluation of belt core condition in order to choose the most profitable moment for the dismantling of worn out belt segments from conveyors and sending them to the maintenance firm which provides their refurbishment. This article describes the advantages of a new diagnostic device called DiagBelt. It was developed at the Faculty of Geoengineering, Mining and Geology, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology. Economic gains from its application are calculated for the lignite mine and for the belt maintenance firm, taking into account random life (durability) of new and reconditioned belts (after the 1st and the 2nd refurbishment). Recursive calculations for following years allow the estimation of the length and costs of replaced, reconditioned and purchased belts on an annual basis, while the use of the Monte Carlo method allows the estimation of their variability caused by random deterioration of belts. Savings are obtained due to better selection of moments (times) for the replacement of belt segments and die to the possibility to qualify worn out belts for refurbishment without the need to remove their covers. In effect, increased belt durability and lowered share of waste belts (which were not qualified for reconditioning) create savings which can quickly cover expenditures on new diagnostic tools and regular belt inspections in the mine.

  17. Association of the Purana basins and the middle Proterozoic mobile belts in peninsular India: implications on targeting uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale, V.S.


    The disparate Archaean Cratonic Nuclei of the Indian peninsular shield coalesced together through late Archaean - Palaeoproterozoic accretionary tectonic events. The subsequent Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic sequences are preserved either in the Purana basins or in the middle Proterozoic mobile belts (MPMB). The latter contain deformed and metamorphosed supracrustal sequences; and can be ascribed to compressive tectonic regimes. The Purana basins on the other hand represent shallow marine, epicratonic, passive-margin sequences deposited in an extensional tectonic regime. Major deformational events and metamorphism of the MPMB are known to have taken place around 1600 ±200 Ma and 900 ± 100 Ma. These two periods coincide with the ages of initiation and major intrabasinal breaks in the growth of the Purana basins. The contemporary juxtapositioning of these two dissimilar tectonic regimes in peninsular India, is examined within the framework of the available data on them and the current models of Proterozoic tectonics. Its implications on uranium mineralization and possible regions for targeting exploration activities are discussed on this basis. (author). 112 refs., 4 figs

  18. Effectiveness of Ford's belt reminder system in increasing seat belt use


    Williams, A; Wells, J; Farmer, C


    Objectives: The study investigated the effectiveness in increasing seat belt use of Ford's belt reminder system, a supplementary system that provides intermittent flashing lights and chimes for five minutes if drivers are not belted.

  19. Neoproterozoic collision tectonics in the Mozambique Belt of East Africa: evidence from the Uluguru mountains, Tanzania (United States)

    Muhongo, Sospeter


    The fault-bounded Proterozoic metamorphic terranes lying to the E of the Tanzanian craton make up the Usagara tectonic domain and are a part of the transcontinental Mozambique Orogenic Belt (MB). The lithotectonic units in the MB of the East Africa consist of comparable rock assembles which underwent the same complex deformational history and are thought to represent large thrust sheets or nappes. Their shelf- and fore-deep terranes border the Tanzanian craton and make up the foreland terranes of the Pan-African Mozambique Belt. Granulite-gneiss nappes are ubiquitous in the orogen. Granulite-facies metamorphism, associated with recumbent folds, was due to crustal thickening, which took place during the collision between Gondwana fragments. Isotope data suggest a collision (and concomitant granulite-facies metamorphism) age of between 700 and 550 Ma. The orientations of planar and linear fabrics in the granulite-facies rocks of the Uluguru mountains are used to infer the relative crustal block motions during this collisional event. This Pan-African collisional event was characterized by NW-directed movements, oblique to the N-S trend of the orogen, and involved SE-directed backthrusting. The Ubendian Belt of Tanzania and the Aswa Shear Zone in Uganda and Kenya, which both bifurcate around the Tanzania craton, accommodated the tectonically thickened crust, created by the collisional event, through NW-SE sinistral strike-slip movements.

  20. Deformation and kinematics of the central Kirthar Fold Belt, Pakistan (United States)

    Hinsch, Ralph; Hagedorn, Peter; Asmar, Chloé; Nasim, Muhammad; Aamir Rasheed, Muhammad; Kiely, James M.


    The Kirthar Fold Belt is part of the lateral mountain belts in Pakistan linking the Himalaya orogeny with the Makran accretionary wedge. This region is deforming very oblique/nearly parallel to the regional plate motion vector. The study area is situated between the prominent Chaman strike-slip fault in the West and the un-deformed foreland (Kirthar Foredeep/Middle Indus Basin) in the East. The Kirthar Fold Belt is subdivided into several crustal blocks/units based on structural orientation and deformation style (e.g. Kallat, Khuzdar, frontal Kirthar). This study uses newly acquired and depth-migrated 2D seismic lines, surface geology observations and Google Earth assessments to construct three balanced cross sections for the frontal part of the fold belt. Further work was done in order to insure the coherency of the built cross-sections by taking a closer look at the regional context inferred from published data, simple analogue modelling, and constructed regional sketch sections. The Khuzdar area and the frontal Kirthar Fold Belt are dominated by folding. Large thrusts with major stratigraphic repetitions are not observed. Furthermore, strike-slip faults in the Khuzdar area are scarce and not observed in the frontal Kirthar Fold Belt. The regional structural elevation rises from the foreland across the Kirthar Fold Belt towards the hinterland (Khuzdar area). These observations indicate that basement-involved deformation is present at depth. The domination of folding indicates a weak decollement below the folds (soft-linked deformation). The fold pattern in the Khuzdar area is complex, whereas the large folds of the central Kirthar Fold Belt trend SSW-NNE to N-S and are best described as large detachment folds that have been slightly uplifted by basement involved transpressive deformation underneath. Towards the foreland, the deformation is apparently more hard-linked and involves fault-propagation folding and a small triangle zone in Cretaceous sediments

  1. Genesis of Neoproterozoic granitoid magmatism in the Eastern Aracuai Fold Belt, eastern Brazil: field, geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celino, Joil Jose; Botelho, Nilson Francisquini; Pimentel, Marcio Martins


    The Neoproterozoic granitoid magmatism of the Aracuai Fold Belt (AFB) is an important element for the discussion of the evolution of this belt and its relationships with the African counterpart, the West Congo Belt. In the eastern part of the AFB, four different granitoid suites were recognized. The Nanuque Suite (NQS) comprises syn-tectonic peraluminous cordierite-bearing monzogranites. The Sao Paulinho Suite (SPS) consists of Th-rich peraluminous two mica or biotite-only granitoids. Calc-alkalic granitoids with magmatic epidote were grouped into the Itagimirim Suite (ITS) and post-tectonic charnockitic rocks were grouped into the Salomao Suite (SLS). Sm-Nd mineral isochron and Rb- isochron yielded ages of yielded ages of respectively 761 Ma and 714 Ma for the Nanuque and Sao Paulino suites. The general Sr-Nd isotopic characteristics of the granitoid suites and some country rocks indicate that the parental magmas were mostly the product of melting of the Paraiba do Sul metasediments. The chronological and genetic evolution the Neoproterozoic plutonism can be envisaged in a model of est-dipping subduction zone, followed by a continental collision between the Brasiliano/Pan-African (Brazil) and Congo (Africa cratons and final episodes of uplift and collapse. (author)

  2. Geochronology of the Jequie-Itabuna granulitic belt and of the Contendas-Mirante volcano-sedimentary belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinho, Moacyr M.; Barbosa, Johildo S.F.; Sabate, Pierre


    The Jequie-Itabuna Granulitic Belt is divided here into the Jequie-Mutuipe-Maracas Domain and the Atlantic Coast Domain. The paper analyzes the geochronological data from the Jequie-Mutuipe-Maracas Domain in two parts: plutonic rocks equilibrated in granulite facies, including the charno-enderbitic rocks from the Laje-Mutuipe region and the charnockitic rocks from the Maracas region; and ortho- and paraderived rocks metamorphosed in granulite facies, with the data obtained from rocks collected at the Jequie quarry and from homogeneous rocks collected at the western outskirts of the Jequirica town. The available geochronological data for the Atlantic Coast Domain is discussed, and due to the lack of petrologic control of the analyzed rocks, the geological significance of the ages between 2.0 and 2.3 is obtained in several line regressions. The paper identifies the following domains within the Contendas-Mirante volcano-sedimentary belt: the the basement dones, the volcano-sedimentary sequence and the intrusive rocks. The basement domes is the domain of the ancient gray gneisses (ca 3.4 Ga), to TTG (tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite) terrains and among the different massifs that crop out in the SE sector of the volcano-sedimentary belt, those of Sete Voltas and Boa Vista/Mata Verde have geochronological data available. The volcano-sedimentary sequence is divided into a lower, a middle and an upper unit and its available isotopic data are analyzed. The item referent to the intrusive rocks deals with the following plutons: The Lagoa Morro da Velha granitoid, the Pe da Serra granite, the Rio Jacare sill and the Transamazonian granites. 31 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Tok-Algoma magmatic complex of the Selenga-Stanovoi Superterrain in the Central Asian fold belt: Age and tectonic setting (United States)

    Kotov, A. B.; Larin, A. M.; Salnikova, E. B.; Velikoslavinskii, S. D.; Sorokin, A. A.; Sorokin, A. P.; Yakovleva, S. Z.; Anisimova, I. V.; Tolmacheva, E. V.


    According to the results of U-Pb geochronological investigations, the hornblende subalkali diorite rocks making up the Tok-Algoma Complex in the eastern part of the Selenga-Stanovoi Superterrain of the Central Asian fold belt were formed in the Middle Jurassic rather than in the Middle Archean as was suggested previously. Thus, the age of the regional amphibolite facies metamorphism manifested itself in the Ust'-Gilyui rock sequence of the Stanovoi Complex and that superimposed on granitoids of the Tok-Algoma Complex is Mesozoic rather than Early Precambrian. The geochemical features of the Tok-Algoma granitoids are indicative of the fact that they were formed in the geodynamic setting of the active continental margin or a mature island arc. Hence, it is possible to suggest that the subduction processes along the southern boundary between the Selenga-Stanovoi Superterrain and the Mongolian-Okhotsk ocean basin in the Middle Jurassic resulted in the formation of a magmatic belt of over 500 km in length.

  4. Storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics: Repeatability in the outer radiation belt (United States)

    Murphy, K. R.; Mann, I. R.; Rae, J.; Watt, C.; Boyd, A. J.; Turner, D. L.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.


    During intervals of enhanced solar wind driving the outer radiation belt becomes extremely dynamic leading to geomagnetic storms. During these storms the flux of energetic electrons can vary by over 4 orders of magnitude. Despite recent advances in understanding the nature of competing storm-time electron loss and acceleration processes the dynamic behavior of the outer radiation belt remains poorly understood; the outer radiation belt can exhibit either no change, an enhancement, or depletion in radiation belt electrons. Using a new analysis of the total radiation belt electron content, calculated from the Van Allen probes phase space density (PSD), we statistically analyze the time-dependent and global response of the outer radiation belt during storms. We demonstrate that by removing adiabatic effects there is a clear and repeatable sequence of events in storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics. Namely, the relativistic (μ=1000 MeV/G) and ultra-relativistic (μ=4000 MeV/G) electron populations can be separated into two phases; an initial phase dominated by loss followed by a second phase dominated by acceleration. At lower energies, the radiation belt seed population of electrons (μ=150 MeV/G) shows no evidence of loss but rather a net enhancement during storms. Further, we investigate the dependence of electron dynamics as a function of the second adiabatic invariant, K. These results demonstrate a global coherency in the dynamics of the source, relativistic and ultra-relativistic electron populations as function of the second adiabatic invariant K. This analysis demonstrates two key aspects of storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics. First, the radiation belt responds repeatably to solar wind driving during geomagnetic storms. Second, the response of the radiation belt is energy dependent, relativistic electrons behaving differently than lower energy seed electrons. These results have important implications in radiation belt research. In particular

  5. Belt attachment and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.


    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  6. chlamydial neonatal conjuntivitis (cnnc) in ilorin, middle belt of nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology ... period were prospectively screened for Neonatal conjunctivitis using the Center for Disease Control/World Health Organization case definition for Neonatal conjunctivitis. ... Clinical re-evaluation was done by 72 hours and 7 days of treatment for clinical cure.

  7. Determinants of Patronage of Traditional Bone Setters in the Middle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of Patronage of Traditional Bone Setters in the Middle Belt of Nigeria. ... Results: One hundred and eighty-six questionnaires ... A gradual phasing out of traditional bone setting with a road map towards making orthodox fracture ...

  8. The Lufilian arc and Irumide belt of Zambia: Results of a geotraverse across their intersection (United States)

    Daly, M. C.; Chakraborty, S. K.; Kasolo, P.; Musiwa, M.; Mumba, P.; Naidu, B.; Namateba, C.; Ngambi, O.; Coward, M. P.

    The Kibaran aged Irumide belt and the Pan African aged Lufilian arc intersect in central Zambia. The Irumide belt is a thrust belt comprising northwesterly verging structures in the north, upright structures in the central zone and southeasterly verging structures in the south. Tectonic transport, as deduced from regional stretching lineations, changes across the central upright zone. To the north of this zone, movement is to the northwest; to the south of the zone, movement is to the southeast. This divergence of structures about a central upright zone is recognized throughout the belt. The Lufilian arc comprises a northeasterly verging thrust belt involving large basement thrust sheets forming domal culimations throughoutregion. These thrusts climb up-section towards the northeast and have telescoped the Katangan stratigraphy. In the Copperbelt area of the arc, the Irumide and Lufilian structures are separated by a marked unconformity. However in the Mubalashi area, south of the Copperbelt, there is aa coincidence of strike of Lufilian and Irumide structures which, in the past, has made their separation difficult. The structures can be separated on the basis of stretching lineations associated with the deformation. In the ENE striking Lufilian structures stretching lineations are seen to be sub-horizontal, suggesting a lateral ramp relationship to the main Lufilian deformation. Similar striking Irumide structures have a steeply plunging down dip lineation. The intersection of these two belts represents the junction of two different tectonic systems operating in Africa during the Late Proterozoic.

  9. A Comparative Study of Parental Involvement and Its Effect on African-American Male and Overall Student Achievement at Single Gender and Coeducational Middle Schools (United States)

    Nellums, Michael W.


    The purpose of this study was to determine if Parental Involvement influenced academic performance at single gender and co-educational schools. This study also compared African American male academic achievement with all students enrolled in two single gender, and one coeducational, middle school programs. Although all three schools reflected a…

  10. Carbon emissions-income relationships with structural breaks: the case of the Middle Eastern and North African countries. (United States)

    El Montasser, Ghassen; Ajmi, Ahdi Noomen; Nguyen, Duc Khuong


    This article revisits the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions-GDP causal relationships in the Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) countries by employing the Rossi (Economet Theor 21:962-990, 2005) instability-robust causality test. We show evidence of significant causality relationships for all considered countries within the instability context, whereas the standard Granger causality test fails to detect causal links in any direction, except for Egypt, Iran, and Morocco. An important policy implication resulting from this robust analysis is that the income is not affected by the cuts in the CO 2 emissions for only two MENA countries, the UAE and Syria.

  11. A middle Permian ophiolite fragment in Late Triassic greenschist- to blueschist-facies rocks in NW Turkey: An earlier pulse of suprasubduction-zone ophiolite formation in the Tethyan belt (United States)

    Topuz, Gültekin; Okay, Aral I.; Schwarz, Winfried H.; Sunal, Gürsel; Altherr, Rainer; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R. C.


    The Eastern Mediterranean region within the Tethyan belt is characterised by two main pulses of suprasubduction-zone ophiolite formation during the Early-Middle Jurassic and Late Cretaceous. Despite vast exposures of the Permo-Triassic accretionary complexes, related suprasubduction-zone ophiolites and the timing of subduction initiation leading to the formation of Permo-Triassic accretionary complexes are unknown so far. Here we report on a 40 km long and 0.3 to 1.8 km wide metaophiolite fragment within transitional greenschist- to blueschist-facies oceanic rocks from NW Turkey. The metaophiolite fragment is made up mainly of serpentinite and minor dykes or stocks of strongly sheared metagabbro with mineral assemblages involving actinolite/winchite, chlorite, epidote, albite, titanite and phengite. The metagabbro displays (i) variable CaO and MgO contents, (ii) anomalously high Mg# (= 100 ∗ molar MgO/(MgO + FeOtot)) of 75-88, and (iii) positive Eu anomalies, together with low contents of incompatible elements such as Ti, P and Zr, suggesting derivation from former plagioclase cumulates. The serpentinites comprise serpentine, ± chlorite, ± talc, ± calcite and relict Cr-Al spinel surrounded by ferrichromite to magnetite. Relict Cr-Al spinels are characterised by (i) Cr/(Cr + Al) ratios of 0.45-0.56 and Mg/(Mg + Fe2 +) ratio of 0.76-0.22, (ii) variable contents of ZnO and MnO, and (iii) extremely low TiO2 contents. Zn and Mn contents are probably introduced into Cr-Al spinels during greenschist- to blueschist metamorphism. Compositional features of the serpentinite such as (i) Ca- and Al-depleted bulk compositions, (ii) concave U-shaped, chondrite-normalised rare earth element patterns (REE) with enrichment of light and heavy REEs, imply that serpentinites were probably derived from depleted peridotites which were refertilised by light rare earth element enriched melts in a suprasubduction-zone mantle wedge. U-Pb dating on igneous zircons from three metagabbro

  12. Genetic history of the African Sahelian populations. (United States)

    Černý, V; Kulichová, I; Poloni, E S; Nunes, J M; Pereira, L; Mayor, A; Sanchez-Mazas, A


    From a biogeographic perspective, Africa is subdivided into distinct horizontal belts. Human populations living along the Sahel/Savannah belt south of the Sahara desert have often been overshadowed by extensive studies focusing on other African populations such as hunter-gatherers or Bantu in particular. However, the Sahel together with the Savannah bordering it in the south is a challenging region where people had and still have to cope with harsh climatic conditions and show resilient behaviours. Besides exponentially growing urban populations, several local groups leading various lifestyles and speaking languages belonging to three main linguistic families still live in rural localities across that region today. Thanks to several years of consistent population sampling throughout this area, the genetic history of the African Sahelian populations has been largely reconstructed and a deeper knowledge has been acquired regarding their adaptation to peculiar environments and/or subsistence modes. Distinct exposures to pathogens-in particular, malaria-likely contributed to their genetic differentiation for HLA genes. In addition, although food-producing strategies spread within the Sahel/Savannah belt relatively recently, during the last five millennia according to recent archaeological and archaeobotanical studies, remarkable amounts of genetic differences are also observed between sedentary farmers and more mobile pastoralists at multiple neutral and selected loci, reflecting both demographic effects and genetic adaptations to distinct cultural traits, such as dietary habits. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The nature of culturally responsive pedagogy in two urban African American middle school science classrooms (United States)

    Bondima, Michelle Harris

    This ethnographic in nature study explores how two middle school science teachers who have classes populated by urban African Americans teach their students and how their students perceive their teaching. Since urban African American students continue to perform lower than desired on measures of science achievement, there is an urgent need to understand what pedagogical methodologies assist and hinder urban African American students in achieving higher levels of success in science. A pedagogical methodology that theorists posit assists subordinated school populations is culturally responsive pedagogy. Culturally responsive pedagogy is defined as a teaching methodology concerned with preparing students to question inequality, racism, and injustice. Teachers who use culturally responsive pedagogy respect the culture students bring to the class, and require that the teachers willingly do whatever is necessary to educate students (Nieto, 2000). The teacher participants were two female African Americans who were identified by their school supervisors as being highly effective with urban African American students. The researcher presented the teachers in separate case studies conducted over a data collection period of nine months. Data were collected by participant observation, interviews, and artifact collection. Data were analyzed by application of grounded theory techniques. Findings of the teachers' (and the students') beliefs about pedagogy that both assisted and hindered the students' performance in science were reported in a rich and nuanced storytelling manner based on multiple perspectives (teachers', students', and the researcher's). Pedagogical methodologies that the teachers used that assisted their students were the use of cultural metaphors and images in science and applications of motivational techniques that encouraged a nurturing relationship between the teacher and her students. Pedagogical methodologies that hindered students varied by teacher

  14. Riding the belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, A


    Recent developments in conveyor systems have focused on accessories rather than the belt itself. Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a technology using transponders embedded in conveyor belts and this is the latest development at the German firm Contitech. The system described in the articles developed with Moers, features transponders for cooling, controlling and monitoring conveyor belts. Other developments mentioned include a JOKI drum motor featuring a fully integrated gearbox and electric motor enclosed in a steel shell, from Interoll; a new scraper cleaning system from Hosch, new steel cord belting from Fenner, a conveying system for Schleenhain lignite opencast mine by FAM Foerdelantigen Magdeburg; new bearings from Nadella (the sales arm of Intersoll-Rand), an anti-shock belt transfer table from Rosta and new caliper disc brakes from GE Industrial.

  15. Synaptic ribbon. Conveyor belt or safety belt? (United States)

    Parsons, T D; Sterling, P


    The synaptic ribbon in neurons that release transmitter via graded potentials has been considered as a conveyor belt that actively moves vesicles toward their release sites. But evidence has accumulated to the contrary, and it now seems plausible that the ribbon serves instead as a safety belt to tether vesicles stably in mutual contact and thus facilitate multivesicular release by compound exocytosis.

  16. Structure of the Kaoko Belt, Namibia: progressive evolution of a classic transpressional orogen (United States)

    Goscombe, Ben; Hand, Martin; Gray, David


    The Kaoko Belt portion of the Damara Orogen, Namibia, is the deeply eroded core of a sinistral transpressional orogen that has half-flower structure geometry centred on the major, 4-5-km-wide Purros Mylonite Zone. Formed between the Congo Craton in the east and Rio De La Plata Craton in Brazil, the Kaoko Belt represents the northern coastal arm of a triple junction within the Pan-African Orogenic System. Consisting of reworked Archaean, Palaeoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic basement and a cover of Neoproterozoic Damara Sequence, the Kaoko Belt can be sub-divided structurally into three parallel NNW-trending zones. The Eastern Kaoko Zone comprises sub-greenschist facies shelf carbonates that have been uprightly folded. The Central Kaoko Zone contains a slope and deep basin facies succession that has experienced intense deformation, including pervasive reworking of basement into large-scale east-vergent nappes. The Western Kaoko Zone is predominantly deep basin facies of high metamorphic grade intruded by numerous granites. It has experienced intense wrench-style deformation with formation of upright isoclines and steep, crustal-scale shear zones. The Kaoko Belt evolved through three distinct phases of a protracted Pan-African Orogeny in the late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian. (1) An early Thermal Phase (M 1) was responsible for pervasive partial melting and granite emplacement in the Western Kaoko Zone from 656 Ma. (2) The Transpressional Phase produced the geometry of the belt by progressive sinistral shearing between 580 and 550 Ma. Deformation was continuously progressive through two stages and involved both temporal and spatial migration of deformation outwards towards the margin. The early strike-slip Wrench-Stage produced a high-strain L-S fabric by sub-horizontal transport. Deformation became progressively more transpressive, with high-angle convergence and flattening strains during the Convergent-Stage. In this stage, strike-slip movements evolved through

  17. Decreased live births among women of Middle Eastern/North African ethnicity compared to Caucasian women. (United States)

    Salem, W H; Abdullah, A; Abuzeid, O; Bendikson, K; Sharara, F I; Abuzeid, M


    The objective of this study is to determine if IVF outcome disparities exist among MENA women in the USA in comparison to a control group of Caucasian women. A retrospective cohort study comparing MENA (N = 190) and Caucasian (N = 200) women undergoing their first IVF cycle between 5/2006 and 5/2014 was carried out at an academically affiliated fertility practice. All MENA cycles during that time period undergoing IVF/ICSI using autologous embryos and blastocyst transfers were compared to a control group of Caucasian women. MENA women were significantly younger (32.9 vs 34.5, P Middle Eastern/North African women have worse IVF outcomes with decreased live birth rates per blastocyst transfer and increased miscarriage rates compared to Caucasian women.

  18. Fat, Fiber and Cancer Risk in African Americans and Rural Africans (United States)

    O'Keefe, Stephen J.D.; Li, Jia V.; Lahti, Leo; Ou, Junhai; Carbonero, Franck; Mohammed, Khaled; Posma, Joram M; Kinross, James; Wahl, Elaine; Ruder, Elizabeth; Vipperla, Kishore; Naidoo, Vasudevan; Mtshali, Lungile; Tims, Sebastian; Puylaert, Philippe G.B.; DeLany, James; Krasinskas, Alyssa; Benefiel, Ann C.; Kaseb, Hatem O.; Newton, Keith; Nicholson, Jeremy K.; de Vos, Willem M.; Gaskins, H. Rex; Zoetendal, Erwin G.


    Rates of colon cancer are much higher in African Americans (65:100,000) than in rural South Africans (<5:100,000). The higher rates are associated with higher animal protein and fat and lower fiber consumption, higher colonic secondary bile acids, lower colonic short chain fatty acid quantities and higher mucosal proliferative biomarkers of cancer risk in otherwise healthy middle aged volunteers. Here we investigate further the role of fat and fiber in this association. We performed two-week food exchanges in subjects from the same populations, where African Americans were fed a high-fiber, lowfat African-style diet, and rural Africans a high-fat low-fiber western-style diet under close supervision. In comparison to their usual diets, the food changes resulted in remarkable reciprocal changes in mucosal biomarkers of cancer risk and in aspects of the microbiota and metabolome known to affect cancer risk, best illustrated by increased saccharolytic fermentation and butyrogenesis and suppressed secondary bile acid synthesis in the African Americans. PMID:25919227




    Objective To validate the FRAIL scale. Design Longitudinal study. Setting Community. Participants Representative sample of African Americans age 49 to 65 years at onset of study. Measurements The 5-item FRAIL scale (Fatigue, Resistance, Ambulation, Illnesses, & Loss of Weight), at baseline and activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), mortality, short physical performance battery (SPPB), gait speed, one-leg stand, grip strength and injurious falls at baseline and 9 years. Blood tests for CRP, SIL6R, STNFR1, STNFR2 and 25 (OH) vitamin D at baseline. Results Cross-sectionally the FRAIL scale correlated significantly with IADL difficulties, SPPB, grip strength and one-leg stand among participants with no baseline ADL difficulties (N=703) and those outcomes plus gait speed in those with no baseline ADL dependencies (N=883). TNFR1 was increased in pre-frail and frail subjects and CRP in some subgroups. Longitudinally (N=423 with no baseline ADL difficulties or N=528 with no baseline ADL dependencies), and adjusted for the baseline value for each outcome, being pre-frail at baseline significantly predicted future ADL difficulties, worse one-leg stand scores, and mortality in both groups, plus IADL difficulties in the dependence-excluded group. Being frail at baseline significantly predicted future ADL difficulties, IADL difficulties, and mortality in both groups, plus worse SPPB in the dependence-excluded group. Conclusion This study has validated the FRAIL scale in a late middle-aged African American population. This simple 5-question scale is an excellent screening test for clinicians to identify frail persons at risk of developing disability as well as decline in health functioning and mortality. PMID:22836700

  20. Earth's radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslehi Fard, M.


    The theory of trapped particles in a magnetic field of approximated dipole is described completely in the first part. Second part contains experimental results. The mechanism of radiation belt source ''albedo neutrons'' and also types of dissipation mechanism about radiation belt is explained. The trapped protons and electrons by radiation belt is discussed and the life-time of trapped particles are presented. Finally the magnetic fields of Moon, Venus, Mars, and Saturn, measured by passengers Mariner 4,10 and pioneer 10,11 are indicated. The experimental and theoretical results for the explanation of trapped plasma around the earth which is looked like two internal and external belt have almost good correspondence

  1. Dynamics Analysis and Modeling of Rubber Belt in Large Mine Belt Conveyors


    Gao Yang


    Rubber belt not only is one of the key components of belt conveyor, but also affects the overall performance of the core part. Research on dynamics analysis of large conveyor not only helps to improve the reliability and design level, but also can guide the rational selection of conveyor safety factor, and effectively reduce the cost of the conveyor belt. Based on unique viscoelastic properties of belt conveyor, it was simplified as one-dimensional viscoelastic rod in this study, and then a d...

  2. Research on energy strategy and Chinese energy investment in the middle east (United States)

    Huang, Yiling


    The Middle East is a key node of “One Belt and One Road strategy”. Energy investment is an important part of Chinese investment in the Middle East. The political turmoil in the Middle East has brought the political risks to Chinese investors. In the future, with the globalization of Chinese resource distribution and the expansion of Chinese outward investment, it is significant for China to ensure its energy security. Based on the analysis of the situation of Chinese energy strategy in the Middle East, this paper tries to put forward some suggestion about Chinese energy investment in the Middle East in order to protect Chinese energy security effectively.

  3. Characteristics and its uranium metallogenic potential of the granite belt between Bange and Jiali county, tibet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Baoguang; Wang Qin; Liu Zhipeng; Chen Yuliang; Xu Wei


    The granite belt between Bange and Jiali county is a composite batholith which intruded at multistage, it con- trolled by several groups of the fault system, the alteration is developed, with the alaskite, aplite, pegmatitic vein intruded, it is type Ⅰ in the beginning of forming, and change to type S in the late time. There is a large of geochemical anomalies of uranium (U>6.8 X 10 -6 ) in Gulu town and Sangba village, of which middle of the granite belt and Bianba county of which east of the granite belt, that anomalies area have 1200 km 2 , 800 km”2 and 1500 km 2 . All the anomalies is considered that its forming relate to batholith and its external contact, so it shows that it has favorite geological conditions for granite type uranium metallogenesis. (authors)

  4. [African neurosurgery. 1: Historical outline]. (United States)

    el Khamlichi, A


    This outline of the history of African Neurosurgery explains the role that North Africa has played in the Middle Ages in the development of Neurosurgery, the origins of the development of the latter in twentieth century, and the delay that African Neurosurgery still shows at the present time in the majority of African countries. On the papyrus of the pharaonic era, we have found the description of some neurosurgical procedures such as trephination and brain aspiration by a transphenoidal approach used before mummification. It is particularly trephination which summarizes the ancient history of African neurosurgery, as it was widely used throughout the continent, practised and taught by healers in African tribes. The technical concepts of trephination are based, to a great extent, on the descriptions of Arab physicians of the Middle Ages. It was at that time (Middle Ages) that several Arab physicians such as Avicenne, Rhazes, and Avenzhoer described many types of nervous system diseases and the techniques to treat them. But it was mainly Abulkassim Al Zahraoui (Abulkassis) who was the pioneer of neurosurgery as he devoted one volume of his treatise (made up of 30 volumes) to neurosurgery, a precise description of many aspects of neurosurgical pathology, its treatment, instruments and neurosurgical techniques. We have reported in this article five original extracts in Arabic which deal with skull fractures and their treatment, vertebro-medullary traumas and their treatment, hydrocephalus and its treatment, tumors of the skull vault and their treatment, and finally the basic knowledge of anatomy which is of great interest for a surgeon. The medical knowledge of that time which gave birth to medical schools and hospitals was transmitted progressively to Europe and played an important role in the development of medicine during the European Renaissance in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. During colonization, neurosurgical practice started and developed in many

  5. Belt conveyor apparatus (United States)

    Oakley, David J.; Bogart, Rex L.


    A belt conveyor apparatus according to this invention defines a conveyance path including a first pulley and at least a second pulley. An endless belt member is adapted for continuous travel about the pulleys and comprises a lower portion which engages the pulleys and an integral upper portion adapted to receive objects therein at a first location on said conveyance path and transport the objects to a second location for discharge. The upper belt portion includes an opposed pair of longitudinally disposed crest-like members, biased towards each other in a substantially abutting relationship. The crest-like members define therebetween a continuous, normally biased closed, channel along the upper belt portion. Means are disposed at the first and second locations and operatively associated with the belt member for urging the normally biased together crest-like members apart in order to provide access to the continuous channel whereby objects can be received into, or discharged from the channel. Motors are in communication with the conveyance path for effecting the travel of the endless belt member about the conveyance path. The conveyance path can be configured to include travel through two or more elevations and one or more directional changes in order to convey objects above, below and/or around existing structures.

  6. African American men's perspectives on promoting physical activity: "We're not that difficult to figure out!". (United States)

    Friedman, Daniela B; Hooker, Steven P; Wilcox, Sara; Burroughs, Ericka L; Rheaume, Carol E


    African American men report poorer health than do White men and have significantly greater odds for developing chronic diseases partly because of limited physical activity. Understanding how to encourage healthy behaviors among African American men will be critical in the development of effective physical activity messages and programs. Guided by principles of cultural sensitivity and social marketing, this research examined middle-aged and older African American men's recommended strategies for promoting physical activity to African American men of their age. The authors report results from 49 interviews conducted with middle-aged (45-64 years) and older (65-84 years) African American men in South Carolina. Four groups of African American men were recruited: middle-aged active men (n = 17), middle-aged inactive men (n = 12), older active men (n = 10), older inactive men (n = 10). Themes related to marketing and recruitment strategies, message content, and spokesperson characteristics emerged and differed by age and physical activity level. Recommended marketing strategies included word of mouth; use of mass media; partnering with churches, businesses, and fraternities; strategic placement of messages; culturally appropriate message framing; and careful attention to selection of program spokespersons. Findings will help in the marketing, design, implementation, and evaluation of culturally appropriate interventions to encourage physical activity among middle-aged and older African American men in the South.

  7. Petrophysical and sedimentological characterization of the Zuata field in Orinoco Oil Belt. Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, M.; Baena, L.


    The Zuata field is in the middle of the Jun in block in Orinoco Oil Belt and its production is handled by the district of Cabrutica which planning to develop a comprehensive reservoir model that allows leverage a correct management of hydrocarbon reserves. The purpose of this study is to generate a sedimentological and petrophysical model to know the architecture and quality of the rocks

  8. Gold and uranium metallogenesis in the framework of Neo-proterozoic crust growth and differentiation: example of the Mayo-Kebbi Massif (Chad) in the Central Africa Orogenic belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbaguedje, Diondoh


    The Mayo Kebbi massif located in southwestern Chad between the Congo craton in the South, the West African craton in the west and the Sahara meta-craton to the east exposes a segment of Neo-proterozoic juvenile crust accreted in the Central African orogenic belt during the Pan African orogeny. It consists of two greenstone belts (Zalbi and Goueygoudoum) separated by the May Kebbi calc-alkaline batholith complexes and intruded by calc-alkaline high-K granitic plutons. The whole is covered by Phanerozoic sedimentary formations. The greenstone belts contain sulphide zones hosted mainly by meta-plutonic rocks (granodiorites) and meta-basalts and meta-volcaniclastics. The mineralization comprises pyrite, pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite, pentlandite, pentlandite silver, pentlandite cobaltiferous, sphalerite, cobaltite. These sulphides are disseminated, aggregated in form of layers or are filling veins and cracks. The greenstones also contain quartz veins with calcite and chlorite comprising a mineralization made of pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena and gold. Gold is present both as native crystals and as electrum. The high-K calc-alkaline Zabili granitic pluton hosts uranium mineralization related to a superposition of: (1) ductile deformation and metasomatic alteration implying the interaction between magmatic minerals with a Na-rich fluid, of potential magmatic origin, coeval to the main deposition of uranium oxides, followed by (2) brittle deformation and deposition of secondary hydrated uranium silicates involving a Na-Ca-rich fluid. We propose that these uranium mineralizations represent the extreme expression of crustal differentiation as a result of Pan-African reworking of a Neo-proterozoic juvenile crustal segment. (author) [fr

  9. The belt of metagabbros of La Pampa: Lower Paleozoic back-arc magmatism in south-central Argentina (United States)

    Chernicoff, Carlos J.; Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Villar, Luisa M.; Chemale, Farid, Jr.; Hernández, Laura


    Combined geological, geochronological, geochemical and geophysical studies have led to identification of a large (˜300 km long, ˜5 km wide) N-S trending belt of metagabbros in the province of La Pampa, south-central Argentina. This belt, though only poorly exposed in the localities of Valle Daza and Sierra de Lonco Vaca, stands out in the geophysical data (aeromagnetics and gravity). Modeling of the aeromagnetic data permits estimation of the geometry of the belt of metagabbros and surrounding rocks. The main rock type exposed is metagabbros with relict magmatic nucleii where layering is preserved. A counterclockwise P-T evolution affected these rocks, i.e., during the Middle Ordovician the protolith reached an initial granulite facies of metamorphism (M1), evolving to amphibolite facies (M2). During the Upper Devonian, a retrograde, greenschist facies metamorphism (M3) partially affected the metagabbros. The whole-rock Sm-Nd data suggest a juvenile source from a depleted mantle, with model ages ranging from 552 to 574 Ma, and positive Epsilon values of 6.51-6.82. A crystallization age of 480 Ma is based on geological considerations, i.e. geochronological data of the host rocks as well as comparisons with the Las Aguilas mafic-ultramafic belt of Sierra de San Luis (central Argentina). The geochemical studies indicate an enriched MORB and back-arc signature. The La Pampa metagabbros are interpreted to be originated as a result of the extension that took place in a back-arc setting coevally with the Famatinian magmatic arc (very poorly exposed in the western part of the study area). The extensional event was 'aborted' by the collision of the Cuyania terrane with Pampia-Gondwana in the Middle Ordovician, causing deformation and metamorphism throughout the arc-back-arc region. The similarities between the La Pampa metagabbros and the mafic-ultramafic Las Aguilas belt of the Sierra de San Luis are very conspicuous, for example, the age (Lower Paleozoic), geochemical

  10. Analysis of stress distribution of timing belts by FEM; Yugen yosoho ni yoru timing belt oryoku kaiseki (belt code oryoku bunpu kaiseki hokoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Y; Tomono, K; Takahashi, H; Uchida, T [Honda R and D Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    A model of the belt analyzed by-ABAQUS (: a general nonlinear finite element program) successfully confirmed the mechanism that generates the belt cord stress. A quite good agreement between experimental and computed results for the stress distribution of the belt cord. It is found that maximum stress of the cords occurs near the root of the tooth by calculation, where the belt cords break off. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Ideal Body Size as a Mediator for the Gender-Specific Association Between Socioeconomic Status and Body Mass Index: Evidence From an Upper-Middle-Income Country in the African Region.


    Yepes Maryam; Maurer Jürgen; Stringhini Silvia; Viswanathan Barathi; Gedeon Jude; Bovet Pascal


    While obesity continues to rise globally the associations between body size gender and socioeconomic status (SES) seem to vary in different populations and little is known on the contribution of perceived ideal body size in the social disparity of obesity in African countries. We examined the gender and socioeconomic patterns of body mass index (BMI) and perceived ideal body size in the Seychelles a middle income small island state in the African region. We also assessed the potential role of...

  12. The dehydration, rehydration and tectonic setting of greenstone belts in a portion of the northern Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa (United States)

    Vanreenen, D. D.; Barton, J. M., Jr.; Roering, C.; Vanschalkwyk, J. C.; Smit, C. A.; Debeer, J. D.; Stettler, E. H.


    High-grade gneiss terranes and low-grade granite-greenstone terranes are well known in several Archaean domains. The geological relationship between these different crustal regions, however, is still controversial. One school of thought favors fundamental genetic differences between high-grade and low-grade terranes while others argue for a depth-controlled crustal evolution. The detailed examination of well-exposed Archaean terranes at different metamorphic grades, therefore, is not only an important source of information about the crustal levels exposed, but also is critical to the understanding of the possible tectonic and metamorphic evolution of greenstone belts with time. Three South African greenstone belts are compared.

  13. Clinical nursing and midwifery research in Middle Eastern and North African Countries: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malak Alashal Alhusaini


    Full Text Available The professions of nursing and midwifery currently face many challenges, such as an increasing number of patients with communicable and non-communicable diseases, which strains resources and requires nurses and midwives to develop their knowledge and skills to a higher level. This is also true in the Middle East, including the Mediterranean East and North African regions, which means it is vitally important that nurses and midwives have access to and use current research to inform their practice, with research targeting the most relevant issues, including complex humanitarian emergency situations that increase health issues and challenge health infrastructure. For this to be achieved, a scoping review of the indexed clinical nursing and midwifery literature in the Middle East was performed to identify gaps in clinical nursing and midwifery research and areas requiring focus. A search of PubMed, CINAHL/EBSCO, EMBASE, the Jordanian Database for Nursing Research resulted in 210/1398 articles which met the inclusion criteria: (1 original research, (2 conducted in Middle Eastern countries as defined by the World Health Organization, (3 had at least one nurse or midwife author (but not limited to nurses in Middle Eastern countries, (4 published in an indexed, peer-reviewed journal between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2015, (5 included patient outcomes in the results, (6 written in English or Arabic and (7 included an abstract. Studies were found from 10 of the 22 countries; the majority (n = 199; 94.76% was conducted in three countries: Jordan, Iran and Lebanon. Most studies (n = 158, 75.24% used quantitative designs, primarily cross-sectional, descriptive studies (n = 106 and the most frequently researched topics were related to maternal child health and women′s health (n = 95, 48.5%. Strategies are needed to encourage collaboration between nursing and midwifery faculty members including clinicians to assure that clinical research is

  14. Geochemical characteristics of granitoids and related mafic granulites from the Pan-African Dahomeyide belt, southeastern Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aidoo, F.


    from the Pan-African Dahorncyidc belt in southeastern Ghana show subduction-related origin for their protoliths. (author)

  15. 40Ar/39Ar dating of 1.0-1.1 Ga magnetizations from the Sao Francisco and Kalahari cratons: tectonic implications for Pan-African and Brasiliano mobile belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renne, P.R.; Onstott, T.C.; Agrella-Filho, M.S. d'; Pacca, I.G.; Teixeira, W.


    Paleomagnetic poles from 1.1-1.0 Ga dyke swarms in eastern Brazil (Sao Francisco Craton) are compared with 1.0 Ga poles from granulites of the Namaqua Province in southern Africa (Kalahari Graton). The intrusive ages of dykes are estimated from 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating of outgassed biotites from baked country rocks. The age of magnetization for the granulites is derived by combining 40 Ar/ 39 Ar hornblende and biotite dates. When restored to a Mesozoic pre-drift configuration the paleomagnetic poles are in crude spatial agreement but are temporally discordant. To satisfy both paleomagnetic and geochronologic constraints, a reconstruction involving separation of the Sao Francisco and Kalahari cratons is required, indicating that the intervening Pan-African (Brasiliano) mobile belt may record a craton-craton collision. (orig.)

  16. Basaltic material in the main belt: a tale of two (or more) parent bodies? (United States)

    Ieva, S.; Dotto, E.; Lazzaro, D.; Fulvio, D.; Perna, D.; Epifani, E. Mazzotta; Medeiros, H.; Fulchignoni, M.


    The majority of basaltic objects in the main belt are dynamically connected to Vesta, the largest differentiated asteroid known. Others, due to their current orbital parameters, cannot be easily dynamically linked to Vesta. This is particularly true for all the basaltic asteroids located beyond 2.5 au, where lies the 3:1 mean motion resonance with Jupiter. In order to investigate the presence of other V-type asteroids in the middle and outer main belt (MOVs) we started an observational campaign to spectroscopically characterize in the visible range MOV candidates. We observed 18 basaltic candidates from TNG and ESO - NTT between 2015 and 2016. We derived spectral parameters using the same approach adopted in our recent statistical analysis and we compared our data with orbital parameters to look for possible clusters of MOVs in the main belt, symptomatic for a new basaltic family. Our analysis seemed to point out that MOVs show different spectral parameters respect to other basaltic bodies in the main belt, which could account for a diverse mineralogy than Vesta; moreover, some of them belong to the Eos family, suggesting the possibility of another basaltic progenitor. This could have strong repercussions on the temperature gradient present in the early Solar System, and on our current understanding of differentiation processes.

  17. Precambrian terranes of African affinities in the southeastern part of Brazil and Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, M.A.S; Junior, Siga; Harara, O.M; Preciozzi, F; Sato, K; Kaufuss, G


    distinct, representing the main suture that separates the terranes of African and South-American affinities. As observed in figure 1, it is considered in this article that the region of African affinity is constituted by the terrains located east of the Major Gercino-Sierra Ballena suture zone, being represented by two major units: the Granite Belt - outcropping along the whole eastern portion of the Brazilian southern region, and the Punta del Este terrain (PET) south-easternmost of Uruguay. The Punta del Este Terrane (PET) is composed of a series of gneisses and migmatites formed in the 1000-900 Ma interval, according to Preciozzi et al. (1999; Basei et al 2000), intensely reworked during the Rio Doce orogeny (600-500 Ma). These authors proposed that the terranes situated east of the Alferes-Cordilheira Shear Zone should not integrate the Granite Belt, suggesting that this crustal segment represent in South America terranes related to the Namaqua Belt recognized in the southwestern portion of the African continent. Similar terranes have not been recognized in Brazil and Argentina. In PET, three major tectonic units can be characterized: a gneissic-migmatitic basement, a low-grade metasedimentary cover (Rocha Group) and a post-tectonic series that includes alkaline granitoids and acid volcanic rocks. Considering that the PET basement correlates with the Namaqua Complex gneisses, the Rocha Group was tentatively correlated with the Gariep Group supracrustal units (au)

  18. Perceptions and Misperceptions: The Middle East and South Africa. (United States)

    Moore, Michael; Tyson, G. A.


    Reports findings of a study examining the opinions and awareness level of South African, Israeli, and United States undergraduates about conflicts in either the Middle East or South Africa. Finds religious and racial characteristics determining differences in knowledge level and political support. Reveals South African Blacks and U.S. students…

  19. Pan African Collisional Tectonics Along the Moroccan West African Craton Continued to Ediacaran-Cambrian Boundary (United States)

    Hefferan, K. P.; Samson, S. D.; Rice, K.; Soulaimani, A.


    Precision geochronologic dating and field mapping in the Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco document a Neoproterozoic Pan African orogenic cycle consisting of three distinct orogenic events: Iriri-Tichibanine orogeny (760-700 Ma), Bou Azzer orogeny (680-640 Ma) and the WACadomian orogeny (620 Ma to either 555 or 544 Ma). The Iriri-Tichibanine and Bou Azzer orogenies involved northward directed subduction beneath island arc volcanic terranes. These orogenic events generated calc-alkaline magmatism and supra-subduction zone ophiolites exposed in the Bou Azzer and Siroua erosional inliers. The WACadomian orogeny involved subduction and collision of the Cadomia arc complex with the West African Craton and generation of clastic sedimentary basins. The termination of the WACadomian orogeny has been the subject of debate as calc-alkaline to high K magmatism and folding continued to 544 Ma: Was 620-544 Ma calc-alkaline to high K magmatism and clastic basin development due to a) continental rift basin tectonics or b) southward directed subduction and collisional tectonics with associated back arc basin tectonism? We present field and geochemical data supporting the continuation of subduction-collisional tectonics to the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary 544 Ma. Field mapping in the Central Anti-Atlas (Agadir Melloul) clearly documents an angular unconformity between Ouarzazate Group and Adoudounian limestones (N 30°31'28.91", W07°48'29.12"). Volcaniclastic rocks of Ouarzazate Group (615-545 Ma) are clearly folded and unconformably overlain by Adoudou Formation (541-529 Ma) limestones to the north. Geochemical discrimination diagrams on Latest Neoproterozoic calc-alkaline to high K igneous rocks throughout the Anti-Atlas plot in subduction and collisional arc magma domains. Back arc basin tectonism is likely responsible for localized extensional basins but continental rift tectonics and passive margin sedimentation did not begin in the Anti-Atlas Mountains until Early-Middle

  20. A six-part collisional model of the main asteroid belt (United States)

    Cibulková, H.; Brož, M.; Benavidez, P. G.


    In this work, we construct a new model for the collisional evolution of the main asteroid belt. Our goals are to test the scaling law of Benz and Asphaug (Benz, W., Asphaug, E. [1999]. Icarus, 142, 5-20) and ascertain if it can be used for the whole belt. We want to find initial size-frequency distributions (SFDs) for the considered six parts of the belt (inner, middle, “pristine”, outer, Cybele zone, high-inclination region) and to verify if the number of synthetic asteroid families created during the simulation matches the number of observed families as well. We used new observational data from the WISE satellite (Masiero et al., 2011) to construct the observed SFDs. We simulate mutual collisions of asteroids with a modified version of the Boulder code (Morbidelli, A., et al. [2009]. Icarus, 204, 558-573), where the results of hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations of Durda et al. (Durda, D.D., et al. [2007]. Icarus, 498-516) and Benavidez et al. (Benavidez, P.G., et al. [2012]. 219, 57-76) are included. Because material characteristics can significantly affect breakups, we created two models - for monolithic asteroids and for rubble-piles. To explain the observed SFDs in the size range D=1 to 10 km we have to also account for dynamical depletion due to the Yarkovsky effect. The assumption of (purely) rubble-pile asteroids leads to a significantly worse fit to the observed data, so that we can conclude that majority of main-belt asteroids are rather monolithic. Our work may also serve as a motivation for further SPH simulations of disruptions of smaller targets (with a parent body size of the order of 1 km).

  1. Poor Access for African Researchers to African Emergency Care Publications: A Cross-sectional Study. (United States)

    Bruijns, Stevan R; Maesela, Mmapeladi; Sinha, Suniti; Banner, Megan


    Based on relative population size and burden of disease, emergency care publication outputs from low- and middle-income regions are disproportionately lower than those of high-income regions. Ironically, outputs from regions with higher publication rates are often less relevant in the African context. As a result, the dissemination of and access to local research is essential to local researchers, but the cost of this access (actual and cost-wise) remains unknown. The aim of this study was to describe access to African emergency care publications in terms of publisher-based access (open access or subscription) and alternate access (self-archived or author provided), as well as the cost of access. We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study using all emergency medicine publications included in Scopus between 2011 and 2015. A sequential search strategy described access to each article, and we calculated mean article charges against the purchasing power parity index (used to describe out-of-pocket expense). We included 666 publications from 49 journals, of which 395 (59.3%) were open access. For subscription-based articles, 106 (39.1%) were self-archived, 60 (22.1%) were author-provided, and 105 (38.8%) were inaccessible. Mean article access cost was $36.44, and mean processing charge was $2,319.34. Using the purchasing power parity index it was calculated that equivalent out-of-pocket expenditure for South African, Ghanaian and Tanzanian authors would respectively be $15.77, $10.44 and $13.04 for access, and $1,004.02, $664.36 and $830.27 for processing. Based on this, the corrected cost of a single-unit article access or process charge for South African, Ghanaian and Tanzanian authors, respectively, was 2.3, 3.5 and 2.8 times higher than the standard rate. One in six African emergency care publications are inaccessible outside institutional library subscriptions; additionally, the cost of access to publications in low- and middle-income countries appears

  2. Tectonometamorphic evolution of the gneissic Kidal assemblage related to the Pan-African thrust tectonics (Adrar des Iforas, Mali) (United States)

    Champenois, M.; Boullier, A. M.; Sautter, V.; Wright, L. I.; Barbey, P.

    In the central part of the Adrar des Iforas (Mali), the 2 Ba Eburnean granulatic unit has been thrust above a high-grade gneissic unit, the so-called 'Kidal assemblage', during an early event of the Pan-African orogeny. The Kidal assemblage can be defined as a tectonic mixing of an Eburnean granulitic basement, its sedimentary cover of Middle to Upper Proterozoic age (quartzites, marbles, basalts and metavolcanics) and various pretectonic rocks: ultrabasic to basic rocks, diorites, tonalites. All these rocks have been deformed during at least four main events and metamorphosed together. Thrusting of the Iforas Granulitic Unit above the Kidal assemblage happened during the first event D1. The movement direction was roughly N-S, as shown by the stretching lineation. Some field criteria indicate a sense of displacement towards the north. The lattice preferred orientation of quartz c- and axes indicate that the slip was dominantly on prismatic and probably pyramidal planes along an direction; consequently D1 deformation was achieved at high temperature or low-strain rate. The quartz c- and axes do not show any constant asymmetry, so they do not indicate a sense of shear. Two metamorphic stages have been found in the Kidal assemblage: the first one is characterized by kyanite in aluminous metasediments and by the occurrence of garnet-clinopyroxene-bearing boundis of basic rocks. The P-T range of this event is located at 700 ± 50°C and around 10 Kb. The second event is a syntectonic high temperature (600-650°C) low pressure (3.5 Kb) stage accompanied by migmatization. Such a tangential deformation in barrowian-type metamorphic conditions and with N-S transport direction is known along the entire Trans-Saharan belt and cannot be related in a simple way to the collision between West African Craton and the mobile belt.

  3. Belt drive construction improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Khomenko


    Full Text Available The possibility of the traction capacity increase of the belt drive TRK is examined. This was done for the purpose of air conditioning system of passenger car with double-generator system energy supplying. Belts XPC (made by the German firm «Continental ContiTech» testing were conducted. The results confirmed the possibility of their usage in order to improve belt drive TRK characteristics.

  4. Continuous Mass Measurement on Conveyor Belt (United States)

    Tomobe, Yuki; Tasaki, Ryosuke; Yamazaki, Takanori; Ohnishi, Hideo; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Kurosu, Shigeru

    The continuous mass measurement of packages on a conveyor belt will become greatly important. In the mass measurement, the sequence of products is generally random. An interesting possibility of raising throughput of the conveyor line without increasing the conveyor belt speed is offered by the use of two or three conveyor belt scales (called a multi-stage conveyor belt scale). The multi-stage conveyor belt scale can be created which will adjust the conveyor belt length to the product length. The conveyor belt scale usually has maximum capacities of less than 80kg and 140cm, and achieves measuring rates of more than 150 packages per minute and more. The output signals from the conveyor belt scale are always contaminated with noises due to vibrations of the conveyor and the product to be measured in motion. In this paper an employed digital filter is of Finite Impulse Response (FIR) type designed under the consideration on the dynamics of the conveyor system. The experimental results on the conveyor belt scale suggest that the filtering algorithms are effective enough to practical applications to some extent.

  5. Y-chromosome and mtDNA genetics reveal significant contrasts in affinities of modern Middle Eastern populations with European and African populations. (United States)

    Badro, Danielle A; Douaihy, Bouchra; Haber, Marc; Youhanna, Sonia C; Salloum, Angélique; Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Michella; Johnsrud, Brian; Khazen, Georges; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Soria-Hernanz, David F; Wells, R Spencer; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Platt, Daniel E; Zalloua, Pierre A


    The Middle East was a funnel of human expansion out of Africa, a staging area for the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution, and the home to some of the earliest world empires. Post LGM expansions into the region and subsequent population movements created a striking genetic mosaic with distinct sex-based genetic differentiation. While prior studies have examined the mtDNA and Y-chromosome contrast in focal populations in the Middle East, none have undertaken a broad-spectrum survey including North and sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, and Middle Eastern populations. In this study 5,174 mtDNA and 4,658 Y-chromosome samples were investigated using PCA, MDS, mean-linkage clustering, AMOVA, and Fisher exact tests of F(ST)'s, R(ST)'s, and haplogroup frequencies. Geographic differentiation in affinities of Middle Eastern populations with Africa and Europe showed distinct contrasts between mtDNA and Y-chromosome data. Specifically, Lebanon's mtDNA shows a very strong association to Europe, while Yemen shows very strong affinity with Egypt and North and East Africa. Previous Y-chromosome results showed a Levantine coastal-inland contrast marked by J1 and J2, and a very strong North African component was evident throughout the Middle East. Neither of these patterns were observed in the mtDNA. While J2 has penetrated into Europe, the pattern of Y-chromosome diversity in Lebanon does not show the widespread affinities with Europe indicated by the mtDNA data. Lastly, while each population shows evidence of connections with expansions that now define the Middle East, Africa, and Europe, many of the populations in the Middle East show distinctive mtDNA and Y-haplogroup characteristics that indicate long standing settlement with relatively little impact from and movement into other populations.

  6. Equilibria and Free Vibration of a Two-Pulley Belt-Driven System with Belt Bending Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieyu Ding


    Full Text Available Nonlinear equilibrium curvatures and free vibration characteristics of a two-pulley belt-driven system with belt bending stiffness and a one-way clutch are investigated. With nonlinear dynamical tension, the transverse vibrations of the translating belt spans and the rotation motions of the pulleys and the accessory shaft are coupled. Therefore, nonlinear piecewise discrete-continuous governing equations are established. Considering the bending stiffness of the translating belt spans, the belt spans are modeled as axially moving beams. The pattern of equilibria is a nontrivial solution. Furthermore, the nontrivial equilibriums of the dynamical system are numerically determined by using two different approaches. The governing equations of the vibration near the equilibrium solutions are derived by introducing a coordinate transform. The natural frequencies of the dynamical systems are studied by using the Galerkin method with various truncations and the differential and integral quadrature methods. Moreover, the convergence of the Galerkin truncation is investigated. Numerical results reveal that the study needs 16 terms after truncation in order to determine the free vibration characteristics of the pulley-belt system with the belt bending stiffness. Furthermore, the first five natural frequencies are very sensitive to the bending stiffness of the translating belt.

  7. Dynamics Analysis and Modeling of Rubber Belt in Large Mine Belt Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yang


    Full Text Available Rubber belt not only is one of the key components of belt conveyor, but also affects the overall performance of the core part. Research on dynamics analysis of large conveyor not only helps to improve the reliability and design level, but also can guide the rational selection of conveyor safety factor, and effectively reduce the cost of the conveyor belt. Based on unique viscoelastic properties of belt conveyor, it was simplified as one-dimensional viscoelastic rod in this study, and then a discrete element model of conveyor systems was established. The kinetic equations of each discrete unit was derived using kinetic energy, potential energy of driving segment, bearing segment and return segment and equation of energy dissipation and Lagrange equation. Based on Wilson-q algorithm, the kinetic equation of DT1307-type ST2000's conveyor belt was solved by using Matlab to write computer programs. Research on the change rule of conveyor displacement, velocity, acceleration and dynamic tension during the boot process revealed the working mechanism of nonlinear viscoelastic, which lay the theoretical foundation for dynamic performance optimization of large belt conveyor. The calculation results were used to optimize design and analysis of conveyor system, the result showed that it could reduce the driven tension peaks about 12 %, save 5 % of overall manufacturing cost, which bring considerable profits for enterprises.

  8. State of equity: childhood immunization in the World Health Organization African Region. (United States)

    Casey, Rebecca Mary; Hampton, Lee McCalla; Anya, Blanche-Philomene Melanga; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Diallo, Mamadou Saliou; Wallace, Aaron Stuart


    In 2010, the Global Vaccine Action Plan called on all countries to reach and sustain 90% national coverage and 80% coverage in all districts for the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP3) by 2015 and for all vaccines in national immunization schedules by 2020. The aims of this study are to analyze recent trends in national vaccination coverage in the World Health Organization African Region andto assess how these trends differ by country income category. We compared national vaccination coverage estimates for DTP3 and the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) joint estimates of national immunization coverage for all African Region countries. Using United Nations (UN) population estimates of surviving infants and country income category for the corresponding year, we calculated population-weighted average vaccination coverage by country income category (i.e., low, lower middle, and upper middle-income) for the years 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015. DTP3 coverage in the African Region increased from 52% in 2000 to 76% in 2015,and MCV1 coverage increased from 53% to 74% during the same period, but with considerable differences among countries. Thirty-six African Region countries were low income in 2000 with an average DTP3 coverage of 50% while 26 were low income in 2015 with an average coverage of 80%. Five countries were lower middle-income in 2000 with an average DTP3 coverage of 84% while 12 were lower middle-income in 2015 with an average coverage of 69%. Five countries were upper middle-income in 2000 with an average DTP3 coverage of 73% and eight were upper middle-income in 2015 with an average coverage of 76%. Disparities in vaccination coverage by country persist in the African Region, with countries that were lower middle-income having the lowest coverage on average in 2015. Monitoring and addressing these disparities is essential for meeting

  9. African American Men’s Perspectives on Promoting Physical Activity: “We’re Not That Difficult to Figure out!” (United States)

    Friedman, Daniela B.; Hooker, Steven P.; Wilcox, Sara; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Rheaume, Carol E.


    African American men report poorer health than do White men and have significantly greater odds for developing chronic diseases partly because of limited physical activity. Understanding how to encourage healthy behaviors among African American men will be critical in the development of effective physical activity messages and programs. Guided by principles of cultural sensitivity and social marketing, this research examined middle-aged and older African American men’s recommended strategies for promoting physical activity to African American men of their age. The authors report results from. 49 interviews conducted with middle-aged (45–64 years) and older (65–84 years) African American men in South Carolina. Four groups of African American men were recruited; middle-aged active men (n = 17), middle-aged inactive men (n = 12), older active men (n = 10), older inactive men (n = 10). Themes related to marketing and recruitment strategies, message content, and spokesperson characteristics emerged and differed by age and physical activity level. Recommended marketing strategies included word of mouth; use of mass media; partnering with churches, businesses, and fraternities; strategic placement of messages; culturally appropriate message framing; and careful attention to selection of program spokespersons. Findings will help in the marketing, design, implementation, and evaluation of culturally appropriate interventions to encourage physical activity among middle-aged and older African American men in the South. PMID:22808914

  10. Early to Middle Eocene vegetation dynamics at the Wilkes Land Margin (Antarctica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Contreras, L.; Pross, J.; Bijl, P.K.; Koutsodendris, A.; Raine, J.I.; van de Schootbrugge, B.; Brinkhuis, H.


    The early Eocene epoch was characterized by extreme global warmth, which in terrestrial settings was characterized by an expansion of near-tropical vegetation belts into the high latitudes. During the middle to late Eocene, global cooling caused the retreat of tropical vegetation to lower latitudes.

  11. Lap belt injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, N


    The use of adult seat belts without booster seats in young children may lead to severe abdominal, lumbar or cervical spine and head and neck injuries. We describe four characteristic cases of lap belt injuries presenting to a tertiary children\\'s hospital over the past year in addition to a review of the current literature. These four cases of spinal cord injury, resulting in significant long-term morbidity in the two survivors and death in one child, arose as a result of lap belt injury. These complex injuries are caused by rapid deceleration characteristic of high impact crashes, resulting in sudden flexion of the upper body around the fixed lap belt, and consequent compression of the abdominal viscera between the lap belt and spine. This report highlights the dangers of using lap belts only without shoulder straps. Age-appropriate child restraint in cars will prevent these injuries.

  12. Miocene metamorphism of pan-African granites in the Edough Massif (NE Algeria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammor, D.; Lancelot, J.


    The Edough Massif is the eastern most crystalline core of the Maghrebides that represents the African segment of the west Mediterranean Alpine belt. U-Pb zircon dating provides upper intercept ages of 595± My and 606±55 My and orthogneiss of the lower unit and a deformed leucogranite of the upper pelitic unit, respectively. These ages suggest emplacement of the two granitoids during the Pan-African orogeny. Monazites from a paragneiss sample gave a 18± My U-Pb age that points to a Miocene age of the high-temperature metamorphism. (authors)

  13. Belt technology stretches conveyors' coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    With China the leading growth engine in the conveyor market, leading belt manufacturers are establishing local manufacturing plants to boost their presence. Fenner is planning to almost triple production capacity over the next three years, with a third of its investment in China. Shanxi-Phoenix Conveyor Belt Systems is a joint venture between Phoenix Conveyor Belt Systems GmbH, now part of ContiTech Ag, and its Chinese partners Lu An Mining Group Co. Ltd. and Jingcheng Anthracite Group Co. Ltd. It manufacturers steel cable belts, PVC and multi-ply belts for coal mines and power plants. Recent belt designs by FennerEurope and Metso Minerals are reported. 2 photos.

  14. Prices of second-line antiretroviral treatment for middle-income countries inside versus outside sub-Saharan Africa. (United States)

    Simmons, Bryony; Hill, Andrew; Ford, Nathan; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Ananworanich, Jintanat


    Antiretrovirals are available at low prices in sub-Saharan Africa, but these prices may not be consistently available for middle-income countries in other regions with large HIV epidemics. Over 30% of HIV infected people live in countries outside sub-Saharan Africa. Several key antiretrovirals are still on patent, with generic production restricted. We assessed price variations for key antiretroviral drugs inside versus outside sub-Saharan Africa. HIV drug prices used in national programmes (2010-2014) were extracted from the WHO Global Price Reporting Mechanism database for all reporting middle-income countries as classified by the World Bank. Treatment costs (branded and generic) were compared for countries inside sub-Saharan Africa versus those outside. Five key second-line antiretrovirals were analysed: abacavir, atazanavir, darunavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, raltegravir. Prices of branded antiretrovirals were significantly higher outside sub-Saharan Africa (psub-Saharan Africa versus $4689 (IQR $4075-5717) in non-African middle-income countries, an increase of 541%. However, when supplied by generic companies, most antiretrovirals were similarly priced between countries in sub-Saharan Africa and other regions. Pharmaceutical companies are selling antiretrovirals to non-African middle-income countries at prices 74-541% higher than African countries with similar gross national incomes. However, generic companies are selling most of these drugs at similar prices across regions. Mechanisms to ensure fair pricing for patented antiretrovirals across both African and non-African middle-income countries need to be improved, to ensure sustainable treatment access.

  15. Feedforward and feedback projections of caudal belt and parabelt areas of auditory cortex: refining the hierarchical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy A Hackett


    Full Text Available Our working model of the primate auditory cortex recognizes three major regions (core, belt, parabelt, subdivided into thirteen areas. The connections between areas are topographically ordered in a manner consistent with information flow along two major anatomical axes: core-belt-parabelt and caudal-rostral. Remarkably, most of the connections supporting this model were revealed using retrograde tracing techniques. Little is known about laminar circuitry, as anterograde tracing of axon terminations has rarely been used. The purpose of the present study was to examine the laminar projections of three areas of auditory cortex, pursuant to analysis of all areas. The selected areas were: middle lateral belt (ML; caudomedial belt (CM; and caudal parabelt (CPB. Injections of anterograde tracers yielded data consistent with major features of our model, and also new findings that compel modifications. Results supporting the model were: 1 feedforward projection from ML and CM terminated in CPB; 2 feedforward projections from ML and CPB terminated in rostral areas of the belt and parabelt; and 3 feedback projections typified inputs to the core region from belt and parabelt. At odds with the model was the convergence of feedforward inputs into rostral medial belt from ML and CPB. This was unexpected since CPB is at a higher stage of the processing hierarchy, with mainly feedback projections to all other belt areas. Lastly, extending the model, feedforward projections from CM, ML, and CPB overlapped in the temporal parietal occipital area (TPO in the superior temporal sulcus, indicating significant auditory influence on sensory processing in this region. The combined results refine our working model and highlight the need to complete studies of the laminar inputs to all areas of auditory cortex. Their documentation is essential for developing informed hypotheses about the neurophysiological influences of inputs to each layer and area.

  16. Partnerships in the Middle East: Interventionist Endeavors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarøe Jørgensen, Jakob


    This chapter aims to analyse NATO’s two Middle Eastern and North African (MENA)1 partnership programmes – the Mediterranean Dialogue (MD) and the Istanbul Cooperation Initiative (ICI). The chapter aims to answer the questions: (1) why does NATO engage with MENA partners; (2) what are the obstacles...... that MD and ICI face, and; (3) is the new flexible partnership policy a step towards more constructive Middle Eastern partnerships?...

  17. Drivers' attitudes toward front or rear child passenger belt use and seat belt reminders at these seating positions. (United States)

    Kidd, David G; McCartt, Anne T


    Passengers, especially those in rear seating positions, use seat belts less frequently than drivers. In-vehicle technology can inform drivers when their passengers are unbuckled and encourage passengers to use belts. The current study collected information about drivers' attitudes toward passenger belt use and belt reminders for front passengers and children in back seats. A national telephone survey of 1218 people 18 and older was conducted, of which 477 respondents were drivers who transport a front seat passenger at least once a week and 254 were drivers who transport an 8- to 15-year-old child in the back seat. Respondents were asked about their attitudes toward belt use by their front passengers or rear child passengers and preferences for different passenger belt reminder features. Ninety percent of drivers who regularly transport front seat passengers said that the passengers always use seat belts. Reported belt use was even higher among 8- to 15-year-old children in the back seat (97%). Among the drivers whose children do not always buckle up, about half said their child unbuckled the belt during the trip. Almost every full-time belt use driver (96%) would encourage front passengers to buckle up if not belted, compared to 57 percent of part-time belt users and nonusers. In contrast, nearly every driver who transports children in the back seat would encourage their belt use, regardless of the driver's belt use habits. Most drivers who transport front passengers wanted passenger belt reminders to encourage passengers to buckle up. Most of these drivers wanted a chime/buzzer or warning light or text display and wanted the reminder to last indefinitely. Most drivers who transport child passengers in the rear seat wanted the vehicle to indicate whether child passengers are unbuckled. A large majority of these drivers wanted notifications via a visual diagram of seating positions and belt use, a chime/buzzer, and a warning light or text display. These drivers

  18. Belt conveyors for bulk materials. 6th ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The 16 chapters are entitled: Belt conveyor general applications economics; Design considerations; Characteristics and conveyability of bulk materials; Capacities, belt widths and speeds; Belt conveyor idlers; Belt tension and power engineering; Belt selection; Pulleys and shafts; Curves; Steep angle conveying; Belt cleaners and accessories; Transfer points; Conveyor motor drives and controls; Operation, maintenance and safety; Belt takeups; and Emerging technologies. 6 apps.

  19. Belt conveying of minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stace, L.R.; Yardley, E.D. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering


    A discussion of the history and economics of conveyor applications sets the scene. Conveyor design is investigated in detail, covering power requirements, belt tensioning, and hardware. Principles regarding construction and joining of belts are outlined and a helpful and practical overview of relevant standards, belt test methods, and issues surrounding standardisation is given. Conveyor belt systems can represent a significant operational hazard, so the authors have set out to highlight the important area of safety, with consideration given to fire/electrical resistance, as well as the interface between personnel and conveyor systems - including nip points and operational issues such as man-riding. Selected case studies illustrate some practical aspects of installation and operation, at Selby mine in the UK and Prosper-Haniel Colliery in Germany and others. 3 apps.

  20. Middle to Late Jurassic Tectonic Evolution of the Klamath Mountains, California-Oregon (United States)

    Harper, Gregory D.; Wright, James E.


    The geochronology, stratigraphy, and spatial relationships of Middle and Late Jurassic terranes of the Klamath Mountains strongly suggest that they were formed in a single west-facing magmatic arc built upon older accreted terranes. A Middle Jurassic arc complex is represented by the volcanic rocks of the western Hayfork terrane and consanguineous dioritic to peridotitic plutons. New U/Pb zircon dates indicate that the Middle Jurassic plutonic belt was active from 159 to 174 Ma and is much more extensive than previously thought. This plutonic belt became inactive just as the 157 Ma Josephine ophiolite, which lies west and structurally below the Middle Jurassic arc, was generated. Late Jurassic volcanic and plutonic arc rocks (Rogue Formation and Chetco intrusive complex) lie outboard and structurally beneath the Josephine ophiolite; U/Pb and K/Ar age data indicate that this arc complex is coeval with the Josephine ophiolite. Both the Late Jurassic arc complex and the Josephine ophiolite are overlain by the "Galice Formation," a Late Jurassic flysch sequence, and are intruded by 150 Ma dikes and sills. The following tectonic model is presented that accounts for the age and distribution of these terranes: a Middle Jurassic arc built on older accreted terranes undergoes rifting at 160 Ma, resulting in formation of a remnant arc/back-arc basin/island arc triad. This system collapsed during the Late Jurassic Nevadan Orogeny (150 Ma) and was strongly deformed and stacked into a series of east-dipping thrust sheets. Arc magmatism was active both before and after the Nevadan Orogeny, but virtually ceased at 140 Ma.

  1. Precambrain Rb-Sr isochron ages from the crystalline complexes of inner Forsblads Fjord, East Greenland fold belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rex, D.C.; Gledhill, A.R.; Higgins, A.K.


    Several collections of samples were made from crystalline units in inner Forsblads Fjord in 1974. Results of whole rock Rb-Sr analyses on two of these collections are presented, and give an Archaean age for banded gneisses and a middle Proterozoic age for quartzitic metasediments. These ages confirm the occurence of major Precambrian complexes within the East Greenland Caledonian fold belt. (author)

  2. Discrimination, Mastery, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Men (United States)

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.


    Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…

  3. Creating a virtual community of practice to investigate legitimate peripheral participation by African American middle school girls in science activities (United States)

    Edwards, Leslie D.

    How do teenage girls develop an interest in science? What kinds of opportunities can science teachers present to female students that support their engagement with learning science? I studied one aspect of this issue by focusing on ways students could use science to enhance or gain identities that they (probably) already valued. To do that I created technology-rich activities and experiences for an after school class in science and technology for middle school girls who lived in a low socio-economic urban neighborhood. These activities and experiences were designed to create a virtual community of practice whose members used science in diverse ways. Student interest was made evident in their responses to the activities. Four conclusions emerged. (1) Opportunities to learn about the lives and work of admired African American business women interested students in learning by linking it to their middle-class aspirations and their interest in things that money and status can buy. (2) Opportunities to learn about the lives and work of African American women experts in science in a classroom context where students then practiced similar kinds of actual scientific tasks engaged students in relations of legitimate peripheral participation in a virtual and diverse community of practice focused on science which was created in the after-school classes. (3) Opportunities where students used science to show off for family, friends, and supporters of the after-school program, identities they valued, interested them enough that they engaged in long-term science and technology projects that required lots of revisions. (4) In response to the opportunities presented, new and enhanced identities developed around becoming a better student or becoming some kind of scientist.

  4. Sicily in its Mediterranean geological frame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broquet, P.


    The Island of Sicily is generally considered to be the geological link between the North African Fold Belt and the Appennines, in Italy. This comes from a cylindristic meaning and is only partly exact. As a matter of fact, Sicily is essentially Greek; Ionian. Up to Middle Cretaceous time, the Sicilian area was a submerged shoal in the sea or the Panormide area, bordering the Ionian Ocean. This shoal lay between the future North African Fold Belt and the Appennines, forming an intermediate link between the Appenninic, Apulian, Panormian and Tunisian platforms. It was only during the Middle to Upper Cretaceous that the Atlantic and Ligure Oceans merged, making a continuous relationship between the Appenninic, Sicilian and North African sedimentary series. The key time periods are the Permian, Cretaceous and Oligo-Miocene periods leading to the formation of the actual Calabro-Sicilian arc. From the Permian to the present, the Sicilian geological history pertains to three oceanic domains: Ionian, Ligurian and Atlantic, of which the Ionian and Ligurian were under the influence of Tethys (Neo and Paleo-Tethys). The Tethysian identity of Sicily constitutes the major aspect of its geological history. However, the European and African plate tectonic movements complicated its structure. During the Middle Miocene subduction, southern Sicily became African, meanwhile its north-eastern part became, in Pliocene time, Maghrebian by accretion. Sicily is thus a truly geological patchwork, but its main section remains Ionian and now constitutes a link between North Africa and the Appennines. With older data, but also by means of recent results, we will replace Sicily in its Mediterranean frame, giving the mean stages of its paleogeographical and then its tectonic evolution. We will review the calabro-sicilian arc evolution from the Oligocene, developing the actual context and recalling the main fundamental play of the Numidian flysch. (Author)

  5. Middle proterozoic supra crustal and brazilian orogeny in the southeast Ceara state: a mono cyclic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa, J.M.; Bezerra, F.H.R.; Freitas Macedo, M.H. de; Pereira, R.


    The Oros belt is situated in the southeastern part of Ceara state, Brazil, and geologically pertains to the Borborema province. This belt comprises a volcano-sedimentary sequence of middle proterozoic age resting unconformably upon basement of Archean/low proterozoic age. In the geological map of Ceara state, this belt displays an elongate shape towards N-S, turning to ENE-WSW in the south, and reaches 12 km wide in the central park. This paper describes the relationships between the country rocks and the supra crustal sequence, as well as the plutonic intrusions and their tectonic metamorphic evolution. New Rb-Sr whole-rock dates are presented which are very important to separate anorogenic and syn-orogenic granites. (author)

  6. VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lafon-Hughes


    Full Text Available Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR is a polymer of up to 400 ADP-ribose units synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs and degraded by poly-ADP-ribose-glycohydrolase (PARG. Nuclear PAR modulates chromatin compaction, affecting nuclear functions (gene expression, DNA repair. Diverse defined PARP cytoplasmic allocation patterns contrast with the yet still imprecise PAR distribution and still unclear functions. Based on previous evidence from other models, we hypothesized that PAR could be present in epithelial cells where cadherin-based adherens junctions are linked with the actin cytoskeleton (constituting the adhesion belt. In the present work, we have examined through immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the subcellular localization of PAR in an epithelial monkey kidney cell line (VERO. PAR was distinguished colocalizing with actin and vinculin in the epithelial belt, a location that has not been previously reported. Actin filaments disruption with cytochalasin D was paralleled by PAR belt disruption. Conversely, PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide, PJ34 or XAV 939, affected PAR belt synthesis, actin distribution, cell shape and adhesion. Extracellular calcium chelation displayed similar effects. Our results demonstrate the existence of PAR in a novel subcellular localization. An initial interpretation of all the available evidence points towards TNKS-1 as the most probable PAR belt architect, although TNKS-2 involvement cannot be discarded. Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications.

  7. Maternity and paternity leave and career progression of black African women in dual-career couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucky L. Motaung


    Full Text Available Orientation: The study focused on examining the perceptions of dual-career couples at a stateowned company about the influence of taking maternity and paternity leave on the career progression of black African women in middle management and leadership occupations. Research purpose: The primary purpose of the study was to identify core barriers in relation to maternity and paternity leave that contribute negatively in the career progression of black African women in dual-career couples. Motivation for the study: To obtain insight into the underrepresentation and progression of black African women within dual-career couples, in middle management and leadership occupations. Research design, approach and method: This study was qualitative, comprising a sample of 10 black African women and 10 black African men, with data collected through in-depth semistructured interviews. Thematic analysis was utilised to analyse the interview dialogues. Main findings: The findings established that taking maternity leave has a negative influence on the career progression of black African women in dual-career couples at the state-owned company. The participants further confirmed that involuntary time off work and productiveness were principal influencing barriers of taking maternity leave, leading to other undesirable consequences, such as unproductiveness and reliability. Practical and managerial implications: The state-owned company should review its current talent management and recruitment and selection policies, in order to positively contribute to increasing the representation and facilitating career progression of black African women within dual-career couples, in middle management and leadership occupations. Contributions or value-add: Insights were provided on the influences of taking maternity and paternity leave in the underrepresentation and progression of black African women within dual-career couples, in middle management and leadership occupations.

  8. Variant Anatomy of Intracranial Part of Middle Meningeal Artery in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anatomy of the intracranial part of middle meningeal artery is important during ligation or embolization in epidural haematomas, and in surgical approach to the middle cranial fossa. It shows population variations, but reports from African populations are scanty. This study aimed at describing the variant anatomy of ...

  9. Pelvic belt effects on sacroiliac joint ligaments: a computational approach to understand therapeutic effects of pelvic belts. (United States)

    Sichting, Freddy; Rossol, Jerome; Soisson, Odette; Klima, Stefan; Milani, Thomas; Hammer, Niels


    The sacroiliac joint is a widely described source of low back pain. Therapeutic approaches to relieve pain include the application of pelvic belts. However, the effects of pelvic belts on sacroiliac joint ligaments as potential pain generators are mostly unknown. The aim of our study was to analyze the influence of pelvic belts on ligament load by means of a computer model. Experimental computer study using a finite element method. A computer model of the human pelvis was created, comprising bones, ligaments, and cartilage. Detailed geometries, material properties of ligaments, and in-vivo pressure distribution patterns of a pelvic belt were implemented. The effects of pelvic belts on ligament strain were computed in the double-leg stance. Pelvic belts increase sacroiliac joint motion around the sagittal axis but decrease motion around the transverse axis. With pelvic belt application, most of the strained sacroiliac joint ligaments were relieved, especially the sacrospinous, sacrotuberous, and the interosseous sacroiliac ligaments. Sacroiliac joint motion and ligament strains were minute. These results agree with validation data from other studies. Assigning homogenous and linear material properties and excluding muscle forces are clear simplifications of the complex reality. Pelvic belts alter sacroiliac joint motion and provide partial relief of ligament strain that is subjectively marked, although minimal in absolute terms. These findings confirm theories that besides being mechanical stabilizers, the sacroiliac joint ligaments are likely involved in neuromuscular feedback mechanisms. The results from our computer model help with unraveling the therapeutic mechanisms of pelvic belts.

  10. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt conveyors...) Underground belt conveyors shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping the...

  11. Investigation of a new type charging belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, N.L.


    There are many desirable characteristics for an electrostatic accelerator charging belt. An attempt has been made to find a belt that improves on these properties over the stock belt. Results of the search, procurement, and 1,500 hours of operational experience with a substantially different belt are reported

  12. Belt for picking up liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewell, R B.H.; Nelson, S P


    This belt for picking up liquids consists of a layer of strong material, e.g., coarse cloth, sewed on at least one layer of absorbing material, e.g., sponge cloth, the stitching being disposed along chevrons with their apexes along the central axis of the belt; the edges do not contain any other marks. This arrangement facilitates the expulsion of the absorbed liquid when the belt passes between compression rollers.

  13. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors within... shall attend the belt at the drive pulley when it is necessary to operate the conveyor while temporarily...

  14. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety belt...

  15. Persistence of Salmonella on egg conveyor belts is dependent on the belt type but not on the rdar morphotype. (United States)

    Stocki, S L; Annett, C B; Sibley, C D; McLaws, M; Checkley, S L; Singh, N; Surette, M G; White, A P


    Commercial caged layer flocks in Alberta, Canada, are commonly monitored for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) by environmental sampling. In one recent case, a SE strain isolated from the egg conveyor belt was a source of persistent infection for the flock. This study was undertaken to examine Salmonella colonization on egg conveyor belts and to determine whether the rdar morphotype, a conserved physiology associated with aggregation and long-term survival, contributed to persistence. Four woven belts constructed of natural or nonnatural fibers and a 1-piece belt made of vinyl were tested with rdar-positive ST and SE strains and a rdar-negative ST DeltaagfD reference strain. The type of egg belt was the most important factor influencing Salmonella colonization and persistence. The vinyl belt, with the least surface area available for colonization, had the fewest Salmonella remaining after washing and disinfection, whereas the hemp-plastic belt, with the greatest surface area, had the most Salmonella remaining. Real-time gene expression indicated that the rdar morphotype was involved in colonizing the egg belt pieces; however, it was not essential for persistence. In addition, rdar-positive and rdar-negative strains were equally similarly to disinfection on the egg belt pieces. The results indicate that Salmonella can persist on a variety of egg belts by mechanisms other than the rdar morphotype, and that using egg conveyer belts with reduced surface area for bacterial colonization can lessen contamination problems.

  16. Granulite belts of Central India with special reference to the Bhopalpatnam Granulite Belt: Significance in crustal evolution and implications for Columbia supercontinent (United States)

    Vansutre, Sandeep; Hari, K. R.


    The Central Indian collage incorporates the following major granulite belts: (1) the Balaghat-Bhandara Granulite Belt (BBG), (2) the Ramakona-Katangi Granulite Belt (RKG), (3) the Chhatuabhavna Granulite (CBG) of Bilaspur-Raigarh Belt, (4) the Makrohar Granulite Belt (MGB) of Mahakoshal supracrustals, (5) the Kondagaon Granulite Belt (KGGB), (6) the Bhopalpatnam Granulite Belt (BGB), (7) the Konta Granulite Belt (KTGB) and (8) the Karimnagar Granulite Belt (KNGB) of the East Dharwar Craton (EDC). We briefly synthesize the general geologic, petrologic and geochronologic features of these belts and explain the Precambrian crustal evolution in Central India. On the basis of the available data, a collisional relationship between Bastar craton and the EDC during the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic is reiterated as proposed by the earlier workers. The tectonic evolution of only few of the orogenic belts (BGB in particular) of Central India is related to Columbia.

  17. Bullying Experiences and Compromised Academic Performance across Middle School Grades (United States)

    Juvonen, Jaana; Wang, Yueyan; Espinoza, Guadalupe


    The goal of the study was to examine whether bullying experiences are associated with lower academic performance across middle school among urban students.The ethnically diverse sample was drawn from a longitudinal study of 2,300 sixth graders (44% Latino, 26% African American, 10% Asian, 10% White, and 10% mixed) from 11 public middle schools.…

  18. Observed use of automatic seat belts in 1987 cars. (United States)

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K; Teed, N


    Usage of the automatic belt systems supplied by six large-volume automobile manufacturers to meet the federal requirements for automatic restraints were observed in suburban Washington, D.C., Chicago, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia. The different belt systems studied were: Ford and Toyota (motorized, nondetachable automatic shoulder belt), Nissan (motorized, detachable shoulder belt), VW and Chrysler (nonmotorized, detachable shoulder belt), and GM (nonmotorized detachable lap and shoulder belt). Use of automatic belts was significantly greater than manual belt use in otherwise comparable late-model cars for all manufacturers except Chrysler; in Chrysler cars, automatic belt use was significantly lower than manual belt use. The automatic shoulder belts provided by Ford, Nissan, Toyota, and VW increased use rates to about 90%. Because use rates were lower in Ford cars with manual belts, their increase was greater. GM cars had the smallest increase in use rates; however, lap belt use was highest in GM cars. The other manufacturers supply knee bolsters to supplement shoulder belt protection; all--except VW--also provide manual lap belts, which were used by about half of those who used the automatic shoulder belt. The results indicate that some manufacturers have been more successful than others in providing automatic belt systems that result in high use that, in turn, will mean fewer deaths and injuries in those cars.

  19. Magmatism and polymetallic mineralization in southwestern Qinzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt, South China (United States)

    Huang, Xudong; Lu, Jianjun; Wang, Rucheng; Ma, Dongsheng


    As Neoproterozoic suture zone between the Yangtze Block and Cathaysia Block, Qinzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt is one of the 21 key metallogenic belts in China. Intensive multiple-aged felsic magmatism and related polymetallic mineralization take place in this belt. Although Neoproterozoic, Paleozoic, Triassic granites and associated deposits have been found in southwestern Qinzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt, Middle-Late Jurassic (150-165 Ma) magmatism and related mineralization is of the most importance. Three major kinds of Middle-Late Jurassic granitoids have been distinguished. (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids are slightly differentiated, calc-alkaline and metaluminous dioritic to granodioritic rocks. Sn-(W)-bearing granites contain dark microgranular enclaves and have high contents of REE and HFSE, suggesting affinities of aluminous A-type (A2) granites. W-bearing granites are highly differentiated and peraluminous rocks. (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids have ɛNd(t) values of -11 ˜ -4 and ɛHf(t) values of -12 ˜ -7, corresponding to TDMC(Nd) from 1.4 to 1.8 Ga and TDMC(Hf) from 1.6 to 2.0 Ga, respectively. The ɛNd(t) values of W-bearing granites vary from -11 to -8 with TDMC(Nd) of 1.6 ˜ 1.9 Ga and ɛHf(t) values change from -16 to -7 with TDMC(Hf) of 1.5 ˜ 2.0 Ga. Compared with (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids and W-bearing granites, the Sn-(W)-bearing granites have higher ɛNd(t) (-8 ˜ -2) and ɛHf(t) (-8 ˜ -2) values and younger TDMC(Nd) (1.1 ˜ 1.6 Ga) and TDMC(Hf) (1.2 ˜ 1.8 Ga) values, showing a more juvenile isotopic character. Sn-(W)-bearing granites originate from partial melting of granulitized lower crust involved with some mantle-derived materials. W-bearing granites are derived from partial melting of crust. (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids are also derived from crust but may be influenced by more mantle-derived materials. For (Cu)-Pb-Zn deposits, skarn and carbonate replacement are the most important mineralization types. Cu ore bodies mainly

  20. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety belt...

  1. African Solutions to African Problems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.; Schwartz, Brendan


    . The emergence of Déby’s Chad depends both on its ability to accomplish sub-imperial tasks encouraged by these actors, while obfuscating undemocratic governance and human rights abuses at home. Nonetheless, Déby’s role in regional security has helped him achieve a certain degree of agency in his relationship...... and maintain control of the state. These range from “liberal” desires to help control the region’s trouble spots in places like Mali, to clearly illiberal medaling in the domestic affairs of neighbors like the Central African Republic, with the fight against Boko Haram somewhere in the middle. This paper seeks...

  2. Morphotectonics of the central Muertos thrust belt and Muertos Trough (northeastern Caribbean) (United States)

    Granja, Bruna J.L.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Carbó-Gorosabel, Andrés; Muñoz-Martín, A.; Gomez, Ballesteros M.


    Multibeam bathymetry data acquired during the 2005 Spanish R/V Hesp??rides cruise and reprocessed multichannel seismic profiles provide the basis for the analysis of the morphology and deformation in the central Muertos Trough and Muertos thrust belt. The Muertos Trough is an elongated basin developed where the Venezuelan Basin crust is thrusted under the Muertos fold-and-thrust belt. Structural variations along the Muertos Trough are suggested to be a consequence of the overburden of the asymmetrical thrust belt and by the variable nature of the Venezuelan Basin crust along the margin. The insular slope can be divided into three east-west trending slope provinces with high lateral variability which correspond to different accretion stages: 1) The lower slope is composed of an active sequence of imbricate thrust slices and closed fold axes, which form short and narrow accretionary ridges and elongated slope basins; 2) The middle slope shows a less active imbricate structure resulting in lower superficial deformation and bigger slope basins; 3) The upper slope comprises the talus region and extended terraces burying an island arc basement and an inactive imbricate structure. The talus region is characterized by a dense drainage network that transports turbidite flows from the islands and their surrounding carbonate platform areas to the slope basins and sometimes to the trough. In the survey area the accommodation of the ongoing east-west differential motion between the Hispaniola and the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands blocks takes place by means of diffuse deformation. The asymmetrical development of the thrust belt is not related to the geological conditions in the foreland, but rather may be caused by variations in the geometry and movement of the backstop. The map-view curves of the thrust belt and the symmetry of the recesses suggest a main north-south convergence along the Muertos margin. The western end of the Investigator Fault Zone comprises a broad band of

  3. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to personnel...

  4. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch or...

  5. Plant trial of an under-belt capacitance and gamma-ray backscatter gauge for on-belt determination of moisture in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutmore, N.G.; Rafter, P.T.; Abernethy, D.A.; Millen, M.J.


    A non-contacting under-belt capacitance and gamma-ray backscatter technique has been developed for the on-line measurement of moisture in coal. In this technique, moisture was correlated with radio frequency susceptance and conductance, determined using an under-belt capacitance sensor in which a fringing electric field interrogates a layer of coal on the conveyor belt directly about the sensor. To compensate for variations in the density and thickness of the coal layer, an under-belt gamma-ray backscatter gauge was used to measure an equivalent volume of coal. A plant trial of the technique was conducted at Stockton Borehole Colliery, NSW Australia, where the gauges were installed on the coking coal product conveyor. Product moistures, in the range 7-14%, were determined with r.m.s errors of 0.50 and 0.25 wt% using on-belt and static off-belt gauges, respectively. The difference in the on-belt and off-belt gauge measurement accuracy was attributed to sampling errors in the calibration of the on-belt gauge. 6 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  6. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  7. Geochronology and petrology of OIB-type lavas from the central part of the Mexican Volcanic Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenaka, Toshiaki; Yoshida, Takeyoshi; Uto, Kozo; Uchiumi, Shigeru


    In Mexican Volcanic Belt, typical continental margin arc volcanic activities have occurred accompanying the subduction of Rivera Plate and Cocos Plate into North American Plate. It has been known by recent geochemical research that the oceanic island type magma which does not show the characteristic chemical composition of subduction zone has extruded. In order to investigate the relation of the development of volcanic belt in continental margin are with the change of wide area tectonics, and to impose important limit on magma formation models, it is important to know the state of production of oceanic island type magma in continental margin arc and the age of its activities. In this report, the results of the K-Ar age measurement for the oceanic island type lava produced in the middle of Mexican Volcanic Belt are shown, and the geochemical features of those samples are clarified. The state of production and the petrography of oceanic island type igneous rock samples are explained. The K-Ar age measurement experiment and the results are reported. The chemical composition of oceanic island type lava determined by photon activation process and fluorescent X-ray analysis is shown. (K.I.)

  8. Science self-efficacy of African American middle school students: Relationship to motivation self-beliefs, achievement, gender, and gender orientation (United States)

    Britner, Shari Lynn

    Motivation researchers have established that students' self-efficacy beliefs, the confidence they have in their academic capabilities, are related to academic outcomes. Self-efficacy has been amply researched in mathematics and language arts and nearly exclusively with White students. African American students and the area of science have each received scant attention. Typically, gender differences favor boys in mathematics and girls in language arts. Researchers have also found that these differences may be a function of gender orientation beliefs. The purpose of this study was to extend findings in science self-efficacy and to African American middle school students. I sought to determine whether self-efficacy assessed at differing levels of specificity (lab skills versus science grades) would each predict science achievement assessed at corresponding levels, to discover whether mean scores in academic motivation and achievement would differ by gender, and to determine whether these differences are a function of gender orientation (N = 268). Science grade self-efficacy was positively associated with the grades obtained by boys and by girls. For girls, grades were also associated positively with science self-concept and negatively with value of science. For reasons resulting from problematic instructional practices, lab skills self-efficacy was not associated with lab grades. Girls reported stronger science self-efficacy and received higher grades in science class. Gender orientation beliefs did not account for these differences, but masculinity and femininity were each associated with science grade self-efficacy, suggesting that androgyny is an adaptive orientation for the science self-efficacy beliefs of African American students. Findings are interpreted within the framework of A. Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory.

  9. Examining Instructional Practices, Intellectual Challenge, and Supports for African American Student Writers (United States)

    Alston, Chandra L.


    The debate surrounding how best to support African American student writers continues today as the gap between achievement scores persists. This qualitative analysis documents the classroom structures and instructional practices of two English Language Arts teachers working in a predominately African American public middle school, whose students…

  10. Revisions to the original extent of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System (United States)

    Enomoto, Catherine B.; Rouse, William A.; Trippi, Michael H.; Higley, Debra K.


    Technically recoverable undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in continuous accumulations are present in Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian strata in the Appalachian Basin Petroleum Province. The province includes parts of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama. The Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian strata are part of the previously defined Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System (TPS) that extends from New York to Tennessee. This publication presents a revision to the extent of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic TPS. The most significant modification to the maximum extent of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic TPS is to the south and southwest, adding areas in Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi where Devonian strata, including potential petroleum source rocks, are present in the subsurface up to the outcrop. The Middle to Upper Devonian Chattanooga Shale extends from southeastern Kentucky to Alabama and eastern Mississippi. Production from Devonian shale has been established in the Appalachian fold and thrust belt of northeastern Alabama. Exploratory drilling has encountered Middle to Upper Devonian strata containing organic-rich shale in west-central Alabama. The areas added to the TPS are located in the Valley and Ridge, Interior Low Plateaus, and Appalachian Plateaus physiographic provinces, including the portion of the Appalachian fold and thrust belt buried beneath Cretaceous and younger sediments that were deposited on the U.S. Gulf Coastal Plain.

  11. Drive alive: teen seat belt survey program. (United States)

    Burkett, Katie M; Davidson, Steve; Cotton, Carol; Barlament, James; Loftin, Laurel; Stephens, James; Dunbar, Martin; Butterfield, Ryan


    To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP), a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices. The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program. Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001). The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention. Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students.

  12. Chaos on the conveyor belt. (United States)

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán


    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by a spring to an external static point and, due to the dragging effect of the belt, the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can be achieved only by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic, dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise-induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks (around five).

  13. Psychometric evaluations of the efficacy expectations and Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scales in African American women. (United States)

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Gary, Faye


    This secondary analysis tested the reliability and validity of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise (SEE) and the Outcome Expectations for Exercise (OEE) scales in 126 community dwelling, middle aged African American women. Social Cognitive Theory postulates self-efficacy is behavior age, gender and culture specific. Therefore, it is important to determine ifself-efficacy scales developed and tested in older Caucasian female adults are reliable and valid in middle aged, minority women. Cronbach's alpha and construct validity using hypothesis testing and confirmatory factor analysis supported the reliability and validity of the SEE and OEE scales in community dwelling, middle aged African American women.

  14. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors... can be stopped or started at any location. (b) Belt conveyors used for regularly scheduled mantrips...

  15. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loftin, Laurel


    Full Text Available Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP, a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices.Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program.Results: Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001. The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention.Conclusion: Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(3: 280-283.

  16. The Stratigraphy and Lithofacies of the Paleoproterozoic Volcaniclastic Sequences in the Cape Three Points Area- Akodda section of the Southern in Ashanti Belt in the Birimian of southwest Ghana (United States)

    Yoshimaru, S.; Kiyokawa, S.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.; Nyame, F. K.; Tetteh, G. M.


    volcaniclastic rocks in an oceanic island arc around the West African Craton. Preliminary δ13C analysis gave values of -23.7~ -36.5 ‰ for black shale occupying the middle to upper part of the whole section. The very light carbon isotope ratios suggest deposition of the black shale under highly euxinic conditions like today's Black sea.

  17. The prevalence of extreme Middle Eastern ideologies around the world. (United States)

    Loza, Wagdy; Abd-el-Fatah, Youssef; Prinsloo, Johan; Hesselink-Louw, Anni; Seidler, Katie


    The Belief Diversity Scale (BDS) was administered to Australian, Canadian, Egyptian, and South African participants of different religious backgrounds. The BDS is a 33-item, six subscale instrument that is designed to quantitatively measure Middle Eastern extremist ideologies on risk areas that are reported in the literature. Results demonstrated the reliability and validity of the BDS, thus suggesting that the BDS could be used as an objective tool to measure Middle Eastern extremist ideologies. Results also supported the hypothesis of prevalence of Middle Eastern extremist ideologies around different parts of the world.

  18. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dean, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Acosta, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  19. The Tintina Gold Belt - A global perspective (United States)

    Goldfarb, Richard J.; Hart, Craig J.R.; Miller, Marti L.; Miller, Lance D.; Farmer, G. Lang; Groves, David I.; Tucker, Terry L.; Smith, Moira T.


    The so-called Tintina Gold Belt extends for more than 1000 km along the length of the northern North American Cordillera. Middle to Late Cretaceous Au deposits within the belt have various similar characteristics, among which are a spatial and temporal association with magmatism; Bi-W-Te signatures in deposits hosted by granitod stocks and As-Sb signatures where hosted by sedimentary rocks and dyke systems; and δ180 values consistently > 12 per mil for Au-bearing quartz. Nevertheless significant differences in structural styles, levels of deposit emplacement, ore-fluid chemistry, and Au grades suggest that the characteristics represent a broad range of deposit types. Many of these are best classified as orogenic Au deposits in the Yukon-Tanana terrane, as epithermal and porphyry-style Au deposits in the Kuskokwim region, and as Au-bearing, granite-related veins and stockworks, replacements, and skarns, as well as associated polymetallic lodes, in central Yukon. The diverse types of Au deposits and associated plutons of the Tintina Gold Belt collectively define a 45-m.y.-long period of arc magmatism that migrated northwesterly, for about 1000 km, across the active collisional margin of Cretaceous northwestern North America. The initiation of fluid flow and plutonism in Albian time seems to correlate with the onset of oblique subduction and dextral strike-slip on the Denali-Farewell, Tintina-Kaltag, and related fault systems. Initial Au-vein formation and subduction-related magmatism at about 115-110 Ma (e.g., including the Goodpaster and Fortymile districts), within the seaward side of the Yukon-Tanana terrane, correlate with the arrival of the Wrangellia superterrane off the continental margin. Dextral translation of the allochthonous Wrangellia block was associated with the migration of the thermal pulse to the northwest at about 95-90 Ma. Orogenic (or so­ called mesotherrnal) and granitoid-related Au deposits formed across the width of the Yukon


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Marinović


    Full Text Available Belt conveyor transport, although one of the most economical mining transport system, introduce many problems to mantain the continuity of the operation. Every stop causes economical loses. Optimal operation require correct tension of the belt, correct belt position and velocity and faultless rolls, which are together input conditions for automation. Detection and position selection of the faults are essential for safety to eliminate fire hazard and for efficient maintenance. Detection and location of idler roll faults are still open problem and up to now not solved successfully (the paper is published in Croatian.

  1. Feed chute geometry for minimum belt wear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, A W; Wiche, S J [University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia). Centre for Bulk Solids and Particulate Technologies


    The paper is concerned with the feeding and transfer of bulk solids in conveyor belt operation. The paper focuses on chute design where the objective is to prevent spillage and minimise both chute and belt wear. It is shown that these objectives may be met through correct dynamic design of the chute and by directing the flow of bulk solids onto the belt at an acceptable incidence angle. The aim is to match the tangential velocity component of the feed velocity as close as possible to the belt velocity. At the same time, it is necessary to limit the impact pressure due to the change in momentum of the bulk solid as it feeds onto the belt. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in using of belt conveyor intermediate drives


    Goncharov K.A.


    Method of determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in places of mount-ing of belt conveyor intermediate drives made in the form of tractive contours is proposed. The example shows potential of this method in multidrive belt conveyor design process.

  3. 30 CFR 75.1108 - Approved conveyor belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved conveyor belts. 75.1108 Section 75... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1108 Approved conveyor belts. (a) Until December 31, 2009 conveyor belts placed in service in underground coal mines shall be: (1) Approved under...

  4. Contamination of mantle magmas by crustal contributions: evidence from the brasiliano mobile belt in the State of Espirito Santo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemann, Cristina M.; mendes, Julio C.; Ludka, Isabel P.


    In the beginning of the late orogenic phase of the Pan african/Brasiliano Mobile Belt, in Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro States, along the Brazilian coast, tholeiitic gabbros intruded the coast Small bodies of clinopyroxene -gabbro-norites, hornblendi-gabbros and clinoorthopyroxenes -pyroxenites/hornblendites typical tholeiitic AFM-trends. The series of rocks reveal evidence of crustal contamination, but no signs of in situ mixing with granitic melts. The geochemical characteristics of the tholeiitic series and suites of magmatites,- present in the different evolutionary stages of the post-collisional magmatic arc, in the Brasiliano Coastal Mobile belt, in the States of Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro-, are regarded as an important tool for the recognition of a further contamination process of an already enriched mantle, at crustal levels, during Late Proterozoic/Early Paleozoic times. 33 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Effectiveness of media and enforcement campaigns in increasing seat belt usage rates in a state with a secondary seat belt law. (United States)

    Vasudevan, Vinod; Nambisan, Shashi S; Singh, Ashok K; Pearl, Traci


    In 2005, in terms of seat belt usage rates, Nevada ranked third nationally and first among states with secondary seat belt use enforcement laws in the United States. An effective combination of a media-based education and enforcement campaign helped in this regard. The objective of this article is to document the effectiveness of enforcement and media-based education and outreach campaigns on the seat belt usage rates in Nevada, a state with a secondary seat belt usage law. Observational data on seat belt usage and passenger fatality data are used to evaluate the effectiveness of enforcement campaigns and media-based education and outreach campaigns. Data based on observations of about 40,000 vehicles in each of the years 2003 to 2005 were analyzed. Statistical analyses show that a significant increase in seat belt usage rates among both drivers and passengers for both genders resulted from the accompanying the media and enforcement campaigns. The results from this study indicate that effective and well-planned media/enforcement campaigns can have a significant impact on seat belt usage rates even in a state where the enforcement of seat belt laws can only be as a secondary violation. They validate and expand on findings from other efforts documented in the literature. These results demonstrate that, if coordinated properly, media and enforcement campaigns work very effectively in increasing seat belt usage rates even in states with secondary seat belt laws.

  6. Determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in using of belt conveyor intermediate drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharov K.A.


    Full Text Available Method of determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in places of mount-ing of belt conveyor intermediate drives made in the form of tractive contours is proposed. The example shows potential of this method in multidrive belt conveyor design process.

  7. Suspended particulate layers and internal waves over the southern Monterey Bay continental shelf: an important control on shelf mud belts? (United States)

    Cheriton, Olivia M.; McPhee-Shaw, Erika E.; Shaw, William J.; Stanton, Timothy P.; Bellingham, James G.; Storlazzi, Curt D.


    Physical and optical measurements taken over the mud belt on the southern continental shelf of Monterey Bay, California documented the frequent occurrence of suspended particulate matter features, the majority of which were detached from the seafloor, centered 9–33 m above the bed. In fall 2011, an automated profiling mooring and fixed instrumentation, including a thermistor chain and upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler, were deployed at 70 m depth for 5 weeks, and from 12 to 16 October a long-range autonomous underwater vehicle performed across-shelf transects. Individual SPM events were uncorrelated with local bed shear stress caused by surface waves and bottom currents. Nearly half of all observed SPM layers occurred during 1 week of the study, 9–16 October 2011, and were advected past the fixed profiling mooring by the onshore phase of semidiurnal internal tide bottom currents. At the start of the 9–16 October period, we observed intense near-bed vertical velocities capable of lifting particulates into the middle of the water column. This “updraft” event appears to have been associated with nonlinear adjustment of high-amplitude internal tides over the mid and outer shelf. These findings suggest that nonlinear internal tidal motions can erode material over the outer shelf and that, once suspended, this SPM can then be transported shoreward to the middle and shallow sections of the mud belt. This represents a fundamental broadening of our understanding of how shelf mud belts may be built up and sustained.

  8. The gendered character of the African petty bourgeoisie. (United States)

    Mcfadden, P


    An African feminist states her states her views on the conditions of women in Africa. Changes have occurred within the middle class, which are reflected in the Women's Movement and in relations between men and women. Women are taking much stronger positions and challenging the African male dominance. Men now speak with reservation about the interact with feminists. African men tend to marry down to women of lesser social and educational class, or to marry non-African women to avoid the issue of equality as Africans. The African middle class is now composed of a sufficient number of women in site of unequal gender relations. Men now ask women about gender issues, albeit for ulterior motives: to avoid feminist backlash in the presentation of papers, or to fulfill a donor requirement. An annoying Change is men's identification of themselves as feminists. The question is raised as to why men cannot think of another term to describe their inherited socialization as oppressors. This acquisition of the term "feminist" becomes just another appropriation to enhance their power or resources. Universal and free education has opened doors for women over the past 30 years. The women's fight against colonialism was a fight for women's opportunities. A disturbing trend is for women to argue for a return to "true" African traditions, when no one today would ever accept life as peasant women did 500 years ago. All African traditions are patriarchal. African feminist traditions need to be reclaimed and resurfaced from under the "layers of male defined and male reconstructed charades." A dangerous precedent is taking place in South Africa, since the International Monetary Fund (IMR) and the World Bank are preempting the opportunities gained by women through liberal state policies. Acceptance of IMF/World Bank terms means lost opportunity to education, to professions, and to economic resources gained in the post-independence era. IMF/World Bank policies are "racist, classiest, and

  9. Crustal Deformation around Zhangjiakou-Bohai Seismically Active Belt (United States)

    Jin, H.; Fu, G.; Kato, T.


    Zhangjiakou-Bohai belt is a seismically active belt located in Northern China around Beijing, the capital of China. Near such a belt many great earthquakes occurred in the past centuries (e.g. the 1976 Tanshan Ms7.8 earthquake, the 1998 Zhangbei Ms6.2 earthquake, etc). Chinese Government established dense permanent and regional Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in and near the area. We collected and analyzed all the GPS observation data between 1999 and 2009 around Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt, and obtained velocities at 143 stations. At the same time we investigated Zhangjiakou-Bohai belt slip rate for three profiles from northwest to southeast, and constructed a regional strain field on the Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt region by least-square collocation. Based on the study we found that: 1) Nowadays the Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt is creeping with left-lateral slip rate of 2.0mm~2.4mm/a, with coupling depth of 35~50km; 2) In total, the slip and coupling depth of the northwestern seismic belt is less than the one of southeast side; 3) The maximum shear strain is about 3×10-8 at Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan area.

  10. Unraveling African plate structure from elevation, geoid and geology data (United States)

    Chardon, Dominique; Bajolet, Flora; Robert, Alexandra; Rouby, Delphine


    The aim of our project is to simulate the long-wavelength, flexural isostatic response of the African plate to sediment transfers due to Meso-Cenozoic erosion - deposition processes in order to extract the residual topography driven by mantle dynamics. Our work will be based on the reconstruction and subtraction of two continental-scale erosional-depositional surfaces of Eocene and Late Cretaceous ages and their offshore extensions. The first step of our project consists in computing crustal and lithospheric maps of the African plate considering its various crustal geological components (cratons, mobile belts, basins, rifts and passive margins of various ages and strengths). In order to consider these heterogeneities, we compute a 2D distribution of crustal densities and thermal parameters from geological data and use it as an input of our modeling. We combine elevation and geoid anomaly data using a thermal analysis, following the method of Fullea et al. (2007) in order to map crustal and lithospheric thicknesses. In this approach, we assume local isostasy and consider a four-layer model made of crust and lithospheric mantle plus seawater and asthenosphere. In addition, we compare our results with crustal thickness datasets compiled from bibliography, existing global models such as CRUST 1.0, and tomographic lithospheric models. The obtained crustal thicknesses range from 30 to 45km, with the thickest crust confined to the northern part of the West African Craton, the Kaapvaal craton, and the Congo cuvette. The crust in the East African Rift appears unrealistically thick (40-45 km) as it is not isotatically compensated, highlighting the dynamic effect of the African superswell. The thinnest crust (30-35km) follows a central East-West trend coinciding with Cretaceous rifts and the Cameroon volcanic line. Pan-African mobile belts yield intermediate values of ca. 35-40 km. The lithosphere reaches 250 km beneath cratons, but remains globally thin (ca. 150-180 km

  11. Old model Nd ages in Namibian Pan-African rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkesworth, C.J.; Kramers, J.D.


    The Nd-isotope analytical technique has been used to study the Damara high-temperature belt of Namibia formed during the widespread orogenic event categorized as Pan African. The results are presented of an investigation by Nd and Sr isotopes of the range in age and geochemical characteristics of rock sequences and provinces within both the upper mantle and the pre-existing crust which were sampled during the orogeny, and hence provided the major components of what is now a stable segment of continental crust. (U.K.)

  12. Method of monitoring, inspecting or testing conveyor belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Walt, A.J.


    An invention is discussed which provides a method, installation and kit for monitoring, inspecting or testing a conveyor belt. Provision is made to transmit penetrating rays such as X-rays through a moving conveyor belt, forming a visible moving image from rays transmitted through the belt, and visually inspecting such moving image, after recording it if desired, to ascertain the condition of the interior of the belt. Typically an X-ray tube head is used to transmit the rays through the belt to a fluorescent screen which forms the image. The moving image can be recorded by means of a video camera

  13. The development of an electronic system to continually monitor, indicate and control, 'belt slippage' in industrial friction 'V' belt drive transmission systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R E


    Belts have been used for centuries as a mechanism to transfer power from some form of drive system to a variety of load systems. Within industry today, many designs of belts but particularly friction, trapezoidal shaped 'V' belts are used and generally transfer power generated by electrical motors to numerous forms of driven load systems. It is suggested that belt systems, through their simplicity are sadly neglected by maintenance functions and generally are left unattended until high degrees of 'belt slippage' through loss of friction or 'belt breakage' provokes maintenance attention. These circumstances are most often identified through the reduced or loss of manufacturing production or the occurrence of catastrophic circumstances such as fire caused through excessive friction/ high belt slippage conditions. Obviously, these situations incur financial losses to companies and in some cases the near loss of the company's main manufacturing plant. Consequently, a satisfactory, viable solution is currently sought by industry to improve on current labour intensive maintenance practices. This paper will present an account of the development of an industrially robust, accurate and repeatable electronic system which continually monitors and indicates the degree of 'slippage' in a 'V' belt drive transmission system and in the circumstance of belt breakage or high belt slippage will enable and control the switching off the drive motor.

  14. Along-strike structural variation and thermokinematic development of the Cenozoic Bitlis-Zagros fold-thrust belt, Turkey and Iraqi Kurdistan (United States)

    Barber, Douglas E.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Koshnaw, Renas I.; Tamar-Agha, Mazin Y.; Yilmaz, Ismail O.


    The Bitlis-Zagros orogen in northern Iraq is a principal element of the Arabia-Eurasia continent collision and is characterized by the lateral intersection of two structural domains: the NW-SE trending Zagros proper system of Iran and the E-W trending Bitlis fold-thrust belt of Turkey and Syria. While these components in northern Iraq share a similar stratigraphic framework, they exhibit along-strike variations in the width and style of tectonic zones, fold morphology and trends, and structural inheritance. However, the distinctions of the Bitlis and Zagros segments remains poorly understood in terms of timing and deformation kinematics as well as first-order controls on fold-thrust development. Structural and stratigraphic study and seismic data combined with low-T thermochronometry provide the basis for reconstructions of the Bitlis-Zagros fold-thrust belt in southeastern Turkey and northern Iraq to elucidate the kinematic and temporal relationship of these two systems. Balanced cross-sections were constructed and incrementally restored to quantify the deformational evolution and use as input for thermokinematic models (FETKIN) to generate thermochronometric ages along the topographic surface of each cross-section line. The forward modeled thermochronometric ages from were then compared to new and previously published apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He and fission-track ages from southeastern Turkey and northern Iraq to test the validity of the timing, rate, and fault-motion geometry associated with each reconstruction. The results of these balanced theromokinematic restorations integrated with constraints from syn-tectonic sedimentation suggest that the Zagros belt between Erbil and Suleimaniyah was affected by an initial phase of Late Cretaceous exhumation related to the Proto-Zagros collision. During the main Zagros phase, deformation advanced rapidly and in-sequence from the Main Zagros Fault to the thin-skinned frontal thrusts (Kirkuk, Shakal, Qamar) from middle

  15. Grinding Glass Disks On A Belt Sander (United States)

    Lyons, James J., III


    Small machine attached to table-top belt sander makes possible to use belt sander to grind glass disk quickly to specified diameter within tolerance of about plus or minus 0.002 in. Intended to be used in place of production-shop glass grinder. Held on driveshaft by vacuum, glass disk rotated while periphery ground by continuous sanding belt.

  16. Substantial regional differences in human herpesvirus 8 seroprevalence in sub-Saharan Africa: insights on the origin of the "Kaposi's sarcoma belt". (United States)

    Dollard, Sheila C; Butler, Lisa M; Jones, Alison M Graves; Mermin, Jonathan H; Chidzonga, Midion; Chipato, Tsungai; Shiboski, Caroline H; Brander, Christian; Mosam, Anisa; Kiepiela, Photini; Hladik, Wolfgang; Martin, Jeffrey N


    Equatorial Africa has among the highest incidences of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in the world, thus earning the name "KS Belt." This was the case even before the HIV epidemic. To date, there is no clear evidence that HHV-8 seroprevalence is higher in this region but interpretation of the available literature is tempered by differences in serologic assays used across studies. We examined representatively sampled ambulatory adults in Uganda, which is in the "KS Belt," and in Zimbabwe and South Africa which are outside the Belt, for HHV-8 antibodies. All serologic assays were uniformly performed in the same reference laboratory by the same personnel. In the base-case serologic algorithm, seropositivity was defined by reactivity in an immunofluorescence assay or in 2 enzyme immunoassays. A total of 2,375 participants were examined. In Uganda, HHV-8 seroprevalence was high early in adulthood (35.5% by age 21) without significant change thereafter. In contrast, HHV-8 seroprevalence early in adulthood was lower in Zimbabwe and South Africa (13.7 and 10.8%, respectively) but increased with age. After age adjustment, Ugandans had 3.24-fold greater odds of being HHV-8 infected than South Africans (p Africa. These findings help to explain the high KS incidence in the "KS Belt" and underscore the importance of a uniform approach to HHV-8 antibody testing.

  17. Toward a new tectonic model for the Late Proterozoic Araçuaí (SE Brazil)-West Congolian (SW Africa) Belt (United States)

    Pedrosa-Soares, A. C.; Noce, C. M.; Vidal, Ph; Monteiro, R. L. B. P.; Leonardos, O. H.


    The Araçuaí Belt is a Late Proterozoic (Brasiliano Cycle) geotectonic unit which was developed along the southeastern margin of the São Francisco Craton (SE Brazil) and was formerly considered as being an ensialic orogen. It is correlated with the Pan-African West Congolian Belt (SW Africa) in many reports. In the western domain of the belt, the Macaúbas Group—the most important supracrustal sequence related to the evolution of the Araçuaí Belt —comprises the Terra Branca and Carbonita Formations, which consist of littoral glacial sediments to shelf turbidites. These formations grade upward and eastward to the Salinas Formation, consisting of distal turbidites related to submarine fans, pelagic sediments, and a rock association (the Ribeirão da Folha Facies) typical of an ocean-floor environment. Banded iron formations, metacherts, diopsidites, massive sulfides, graphite schists, hyperaluminous schists, and ortho-amphibolites, intercalated with quartz-mica schists and impure quartzites, characterize the most distinctive and restricted volcano-sedimentary facies yet found within the Salinas Formation. Ultramafic slabs were tectonically emplaced within the Ribeirão da Folha Facies. Eight whole rock samples of meta-ultramafic rocks and ortho-amphibolites yielded a SmNd isochronic age of 793 ± 90 Ma ( ɛNd(T) = +4.1 ± 0.6. MSWD = 1.76 ). The structures of the northern Araçuaí Belt are marked by a doen-dip stretching lineation (western domain) related to frontal thrusts which controlled tectonic transport from east to west; stretching lineation rakes decrease in the eastern tectonic domain, indicating dominant oblique to transcurrent motion; the northern arch of the belt is characterized by major high-dip transcurrent shear zones. Our tectonic model starts with marked fracturing, followed by rifting that took place in the São Francisco-Congo Craton around 1000 ± 100 Ma (ages of basic intrusions and alkaline anorogenic granites). A sinistral transfer

  18. Colors of Inner Disk Classical Kuiper Belt Objects (United States)

    Romanishin, W.; Tegler, S. C.; Consolmagno, G. J.


    We present new optical broadband colors, obtained with the Keck 1 and Vatican Advanced Technology telescopes, for six objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt. Objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt are of interest as they may represent the surviving members of the primordial Kuiper Belt that formed interior to the current position of the 3:2 resonance with Neptune, the current position of the plutinos, or, alternatively, they may be objects formed at a different heliocentric distance that were then moved to their present locations. The six new colors, combined with four previously published, show that the ten inner belt objects with known colors form a neutral clump and a reddish clump in B-R color. Nonparametric statistical tests show no significant difference between the B-R color distribution of the inner disk objects compared to the color distributions of Centaurs, plutinos, or scattered disk objects. However, the B-R color distribution of the inner classical Kuiper Belt Objects does differ significantly from the distribution of colors in the cold (low inclination) main classical Kuiper Belt. The cold main classical objects are predominately red, while the inner classical belt objects are a mixture of neutral and red. The color difference may reveal the existence of a gradient in the composition and/or surface processing history in the primordial Kuiper Belt, or indicate that the inner disk objects are not dynamically analogous to the cold main classical belt objects.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanishin, W.; Tegler, S. C.; Consolmagno, G. J.


    We present new optical broadband colors, obtained with the Keck 1 and Vatican Advanced Technology telescopes, for six objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt. Objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt are of interest as they may represent the surviving members of the primordial Kuiper Belt that formed interior to the current position of the 3:2 resonance with Neptune, the current position of the plutinos, or, alternatively, they may be objects formed at a different heliocentric distance that were then moved to their present locations. The six new colors, combined with four previously published, show that the ten inner belt objects with known colors form a neutral clump and a reddish clump in B-R color. Nonparametric statistical tests show no significant difference between the B-R color distribution of the inner disk objects compared to the color distributions of Centaurs, plutinos, or scattered disk objects. However, the B-R color distribution of the inner classical Kuiper Belt Objects does differ significantly from the distribution of colors in the cold (low inclination) main classical Kuiper Belt. The cold main classical objects are predominately red, while the inner classical belt objects are a mixture of neutral and red. The color difference may reveal the existence of a gradient in the composition and/or surface processing history in the primordial Kuiper Belt, or indicate that the inner disk objects are not dynamically analogous to the cold main classical belt objects.

  20. Speed Controlled Belt Conveyors: Drives and Mechanical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEBIC, M. Z.


    Full Text Available The paper presents variable speed belt conveyor system where the reference speed is changed in order to achieve improved energy efficiency of operation. The recorded measurements show that belt tension varies within the same limits as under constant speed operation. These results introduce a new insight of the present state of the art in variable speed belt conveyor drives. The system is realized with remote control from the control center on an open pit mine. The structure of the multi-motor drive system of a single conveyor, as well as of the network-based control system distributed among belt conveyor stations and the control center are shown. Speed control of a belt conveyor system is organized to provide better utilization of the available material cross section on the belt and reduced electrical energy consumption of the drive. The experimental results obtained on the system prove that, under existing constraints, the applied algorithm has not introduced additional stress to the belt or mechanical assemblies during acceleration and deceleration processes, while providing higher energy efficiency of operation.

  1. Timing belt in power transmission and conveying system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domek Grzegorz


    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of phenomena occurring at the contact of a timing belt and a pulley. Depending on a belt size range these phenomena differ significantly. There is no indication as to what solutions are optimal for drive belts. The analysis of the coupling process and performance tests have shown that the drive belt should have a cord of very good mechanical properties and its raceway side should be made from the material of a low friction coefficient against the pulley material. A flat belt in power transmission and conveying systems cooperates with several elements consisting of timing pulleys, tensioners or guiding rails. In gear with timing belts they depend strongly on characteristics of the process as well as the type of friction. In recent constructions, producers of timing belts are very much concerned about achieving as much slippery surface as possible. The work describes the problem of friction on different surfaces as well as its influence on gear lifetime. Research results confirm that on many surfaces bigger coefficient of friction is expected.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, Scott S.


    The optical colors of 58 objects in mean motion resonance with Neptune were obtained. The various Neptune resonant populations were found to have significantly different surface color distributions. The 5:3 and 7:4 resonances have semimajor axes near the middle of the main Kuiper Belt and both are dominated by ultra-red material (spectral gradient: S ∼> 25). The 5:3 and 7:4 resonances have statistically the same color distribution as the low-inclination 'cold' classical belt. The inner 4:3 and distant 5:2 resonances have objects with mostly moderately red colors (S ∼ 15), similar to the scattered and detached disk populations. The 2:1 resonance, which is near the outer edge of the main Kuiper Belt, has a large range of colors with similar numbers of moderately red and ultra-red objects at all inclinations. The 2:1 resonance was also found to have a very rare neutral colored object showing that the 2:1 resonance is really a mix of all object types. The inner 3:2 resonance, like the outer 2:1, has a large range of objects from neutral to ultra-red. The Neptune Trojans (1:1 resonance) are only slightly red (S ∼ 9), similar to the Jupiter Trojans. The inner 5:4 resonance only has four objects with measured colors but shows equal numbers of ultra-red and moderately red objects. The 9:5, 12:5, 7:3, 3:1, and 11:3 resonances do not have reliable color distribution statistics since few objects have been observed in these resonances, though it appears noteworthy that all three of the measured 3:1 objects have only moderately red colors, similar to the 4:3 and 5:2 resonances. The different color distributions of objects in mean motion resonance with Neptune are likely a result from the disruption of the primordial Kuiper Belt from the scattering and migration of the giant planets. The few low-inclination objects known in the outer 2:1 and 5:2 resonances are mostly only moderately red. This suggests if the 2:1 and 5:2 have a cold low-inclination component, the objects

  3. Understanding major depressive disorder among middle-aged African American men. (United States)

    Bryant-Bedell, Keneshia; Waite, Roberta


    This paper is a report of a study of how a cohort of African American men recognized and expressed symptoms of depression, and how depression affected their lives. Major depressive disorder has had global financial consequences in the form of healthcare visits, lost work hours, and disruption of family lives. Early recognition of depression and engagement of depressed individuals to promote management and treatment of this disorder is crucial in controlling its impact. African American men are often not included in research exploring factors that limit their engagement in mental health care. A descriptive qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted in 2008 with ten African American men between the ages of 40 and 59 years. All participants self-reported a history of depression. Three central themes were identified: life events, the funk, and the breakdown. Life events were identified as stressors which led the men to experience what they described as the funk, which was later identified as depression. Due to lack of resolution of the funk, a breakdown was experienced. Over time study participants became informed about their condition, and their responses to managing depression varied depending on individual and contextual factors. It is important to approach depression diagnoses from a broad perspective rather than as a limited list of symptoms. Healthcare providers would benefit from taking into account cultural factors, gender and age, examining them carefully in relation to the development of depressive symptoms.

  4. Male Gender Role Strain as a Barrier to African American Men's Physical Activity (United States)

    Griffith, Derek M.; Gunter, Katie; Allen, Julie Ober


    Despite the potential health consequences, African American men tend to treat their roles as providers, fathers, spouses, and community members as more important than engaging in health behaviors such as physical activity. We conducted 14 exploratory focus groups with 105 urban, middle-aged African American men from the Midwest to examine factors…

  5. Conveyor belt weigher using a nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magal, B.S.


    Principles of operation of different types of continuous conveyor belt weighing machines developed for use in factories for bulk weighing of material on conveyor belts without interupting the material flow, are briefly mentioned. The design of nuclear weighing scale making use of the radiation absorption property of the material used is described in detail. The radiation source, choice of the source, detector and geometry of such a weighing scale are discussed. The nucleonic belt weigher is compared with the gravimetric belt weigher system. The advantages of the nuclear system are pointed out. The assembly drawing of the electronics, calibration procedure and performance evaluation are given. (A.K.)

  6. Exploring the Causes of Underachievement of African American Boys: A Qualitative Descriptive Case Study (United States)

    Ennis, Rosetta


    The qualitative descriptive case study explores the underachievement phenomenon of fourth-grade African American boys in New York City public elementary schools. Numerous studies have been conducted at the middle school through college levels. However, very little is known about the underachievement phenomenon of fourth-grade African American…

  7. Changes in academic adjustment and relational self-worth across the transition to middle school. (United States)

    Ryan, Allison M; Shim, Sungok Serena; Makara, Kara A


    Moving from elementary to middle school is a time of great transition for many early adolescents. The present study examined students' academic adjustment and relational self-worth at 6-month intervals for four time points spanning the transition from elementary school to middle school (N = 738 at time 1; 53 % girls; 54 % African American, 46 % European American). Grade point average (G.P.A.), intrinsic value for schoolwork, self-worth around teachers, and self-worth around friends were examined at every time point. The overall developmental trajectory indicated that G.P.A. and intrinsic value for schoolwork declined. The overall decline in G.P.A. was due to changes at the transition and across the first year in middle school. Intrinsic value declined across all time points. Self-worth around teachers was stable. The developmental trends were the same regardless of gender or ethnicity except for self-worth around friends, which was stable for European American students and increased for African American students due to an ascent at the transition into middle school. Implications for the education of early adolescents in middle schools are discussed.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, F. Y.; Bryden, G.; Werner, M. W.; Stapelfeldt, K. R., E-mail: [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)


    We present dual-band Herschel /PACS imaging for 59 main-sequence stars with known warm dust ( T {sub warm} ∼ 200 K), characterized by Spitzer . Of 57 debris disks detected at Herschel wavelengths (70 and/or 100 and 160 μ m), about half have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) that suggest two-ring disk architectures mirroring that of the asteroid–Kuiper Belt geometry; the rest are consistent with single belts of warm, asteroidal material. Herschel observations spatially resolve the outer/cold dust component around 14 A-type and 4 solar-type stars with two-belt systems, 15 of which for the first time. Resolved disks are typically observed with radii >100 AU, larger than expected from a simple blackbody fit. Despite the absence of narrow spectral features for ice, we find that the shape of the continuum, combined with resolved outer/cold dust locations, can help constrain the grain size distribution and hint at the dust’s composition for each resolved system. Based on the combined Spitzer /IRS+Multiband Imaging Photometer (5-to-70 μ m) and Herschel /PACS (70-to-160 μ m) data set, and under the assumption of idealized spherical grains, we find that over half of resolved outer/cold belts are best fit with a mixed ice/rock composition. Minimum grain sizes are most often equal to the expected radiative blowout limit, regardless of composition. Three of four resolved systems around the solar-type stars, however, tend to have larger minimum grains compared to expectation from blowout ( f {sub MB} = a {sub min}/ a {sub BOS} ∼ 5). We also probe the disk architecture of 39 Herschel -unresolved systems by modeling their SEDs uniformly, and find them to be consistent with 31 single- and 8 two-belt debris systems.

  9. Compliance with Seat Belt Use in Makurdi, Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Seat belts are designed to reduce injuries due to road crash among vehicle occupants. Aims: This study aims to determine the availability of seat belt in vehicles and compliance with seat belt use among vehicle occupants. Materials and methods: This was a 24‑h direct observational study of seat belt usage ...

  10. Permian arc evolution associated with Panthalassa subduction along the eastern margin of the South China block, based on sandstone provenance and U-Pb detrital zircon ages of the Kurosegawa belt, Southwest Japan (United States)

    Hara, Hidetoshi; Hirano, Miho; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Toshiro; Ueda, Hayato


    We have studied the petrography, geochemistry, and detrital zircon U-Pb ages of sandstones from shallow-marine forearc sediments, accretionary complexes (ACs), and metamorphosed accretionary complexes (Meta-ACs) within the Kurosegawa belt of Southwest Japan. Those rocks formed in a forearc region of a Permian island arc associated with subduction of the Panthalassa oceanic crust along the eastern margin of the South China block (Yangtze block). The provenance of the shallow-marine sediments was dominated by basaltic to andesitic volcanic rocks and minor granitic rocks during the late Middle to Late Permian. The ACs were derived from felsic to andesitic volcanic rocks during the Late Permian. The provenance of Meta-ACs was dominated by andesitic volcanic rocks in the Middle Permian. The provenance, source rock compositions, and zircon age distribution for the forearc sediments, ACs and Meta-ACs have allowed us to reconstruct the geological history of the Permian arc system of the Kurosegawa belt. During the Middle Permian, the ACs were accreted along the eastern margin of the South China block. The Middle Permian arc was an immature oceanic island arc consisting of andesitic volcanic rocks. During the Late Permian, the ACs formed in a mature arc, producing voluminous felsic to andesitic volcanic rocks. A forearc basin developed during the late Middle to Late Permian. Subsequently, the Middle Permian ACs and part of the Late Permian AC underwent low-grade metamorphism in the Late to Early Jurassic, presenting the Meta-ACs.

  11. The North African Middle Stone Age and its place in recent human evolution. (United States)

    Scerri, Eleanor M L


    The North African Middle Stone Age (NAMSA, ∼300-24 thousand years ago, or ka) features what may be the oldest fossils of our species as well as extremely early examples of technological regionalization and 'symbolic' material culture (d'Errico, Vanhaeren, Barton, Bouzouggar, Mienis, Richter, Hublin, McPherron, Louzouet, & Klein, ; Scerri, ; Richter, Grün, Joannes-Boyau, Steele, Amani, Rué, Fernandes, Raynal, Geraads, Ben-Ncer Hublin, McPherron, ). The geographic situation of North Africa and an increased understanding of the wet-dry climatic pulses of the Sahara Desert also show that North Africa played a strategic role in continental-scale evolutionary processes by modulating human dispersal and demographic structure (Drake, Blench, Armitage, Bristow, & White, ; Blome, Cohen, Tryon, Brooks, & Russell, ). However, current understanding of the NAMSA remains patchy and subject to a bewildering array of industrial nomenclatures that mask underlying variability. These issues are compounded by a geographic research bias skewed toward non-desert regions. As a result, it has been difficult to test long-established narratives of behavioral and evolutionary change in North Africa and to resolve debates on their wider significance. In order to evaluate existing data and identify future research directions, this paper provides a critical overview of the component elements of the NAMSA and shows that the timing of many key behaviors has close parallels with others in sub-Saharan Africa and Southwest Asia. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Growth of the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt and Foreland Basin, Northern Iraq, Kurdistan (United States)

    Koshnaw, Renas; Horton, Brian; Stockli, Daniel; Barber, Douglas; Ghalib, Hafidh; Dara, Rebwar


    The Zagros orogenic belt in the Middle Eastern segment of the Alpine-Himalayan system is among the youngest seismically active continental collision zones on Earth. However, due to diachronous and incremental collision, the precise ages and kinematics of shortening and deposition remain poorly understood. The Kurdistan region of the Zagros fold-thrust belt and foreland basin contains well-preserved Neogene wedge-top and foredeep deposits that include clastic nonmarine fill of the Upper Fars, Lower Bakhtiari, and Upper Bakhtiari Formations. These deposits record significant information about orogenic growth, fold-thrust dynamics, and advance of the deformation front. Thermochronologic and geochronologic data from thrust sheets and stratigraphic archives combined with local earthquake data provide a unique opportunity to address the linkages between surface and subsurface geologic relationships. This research seeks to constrain the timing and geometry of exhumation and deformation by addressing two key questions: (1) Did the northwestern Zagros fold-thrust belt evolve from initial thin-skinned shortening to later thick-skinned deformation or vice-versa? (2) Did the fold-thrust belt advance steadily under critical/supercritical wedge conditions involving in-sequence thrusting or propagate intermittently under subcritical conditions with out-of-sequence deformation? From north to south, apatite (U-Th)/He ages from the Main Zagros Thrust, the Mountain Front Flexure (MFF), and additional frontal thrusts suggest rapid exhumation by ~10 Ma, ~5 Ma, and ~8 Ma respectively. Field observations and seismic sections indicate progressive tilting and development of growth strata within the Lower Bakhtiari Formation adjacent to the frontal thrusts and within the Upper Bakhtiari Formation near the MFF. In the Kurdistan region of Iraq, a regional balanced cross section constrained by new thermochronometric results, proprietary seismic reflection profiles, and earthquake hypocenters

  13. Enclosed belts in the ascendancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Although there will always be a place for traditional overland belt conveyors, enclosed belt systems are increasingly being specified where environmental protection assumes high priority or where there is a need to protect material from the weather. The article reports on recent conveyor projects such as: an MRC cable Belt in a 6.4 km system to carry coal in the Appalachian Mountains; a $40 m contract awarded to FL Smidth to supply an integrated coal handling system to LILIAMA in Vietnam and other contracts to handle coal for India's Coastal Gujarat Power; and a contract awarded to Bateman Engineered Technologies to supply a 7 km Japan Pipe Conveyor for a coal power station in Brazil. 3 photos.

  14. Intelligent Belt Conveyor Monitoring and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, Y.


    Belt conveyors have been used worldwide in continuous material transport for about 250 years. Traditional inspection and monitoring of large-scale belt conveyors focus on individual critical components and response to catastrophic system failures. To prevent operational problems caused by the lack

  15. Breeding ecology of the Black Kite in forest shelter belts of Altai Kray, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman F. Bachtin


    Full Text Available This article describes the data on breeding ecology of the Black Kite breeding in shelter belts in south-eastern part of Altai Region. The length of the shelter belts studied in this work was 50 km. Through the period of this study a 72 nests of this species were revealed. We studied nesting preferences of Black Kites towards different wood species, ontogenetic state of trees, trunk diameter and tree strength using Ivlev-Jacobs electivity index. As a result we establish that the most preferable wood species is poplar (Populus sp. (electivity index is 0.5, birch (Betula sp. is used proportioned to its abundance (-0.02, and pine (Pinus silvestris and maple (Acer sp. are mostly ignored. Kites also prefer middle-aged generative trees (0.74 and avoid old ones (-0,18. Trees with trunk diameter 31–40 cm considered as most preferable (0,23. And trees with trunk diameter 21–30 cm is used proportioned to its abundance (-0,04. Trees with another trunk diameter are mostly ignored or completely avoided. Based on the index of tree strength (ITS we established that Kites breeding in the shelter belts prefer trees with ITS = 1.6–2.0 (0.31, trees with ITT = 1.1–1.5 and ITT = 2.1–2.5 are used proportioned to its abundance (-0.02 and -0.07, respectively, and trees with ITT above 2.6 or below 1 are ignored.

  16. Handbook Timing Belts Principles, Calculations, Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Perneder, Raimund


    Timing belts offer a broad range of innovative drivetrain solutions; they allow low-backlash operation in robot systems, they are widely used in automated processes and industrial handling involving highly dynamic start-up loads, they are low-maintenance solutions for continuous operation applications, and they can guarantee exact positioning at high operating speeds. Based on his years of professional experience, the author has developed concise guidelines for the dimensioning of timing belt drives and presents proven examples from the fields of power transmission, transport and linear transfer technology. He offers definitive support for dealing with and compensating for adverse operating conditions and belt damage, as well as advice on drive optimization and guidelines for the design of drivetrain details and supporting systems. All market-standard timing belts are listed as brand neutral. Readers will discover an extensive bibliography with information on the various manufacturers and their websites. This...

  17. Fatal drink-driving accidents of young adult and middle-aged males--a risky driving style or risky lifestyle? (United States)

    Laapotti, Sirkku; Keskinen, Esko


    A range of situational and lifestyle-related factors in drink-driving fatal accidents were studied involving young adult and middle-aged male drivers in Finland. Fatal drink-driving accidents were compared to fatal accidents in which the driver had been sober. The study included all 18-to 59-year-old male drivers' fatal car and van accidents investigated by the Road Accident Investigation Teams in Finland between 2000 and 2002 (n = 366 accidents). The variables describing the situation included the time of the accident, the road condition, the speed, possession of a valid licence, seat-belt usage, and the presence of passengers. The study found that among young adult males most of the studied situational factors bore no relation to the state of the driver (sober or drink driver). Only the time of day, seat-belt, usage, and possession of a valid licence were related to the state of the driver. Among middle-aged male drivers, drink-driving and sober driving accidents differed more clearly. Further, when the social situation in the car was examined, it was found that accidents of sober and drink drivers differed from each other within the group of middle-aged drivers but not within the group of young adult drivers. Heavy alcohol usage was found to characterize the lifestyle of the studied middle-aged drink drivers. It was concluded that for young adult males drink-driving was a part of a more general risky driving style. Among middle-aged males drink-driving was more related to a risky lifestyle with drinking problems. Possible countermeasures are discussed with regard to drink-driving among young adult and middle-aged males.

  18. Energetic electrons in the inner belt in 1968

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Jr, H I; Buck, R M [California Univ., Livermore (USA). Lawrence Livermore Lab.


    Pitch-angle data were obtained by the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's scanning, magnetic electron spectrometer on OGO 5 during its traversals of the inner belt in 1968. Data from the five lowest-energy channels 79 to 822 keV, were analyzed. The inner-belt electron injection following two storm periods was observed; the first was the mild storm of 11 June and the second the more intense storms of 31 October and 1 November. Comparisons with other data indicate that only a small Starfish residual (at > 1 MeV) still remained in the heart of the inner belt; hence, the results are indicative of the normal inner belt. The data are discussed in terms of current ideas regarding the source and loss of particles in the inner belt.

  19. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers (United States)

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay


    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  20. Water EducaTion for Alabama's Black Belt (WET Alabama): Facilitating Scientific Understanding of the Hydrologic Cycle in Low-Resource Schools (United States)

    Wolf, L. W.; Lee, M.; Stone, K.


    Youth, as future citizens, play an important role in obtaining and maintaining water resources. Water EducaTion for Alabama's Black Belt (WET Alabama) provides off-campus environmental and water-education activities designed to increase the appreciation, knowledge, conservation, and protection of water resources by middle-school teachers and children from predominantly African-American families in some of Alabama's poorest counties. The project is structured around a variety of indoor and outdoor activities held at two field sites, Auburn University's E. V. Smith Center in Macon County and the Robert G. Wehle Nature Center in Bullock County located in Alabama's "Black Belt" region, a region in which the prosperity of local communities is low. The educational activities provide an engaging laboratory and field experience for children from rural schools that lack scientific facilities and equipment. Both hosting centers have easy access to surface water (ponds, wetlands, streams) and offer facilities for basic hydrologic experiments (e.g., aquifer models, permeameter, water quality). The E.V. Smith site has access to groundwater through pairs of nested wells. Educational activities are designed to help students and teachers visualize groundwater flow and its interaction with surface water in an aquifer tank model; compare the hydrologic properties (porosity and permeability) of different aquifer materials (sands, gravels, and clays); learn about groundwater purging and sampling; and assess water quality and flow direction in the field. Simple exercises demonstrate (1) the balance of recharge and discharge, (2) the effects of flooding, drought and pumping, and (3) movement of contaminants through aquifers. A set of ready-to-teach laboratory exercises and tutorials address goals specified by the State of Alabama science curriculum for grades 6 to 8. The ultimate goal of Project WET Alabama is to help students and teachers from resource-poor schools become knowledgeable

  1. Belt design central to conveyor performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    While a conveyor system comprises a complex range of components, it is the belt design which ultimately dictates its core performance and reliability. The complexity of modern systems can be seen by the recent contract awarded to ThyssenKrupp Foerdertechnik (TKF) to supply systems for a new steel plant (including a coking plant and a power plant) to be built in Sepetiba Bay in Brazil. Phoenix has designed the Phoenotec system to protect steel cord conveyor belts. Fenner Dunlop has developed Fenaplast belting with nylon or polyester load-bearing warp and weft yarns for good impact resistance. 2 photos.

  2. Geological evolution of the Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt, northern Madagascar (United States)

    Thomas, Ronald J.; De Waele, B.; Schofield, D.I.; Goodenough, K.M.; Horstwood, M.; Tucker, R.; Bauer, W.; Annells, R.; Howard, K. J.; Walsh, G.; Rabarimanana, M.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.


    The broadly east-west trending, Late Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt in northern Madagascar has been re-surveyed at 1:100 000 scale as part of a large multi-disciplinary World Bank-sponsored project. The work included acquisition of 14 U-Pb zircon dates and whole-rock major and trace element geochemical data of representative rocks. The belt has previously been modelled as a juvenile Neoproterozoic arc and our findings broadly support that model. The integrated datasets indicate that the Bemarivo Belt is separated by a major ductile shear zone into northern and southern "terranes", each with different lithostratigraphy and ages. However, both formed as Neoproterozoic arc/marginal basin assemblages that were translated southwards over the north-south trending domains of "cratonic" Madagascar, during the main collisional phase of the East African Orogeny at ca. 540 Ma. The older, southern terrane consists of a sequence of high-grade paragneisses (Sahantaha Group), which were derived from a Palaeoproterozoic source and formed a marginal sequence to the Archaean cratons to the south. These rocks are intruded by an extensive suite of arc-generated metamorphosed plutonic rocks, known as the Antsirabe Nord Suite. Four samples from this suite yielded U-Pb SHRIMP ages at ca. 750 Ma. The northern terrane consists of three groups of metamorphosed supracrustal rocks, including a possible Archaean sequence (Betsiaka Group: maximum depositional age approximately 2477 Ma) and two volcano-sedimentary sequences (high-grade Milanoa Group: maximum depositional age approximately 750 Ma; low grade Daraina Group: extrusive age = 720-740 Ma). These supracrustal rocks are intruded by another suite of arc-generated metamorphosed plutonic rocks, known as the Manambato Suite, 4 samples of which gave U-Pb SHRIMP ages between 705 and 718 Ma. Whole-rock geochemical data confirm the calc-alkaline, arc-related nature of the plutonic rocks. The volcanic rocks of the Daraina and Milanoa groups also

  3. Economic Research on the Arab world and the Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen


    The article gives an overview of the Development of contemporary research on Middle Eastern and North African economies in Germany. It includes the most important institutions and central research topics and approaches, underlining that this field is, in fact, multidisciplinary. The article also ...

  4. Geography of the asteroid belt (United States)

    Zellner, B. H.


    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  5. al mena: a comprehensive resource of human genetic variants integrating genomes and exomes from Arab, Middle Eastern and North African populations. (United States)

    Koshy, Remya; Ranawat, Anop; Scaria, Vinod


    Middle East and North Africa (MENA) encompass very unique populations, with a rich history and encompasses characteristic ethnic, linguistic and genetic diversity. The genetic diversity of MENA region has been largely unknown. The recent availability of whole-exome and whole-genome sequences from the region has made it possible to collect population-specific allele frequencies. The integration of data sets from this region would provide insights into the landscape of genetic variants in this region. We integrated genetic variants from multiple data sets systematically, available from this region to create a compendium of over 26 million genetic variations. The variants were systematically annotated and their allele frequencies in the data sets were computed and available as a web interface which enables quick query. As a proof of principle for application of the compendium for genetic epidemiology, we analyzed the allele frequencies for variants in transglutaminase 1 (TGM1) gene, associated with autosomal recessive lamellar ichthyosis. Our analysis revealed that the carrier frequency of selected variants differed widely with significant interethnic differences. To the best of our knowledge, al mena is the first and most comprehensive repertoire of genetic variations from the Arab, Middle Eastern and North African region. We hope al mena would accelerate Precision Medicine in the region.

  6. Shoshonitic intrusion magmatism in Pajeu-Paraiba belt: the Bom Jardim complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, I.P. de; Silva Filho, A.F. da


    The Bom Jardim complex is a multi phase intrusion emplaced within the basement of the Pajeu-Paraiba belt, in the Borborema province, N.E., Brazil, during the Pan African (Brasiliano) orogeny, 600 Ma ago. The Bom Jardim complex is primarily composed of monzonites and syenites with subordinated granites. The major and trace elements geochemistry has established a shoshonitic affinity for the monzonite-syenite assemblages, whereas the granites are clearly of a high-K calc-alkaline character. The main geochemical trends determined for the complex are the result of fractionation of mainly amphibole, biotite, alkali feldspar ±clinopyroxene within the developing magmas. The enrichment in transition metal elements, LILE and high LILE/HSFE ratios, coupled with an initial Sr sup(87)/Sr sup(86) ratio of 0.70709 is consistent with a subduction related magma source. (author)

  7. Klippen Belt, Flysch Belt and Inner Western Carpathian Paleogene Basin Relations in the Northern Slovakia by Magnetotelluric Imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majcin, D.; Bezák, V.; Klanica, Radek; Vozár, J.; Pek, Josef; Bilčík, D.; Telecký, Josef

    (2018) ISSN 0033-4553 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : magnetotellurics * Western Carpathians * Klippen Belt * Flysch Belt * Inner Carpathian Paleogene Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography Impact factor: 1.591, year: 2016

  8. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are available... the airplane who is at least 2 years old; and (2) An approved safety belt for separate use by each...

  9. Association of substance use disorders with childhood trauma but not African genetic heritage in an African American cohort. (United States)

    Ducci, Francesca; Roy, Alec; Shen, Pei-Hong; Yuan, Qiaoping; Yuan, Nicole P; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Goldman, Lynn R; Goldman, David


    Genetic variation influences differential vulnerability to addiction within populations. However, it remains unclear whether differences in frequencies of vulnerability alleles contribute to disparities between populations and to what extent ancestry correlates with differential exposure to environmental risk factors, including poverty and trauma. The authors used 186 ancestry-informative markers to measure African ancestry in 407 addicts and 457 comparison subjects self-identified as African Americans. The reference group was 1,051 individuals from the Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel, which includes 51 diverse populations representing most worldwide genetic diversity. African Americans varied in degrees of African, European, Middle Eastern, and Central Asian genetic heritage. The overall level of African ancestry was actually smaller among cocaine, opiate, and alcohol addicts (proportion=0.76-0.78) than nonaddicted African American comparison subjects (proportion=0.81). African ancestry was associated with living in impoverished neighborhoods, a factor previously associated with risk. There was no association between African ancestry and exposure to childhood abuse or neglect, a factor that strongly predicted all types of addictions. These results suggest that African genetic heritage does not increase the likelihood of genetic risk for addictions. They highlight the complex interrelation between genetic ancestry and social, economic, and environmental conditions and the strong relation of those factors to addiction. Studies of epidemiological samples characterized for genetic ancestry and social, psychological, demographic, economic, cultural, and historical factors are needed to better disentangle the effects of genetic and environmental factors underlying interpopulation differences in vulnerability to addiction and other health disparities.

  10. Belt Conveyor Dynamic Characteristics and Influential Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxia Li


    Full Text Available This paper uses the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic model to establish the continuous dynamic equations for tail hammer tension belt conveyors. The viscoelastic continuity equations are solved using the generalized coordinate method. We analyze various factors influencing longitudinal vibration of the belt conveyor by simulation and propose a control strategy to limit the vibration. The proposed approach and control strategy were verified by several experimental researches and cases. The proposed approach provides improved accuracy for dynamic design of belt conveyors.

  11. The Study on Eco-environmental Issue of Aral Sea from the Perspective of Sustainable Development of Silk Road Economic Belt (United States)

    Xu, Hanyan


    The Aral Sea crisis is the most prominent environmental problem in building Silk Road and Economic Belt, which is mainly induced by extensive exploitation of land resources in Aral Sea basin since the middle of last century. The upstream part of Amu Darya River, as the main water source of Aral Sea, is almost entirely located in Tajikistan, thus, the development and utilization of Tajikistan water resources affect the whole Aral Sea basin. The author puts forward oriented-development of green energy under the overall framework of co-building Silk Road and Economic Belt, developing small hydro-power and dam-free hydro-power stations, standardized implementation of agricultural modernization in Central Asia, through high efficiency and water saving agriculture to achieve “returning water to sea”, to reverse drying trend of Aral Sea, to renovate ecological environment, resulting in simultaneous implementation of agricultural production and Aral Sea governance, simultaneous achievement of agricultural harvest and ecological environment improvement of Aral Sea basin. The article makes a scientific proof of reality and feasibility regarding the proposed methods. Green ecological environment and stable social environment will contribute to the sustainable development of Green Silk Road and Economic belt.…

  12. Space Weather Effects in the Earth's Radiation Belts (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Erickson, P. J.; Fennell, J. F.; Foster, J. C.; Jaynes, A. N.; Verronen, P. T.


    The first major scientific discovery of the Space Age was that the Earth is enshrouded in toroids, or belts, of very high-energy magnetically trapped charged particles. Early observations of the radiation environment clearly indicated that the Van Allen belts could be delineated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. The energy distribution, spatial extent and particle species makeup of the Van Allen belts has been subsequently explored by several space missions. Recent observations by the NASA dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission have revealed many novel properties of the radiation belts, especially for electrons at highly relativistic and ultra-relativistic kinetic energies. In this review we summarize the space weather impacts of the radiation belts. We demonstrate that many remarkable features of energetic particle changes are driven by strong solar and solar wind forcings. Recent comprehensive data show broadly and in many ways how high energy particles are accelerated, transported, and lost in the magnetosphere due to interplanetary shock wave interactions, coronal mass ejection impacts, and high-speed solar wind streams. We also discuss how radiation belt particles are intimately tied to other parts of the geospace system through atmosphere, ionosphere, and plasmasphere coupling. The new data have in many ways rewritten the textbooks about the radiation belts as a key space weather threat to human technological systems.

  13. Geology and geochemistry of the Middle Proterozoic Eastern Ghat mobile belt and its comparison with the lower crust of the Southern Peninsular shield (United States)

    Rao, M. V. Subba


    Two prominent rock suites constitute the lithology of the Eastern Ghat mobile belt: (1) the khondalite suite - the metapelites, and (2) the charnockite suite. Later intrusives include ultramafic sequences, anorthosites and granitic gneisses. The chief structural element in the rocks of the Eastern Ghats is a planar fabric (gneissosity), defined by the alignment of platy minerals like flattened quartz, garnet, sillimanite, graphite, etc. The parallelism between the foliation and the lithological layering is related to isoclinal folding. The major structural trend (axial plane foliation trend) observed in the belt is NE-SW. Five major tectonic events have been delineated in the belt. A boundary fault along the western margin of the Eastern Ghats, bordering the low grade terrain has been substantiated by recent gravity and the deep seismic sounding studies. Field evidence shows that the pyroxene granulites (basic granulites) post-date the khondalite suite, but are older than the charnockites as well as the granitic gneisses. Polyphase metamorphism, probably correlatable with different periods of deformation is recorded. The field relations in the Eastern Ghats point to the intense deformation of the terrain, apparently both before, during and after metamorphism.

  14. A middle Pleistocene through middle Miocene moraine sequence in the central Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica (United States)

    Balter, A.; Bromley, G. R.; Balco, G.; Thomas, H.; Jackson, M. S.


    Ice-free areas at high elevation in the central Transantarctic Mountains preserve extensive moraine sequences and drift deposits that comprise a geologic record of former East Antarctic Ice Sheet thickness and extent. We are applying cosmogenic-nuclide exposure dating to determine the ages of these moraine sequences at Roberts Massif and Otway Massif, at the heads of the Shackleton and Beardmore Glaciers, respectively. Moraines at these sites are for the most part openwork boulder belts characteristic of deposition by cold-based ice, which is consistent with present climate and glaciological conditions. To develop our chronology, we collected samples from 30 distinct ice-marginal landforms and have so far measured >100 3He, 10Be, and 21Ne exposure ages. Apparent exposure ages range from 1-14 Ma, which shows that these landforms record glacial events between the middle Pleistocene and middle Miocene. These data show that the thickness of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet in this region was similar to or thicker than present for long periods between the middle Miocene and today. The time range represented by these moraine sequences indicates that they may also provide direct geologic evidence for East Antarctic Ice Sheet behavior during past periods of warmer-than-present climate, specifically the Miocene and Pliocene. As the East Antarctic Ice Sheet is the largest ice sheet on earth, understanding its sensitivity to warm-climate conditions is critical for projections of ice sheet behavior and sea-level rise in future warm climates.

  15. Deformation geometry and timing of theWupoer thrust belt in the NE Pamir and its tectonic implications (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaogan; Chen, Hanlin; Lin, Xiubin; Yang, Shufeng; Chen, Shenqiang; Zhang, Fenfen; Li, Kang; Liu, Zelin


    The Pamir region, located to the northwest of the Tibetan Plateau, provides important information that can aid the understanding of the plateau's tectonic evolution. Here we present new findings on the deformation geometry and timing of the Wupoer thrust belt at the northeastern margin of Pamir. Field investigations and interpretations of seismic profiles indicate that the eastern portion of the Wupoer thrust belt is dominated by an underlying foreland basin and an overlying piggy-back basin. A regional unconformity occurs between the Pliocene (N2) and the underlying Miocene (N1) or Paleogene (Pg) strata associated with two other local unconformities between Lower Pleistocene (Q1) and N2 and between Middle Pleistocene (Q2-4) and Q1 strata. Results of structural restorations suggest that compressional deformation was initiated during the latest Miocene to earliest Pliocene, contributing a total shortening magnitude of 48.6 km with a total shortening rate of 48.12%, most of which occurred in the period from the latest Miocene to earliest Pliocene. These results, combined with previous studies on the Kongur and Tarshkorgan extensional system, suggest an interesting picture of strong piedmont compressional thrusting activity concurrent with interorogen extensional rifting. Combining these results with previously published work on the lithospheric architecture of the Pamir, we propose that gravitational collapse drove the formation of simultaneous extensional and compressional structures with a weak, ductile middle crustal layer acting as a décollement along which both the extensional and compressional faults merged.

  16. The effects of hands-on-science instruction on the science achievement of middle school students (United States)

    Wiggins, Felita

    significant difference did not exist between the science scores of African American and non-African American middle school students. (4) A statistically significant difference existed in the socioeconomic status of students who were not provided with assisted lunches. Students with unassisted lunches had significantly higher science scores than those middle school students who were provided with assisted lunches. (5) A statistically significant difference was not found in the attitude scores of middle school students who were exposed to hands-on or traditional science instruction. (6) A statistically significant difference was not found in the observed attitude scores of middle school students who were exposed to either hands-on or traditional science instruction by their socioeconomic status. (7) A statistically significant difference was not found in the observed attitude scores of male and female students. (8) A statistically significant difference was not found in the observed attitude scores of African American and non African American students.

  17. Wrench tectonics control on Neogene-Quaternary sedimentation along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt (United States)

    Pogacsas, Gyorgy; Juhász, Györgyi; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit; Simon, Szilvia; Lukács, Szilveszter; Csizmeg, János


    The Neogene Pannonian basin is underlain by a large orogenic collage which is built up by several tectonostratigraphic terrains. The basement of the Pannonian Basin became imbricate nappes during the Cretaceous Alpine collision. Nappes of Late Cretaceous in age have been proven below the Great Hungarian Plain (Grow et al 1994). The boundary of the two main terrains, the northwestern ALCAPA (Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian) and the southeastern TISZA, is the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt. It is the most significant neotectonic zone of the Pannonian Basin. The structural analysis of the middle section of the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt was carried out on a 120km x 50km area, between the Danube and the Tisza river, on the basis of interpretation of seismic data. The structural analysis of the Neogene-Quaternary sediments was supported by sequence stratigraphic interpretation of seismic, well log and core-sample data. Regional seismic profiles were both oriented in the dip direction, which highlights sediment supply routes into the basin, and strike-oriented. The studied segment of the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt consists of several long (some ten kilometres long) strike slip fault zones. The offset lengths of the individual strike slipe faults varies between a few and a dozens of kilometres. Activity along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt can be characterised by four periods, the size and shape of facies zones of each development period were controlled by tectonics: 1. During the early Miocene, the ALPACA moved eastward, bounded by sinistral strike-slipe system along its northern side and dextral strike-slipe fault system along its contact with the Southern Alps and the TISZA terrain. The largest movement took part during the Ottnangian-Karpatian (19-16.5 Ma). The TISZA unit moved northeastward over the remnant Carpathian Flysch Basin (Nemcok et al 2006). These terrains movements resulted in right lateral, convergent wide wrench along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt. The ALPACA

  18. An Empirical Planetesimal Belt Radius–Stellar Luminosity Relation (United States)

    Matrà, L.; Marino, S.; Kennedy, G. M.; Wyatt, M. C.; Öberg, K. I.; Wilner, D. J.


    Resolved observations of millimeter-sized dust, tracing larger planetesimals, have pinpointed the location of 26 Edgeworth–Kuiper Belt analogs. We report that a belt’s distance R to its host star correlates with the star’s luminosity L ⋆, following R\\propto {L}\\star 0.19 with a low intrinsic scatter of ∼17%. Remarkably, our Edgeworth–Kuiper Belt in the solar system and the two CO snow lines imaged in protoplanetary disks lie close to this R–L ⋆ relation, suggestive of an intrinsic relationship between protoplanetary disk structures and belt locations. To test the effect of bias on the relation, we use a Monte Carlo approach and simulate uncorrelated model populations of belts. We find that observational bias could produce the slope and intercept of the R–L ⋆ relation but is unable to reproduce its low scatter. We then repeat the simulation taking into account the collisional evolution of belts, following the steady-state model that fits the belt population as observed through infrared excesses. This significantly improves the fit by lowering the scatter of the simulated R–L ⋆ relation; however, this scatter remains only marginally consistent with the one observed. The inability of observational bias and collisional evolution alone to reproduce the tight relationship between belt radius and stellar luminosity could indicate that planetesimal belts form at preferential locations within protoplanetary disks. The similar trend for CO snow line locations would then indicate that the formation of planetesimals or planets in the outer regions of planetary systems is linked to the volatility of their building blocks, as postulated by planet formation models.

  19. Seatbelt use among university students from 26 low-, middle- and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention ... Abstract. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of self-reported seatbelt use and sociodemographic, health risk behaviour and social-legal correlates among university students in 26 low-, middle- and high-income countries.

  20. Establishing the environmental flow regime for the Middle Zambezi River

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwelwa-Mutekenya-Mwelwa, E.


    The Middle Zambezi, host to a rich biodiversity, is located in the central part of the Zambezi River Basin which covers eight Southern African Countries. The area is located downstream of three hydropower schemes. In the last decades, the floodplain riparian tree, the Faidherbia albida, vital for

  1. Establishing the Environmental Flow Regime for the Middle Zambezi River

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwelwa-Mutekenya, E.


    The Middle Zambezi, host to a rich biodiversity, is located in the central part of the Zambezi River Basin which covers eight Southern African Countries. The area is located downstream of three hydropower schemes. In the last decades, the floodplain riparian tree, the Faidherbia albida, vital for

  2. On-conveyor belt determination of ash in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowerby, B.; Lim, C.S.; Abernethy, D.A.; Liu, Y.; Maguire, P.A.


    A laboratory feasibility study has been carried out on new and advanced neutron and gamma-ray analysis systems for the direct on-conveyor belt analysis of ash in coal without the need for sample by-lines. Such an analysis system could deliver the combined advantages of a direct on-conveyor configuration with new and accurate analysis techniques. An industry survey of 18 coal companies carried out in early 1996 indicated that accurate on-belt ash analysis is of the highest priority. Subsequent laboratory work has focussed on the investigation of methods with the potential for improving the accuracy of ash content measurement relative to existing on-belt ash analysers, the most widely-used of which are based on dual energy gamma-ray transmission (DUET), which is sensitive to variations in ash composition. The current work indicates that on-belt neutron/gamma-ray techniques combined with advanced spectral analysis techniques show promise for development into an on-belt ash analysis system which is significantly less sensitive to composition changes than DUET and which analyses a much larger proportion of coal on the belt, thus eliminating some key sources of analysis error

  3. Vertical displacement during late-collisional escape tectonics (Brasiliano Orogeny) in the Ribeira Belt, São Paulo State, Brazil (United States)

    Hackspacher, P. C.; Godoy, A. M.


    During the Brasiliano-Pan-African Orogeny, West Gondwana formed by collisional processes around the São Francisco-Congo Craton. The Ribeira belt, in southeastern Brazil, resulted from northwestward collision (650-600 Ma), followed by large-scale northeast-southwest dextral strike-slip shear movements related to late-collisional escape tectonics ( ca 600 Ma). In São Paulo State, three groups, also interpreted as terranes, are recognised in the Ribeira Belt, the Embu, Itapira and São Roque Groups. The Embu and Itapira Groups are formed of sillimanite-gneisses, schists and migmatites intruded by Neoproterozoic calc-alkaline granitoids, all thrusted northwestward. The São Roque Group is composed of metasediments and metavolcanics in greenschist-facies. Its deformation indicates a transpressional regime associated with tectonic escape. Sub-alkaline granites were emplaced in shallow levels during this regime. Microstructural studies along the Itu, Moreiras and Taxaquara Shear Zones demonstrate the coexistence of horizontal and vertical displacement components during the transpressional regime. The vertical component is regarded as responsible for the lateral juxtaposition of different crustal levels.

  4. Emergence and genomic diversification of a virulent serogroup W:ST-2881(CC175) Neisseria meningitidis clone in the African meningitis belt. (United States)

    Lamelas, Araceli; Hauser, Julia; Dangy, Jean-Pierre; Hamid, Abdul-Wahab M; Röltgen, Katharina; Abdul Sater, Mohamad R; Hodgson, Abraham; Sie, Ali; Junghanss, Thomas; Harris, Simon R; Parkhill, Julian; Bentley, Stephen D; Pluschke, Gerd


    Countries of the African 'meningitis belt' are susceptible to meningococcal meningitis outbreaks. While in the past major epidemics have been primarily caused by serogroup A meningococci, W strains are currently responsible for most of the cases. After an epidemic in Mecca in 2000, W:ST-11 strains have caused many outbreaks worldwide. An unrelated W:ST-2881 clone was described for the first time in 2002, with the first meningitis cases caused by these bacteria reported in 2003. Here we describe results of a comparative whole-genome analysis of 74 W:ST-2881 strains isolated within the framework of two longitudinal colonization and disease studies conducted in Ghana and Burkina Faso. Genomic data indicate that the W:ST-2881 clone has emerged from Y:ST-175(CC175) bacteria by capsule switching. The circulating W:ST-2881 populations were composed of a variety of closely related but distinct genomic variants with no systematic differences between colonization and disease isolates. Two distinct and geographically clustered phylogenetic clonal variants were identified in Burkina Faso and a third in Ghana. On the basis of the presence or absence of 17 recombination fragments, the Ghanaian variant could be differentiated into five clusters. All 25 Ghanaian disease isolates clustered together with 23 out of 40 Ghanaian isolates associated with carriage within one cluster, indicating that W:ST-2881 clusters differ in virulence. More than half of the genes affected by horizontal gene transfer encoded proteins of the 'cell envelope' and the 'transport/binding protein' categories, which indicates that exchange of non-capsular antigens plays an important role in immune evasion.

  5. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section 1004.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.15 Safety... administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at all...

  6. Estimates Of Radiation Belt Remediation Requirements (United States)

    Tuszewski, M.; Hoyt, R. P.; Minor, B. M.


    A low-Earth orbit nuclear detonation could produce an intense artificial radiation belt of relativistic electrons. Many satellites would be destroyed within a few weeks. We present here simple estimates of radiation belt remediation by several different techniques, including electron absorption by gas release, pitch angle scattering by steady electric and magnetic fields from tether arrays, and pitch angle scattering by wave-particle interactions from in-situ transmitters. For each technique, the mass, size, and power requirements are estimated for a one-week remediation (e-folding) timescale, assuming that a 10 kTon blast trapped 1024 fission product electrons (1 to 8 MeV) at L = 1.5 in a dipolar belt of width dL = 0.1.

  7. Zār Spirit Possession in Iran and African Countries: Group Distress, Culture-Bound Syndrome or Cultural Concept of Distress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Mianji


    Full Text Available Zār is the term used to describe a form of spirit possession common in northern African, eastern African, and some Middle-Eastern societies. Although these regions share some cultural similarities arising from their history of slavery, in these places, zār varies in prevalence, clinical characteristics, and social context. Based on a selective review of the literature, this paper looks at the place of zār spirit possession in both DSM-IV and DSM-V; it also examines how zār is manifested in Iran and in African countries including Sudan, Ethiopia, and Egypt; and it aims to provide practical information to mental health clinicians so that they can better understand how this cultural concept is practiced by Iranians and Middle Eastern and African immigrants living near the Persian Gulf coast.

  8. Modeling of Jupiter's electron an ion radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicard, Angelica


    In the Fifties, James Van Allen showed the existence of regions of the terrestrial magnetosphere consisted of energetic particles, trapped by the magnetic field: the radiation belts. The radiation belts of the Earth were the subject of many modeling works and are studied since several years at the Departement Environnement Spatial (DESP) of ONERA. In 1998, the DESP decided to adapt the radiation belts model of the Earth, Salammbo, to radiation environment of Jupiter. A first thesis was thus carried out on the subject and a first radiation belts model of electrons of Jupiter was developed [Santos-Costa, 2001]. The aim of this second thesis is to develop a radiation belts model for protons and heavy ions. In order to validate the developed model, the comparisons between Salammbo results and observations are essential. However, the validation is difficult in the case of protons and heavy ions because in-situ measurements of the probes are very few and most of the time contaminated by very energetic electrons. To solve this problem, a very good model of electrons radiation belts is essential to confirm or cancel the contamination of protons and heavy ions measurements. Thus, in parallel to the development of the protons and heavy ions radiation belts model, the electrons models, already existing, has been improved. Then Salammbo results have been compared to the different observations available (in-situ measurements, radio-astronomical observations). The different comparisons show a very good agreement between Salammbo results and observations. (author) [fr

  9. The prevalence of the Middle-Eastern extreme ideologies among some Canadians. (United States)

    Loza, Wagdy


    A total of 183 Canadian participants of different religious backgrounds completed the Belief Diversity Scale (BDS). The BDS is an 80-item, 6-subscale instrument designed to quantitatively measure the religious attitudes, beliefs, and ideologies of Middle-Eastern extremists' on risk areas that are reported in the literature. The results demonstrated the reliability and validity of the BDS as well as indicated the prevalence of Middle-Eastern extremists' ideologies among Muslim Canadians. Results were similar to those obtained from similar study completed on South African participants. These findings suggested that the BDS has the potential to be used as an objective tool to measure Middle-Eastern religious extremism.

  10. Mesin Pemindah Bahan : Studi Prestasi Belt Conveyor Hubungannya Dengan Ukuran Butiran Dan Tingkat Kelembaban Bahan Curah ( Batubara ), Panjang Belt 7,6 Meter ; Lebar 32 Centimeter


    Nugroho, Rio


    Banyak industri yang menggunakan belt conveyor sebagai alat transportasi material, sebab punya banyak keuntungan. Sehingga, untuk meningkatkan performansi belt conveyor tersebut perlu dilakukan pengidentifikasian prestasi belt conveyor. Identifikasi dilakukan dengan material transfer batubara. Yang akan diamati adalah pengaruh ukuran butiran material dan tingkat kelembaban terhadap kapasitas transfer belt conveyor. Dari pengujian didapatkan kapasitas transfer terbesar adalah material batubar...

  11. Survey of current situation in radiation belt modeling (United States)

    Fung, Shing F.


    The study of Earth's radiation belts is one of the oldest subjects in space physics. Despite the tremendous progress made in the last four decades, we still lack a complete understanding of the radiation belts in terms of their configurations, dynamics, and detailed physical accounts of their sources and sinks. The static nature of early empirical trapped radiation models, for examples, the NASA AP-8 and AE-8 models, renders those models inappropriate for predicting short-term radiation belt behaviors associated with geomagnetic storms and substorms. Due to incomplete data coverage, these models are also inaccurate at low altitudes (e.g., <1000 km) where many robotic and human space flights occur. The availability of radiation data from modern space missions and advancement in physical modeling and data management techniques have now allowed the development of new empirical and physical radiation belt models. In this paper, we will review the status of modern radiation belt modeling. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  12. Wearing an abdominal belt increases diastolic blood pressure. (United States)

    Rafacz, W; McGill, S M


    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of wearing an abdominal belt on blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and heart rate during a variety of tasks. The belt was typical of the elastic type with suspenders and Velcro tabs for cinching the belt snug. The tasks performed included sitting at rest, sitting with the torso inclined forward at 45 degrees, standing with the torso inclined forward at 45 degrees (with and without holding an 11-kg weight), a trunk axial rotation task, and squat lifting. Blood pressure was monitored noninvasively with a FINAPRES blood pressure monitor. Twenty healthy men performed each task with and without the abdominal belt. Although no significant increases in mean systolic blood pressure or heart rate were found, there was a significant increase in diastolic blood pressure in all conditions. All people considering wearing an abdominal belt should also consider the risks and liability associated with the additional cardiovascular load, particularly heart attack and stroke.

  13. Study on a metal pushing V-belt type CVT. Numerical analysis for belt tension distribution in brands of a ring at steady state; Kinzoku V belt wo mochiita CVT ni kansuru kenkyu. Sekiso belt (steel ring) no dendo kiko kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, T; Kuwabara, S [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan); Kanehara, S [Honda Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The power transmitting mechanisms for laminated belts were studied to analyze belt tension in each band of the ring of metal V-belts. A numerical model consisting of linear springs and frictional elements was proposed. The present model was experimentally proved. It is revealed based on the numerical results that each band shares the ring tension equally when the coefficients of friction for bands and a pulley are the same while the first band must support more when the coefficients of friction between two bands are lower than that between a saddle surface of the block and the inner band. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  14. The Prevalence of Extreme Middle Eastern Ideologies around the World (United States)

    Loza, Wagdy; Abd-El-Fatah, Youssef; Prinsloo, Johan; Hesselink-Louw, Anni; Seidler, Katie


    The Belief Diversity Scale (BDS) was administered to Australian, Canadian, Egyptian, and South African participants of different religious backgrounds. The BDS is a 33-item, six subscale instrument that is designed to quantitatively measure Middle Eastern extremist ideologies on risk areas that are reported in the literature. Results demonstrated…

  15. A Geological and Geophysical Information System for the Middle East and North Africa, (United States)


    Saad, D., Sawaf, T., and Gebran, A., 1990, Bouguer gravity trends and crustal structure of the Palmyride Mountain belt and surrounding northern Arabian ...that occurred between 1977 and 1992 (Figure 2). We have finished compiling a crustal scale Bouguer gravity data for Syria, Israel and Lebanon (Figure...3). This Bouguer gravity database is a part of our attempt to form a uniform grided Bouguer gravity data set for the entire Middle East, which then

  16. An Effective Belt Conveyor for Underground Ore Transportation Systems (United States)

    Krol, Robert; Kawalec, Witold; Gladysiewicz, Lech


    Raw material transportation generates a substantial share of costs in the mining industry. Mining companies are therefore determined to improve the effectiveness of their transportation system, focusing on solutions that increase both its energy efficiency and reliability while keeping maintenance costs low. In the underground copper ore operations in Poland’s KGHM mines vast and complex belt conveyor systems have been used for horizontal haulage of the run-of-mine ore from mining departments to shafts. Basing upon a long-time experience in the field of analysing, testing, designing and computing of belt conveyor equipment with regard to specific operational conditions, the improvements to the standard design of an underground belt conveyor for ore transportation have been proposed. As the key elements of a belt conveyor, the energy-efficient conveyor belt and optimised carrying idlers have been developed for the new generation of underground conveyors. The proposed solutions were tested individually on the specially constructed test stands in the laboratory and in the experimental belt conveyor that was built up with the use of prototype parts and commissioned for the regular ore haulage in a mining department in the KGHM underground mine “Lubin”. Its work was monitored and the recorded operational parameters (loadings, stresses and strains, energy dissipation, belt tracking) were compared with those previously collected on a reference (standard) conveyor. These in-situ measurements have proved that the proposed solutions will return with significant energy savings and lower maintenance costs. Calculations made on the basis of measurement results in the specialized belt conveyor designing software allow to estimate the possible savings if the modernized conveyors supersede the standard ones in a large belt conveying system.

  17. Modeling and energy efficiency optimization of belt conveyors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shirong; Xia, Xiaohua


    Highlights: → We take optimization approach to improve operation efficiency of belt conveyors. → An analytical energy model, originating from ISO 5048, is proposed. → Then an off-line and an on-line parameter estimation schemes are investigated. → In a case study, six optimization problems are formulated with solutions in simulation. - Abstract: The improvement of the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems can be achieved at equipment and operation levels. Specifically, variable speed control, an equipment level intervention, is recommended to improve operation efficiency of belt conveyors. However, the current implementations mostly focus on lower level control loops without operational considerations at the system level. This paper intends to take a model based optimization approach to improve the efficiency of belt conveyors at the operational level. An analytical energy model, originating from ISO 5048, is firstly proposed, which lumps all the parameters into four coefficients. Subsequently, both an off-line and an on-line parameter estimation schemes are applied to identify the new energy model, respectively. Simulation results are presented for the estimates of the four coefficients. Finally, optimization is done to achieve the best operation efficiency of belt conveyors under various constraints. Six optimization problems of a typical belt conveyor system are formulated, respectively, with solutions in simulation for a case study.

  18. "Abomination"--life as a Bible belt gay. (United States)

    Barton, Bernadette


    Drawing on observation, autoethnography, and audio-taped interviews, this article explores the religious backgrounds and experiences of Bible Belt gays. In the Bible Belt, Christianity is not confined to Sunday worship. Christian crosses, messages, paraphernalia, music, news, and attitudes permeate everyday settings. Consequently, Christian fundamentalist dogma about homosexuality-that homosexuals are bad, diseased, perverse, sinful, other, and inferior-is cumulatively bolstered within a variety of other social institutions and environments in the Bible Belt. Of the 46 lesbians and gay men interviewed for this study (age 18-74 years), most describe living through spirit-crushing experiences of isolation, abuse, and self-loathing. This article argues that the geographic region of the Bible Belt intersects with religious-based homophobia. Informants explained that negative social attitudes about homosexuality caused a range of harmful consequences in their lives including the fear of going to hell, depression, low self-esteem, and feelings of worthlessness.

  19. Gravity inferred subsurface structure of Gadwal Schist belt, Andhra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Detailed gravity data collected across the Gadwal schist belt in the state of Andhra Pradesh show an 8.4 mgal residual gravity anomaly associated with meta-sediments/volcanics of the linear NNW-SSE trending schist belt that shows metamorphism from green schist to amphibolite facies. This schist belt is flanked on either ...

  20. Using haptic feedback to increase seat belt use : traffic tech. (United States)


    The legacy of research on increasing seat belt use has : focused on enactment of seat belt legislation, public education, : high-visibility police enforcement, and seat belt : reminder systems. Several behavioral programs have : produced large, susta...

  1. Seat belt injuries and sigmoid colon trauma.


    Eltahir, E M; Hamilton, D


    Colonic seat belt injuries are rare but carry higher mortality rates than small bowel injuries. The case of a 44 year old man is described who had severe sigmoid colon compression injury from his seat belt a few days after a road traffic accident.

  2. Early to Middle Jurassic tectonic evolution of the Bogda Mountains, Northwest China: Evidence from sedimentology and detrital zircon geochronology (United States)

    Ji, Hongjie; Tao, Huifei; Wang, Qi; Qiu, Zhen; Ma, Dongxu; Qiu, Junli; Liao, Peng


    The Bogda Mountains, as an important intracontinental orogenic belt, are situated in the southern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), and are a key area for understanding the Mesozoic evolution of the CAOB. However, the tectonic evolution of the Bogda Mountains remains controversial during the Mesozoic Era, especially the Early to Middle Jurassic Periods. The successive Lower to Middle Jurassic strata are well preserved and exposed along the northern flank of the Western Bogda Mountains and record the uplift processes of the Bogda Mountains. In this study, we analysed sedimentary facies combined with detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology at five sections of Lower to Middle Jurassic strata to detect the tectonic evolution and changes of provenance in the Bogda area. During Early to Middle Jurassic times, the fluvial, deltaic and lacustrine environments dominated in the western section of the Bogda area. The existence of Early Triassic peak age indicates that the Bogda Mountains did not experience uplift during the period of early Badaowan Formation deposition. The Early Triassic to Late Permian granitoid plutons and Carboniferous volcanic rocks from the Barkol and Santanghu areas were the main provenances. The significant change in the U-Pb age spectrum implies that the Eastern Bogda Mountains initiated uplift in the period of late Badaowan Formation deposition, and the Eastern Junggar Basin and the Turpan-Hami Basin were partially partitioned. The Eastern Bogda Mountains gradually became the major provenance. From the period of early Sangonghe to early Toutunhe Formations deposition, the provenance of the sediments and basin-range frame were similar to that of late Badaowan. However, the Eastern Bogda Mountains suffered intermittent uplift three times, and successive denudation. The uplifts respectively happened in early Sangonghe, late Sangonghe to early Xishanyao, and late Xishanyao to early Toutunhe. During the deposition stage of Toutunhe Formation, a

  3. Radiometric measurement independent of profile. Belt weighers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, J.


    Radiometric measuring techniques allow contactless determination of the material carried by belt conveyors. Data defining the material is obtained via attenuation of gamma rays passing through the material on the belt. The method applies the absorption law according to Lambert-Beer, which has to be corrected by a build-up factor because of the stray radiation induced by the Compton effect. The profile-dependent error observed with conventional radiometric belt weighers is caused by the non-linearity of the absorption law in connection with the simultaneous summation of the various partial rays in a detector. The scanning method allows separate evaluation of the partial rays' attenuation and thus yields the correct data of the material carried, regardless of the profile. The scanning method is applied on a finite number of scanning sections, and a residual error has to be taken into account. The stochastics of quantum emission and absorption leads to an error whose expectation value is to be taken into account in the scanning algorithm. As the conveyor belt is in motion during the process of measurements, only part of the material conveyed is irradiated. The resulting assessment error is investigated as a function of the autocorrelation function of the material on the belt. (orig./HP) [de

  4. A comparison of muscle activation between back squats and belt squats. (United States)

    Evans, Thomas W; McLester, Cherilyn N; Howard, Jonathan H; McLester, John R; Calloway, Jimmy P


    A machine belt squat is a piece of equipment designed to allow the performance of squats while loading weight on the lifter's hips using a belt. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if belt squats differ from back squats in activation of the primary movers, and to determine the predictive capabilities of back squat load, training status, and anthropometric data on belt squat load. Thirty-one participants (16 males and 15 females) completed anthropometric measurements, a demographic questionnaire, a familiarization visit, and two testing visits, completing a 5 repetition maximum test for back squat and belt squat. Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activation for the left and right vastus medialis (VMO), vastus lateralis (VLO), rectus femoris (RF), and gluteus maximus (GM). Comparison of muscle activation between the two exercises showed significant differences in the left GM (back squat: 0.84 ± 0.45, belt squat: 0.69 ± 0.22, p=0.015) and right GM (back squat: 0.86 ± 0.45, belt squat: 0.71 ± 0.29, p=0.004). Regression analysis computed significant prediction equations for belt squat load for general population, males, females, and advanced lifters. Overall, results indicate that belt squats may significantly differ in GM activation from back squats. Back squat load, as well as other variables, may be effective in accurately estimating appropriate belt squat load. These findings may help to more appropriately program for training with machine belt squats as a back squat alternative.

  5. Young Adult South African Daughters’ Perceptions of Paternal Involvement and Nurturance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Wessels


    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess current and retrospective levels of reported and desired paternal involvement experienced by young adult daughters, as well as current and retrospective levels of paternal nurturance. A sample of 89, female, third year South African Psychology students completed self-administered questionnaires, consisting of a biographical questionnaire, four Father Involvement Scales and two Nurturant Father Scales. Daughters reported their fathers as having been involved and nurturing while growing up. Although they indicated that they perceived fathers as somewhat less involved in young adulthood; they reported being satisfied with the level of father involvement. Daughters also reported high current paternal nurturance. The findings therefore indicate that a group of middle to upper middle-class South African daughters perceived their fathers as relatively involved in their lives and suggest that their fathers’ involvement extends beyond traditional father roles.

  6. Polyphase Neoproterozoic orogenesis within the east Africa- Antarctica orogenic belt in central and northern Madagascar (United States)

    Key, R.M.; Pitfield, P.E.J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Goodenough, K.M.; Waele, D.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Horstwood, M.S.A.; Styles, M.T.; Conrad, J.; Encarnacion, J.; Lidke, D.J.; O'connor, E. A.; Potter, C.; Smith, R.A.; Walsh, G.J.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.


    Our recent geological survey of the basement of central and northern Madagascar allowed us to re-evaluate the evolution of this part of the East Africa-Antarctica Orogen (EAAO). Five crustal domains are recognized, characterized by distinctive lithologies and histories of sedimentation, magmatism, deformation and metamorphism, and separated by tectonic and/or unconformable contacts. Four consist largely of Archaean metamorphic rocks (Antongil, Masora and Antananarivo Cratons, Tsaratanana Complex). The fifth (Bemarivo Belt) comprises Proterozoic meta-igneous rocks. The older rocks were intruded by plutonic suites at c. 1000 Ma, 820-760 Ma, 630-595 Ma and 560-520 Ma. The evolution of the four Archaean domains and their boundaries remains contentious, with two end-member interpretations evaluated: (1) all five crustal domains are separate tectonic elements, juxtaposed along Neoproterozoic sutures and (2) the four Archaean domains are segments of an older Archaean craton, which was sutured against the Bemarivo Belt in the Neoproterozoic. Rodinia fragmented during the early Neoproterozoic with intracratonic rifts that sometimes developed into oceanic basins. Subsequent Mid- Neoproterozoic collision of smaller cratonic blocks was followed by renewed extension and magmatism. The global 'Terminal Pan-African' event (560-490 Ma) finally stitched together the Mid-Neoproterozoic cratons to form Gondwana. ?? The Geological Society of London 2011.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Kaiying


    Full Text Available The Shanxi tectonic belt is a historically earthquakeabundant area. For the majority of strong earthquakes in this area, the distribution of earthquake foci was controlled by the N–S oriented local structures on the tectonic belt. Studies of the present stress state of the Shanxi tectonic belt can contribute to the understanding of the relationship between strong earthquakes’ occurrence and their structural distribution and also facilitate assessments of regional seismic danger and determination of the regions wherein strong earthquakes may occur in future. Using the Cataclastic Analysis Method (CAM, we performed stress inversion based on the focal mechanism data of earthquakes which took place in the Shanxi tectonic belt from 1967 to 2010. Our results show that orientations of the maximum principal compressive stress axis of the Shanxi tectonic belt might have been variable before and after the 2001 Kunlun MS=8.1 strong earthquake, with two different superior trends of the NW–SE and NE–SW orientation in different periods. When the maximum principal compressive stress axis is oriented in the NE–SW direction, the pattern of the space distribution of the seismic events in the Shanxi tectonic belt shows a trend of their concentration in the N–S oriented tectonic segments. At the same time, the stress state is registered as horizontal shearing and horizontal extension in the N–S and NE–SW oriented local segments in turn. When the maximum principal compressive stress axis is NW–SE oriented, the stress state of the N–S and NE–SW oriented tectonic segments is primarily registered as horizontal shearing. Estimations of plunges of stress axes show that seismicity in the Shanxi belt  corresponds primarily to the activity of lowangle faults, and highangle stress sites are located in the NE–SW oriented extensional tectonic segments of the Shanxi belt. This indicates that the stress change of the Shanxi belt is

  8. Geophysical perspective on the structural interference zone along the Neoproterozoic Brasília and Ribeira fold belts in West Gondwana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gabriel Motta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Brasília and Ribeira fold belts have been established in south-southwestern São Francisco Craton during the Brasiliano-Pan African orogeny (0.9-0.5 Ga - Tonian to Cambrian, and played an important role in West Gondwana continent assembly. The region is given by a complex regional fold and thrust belt superposed by shearing during the orogeny late times, with superposing stress fields forming a structural interference zone. These thrust sheets encompasses assemblies from lower- to upper-crust from different major tectonic blocks (Paranapanema, São Francisco, and newly created metamorphic rocks. Re-evaluation of ground gravity datasets in a geologically constrained approach including seismology (CRUST1 model and magnetic data (EMAG2 model unveiled details on the deep- crust settings, and the overall geometry of the structural interference zone. The Simple Bouguer Anomaly map shows heterogeneous density distribution in the area, highlighting the presence of high-density, high metamorphic grade rocks along the Alterosa suture zone in the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe, lying amid a series of metasedimentary thrust scales in a regional nappe system with important verticalization along regional shear zones. Forward gravity modeling favors interpretations of structural interference up North into Guaxupé Nappe. Comparison to geotectonic models shows similarities with modern accretionary belts, renewing the discussion.

  9. Seat Belt Use Intention among Brazilian Undergraduate Students




    The objectives of this study were to explore self-reported seat belt use and group differences in different scenarios in a Brazilian sample and research the variables related to it. 120 college students answered a questionnaire with variables from the theory of planned behavior in order to evaluate the intention of seat belt use among car occupants. Results indicated that attitude and intention were the variables that most contributed to explaining seat belt use. Intention was highly correlat...

  10. Asteroid Family Associations of Main-Belt Comets (United States)

    Hsieh, Henry H.; Novakovic, Bojan; Kim, Yoonyoung; Brasser, Ramon


    We present a population-level analysis of the asteroid family associations of known main-belt comets or main-belt comet candidates (which, to date, have largely just been analyzed on individual bases as they have been discovered). In addition to family associations that have already been reported in the literature, we have identified dynamical relationships between 324P/La Sagra and the Alauda family, P/2015 X6 (PANSTARRS) and the Aeolia family, and P/2016 G1 (PANSTARRS) and the Adeona family. We will discuss the overall implications of these family associations, particularly as they pertain to the hypothesis that members of primitive asteroid family members may be more susceptible to producing observable sublimation-driven dust emission activity, and thus becoming main-belt comets. We will also discuss the significance of other dynamical and physical properties of a family or sub-family as they relate to the likelihood of that family containing one or more currently active main-belt comets.

  11. The eastern Tibetan Plateau geothermal belt, western China: Geology, geophysics, genesis, and hydrothermal system (United States)

    Tang, Xianchun; Zhang, Jian; Pang, Zhonghe; Hu, Shengbiao; Tian, Jiao; Bao, Shujing


    The eastern Tibetan Plateau geothermal belt (ETGB), which is located in 98-102°E, 28-32°N, belongs to the eastern part of the Mediterranean-Himalayan geothermal belt. Recently, about 248 natural hot springs have been found in the ETGB. > 60% of these springs have temperatures of > 40 °C, and 11 springs have temperature above the local water boiling point. Using the helium isotopic data, gravity, magnetic and seismic data, we analyzed the thermal structure and the relationship between hydrothermal activity and geothermal dynamics of the ETGB. Results show that: (1) the 248 springs can be divided into three geothermal fields: Kangding-Luhuo geothermal field (KGF), Litang-Ganzi geothermal field (LGF) and Batang-Xiangcheng geothermal field (BGF). The BGF and LGF have hot crust and warm mantle, and are characterized by the higher heat flux (66.26 mW/m2), and higher ratios of crust-derived heat flux to total flux (47.46-60.62%). The KGF has cool crust and hot mantle, and is characterized by the higher heat flux and lower Qc/Qm; (2) there is a relatively 4-6 m higher gravimetric geoid anomaly dome which is corresponding with the ETGB. And in hydrothermal activity areas of the BGF and LGF, there is a northwest - southeast-trending tensile stress area and the upper-middle crust uplift area; (3) an abnormal layer exists in the middle-lower crust at a depth of 13-30 km beneath the ETGB, and this layer is 8-10 km thick and is characterized by lower velocity (Vp 2.5), high conductivity ( 10 Ω·m) and high temperature (850-1000 °C). Finally, based on the heat source and geological and geophysical background, we propose Kangding-type and Batang-type hydrothermal system models in the ETGB.

  12. Energy-saving belt conveyors installed in Polish collieries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy ANTONIAK


    Full Text Available An important problem of reducing energy consumption and dioxide emissions in the stage of construction and operation of mine belt conveyors is connected with their broad use in the industry. However, this notion is related to a reduction of electric energy consumption for conveyor drive and for production of conveyor components and assemblies (belts, rollers, load-bearing structure etc.. An essential role is played by an increased life of belt conveyors assemblies and components, principally belts. A reduced electric energy consumption results in a decreased CO2 emissions, e.g. hard coal – fired power station issues 0.28 kg CO2 per production of 1 kWh, in to answer production of 1 t steel accounts for 3.2 t CO2 emissions. The subject-matter presented in the paper concerning energy-saving in the horizontally and inclined mine belt conveyors installed in a Polish colliery – Anna, Jankowice and Marcel, has a big economic significance and it is important from the point of view of environmental protection.

  13. The use of Nd isotopes to establish sedimentary provenance at inverted passive margins: The case of Andrelandia depositional cycle at the Riberia belt, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragatky, D.; Tupinamba, M.; Duarte, B.P


    The Ribeira Belt (Almeida et al., 1973), in southeastern Brazil, is a Brasiliano/Pan-African belt that resulted from the agglutination of the Gondwana Supercontinent (750-500 Ma). The tectonic organization at its central segment can be defined by several tectono-stratigraphic domains (Heilbron et al., 1998, 2000). In general terms, each tectonic domain comprises: a) pre-1.8 Ga basement rocks; b) post-1.8 Ga metasedimentary cover including metabasic rocks of continental to MORB geochemical affinity; and c) Brasiliano-Pan African granitoids. U/Pb ages for zircon, titanite and monazite of both the pre-1.8 Ga basement and Brasiliano granitoids (Machado et al., 1996) reveal that basement gneisses were generated during the Transamazonian Orogeny, about 2.1 Ga. Peak metamorphic conditions (M1) of the Brasiliano Collage at the central Ribeira belt were reached at 590 - 565 Ma, with a second metamorphic event (M2) at 535 - 520 Ma (Machado et al., 1996). Our research area is located at the transition between the foreland and the hinterland of the Ribeira belt: the Occidental terrane. It represents a reworked margin of the Sao Francisco Craton, formerly known as a proterozoic tectonic plate. It is composed by two crustal scale thrust sheets (Andrelandia and Juiz de Fora domains) tangentially transported towards the foreland of Sao Francisco Craton. Despite the well-determined ages of the Transamazonic basement and Brasiliano granitic rocks (Machado et al. 1996), the sedimentary source of the siliciclastic cover at the Occidental terrane remains poorly known. In this case, the use of Nd isotopic system, due to its relative immobility, is an important additional tool of investigation in geological correlation between basement source areas and sedimentary cover. The siliciclastic sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks are formed by detritus of pre-existing crustal rocks and they could be formed by more than one source. Then, depleted mantle Nd model ages (T DM ) for sediments

  14. Low appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) with limited mobility and poor health outcomes in middle-aged African Americans. (United States)

    Malmstrom, Theodore K; Miller, Douglas K; Herning, Margaret M; Morley, John E


    Recent efforts to provide a consensus definition propose that sarcopenia be considered a clinical syndrome associated with the loss of both skeletal muscle mass and muscle function that occurs with aging. Validation of sarcopenia definitions that include both low muscle mass and poor muscle function is needed. In the population-based African American Health (AAH) study (N = 998 at baseline/wave 1), muscle mass and mobility were evaluated in a clinical testing center in a subsample of N = 319 persons (ages 52-68) at wave 4 (2004). Muscle mass was measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and mobility by a 6-min walk test and 4-m gait walk test. Height corrected appendicular skeletal mass (ASM; 9.0 ± 1.5 in n = 124 males, 8.3 ± 2.2 in n = 195 females) was computed as total lean muscle mass in arms and legs (kilograms) divided by the square of height (meters). Cross-sectional and longitudinal (6-year) associations of low ASM (bottom 25 % AAH sample; ASM with limited mobility (4-m gait walk ≤1 m/s or 6-min walk ASM with limited mobility was associated with IADL difficulties (p = .008) and frailty (p = .040) but not with ADL difficulties or falls in cross-sectional analyses; and with ADL difficulties (p = .022), IADL difficulties (p = .006), frailty (p = .039), and mortality (p = .003) but not with falls in longitudinal analyses adjusted for age and gender. Low ASM alone was marginally associated with mortality (p = .085) but not with other outcomes in cross-sectional or longitudinal analyses. Low ASM with limited mobility is associated with poor health outcomes among late middle-aged African Americans.

  15. Exploring the collisional evolution of the asteroid belt (United States)

    Bottke, W.; Broz, M.; O'Brien, D.; Campo Bagatin, A.; Morbidelli, A.


    The asteroid belt is a remnant of planet-formation processes. By modeling its collisional and dynamical history, and linking the results to constraints, we can probe how the planets and small bodies formed and evolved. Some key model constraints are: (i) The wavy shape of the main-belt size distribution (SFD), with inflection points near 100-km, 10--20-km, 1 to a few km, and ˜0.1-km diameter; (ii) The number of asteroid families created by the catastrophic breakup of large asteroid bodies over the last ˜ 4 Gy, with the number of disrupted D > 100 km bodies as small as ˜20 or as large as 60; (iii) the flux of small asteroids derived from the main belt that have struck the Moon over the last 3.5 Ga --- crater SFDs on lunar terrains with known ages suggest the D 100 km bodies have been significantly battered, but only a fraction have been catastrophically disrupted. Conversely, most small asteroids today are byproducts of fragmentation events. These results are consistent with growing evidence that most of the prominent meteorite classes were produced by young asteroid families. The big question is how to use what we know to determine the main belt's original size and state. This work is ongoing, but dynamical models hint at many possibilities, including both the late arrival and late removal of material from the main belt. In addition, no model has yet properly accounted for the bombardment of the primordial main belt by leftover planetesimals in the terrestrial planet region. It is also possible to use additional constraints, such as the apparent paucity of Vesta-like or V-type objects in the outer main belt, to argue that the primordial main belt at best only 3--4 its current mass at its start. In our talk, we will review what is known, what has been predicted, and some intriguing directions for the future.

  16. Barriers and Bridges to Positive Cross-Ethnic Relations: African American and White Parent Socialization Beliefs and Practices. (United States)

    Hamm, Jill V.


    Using interviews and focus groups, lower and middle socioeconomic status (SES) African American parents and middle SES white parents discussed their objectives regarding cross-ethnic relations and how they helped their children forge positive cross-ethnic relations. The groups relied on different methods to promote socialization. Parents' efforts…


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains visible-wavelength (0.435-0.925 micron) spectra for 1341 main-belt asteroids observed during the second phase of the Small Main-belt Asteroid...

  18. Raising African American Student Graduation Rates: A Best Practices Study of Predominantly White Liberal Arts Colleges (United States)

    Pool, Robert W.


    This qualitative study sought to explore best practices at small, private liberal arts institutions that experienced large increases in African American graduation rates. Particular focus was on institutions that enrolled less than 17% minority students whose overall enrollment fell within the middle 50% of all SAT scores and the middle 50% of…

  19. Continuing scearch for a new type charging belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, N.L.


    The EN Tandem accelerator at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates to support a varied program of atomic physics research. As such, the demands on the accelerator often require a range of operation from ∼0.38 to 7.0 MV on the terminal, with low ripple and long term steady state operation. The standard charging belts obtained from the manufacture have generally given acceptable performance, but it is reasonable that modem manufacturing techniques and materials could increase belt lifetimes and improve accelerator performance, particularly voltage ripple. A new belt of significantly different construction from that of the conventional belts was specified, purchased, and installed in 1993. After 2800 hours of use at voltages from 0.38 to 5.8 MV, it was removed from the accelerator in early August 1995

  20. Loss of Trust in the Neighborhood: The Experience of Older African Americans in Detroit. (United States)

    Fritz, Heather; Cutchin, Malcolm P; Cummins, Emily R


    Although evidence suggests that neighborhood conditions are related to stress and health, the processes connecting neighborhood conditions and stress for older minorities is little explored. The purpose of this analysis is to contribute new insights into this issue. We conducted a qualitative analysis as part of a larger mixed methods study of 100 African Americans aged 55 and older living in neighborhoods of varying quality in Detroit, Michigan. A subsample of (n = 20) older adults took photographs of bothersome aspects of their neighborhoods and participated in in-depth photo-elicitation interviews. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. 'Loss of trust in the neighborhood' emerged as the core category to explain how older African Americans in our sample experienced neighborhood stressors in their daily lives. Loss of trust in physical, social, and institutional dimensions of the neighborhood contributed to the core category. The life course of neighborhoods and the trust placed in them appears to be intimately connected to the well-being of older African Americans. We therefore hypothesize that a fundamental pathway through which neighborhood stressors are experienced for older African Americans in U.S. 'Rust Belt' cities is the multifaceted loss of trust in the neighborhood.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Zanna V. Petrunina


    Full Text Available Policy management of modern China aims to achieve a high level of welfare state. One of the important components that contributes to the achievement of this goal is the expansion of China's cooperation with the Middle East countries in all fields. At present, China is interested in obtaining energy from the Middle East oil fields. Of great importance is the transport infrastructure expansion between the regions. Construction and operation of oil pipelines, gas pipelines and land transport routes will reduce the risks of transporting raw materials and other goods from one region to another. The paper discusses the features of the development of rail and sea links as part of the strategy of «economic belt of the Silk Road» and «Marine Silk Road of XXI century».

  2. Transfer points of belt conveyors operating with unfavorable bulk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goehring, H [Technische Universitaet, Dresden (German Democratic Republic)


    Describes design of belt conveyor chutes that transfer bulk of surface mines from one conveyor to another. Conveyor belt velocity is a significant parameter. Unfavorable chute design may lead to bulk flow congestion, bulk velocity losses etc. The bulk flow process is analyzed, bulk flow velocities, belt inclinations and bulk feeding from 2 conveyors into one chute are taken into account. Conventional chutes have parabolic belt impact walls. An improved version with divided impact walls is proposed that maintains a relatively high bulk velocity, reduces friction at chute walls and decreases wear and dirt build-up. Design of the improved chute is explained. It is built to adapt to existing structures without major modifications. The angle between 2 belt conveyors can be up to 90 degrees, the best bulk transfer is noted at conveyor angles below 60 degrees. Various graphs and schemes are provided. 6 refs.

  3. Dietary trends in the Middle East and North Africa: an ecological study (1961 to 2007). (United States)

    Golzarand, Mahdieh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Jessri, Mahsa; Toolabi, Karamollah; Mojarrad, Mehdi; Azizi, Fereidoun


    Middle Eastern and North African countries are undergoing nutrition transition, a transition which is associated with an increased burden of non-communicable diseases. This necessitates the evaluation of dietary patterns in these regions. The present study aimed to assess changes in dietary patterns in Middle Eastern and North African countries between 1961 and 2007. Availability of energy and fifteen main food items during 1961-2007 was examined using FAO food balance sheets from the FAOSTAT database. Fifteen countries including nine in the Middle East and six in North Africa were selected and the average availability of total energy and different food items in these regions were compared. Over the 47 years studied, energy and food availability (apart from animal fats and alcoholic beverages) has increased in the Middle East and North Africa. In both regions the proportion of energy derived from meat and vegetable oils has increased significantly while that from cereals decreased significantly. In addition, the proportion of energy from milk and dairy products and vegetables has shown an ascending trend in North Africa while the proportion of energy from fruits has shown a descending trend in the Middle East. The study results reveal an unfavourable trend towards a Westernized diet in the Middle East and, to a certain extent, in North Africa. Tailored nutritional education encouraging healthy eating for prevention of the burden of chronic diseases in these countries seems essential.

  4. Situation Analysis of Alcohol Control Policy in Five African Countries ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alcohol use is a major risk factor for premature deaths and disabilities in low and middle-income countries. This research will evaluate alcohol control policy and legislation in five African countries to provide evidence-based research to policymakers, researchers, and lobby groups working to reduce alcohol use.

  5. Non-linear belt transient analysis. A hybrid model for numerical belt conveyor simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, A. [Scientific Solutions, Inc., Aurora, CO (United States)


    Frictional and rolling losses along a running conveyor are discussed due to their important influence on wave propagation during starting and stopping. Hybrid friction models allow belt rubber losses and material flexing to be included in the initial tension calculations prior to any dynamic analysis. Once running tensions are defined, a numerical integration method using non-linear stiffness gradients is used to generate transient forces during starting and stopping. A modified Euler integration technique is used to simulate the entire starting and stopping cycle in less than 0.1 seconds. The procedure enables a faster scrutiny of unforeseen conveyor design issues such as low belt tension zones and high forces at drives. (orig.)

  6. Selection of Belt Conveyors Drive Units Number by Technical –Economical Analysis


    Despodov, Zoran; Mijalkovski, Stojance; Adjiski, Vancho; Panov, Zoran


    In this paper is presented a methodology for selection of belt conveyor drive units number by technical - economical analysis of their parameters. Belt Conveyors with follow drive arrangement will be considered: one, two, three and four drive units. In the technical - economical analysis are including: Tension forces, Power of belt conveyor, Costs for belt, Costs for power and reducers, Total cost for belt conveyor system.

  7. Green operations of belt conveyors by means of speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.


    Belt conveyors can be partially loaded due to the variation of bulk material flow loaded onto the conveyor. Speed control attempts to reduce the belt conveyor energy consumption and to enable the green operations of belt conveyors. Current research of speed control rarely takes the conveyor dynamics

  8. Hip-hop to prevent substance use and HIV among African-American youth: a preliminary investigation. (United States)

    Turner-Musa, Jocelyn O; Rhodes, Warren A; Harper, P Thandi Hicks; Quinton, Sylvia L


    Substance use and HIV risk behaviors are increasing among African-American youth. Interventions that incorporate youth values and beliefs are needed to reduce this trajectory. Hip-hop plays an important role in the lives of many African-American youth and provides a context within which to prevent risky behaviors. The current study examines the efficacy of a hip-hop based substance use and HIV preventive intervention that targets African-American middle-school youth. The sample consists of 68 middle-school students who completed baseline and 6-month follow-up assessments. Findings suggest that students in the intervention group were significantly more likely to have higher knowledge of perception of drug risk and more knowledge about HIV/AIDS compared to students in the comparison group at the 6-month post-intervention assessment. Discussion is centered on implications of hip-hop as a viable approach for preventing substance use and HIV within a high-risk group.

  9. Radiation belt seed population and its association with the relativistic electron dynamics: A statistical study: Radiation Belt Seed Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, C. L.; Wang, Y. X.; Ni, B.; Zhang, J.-C.


    Using the Van Allen Probes data, we study the radiation belt seed population and it associated with the relativistic electron dynamics during 74 geomagnetic storm events. Based on the flux changes of 1 MeV electrons before and after the storm peak, these storm events are divided into two groups of “non-preconditioned” and “preconditioned”. The statistical study shows that the storm intensity is of significant importance for the distribution of the seed population (336 keV electrons) in the outer radiation belt. However, substorm intensity can also be important to the evolution of the seed population for some geomagnetic storm events. For non-preconditioned storm events, the correlation between the peak fluxes and their L-shell locations of the seed population and relativistic electrons (592 keV, 1.0 MeV, 1.8 MeV, and 2.1 MeV) is consistent with the energy-dependent dynamic processes in the outer radiation belt. For preconditioned storm events, the correlation between the features of the seed population and relativistic electrons is not fully consistent with the energy-dependent processes. It is suggested that the good correlation between the radiation belt seed population and ≤1.0 MeV electrons contributes to the prediction of the evolution of ≤1.0 MeV electrons in the Earth’s outer radiation belt during periods of geomagnetic storms.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz JAMROZ


    Full Text Available The article presents some problems of seat belt use by car drivers and passengers. It looks in particular at seat belt use and effectiveness in selected countries. Next, factors of seat belt use are presented and methodology of model development. A macro model of seat belt use is presented based on data from around fifty countries from different continents.

  11. Differential decay of the East-African Antarctic Orogen : an integrated examination of Northeastern Mozambique (United States)

    Ueda, K.; Jacobs, J.; Emmel, B.; Thomas, R. J.; Matola, R.


    In Northeastern Mozambique, the late Proterozoic - early Paleozoic East African-Antarctic Orogen can be subdivided into two major blocks that exhibit some relevant differences. The line of divide is represented by the Lurio Belt, a kinematically poorly constrained shear zone that also marks the conceptual northern limit of frequent late-tectonic granitoid intrusions. Moreover, far-travelled granulite-facies nappes cover a much larger area north of this belt (Viola et. al, 2008), giving rise to the assumption of different exhumation and present exposure levels. U/Pb data from previous surveys (e.g., Norconsult consortium, 2007) show coeval high-grade metamorphism in the whole region between c. 610 - 550 Ma, while the block south of the Lurio Belt also shows continuing metamorphism until c. 490 Ma that can be related to extension. Geothermobarometry for samples from within the Lurio Belt (Engvik et. al, 2007) indicates rapid exhumation after high-pressure granulite facies metamorphism and is consistant with the assumption of long tectonic activity. A possible model for the outlined pattern is the delamination of the orogenic root only in the southern part, followed by rapid mechanical thinning as well as by isostatic accommodation along the Lurio Belt. A valuable marker was identified in the metasedimentary Mecuburi group that overlies the southern basement. U/Pb analysis of detrital zircons have yielded a maximum deposition age of c. 600 Ma, while metamorphism is recorded until c. 505 Ma. Investigations of the relationship between metasediments and older basement show that the basal contact is a fairly preserved depositional contact, allowing to suppose a conjoint post-depositional evolution. It is notable that the timing of deposition shortly follows the onset of the main, widespread high-grade metamorphism. Relatively high but variable degrees of migmatisation in the Mecuburi Group require a phase of burial from surface to deep levels after 600 Ma, followed by

  12. High-energy outer radiation belt dynamic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Y.T.; Nightingale, R.W.; Rinaldi, M.A.


    Specification of the average high-energy radiation belt environment in terms of phenomenological montages of satellite measurements has been available for some time. However, for many reasons both scientific and applicational (including concerns for a better understanding of the high-energy radiatino background in space), it is desirable to model the dynamic response of the high-energy radiation belts to sources, to losses, and to geomagnetic activity. Indeed, in the outer electron belt, this is the only mode of modeling that can handle the large intensity fluctuations. Anticipating the dynamic modeling objective of the upcoming Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) program, we have undertaken to initiate the study of the various essential elements in constructing a dynamic radiation belt model based on interpretation of satellite data according to simultaneous radial and pitch-angle diffusion theory. In order to prepare for the dynamic radiation belt modeling based on a large data set spanning a relatively large segment of L-values, such as required for CRRES, it is important to study a number of test cases with data of similar characteristics but more restricted in space-time coverage. In this way, models of increasing comprehensiveness can be built up from the experience of elucidating the dynamics of more restrictive data sets. The principal objectives of this paper are to discuss issues concerning dynamic modeling in general and to summarize in particular the good results of an initial attempt at constructing the dynamics of the outer electron radiation belt based on a moderately active data period from Lockheed's SC-3 instrument flown on board the SCATHA (P78-2) spacecraft. Further, we shall discuss the issues brought out and lessons learned in this test case

  13. Personal Safety and Teacher/Student Relationships Viewed through Black/White Framework in a Suburban Middle School, an Exploratory Study (United States)

    Mester, Dana C.; Spruill, Sherill A.; Giani, Joseph; Morote, Elsa-Sofia; Inserra, Albert


    This study explored the perceptions of teacher-student relationships and personal student safety differences between Caucasian and African-American middle school students. The research was conducted using a survey in a suburban middle class school on Long Island, New York. Twenty-eight of 176 Caucasian students were chosen through random sampling…

  14. Pan-African deformations in the basement of the Negele area, southern Ethiopia (United States)

    Yihunie, Tadesse


    Polydeformed and metamorphosed Neoproterozoic rocks of the East African Orogen in the Negele area constituted three lithostructurally distinct and thrust-bounded terranes. These are, from west to east, the Kenticha, Alghe and Bulbul terranes. The Kenticha and Bulbul terranes are metavolcano-sedimentary and ultramafic sequences, representing parts of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS), which are welded to the central Alghe gneissic terrane of the Mozambique Belt affinity along N-S-trending sheared thrust contacts. Structural data suggest that the Negele basement had evolved through three phases of deformation. During D1 (folding) deformation, north-south upright and inclined folds with north-trending axes were developed. East and west-verging thrusts, right-lateral shearing along the north-oriented Kenticha and Bulbul thrust contacts and related structural elements were developed during D2 (thrusting) deformation. The pervasive D1 event is interpreted to have occurred at 620-610 Ma and the D2 event ended prior to 554 Ma. Right-lateral strike-slips along thrust contacts are interpreted to have been initiated during late D2. During D3, left-lateral strike-slip along the Wadera Shear Zone and respective strike-slip movements along conjugate set of shear zones were developed in the Alghe terrane, and are interpreted to have occurred later than 557 Ma. The structural data suggest that eastward thrusting of the Kenticha and westward tectonic transport of the Bulbul sequences over the Alghe gneissic terrane of the Mozambique Belt, during D2, were accompanied by right-lateral strike-slip displacements along thrust contacts. Right-lateral strike-slip movements along the Kenticha thrust contact, further suggest northward movement of the Kenticha sequence during the Pan-African orogeny in the Neoproterozoic. Left-lateral strike-slip along the orogen-parallel NNE-SSW Wadera Shear Zone and strike-slip movements along a conjugate set of shear zones completed final terrane

  15. Bayesian inference of radiation belt loss timescales. (United States)

    Camporeale, E.; Chandorkar, M.


    Electron fluxes in the Earth's radiation belts are routinely studied using the classical quasi-linear radial diffusion model. Although this simplified linear equation has proven to be an indispensable tool in understanding the dynamics of the radiation belt, it requires specification of quantities such as the diffusion coefficient and electron loss timescales that are never directly measured. Researchers have so far assumed a-priori parameterisations for radiation belt quantities and derived the best fit using satellite data. The state of the art in this domain lacks a coherent formulation of this problem in a probabilistic framework. We present some recent progress that we have made in performing Bayesian inference of radial diffusion parameters. We achieve this by making extensive use of the theory connecting Gaussian Processes and linear partial differential equations, and performing Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of radial diffusion parameters. These results are important for understanding the role and the propagation of uncertainties in radiation belt simulations and, eventually, for providing a probabilistic forecast of energetic electron fluxes in a Space Weather context.

  16. Optimal control of operation efficiency of belt conveyor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shirong; Xia, Xiaohua


    The improvement of the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems can be achieved at equipment or operation levels. Switching control and variable speed control are proposed in literature to improve energy efficiency of belt conveyors. The current implementations mostly focus on lower level control loops or an individual belt conveyor without operational considerations at the system level. In this paper, an optimal switching control and a variable speed drive (VSD) based optimal control are proposed to improve the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems at the operational level, where time-of-use (TOU) tariff, ramp rate of belt speed and other system constraints are considered. A coal conveying system in a coal-fired power plant is taken as a case study, where great saving of energy cost is achieved by the two optimal control strategies. Moreover, considerable energy saving resulting from VSD based optimal control is also proved by the case study.

  17. Optimal control of operation efficiency of belt conveyor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shirong [Department of Automation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Xia, Xiaohua [Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa)


    The improvement of the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems can be achieved at equipment or operation levels. Switching control and variable speed control are proposed in literature to improve energy efficiency of belt conveyors. The current implementations mostly focus on lower level control loops or an individual belt conveyor without operational considerations at the system level. In this paper, an optimal switching control and a variable speed drive (VSD) based optimal control are proposed to improve the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems at the operational level, where time-of-use (TOU) tariff, ramp rate of belt speed and other system constraints are considered. A coal conveying system in a coal-fired power plant is taken as a case study, where great saving of energy cost is achieved by the two optimal control strategies. Moreover, considerable energy saving resulting from VSD based optimal control is also proved by the case study. (author)

  18. Belt conveyor dynamics in transient operation for speed control


    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.


    Belt conveyors play an important role in continuous dry bulk material transport, especially at the mining industry. Speed control is expected to reduce the energy consumption of belt conveyors. Transient operation is the operation of increasing or decreasing conveyor speed for speed control. According to literature review, current research rarely takes the conveyor dynamics in transient operation into account. However, in belt conveyor speed control, the conveyor dynamic behaviors are signifi...

  19. Deconstructing the conveyor belt. (United States)

    Lozier, M Susan


    For the past several decades, oceanographers have embraced the dominant paradigm that the ocean's meridional overturning circulation operates like a conveyor belt, transporting cold waters equatorward at depth and warm waters poleward at the surface. Within this paradigm, the conveyor, driven by changes in deepwater production at high latitudes, moves deep waters and their attendant properties continuously along western boundary currents and returns surface waters unimpeded to deepwater formation sites. A number of studies conducted over the past few years have challenged this paradigm by revealing the vital role of the ocean's eddy and wind fields in establishing the structure and variability of the ocean's overturning. Here, we review those studies and discuss how they have collectively changed our view of the simple conveyor-belt model.

  20. The characters of superficial exposure belt on the Yangtze platform margin and the genesis of micro-stalactite in cracks during late ladinian in Guizhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Jiafei; Wei Jiayong; Hu Ruizhong


    The superficial exposure belt experienced a longer time (about l Ma years), and formed a larger thickness (lt is usually between 100-150 m, the largest thickness is about 180 m) during late ladinian of Middle Triassic. There are very clear exposure features-the vadose pisolite, fenestral (birdeye) structure, middle-big type teepee structure, karst breccia. This is evidently a calcareous weathering crust under damp-semidamp climate condition at swell region. There are the micro-stalactite with three types: the drapestone, the dripstone, and the flowstone in cracks of the exposure belt. Their 18 O isotope composition is usually about -10‰ (PDB), 13 C isotope composition is generally between 1.5-2‰ (PDB). The 18 O isotope composition indicates that micro-stalactites are formed by fresh-water, but 13 C has slightly higher value than that of the freshwater sedimentary. This is probably the cause that meteoric water dissolved pro-formed limestone (bedrock) and obtained 13 C. Three shapes of the micro-stalactite above mentioned are typical fresh-water sedimentary in features of petrology. Thus the micro-stalactites are fresh water deposits proved by the characters of 18 O and 13 C isotope composition and petrology of micro-stalactite. (authors)

  1. U-Pb zircon geochronology of Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous extension-related silicic volcanism in the northern New England Fold Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, S.E.; Holcombe, R.J.; Fielding, C.R.; Allen, C.M.


    Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis of zircons confirm a Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous age (ca 360-350 Ma) for silicic volcanic rocks of the Campwyn Volcanics and Yarrol terrane of the northern New England Fold Belt (Queensland). These rocks are coeval with silicic volcanism recorded elsewhere in the fold belt at this time (Connors Arch, Drummond Basin). The new U-Pb zircon ages, in combination with those from previous studies, show that silicic magmatism was both widespread across the northern New England Fold Belt (>250 000 km 2 and >500 km inboard of plate margin) and protracted, occurring over a period of -15 million years. Zircon inheritance is commonplace in the Late Devonian - Early Carboniferous volcanics, reflecting anatectic melting and considerable reworking of continental crust. Inherited zircon components range from ca 370 to ca 2050 Ma, with Middle Devonian (385-370 Ma) zircons being common to almost all dated units. Precambrian zircon components record either Precambrian crystalline crust or sedimentary accumulations that were present above or within the zone of magma formation This contrasts with a lack of significant zircon inheritance in younger Permo-Carboniferous igneous rocks intruded through,and emplaced on top of, the Devonian-Carboniferous successions. The inheritance data and location of these volcanic rocks at the eastern margins of the northern New England Fold Belt, coupled with Sr-Nd, Pb isotopic data and depleted mantle model ages for Late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic magmatism, imply that Precambrian mafic and felsic crustal materials (potentially as old as 2050 Ma), or at the very least Lower Palaeozoic rocks derived from the reworking of Precambrian rocks, comprise basement to the eastern parts of the fold belt. This crustal basement architecture may be a relict from the Late Proterozoic breakup of the Rodinian supercontinent. Copyright (2004) Geological Society of Australia

  2. Design of belt conveyors in bulk terminal applications. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, P J; Ramos, C M


    The main design parameters used for belt conveyors in harbour applications are discussed. Conveyor belting including the carcass, belt cover, belt tension and speed, and safety factors, idlers, conveyor pulleys, motors, fluid couplings and drive arrangements are considered. Technical factors are briefly outlined for the designer to consider to achieve minimum acceptable component service life. A method is discussed to reduce coal degradation investigated using a test chute designed for the purpose of minimizing sized coal degradation at transfer points in the refurbishing of the Durban Coal Terminal. 24 references.

  3. Health Monitoring for Coated Steel Belts in an Elevator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaming Lei


    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of health monitoring for coated steel belts in an elevator system by measuring the electrical resistance of the ropes embedded in the belt. A model on resistance change caused by fretting wear and stress fatigue has been established. Temperature and reciprocating cycles are also taken into consideration when determining the potential strength degradation of the belts. It is proved by experiments that the method could effectively estimate the health degradation of the most dangerous section as well as other ones along the whole belts.

  4. Dairy products and colorectal cancer in middle eastern and north African countries: a systematic review. (United States)

    El Kinany, K; Deoula, M; Hatime, Z; Bennani, B; El Rhazi, K


    This systematic review was conducted to explain the association between dairy products and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in Middle Eastern and North African countries (MENA). The database consulted were PubMed, Clinical Trials, and Cochrane to extract the relevant studies published till the 31stof December 2016, using inclusion and exclusion criteria according to Prisma Protocol. The characteristics of these studies comprised the consumption of all types of dairy products in relation to CRC risk. Seven studies were included in this review. For dairy products overall, no significant association was found. Regarding modern dairy products, included studies found controversial results with OR = 9.88 (95% CI: 3.80-24.65) and OR a  = 0.14 (95% CI: 0.02-0.71). A positive association was reported between traditional dairy products and CRC risk, to OR = 18.66 (95% CI: 3.06-113.86) to OR = 24 (95% CI: 1.74-330.82) to ORa = 1.42 (95% CI: 0.62-3.25), p trend  = 0.03. Calcium was inversely associated with the CRC risk with OR a  = 0.08 (95% CI: 0.04-0.17). This is the first systematic review which illustrated the association between dairy consumption and CRC risk in MENA region. The results were inconsistent and not always homogeneous. Further specified studies may be warranted to address the questions about the association between CRC and dairy products in a specific context of MENA region.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, Robert A.; Ragozzine, Darin; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Holman, Matthew J.


    The identification and characterization of numerous collisional families-clusters of bodies with a common collisional origin-in the asteroid belt has added greatly to the understanding of asteroid belt formation and evolution. More recent study has also led to an appreciation of physical processes that had previously been neglected (e.g., the Yarkovsky effect). Collisions have certainly played an important role in the evolution of the Kuiper Belt as well, though only one collisional family has been identified in that region to date, around the dwarf planet Haumea. In this paper, we combine insights into collisional families from numerical simulations with the current observational constraints on the dynamical structure of the Kuiper Belt to investigate the ideal sizes and locations for identifying collisional families. We find that larger progenitors (r ∼ 500 km) result in more easily identifiable families, given the difficulty in identifying fragments of smaller progenitors in magnitude-limited surveys, despite their larger spread and less frequent occurrence. However, even these families do not stand out well from the background. Identifying families as statistical overdensities is much easier than characterizing families by distinguishing individual members from interlopers. Such identification seems promising, provided the background population is well known. In either case, families will also be much easier to study where the background population is small, i.e., at high inclinations. Overall, our results indicate that entirely different techniques for identifying families will be needed for the Kuiper Belt, and we provide some suggestions.

  6. Coal belt options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Whether moving coal long distances overland or short distances in-plant, belt conveyors will always be in demand. The article reports on recent systems developments and applications by Beumer, Horizon Conveyor Equipment, Conveyor Dynamics, Doppelmayr Transport Technology, Enclosed Bulk Systems, ContiTech and Bateman Engineered Technologies. 2 photos.

  7. A Parametric Energy Model for Energy Management of Long Belt Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebello Mathaba


    Full Text Available As electricity prices continue to rise, the increasing need for energy management requires better understanding of models for energy-consuming applications, such as conveyor belts. Conveyor belts are used in a wide range of industries, including power generation, mining and mineral processing. Conveyor technological advances are leading to increasingly long conveyor belts being commissioned. Thus, the energy consumption of each individual belt conveyor unit is becoming increasingly significant. This paper proposes a generic energy model for belt conveyors with long troughed belts. The model has a two-parameter power equation, and it uses a partial differential equation to capture the variable amount of material mass per unit length throughout the belt length. Verification results show that the power consumption calculations of the newly proposed simpler model are consistent with those of a known non-linear model with an error of less than 4%. The online parameter identification set-up of the model is proposed. Simulations indicate that the parameters can be identified successfully from data with up to 15% measurement noise. Results show that the proposed model gives better predictions of the power consumed and material delivered by a long conveyor belt than the steady-state models in the current literature.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Suglobov


    Full Text Available Purpose. In the study is necessary: 1 to justify aligning drums of a new design of belt conveyors; 2 to develop a method for calculating and determining the rational design parameters of drums depending on the technical parameters of the conveyor belt (the length of the conveyor, belt width, the performance of the conveyor, the diameter of the drive and tension drums, etc.; 3 to carry out pilot studies of efficiency conveyor belt in a production environment in order to determine the magnitude of dynamic loads and a comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of the centering ability of conventional and new designs of drums. Methodology. To substantiate the effectiveness of the centering ability of the drums of a new design by the authors developed a mathematical model of interaction of the tape with the drum. Mathematical simulation of tape reels with new design comes to drawing up a differential equation of the belt based on the dynamic component and restoring force. This model allowed us to estimate the movement of the tape in the transverse direction based on the calculated additional dynamic loads and forces on the investigated centering a conveyor belt with given specifications. For the first time the technique of calculating and determining the rational parameters of the drums, which allows determining the design parameters of the centering portions, depending on the mechanical properties and geometric parameters of the tape. Findings. With the help of mathematical modeling the scientifically substantiated effect of centering the ability of the new design of the drum, which ensures stable tape running along the longitudinal axis of the conveyor. The authors made the following conclusions: 1 the mathematical model of interaction with the new belt design of the drum, which allowed to describe the belt in the transverse direction in view of additional dynamic loads and renewable power was developed; 2 the method of calculation and

  9. Development of the Philippine Mobile Belt in northern Luzon from Eocene to Pliocene (United States)

    Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Peña, Rolando E.; Tam, Tomas A.; Yumul, Graciano P.; Dimalanta, Carla B.; Usui, Mayumi; Ishida, Keisuke


    The origin of the Philippine Archipelago is characterized by the combination of the oceanic Philippine Mobile Belt (PMB) and the Palawan Continental Block (PCB). This paper is focused on the geologic evolution of the PMB in northern Luzon from Eocene to Pliocene. The study areas (northern Luzon) are situated in the central part of the PMB which is occupied by its typical components made up of a pre-Paleocene ophiolitic complex, Eocene successions, Eocene to Oligocene igneous complex and late Oligocene to Pliocene successions. Facies analysis of the middle Eocene and late Oligocene to early Pliocene successions was carried out to understand the depositional environment of their basins. Modal sandstone compositions, which reflect the basement geology of the source area, were analyzed. Major element geochemistry of sediments was considered to reconstruct the tectonic settings. The following brief history of the PMB is deduced. During the middle Eocene, the PMB was covered by mafic volcanic rocks and was a primitive island arc. In late Eocene to late Oligocene time, the intermediate igneous complex was added to the mafic PMB crust. By late Oligocene to early Miocene time, the PMB had evolved into a volcanic island arc setting. Contributions from alkalic rocks are detected from the rock fragments in the sandstones and chemical composition of the Zigzag Formation. During the middle Miocene to Pliocene, the tectonic setting of the PMB remained as a mafic volcanic island arc.

  10. The crust role at Paramillos Altos intrusive belt: Sr and Pb isotope evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostera, H.A.; Linares, E; Haller, M.J; Cagnoni, M.C


    Paramillos Altos Intrusive Belt (PAIB) (Ostera, 1996) is located in the thick skinned folded-thrust belt of Malargue, southwestern Mendoza, Argentina. Geochemical, geochronologic and isotopic studies were carried out in it (Ostera 1996, 1997, Ostera et al. 1999; Ostera et al. 2000) and these previous papers suggested a minor involvement of the crust in the genesis of the PAIB. According with Ostera et al. (2000) it is composed by stocks, laccoliths, dykes and sills which range in composition from diorites to granodiorites, and from andesites to rhyolites, and divided in five Members, which range in age from Middle Miocene to Early Miocene: a- Calle del Yeso Dyke Complex (CYDC), with sills and dykes of andesitic composition (age: 20±2 Ma). b- Puchenque-Atravesadas Intrusive Complex (PAIC), composed by dykes and stocks ranging from diorites to granodiorites (age: 12.5±1 Ma). c- Arroyo Serrucho Stock (SAS), an epizonal and zoned stock, with four facies, with K/Ar and Ar/Ar dates of 10±1 and 9.5±0.5 Ma. d- Portezuelo de los Cerros Bayos (PCB), that includes porphyritic rocks of rhyolitic composition, of 7.5±0.5 Ma. e- Cerro Bayo Vitrophyres (CBV), with andesitic sills and dykes (age: 4.8±0.2 Ma). We present in this paper new Sr and Pb isotopes data that constrain the evolution of the PAIB (au)

  11. Energy saving for belt conveyors by speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.


    Belt conveyors are widely used in bulk solids handling and conveying systems. Considering the extensive use of belt conveyors, their operations involve a large amount of energy. Taking the relevant economic and social challenges into account, there is a strong demand for lowering the energy

  12. Angle stations in or for endless conveyor belts (United States)

    Steel, Alan


    In an angle station for an endless conveyor belt, there are presented to each incoming run of the belt stationary curved guide members (18, 19) of the shape of a major segment of a right-circular cylinder and having in the part-cylindrical portion (16 or 17) thereof rectangular openings (15) arranged in parallel and helical paths and through which project small freely-rotatable rollers (14), the continuously-changing segments of the curved surfaces of which projecting through said openings (15) are in attitude to change the direction of travel of the belt (13) through during passage of the belt about the part-cylindrical portion (16 or 17) of the guide member (18 or 19). The rectangular openings (15) are arranged with their longer edges lengthwise of the diagonals representing the mean of the helix but with those of a plurality of the rows nearest to each end of the part-cylindrical portion (16 or 17) slightly out of axial symmetry with said diagonals, being slightly inclined in a direction about the intersections (40) of the diagonals of the main portion of the openings, to provide a "toe-in" attitude in relation to the line of run of the endless conveyor belt.

  13. Seat-belt message and the law? (United States)

    Sengupta, S K; Patil, N G; Law, G


    This paper attempts to draw together available information on the use of seat belts, one of the most important safety devices for a person in a car. Considering the high rate of mortality and morbidity due to road traffic accidents in Papua New Guinea the authors strongly feel that seat-belt usage should be made compulsory. When one looks at the history of the implementation of such a successful countermeasure in other countries it seems that legislation is the only answer.

  14. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with belt of ferro or paramagnetic material (United States)

    Barclay, John A.; Stewart, Walter F.; Henke, Michael D.; Kalash, Kenneth E.


    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 12 to 77K range utilizes a belt which carries ferromagnetic or paramagnetic material and which is disposed in a loop which passes through the center of a solenoidal magnet to achieve cooling. The magnetic material carried by the belt, which can be blocks in frames of a linked belt, can be a mixture of substances with different Curie temperatures arranged such that the Curie temperatures progressively increase from one edge of the belt to the other. This magnetic refrigerator can be used to cool and liquefy hydrogen or other fluids.

  15. Provenance and tectonic setting of the supra-crustal succession of the Qinling Complex: Implications for the tectonic affinity of the North Qinling Belt, Central China (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Huang, Qianwen; Liu, Xijun; Krapež, Bryan; Yu, Jinhai; Bai, Zhian


    The Qinling Complex lies in the Qinling orogenic belt of Central China and holds the key to understanding the evolution of this feature. The Qinling Complex comprises a basement complex composed of amphibolite and ecologite, overlain by a supra-crustal succession that has been metamorphosed to the upper greenschist facies at approximately 516-509 Ma. The protoliths of the meta-sedimentary rocks are graywackes, which are divided into lower, middle and upper units. Detrital zircons from nine samples of the supra-crustal succession have ages ranging from 1182 to 1158 Ma for the lower unit, 957 to 955 Ma for the middle unit and 917 to 840 Ma for the upper unit. The lower unit is intruded by a ca. 960 Ma pluton. The bulk compositions of these meta-sedimentary rocks and their detrital zircon ages clearly indicate derivation from Meso- and Neo-proterozoic granites. Thus, we suggest that the sedimentary succession was derived from an arc-related tectonic setting and that none of the detritus was sourced from the southern margin of the North China Block or from the northern and western margins of the South China Block. We conclude that the North Qinling Belt was an independent micro-continental block during the Meso- to Neo-proterozoic.

  16. Strengthening African Union for African Integration: An African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... in the international state system and seek for African initiative in solving African problems. ... of the African Union by examining the efforts of African Leaders towards African integration, ...

  17. The Petäjäskoski Formation, a new lithostratigraphic unit in the Paleoproterozoic Peräpohja Belt, northern Finland


    Markus Kyläkoski; Eero Hanski; Hannu Huhma


    This paper gives the first description of a newly-recognized, basin-wide metasedimentary unit in the Paleoproterozoic (~2.4–1.9 Ga) Peräpohja Belt, northern Finland. The unit, which is named the Petäjäskoski Formation (PFm) after the single location where the rocks are known to be exposed, is situated stratigraphically in the middle part of the Kivalo Group between the quartzites of the>2.22 Ga Palokivalo Formation and the mafic volcanic rocks of the ~2.1 Ga Jouttiaapa Formation.The bulk of t...

  18. Gan-Hang tectonic belt and its geologic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Jiarui; Zhang Zhiping.


    Gan-Hang tectonic belt is predominantly controlled by Gan-Hang fracture zone. It is mainly composed of Yongfeng-Zhuji downwarping zone, Gan-Hang volcanic activity structural belt and Gan-Hang red basin downfaulted zone. Gan-Hang fracture zone is derived from evolution and development of Shaoxing-Jiangshan deep fracture. It is mainly composed of three deep and large fracture and Fuzhou-Yongfeng large fracture. The fracture zone is a long active belt, but in each active period the geologic structural patterns intensity, depth and forming time were not same. Gan-Hang tectonic belt possesses obvious inheritance. It has always maintained the character of the relative depression or low land since the Caledonian movement. This specific structural environment is favourable for uranium mineralization. At any rate, the formation of this uranium minerogenetic zone has been experiencing a long and complicated processes which were closely associated with long activity of Gan-Hang fracture zone

  19. Magmatic formations in the Okhotsk--Chukotka volcanogenic belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipov, A.P.


    The relationship between the Okhotsk-Chukotka volcanogenic belt of Northeast USSR and the stage of evolution of magnetism and tectonic development of the region are examined. Recognizing the associations of effusive and intrusive rocks that are typical of the southern part of the volcanogenic belt and that are joined together by some characteristic features, a basic plan is presented for examination of the problem of magnetic formations. On the basis of the distinctive characteristics of epigeosynclinal tectonic development of the territory and the sequence of formation of the magmatic rocks within it, three main groups: volcanic, coleanoplutonic, and plutonic, can be distinguished; and a general scheme of development of these types in space and time within the volcanogenic belt can be developed. According to this scheme, four main stages can be recognized in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic magmatic evolution of the Okhotsk-Chukotka belt. This scheme of classification takes into consideration the factor of the structural development of this tectonomagmatic element.

  20. Neogene shortening and exhumation of the Zagros fold-thrust belt and foreland basin in the Kurdistan region of northern Iraq (United States)

    Koshnaw, Renas I.; Horton, Brian K.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Barber, Douglas E.; Tamar-Agha, Mazin Y.; Kendall, Jerome J.


    The Zagros fold-thrust belt in the Kurdistan region of Iraq encroached southward toward a rapidly subsiding Neogene foreland basin and was later partitioned by out-of-sequence shortening focused along the Mountain Front Flexure (MFF), as defined by new low-temperature thermochronologic, stratigraphic, and provenance results. Apatite (U-Th)/He ages document rapid deformation advance from the Main Zagros Fault to southern frontal structures (Kirkuk, Shakal, and Qamar thrusts) at 10-8 Ma, followed by potential basement-involved out-of-sequence development of the MFF (Qaradagh anticline) by 5 Ma. Distinct shifts in detrital zircon U-Pb provenance signatures for Neogene foreland basin fill provide evidence for drainage reorganization during fold-thrust belt advance. U-Pb age spectra and petrologic data from the Injana (Upper Fars) Formation indicate derivation from a variety of Eurasian, Pan-African, ophiolitic and Mesozoic-Cenozoic volcanic terranes, whereas the Mukdadiya (Lower Bakhtiari) and Bai-Hasan (Upper Bakhtiari) Formations show nearly exclusive derivation from the Paleogene Walash-Naopurdan volcanic complex near the Iraq-Iran border. Such a sharp cutoff in Eurasian, Pan-African, and ophiolitic sources is likely associated with drainage reorganization and tectonic development of the geomorphic barrier formed by the MFF. As a result of Zagros crustal shortening, thickening and loading, the Neogene foreland basin developed and accommodated an abrupt influx of fluvial clastic sediment that contains growth stratal evidence of synkinematic accumulation. The apparent out-of-sequence pattern of upper crustal shortening in the hinterland to foreland zone of Iraqi Kurdistan suggests that structural inheritance and the effects of synorogenic erosion and accumulation are important factors influencing the irregular and episodic nature of orogenic growth in the Zagros.

  1. Dynamics of the earth's radiation belts and inner magnetosphere (geophysical monograph series)

    CERN Document Server


    Dynamics of the Earth's Radiation Belts and Inner Magnetosphere draws together current knowledge of the radiation belts prior to the launch of Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RPSP) and other imminent space missions, making this volume timely and unique. The volume will serve as a useful benchmark at this exciting and pivotal period in radiation belt research in advance of the new discoveries that the RPSP mission will surely bring. Highlights include the following: a review of the current state of the art of radiation belt science; a complete and up-to-date account of the wave-particle interactions that control the dynamical acceleration and loss processes of particles in the Earth's radiation belts and inner magnetosphere; a discussion emphasizing the importance of the cross-energy coupling of the particle populations of the radiation belts, ring current, and plasmasphere in controlling the dynamics of the inner magnetosphe...

  2. New Quality Standards of Testing Idlers for Highly Effective Belt Conveyors (United States)

    Król, Robert; Gladysiewicz, Lech; Kaszuba, Damian; Kisielewski, Waldemar


    The paper presents result of research and analyses carried out into the belt conveyors idlers’ rotational resistance which is one of the key factor indicating the quality of idlers. Moreover, idlers’ rotational resistance is important factor in total resistance to motion of belt conveyor. The evaluation of the technical condition of belt conveyor idlers is carried out in accordance with actual national and international standards which determine the methodology of measurements and acceptable values of measured idlers’ parameters. Requirements defined by the standards, which determine the suitability of idlers to a specific application, despite the development of knowledge on idlers and quality of presently manufactured idlers maintain the same level of parameters values over long periods of time. Nowadays the need to implement new, efficient and economically justified solution for belt conveyor transportation systems characterized by long routes and energy-efficiency is often discussed as one of goals in belt conveyors’ future. One of the basic conditions for achieving this goal is to use only carefully selected idlers with low rotational resistance under the full range of operational loads and high durability. Due to this it is necessary to develop new guidelines for evaluation of the technical condition of belt conveyor idlers in accordance with actual standards and perfecting of existing and development of new methods of idlers testing. The changes in particular should concern updating of values of parameters used for evaluation of the technical condition of belt conveyor idlers in relation to belt conveyors’ operational challenges and growing demands in terms of belt conveyors’ energy efficiency.

  3. The Stability of the Conveyor Belt Pontoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří PODEŠVA


    Full Text Available To lead the conveyor belt transport cross water area the pontoon are used to support the carrying structure of the belts. The accident can happen when the pontoon turnover. For this reason the pontoon stability is investigated. The stability is described by the Reed’s diagram. This can be constructed analytically or via numerical modeling. Both methods are described in the paper.

  4. Performance approximation of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. de Koster (René)


    textabstractIn this paper, an approximation method is discussed for the analysis of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems. The aim of the approximation method is to provide an instrument for obtaining rapid insight in the performance of designs of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems. It can be used to

  5. Ambient Response Analysis of the Great Belt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Frandsen, Jeanette B.; Andersen, Palle


    In this paper an ambient response analysis of the Great Belt Bridge is presented. The Great Belt Bridge is one of the largest suspension bridges in the world, and the analysis was carried out in order to investigate the possibilities of estimating reliable damping values from the ambient response...

  6. Overland conveyors. Cable or trough belt for 100 km transport haulage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maton, A.E. [Maton Engineering Pty. Ltd., Orange Grove, WA (Australia)


    With the advances in belt conveyor technology today systems of 100 kilometres length are increasingly being considered. This article provides a comparison of two concepts for a 100 kilometre system of five 20 kilometre flights based on trough belt and cable belt technology. (orig.)

  7. Could we have predicted the recent downturn in the South African housing market?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Das, Sonali


    Full Text Available This paper develops large-scale Bayesian Vector Autoregressive (BVAR) models, based on 268 quarterly series, for forecasting annualized real house price growth rates for large-, medium- and small-middle-segment housing for the South African economy...

  8. Psychosocial Benefits of Cross-Ethnic Friendships in Urban Middle Schools (United States)

    Graham, Sandra; Munniksma, Anke; Juvonen, Jaana


    To examine the unique functions of same- and cross-ethnic friendships, Latino (n = 536) and African American (n = 396) sixth-grade students (M[subscript age] = 11.5 years) were recruited from 66 classrooms in 10 middle schools that varied in ethnic diversity. Participants reported on the number of same- and cross-ethnic friends, perceived…

  9. African-American males in computer science---Examining the pipeline for clogs (United States)

    Stone, Daryl Bryant

    " self-efficacy between lower-level computer science majors and upper-level computer science majors. (5) There is no significant difference in "Computer Science Degree" self-efficacy between each of the five groups of students. Finally, the researcher selected African-American male students attending six primary schools, including the predominately African-American elementary, middle and high school that the researcher attended during his own academic career. Additionally, a racially mixed elementary, middle and high school was selected from the same county in Maryland. Bowie State University provided both the underclass and upperclass computer science majors surveyed in this study. Of the five hypotheses, the sample provided enough evidence to support the claim that there are significant differences in the "Computer Science Degree" self-efficacy between each of the five groups of students. ANOVA analysis by question and total self-efficacy scores provided more results of statistical significance. Additionally, factor analysis and review of the qualitative data provide more insightful results. Overall, the data suggest 'a clog' may exist in the middle school level and students attending racially mixed schools were more confident in their computer, math and science skills. African-American males admit to spending lots of time on social networking websites and emailing, but are 'dis-aware' of the skills and knowledge needed to study in the computing disciplines. The majority of the subjects knew little, if any, AAMs in the 'computing discipline pipeline'. The collegian African-American males, in this study, agree that computer programming is a difficult area and serves as a 'major clog in the pipeline'.

  10. Uranium mineralization environment and prospecting potential of Dawan ore field in Nanling metallogenic belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shanghai


    Located in the middle part of Jiuyishan complex pluton, Nanling metallogenic belt, Dawan uranium ore field in Hunan Province is an important uranium-producing and rare metal, nonferrous metal cluster area due to the favourable mineralization environment. The Cambrian is the main uranium source bed and their contact zone to the pluton is the favorable part for mineralization. The uranium deposits which have been explored are all located in the exocontact zone of Jinjiling pluton in the middle part of Jiuyishan complex pluton which is composed of the independent eastern and western magma evolution centers. In the west center, Jinjiling pluton is closely related to uranium mineralization where the trinity geologic setting was formed with magma evolution, hydrothermal fluid action and mineralization. The deep slitted and large faults provide the pathway and thermodynamic source for circulating migration of mineralizing fluid. The uranium mineralization mainly occurred in crustal stress conversion period of Late Cretaceous and related to the tensive NW extending fault and deep originated fluid. The gravity, aero magnetic, airborne gamma-ray spectrometry anomalies and radioactivity hydrochemical anomaly are important criteria for uranium prospecting. Based on the analysis of regional uranium mineralization environment, the prospecting potential is forecasted. (authors)

  11. Lower Serum DHEAS levels are associated with a higher degree of physical disability and depressive symptoms in middle-aged to older African American women (United States)

    Haren, Matthew T.; Malmstrom, Theodore K.; Banks, William A.; Patrick, Ping; Miller, Douglas K.; Morley, John E.


    Background Changes in androgen levels and associations with chronic disease, physical and neuropsychological function and disability in women over the middle to later years of life are not well understood and have not been extensively studied in African-American women. Aims The present cross-sectional analysis reports such levels and associations in community dwelling, African American women aged 49 – 65 years from St. Louis, Missouri. Methods A home-based physical examination and a health status questionnaire were administered to randomly sampled women. Body composition (DEXA), lower limb and hand-grip muscle strength, physical and neuropsychological function and disability levels were assessed. Blood was drawn and assayed for total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS), oestradiol (E2), adiponectin, leptin, triglycerides, glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP) and cytokine receptors (sIL2r, sIL6r, sTNFr1 & sTNFr2). Multiple linear regression modelling was used to identify the best predictors of testosterone, DHEAS and Free Androgen Index (T/SHBG). Results Seventy-four percent of women were menopausal and a quarter of these were taking oestrogen therapy. DHEAS and E2 declined between the ages of 49 and 65 years, whereas total T, SHBG and FAI remained stable. Total T and DHEAS levels were strongly correlated. In this population sample there were no independent associations of either total T or FAI with indicators of functional limitations, disability or clinically relevant depressive symptoms. Unlike total T and FAI, lower DHEAS levels was independently associated with both higher IADL scores (indicating a higher degree of physical disability) and higher CESD scores (indicating a higher degree of clinically relevant depressive symptoms). Conclusion There is an age-related decline in serum DHEAS in African-American women. Lower DHEAS levels appear to be associated with a higher degree of physical disability and

  12. Provenance of detrital zircons from the Ribeira and Dom Feliciano Belts, comparison with African equivalents and implications on Western Gondwana amalgamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, M.; Frimmel, H.E.; Nutman, A.P.; Preciozzi, F.


    The geologic make-up of southern Brazil has been defined by processes related to the Brasiliano orogenic cycle and, in particular, to con tractional tectonic events that led to the amalgamation of different terranes, which culminated in the formation of Western Gondwana (Campos Neto and Figueiredo, 1995; Brito Neves and Cordani, 1991; Brito Neves et al, 1999, Campos Neto, 2000). Polycyclic deformation and metamorphism that masked the characteristics, including the age records, of the protoliths were associated with the juxtaposition of these different terranes. Ophiolitic remains and magmatic arc roots signal the existence of fossil subduction and collision zones, whereas intense post-tectonic to an orogenic granitic magmatism marks the end of the orogenic cycle towards the end of the Neoproterozoic Era. U-Pb dating of domains within single zircon grains has proven to be a very powerful tool for the unraveling of the complex tecto no-thermal evolution as well as in characterizing the provenance of the original sediments. This is due to the high resistance to weathering and to high closure temperatures with respect to the U-Pb isotope system in zircon. Over the past decade, the standard technique for this analytical approach has become the analyses of U-Pb isotope ratios by SHRIMP, preceded by cathodoluminescence analysis (McClaren et al 1994). In this study, a set of 11 new SHRIMP analyses on detrital zircon grains from the major metasedimentary units of the Ribeira and Dom Feliciano Belts of the southeastern portion of South America is presented and the data are compared with available analyses for the Gariep Belt (Basei et al. 2005) and a new analysis for the Damara Belt. Combined with available Sm-Nd bulk rock isotope data, the results will form the basis for a revised tectonic model for the formation of Western Gondwana

  13. Belt Conveyor Dynamic Characteristics and Influential Factors


    Li, Junxia; Pang, Xiaoxu


    This paper uses the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic model to establish the continuous dynamic equations for tail hammer tension belt conveyors. The viscoelastic continuity equations are solved using the generalized coordinate method. We analyze various factors influencing longitudinal vibration of the belt conveyor by simulation and propose a control strategy to limit the vibration. The proposed approach and control strategy were verified by several experimental researches and cases. The proposed a...

  14. Pb-Pb age and Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotope signature of paleoproterozoic syenitic plutonism in the south of Salvador-Curaca mobile belt: Sao Felix Syenitic Massif, Bahia-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Maria de Lourdes da Silva; Conceicao, Herbet; Leal, Luiz Rogerio Bastos


    The Sao Felix Syenitic Massif (MSSF) has a tabular shape with about 32 km 2 that represents the south expression of the aligned syenitic plutonism, which occur in the middle part of Salvador-Curaca mobile belt (CMSC). Single zircon dating by stepwise Pb evaporation methodology yields an age of 2098 ± 1 Ma to SFSM. This data correlate the emplacement of the SFSM with the late stages of SCMB stabilization. This massif is isotopically characterized by negative epsilon neodymium values (-1.45 to -2.89) and low initial strontium ratio (0.701 to 0.704). SFSM isotopic signature is similar to the ones displayed by the others syenites from the belt and reflects an enriched source which should be related to a metasomatic enriched mantle. (author)

  15. Roll-front uranium occurrences of the South Texas Mineral Belt: Development of a database for mineral potential modelling and quantitative resource assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalasky, M.


    The South Texas Mineral Belt in the United States is a broad curvilinear region of marginal-marine roll-front sandstone uranium occurrences. Located ~130 km inland, the belt parallels the Gulf of Mexico coastline and extends from southeast Texas to Mexico. It trends northeast-southwest and is about 400 km long and 10-50 km wide as delineated by alignments and clusters of occurrences, but ~100 km wide if outlying occurrences are included. The occurrences are hosted in coastal plain sediments and rocks of Tertiary age that dip gently towards the Gulf. These include the Lower Eocene Wilcox Group, Middle Eocene Claiborne Group, Upper Eocene Jackson Group, Upper Oligocene–Miocene Catahoula Tuff, Lower Miocene Oakville Sandstone, and Pliocene Goliad Sand. Older sequences are mixed fluvial-beach facies, whereas younger are dominantly fluvial. Occurrence distribution is controlled by host unit strike and dip, and permeable sequences therein, and by a combination of growth faults and locations of reductants.

  16. Plutonic rocks in the Mineoka-Setogawa ophiolitic mélange, central Japan: Fragments of middle to lower crust of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc? (United States)

    Ichiyama, Yuji; Ito, Hisatoshi; Hokanishi, Natsumi; Tamura, Akihiro; Arai, Shoji


    A Paleogene accretionary complex, the Mineoka-Setogawa Belt, is distributed around the Izu Collision Zone, central Japan. Plutonic rocks of gabbro, diorite and tonalite compositions are included as fragments and dykes in an ophiolitic mélange in this belt. Zircon U-Pb dating of the plutonic rocks indicates that they were formed at ca. 35 Ma simultaneously. These ages are consistent with Eocene-Oligocene tholeiite and calc-alkaline arc magmatism in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) Arc and exclude several previous models for the origin of the Mineoka-Setogawa ophiolitic rocks. The geochemical characteristics of these plutonic rocks are similar to those of the Eocene-Oligocene IBM tholeiite and calc-alkaline volcanic rocks as well as to the accreted middle crust of the IBM Arc, the Tanzawa Plutonic Complex. Moreover, their lithology is consistent with those of the middle and lower crust of the IBM Arc estimated from the seismic velocity structure. These lines of evidence strongly indicate that the plutonic rocks in the Mineoka-Setogawa ophiolitic mélange are fragments of the middle to lower crust of the IBM Arc. Additionally, the presence of the Mineoka-Setogawa intermediate to felsic plutonic rocks supports the hypothesis that intermediate magma can form continental crust in intra-oceanic arcs.

  17. 30 CFR 14.22 - Test for flame resistance of conveyor belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test for flame resistance of conveyor belts. 14..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE APPROVAL OF FLAME-RESISTANT CONVEYOR BELTS Technical Requirements § 14.22 Test for flame resistance of conveyor belts. (a) Test procedures. The test...

  18. The thrust belts of Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulton, F.C.


    Most of the Basin and Range physiographic province of western North America is now believed to be part of the overthrust. The more obvious overthrust belt along the eastern edge of the Basin and Range Province is named the Sevier orogenic belt, where older rocks are observed thrust onto younger rocks. More detailed surface geological mapping, plus deep multiple-fold geophysical work and many oil and gas wildcat wells, have confirmed an east-vergent shortened and stacked sequence is present in many places in the Basin and Range. This western compressive deformed area in east central Nevada is now named the Elko orogenic belt by the U.S. Geological Survey. This older compressed Elko orogenic belt started forming approximately 250 m.y. ago when the North American plate started to move west as the Pangaea supercontinent started to fragment. The North American plate moved west under the sediments of the Miogeocline that were also moving west. Surface-formed highlands and oceanic island arcs on the west edge of the North American plate restricted the westward movement of the sediments in the Miogeocline, causing east-vergent ramp thrusts to form above the westward-moving North American plate. The flat, eastward-up-cutting thrust assemblages moved on the detachment surfaces.

  19. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abe


    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon- fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning

  20. Security Belt for Wireless Implantable Medical Devices. (United States)

    Kulaç, Selman


    In this study, a new protective design compatible with existing non-secure systems was proposed, since it is focused on the secure communication of wireless IMD systems in all transmissions. This new protector is an external wearable device and appears to be a belt fitted around for the patients IMD implanted. However, in order to provide effective full duplex transmissions and physical layer security, some sophisticated transceiver antennas have been placed on the belt. In this approach, beam-focused multi-antennas in optimal positions on the belt are randomly switched when transmissions to the IMD are performed and multi-jammer switching with MRC combining or majority-rule based receiving techniques are applied when transmissions from the IMD are carried out. This approach can also reduce the power consumption of the IMDs and contribute to the prolongation of the IMD's battery life.

  1. Van Allen Probes Mission Space Academy: Educating middle school students about Earth's mysterious radiation belts (United States)

    Butler, L.; Turney, D.; Matiella Novak, A.; Smith, D.; Simon, M.


    How's the weather in space? Why on Earth did NASA send two satellites above Earth to study radiation belts and space weather? To learn the answer to questions about NASA's Van Allen Probes mission, 450 students and their teachers from Maryland middle schools attended Space Academy events highlighting the Van Allen Probes mission. Sponsored by the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and Discovery Education, the events are held at the APL campus in Laurel, MD. Space Academies take students and teachers on behind-the-scenes exploration of how spacecraft are built, what they are designed to study, and introduces them to the many professionals that work together to create some of NASA's most exciting projects. Moderated by a public relations representative in the format of an official NASA press conference, the daylong event includes a student press conference with students as reporters and mission experts as panelists. Lunch with mission team members gives students a chance to ask more questions. After lunch, students don souvenir clean room suits, enjoy interactive science demonstrations, and tour APL facilities where the Van Allen Probes were built and tested before launch. Students may even have an opportunity to peek inside a clean room to view spacecraft being assembled. Prior to the event, teachers are provided with classroom activities, lesson plans, and videos developed by APL and Discovery Education to help prepare students for the featured mission. The activities are aligned to National Science Education Standards and appropriate for use in the classroom. Following their visit, student journalists are encouraged to write a short article about their field trip; selections are posted on the Space Academy web site. Designed to engage, inspire, and influence attitudes about space science and STEM careers, Space Academies provide an opportunity to attract underserved populations and emphasize that space science is for everyone. Exposing students to a diverse group of

  2. The use of seat belts and contributing factors : an international comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkinen, T. Wittink, R.D. & Hagenzieker, M.P.


    The purpose of this study was to define factors that contribute to the use or non-use of seat belts. Legislation prescribing compulsory seat belt usage is one of the most important factors. Promotion of the use of seat belts without this legislation is very difficult and time-consuming. So far, the

  3. Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia. (United States)

    White, Tim D; Asfaw, Berhane; DeGusta, David; Gilbert, Henry; Richards, Gary D; Suwa, Gen; Howell, F Clark


    The origin of anatomically modern Homo sapiens and the fate of Neanderthals have been fundamental questions in human evolutionary studies for over a century. A key barrier to the resolution of these questions has been the lack of substantial and accurately dated African hominid fossils from between 100,000 and 300,000 years ago. Here we describe fossilized hominid crania from Herto, Middle Awash, Ethiopia, that fill this gap and provide crucial evidence on the location, timing and contextual circumstances of the emergence of Homo sapiens. Radioisotopically dated to between 160,000 and 154,000 years ago, these new fossils predate classic Neanderthals and lack their derived features. The Herto hominids are morphologically and chronologically intermediate between archaic African fossils and later anatomically modern Late Pleistocene humans. They therefore represent the probable immediate ancestors of anatomically modern humans. Their anatomy and antiquity constitute strong evidence of modern-human emergence in Africa.

  4. Transactional Process of African American Adolescents' Family Conflict and Violent Behavior. (United States)

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Zimmerman, Marc A


    This is the first longitudinal study of urban African American adolescents that has examined bidirectional effects between their family conflict and violent behavior across all of high school. Structured interviews were administered to 681 students each year in high school at ages 15, 16 17, and 18 years. We used structural equation modeling to test a transactional model and found bidirectional effects between family conflict and violent behavior across the middle years of high school, while accounting for sex and socioeconomic status. Findings suggest a reciprocal process involving interpersonal conflict in African American families and adolescent engagement in youth violence.

  5. The evolution of Saturn's radiation belts modulated by changes in radial diffusion (United States)

    Kollmann, P.; Roussos, E.; Kotova, A.; Paranicas, C.; Krupp, N.


    Globally magnetized planets, such as the Earth1 and Saturn2, are surrounded by radiation belts of protons and electrons with kinetic energies well into the million electronvolt range. The Earth's proton belt is supplied locally from galactic cosmic rays interacting with the atmosphere3, as well as from slow inward radial transport4. Its intensity shows a relationship with the solar cycle4,5 and abrupt dropouts due to geomagnetic storms6,7. Saturn's proton belts are simpler than the Earth's because cosmic rays are the principal source of energetic protons8 with virtually no contribution from inward transport, and these belts can therefore act as a prototype to understand more complex radiation belts. However, the time dependence of Saturn's proton belts had not been observed over sufficiently long timescales to test the driving mechanisms unambiguously. Here we analyse the evolution of Saturn's proton belts over a solar cycle using in-situ measurements from the Cassini Saturn orbiter and a numerical model. We find that the intensity in Saturn's proton radiation belts usually rises over time, interrupted by periods that last over a year for which the intensity is gradually dropping. These observations are inconsistent with predictions based on a modulation in the cosmic-ray source, as could be expected4,9 based on the evolution of the Earth's proton belts. We demonstrate that Saturn's intensity dropouts result instead from losses due to abrupt changes in magnetospheric radial diffusion.

  6. Crustal evolution in north-east and east Africa from model Nd ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, N.B.W.; Hawkesworth, C.J.; Ries, A.C.


    The authors present the results of an Nd isotope study on the major rock units of the Pan-African (1,100-500 Myr BP) terrane. Charnockites from Jabel Uweinat, a basement inlier at the junction of Egypt, Libya and the Sudan, yield middle Archaean model Nd ages, whilst model ages of < 1,200 Myr have been obtained in a belt from the Eastern Desert of Egypt to north-west Kenya. Overall, the Pan-African rocks from north-east and east Africa and those from the Damara of Namibia exhibit a wide range of epsilonsub(Nd)(T) from +7.5 to -18.0 which reflects regional changes in tectonic style and is not readily reconciled with simple models for the evolution of average continental crust. (author)

  7. Virulence Factors of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Comparison between African and French Invasive Isolates and Implication for Future Vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Blumental

    Full Text Available Many surface proteins thought to promote Streptocococcus pneumoniae virulence have recently been discovered and are currently being considered as future vaccine targets. We assessed the prevalence of 16 virulence genes among 435 S. pneumoniae invasive isolates from France and the "African meningitis belt" region, with particular focus on serotype 1 (Sp1, to compare their geographical distribution, assess their association with site of infection and evaluate their potential interest as new vaccine candidates.Detection by PCR of pspA (+families, pspC (+pspC.4, pavA, lytA, phtA,B,D,E, nanA,B,C, rrgA (Pilus-1, sipA (Pilus-2, pcpA and psrp was performed on all isolates, as well as antibiotic resistance testing and MLVA typing (+MLST on 54 representative strains. Determination of ply alleles was performed by sequencing (Sp1 isolates.MLVA and virulence genes profiles segregated Sp1 isolates into 2 groups that followed continent distribution. The ply allele 5 and most of the genes that were variable (nanC, Pilus-2, psrp, pcpA, phtD were present in the French Sp1 isolates (PMEN clone Sweden(1-28, ST306 but absent from the African ones. Whereas all African Sp1 isolates clustered into a single MLST CC (CC217, MLVA distinguished two CCs that followed temporal evolution. Pilus-2 and psrp were more prevalent in bacteraemic pneumonia yielded isolates and phtB in meningitis-related isolates. Considering vaccine candidates, phtD was less prevalent than anticipated (50% and pcpA varied importantly between France and Africa (98% versus 34%. Pilus-1 was carried by 7-11% of isolates and associated with β-lactams resistance.Most virulence genes were carried by the European ST306 clone but were lacking on Sp1 isolates circulating in the African meningitis belt, where a more serious pattern of infection is observed. While virulence proteins are now considered as vaccine targets, the geographical differences in their prevalence could affect the efficacy expected from

  8. Geological characteristics of dike-structural belt in Taoshan orefield and its relationship to uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wanliang; Zou Maoqing; Shao Fei; Nie Bin


    Taoshan uranium field is occurred in the Taoshan composite batholith in the central Jiangxi Province. The main body of the batholith was formed in Triassic-Early Cretaceous. In Late Cretaceous-Eogene, NE strike fault structure and dike belt were developed in the batholith. From the north to the south, there are successive Xiaobu-Matian dike-structural belt, Wangnitian dike- structural belt, Huangtan-Yueyuan dike-structural belt, Xibei-Shangluo dike-structural belt, Jipoling dike-structural belt, Wangce dike-structural belt and Shiyuanling dike-structural belt. These belts are controlled by the main fault, share the same space and similar time with the uranium mineralization, which is one of the important factors in positioning the uranium ore as well as the prospecting direction of exploration. (authors)

  9. Belt conveyor dynamics in transient operation for speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.


    Belt conveyors play an important role in continuous dry bulk material transport, especially at the mining industry. Speed control is expected to reduce the energy consumption of belt conveyors. Transient operation is the operation of increasing or decreasing conveyor speed for speed control.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The car is the second (40% most common mode of transportation in Malaysia. In terms of fatal road accidents, car drivers constitute about 9.0% and passengers 13.6% of fatalities. The major cause of car occupants' fatality in such accidents is head injuries, which consist of more than half (56.4% of the fatalities. Thus restraining the head and body, the initial position is the most important injury control strategy for car users. The use of seat belts was deemed one of the most effective ways to reduce road accident fatalities in Malaysia and consequently the mandatory seat belt law was enforced in the early seventies. Therefore, a study on factors influencing the compliance behaviour of seat belt use among cars is needed as to date no such research has been undertaken in Malaysia. A questionnaire study was carried out in Selangor, Malaysia on the compliance behaviour of car occupants in relation to seat belt use. A total of 237 respondents were interviewed and the data analysed using logistic regression method. Six variables were found to be significant at 5 percent level (p<0.05: seating position, location of travel, education level, speeding, night-time driving and enforcement. Compliance with the seat belt law was higher among drivers, educated car users, in the presence of enforcement activities, travelling in city-center areas and car users with a positive attitude towards the risks of speeding and night driving.

  11. A basin on an unstable ground: Correlation of the Middle Archaean Moodies Basin, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa (United States)

    Ohnemueller, Frank; Heubeck, Christoph; Kirstein, Jens; Gamper, Antonia


    The 3.22 Ga-old Moodies Group, representing the uppermost part of the Barberton Supergroup of the Barberton Greenstone Belt (BGB), is the oldest well-exposed, relatively unmetamorphosed, quartz-rich sedimentary unit on Earth. Moodies facies (north of the Inyoka Fault) were thought to be largely of alluvial, fluvial, deltaic or shallow-marine origin (Anhaeusser, 1976; Eriksson, 1980; Heubeck and Lowe, 1994) and in its upper part syndeformational. However, units can only locally be correlated, and the understanding of the interplay between Moodies sedimentation and deformation is thus limited. We mapped and measured Moodies units in the northern BGB. They partly consist of extensive turbiditic deepwater deposits, including graded bedding, flame structures, and slumped beds, interbedded with jaspilites. These contrast with shallow-water environments, south-facing progressive unconformities and overlying alluvial-fan conglomerates along the northern margin of the Saddleback Syncline further south. The palaeogeographic setting in which late BGB deformation was initiated therefore appears complex and cannot be readily explained by a simple southward-directed shortening event. In order to constrain Moodies basin setting before and during late-Moodies basin collapse, we correlated ~15 measured sections in the northern and central BGB. Most units below the Moodies Lava (MdL, ca. 3230.6+-6 Ma) can be correlated throughout although facies variations are apparent. Above the Moodies Lava, coarse-grained units can only be correlated through the Eureka Syncline and the Moodies Hills Block but not with the Saddleback Syncline. Fine-grained and jaspilitic units can be correlated throughout the northern BGB. Moodies below-wavebase deposition occurred largely north of the Saddleback Fault. The observations are consistent with a pronounced basin compartmentalization event following the eruption of the MdL which appeared to have blanketed most of the Moodies basin(s) in middle Moodies

  12. International survey of seat belt use exemptions. (United States)

    Weiss, H; Sirin, H; Levine, J A; Sauber, E


    Substantial evidence of seatbelt efficacy has been shown by several studies, and it is widely recommended that motor vehicle occupants use properly fitted seat belts. However, some (but a heretofore unknown number of) countries with national seat belt laws permit various exemptions which may lower use rates. The aim of this study was to survey the variety of exemptions to national seat belt laws. This investigation relied on identifying respondents from national traffic safety agencies, other governmental and non-governmental organizations, Internet searches, personal contacts, and other sources. Questionnaires were deployed through a web based survey supplemented by email and postal versions. Responses were received from 30 countries of which 28 (93.7%) had a national seat belt law. About two thirds (63.7%) of the 28 national laws applied to both front and back seat passengers. The leading exemption types included vehicles made before a certain year (n = 13), antique vehicles (n = 12), military vehicles (n = 11), buses (n = 9), and emergency vehicles (n = 8). Most responding countries reported one or more specific categories of individuals as exempt including those with medical exemptions (n = 20), taxi drivers (n = 11), police (n = 9), emergency medical personnel (n = 8), physically disabled people (n = 6), and pregnant women (n = 6). Out of 26 responses to the question regarding current level of enforcement, 42.3% felt enforcement was "very good or good" and 57.7% characterized it as "fair or poor". This study represents one of the largest international traffic law surveys reported. Most national seatbelt laws offer perilous exemptions to a broad array of vehicle types and road user groups. These findings, coupled with concern over the level of enforcement in the majority of countries surveyed, suggest that international road safety efforts have a long way to go to improve coverage and enforcement of national seat belt laws.

  13. Age and Isotopic Studies of Some Pan-African Granite from North-Central Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breemen, O. van; Pidgeon, R.T.; Bowden, P.


    Twenty-nine Rb-Sr whole-rock isotopic analyses and three U-Pb zircon analyses on foliated granites and largely unfoliated charnockitic rocks indicate that the central part of the Pan-African belt in west Africa was characterised by intense orogenic plutonism. These data and Rb-Sr analyses on muscovite books from late cross-cutting pegmatites indicate that the peak of magmatic activity occurred 610 +- 10 m.y.ago. Initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios for the granitic and charnockitic rocks are in the range 0.7065-0.7125, and indicate a significantly older crustal component in the magmas

  14. Socioeconomic Status, Race/Ethnicity, and Diurnal Cortisol Trajectories in Middle-Aged and Older Adults. (United States)

    Samuel, Laura J; Roth, David L; Schwartz, Brian S; Thorpe, Roland J; Glass, Thomas A


    Slow afternoon cortisol decline may be a marker of aging. We hypothesize that lower socioeconomic status (SES) and African American race are associated with lower waking cortisol and slower afternoon decline. Six salivary cortisol samples, collected within a 24-hr period from 566 cohort participants aged 56-78 years, were examined in random-effects models. SES measures included socioeconomic vulnerability (household income and assets Accounting for African American race/ethnicity, socioeconomic vulnerability was associated with a 3% faster decline, and education was not associated with cortisol. African Americans had 26% lower average waking cortisol and 1% slower decline than others. African American race/ethnicity, but not lower SES, was associated with lower waking cortisol and slower afternoon decline in middle-aged and older adults. This pattern is likely a marker of earlier biological aging in vulnerable groups. Race/ethnicity may compete with SES as a measure of cumulative vulnerability.

  15. The Social Construction of the Great Belt Fixed Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Birgitte


    Working paper in Technology Management. Actor Network theory (ANT) used upon the process of negotiating legislation and constructing the Great Belt fixed link.......Working paper in Technology Management. Actor Network theory (ANT) used upon the process of negotiating legislation and constructing the Great Belt fixed link....

  16. Paired Magmatic-Metallogenic Belts in Myanmar - an Andean Analogue? (United States)

    Gardiner, Nicholas; Robb, Laurence; Searle, Michael; Morley, Christopher


    Myanmar (Burma) is richly endowed in precious and base metals, having one of the most diverse collections of natural resources in SE Asia. Its geological history is dominated by the staged closing of Tethys and the suturing of Gondwana-derived continental fragments onto the South China craton during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. The country is located at a crucial geologic juncture where the main convergent Tethyan collision zone swings south around the Namche Barwa Eastern Himalayan syntaxis. However, despite recent work, the geological and geodynamic history of Myanmar remains enigmatic. Plate margin processes, magmatism, metasomatism and the genesis of mineral deposits are intricately linked, and there has long been recognized a relationship between the distribution of certain mineral deposit types, and the tectonic settings which favour their genesis. A better knowledge of the regional tectonic evolution of a potential exploration jurisdiction is therefore crucial to understanding its minerals prospectivity. This strong association between tectonics and mineralization can equally be applied in reverse. By mapping out the spatial, and temporal, distribution of presumed co-genetic mineral deposits, coupled with an understanding of their collective metallogenetic origin, a better appreciation of the tectonic evolution of a terrane may be elucidated. Identification and categorization of metallotects within a geodynamically-evolving terrane thus provides a complimentary tool to other methodologies (e.g. geochemical, geochronological, structural, geophysical, stratigraphical), for determining the tectonic history and inferred geodynamic setting of that terrane through time. Myanmar is one such study area where this approach can be undertaken. Here are found two near-parallel magmatic belts, which together contain a significant proportion of that country's mineral wealth of tin, tungsten, copper, gold and silver. Although only a few 100 km's apart, these belts exhibit a

  17. Type QH-200 conveyor-belt nuclear scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuming; Dong Shiyuan; Li Furong; Wan Zemin


    Type QH-200 conveyor-belt nuclear scale is a reliable and on-line device that weighs solids mass flow continuously by γ-ray absorption and scattering. The operation principle and measuring method are described. And some factors influencing the accuracy are discussed. The full scale total weight of type QH-200 nuclear scale is 10 6 t. The result of calibration in the industrial field shows that the accuracy of QH-200 is better than ±1.0% for typical belt loading

  18. Comparing Fears in South African Children with and without Visual Impairments (United States)

    Visagie, Lisa; Loxton, Helene; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Steel, Henry


    Introduction: The aim of the study presented here was to determine whether significant differences exist between the fear profiles of South African children in middle childhood (aged 8-13) with different levels of visual impairments and those of their sighted counterparts. Methods: A differential research design was used, and a total of 129…

  19. Migration as a turning point in food habits: the early phase of dietary acculturation among women from South Asian, African, and Middle Eastern Countries living in Norway. (United States)

    Terragni, Laura; Garnweidner, Lisa M; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Mosdøl, Annhild


    This article explores the early phase of dietary acculturation after migration. South Asian, African and Middle Eastern women (N = 21) living in Norway were interviewed about their early experiences with food in a new context. The findings pointed to abrupt changes in food habits in the first period after migration. To various degrees, women reported unfamiliarity with foods in shops, uncertainty about meal formats and food preparation and fear of eating food prohibited by their religion. Their food consumption tended to be restricted to food items perceived as familiar or safe. Our findings indicate that the first period after migration represents a specific phase in the process of dietary acculturation. Early initiatives aimed at enhancing confidence in food and familiarity with the new food culture are recommended.

  20. The Sino-American belt study: nickel and cobalt exposure, epidemiology, and clinical considerations. (United States)

    Hamann, Dathan; Hamann, Carsten; Li, Lin-Feng; Xiang, Hailian; Hamann, Kylin; Maibach, Howard; Taylor, James S; Thyssen, Jacob P


    Nickel and cobalt are common causes of metal allergy. The objective of this study was to investigate nickel and cobalt exposure in belt buckles by testing 701 belts purchased in China and the United States and to consider the prevalence of nickel allergy and its relevance among Chinese patients. Seven hundred one belt buckles purchased in China and the United States were tested for nickel and cobalt release. Six hundred thirty-one Chinese patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis were patch tested and interviewed to determine clinical relevance of results. The Chinese and American literature was reviewed to investigate trends in nickel prevalence over the past decades. Sixty percent (n = 219) of belts purchased in China (n = 365) released nickel, and 0.5% (n = 2) released cobalt; 55.7% (n = 187) in the United States (n = 336) released nickel, and 0.9% (n = 3) released cobalt. Belt dermatitis was a significant clinical finding in 34.8% of Chinese nickel-allergic patients. Literature review suggests increasing nickel allergy prevalence in the United States and China. Metallic belt buckles are an important source of nickel exposure to consumers. Belts from lowest socioeconomic vendors were more likely to release nickel. Belts with silver color and dark metallic color were more likely to release nickel and cobalt, respectively. Clinical findings show belt dermatitis in China to be a problem.

  1. The physical imitation experiments of nuclear belt weight scaler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Qicun; Wang Mingqian; Sun Jinhua; Li Zhonghao


    The physical imitation experiments of the nuclear belt weight scaler (NBWS) were performed with a coal-loaded belt. The linearity, repetition and long-time stability; of the NBWS were measured. And the influence of pile shape, load bias and the composition of coal on weight calculation were studied

  2. Patterns of Change in Adolescent Dating Victimization and Aggression During Middle School. (United States)

    Goncy, Elizabeth A; Farrell, Albert D; Sullivan, Terri N


    Although mounting evidence suggests dating victimization and aggression begin in early adolescence, little work has examined the pattern of these behaviors across this age. This longitudinal study examined trajectories of dating victimization and aggression across middle school using 12 waves of data. A sample of early adolescents (N = 1369, 52.3% girls; 83% African American; 15% Hispanic or Latino) residing in an urban, economically disadvantaged area participated in this study. Youth completed measures of dating victimization and aggression quarterly across the 3 years of middle school. Although results indicated a general trend of increasing dating victimization and aggression across middle school, variation existed for boys and girls. Specifically, girls showed increasing patterns of both, whereas boys remained relatively stable across time. Dating victimization and aggression were also highly correlated across time. These findings support the implementation and refinement of prevention programming aimed at preventing and reducing dating aggression and victimization in middle school.

  3. Correlating Parental Involvement and Mathematics Achievement of African American Eighth-Grade Students (United States)

    Oyerinde, Bolanle Adenike


    Low involvement of African American parents in middle school education is a concern in a school district in the southeastern United States. The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the relationships between the explanatory variables of parental involvement, socioeconomic status, and level of education, and the achievement of…

  4. Structural appraisal of the Gadag schist belt from gravity investigations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    From qualitative analysis of the gravity data, several tectonic features are ... major types of schist belts are identified in the ... Dharwar craton; Gadag schist belt; gravity method; inversion. ..... the Research Associateship of Dr D Himabindu.

  5. Understanding quaternions and the Dirac belt trick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staley, Mark


    The Dirac belt trick is often employed in physics classrooms to show that a 2π rotation is not topologically equivalent to the absence of rotation whereas a 4π rotation is, mirroring a key property of quaternions and their isomorphic cousins, spinors. The belt trick can leave the student wondering if a real understanding of quaternions and spinors has been achieved, or if the trick is just an amusing analogy. The goal of this paper is to demystify the belt trick and to show that it suggests an underlying four-dimensional parameter space for rotations that is simply connected. An investigation into the geometry of this four-dimensional space leads directly to the system of quaternions, and to an interpretation of three-dimensional vectors as the generators of rotations in this larger four-dimensional world. The paper also shows why quaternions are the natural extension of complex numbers to four dimensions. The level of the paper is suitable for undergraduate students of physics.

  6. Large enhancement of highly energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt and its transport into the inner radiation belt inferred from MDS-1 satellite observations (United States)

    Obara, T.; Matsumoto, H.


    We have examined a large increase of relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt and its penetration into the inner radiation belt over slot region using the MDS-1 satellite observations. Result of analyses demonstrates that a large increase took place in the spring and autumn seasons, and we have newly confirmed that the penetration of outer belt electrons to the inner radiation zone took place during the big magnetic storms by examining a pitch angle distribution of the penetrating electrons.

  7. Dimensions of Family Functioning: Perspectives of Low-Income African American Single Parent Families (United States)

    Mccreary, Linda L.; Dancy, Barbara L.


    Family functioning is influenced by socio-economic status, culture, family structure, and developmental stage, and is assessed primarily using instruments developed for middle-income European American two-parent families. These instruments may not validly assess low-income African American single-parent families. This qualitative study was…

  8. Aortic ruptures in seat belt wearers. (United States)

    Arajärvi, E; Santavirta, S; Tolonen, J


    Several investigations have indicated that rupture of the thoracic aorta is one of the leading causes of immediate death in victims of road traffic accidents. In Finland in 1983, 92% of front-seat passengers were seat belt wearers on highways and 82% in build-up areas. The mechanisms of rupture of the aorta have been intensively investigated, but the relationship between seat belt wearing and injury mechanisms leading to aortic rupture is still largely unknown. This study comprises 4169 fatally injured victims investigated by the Boards of Traffic Accident Investigation of Insurance Companies during the period 1972 to 1985. Chest injuries were recorded as the main cause of death in 1121 (26.9%) victims, 207 (5.0%) of those victims having worn a seat belt. Aortic ruptures were found at autopsy in 98 victims and the exact information of the location of the aortic tears was available in 68. For a control group, we analyzed 72 randomly chosen unbelted victims who had a fatal aortic rupture in similar accidents. The location of the aortic rupture in unbelted victims was more often in the ascending aorta, especially in drivers, whereas in seat belt wearers the distal descending aorta was statistically more often ruptured, especially in right-front passengers (p less than 0.05). The steering wheel predominated statistically as the part of the car estimated to have caused the injury in unbelted victims (37/72), and some interior part of the car was the most common cause of fatal thoracic impacts in seat belt wearers (48/68) (p less than 0.001). The mechanism of rupture of the aorta in the classic site just distal to the subclavian artery seems to be rapid deceleration, although complex body movements are also responsible in side impact collisions. The main mechanism leading to rupture of the ascending aorta seems to be severe blow to the bony thorax. This also often causes associated thoracic injuries, such as heart rupture and sternal fracture. Injuries in the ascending

  9. The lithosphere of the East African Rift and Plateau (Afar-Ethiopia-Turkana) : insights from Integrated 3-D density modelling


    Woldetinsae, Girma


    The area encompassing the Eastern branch of the East African Rift System (EARS: Afar-Ethiopia-Turkana) and associated plateaux is an ideal region to investigate extension and magmatism associated with rupturing continental lithosphere. Ethiopia covers an important part of the EARS. It contains the major section of the ca. 5000 km Afro-Arabian rift and includes the transition between the Arabo-Nubian-Shield and the Mozambique Belt. A compilation of over 45000 onshore and offshore gravity stati...

  10. The Belt voice: Acoustical measurements and esthetic correlates (United States)

    Bounous, Barry Urban

    This dissertation explores the esthetic attributes of the Belt voice through spectral acoustical analysis. The process of understanding the nature and safe practice of Belt is just beginning, whereas the understanding of classical singing is well established. The unique nature of the Belt sound provides difficulties for voice teachers attempting to evaluate the quality and appropriateness of a particular sound or performance. This study attempts to provide answers to the question "does Belt conform to a set of measurable esthetic standards?" In answering this question, this paper expands on a previous study of the esthetic attributes of the classical baritone voice (see "Vocal Beauty", NATS Journal 51,1) which also drew some tentative conclusions about the Belt voice but which had an inadequate sample pool of subjects from which to draw. Further, this study demonstrates that it is possible to scientifically investigate the realm of musical esthetics in the singing voice. It is possible to go beyond the "a trained voice compared to an untrained voice" paradigm when evaluating quantitative vocal parameters and actually investigate what truly beautiful voices do. There are functions of sound energy (measured in dB) transference which may affect the nervous system in predictable ways and which can be measured and associated with esthetics. This study does not show consistency in measurements for absolute beauty (taste) even among belt teachers and researchers but does show some markers with varying degrees of importance which may point to a difference between our cognitive learned response to singing and our emotional, more visceral response to sounds. The markers which are significant in determining vocal beauty are: (1) Vibrancy-Characteristics of vibrato including speed, width, and consistency (low variability). (2) Spectral makeup-Ratio of partial strength above the fundamental to the fundamental. (3) Activity of the voice-The quantity of energy being produced. (4

  11. Re-Os systematics and geochemistry of cobaltite (CoAsS) in the Idaho cobalt belt, Belt-Purcell Basin, USA: Evidence for middle Mesoproterozoic sediment-hosted Co-Cu sulfide mineralization with Grenvillian and Cretaceous remobilization (United States)

    Saintilan, N.J.; Creaser, R.A.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.


    We report the first study of the Re-Os systematics of cobaltite (CoAsS) using disseminated grains and massive sulfides from samples of two breccia-type and two stratabound deposits in the Co-Cu-Au Idaho cobalt belt (ICB), Lemhi subbasin to the Belt-Purcell Basin, Idaho, USA. Using a 185Re + 190Os spike solution, magnetic and non-magnetic fractions of cobaltite mineral separates give reproducible Re-Os analytical data for aliquot sizes of 150 to 200 mg. Cobaltite from the ICB has highly radiogenic 187Os/188Os ratios (17–45) and high 187Re/188Os ratios (600–1800) but low Re and total Os contents (ca. 0.4–4 ppb and 14–64 ppt, respectively). Containing 30 to 74% radiogenic 187Os, cobaltite from the ICB is amenable to Re-Os age determination using the isochron regression approach.Re-Os data for disseminated cobaltite mineralization in a quartz-tourmaline breccia from the Haynes-Stellite deposit yield a Model 1 isochron age of 1349 ± 76 Ma (2σ, n = 4, mean squared weighted deviation MSWD = 2.1, initial 187Os/188Os ratio = 4.7 ± 2.2). This middle Mesoproterozoic age is preserved despite a possible metamorphic overprint or a pulse of metamorphic-hydrothermal remobilization of pre-existing cobaltite that formed along fold cleavages during the ca. 1190–1006 Ma Grenvillian orogeny. This phase of remobilization is tentatively identified by a Model 3 isochron age of 1132 ± 240 Ma (2σ, n = 7, MSWD = 9.3, initial 187Os/188Os ratio of 9.0 ± 2.9) for cobaltite in the quartz-tourmaline breccia from the Idaho zone in the Blackbird mine.All Mesoproterozoic cobaltite mineralization in the district was affected by greenschist- to lower amphibolite-facies (garnet zone) metamorphism during the Late Jurassic to Late Cretaceous Cordilleran orogeny. However, the fine- to coarse-grained massive cobaltite mineralization from the shear zone-hosted Chicago zone, Blackbird mine, is the only studied deposit that has severely disturbed Re

  12. Energy consumption, economic growth and CO2 emissions in Middle East and North African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arouri, Mohamed El Hedi; Ben Youssef, Adel; M'henni, Hatem; Rault, Christophe


    This article extends the recent findings of , , and by implementing recent bootstrap panel unit root tests and cointegration techniques to investigate the relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and real GDP for 12 Middle East and North African Countries (MENA) over the period 1981–2005. Our results show that in the long-run energy consumption has a positive significant impact on CO 2 emissions. More interestingly, we show that real GDP exhibits a quadratic relationship with CO 2 emissions for the region as a whole. However, although the estimated long-run coefficients of income and its square satisfy the EKC hypothesis in most studied countries, the turning points are very low in some cases and very high in other cases, hence providing poor evidence in support of the EKC hypothesis. CO 2 emission reductions per capita have been achieved in the MENA region, even while the region exhibited economic growth over the period 1981–2005. The econometric relationships derived in this paper suggest that future reductions in CO 2 emissions per capita might be achieved at the same time as GDP per capita in the MENA region continues to grow. - Highlights: ► We study the links between CO 2 emissions, energy consumption and GDP in MENA region. ► Energy consumption has a positive correlation with CO 2 emissions. ► GDP exhibits a quadratic relationship with CO 2 emissions for the region as a whole. ► However, the turning points are low in some cases and high in other cases. ► Thus, not all countries need to sacrifice economic growth to decrease CO 2 emissions.

  13. Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization (United States)

    Daglis, I.; Balasis, G.; Bourdarie, S.; Horne, R.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Mann, I.; Santolik, O.; Turner, D.; Anastasiadis, A.; Georgiou, M.; Giannakis, O.; Papadimitriou, C.; Ropokis, G.; Sandberg, I.; Angelopoulos, V.; Glauert, S.; Grison, B., Kersten T.; Kolmasova, I.; Lazaro, D.; Mella, M.; Ozeke, L.; Usanova, M.


    We present the concept, objectives and expected impact of the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization) project, which is being implemented by a consortium of seven institutions (five European, one Canadian and one US) with support from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme. The MAARBLE project employs multi-spacecraft monitoring of the geospace environment, complemented by ground-based monitoring, in order to analyze and assess the physical mechanisms leading to radiation belt particle energization and loss. Particular attention is paid to the role of ULF/VLF waves. A database containing properties of the waves is being created and will be made available to the scientific community. Based on the wave database, a statistical model of the wave activity dependent on the level of geomagnetic activity, solar wind forcing, and magnetospheric region will be developed. Multi-spacecraft particle measurements will be incorporated into data assimilation tools, leading to new understanding of the causal relationships between ULF/VLF waves and radiation belt dynamics. Data assimilation techniques have been proven as a valuable tool in the field of radiation belts, able to guide 'the best' estimate of the state of a complex system. The MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Energization and Loss) collaborative research project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-2011-1) under grant agreement no. 284520.

  14. On the existence of a comet belt beyond Neptune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.A.


    The possible existence of a comet belt in connection with the origin of the short-period comets is analysed. It is noted that the current theory - that these comets originate as near-parabolic comets captured by Jupiter and the other giant planets - implies an excessive wastage of comets lost in hyperbolic orbits, which is avoided in the present model. The following picture is predicted. Solid conglomerates up to approximately 10 18 g were formed by gravitational instabilities in the belt region (about 35 to 50 AU). A further fragmentation-accretion process led to a power-law mass distribution similar to that observed in the asteroids. Since then, close encounters between members of the belt have provoked the diffusion of some of them with the effect that they have become subject to the strong perturbations of Neptune. Of these a small number pass from one planet to the next inside and end as short-period comets. By means of a Monte Carlo method, the influence of close encounters between belt comets is then studied in relation to the diffusion of their orbits. It is concluded that if such a belt contains members with masses equal to or greater than that of Ceres, the orbital diffusion could proceed fast enough to maintain the number of observed short-period comets in a steady state. (author)

  15. Radiometric evidence of Middle Devonian inversion of the Hill End Trough, northeast Lachlan Fold Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakham, G.H.


    The publication of a new geological time-scale by the Australian Geological Survey Organisation and radiometric dates from the Hill End goldfield have prompted the re-examination of the timing of deformation of the Hill End Trough to determine whether it occurred in Middle Devonian or Early Carboniferous time. Palaeontological evidence from the western trough margin and the Capertee High dates the end of deposition in the trough as late Emsian or early Eifelian (385-382 Ma). After a mid-Devonian hiatus of at least 15 million years, paralic sedimentation commenced on the Molong and Capertee Highs in late Frasnian or early Famennian time (367-363 Ma). No Upper Devonian sedimentary formations occur in the Hill End Trough. Structural relationships indicate that the oldest mineral veins at Hill End preceded cleavage formation in the deformed trough sedimentary rocks. Early vein muscovites have Middle Devonian 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dates of 380-370 Ma. Regional metamorphic biotites from Hill End have well constrained 40 Ar/ 39 Ar closing ages of 360-358 Ma (mid-Famennian). The metamorphic (thermal) maximum which outlasted penetrative deformation. is estimated here by modelling to have been about 370 Ma (latest Givetian). This clearly places the earlier main deformation in the Middle Devonian. Deformation probably began by terminating trough deposition in latest Emsian to early Eifelian time and ended in early Givetian time at about 375 Ma ago. Published pressure and temperature data from the Hill End goldfield suggest that deformation thickened the 6 km sediment column to around 11 km. The thermal model suggests there was post-deformation erosion of about 4km and little if any further erosion occurred during Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous time. The shortening accompanying the inversion of the northern Hill End Trough may have been taken up in the region to the south, both east and west of the Copperhannia Thrust, and east of the southern termination of the Capertee High

  16. Effects of a Belt on Intra-Abdominal Pressure during Weight Lifting. (United States)


    potentially injurious b compressive forces on spinal discs during lifting. To investigate the effects of a standard lifting belt on lAP and lifting mechanics... injurious compressive forces on spinal discs during lifting. To investigate the effects of a standard lifting belt on IAP and lifting ! mechanics... weightlifting (7,9). Both olympic and power lifters have used lifting belts for many years, yet virtually no research has been reported which examines

  17. The Perceptions of STEM from Eighth-Grade African-American Girls in a High-Minority Middle School (United States)

    Hare, LaChanda N.

    Even with the existence of STEM curriculum and STEM programs that target women and minorities, African-American females still lag behind other ethnic groups in STEM fields. Reasons for the underrepresentation of females in STEM fields can be traced back to the early years of schooling. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact African-American females' perspectives of STEM subjects and STEM careers. An explanatory sequential mixed-methods approach was used for data collection with a survey, focus group, and interview. Forty male (N=12) and female (N=28) students from different ethnic groups were surveyed. The focus group and interview sessions consisted of 21 African-American females from two distinct groups: those enrolled in the school's STEM program (STEM) and those who were not enrolled in the STEM program (Non-STEM). The self-efficacy theory and social cognitive career theory served as the theoretical constructs guiding the data analysis. Multiple regression results showed that outcome expectation and personal disposition had the greatest influence on the females' interest in STEM content and STEM careers. Results from the qualitative portion of the study revealed that the learning environment and STEM self-efficacy had a significant impact on African-American females' interest in STEM.

  18. Age and origin of coeval TTG, I- and S-type granites in the Famatinian belt of NW Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapela, C.W.


    Full text: Located on the Palaeozoic Pacific margin of Gondwana, at the opposite extreme to the Lachlan Fold Belt, the Sierras Pampeanas of central and NW Argentina also constitute a large granitic province displaying the coeval concurrence of I and S-type magmas. The Famatinian magmatic belt consists mostly of granitoids emplaced in Early Ordovician times, after Cambrian accretion of the Pampean terrane and before the Late Ordovician/Silurian accretion of the Precordillera terrane. New SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages, isotope and geochemical data are used to interpret the petrogenesis of this belt. Three types of granitoid are recognized in the Famatinian belt, based on lithology and geochemical data. These are (a) a minor trondhjemite-tonalite-granodiorite (TTG) group, which occurs only in the Pampean foreland, (b) a metaluminous I-type gabbromonzogranite suite, and (c) S-type granites, which occur both as small cordieritic intrusions associated with l-type granodiorites and as large batholithic masses. Twelve new SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages establish the contemporaneity of all three types in Early Ordovician times (mainly 470-490 Ma ago). Sr- and Nd-isotopic data suggest that, apart from some TTG plutons with asthenospheric characteristics, the remaining magmas were derived from a Proterozoic crust-lithospheric mantle section (Nd model ages of 1500-1700 Ma). Granulite xenoliths in Cretaceous alkalic rocks that have been described by other authors may represent samples of this source region. Trace element modelling suggests that the TTG and I-type gabbros originated by variable melting of a lithospheric gabbroid source at 10-12 kbar and ca. 5 kbar, respectively. The voluminous intermediate and acidic I-types, which show a trend to slightly more evolved isotopic signatures than the inferred source, probably represent hybridization of the most primitive magmas with lower and middle crustal melts. The highly peraluminous S-type granites have similar isotopic and inherited

  19. Reconstruction of the Paleoproterozoic deeper ocean environment: Preliminary Report of the Ghana Birimian Greenstone Belt Drilling Project (GHB) (United States)

    Kiyokawa, S.; Yoshimaru, S.; Miki, T.; Sakai, S.; Ikehara, M.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Ito, T.; Onoue, T.; Takehara, M.; Tetteh, G. M.; Nyame, F. K.


    The Paleoproterozoic Era are one of the most rapid environmental change when the earth surface environment was affected by formation of continents and increasing atmospheric oxygen levels. Major oxidation of Great Oxidation Event (GOE) are reported this ages (eg. Holland, 2006; Condie, 2001; Lyons et al., 2014). The nature of deep sea environments at this time have not been clearly identified and oceanic sediments are mostly involved in subduction. The Paleoproterozoic Birimian Greenstone Belt is an ophiolitic volcaniclastic sequence in Ghana, with depositional age of over 2.3-2.2 Ga (Petersson et al., 2016). Detail research was conducted of the Ashanti (Axim-Konongo) Belt of the Birimian Greenstone Belt along the coast near Cape Three Points area. Very thick volcaniclastic and organic-rich sedimentary rocks, which we now refer to as the Cape Three Points Group, crop out in the lower part of the Birimian Greenstone Belt. Stratigraphically, three unit identified; the lower portion contains thick vesicular volcaniclastic rocks, the middle portion is made up of laminated volcaniclastics and black shale, and the upper portion dominated by fine laminated volcaniclastics with more black shale sequence. Continuous core drilling from Dec 3-12th 2015 of the upper part of the sequence intersected saprolite to a depth of 30m and fresh, well preserved stratigraphy with graded bedding and lamination to a depth of 195m. Half cut cores show well laminated organic rich black shale and relative carbonate rich layers with very fine pyrite grains. SHRIMP age data from a porphyry intrusion into this sequence indicate an age of 2250 Ma. Carbon isotope analysis shows δ13C = -43 to -37‰ for black shale with the very light isotope values for cyanobacterial signature.The fining-upward sequences, well laminated bed and black shales and REE data suggest this sequence situated partly silent stagnant with volcanic activity ocean floor environment around an oceanic island arc condition.

  20. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China: ... The Jiapigou gold belt is located on the northern margin of the North China Craton, and is one of the ... 29, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China.

  1. Electron Radiation Belts of the Solar System (United States)

    Mauk, Barry; Fox, Nicola

    To address the question of what factors dictate similarities and differences between radiation belts, we present comparisons between the electron radiation belt spectra of all five strongly magnetized planets within the solar system: Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. We choose the highest intensity observed electron spectrum within each system (highest specifically near 1 MeV) and compare them against expectations based on the so-called Kennel-Petschek limit (KP; 1966) for each system. For evaluating the KP limit, we begin with the new relativis-tically correct formulation of Summers et al. (2009) but then add several refinements of our own. Specifically, we: 1) utilized a much more flexible analytic spectral shape that allows us to accurately fit observed radiation belt spectra; 2) adopt the point of view that the anisotropy parameter is not a free parameter but must take on a minimal value, as originally proposed by Kennel and Petschek (1966); and 3) examine the differential characteristics of the KP limit along the lines of what Schulz and Davidson (1988) performed for the non-relativistic formula-tion. We find that three factors limit the highest electron radiation belt intensities within solar system planetary magnetospheres: a) whistler mode interactions that limit spectral intensities to a differential Kennel-Petschek limit (3 planets); b) the absence of robust acceleration pro-cesses associated with injection dynamics (1 planet); and c) material interactions between the radiation particles and clouds of gas and dust (1 planet).

  2. Conceptual design of a Moving Belt Radiator (MBR) shuttle-attached experiment (United States)

    Aguilar, Jerry L.


    The conceptual design of a shuttle-attached Moving Belt Radiator (MBR) experiment is presented. The MBR is an advanced radiator concept in which a rotating belt is used to radiate thermal energy to space. The experiment is developed with the primary focus being the verification of the dynamic characteristics of a rotating belt with a secondary objective of proving the thermal and sealing aspects in a reduced gravity, vacuum environment. The mechanical design, selection of the belt material and working fluid, a preliminary test plan, and program plan are presented. The strategy used for selecting the basic sizes and materials of the components are discussed. Shuttle and crew member requirements are presented with some options for increasing or decreasing the demands on the STS. An STS carrier and the criteria used in the selection process are presented. The proposed carrier for the Moving Belt Radiator experiment is the Hitchhiker-M. Safety issues are also listed with possible results. This experiment is designed so that a belt can be deployed, run at steady state conditions, run with dynamic perturbations imposed, verify the operation of the interface heat exchanger and seals, and finally be retracted into a stowed position for transport back to earth.

  3. The ‘complete gospel’ revisited: Middle East and African influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenna S. Jackson


    Full Text Available The author focuses on the historically-reliable gospel pericopes in which a woman is the lead character. She argues that these women provide the complete gospel − Jesus teaches, heals, preaches and is anointed in the context of female-based stories and, of course, the women take him from conception to resurrection. Jackson argues, not only from an analysis of the texts themselves, but also from her personal experiences in the Middle East and Africa.

  4. Reactivation of inherited structures during the opening of the South Atlantic: a low-temperature thermochronology study on the Araçuaí orogenic belt (east Brazilian margin) (United States)

    Van Ranst, Gerben; De Grave, Johan; Pedrosa-Soares, Antonio Carlos; Tack, Luc; Baudet, Daniel; Novo, Tiago


    A subject that has historically been regarded with increasing interest in geology are the supercontinent-cycles. This still poses questions about tectonic evolution on a regional scale, more precisely on the role of reactivation of older, pre-existing structures (inheritance), in which the same faults or weak zones are reactivated rather than the emergence of new systems. A region that is ideally suited for this research is the Araçuaí-West Congo Orogenic belt (AWCO), which is situated partly in eastern Brazil (Gonçalves et al., 2014) and partly in western Africa (D.R. Congo, Congo Brazza, Gabon and Angola; Frimmel et al., 2006; Tack et al., 2001). This orogenic belt was formed during the Cambrian as a result of a series of extension and compression events, of which the final phase is known as the Braziliano-Pan-African orogenesis (e.g. Pedrosa-Soares & Alkmim, 2011). During the break-up of Gondwana and the opening of the South Atlantic, the AWCO became separated. The main part is situated in east Brazil, known as the Araçuaí orogeny, while on the west African margin, the West Congo Belt is a witness to this event. In order to gain a better understanding, the tectonic movements should be placed in an absolute timeframe. Multi-method low-temperature thermochronology lends itself as an ideal tool for this purpose. In this study samples from N-S and E-W profiles in east Brazil (Caparáo-Vitória-Gov. Valadares) have been acquired. These samples are investigated using the apatite fission track (AFT) and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He (AHe) methods. In a later phase the samples which were taken on profiles in the D.R. Congo (Lower Congo) will be analysed by the same methods. Preliminary results for the Brazilian margin indicate cooling ages ranging between 55 Ma and c. 80 Ma.

  5. Design study of flat belt CVT for electric vehicles (United States)

    Kumm, E. L.


    A continuously variable transmission (CVT) was studied, using a novel flat belt pulley arrangement which couples the high speed output shaft of an energy storage flywheel to the drive train of an electric vehicle. A specific CVT arrangement was recommended and its components were selected and sized, based on the design requirements of a 1700 KG vehicle. A design layout was prepared and engineering calculations made of component efficiencies and operating life. The transmission efficiency was calculated to be significantly over 90% with the expected vehicle operation. A design consistent with automotive practice for low future production costs was considered, together with maintainability. The technology advancements required to develop the flat belt CVT were identified and an estimate was made of how the size of the flat belt CVT scales to larger and smaller design output torques. The suitability of the flat belt CVT for alternate application to an electric vehicle powered by an electric motor without flywheel and to a hybrid electric vehicle powered by an electric motor with an internal combustion engine was studied.

  6. Race, belief in destiny, and seat belt usage: a pilot study. (United States)

    Colón, I


    A survey of 1063 individuals found that when belief in destiny was statistically controlled, differences in seat belt use by race disappeared. Thus, racial differences in seat belt use are statistically accounted for and might be explained by belief in destiny. Efforts to increase seat belt use should target minority groups rather than include them in broadbrush programs. Further, these efforts should take into account this important difference in motivation. PMID:1585969

  7. A minimalistic and optimized conveyor belt for neutral atoms. (United States)

    Roy, Ritayan; Condylis, Paul C; Prakash, Vindhiya; Sahagun, Daniel; Hessmo, Björn


    Here we report of a design and the performance of an optimized micro-fabricated conveyor belt for precise and adiabatic transportation of cold atoms. A theoretical model is presented to determine optimal currents in conductors used for the transportation. We experimentally demonstrate a fast adiabatic transportation of Rubidium ( 87 Rb) cold atoms with minimal loss and heating with as few as three conveyor belt conductors. This novel design of a multilayered conveyor belt structure is fabricated in aluminium nitride (AlN) because of its outstanding thermal and electrical properties. This demonstration would pave a way for a compact and portable quantum device required for quantum information processing and sensors, where precise positioning of cold atoms is desirable.

  8. Design of a nucleonic conveyor belt weighing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magal, B.S.; Sunder Singh, V.P.


    A brief literature survey of the existing conventional units and the nucleonic belt weigher is made. The design of a 250 ton per hour coal weighing unit working in conjunction with a 24 inch wide belt, running at 350 feet per minute has been attempted and a unit has been built to the above specifications. Caseium-137 line source has been used as an isotope and a 10 litre volume argon filled ionisation chamber has been used as a detector. A line source has been preferred to a point source. The unit is under trial and the accuracy of the same is being evaluated by changing the variables like particle size profile of the material deposited on the belt and sudden changes in loading. Initial trials indicate that an accuracy of +- 1 p.c. can be achieved. (auth.)

  9. Knowledge, attitude and use of seat belt among commercial drivers in Sokoto Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A O Abiola


    Conclusion: This study has identified high level of knowledge, positive attitude and reported use of seat belt. It is recommended that public awareness of the safety benefits of seat belts and strong enforcement are necessary to achieve optimal use of seat belt.

  10. Late ordovician stratigraphy, zircon provenance and tectonics, Lachlan Fold Belt, southeastern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fergusson, C.L.; Fanning, C.M.


    Ordovician quartz turbidites of the Lachlan Fold Belt in southeastern Australia accumulated in a marginal sea and overlapped an adjoining island arc (Molong volcanic province) developed adjacent to eastern Gondwana. The turbidite succession in the Shoalhaven River Gorge, in the southern highlands of New South Wales, has abundant outcrop and graptolite sites. The succession consists of, from the base up, a unit of mainly thick-bedded turbidites (undifferentiated Adaminaby Group), a unit with conspicuous bedded chert (Numeralla Chert), a unit with common thin-bedded turbidites [Bumballa Formation (new name)] and a unit of black shale (Warbisco Shale). Coarse to very coarse sandstone in the Bumballa Formation is rich in quartz and similar to sandstone in the undifferentiated Adaminaby Group. Detrital zircons from sandstone in the Bumballa Formation, and from sandstone at a similar stratigraphic level from the upper Adaminaby Group of the Genoa River area in eastern Victoria, include grains as young as 453-473 Ma, slightly older than the stratigraphic ages. The dominant detrital ages are in the interval 500-700 Ma (Pacific Gondwana component) with a lessor concentration of Grenville ages (1000-1300 Ma). This pattern resembles other Ordovician sandstones from the Lachlan Fold Belt and also occurs in Triassic sandstones and Quaternary sands from eastern Australia. The Upper Ordovician succession is predominantly fine grained, which reflects reduced clastic inputs from the source in the Middle Cambrian to earliest Ordovician Ross-Delamerian Fold Belts that developed along the eastern active margin of Gondwana. Development of subduction zones in the Late Ordovician marginal sea are considered to be mainly responsible for the diversion of sediment and the resulting reduction in the supply of terrigenous sand to the island arc and eastern part of the marginal sea. Sixty zircons from each sample were analysed and results are presented. Methods following standard procedures

  11. A multi points ultrasonic detection method for material flow of belt conveyor (United States)

    Zhang, Li; He, Rongjun


    For big detection error of single point ultrasonic ranging technology used in material flow detection of belt conveyor when coal distributes unevenly or is large, a material flow detection method of belt conveyor is designed based on multi points ultrasonic counter ranging technology. The method can calculate approximate sectional area of material by locating multi points on surfaces of material and belt, in order to get material flow according to running speed of belt conveyor. The test results show that the method has smaller detection error than single point ultrasonic ranging technology under the condition of big coal with uneven distribution.

  12. The behavioral impact of an advertising campaign to promote safety belt use. (United States)

    Cope, J G; Moy, S S; Grossnickle, W F


    Safety belt use was observed at one restaurant during McDonald's "Make It Click" promotional campaign. Following baseline, the program was monitored without intervention. During the final 2 weeks of the campaign an incentive strategy was added providing a large soft drink contingent on safety belt use. Safety belt use did not change from baseline levels before the incentive phase. The rate of belt use increased under contingent reward and declined during follow-up. The effects of a verbal prompt could not be assessed because of the almost nonexistent use of the "Make It Click" stickers throughout the study.

  13. Study on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Model for the Safety of Mine Belt Conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Xiaoyan


    Full Text Available To improve the situation of the frequent failures of mine belt conveyor during operation, a model was used to evaluate the safety of mine belt conveyor. Based on the foundation of collecting and analyzing a large quantity of fault information of belt conveyor in the nationwide coal mine, the fault tree model of belt conveyor has been built, then the safety evaluation index system was established by analyzing and removing some secondary indicators. Furthermore, the weighted value of safety evaluation indexs was determined by analytic hierarchy process(AHP, and the single factor fuzzy evaluation matrix was constructed by experts grading method. Additionally, the model was applied in evaluating the security of belt conveyor in Nanliang coal mine. The results shows the security level is recognized to the “general”, which means that this model can be adopted widely in evaluating the safety of mine belt conveyor.

  14. Does unbelted safety requirement affect protection for belted occupants? (United States)

    Hu, Jingwen; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A; Flannagan, Carol A C; Narayanaswamy, Prabha; Reed, Matthew P; Andreen, Margaret; Neal, Mark; Lin, Chin-Hsu


    Federal regulations in the United States require vehicles to meet occupant performance requirements with unbelted test dummies. Removing the test requirements with unbelted occupants might encourage the deployment of seat belt interlocks and allow restraint optimization to focus on belted occupants. The objective of this study is to compare the performance of restraint systems optimized for belted-only occupants with those optimized for both belted and unbelted occupants using computer simulations and field crash data analyses. In this study, 2 validated finite element (FE) vehicle/occupant models (a midsize sedan and a midsize SUV) were selected. Restraint design optimizations under standardized crash conditions (U.S.-NCAP and FMVSS 208) with and without unbelted requirements were conducted using Hybrid III (HIII) small female and midsize male anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) in both vehicles on both driver and right front passenger positions. A total of 10 to 12 design parameters were varied in each optimization using a combination of response surface method (RSM) and genetic algorithm. To evaluate the field performance of restraints optimized with and without unbelted requirements, 55 frontal crash conditions covering a greater variety of crash types than those in the standardized crashes were selected. A total of 1,760 FE simulations were conducted for the field performance evaluation. Frontal crashes in the NASS-CDS database from 2002 to 2012 were used to develop injury risk curves and to provide the baseline performance of current restraint system and estimate the injury risk change by removing the unbelted requirement. Unbelted requirements do not affect the optimal seat belt and airbag design parameters in 3 out of 4 vehicle/occupant position conditions, except for the SUV passenger side. Overall, compared to the optimal designs with unbelted requirements, optimal designs without unbelted requirements generated the same or lower total injury risks for

  15. Relationship of weight, body dissatisfaction, and self-esteem in African American and white female dieters. (United States)

    Caldwell, M B; Brownell, K D; Wilfley, D E


    The present study examined the relationship among weight, body dissatisfaction, and self-esteem in a large group of African American and white female dieters who were generally overweight and of middle to high socioeconomic status. Subjects were participants in a survey of dieting practices undertaken by Consumer Reports magazine. Major outcome measures included the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and an assessment of shape and weight attitudes. No significant differences between African American and white women were found for body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, discrepancies between actual and ideal weight and shape, or the relationship between self-esteem and body dissatisfaction. Body mass index contributed less to body satisfaction scores in African American than in white women. This study provides a comparison of African American and white women in the upper social classes, and raises the possibility that previous findings of less body concern in African American women reflect class rather than race effects.

  16. An evaluation of a weightlifting belt and back injury prevention training class for airline baggage handlers. (United States)

    Reddell, C R; Congleton, J J; Dale Huchingson, R; Montgomery, J F


    This study evaluated the efficacy of a commercially available weightlifting belt in relation to reduction of lumbar injury incident rate and severity of injuries over an 8-month period. The study used 642 baggage handlers working for a major airline company as participants. Four treatment groups were randomly selected: a group receiving the belt only, a group receiving a 1 h training class only, a group receiving both a belt and a 1 h training class, and a control group receiving nothing. Two treatment groups were added which contained participants who discontinued use of the belt prior to the end of an 8-month study period. Results indicated that there were no significant differences for total lumbar injury incident rate, restricted workday case injury incident rate, lost workdays and restricted workdays rate, and worker's compensation rates. There was, however, a marginal significant difference for lost workday case injury incident rate. Groups with participants who wore the belt for a while then discontinued its use had a higher lost day case injury incident rate than did either the group receiving training only or the control group. Compliance was an overriding factor as the belt questionnaire response indicated that 58% of participants in the belt groups discontinued use of the belt before the end of 8 months. Comments made on the survey forms indicated that the belt was too hot. Similarly, comments suggested that the belt rubbed, pinched, and bruised ribs. Based on these results, the weightlifting belt used for this study cannot be recommended for use in aid of lifting during daily work activities of baggage handlers. Results indicate that use of the belts may, in fact, increase the risk of injury when not wearing a belt following a period of wearing a belt. As industries are experimenting with the use of belts, it is recommended that great care be taken in any further evaluation and close attention directed towards injuries which occur when not wearing the

  17. Third World adversity: African infant precocity and the role of environment. (United States)

    Saugstad, Letten F


    The war against illiteracy has not been won. The number of illiterates approaches a billion. Most reside in Third World countries--former colonies--where they are caught in a poverty trap of disease, low agricultural production and environmental adversity requiring technology beyond their means. I argue against the commonly held view that this is mainly attributable to the four hundred years of traffic in men. According to the late K.O. Dike, middle men along the African coast barred foreign merchants from the hinterland, and because of this the social, political structure and sovereignty of the African states remained fundamentally unchanged during the period 1400-1807, whereas a few decades after colonisation the socio-political system collapsed and was replaced by a small rich elite and many poor, while resources were taken out of Africa. Present poverty and underdevelopment represent as great a challenge as the trade in slaves. As did the African Middle-Men of that time, African leaders now must unite in an ambitious and confident Pan-African Union demonstrating strength. Western countries should focus on reducing poverty and improving nutrition. This also makes terrorism and legal and illegal migration less likely. Education is important, but the West should not limit its effort to fighting illiteracy but should also support the establishment of institutions for higher education. Africa possessed optimal conditions and an enriched environment for human evolution. African Infant Precocity is a persistent example. The human brain, like other brains, consists 60% of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (Marine-Fat), the rest being water. A sufficient amount is required to secure optimal brain growth. It normalizes brain function, and prevents sudden cardiac and infant death, which have been increasing in Western societies. Humans are unique in having a mismatch between the need for brain food--marine fat--and our common high protein diet. Nowhere is the neglect of the

  18. Racial Differences in the Transactional Relationship Between Depression and Alcohol Use From Elementary School to Middle School. (United States)

    Birkley, Erica L; Zapolski, Tamika C B; Smith, Gregory T


    The aim of this investigation was to test hypothesized reverse prospective relationships between alcohol consumption and depressive symptomatology as a function of race among youth. In a two-wave prospective study, 328 European American, 328 African American, and 144 Hispanic American youth were studied at the end of fifth grade (last year of elementary school) and the end of sixth grade (first year of middle school). A positive correlation was observed between alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms among all youth. However, the predictive relationship differed based on race. For European American and Hispanic American youth, depressive symptom levels at the end of elementary school predicted alcohol consumption at the end of the first year of middle school, but the converse relationship was not observed. For African American youth, the opposite pattern was found. Alcohol consumption at the end of elementary school predicted depressive symptom levels at the end of the first year of middle school, and the converse relationship was not observed. These findings suggest the possibility that etiological relationships between depression and alcohol use vary by race, thus highlighting the importance of considering race when studying the risk process.

  19. "They have said that I was slightly depressed but there are circumstances that bring that on": How Middle-Aged and Older African American Men Describe Perceived Stress and Depression. (United States)

    Cornish, Emily K; Bergner, Erin M; Griffith, Derek M


    Few studies have focused on how men perceive stress and depression, and even fewer have examined how men of a specific racial or ethnic group describe their experiences of these conditions. African American men tend to define health in ways that are inclusive of their physical health, health behaviors, and mental health, but research has largely failed to explore how men put their health and mental health in social contexts. The objective of this article is to explore how middle-aged and older African American men who self-identify as having depression: 1) differentiate stress from depression; and 2) describe depression. Using data from semi-structured, individual interviews conducted between March and April 2014, we used a phenomenological approach to examine how men describe, experience, and perceive stress and depression. Nashville, Tennessee. 18 African American men aged 35-76 years who self-reported a previous or current diagnosis of depression. Men talked about the experiences of stress and how many of them viewed chronic stress as expected and depression as a normal part of life. They used phrases like being "slightly depressed" or "I take a light antidepressant" to describe how they feel and what they are doing to feel better. Within these narratives, men had difficulty distinguishing between stress and depression and they primarily explained that depression was the result of external stressors and strains. Men may have difficulty distinguishing between stress and depression and they may frame the causes of depression in ways that decrease their perceived culpability for its causes and limit their perceived control over the causes of depression.

  20. Belt of Yotvings. Radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazheika, J.; Petroshius, R.; Strzelecki, R.; Wolkovitcz, S.; Lewandowski, P.


    Full text: The map of gamma radiation dose of 'Belt of Yotvings' area displays the summarized gamma radiation coming from natural radionuclides of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and from cesium isotopes 137 Cs, 134 Cs, artificially supplied into the environment after the Chernobyl disaster. The average value of gamma radiation dose for 'Belt of Yotvings' area is 44.2 n Gy/h, with a distinct regional differentiation. The content of uranium varies from 0 to 4.5 g/t, with the average value of about 1.4 g/t. Thorium content varies from 0 to 10.3 g/t, with the average value of 4.3 g/t. Potassium content varies from 0.1 up to 2.5 %, with the average value of 1.2 %. The concentration of caesium radioisotopes reaches up to 11.6 kBq/m 2 , the average value being 3.8 kBq/m 2 . Radon concentration in soil air has been determined in 55 sites (83 analyses). Radon concentration has been noticed in volumes from trace amounts up to 55 kBq/m3.The radioecological mapping has documented that the highest concentrations of natural radioisotopes and, correspondingly, the highest total gamma radiation dose were observed in the northeastern part of the area studied, which is covered by clay-silty glaciolacustrine deposits. Slightly lower values are typical for the whole northwestern part of 'Belt of Yotvings'. Very low contents of radioactive elements and low total radiation doses are typical for eolian and sandur sands, occurring south-eastward from the line Augustow-Veisiejai. The Chernobyl NPP accident polluted the studied region with artificial cesium radioisotopes un significantly. The concentrations are low and they involve no radioecological hazard. The investigation of radon concentration in soil air have revealed several places affected by high radon emanation. These places should be studied in a more detailed way

  1. Araguaia fold belt, new geochronological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafon, J.M.; Macambira, J.B.; Macambira, M.J.B.; Moura, C.A.V.; Souza, A.C.C.


    The northern part of the Araguaia Fold Belt (AFB) outcrops in a N-S direction for about 400 km in the state of Tocantins. Dome-like structures occur in this fold belt also in a N-S direction. Both deformation and metamorphism increase from the West to the East. The basement of the AFB consist of Colmeia complex and Cantao gneiss, which crop out mainly in the core of the dome-like structures. The supracrustals rocks of the fold belt belongs to the Baixo Araguaia supergroup which is divided into the lower Estrondo group and the upper Tocantins group. Preliminary Sm-Nd data from the Colmeia complex (Grota Rica dome) gave Archean model ages of 2.8 Ga (TNd sub(DM)) while Rb-Sr data in the same rocks give an age of 2530 ± 200 Ma. In the others dome-like structures, the Rb-Sr systematics gave ages for the Colmeia a complex of 2239 ± 47 Ma (Colmeia structure) and 1972 ± 46 Ma (Lontra structure). These younger ages are believed to represent partial to total isotopic resetting of the Rb-Sr system during the Transamazonian Event. The Rb-Sr studies of the Cantao gneiss gave an age of 1774 ± 31 Ma. (author)

  2. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives. (United States)

    Chaitiemwong, N; Hazeleger, W C; Beumer, R R


    Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives, in the absence or presence of food debris from meat, fish and vegetables and at temperatures of 10, 25 and 37 degrees C was investigated. The pathogen survived best at 10 degrees C, and better at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C on both conveyor belt materials. The reduction in the numbers of the pathogen on belt material with antimicrobial additives in the first 6h at 10 degrees C was 0.6 log unit, which was significantly higher (Padditives. Reductions were significantly less (Pfood residue. At 37 degrees C and 20% relative humidity, large decreases in the numbers of the pathogen on both conveyor belt materials during the first 6h were observed. Under these conditions, there was no obvious effect of the antimicrobial substances. However, at 25 degrees C and 10 degrees C and high humidity (60-75% rh), a rapid decrease in bacterial numbers on the belt material with antimicrobial substances was observed. Apparently the reduction in numbers of L. monocytogenes on belt material with antimicrobial additives was greater than on belt material without additives only when the surfaces were wet. Moreover, the presence of food debris neutralized the effect of the antimicrobials. The results suggest that the antimicrobial additives in conveyor belt material could help to reduce numbers of microorganisms on belts at low temperatures when food residues are absent and belts are not rapidly dried. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Computerized Tomography Study of Vocal Tract Setting in Hyperfunctional Dysphonia and in Belting. (United States)

    Saldias, Marcelo; Guzman, Marco; Miranda, Gonzalo; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria


    Vocal tract setting in hyperfunctional patients is characterized by a high larynx and narrowing of the epilaryngeal and pharyngeal region. Similar observations have been made for various singing styles, eg, belting. The voice quality in belting has been described to be loud, speech like, and high pitched. It is also often described as sounding "pressed" or "tense". The above mentioned has led to the hypothesis that belting may be strenuous to the vocal folds. However, singers and teachers of belting do not regard belting as particularly strenuous. This study investigates possible similarities and differences between hyperfunctional voice production and belting. This study concerns vocal tract setting. Four male patients with hyperfunctional dysphonia and one male contemporary commercial music singer were registered with computerized tomography while phonating on [a:] in their habitual speaking pitch. Additionally, the singer used the pitch G4 in belting. The scannings were studied in sagittal and transversal dimensions by measuring lengths, widths, and areas. Various similarities were found between belting and hyperfunction: high vertical larynx position, small hypopharyngeal width, and epilaryngeal outlet. On the other hand, belting differed from dysphonia (in addition to higher pitch) by a wider lip and jaw opening, and larger volumes of the oral cavity. Belting takes advantage of "megaphone shape" of the vocal tract. Future studies should focus on modeling and simulation to address sound energy transfer. Also, they should consider aerodynamic variables and vocal fold vibration to evaluate the "price of decibels" in these phonation types. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Using naturalistic driving data to identify variables associated with infrequent, occasional, and consistent seat belt use. (United States)

    Reagan, Ian J; McClafferty, Julie A; Berlin, Sharon P; Hankey, Jonathan M


    Seat belt use is one of the most effective countermeasures to reduce traffic fatalities and injuries. The success of efforts to increase use is measured by road side observations and self-report questionnaires. These methods have shortcomings, with the former requiring a binary point estimate and the latter being subjective. The 100-car naturalistic driving study presented a unique opportunity to study seat belt use in that seat belt status was known for every trip each driver made during a 12-month period. Drivers were grouped into infrequent, occasional, or consistent seat belt users based on the frequency of belt use. Analyses were then completed to assess if these groups differed on several measures including personality, demographics, self-reported driving style variables as well as measures from the 100-car study instrumentation suite (average trip speed, trips per day). In addition, detailed analyses of the occasional belt user group were completed to identify factors that were predictive of occasional belt users wearing their belts. The analyses indicated that consistent seat belt users took fewer trips per day, and that increased average trip speed was associated with increased belt use among occasional belt users. The results of this project may help focus messaging efforts to convert occasional and inconsistent seat belt users to consistent users. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pilot-scale continuous ultrasonic cleaning equipment reduces Listeria monocytogenes levels on conveyor belts. (United States)

    Tolvanen, Riina; Lundén, Janne; Hörman, Ari; Korkeala, Hannu


    Ultrasonic cleaning of a conveyor belt was studied by building a pilot-scale conveyor with an ultrasonic cleaning bath. A piece of the stainless steel conveyor belt was contaminated with meat-based soil and Listeria monocytogenes strains (V1, V3, and B9) and incubated for 72 h to allow bacteria to attach to the conveyor belt surfaces. The effect of ultrasound with a potassium hydroxide-based cleaning detergent was determined by using the cleaning bath at 45 and 50 degrees C for 30 s with and without ultrasound. The detachment of L. monocytogenes from the conveyor belt caused by the ultrasonic treatment was significantly greater at 45 degrees C (independent samples t test, P conveyor belt is effective even with short treatment times.

  6. Latinas and African American Women at Work: Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality. (United States)

    Browne, Irene, Ed.

    The 13 chapters of this book, written by various sociologists, document how race and gender intersect to put African American and Latina women at a disadvantage in the workplace. The articles encompass 30 years of change for women at all levels of the workforce, from those who spend time on the welfare rolls to middle class professionals, and look…

  7. Media influence on pre-middle school African Americans' perceptions toward science, mathematics, and technology courses and careers (United States)

    Waters, Sharon Campbell


    A variety of previous studies have suggested that inaccurate, stereotypical or missing media depictions of science, engineering, and technology (SET) workers and fields have contributed to a growing shortage of youth interested in pursuing careers within the scientific endeavor. However, studies on the perceptions of African American youth have not usually been the focus of such research. In this exploratory study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 34 fifth grade African American students to determine the relative influence television and film portrayals of SET workers had on these children's perceptions of roles in SET fields and careers and school coursework related to them. Framed within the theoretical perspectives of cultivation analysis and the construction of social reality, results indicated the majority of participants perceived scientists as ambiguous, possessing either mythic characteristics of the fantastic persona or they saw them as altruistically inclined figures that saved the world from disease, destruction, and decay. Television and film portrayals of SET workers were found in varying degrees and ways to shape these African American children's perceptions toward SET careers. While children exhibited self-concepts about SET workers that were sometimes idealistic, distorted, or unrealistic, most had favorable perceptions toward math and science courses in school. However, it was the absence of television and film portrayals of African Americans in SET roles that was problematic for the majority of students. Recommendations for media producers, educators, scientific research foundations, and parents were suggested to dispel some of these commonly found media stereotypes of SET workers and African Americans in these roles and their effects.

  8. Motivating signage prompts safety belt use among drivers exiting senior communities. (United States)

    Cox, B S; Cox, A B; Cox, D J


    Senior drivers are vulnerable to automobile crashes and subsequent injury and death. Safety belts reduce health risks associated with auto crashes. Therefore, it is important to encourage senior drivers to wear safety belts while driving. Using an AB design, replicated five times, we evaluated the short- and long-term effects of a sign with the message "BUCKLE UP, STAY SAFE" attached to a stop sign at the exits of five different senior communities. Safety belt use was stable during two pretreatment assessments averaged across the five sites and 250 drivers (72% and 68% usage), but significantly increased following installation of these signs (94% usage). Six months after installation of the signs, the effect persisted (88% usage). Use of such signs may be a cost-effective way of promoting safety belt use.

  9. Synthetic approaches to aromatic belts: building up strain in macrocyclic polyarenes. (United States)

    Eisenberg, David; Shenhar, Roy; Rabinovitz, Mordecai


    This tutorial review discusses synthetic strategies towards aromatic belts, defined here as double-stranded conjugated macrocycles, such as [n]cyclacenes, [n]cyclophenacenes, Schlüter belt, and Vögtle belt. Their appeal stems, firstly, from the unique nature of their conjugation, having p orbitals oriented radially rather than perpendicular to the plane of the macrocycle. Secondly, as aromatic belts are model compounds of carbon nanotubes of different chiralities, a synthetic strategy towards the buildup of structural strain in these compounds could finally open a route towards rational chemical synthesis of carbon nanotubes. The elusiveness of these compounds has stimulated fascinating and ingenious synthetic strategies over the last decades. The various strategies are classified here by their approach to the buildup of structural strain, which is the main obstacle in the preparation of these curved polyarenes.

  10. The significance of strike-slip faulting in the basement of the Zagros fold and thrust belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessami, K.; Koyi, H.A.; Talbot, C.J. [Uppsala University (Sweden). Institute of Earth Sciences


    Lateral offsets in the pattern of seismicity along the Zagros fold and thrust belt indicate that transverse faults segmenting the Arabian basement are active deep-seated strike-slip faults. The dominant NW-SE trending features of the belt have undergone repeated horizontal displacements along these transverse faults. These reactivated basement faults, which are inherited from the Pan-African construction phase, controlled both deposition of the Phanerozoic cover before Tertiary-Recent deformation of the Zagros and probably the entrapment of hydrocarbons on the NE margin of Arabia and in the Zagros area. We have used observations of faulting recognized on Landsat satellite images, in conjunction with the spatial distribution of earthquakes and their focal mechanism solutions, to infer a tectonic model for the Zagros basement. Deformation in the NW Zagros appears to be concentrated on basement thrusts and a few widely-spaced north-south trending strike-slip faults which separate major structural segments. In the SE Zagros, two main structural domains can be distinguished. A domain of NNW-trending right-lateral faults in the northern part of the SE Zagros implies that fault-bounded blocks are likely to have rotated anticlockwise about vertical axes relative to both Arabia and Central Iran. In contrast, the predominance of NNE-trending left-lateral faults in the southern part of the SE Zagros implies that fault-bounded blocks may have rotated clockwise about vertical axes. We propose a tectonic model in which crustal blocks bounded by strike-slip faults in a zone of simple shear rotate about vertical axes relative to both Arabia and Central Iran. The presence of domains of strike-slip and thrust faulting in the Zagros basement suggest that some of the convergence between Arabia and Central Iran is accommodated by rotation and possible lateral movement of crust along the belt by strike-slip faults, as well as by obvious crustal shortening and thickening along thrust

  11. U-Pb SHRIMP ages of detrital zircons from Hiriyur formation in Chitradurga Greenstone belt and its implication to the Neoarchean evolution of Dharwar craton, South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasheeth, A.; Okudaira, T.; Horie, K.; Hokada, T.; Satish Kumar, M.


    We report newly obtained U-Pb SHRIMP ages of detrital zircons from metagreywackes in the Hiriyur Formation (Chitradurga Group, Dharwar Supergroup) from the central eastern part of the Chitradurga greenstone belt. U-Pb analyses yield three major Neoarchean age populations ranging from 2.70 - 2.54 Ga with some minor age population of Mesoarchean. The maximum age of deposition is constrained by the youngest detrital zircon population at 2546 Ma. This is the first report of the occurrence of supracrustal rocks less than 2.58 Ga in the central part of Chitradurga greenstone belt. Close evaluation of detrital ages with the published ages of surrounding igneous rocks suggest that the youngest detrital zircons might be derived from rocks of the Eastern Dharwar craton and the inferred docking of the western and eastern Dharwar cratons happened prior to the deposition of the Hiriyur Formation. The Chitradurga shear zone, dividing the Dharwar craton into western and eastern blocks, probably developed after the deposition. Furthermore, the lower intercept is interpreted as evidence for the Pan-African overprints in the study area. (author)

  12. Oral Health Inequalities between Rural and Urban Populations of the African and Middle East Region. (United States)

    Ogunbodede, E O; Kida, I A; Madjapa, H S; Amedari, M; Ehizele, A; Mutave, R; Sodipo, B; Temilola, S; Okoye, L


    Although there have been major improvements in oral health, with remarkable advances in the prevention and management of oral diseases, globally, inequalities persist between urban and rural communities. These inequalities exist in the distribution of oral health services, accessibility, utilization, treatment outcomes, oral health knowledge and practices, health insurance coverage, oral health-related quality of life, and prevalence of oral diseases, among others. People living in rural areas are likely to be poorer, be less health literate, have more caries, have fewer teeth, have no health insurance coverage, and have less money to spend on dental care than persons living in urban areas. Rural areas are often associated with lower education levels, which in turn have been found to be related to lower levels of health literacy and poor use of health care services. These factors have an impact on oral health care, service delivery, and research. Hence, unmet dental care remains one of the most urgent health care needs in these communities. We highlight some of the conceptual issues relating to urban-rural inequalities in oral health, especially in the African and Middle East Region (AMER). Actions to reduce oral health inequalities and ameliorate rural-urban disparity are necessary both within the health sector and the wider policy environment. Recommended actions include population-specific oral health promotion programs, measures aimed at increasing access to oral health services in rural areas, integration of oral health into existing primary health care services, and support for research aimed at informing policy on the social determinants of health. Concerted efforts must be made by all stakeholders (governments, health care workforce, organizations, and communities) to reduce disparities and improve oral health outcomes in underserved populations. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  13. Resolving the planetesimal belt of HR 8799 with ALMA (United States)

    Booth, Mark; Jordán, Andrés; Casassus, Simon; Hales, Antonio S.; Dent, William R. F.; Faramaz, Virginie; Matrà, Luca; Barkats, Denis; Brahm, Rafael; Cuadra, Jorge


    The star HR 8799 hosts one of the largest known debris discs and at least four giant planets. Previous observations have found evidence for a warm belt within the orbits of the planets, a cold planetesimal belt beyond their orbits and a halo of small grains. With the infrared data, it is hard to distinguish the planetesimal belt emission from that of the grains in the halo. With this in mind, the system has been observed with ALMA in band 6 (1.34 mm) using a compact array format. These observations allow the inner edge of the planetesimal belt to be resolved for the first time. A radial distribution of dust grains is fitted to the data using an MCMC method. The disc is best fitted by a broad ring between 145^{+12}_{-12} au and 429^{+37}_{-32} au at an inclination of 40^{+5}_{-6}° and a position angle of 51^{+8}_{-8}°. A disc edge at ˜145 au is too far out to be explained simply by interactions with planet b, requiring either a more complicated dynamical history or an extra planet beyond the orbit of planet b.

  14. The Dom Feliciano belt (Brazil-Uruguay)and its fore land (Rio de la Plata Craton): framework, tectonic evolution and correlations with similar terranes of southwestern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, M.; Siga, O.; Masquelin, H.; Harara, O.; Reis Neto, J.; Preciozzi, F.


    The Dom Feliciano Belt (DFB) stretches for ca. 1,200 km along southeastern Brazil and eastern Uruguay, with an average width of 150 km. From its northern limit in Santa Catarina to its termination m Uruguay, DFB is internally organized according three crustal segments characterized, from southeast to northwest, by a Granitoid belt (calci-alkaline to alkaline granitoid rocks deformed to different degrees); a Schist belt (volcano-sedimentary rocks metamorphosed from green schist to amphibolite facies), and a Fore land belt (sedimentary and anchimetamorphic volcanic rocks), the latter situated between the Schist belt and the old western terranes. Despite discontinuously covered by younger sediments, the continuity of these three segments is suggested by the similar lithotypes and structural characteristics, as well as by the gravimetric geophysical signature.In this work, DBF is interpreted as the product of successive subduction s and collisions related to the agglutination of different terranes generated or intensely reworked from the Neoproterozoic to the Cambrian, during the Brasiliano and Rio Doce orogenesis, with maximum time starting at 900 Ma (opening of the Adamastor Ocean) and ending at 530 Ma (deformation of the fore land basins) related to the tecto no-magmatic events associated with the formation of the Western Gondwana.Besides the Neoproterozoic DFB and its fore land, the Rio de la Plata Craton and the Luis Alves Microplate, constituted by Paleoproterozoic gneissic-migmatitic rocks, two other tectonic units can be recognized in southeastern Brazil and eastern Uruguay: the Sao Gabriel Block (RS) where Neoproterozoic juvenile material can be characterized in regional scale (in great part associated with an island are), and the Punta del Este Terrane, which presents, in southern Uruguay, an ortho gneiss basement with ages around 1,000 Ma and a meta sedimentary cover (Rocha Group), which can correspond in the South-American portion, to the Namaqua and Gariep

  15. Design of dual energy x-ray detector for conveyor belt with steel wire ropes (United States)

    Dai, Yue; Miao, Changyun; Rong, Feng


    A dual energy X-ray detector for conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is researched in the paper. Conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is one of primary transfer equipments in modern production. The traditional test methods like electromagnetic induction principle could not display inner image of steel wire ropes directly. So X-ray detection technology has used to detect the conveyor belt. However the image was not so clear by the interference of the rubber belt. Therefore, the dualenergy X-ray detection technology with subtraction method is developed to numerically remove the rubber belt from radiograph, thus improving the definition of the ropes image. The purpose of this research is to design a dual energy Xray detector that could make the operator easier to found the faulty of the belt. This detection system is composed of Xray source, detector controlled by FPGA chip, PC for running image processing system and so on. With the result of the simulating, this design really improved the capability of the staff to test the conveyor belt.

  16. Seat-belt use still low in Kuwait: self-reported driving behaviours among adult drivers. (United States)

    Raman, Sudha R; Ottensmeyer, C Andrea; Landry, Michel D; Alfadhli, Jarrah; Procter, Steven; Jacob, Susan; Hamdan, Elham; Bouhaimed, Manal


    Kuwait mandated seat-belt use by drivers in 1976 and by front seat passengers in 1994. The study objectives were to identify and estimate current factors associated with seat-belt use and levels of potentially unsafe driving behaviours in Kuwait. In 2010, 741 adults were surveyed regarding driving habits and history. Only 41.6% of drivers reported always using a seat belt. Front seat passenger belt use was more common (30.5%) than rear seat belt use (6.5%). Distracted driving behaviours were common, including mobile phone use ('always' or 'almost always': 51.1%) and texting/SMS (32.4%). Logistic regression indicated that drivers who were young (18-19 years), male, Kuwaiti nationals or non-Kuwaiti Arabs, drove over the speed limit, had traffic violation tickets or >1 car crashes in the last year, were less likely to use seat belts. Targeted initiatives to increase public awareness and to enforce car-safety legislation, including use of seat belts, are necessary to decrease the health burden of car crashes in Kuwait.

  17. Project-Based Learning about Nutrition with Technology in an African-American Middle School (United States)

    Banks, Sibyl


    In the last few years, there has been a growing problem with the prevalence of being overweight. This is becoming an accepted lifestyle in the African American community, and has begun to impact not just adults, but also adolescents and young children. There are problems associated with being overweight or obese that could have lifetime…

  18. ) Organic Facies Variations in the Middle Cretaceous Black Shales of the Abakaliki Fold Belt, South-East, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehinola, O. A.; Badejoko, T.A.; Ekweozor, C.M.; Adebowale, K. O.


    An assessment, based on organic facies characteristics, have been carried out on the middle Cretaceous black shales, in order to determine their hydrocarbon source potential, thermal maturity, and depositional environments. The methods employed include evaluation of organic carbon content, rockeval pyrolysis, extractable organic matter, maceral composition and biomarker distributions.Organic facies criteria such as TOC, HI, Tmax, liptinite content, SOMIFOC and SHC/AHC indicate that Albian to middle Cenomanian shales are could only generate gas. The late Cenomanian to early Turonian shales are characterized by Type I/II kerogen, mature and could generate both oil and characterized by Type III kerogen, immature and could generate gas with little oil. The biomarker distributions indicate immature to mature source rock, moderately biodegraded and with reduced marine environment prevailing during the deposition of the lack shales. The late Cenomanian to early Turonian black shales show the highest source-rock potential

  19. A belt charging system for the Vivitron - design, early results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helleboid, J.M.; Gaudiot, G.


    A specific belt charging system has been designed, built and assembled for the 35 MV Vivitron. 100 m long belt is used. Together with main features of the design, experimental studies, tests in a pilot machine and the results of the very early tests of the real system are reviewed

  20. Respiratory Belt Transducer Constructed Using a Singing Greeting Card Beeper (United States)

    Bhaskar, Anand; Subramani, Selvam; Ojha, Rajdeep


    An article by Belusic and Zupancic described the construction of a finger pulse sensor using a singing greeting card beeper. These authors felt that this beeper made of piezoelectric material could be easily modified to function as a respiratory belt transducer to monitor respiratory movements. Commercially available respiratory belt transducers,…

  1. Phanerozoic polyphase orogenies recorded in the northeastern Okcheon Belt, Korea from SHRIMP U-Pb detrital zircon and K-Ar illite geochronologies (United States)

    Jang, Yirang; Kwon, Sanghoon; Song, Yungoo; Kim, Sung Won; Kwon, Yi Kyun; Yi, Keewook


    We present the SHRIMP U-Pb detrital zircon and K-Ar illite 1Md/1M and 2M1 ages, suggesting new insight into the Phanerozoic polyphase orogenies preserved in the northeastern Okcheon Belt, Korea since the initial basin formation during Neoproterozoic rifting through several successive contractional orogens. The U-Pb detrital zircon ages from the Early Paleozoic strata of the Taebaeksan Zone suggest a Cambrian maximum deposition age, and are supported by trilobite and conodont biostratigraphy. Although the age spectra from two sedimentary groups, the Yeongwol and Taebaek Groups, show similar continuous distributions from the Late Paleoproterozoic to Early Paleozoic ages, a Grenville-age hiatus (1.3-0.9 Ga) in the continuous stratigraphic sequence from the Taebaek Group suggests the existence of different peripheral clastic sources along rifted continental margin(s). In addition, we present the K-Ar illite 1Md/1M ages of the fault gouges, which confirm fault formation/reactivation during the Late Cretaceous to Early Paleogene (ca. 82-62 Ma) and the Early Miocene (ca. 20-18 Ma). The 2M1 illite ages, at least those younger than the host rock ages, provide episodes of deformation, metamorphism and hydrothermal effects related to the tectonic events during the Devonian (ca.410 Ma) and Permo-Triassic (ca. 285-240 Ma). These results indicate that the northeastern Okcheon Belt experienced polyphase orogenic events, namely the Okcheon (Middle Paleozoic), Songrim (Late Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic), Daebo (Middle Mesozoic) and Bulguksa (Late Mesozoic to Early Cenozoic) Orogenies, reflecting the Phanerozoic tectonic evolution of the Korean Peninsula along the East Asian continental margin.

  2. Upper limit on the inner radiation belt MeV electron intensity (United States)

    Li, X; Selesnick, RS; Baker, DN; Jaynes, AN; Kanekal, SG; Schiller, Q; Blum, L; Fennell, J; Blake, JB


    No instruments in the inner radiation belt are immune from the unforgiving penetration of the highly energetic protons (tens of MeV to GeV). The inner belt proton flux level, however, is relatively stable; thus, for any given instrument, the proton contamination often leads to a certain background noise. Measurements from the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment on board Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment CubeSat, in a low Earth orbit, clearly demonstrate that there exist sub-MeV electrons in the inner belt because their flux level is orders of magnitude higher than the background, while higher-energy electron (>1.6 MeV) measurements cannot be distinguished from the background. Detailed analysis of high-quality measurements from the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope on board Van Allen Probes, in a geo-transfer-like orbit, provides, for the first time, quantified upper limits on MeV electron fluxes in various energy ranges in the inner belt. These upper limits are rather different from flux levels in the AE8 and AE9 models, which were developed based on older data sources. For 1.7, 2.5, and 3.3 MeV electrons, the upper limits are about 1 order of magnitude lower than predicted model fluxes. The implication of this difference is profound in that unless there are extreme solar wind conditions, which have not happened yet since the launch of Van Allen Probes, significant enhancements of MeV electrons do not occur in the inner belt even though such enhancements are commonly seen in the outer belt. Key Points Quantified upper limit of MeV electrons in the inner belt Actual MeV electron intensity likely much lower than the upper limit More detailed understanding of relativistic electrons in the magnetosphere PMID:26167446

  3. Prevalence and Severity of Oral Diseases in the Africa and Middle East Region. (United States)

    Abid, A; Maatouk, F; Berrezouga, L; Azodo, C; Uti, O; El-Shamy, H; Oginni, A


    This review aims to determine the prevalence and severity of oral health diseases in the Africa and Middle East region (AMER). The profile of oral diseases is not homogeneous across the AMER. There are large disparities between groups. Reliable data are scarce. The prevalence and severity of oral diseases appear to be increasing in the African region, as does associated morbidity. There are substantial differences in inequalities in oral health. Dental caries prevalence is less severe in most African countries than in developed countries, but the high rate of untreated caries reflects the limited resources available and difficulties of access and affordability to essential oral health care services. The prevalence of gingival inflammation is very high in all age groups in several African countries. The prevalence of maxillofacial trauma has increased in many countries, with a wide variation of the incidence and high prevalence of traumatic dental injuries in primary and permanent teeth. Orofacial clefts are among the most common birth defects. Annual incidence of oral cancer is estimated as 25 cases per 100,000 people in Africa. Noma is a major public health problem for the Middle East and North African (MENA) region. Data about human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS are limited, particularly in the MENA region. According to the World Health Organization Regional Committee for Africa report, some fundamental key basic knowledge gaps need to be underlined. They include inequalities in oral health, low priority for oral health, lack of adequate funding, inadequate dental student training, obstacles to medical and dental research, and poor databases. There are very few effective public prevention and oral health promotion programs in the AMER. Universal health coverage is not achievable without scientific research on the effectiveness of health promotion interventions. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  4. The effectiveness of automatic belts in reducing fatality rates in Toyota Cressidas. (United States)

    Nash, C E


    Toyota Cressidas have had motor driven automatic belts since 1981. Their observed use rates have been consistently close to 100%. This paper compares fatality rates in Toyota Cressidas with those in the similar Nissan Maximas (which are equipped with three-point manual belts) using the latest data from the Fatal Accident Reporting System. After making adjustments for differences in the average ages of front seat occupants of the two fleets, the Toyotas have a fatality rate that is about three-quarters that of the Nissans. From this, the fatality-reducing effectiveness for the Toyota automatic belts is estimated to be 40% with an uncertainty of +/- 8%. This effectiveness estimate is consistent with earlier estimates of automatic belt effectiveness.

  5. Fall Protection Characteristics of Safety Belts and Human Impact Tolerance. (United States)

    Hino, Yasumichi; Ohdo, Katsutoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki


    Many fatal accidents due to falls from heights have occurred at construction sites not only in Japan but also in other countries. This study aims to determine the fall prevention performance of two types of safety belts: a body belt 1) , which has been used for more than 40 yr in the Japanese construction industry as a general type of safety equipment for fall accident prevention, and a full harness 2, 3) , which has been used in many other countries. To determine human tolerance for impact trauma, this study discusses features of safety belts with reference 4-9) to relevant studies in the medical science, automobile crash safety, and aircrew safety. For this purpose, simple drop tests were carried out in a virtual workplace to measure impact load, head acceleration, and posture in the experiments, the Hybrid-III pedestrian model 10) was used as a human dummy. Hybrid-III is typically employed in official automobile crash tests (New Car Assessment Program: NCAP) and is currently recognized as a model that faithfully reproduces dynamic responses. Experimental results shows that safety performance strongly depends on both the variety of safety belts used and the shock absorbers attached onto lanyards. These findings indicate that fall prevention equipment, such as safety belts, lanyards, and shock absorbers, must be improved to reduce impact injuries to the human head and body during falls.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M. E.; Fraser, W. C.; Burgasser, A. J.


    We present photometry and spectra of the large Kuiper belt object 2007 OR10. The data show significant near-infrared absorption features due to water ice. While most objects in the Kuiper belt with water ice absorption this prominent have the optically neutral colors of water ice, 2007 OR10 is among the reddest Kuiper belt objects known. One other large Kuiper belt object-Quaoar-has similar red coloring and water ice absorption, and it is hypothesized that the red coloration of this object is due to irradiation of the small amounts of methane able to be retained on Quaoar. 2007 OR10, though warmer than Quaoar, is in a similar volatile retention regime because it is sufficiently larger that its stronger gravity can still retain methane. We propose, therefore, that the red coloration on 2007 OR10 is also caused by the retention of small amounts of methane. Positive detection of methane on 2007 OR10 will require spectra with higher signal to noise. Models for volatile retention on Kuiper belt objects appear to continue to do an excellent job reproducing all of the available observations.

  7. Radiation Belts of Antiparticles in Planetary Magnetospheres (United States)

    Pugacheva, G. I.; Gusev, A. A.; Jayanthi, U. B.; Martin, I. M.; Spjeldvik, W. N.


    The Earth's radiation belts could be populated, besides with electrons and protons, also by antiparticles, such as positrons (Basilova et al., 1982) and antiprotons (pbar). Positrons are born in the decay of pions that are directly produced in nuclear reactions of trapped relativistic inner zone protons with the residual atmosphere at altitudes in the range of about 500 to 3000 km over the Earth's surface. Antiprotons are born by high energy (E > 6 GeV) cosmic rays in p+p - p+p+p+ pbar and in p+p - p+p+n+nbar reactions. The trapping and storage of these charged anti-particles in the magnetosphere result in radiation belts similar to the classical Van Allen belts of protons and electrons. We describe the mathematical techniques used for numerical simulation of the trapped positron and antiproton belt fluxes. The pion and antiproton yields were simulated on the basis of the Russian nuclear reaction computer code MSDM, a Multy Stage Dynamical Model, Monte Carlo code, (i.e., Dementyev and Sobolevsky, 1999). For estimates of positron flux there we have accounted for ionisation, bremsstrahlung, and synchrotron energy losses. The resulting numerical estimates show that the positron flux with energy >100 MeV trapped into the radiation belt at L=1.2 is of the order ~1000 m-2 s-1 sr-1, and that it is very sensitive to the shape of the trapped proton spectrum. This confined positron flux is found to be greater than that albedo, not trapped, mixed electron/positron flux of about 50 m-2 s-1 sr-1 produced by CR in the same region at the top of the geomagnetic field line at L=1.2. As we show in report, this albedo flux also consists mostly of positrons. The trapped antiproton fluxes produced by CR in the Earth's upper rarified atmosphere were calculated in the energy range from 10 MeV to several GeV. In the simulations we included a mathematic consideration of the radial diffusion process, both an inner and an outer antiproton source, losses of particles due to ionization process

  8. 49 CFR 571.209 - Standard No. 209; Seat belt assemblies. (United States)


    ... seat belt assembly to fit the user, including such hardware that may be integral with a buckle... the proper use of the assembly, stressing particularly the importance of wearing the assembly snugly... of Standard No. 208. (a)(1) A manual seat belt assembly, which is subject to the requirements of S5.1...

  9. Parental Endorsement of Spanking and Children’s Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in African American and Hispanic Families (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Kull, Melissa A.; Carrano, Jennifer


    This study assessed prospective, bidirectional associations between maternal endorsement of spanking and children’s internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in low-income urban African American and Hispanic (N = 592) families drawn from the Three City Study. Children in sample families were followed from early childhood through middle childhood with three sets of interviews and assessments at ages 3, 4, and 9 years. Cross-lagged path analyses tested longitudinal bidirectional associations between parental endorsement of spanking and children’s internalizing and externalizing problems, with multi-group comparisons employed to test group differences between race/ethnic groups. African American and Hispanic mothers showed similar endorsements of spanking. Results suggest that associations between spanking endorsement and child functioning were due primarily to parenting effects, with spanking predicting changes in children’s behaviors, rather than child evocative effects, with limited evidence of child behaviors predicting changes in parental spanking. Maternal spanking endorsement predicted short-term decreases in children’s internalizing problems in early childhood, but over the longer term spanking was associated with increased internalizing and externalizing problems for both African American and Hispanic children in middle childhood among economically disadvantaged families. PMID:24364363

  10. Evolution of an intra-oceanic island arc during the late Silurian to late Devonian, New England fold belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offler, R.; Gamble, J.


    Geochemical studies of volcanic rocks in the Gamilaroi terrane and Calliope Volcanic Assemblage, New England Fold Belt, eastern Australia, indicate that the setting in which these rocks formed changed in both space and time. The Upper Silurian to Middle Devonian basalts of the Gamilaroi terrane show flat to slightly light rare-earth element (LREE) depleted chondrite normalised patterns, depletion of high field strength elements (HFSE) relative to N-MORB, low Ti/V and high Ti/Zr ratios, high Ni, Cr and large-ion lithophile element (LILE) contents, features characteristic of intra-oceanic island arc basaltic magmas. They are associated with low-K, less mafic volcanics, showing moderate LREE enrichment, low Nb and Y contents and Rb/Zr ratios. The depletion of HFSE in the basalts indicates that the magmas were derived from a refractory source in a supra-subduction zone setting. The presence of such a zone implies that the arc was associated with a backarc basin, the location of which was to the west where a wide backarc region existed from the Middle Silurian. This polarity of arc and backarc basin suggests that the subduction zone dipped to the west. In contrast to their older counterparts, Middle to Upper Devonian basalts of the Gamilaroi terrane have MORB-like chondrite normalised patterns and higher Ti and lower LILE contents. Moreover, they have low Ti/Zr ratios and MORB-like Ti/V ratios and HFSE contents, features typical of backarc basins. Dolerites of the Gamilaroi terrane also have predominantly backarc basin signatures. These features suggest that both the basalts and dolerites have been emplaced in an extensional environment produced during the rifting of the intra-oceanic island arc lithosphere. A progressive increase in Ti/V ratios, and TiO 2 and Fe 2 O 3 contents at constant MgO, of stratigraphically equivalent basalts, towards the north-northwest part of the belt, is consistent with either greater extension to the north or melting of a more fertile magma

  11. Alien Asteroid Belt Compared to our Own (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Band of Light Comparison This artist's concept illustrates what the night sky might look like from a hypothetical alien planet in a star system with an asteroid belt 25 times as massive as the one in our own solar system (alien system above, ours below; see Figure 1). NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence for such a belt around the nearby star called HD 69830, when its infrared eyes spotted dust, presumably from asteroids banging together. The telescope did not find any evidence for a planet in the system, but astronomers speculate one or more may be present. The movie begins at dusk on the imaginary world, when HD 69830, like our Sun, has begun to set over the horizon. Time is sped up to show the onset of night and the appearance of a brilliant band of light. This light comes from dust in a massive asteroid belt, which scatters sunlight. In our solar system, anybody observing the skies on a moonless night far from city lights can see the sunlight that is scattered by dust in our asteroid belt. Called zodiacal light and sometimes the 'false dawn,' this light appears as a dim band stretching up from the horizon when the Sun is about to rise or set. The light is faint enough that the disk of our Milky Way galaxy remains the most prominent feature in the sky. (The Milky Way disk is shown perpendicular to the zodiacal light in both pictures.) In contrast, the zodiacal light in the HD 69830 system would be 1,000 times brighter than our own, outshining even the Milky Way.

  12. Pb-Pb geochronology in zircon of the basement rocks of the southern portion of the Araguaia Belt - Paraiso do Tocantins region, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcanjo, Silvia Helena de Souza; Moura, Candido Augusto Veloso


    portion of the Araguaia belt may represent a younger crustal segment accreted to the Amazon Craton during the Early Proterozoic. The alkaline gneisses ar interpreted as representative of the alkaline magmatism associated with the extensional phase that developed, in the Middle Proterozoic, the basin which received the desiments of Araguaia belt. This belt was deformed during the Brasiliano Cycle, and published age of 510 Ma for the Matanca Granite may date the final phase of this deformation. (author)

  13. Alkaline intrusion in a granulite ensemble in the Eastern Ghats belt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alkaline magmatism; Eastern Ghats belt; pull-apart structure; plume tectonics. ... is one of several bodies in the high-grade Eastern Ghats belt, but this one is an ... Geological Studies Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 B. T. Road, Kolkata 700 ...

  14. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger


    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  15. Formation and Decay of the Inner Electron Radiation Belt (United States)


    a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 09-01-2017 2. REPORT TYPE...radiation belt: CRAND and trapped solar protons......17 APPENDIX C - Inward diffusion and loss of radiation belt protons...transfer orbit that can be damaged by the intense charged -particle environment. Protons are the prominent hazard, often causing single event upsets in

  16. An Experimental Concept for Probing Nonlinear Physics in Radiation Belts (United States)

    Crabtree, C. E.; Ganguli, G.; Tejero, E. M.; Amatucci, B.; Siefring, C. L.


    A sounding rocket experiment, Space Measurement of Rocket-Released Turbulence (SMART), can be used to probe the nonlinear response to a known stimulus injected into the radiation belt. Release of high-speed neutral barium atoms (8- 10 km/s) generated by a shaped charge explosion in the ionosphere can be used as the source of free energy to seed weak turbulence in the ionosphere. The Ba atoms are photo-ionized forming a ring velocity distribution of heavy Ba+ that is known to generate lower hybrid waves. Induced nonlinear scattering will convert the lower hybrid waves into EM whistler/magnetosonic waves. The escape of the whistlers from the ionospheric region into the radiation belts has been studied and their observable signatures quantified. The novelty of the SMART experiment is to make coordinated measurement of the cause and effect of the turbulence in space plasmas and from that to deduce the role of nonlinear scattering in the radiation belts. Sounding rocket will carry a Ba release module and an instrumented daughter section that includes vector wave magnetic and electric field sensors, Langmuir probes and energetic particle detectors. The goal of these measurements is to determine the whistler and lower hybrid wave amplitudes and spectrum in the ionospheric source region and look for precipitated particles. The Ba release may occur at 600-700 km near apogee. Ground based cameras and radio diagnostics can be used to characterize the Ba and Ba+ release. The Van Allen Probes can be used to detect the propagation of the scattering-generated whistler waves and their effects in the radiation belts. By detecting whistlers and measuring their energy density in the radiation belts the SMART mission will confirm the nonlinear generation of whistlers through scattering of lower hybrid along with other nonlinear responses of the radiation belts and their connection to weak turbulence.

  17. Numerical modeling of water spray suppression of conveyor belt fires in a large-scale tunnel. (United States)

    Yuan, Liming; Smith, Alex C


    Conveyor belt fires in an underground mine pose a serious life threat to miners. Water sprinkler systems are usually used to extinguish underground conveyor belt fires, but because of the complex interaction between conveyor belt fires and mine ventilation airflow, more effective engineering designs are needed for the installation of water sprinkler systems. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate the interaction between the ventilation airflow, the belt flame spread, and the water spray system in a mine entry. The CFD model was calibrated using test results from a large-scale conveyor belt fire suppression experiment. Simulations were conducted using the calibrated CFD model to investigate the effects of sprinkler location, water flow rate, and sprinkler activation temperature on the suppression of conveyor belt fires. The sprinkler location and the activation temperature were found to have a major effect on the suppression of the belt fire, while the water flow rate had a minor effect.

  18. Numerical modeling of water spray suppression of conveyor belt fires in a large-scale tunnel (United States)

    Yuan, Liming; Smith, Alex C.


    Conveyor belt fires in an underground mine pose a serious life threat to miners. Water sprinkler systems are usually used to extinguish underground conveyor belt fires, but because of the complex interaction between conveyor belt fires and mine ventilation airflow, more effective engineering designs are needed for the installation of water sprinkler systems. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate the interaction between the ventilation airflow, the belt flame spread, and the water spray system in a mine entry. The CFD model was calibrated using test results from a large-scale conveyor belt fire suppression experiment. Simulations were conducted using the calibrated CFD model to investigate the effects of sprinkler location, water flow rate, and sprinkler activation temperature on the suppression of conveyor belt fires. The sprinkler location and the activation temperature were found to have a major effect on the suppression of the belt fire, while the water flow rate had a minor effect. PMID:26190905

  19. The age of the hominin fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco, and the origins of the Middle Stone Age. (United States)

    Richter, Daniel; Grün, Rainer; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Steele, Teresa E; Amani, Fethi; Rué, Mathieu; Fernandes, Paul; Raynal, Jean-Paul; Geraads, Denis; Ben-Ncer, Abdelouahed; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; McPherron, Shannon P


    The timing and location of the emergence of our species and of associated behavioural changes are crucial for our understanding of human evolution. The earliest fossil attributed to a modern form of Homo sapiens comes from eastern Africa and is approximately 195 thousand years old, therefore the emergence of modern human biology is commonly placed at around 200 thousand years ago. The earliest Middle Stone Age assemblages come from eastern and southern Africa but date much earlier. Here we report the ages, determined by thermoluminescence dating, of fire-heated flint artefacts obtained from new excavations at the Middle Stone Age site of Jebel Irhoud, Morocco, which are directly associated with newly discovered remains of H. sapiens. A weighted average age places these Middle Stone Age artefacts and fossils at 315 ± 34 thousand years ago. Support is obtained through the recalculated uranium series with electron spin resonance date of 286 ± 32 thousand years ago for a tooth from the Irhoud 3 hominin mandible. These ages are also consistent with the faunal and microfaunal assemblages and almost double the previous age estimates for the lower part of the deposits. The north African site of Jebel Irhoud contains one of the earliest directly dated Middle Stone Age assemblages, and its associated human remains are the oldest reported for H. sapiens. The emergence of our species and of the Middle Stone Age appear to be close in time, and these data suggest a larger scale, potentially pan-African, origin for both.

  20. Radiation Belt Test Model (United States)

    Freeman, John W.


    Rice University has developed a dynamic model of the Earth's radiation belts based on real-time data driven boundary conditions and full adiabaticity. The Radiation Belt Test Model (RBTM) successfully replicates the major features of storm-time behavior of energetic electrons: sudden commencement induced main phase dropout and recovery phase enhancement. It is the only known model to accomplish the latter. The RBTM shows the extent to which new energetic electrons introduced to the magnetosphere near the geostationary orbit drift inward due to relaxation of the magnetic field. It also shows the effects of substorm related rapid motion of magnetotail field lines for which the 3rd adiabatic invariant is violated. The radial extent of this violation is seen to be sharply delineated to a region outside of 5Re, although this distance is determined by the Hilmer-Voigt magnetic field model used by the RBTM. The RBTM appears to provide an excellent platform on which to build parameterized refinements to compensate for unknown acceleration processes inside 5Re where adiabaticity is seen to hold. Moreover, built within the framework of the MSFM, it offers the prospect of an operational forecast model for MeV electrons.

  1. Determining the Relationship of Primary Seat Belt Laws to Minority Ticketing (United States)


    Racial profiling is often raised as an issue when States change their seat belt law from secondary enforcement (i.e., stop only for some other violation) to primary enforcement (i.e., stop for an observed belt law violation alone). Thirteen States ma...

  2. Idealized debris flow in flume with bed driven by a conveyor belt (United States)

    Ling, Chi-Hai; Chen, Cheng-lung


    The generalized viscoplastic fluid (GVF) model is used to derive the theoretical expressions of two-dimensional velocities and surface profile for debris flow established in a flume with bed driven by a conveyor belt. The rheological parameters of the GVF model are evaluated through the comparison of theoretical results with measured data. A slip velocity of the established (steady) nonuniform flow on the moving bed (i.e., the conveyor belt) is observed, and a relation between the slip velocity and the velocity gradient at the bed is derived. Two belts, one rough and the other smooth, were tested. The flow profile in the flume is found to be linear and dependent on the roughness of the belt, but not much on its speed.

  3. Associations of Psychological Well-Being With Carotid Intima Media Thickness in African American and White Middle-Aged Women. (United States)

    Shahabi, Leila; Karavolos, Kelly; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Lewis, Tené T; Matthews, Karen A; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Powell, Lynda H


    The present cross-sectional study aimed to a) examine associations between measures of psychological well-being, specifically life satisfaction and life engagement, and intima media thickness, a subclinical marker of atherosclerosis; b) investigate if the interaction of psychological well-being and life events correlated with intima media thickness; and c) explore these relationships across race. A sample of 485 women (38% African American and 62% white; mean [standard deviation] age = 50.2 [2.9] years) underwent ultrasonography to assess carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT). The women completed self-report measures of life satisfaction, life engagement, and life events. Average (standard deviation) IMT was 0.666 (0.10) mm. Life satisfaction showed a significant, independent, inverse relationship with IMT, after controlling for demographic, behavioral, psychological, and cardiovascular covariates (β = -0.105, p = .039), such that each 1-point higher life satisfaction score was correlated with a significant 0.008-mm lower level of mean IMT. No significant association was seen between life events and IMT (r = 0.05, p = .32), and life satisfaction did not interact with life events on IMT (β = -0.036, p = .46). No significant interaction between life satisfaction and race on IMT was observed (β = 0.068, p = .37). In contrast to life satisfaction, life engagement was not a significant correlate of IMT (r = -0.07, p = .12). Life satisfaction, a measure of psychological well-being, is an important independent correlate of subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged women.

  4. Assessing child belt fit, volume II : effect of restraint configuration, booster seat designs, seating procedure, and belt fit on the dynamic response of the hybrid III 10-year-old ATD in sled tests. (United States)


    A total of 49 dynamic sled tests were performed with the Hybrid III 10YO to examine issues relating to child belt fit. The goals of these tests were to evaluate ATD response to realistic belt geometries and belt fit, develop methods for accurate, rep...

  5. Attachment of Salmonella serovars and Listeria monocytogenes to stainless steel and plastic conveyor belts. (United States)

    Veluz, G A; Pitchiah, S; Alvarado, C Z


    In poultry industry, cross-contamination due to processing equipment and contact surfaces is very common. This study examined the extent of bacterial attachment to 6 different types and design of conveyor belts: stainless steel-single loop, stainless steel-balance weave, polyurethane with mono-polyester fabric, acetal, polypropylene mesh top, and polypropylene. Clean conveyor belts were immersed separately in either a cocktail of Salmonella serovars (Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis) or Listeria monocytogenes strains (Scott A, Brie 1, ATCC 6744) for 1 h at room temperature. Soiled conveyor chips were dipped in poultry rinses contaminated with Salmonella or Listeria cocktail and incubated at 10°C for 48 h. The polyurethane with mono-polyester fabric conveyor belt and chip exhibited a higher (Pconveyor belt attached a lower (Pconveyor belts exhibited stronger bacterial adhesion compared with stainless steel. The result suggests the importance of selecting the design and finishes of conveyor belt materials that are most resistant to bacterial attachment.

  6. Association between menthol-flavoured cigarette smoking and flavoured little cigar and cigarillo use among African-American, Hispanic, and white young and middle-aged adult smokers. (United States)

    Sterling, K; Fryer, C; Pagano, I; Jones, D; Fagan, P


    Flavour additives in cigarettes and little cigars and cigarillos (LCCs), which influence smokers' risk perceptions, may reinforce dual flavoured tobacco use. We examined the association among mentholated cigarette use, risk perceptions for flavour additives in LCCs and flavoured LCC smoking behaviour. Data from a national probability sample of 964 young and middle-aged adult current cigarette smokers were analysed. Multinomial logistic regression models examined the relationship among mentholated cigarette smoking, risk perceptions and current flavoured LCC use for the analytic sample and gender and race/ethnicity. Daily menthol cigarette smokers, compared to occasional, non-menthol smokers, had increased odds of flavoured LCC smoking (OR=1.75, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.98). This relationship was found for males, blacks/African-Americans and Hispanics/Latinos (psmokers, specifically those from vulnerable populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  7. Paleoclimatic and paleolatitude settings of accumulation of radiolarian siliceous-volcanogenic sequences in the middle Mesozoic Pacific: Evidence from allochthons of East Asia (United States)

    Vishnevskaya, V. S.; Filatova, N. I.


    Jurassic-Cretaceous siliceous-volcanogenic rocks from nappes of tectonostratigraphic sequences of the East Asia Middle Cretaceous Okhotsk-Koryak orogenic belt are represented by a wide range of geodynamic sedimentation settings: oceanic (near-spreading zones, seamounts, and deep-water basins), marginal seas, and island arcs. The taxonomic compositions of radiolarian communities are used as paleolatitude indicators in the Northern Pacific. In addition, a tendency toward climate change in the Mesozoic is revealed based on these communities: from the warm Triassic to the cold Jurassic with intense warming from the Late Jurassic to the Early Cretaceous. Cretaceous warming led to heating of ocean waters even at moderately high latitudes and to the development of Tethyan radiolarians there. These data are confirmed by a global Cretaceous temperature peak coinciding with a high-activity pulse of the planetary mantle superplume system, which created thermal anomalies and the greenhouse effect. In addition, the Pacific superplume attributed to this system caused accelerated movement of oceanic plates, which resulted in a compression setting on the periphery of the Pacific and the formation of the Okhotsk-Koryak orogenic belt on its northwestern framing in the Middle Cretaceous, where Mesozoic rocks of different geodynamic and latitudinal-climate settings were juxtaposed into allochthonous units.

  8. An experimental investigation of microalgal dewatering efficiency of belt filter system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Sandip


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the microalgal dewatering efficiency of a belt filter system for feed concentrations below 10 g dry wt./L. A prototype belt filtration system designed for 50 g dry wt./L microalgal feed concentration was used for this investigation. The highest concentration of microalgal suspension available for testing on the prototype belt filtration system was 6 g dry wt./L obtained from biomass settling tanks at the Lawrence, Kansas domestic wastewater treatment plant. For preparation of feed suspension with concentrations below 10 g dry wt./L, microalgal cultivation was followed by flocculation. A mixed laboratory culture of freshwater species dominated by three eukaryotic green microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus sp., and Kirchneriella sp. was cultivated in wastewater effluent. This was followed by flocculation which resulted in a microalgal feed suspension concentration of 4 g dry wt./L. Belt dewatering tests were conducted on microalgal suspensions with feed concentrations of 4 g dry wt./L and 6 g dry wt./L. The maximum microalgal recovery with the belt dewatering system was 46% from the 4 g dry wt./L, and 84% from the 6 g dry wt./L suspensions respectively. The results of this study indicate that microalgal suspension concentrations as low as 6 g dry wt./L can be recovered with a belt filter system improving the overall dewatering efficiency of the system.

  9. Security Threats Emerging from the Middle East and North Africa


    Çınar, Bekir


    The main security threats affecting the Middle East and North African (MENA) region arise from energy insecurity, immigration and terrorism. These threats would remain if authorities and other stake holders do not address the root causes of the problems, which are artificial national borders, authoritarian regimes and lack of pluralist education. This paper suggests that lifting state borders and setting up regional economic communities such as the EU may ease conflicts in the region which ca...

  10. Number of conveyor belts optimization regarding to its type and logistical parameters in mining industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Malindžák


    Full Text Available Material transportation by belt conveyers is widely used in many industrial branches including mining plants. Belt conveyingdevelopment during the last year was oriented mainly on construction of belts. The consequence of this is the improvement of itsmanufacture qualities bringing down the costs for their exchange and maintenance.Despite the fact that there are some theoreticalcalculations based on a standards it is common in the industry that the belt is not properly selected or it is overdesigned or number of itstypes is too large what can lead to increased costs for its storage. The paper describes the optimization of number of belt types in miningcompany SIDERIT, s. r. o. Nižná Slaná by the method of modernization and unification of belts under practical skills and projectingbased on theoretical calculations.

  11. The sedimentary dynamics in natural and human-influenced delta channel belts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobo, N.


    This study investigates the increased anthropogenic influence on the within-channel belt sedimentary dynamics in the Rhine delta. To make this investigation, the sedimentary dynamics within the life-cycle of a single channel belt were reconstructed for three key periods of increasing human impact,

  12. Feasibility of electro-osmotic belt filter dewatering technology at pilot scale

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Snyman, HG


    Full Text Available -air. The technology was found as sensitive to polyelectrolyte dosages as belt presses. The performance of the electro-osmotic belt filter was sensitive to feed rate, but performed well with non-thickened waste activated sludge (0.61% solids), resulting in cake solids...

  13. Ancient and recent Middle Eastern maternal genetic contribution to North Africa as viewed by mtDNA diversity in Tunisian Arab populations. (United States)

    Elkamel, Sarra; Boussetta, Sami; Khodjet-El-Khil, Houssein; Benammar Elgaaied, Amel; Cherni, Lotfi


    Through previous mitochondrial DNA studies, the Middle Eastern maternal genetic contribution to Tunisian populations appears limited. In fact, most of the studied communities were cosmopolitan, or of Berber or Andalusian origin. To provide genetic evidence for the actual contribution of Middle Eastern mtDNA lineages to Tunisia, we focused on two Arab speaking populations from Kairouan and Wesletia known to belong to an Arab genealogical lineage. A total of 114 samples were sequenced for the mtDNA HVS-I and HVS-II regions. Using these data, we evaluated the distribution of Middle Eastern haplogroups in the study populations, constructed interpolation maps, and established phylogenetic networks allowing estimation of the coalescence time for three specific Middle Eastern subclades (R0a, J1b, and T1). Both studied populations displayed North African genetic structure and Middle Eastern lineages with a frequency of 12% and 28.12% in Kairouan and Wesletia, respectively. TMRCA estimates for haplogroups T1a, R0a, and J1b in Tunisian Arabian samples were around 15 000 YBP, 9000 to 5000 YBP, and 960 to 600 YBP, respectively. The Middle Eastern maternal genetic contribution to Tunisian populations, as to other North African populations, occurred mostly in deep prehistory. They were brought in different migration waves during the Upper Paleolithic, probably with the expansion of Iberomaurusian culture, and during Epipaleolithic and Early Neolithic periods, which are concomitant with the Capsian civilization. Middle Eastern lineages also came to Tunisia during the recent Islamic expansion of the 7th CE and the subsequent massive Bedouin migration during the 11th CE. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Using a Split-belt Treadmill to Evaluate Generalization of Human Locomotor Adaptation. (United States)

    Vasudevan, Erin V L; Hamzey, Rami J; Kirk, Eileen M


    Understanding the mechanisms underlying locomotor learning helps researchers and clinicians optimize gait retraining as part of motor rehabilitation. However, studying human locomotor learning can be challenging. During infancy and childhood, the neuromuscular system is quite immature, and it is unlikely that locomotor learning during early stages of development is governed by the same mechanisms as in adulthood. By the time humans reach maturity, they are so proficient at walking that it is difficult to come up with a sufficiently novel task to study de novo locomotor learning. The split-belt treadmill, which has two belts that can drive each leg at a different speed, enables the study of both short- (i.e., immediate) and long-term (i.e., over minutes-days; a form of motor learning) gait modifications in response to a novel change in the walking environment. Individuals can easily be screened for previous exposure to the split-belt treadmill, thus ensuring that all experimental participants have no (or equivalent) prior experience. This paper describes a typical split-belt treadmill adaptation protocol that incorporates testing methods to quantify locomotor learning and generalization of this learning to other walking contexts. A discussion of important considerations for designing split-belt treadmill experiments follows, including factors like treadmill belt speeds, rest breaks, and distractors. Additionally, potential but understudied confounding variables (e.g., arm movements, prior experience) are considered in the discussion.

  15. First Results of Modeling Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics with the SAMI3 Plasmasphere Model (United States)

    Komar, C. M.; Glocer, A.; Huba, J.; Fok, M. C. H.; Kang, S. B.; Buzulukova, N.


    The radiation belts were one of the first discoveries of the Space Age some sixty years ago and radiation belt models have been improving since the discovery of the radiation belts. The plasmasphere is one region that has been critically important to determining the dynamics of radiation belt populations. This region of space plays a critical role in describing the distribution of chorus and magnetospheric hiss waves throughout the inner magnetosphere. Both of these waves have been shown to interact with energetic electrons in the radiation belts and can result in the energization or loss of radiation belt electrons. However, radiation belt models have been historically limited in describing the distribution of cold plasmaspheric plasma and have relied on empirically determined plasmasphere models. Some plasmasphere models use an azimuthally symmetric distribution of the plasmasphere which can fail to capture important plasmaspheric dynamics such as the development of plasmaspheric drainage plumes. Previous work have coupled the kinetic bounce-averaged Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (CIMI) model used to model ring current and radiation belt populations with the Block-adaptive Tree Solar wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme (BATSRUS) global magnetohydrodynamic model to self-consistently obtain the magnetospheric magnetic field and ionospheric potential. The present work will utilize this previous coupling and will additionally couple the SAMI3 plasmasphere model to better represent the dynamics on the plasmasphere and its role in determining the distribution of waves throughout the inner magnetosphere. First results on the relevance of chorus, hiss, and ultralow frequency waves on radiation belt electron dynamics will be discussed in context of the June 1st, 2013 storm-time dropout event.

  16. Effect of Thermospheric Neutral Density upon Inner Trapped-belt Proton Flux (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas L.; Lodhi, M. A. K.; Diaz, Abel B.


    We wish to point out that a secular change in the Earth's atmospheric neutral density alters charged-particle lifetime in the inner trapped radiation belts, in addition to the changes recently reported as produced by greenhouse gases. Heretofore, changes in neutral density have been of interest primarily because of their effect on the orbital drag of satellites. We extend this to include the orbital lifetime of charged particles in the lower radiation belts. It is known that the charged-belt population is coupled to the neutral density of the atmosphere through changes induced by solar activity, an effect produced by multiple scattering off neutral and ionized atoms along with ionization loss in the thermosphere where charged and neutral populations interact. It will be shown here that trapped-belt flux J is bivariant in energy E and thermospheric neutral density , as J(E,rho). One can conclude that proton lifetimes in these belts are also directly affected by secular changes in the neutral species populating the Earth s thermosphere. This result is a consequence of an intrinsic property of charged-particle flux, that flux is not merely a function of E but is dependent upon density rho when a background of neutrals is present.

  17. Study on the application of permanent magnet synchronous motors in underground belt conveyors (United States)

    Ma, S. H.


    This paper analyzes and compares the advantages and disadvantages of several kinds of drive devices of belt conveyors from the angle of energy saving, and summarizes the application advantages and using problems of permanent magnet motor variable frequency drive system in belt conveyors. An example is given to demonstrate the energy saving effect of this system compared with other driving methods. This paper points out the application prospect of permanent magnet motor variable frequency drive system on belt conveyors and other large mining machines in coal mine. This paper is aimed to provide the design direction for the designer and the choice basis for the user on belt conveyor.

  18. Realization methodology for optimal design of steel structures conveyors with hanging belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boslovyak P.V.


    Full Text Available Presents the results of optimum design of metal structures of the fixed conveyor with hanging belt. The analysis results optimum design of steel structures of stationary conveyor with hanging belt.

  19. Assessment of Soil Quality of Croplands in the Corn Belt of Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Li


    Full Text Available The increasing global demands for land resource with increasing population have resulted in occurrence of soil degradation in many regions of the world. Assessment of soil quality has become the basic work for agricultural sustainable development and selecting regional indicators effectively has become very important since there are no standard evaluation methods and universal indicators. In this study, taking the Corn Belt of Northeast China as the study area, seven indicators—obstacle horizon thickness, cation exchange capacity, pH, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total potassium, and available Fe—were selected to constitute the minimum data set from sixteen indictors of the total data set to assess the soil quality. The soil quality of the study area was dominated by moderate grade, increasing from west to east. The soil quality of Yushu, Changchun and Shuangyang had higher values, and that of Nongan was the lowest. We found that the distribution of cation exchange capacity has a good consistency with the assessment result of the soil quality. Black soils were distributed in the middle part of the study region from north to south and accounted for a higher quality, exactly where the areas of rapid urbanization are located. An ANOVA analysis showed that soil quality in the Corn Belt of Northeast China was greatly affected by topographic factors and agricultural management and climate was not the principal factor affecting soil quality. Though the minimum data set slightly reduced the evaluation accuracy, a large sampling density in our study was able to improve the precision loss that resulted from reducing the number of indicators to a certain extent.

  20. The belt pinch - a high-β tokamak with non-circular cross-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, O.; Peiry, J.M.; Wilhelm, R.


    The stability behaviour of non-circular plasma cross-sections is discussed on the basis of present known theory. Then the technical arrangement and the preionization of the Belt Pinch is described. The following section deals with the establishment of the non-circular equilibrium and summarizes the essential plasma paramters and the used diagnostic methods. The stability properties of the Belt Pinch, lead to a critical q-value. Finnaly, supporting experiments for the future Belt Pinch programm are presented. (orig./GG) [de

  1. The Chara-Sina dyke swarm in the structure of the Middle Paleozoic Vilyui rift system (Siberian Craton) (United States)

    Kiselev, A. I.; Konstantinov, K. M.; Yarmolyuk, V. V.; Ivanov, A. V.


    The formation of the Vilyui rift system in the eastern Siberian Craton was finished with breakdown of the continent and formation of its eastern margin. A characteristic feature of this rift system is the radial distribution of dyke swarms of basic rocks. This peculiarity allows us to relate it to the breaking processes above the mantle plume, the center of which was located in the region overlain in the modern structure by the foreland of the Verkhoyan folded-thrust belt. The Chara-Sina dyke swarm is the southern part of a large area of Middle Paleozoic basaltic magmatism in the eastern Siberian Craton. The OIB-like geochemical characteristics of dolerite allow us to suggest that the melting substrate for Middle Paleozoic basaltic magmatism was represented by a relatively homogeneous, mid-depleted mantle of the plume with geochemical parameters similar to those of OIB.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta-Maria MIHUT


    Full Text Available In this work we make a study of the improvement methods of quantity of material transported by conveyor belt. Determination of discharge of solids entail establish of the parameters of the conveyor belt. As a result, we determine the belt speed who provide maximum discharge of solids materials.

  3. African Journals Online: Central African Republic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Central African Republic. Home > African Journals Online: Central African Republic. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This ...

  4. [Use of seat belts and mobile phone while driving in Florence: trend from 2005 to 2009]. (United States)

    Lorini, Chiara; Pellegrino, Elettra; Mannocci, Federico; Allodi, Guendalina; Indiani, Laura; Mersi, Anna; Petrioli, Giuseppe; Santini, Maria Grazia; Garofalo, Giorgio; Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo


    to evaluate the trend over time of the use of seat belts by drivers and passengers of cars and vans and the use of hand held mobile phone while driving in Florence from 2005 to 2009. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: direct observations (58,773 vehicles) have been conducted to detect the use of seat belts by occupants of cars and vans, and the use of mobile phone while driving. It has been carried out correlation analysis between the use of the seat belt by occupants of vehicles and between the simultaneous use of this device and mobile phone while driving.Moreover, it has been carried out time series analysis (ARIMA Box Jenkins) of in the prevalence of the use of seat belts by occupants of vehicles observed, of mobile phone by drivers and the trend of the risk to drive using the mobile phone with unfastened seat belt rather than to drive using the mobile phone with fastened seat belt. seat belts were used on average by 75.7% of drivers, 75.5% of front passengers and 25.1% of rear passengers. The average mobile phone use while driving was 4.5%. Drivers most frequently fasten seat belt if front passengers use it and while they do not use mobile phone. The use of seat belts by drivers and front passengers has not changed over time, whereas the use of mobile phone while driving has significantly increased. The prevalence of using mobile phone with unfastened seat belt rather than to use it with fastened seat belt while driving has significantly decreased over the years, indicating an increase in the use of mobile phone, especially among those who fasten the seat belt. it is necessary to plan and realize stronger interventions in the whole area.

  5. Determination of acceleration for belt conveyor speed control in transient operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.


    Speed control has been found a feasible mean to reduce the energy consumption of belt conveyors. However, the current research has not taken the determination of the acceleration in transient operation into account sufficiently. With respect to the belt tension rating, demanded safety factor and the

  6. Detailed Characteristics of Radiation Belt Electrons Revealed by CSSWE/REPTile Measurements (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Li, X.; Schiller, Q.; Gerhardt, D. T.; Millan, R. M.


    The outer radiation belt electrons are highly dynamic. We study the detailed characteristics of the relativistic electrons in the outer belt using measurements from the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) mission, a low Earth orbit Cubesat, which transverses the radiation belt four times in one orbit ( 1.5 hr) and has the advantage of measuring the dynamic activities of the electrons including their rapid precipitations. Among the features of the relativistic electrons, we show the measured electron distribution as a function of geomagnetic activities and local magnetic field strength. Moreover, a specific precipitation band, which happened on 19 Jan 2013, is investigated based on the conjunctive measurement of CSSWE and the Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL). In this precipitation band event, the net loss of the 0.58 1.63 MeV electrons (L=3.5 6) is estimated to account for 6.84% of the total electron content.

  7. [Strategy programming for acupuncture development along One-Belt-One-Road countries]. (United States)

    Yang, Yuyang; Shen, Zhixiang; Wu, Zhongchao; Luo, Lu; Liu, Jingyuan; Liu, Baoyan


    Acupuncture has been applied in 183 countries and regions and gradually become a name card as TCM spreads across the world. The international influence of which plays a significant role in enhancing TCM development. The laws and regulations of TCM acupuncture along One-Belt-One-Road countries were compared and analyzed in this article. With comprehensive research and analysis, the international development strategy of acupuncture was rationally proposed. Combined with the historical background of China's national initiative One-Belt-One-Road, the acupuncture was taken as a breakthrough to lead the global spreading of TCM culture and Chinese herbs, so as to enhance China's soft strength, which could further create a fine cultural environment for the economic prosperity of One-Belt-One-Road countries. In addition, the strategy selection for China regarding TCM acupuncture development along One-Belt-One-Road countries was proposed, and the suggestive solution and implementation strategy for the essential missions and significant issues were provided.

  8. Adaptive control of dynamic balance in human gait on a split-belt treadmill. (United States)

    Buurke, Tom J W; Lamoth, Claudine J C; Vervoort, Danique; van der Woude, Lucas H V; den Otter, Rob


    Human bipedal gait is inherently unstable and staying upright requires adaptive control of dynamic balance. Little is known about adaptive control of dynamic balance in reaction to long-term, continuous perturbations. We examined how dynamic balance control adapts to a continuous perturbation in gait, by letting people walk faster with one leg than the other on a treadmill with two belts (i.e. split-belt walking). In addition, we assessed whether changes in mediolateral dynamic balance control coincide with changes in energy use during split-belt adaptation. In nine minutes of split-belt gait, mediolateral margins of stability and mediolateral foot roll-off changed during adaptation to the imposed gait asymmetry, especially on the fast side, and returned to baseline during washout. Interestingly, no changes in mediolateral foot placement (i.e. step width) were found during split-belt adaptation. Furthermore, the initial margin of stability and subsequent mediolateral foot roll-off were strongly coupled to maintain mediolateral dynamic balance throughout the gait cycle. Consistent with previous results net metabolic power was reduced during split-belt adaptation, but changes in mediolateral dynamic balance control were not correlated with the reduction of net metabolic power during split-belt adaptation. Overall, this study has shown that a complementary mechanism of relative foot positioning and mediolateral foot roll-off adapts to continuously imposed gait asymmetry to maintain dynamic balance in human bipedal gait. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Start-up of belt conveyors used for haulage of large lumps under difficult climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drobny, J


    Investigations are discussed carried out by the Research and Development Center for Brown Coal in Most, Czechoslovakia into effects of climate, weather and mass of coal lumps on reliability of belt conveyors in surface mines. Dirt buildup on the driving drums reduces friction and increases belt sliding hazards. Belt wear increases. Driving drum diameter, increased by the buildup, negatively influences load distribution among the electric motors of the drive system. In extreme cases belt wear and irregular load distribution cause belt failures. Methods for buildup removal used in Czechoslovakia and methods for protection of the return side of a conveyor are described. Effects of large mass of coal lumps and ice buildup on large lumps on the risk of belt damage (cuts, punctures etc,) are discussed. Recommendations for design of coal transfer points are made. 2 refs.

  10. Correlates of kidney stone disease differ by race in a multi-ethnic middle-aged population: The ARIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Akoudad (Saloua); M. Szklo (Moyses); M.A. McAdams (Mara); T. Fulop (Tibor); C.A.M. Anderson (Cheryl); J. Coresh (Josef); A. Köttgen (Anna)


    textabstractObjective: To identify correlates of kidney stone disease in white and African American men and women in a population-based longitudinal study starting in four US communities, and to assess differences in correlates across racial groups. Methods: Between 1993 and 1995, 12,161 middle-aged

  11. The effects of seat belt legislation on road traffic injuries. (United States)

    Trinca, G W; Dooley, B J


    The compulsory wearing of seat belts, first introduced in the world in Victoria in 1970, has effectively reduced the number of deaths and injuries by approximately one-third for car occupants involved in motor vehicle crashes. Initially, the legislation did not apply to children under the age of eight years, but in 1975 a further law was introduced banning children from the front seat of any vehicle unless properly harnessed. Seat belts offer the best protection for front seat drivers and passengers involved in frontal impacts, but offer less protection to the recipient of a side impact. Ten per cent of car occupants admitted to hospital after a frontal impact show injuries, mostly minor, directly attibutable to the wearing of seat belts.

  12. Early Jurassic extensional inheritance in the Lurestan region of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt, Iran. (United States)

    Tavani, Stefano; Parente, Mariano; Vitale, Stefano; Puzone, Francesco; Erba, Elisabetta; Bottini, Cinzia; Morsalnejad, Davoud; Mazzoli, Stefano


    It has long been recognized that the tectonic architecture of the Zagros mountain belt was strongly controlled by inherited structures previously formed within the Arabian plate. These preexisting features span in age from the pre-Cambrian to the Mesozoic, showing different trends and deformation styles. Yet, these structures are currently not fully understood. This uncertainty is partly related with the paucity of exposures, which rarely allows a direct observation of these important deformation features. The Lurestan Province of Iran provides a remarkable exception, since it is one of the few places of the Zagros mountain belt where exposures of Triassic and Jurassic rocks are widespread. In this area we carried out structural observations on Mesozoic extensional structures developed at the southern margin of the Neo-Tethyan basin. Syn-sedimentary extensional faults are hosted within the Triassic-Cretaceous succession, being particularly abundant in the Jurassic portion of the stratigraphy. Early to Middle Jurassic syn-sedimentary faults are observed in different paleogeographic domains of the area, and their occurrence is coherent with the subsequent transition from shallow-water to deep-sea basin environments, observed in a wide portion of the area. Most of the thrusts exposed in the area may indeed be interpreted as reactivated Jurassic extensional faults, or as reverse faults whose nucleation was controlled by the location of preexisting normal faults, as a result of positive inversion during crustal shortening and mountain building.

  13. Optimal regenerative braking with a push-belt CVT: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, van K.; Hofman, T.; Vroemen, B.G.; Steinbuch, M.


    This paper describes the approach and the results of efficiency experiments on a push-belt Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) in a new hybrid drive train. The hybrid drive train uses the push-belt CVT to charge a flywheel, with the kinetic energy of the vehicle during regenerative braking and

  14. Optimal regenerative braking with a push-belt CVT : an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkel, K.; Hofman, T.; Vroemen, B.; Steinbuch, M.


    This paper describes the approach and the results of efficiency experiments on a push-belt Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) in a new hybrid drive train. The hybrid drive train uses the push-belt CVT to “charge” a flywheel, with the kinetic energy of the vehicle during regenerative braking

  15. Efficacy of ultraviolet light exposure against survival of Listeria monocytogenes on conveyor belts. (United States)

    Morey, Amit; McKee, Shelly R; Dickson, James S; Singh, Manpreet


    Listeria monocytogenes has been repeatedly isolated from foods and food-processing facilities including food contact surfaces such as conveyor belts (CB). CBs are often difficult to clean and require rigorous sanitation programs for decontamination. Ultraviolet (UV) light has exhibited microbicidal properties on food contact surfaces and this study was conducted to determine the efficacy of UV against L. monocytogenes on CB made of different materials. A four-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes (serotypes 3A, 4A, 4B, and 4C) was made to give a suspension of approximately 10(7) CFU/mL. CBs made from four different types of materials, (1) Ropanyl DM 8/2 A2 + 04 (belt 1), (2) Volta FRMW-3.0 (belt 2), (3) Volta FRMB-3.0 (belt 3), and (4) Ropanyl DM (belt 4), were inoculated with 1 mL of the four-strain cocktail (approximately 10(7) CFU/mL) of the bacterial suspension. CBs were treated with UV light (254 nm) for 1 and 3 sec at 5.53 and 5.95 mW/cm(2). Three replications of the experiments were conducted. Two-way analysis of variance of survival populations of L. monocytogenes showed that bacterial counts were significantly reduced (p belt types irrespective of UV light intensities and times of exposure. L. monocytogenes populations were reduced (p belts 1, 2, and 3 after exposure to 5.95 mW/cm(2) UV light intensity for 3 sec. L. monocytogenes-inoculated CBs that were exposed to 5.53 mW/cm(2) showed higher (p Belt 4 showed survival populations of L. monocytogenes ranging from 1.42 to 1.73 log(10) CFU/cm(2) after UV light treatment for 1 and 3 sec. UV light can be effectively used to reduce L. monocytogenes contamination on CBs.

  16. Belt, Road, and Circle: The Arctic and Northern Europe in China's Belt and Road Initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørup Sørensen, Camilla Tenna


    Sørensen offers a much-needed analysis of the how the development of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) links to China’s growing interests and ambitions in the Arctic showing how China is using the BRI to further intensify and strengthen relations with the Nordic countries in the Arctic. Conducting...

  17. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger


    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  18. Health impact assessment of the Atlanta BeltLine. (United States)

    Ross, Catherine L; Leone de Nie, Karen; Dannenberg, Andrew L; Beck, Laurie F; Marcus, Michelle J; Barringer, Jason


    Although a health impact assessment (HIA) is a tool that can provide decision makers with recommendations to promote positive health impacts and mitigate adverse health impacts of proposed projects and policies, it is not routinely conducted on most major projects or policies. To make health a decision criterion for the Atlanta BeltLine, a multibillion-dollar transit, trails, parks, and redevelopment project. An HIA was conducted in 2005-2007 to anticipate and influence the BeltLine's effect on health determinants. Changes in access and equity, environmental quality, safety, social capital, and physical activity were forecast, and steps to maximize health benefits and reduce negative effects were recommended. Key recommendations included giving priority to the construction of trails and greenspace rather than residential and retail construction, making health an explicit goal in project priority setting, adding a public health professional to decision-making boards, increasing the connectivity between the BeltLine and civic spaces, and ensuring that affordable housing is built. BeltLine project decision makers have incorporated most of the HIA recommendations into the planning process. The HIA was cited in the awarding of additional funds of $7,000,000 for brownfield clean-up and greenspace development. The project is expected to promote the health of local residents more than in the absence of the HIA. This report is one of the first HIAs to tie specific assessment findings to specific recommendations and to identifiable impacts from those recommendations. The lessons learned from this project may help others engaged in similar efforts. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František HELEBRANT


    Full Text Available The final aim of the project MPO FR‐T11/537 called “The Complex Diagnostic System for the Belt Transport” is a single part custom manufacturing and sale of complex diagnostic system for belt transportation and related services. The output of the project is a prototype of a diagnostic system on a model belt conveyor with prepared and certified diagnostic services and methods including their measurements and other supportive tools. The article will introduce the present state of the solution for the given grant project, especially in the field of suggested work on the diagnostic and supportive methods and other measurements.

  20. A comparison of safety belt use between commercial and noncommercial light-vehicle occupants. (United States)

    Eby, David W; Fordyce, Tiffani A; Vivoda, Jonathon M


    The purpose of this study was to conduct an observational survey of safety belt use to determine the use rate of commercial versus noncommercial light-vehicle occupants. Observations were conducted on front-outboard vehicle occupants in eligible commercial and noncommercial vehicles in Michigan (i.e.. passenger cars, vans/minivans, sport-utility vehicles, and pickup trucks). Commercial vehicles that did not fit into one of the four vehicle type categories, such as tractor-trailers, buses, or heavy trucks, were not included in the survey. The study found that the restraint use rate for commercial light-vehicle occupants was 55.8% statewide. The statewide safety belt use rate for commercial light-vehicles was significantly lower than the rate of 71.2% for noncommercial light-vehicles. The safety belt use rate for commercial vehicles was also significantly different as a function of region, vehicle type, seating position, age group, and road type. The results provide important preliminary data about safety belt use in commercial versus noncommercial light-vehicles and indicate that further effort is needed to promote safety belt use in the commercial light-vehicle occupant population. The study also suggests that additional research is required in order to develop effective programs that address low safety belt use in the commercial light-vehicle occupant population.

  1. Quantitative Simulation of QARBM Challenge Events During Radiation Belt Enhancements (United States)

    Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; Chu, X.


    Various physical processes are known to affect energetic electron dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts, but their quantitative effects at different times and locations in space need further investigation. This presentation focuses on discussing the quantitative roles of various physical processes that affect Earth's radiation belt electron dynamics during radiation belt enhancement challenge events (storm-time vs. non-storm-time) selected by the GEM Quantitative Assessment of Radiation Belt Modeling (QARBM) focus group. We construct realistic global distributions of whistler-mode chorus waves, adopt various versions of radial diffusion models (statistical and event-specific), and use the global evolution of other potentially important plasma waves including plasmaspheric hiss, magnetosonic waves, and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves from all available multi-satellite measurements. These state-of-the-art wave properties and distributions on a global scale are used to calculate diffusion coefficients, that are then adopted as inputs to simulate the dynamical electron evolution using a 3D diffusion simulation during the storm-time and the non-storm-time acceleration events respectively. We explore the similarities and differences in the dominant physical processes that cause radiation belt electron dynamics during the storm-time and non-storm-time acceleration events. The quantitative role of each physical process is determined by comparing against the Van Allen Probes electron observations at different energies, pitch angles, and L-MLT regions. This quantitative comparison further indicates instances when quasilinear theory is sufficient to explain the observed electron dynamics or when nonlinear interaction is required to reproduce the energetic electron evolution observed by the Van Allen Probes.

  2. Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Motivation, Race, and Gender in Middle School Science (United States)

    Britner, Shari L.; Pajares, Frank

    The purpose of this study was to discover whether the science motivation beliefs of middle school students (N = 262) vary as a function of their gender or race/ethnicity and to determine whether science self-efficacy beliefs predict science achievement when motivation variables shown to predict achievement in other academic areas are controlled. Girls reported stronger science self-efficacy and self-efficacy for self-regulation, and they received higher grades in science. Boys had stronger performance-approach goals. White students had stronger self-efficacy and achievement, and African American students reported stronger task goals. Self-efficacy was the only motivation variable to predict the science achievement of girls, boys, and White students. Self-efficacy and self-concept predicted the science achievement of African American students. Results are interpreted from the perspective of Bandura's social cognitive theory.

  3. Second longest conveyor belt in UK installed and fully operational

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A conveyor belt (which after the completion of the Selby complex will be the second longest conveyor belt in the UK) has been installed at the Prince Charles Drift Mine, Prince of Wales Colliery, United Kingdom. The 1706 m conveyor is the sole underground-to-surface conveyor at the Drift Mine, and is powered by a single 2240 kW, 3000 hp drive unit.

  4. Seat belt use to save face: impact on drivers' body region and nature of injury in motor vehicle crashes. (United States)

    Han, Guang-Ming; Newmyer, Ashley; Qu, Ming


    Seat belt use is the single most effective way to save lives and reduce injuries in motor vehicle crashes. However, some case reports described seat belt use as a double-edged sword because some injuries are related to seat belt use in motor vehicle crashes. To comprehensively understand the effects of seat belt use, we systemically investigated the association between seat belt use and injuries based on anatomic body region and type of injury in drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes. The injury information was obtained by linking crash reports with hospital discharge data and categorized by using the diagnosis codes based on the Barell injury diagnosis matrix. A total of 10,479 drivers (≥15 years) in passenger vehicles involved in motor vehicle crashes from 2006 to 2011 were included in this study. Seat belt use significantly reduced the proportions of traumatic brain injury (10.4% non-seat belt; 4.1% seat belt) and other head, face, and neck injury (29.3% non-seat belt; 16.6% seat belt) but increased the proportion of spine: thoracic to coccyx injury (17.9% non-seat belt; 35.5% seat belt). Although the proportion of spine: thoracic to coccyx injury was increased in drivers with seat belt use, the severity of injury was decreased, such as fracture (4.2% with seat belt use; 22.0% without seat belt use). Furthermore, the total medical charges decreased due to the change of injury profiles in drivers with seat belt use from a higher percentage of fractures (average cost for per case $26,352) to a higher percentage of sprains and/or strains ($1,897) with spine: thoracic to coccyx injury. This study provide a comprehensive picture for understanding the protective effect of seat belt use on injuries based on anatomic body region and type of injury in drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Adrian PĂUN


    Full Text Available Conveyor belts are used for a long period of time in the industry branches where potentially explosive atmospheres could occur. Dangerous phenomena which can be in direct connection with the use of conveyor belts are the ones regarding: - sparks influence over the coating layer and/or resistance internal structure of the stopped conveyor belt; - propagation of a flame along the length of a conveyor belt that was exposed to a energy source relative high like a fire or due to blockage of a conveyor belt as a result of the driving mechanism still operating, that generate a local heating of the conveyor belt in contact with the driving drum, rollers or any other heating source generated by friction. Determining the safety parameters characteristic of the conveyor belts by employing test methods allows assessment of the safety level as well as certification of their explosion protection quality when used in environments with explosion danger.

  6. Clustering of velocities in a GPS network spanning the Sierra Nevada Block, the northern Walker Lane Belt, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt, California-Nevada (United States)

    Savage, James C.; Simpson, Robert W.


    The deformation across the Sierra Nevada Block, the Walker Lane Belt, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt (CNSB) between 38.5°N and 40.5°N has been analyzed by clustering GPS velocities to identify coherent blocks. Cluster analysis determines the number of clusters required and assigns the GPS stations to the proper clusters. The clusters are shown on a fault map by symbols located at the positions of the GPS stations, each symbol representing the cluster to which the velocity of that GPS station belongs. Fault systems that separate the clusters are readily identified on such a map. Four significant clusters are identified. Those clusters are strips separated by (from west to east) the Mohawk Valley-Genoa fault system, the Pyramid Lake-Wassuk fault system, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt. The strain rates within the westernmost three clusters approximate simple right-lateral shear (~13 nstrain/a) across vertical planes roughly parallel to the cluster boundaries. Clustering does not recognize the longitudinal segmentation of the Walker Lane Belt into domains dominated by either northwesterly trending, right-lateral faults or northeasterly trending, left-lateral faults.

  7. The energy-saving design of belt conveyors. Energiesparende Auslegung von Gurtfoerderanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greune, A


    The examination of the factors affecting the main resistance on an experimental belt conveyor was carried out by varying the velocity and tension of the belt, the diameter of the carrying idlers and the distance between them, and, for the first time, this examination was performed on different belts with different covers. The influences of the varied parameters for the proportions of main resistance, frictional resistance due to imprint, belt flexing resistance and the rotational resistance of the idlers were recorded with the use of formulae and were graphically represented. For the entire relative main resistance referred to 1 m plant length it was possible to obtain a minimum for a particular combination of parameters, and further recommendations for the energy-saving design of belt conveyors were deduced from this. The joint goals of reducing the load-dependence of the rotational resistance and of improving the reliability of seals, at the same time keeping the number of parts to a minimum and making assembly simple, formed the focal point of examination into the possibilities of improving the construction of carrying idlers. Thus, individual components and alternative constructions were examined on a test bench for measuring the rotational resistance as well as on a test bench for seals, and indications for the design of individual assembly groups were developed from this. (orig.).

  8. Parsing the Gulf between Africans and African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashly Nsangou


    Full Text Available The rise in African immigrants to the US provides an opportunity to assess relations between Africans and African Americans in college. An online survey of 322 current and recently-graduated college students (including 45 Africans, 160 African Americans, and 117 whites assessed respondents’ experiences of racism in US high schools and colleges. Semi-structured interviews of 30 students (10 African, 10 African American and 10 white students supplemented these data. Even within a sociopolitical context of more visible racial intolerance, Black intra-racial cohesion was absent. Although more first- and second-generation Africans (73% felt that they had been judged while living in the US compared to African Americans (34% or whites (20%, for 70–80% of respondents, this had occurred only in high school. Despite experiencing these judgments, Africans’ identity related more to their focus on education than their race, reflected in a higher proportion who felt intense family pressure to attend college (65% compared to African Americans (37% and whites (39%. Interview data confirmed previous reports in the literature that African Americans lack a sense of connection to Africans, attributed to Africans’ purported sense of superiority and disregard for African Americans’ ongoing struggle to end oppression. These mixed-methods data suggest that intermingling in the college environment has not resulted in first- and second-generation Africans and African Americans sharing a common in-group, race-based identity. We discuss the implications of overlooking ethnic distinctions due to presumptions of racial homogeneity that deprive Black individuals of their uniqueness.

  9. Compliance with Use of Seat Belt among Commercial Drivers in a Nigerian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwole C. Omolase


    Full Text Available AIM: This study aimed at determining compliance with use of seat belt among commercial intercity drivers. METHOD: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Owo, South West Nigeria among commercial intercity drivers between June and September, 2009. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical Review Committee of Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria prior to commencement of this study. The permission of the leadership of Road Transport Workers’ Union was also sought and obtained. Ninety intercity commercial drivers out of the estimated one hundred and sixty intercity commercial drivers in the community were enrolled in this study. Informed consent was obtained from each of the respondents. The data obtained was collated and analyzed with SPSS 15.0.1 statistical soft ware version. RESULTS: Ninety respondents were enrolled in this study. The driving experience of the respondents revealed that most respondents: 53 (58.9% had more than 20 years driving experience. Most respondents;78 (86.7% complied with use of seat belt .The main barrier to compliance with seat belt was short trip;28 (50.9%.Most respondents; 67 (74.4%were in support of penalization of defaulters. The major source of awareness about seat belt was Federal Road Safety Corps;59 (65.6%. CONCLUSION: Most respondents complied with use of seat belt. The major barrier to compliance with seat belt was short trip within the community. The Federal Road Safety Corps should enforce compliance with the use of seat belt most especially within communities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 281-286

  10. Productivity losses associated with tuberculosis deaths in the World Health Organization African region. (United States)

    Kirigia, Joses Muthuri; Muthuri, Rosenabi Deborah Karimi


    In 2014, almost half of the global tuberculosis deaths occurred in the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region. Approximately 21.5 % of the 6 060 742 TB cases (new and relapse) reported to the WHO in 2014 were in the African Region. The specific objective of this study was to estimate future gross domestic product (GDP) losses associated with TB deaths in the African Region for use in advocating for better strategies to prevent and control tuberculosis. The cost-of-illness method was used to estimate non-health GDP losses associated with TB deaths. Future non-health GDP losses were discounted at 3 %. The analysis was conducted for three income groups of countries. One-way sensitivity analysis at 5 and 10 % discount rates was undertaken to assess the impact on the expected non-health GDP loss. The 0.753 million tuberculosis deaths that occurred in the African Region in 2014 would be expected to decrease the future non-health GDP by International Dollars (Int$) 50.4 billion. Nearly 40.8, 46.7 and 12.5 % of that loss would come from high and upper-middle- countries or lower-middle- and low-income countries, respectively. The average total non-health GDP loss would be Int$66 872 per tuberculosis death. The average non-health GDP loss per TB death was Int$167 592 for Group 1, Int$69 808 for Group 2 and Int$21 513 for Group 3. Tuberculosis exerts a sizeable economic burden on the economies of the WHO AFR countries. This implies the need to strongly advocate for better strategies to prevent and control tuberculosis and to help countries end the epidemic of tuberculosis by 2030, as envisioned in the United Nations General Assembly resolution on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

  11. Seat-belt wearing and driving behavior: an instrumented-vehicle study. (United States)

    Janssen, W


    Less-than-expected fatality reductions after seat-belt legislation has been introduced in a jurisdiction may be explained in terms of selective recruitment of parts of the driving population and/or behavioral adaptation by beginning belt users. The present investigation has compared the relative merits of these two hypotheses at the level of individual driver behavior. In the initial study the driving behavior of groups of habitual wearers and nonwearers of the belt was compared. Nonwearers made two trips, one with the belt on and one without the belt. Habitual wearers drove belted only. The main part of the experiment was a 105 km freeway route. Two additional tasks of a somewhat more critical nature, a double lane-change manoeuvre and the performance of a braking manoeuvre in front of a fixed obstacle, were performed after the freeway trips. Factor analysis on 39 variables describing driving behavior on the road and during the additional tasks resulted in five factors. One of these, the factor describing the distribution of driving speed on the freeway, differentiated between nonwearers and wearers (thus yielding support for the selective recruitment hypothesis) as well as between wearing and not wearing the belt by the same drivers (thus yielding support for the behavioral adaptation hypothesis). In the follow-up study the original wearers and nonwearers were assigned to one of four experimental treatments: (i) the promise by the experimenter of a considerable incentive for not having a culpable motor vehicle accident over a period of a year. Half the habitual wearer subjects were assigned to this condition. The expectation was that this group would become more careful in their driving; (ii) a control group, consisting of the remaining habitual wearers; (iii) the agreement between the experimenter and the subject that the latter would buckle up in everyday driving for the year to come--half the habitual nonwearer subjects were assigned to this condition; (iv) a

  12. Availability, functionality, and use of seat belts in Beijing taxis prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. (United States)

    Fleiter, Judy J; Gao, Liping; Qiu, Chen; Shi, Kan


    Use of driver seat belts and availability and functionality of passenger seat belts in a convenience sample of 231 Beijing taxis were examined in the months prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. Driver and front passenger seat belt use was mandated in China from 2004 to help address the growing public health crisis of road trauma. Results from observations made by in-vehicle passengers revealed that 21.2% of drivers were correctly wearing a belt, approximately half were not, and one third were using the belt in a non-functional way. Over 3/4 of this sample of taxi drivers were unrestrained while working. The percentage of functionally available belts was higher for front than rear passengers (88.3% and 22.9%, respectively). This low rate of belt availability in rear seats calls into question the preparedness of the fleet to cater for the safety needs of foreign visitors to China, particularly those from countries with high levels of restraint use. Factors influencing the use/misuse of seat belts in China remain largely unexplored. Results of this pilot study support further investigations of barriers to using injury prevention mechanisms such as seat belts in less motorised countries.

  13. Inside the "African cattle complex": animal burials in the holocene central Sahara.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savino di Lernia

    Full Text Available Cattle pastoralism is an important trait of African cultures. Ethnographic studies describe the central role played by domestic cattle within many societies, highlighting its social and ideological value well beyond its mere function as 'walking larder'. Historical depth of this African legacy has been repeatedly assessed in an archaeological perspective, mostly emphasizing a continental vision. Nevertheless, in-depth site-specific studies, with a few exceptions, are lacking. Despite the long tradition of a multi-disciplinary approach to the analysis of pastoral systems in Africa, rarely do early and middle Holocene archaeological contexts feature in the same area the combination of settlement, ceremonial and rock art features so as to be multi-dimensionally explored: the Messak plateau in the Libyan central Sahara represents an outstanding exception. Known for its rich Pleistocene occupation and abundant Holocene rock art, the region, through our research, has also shown to preserve the material evidence of a complex ritual dated to the Middle Pastoral (6080-5120 BP or 5200-3800 BC. This was centred on the frequent deposition in stone monuments of disarticulated animal remains, mostly cattle. Animal burials are known also from other African contexts, but regional extent of the phenomenon, state of preservation of monuments, and associated rock art make the Messak case unique. GIS analysis, excavation data, radiocarbon dating, zooarchaeological and isotopic (Sr, C, O analyses of animal remains, and botanical information are used to explore this highly formalized ritual and the lifeways of a pastoral community in the Holocene Sahara.

  14. Loss and source mechanisms of Jupiter's radiation belts near the inner boundary of trapping regions (United States)

    Santos-Costa, Daniel; Bolton, Scott J.; Becker, Heidi N.; Clark, George; Kollmann, Peter; Paranicas, Chris; Mauk, Barry; Joergensen, John L.; Adriani, Alberto; Thorne, Richard M.; Bagenal, Fran; Janssen, Mike A.; Levin, Steve M.; Oyafuso, Fabiano A.; Williamson, Ross; Adumitroaie, Virgil; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Kurth, Bill; Connerney, John E. P.


    We have merged a set of physics-based and empirical models to investigate the energy and spatial distributions of Jupiter's electron and proton populations in the inner and middle magnetospheric regions. Beyond the main source of plasma (> 5 Rj) where interchange instability is believed to drive the radial transport of charged particles, the method originally developed by Divine and Garrett [J. Geophys. Res., 88, 6889-6903, 1983] has been adapted. Closer to the planet where field fluctuations control the radial transport, a diffusion theory approach is used. Our results for the equatorial and mid-latitude regions are compared with Pioneer and Galileo Probe measurements. Data collected along Juno's polar orbit allow us to examine the features of Jupiter's radiation environment near the inner boundary of trapping regions. Significant discrepancies between Juno (JEDI keV energy particles and high energy radiation environment measurements made by Juno's SRU and ASC star cameras and the JIRAM infrared imager) and Galileo Probe data sets and models are observed close to the planet. Our simulations of Juno MWR observations of Jupiter's electron-belt emission confirm the limitation of our model to realistically depict the energy and spatial distributions of the ultra-energetic electrons. In this paper, we present our modeling approach, the data sets and resulting data-model comparisons for Juno's first science orbits. We describe our effort to improve our models of electron and proton belts. To gain a physical understanding of the dissimilarities with observations, we revisit the magnetic environment and the mechanisms of loss and source in our models.

  15. Composite Microdiscs with a Magnetic Belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Høyer, Henrik; Helgesen, Geir


    , the spontaneous aggregation of composite particles is suppressed when dispersed into liquid, which is attributed to the increased particle size, reduced magnetic susceptibility, and the shape of the magnetic domain distribution within the particles (spherical versus a belt). When the composite particles...

  16. Investigation into the effect of common factors on rolling resistance of belt conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yan


    Full Text Available Since indentation rolling resistance accounts for the major part of total resistance of belt conveyor, it is important to compute it using a proper method during the design and application study of the belt conveyor. First, an approximate formula for computing the indentation rolling resistance is offered. In this formula, a one-dimensional Winkler foundation and a three-parameter viscoelastic Maxwell solid model of the belt backing material are used to determine the resistance to motion of a conveyor belt over idlers. With the help of this formula, the authors analyze the effect of common factors on the rolling resistance. Finally, experiments are carried out under certain condition compared with theoretical analysis. A reasonable correlation exists between the experimental results and the theoretical formulae.

  17. Gravity anomaly and crustal structure characteristics in North-South Seismic Belt of China (United States)

    Shen, Chongyang; Xuan, Songtbai; Yang, Guangliang; Wu, Guiju


    The North-South Seismic Belt (NSSB) is the binary system boundary what is formed by the western Indian plate subduction pushing and the eastern west Pacific asthenosphere rising, and it is one of the three major seismic belts (Tianshan, Taiwan and NSSB) and mainly located between E102°and E107°. And it is mainly composed of topographic gradient zones, faults, cenozoic basins and strong earthquake zones, which form two distinct parts of tectonic and physical features in the west and east. The research results of geophysical and deep tectonic setting in the NSSB show that it is not only a gravity anomaly gradient zone, it is but also a belt of crustal thickness increasing sharply westward of abrupt change. Seismic tomography results show that the anomaly zone is deeper than hundreds of kilometers in the NSSB, and the composition and structure of the crust are more complex. We deployed multiple Gravity and GNSS synchronous detection profiles in the NSSB, and these profiles crossed the mainly faults structure and got thousands of points data. In the research, source analysis, density structure inversion, residual gravity related imaging and normalized full gradient methods were used, and analyzed gravity field, density and their structure features in different positions, finally obtained the crustal density structure section characteristics and depth structure differences. The research results showed that the gravity Bouguer anomaly is similar to the existing large scale result. The Bouguer anomaly is rising significantly from west to east, its trend variation coincides well with the trend change of Moho depth, which is agreeing with the material flows to the peripheral situation of the Tibetan plateau. The obvious difference changes of the residual anomaly is relative to the boundary of structure or main tectonics, it's also connected with the stop degree of the eurasian plate when the material migrates around. The density structure of the gravity profiles mainly

  18. African Journals Online: African Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 56 of 56 ... Research Review of the Institute of African Studies. Please note: As of 2013 the Research Review of the Institute of African Studies is now publishing under the title Contemporary Journal of African Studies. You can view the CJAS pages on AJOL here:

  19. Role of mantle dynamics in rebuilding the Tianshan Orogenic Belt in NW China: A seismic tomographic investigation (United States)

    He, Chuansong; Santosh, M.


    The Tianshan orogenic belt, Junggar terrane and Altai terrane are located at the southwestern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Here, we investigate the velocity structure beneath the Xinjiang region in NW China, which includes the Tarim terrane, Tianshan orogenic belt, Junggar terrane and Altai terrane with a view to evaluate the mantle dynamics based on teleseismic data recorded by 103 seismic stations. Our tomographic results show both high and low velocity perturbations beneath the Tianshan orogenic belt. We suggest that the high velocity perturbations beneath this orogenic belt might represent the northward subducted lithosphere of the Tarim Basin and the southward subducted lithosphere of the Junggar Basin. The low velocity structure beneath the Tianshan orogenic belt might represent asthenosphere upwelling that triggered the extensive magmatism which contributed to rebuilding of the Tianshan orogenic belt.

  20. Black versus Black: The Relationship among African, African American, and African Caribbean Persons. (United States)

    Jackson, Jennifer V.; Cothran, Mary E.


    Surveyed people of African descent regarding relationships among African, African-American, and African-Caribbean persons, focusing on contact and friendship, travel to countries of the diaspora, cross-cultural communication, thoughts and stereotypes, and education. Most respondents had contacts with the other groups, but groups had preconceived…