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Sample records for african horse sickness virus

  1. Requirements and comparative analysis of reverse genetics for bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, van Piet A.; Water, van de Sandra G.P.; Feenstra, Femke; Gennip, van René G.P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV) are distinct arthropod borne virus species in the genus Orbivirus (Reoviridae family), causing the notifiable diseases Bluetongue and African horse sickness of ruminants and equids, respectively. Reverse genetics systems f

  2. Consensus Sequence of 27 African Horse Sickness Virus Genomes from Viruses Collected over a 76-Year Period (1933 to 2009)

    OpenAIRE

    Potgieter, A. Christiaan; Wright, Isabella M.; van Dijk, Alberdina A.

    2015-01-01

    We announce the complete consensus genome sequence of 27 African horse sickness viruses, representing all nine African horse sickness virus (AHSV) serotypes from historical and recent isolates collected over a 76-year period (1933 to 2009). The data set includes the sequence of the virulent Office International des Epizooties AHSV reference strains which are not adapted to cell culture.

  3. Detection of African horse sickness virus in Culicoides imicola pools using RT-qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, Tania; Liebenberg, Danica; Venter, Gert J; Mienie, Charlotte Ms; van Hamburg, Huib

    2016-06-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is an infectious, non-contagious arthropod-borne disease of equids, caused by the African horse sickness virus (AHSV), an orbivirus of the Reoviridae family. It is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and thought to be the most lethal viral disease of horses. This study focused on detection of AHSV in Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) pools by the application of a RT-qPCR. Midges were fed on AHSV-infected blood. A single blood-engorged female was allocated to pools of unfed nulliparous female midges. Pool sizes varied from 1 to 200. RNA was extracted and prepared for RT-qPCR. The virus was successfully detected and the optimal pool size for the limit of detection of the virus was determined at a range between 1 to 25. Results from this investigation highlight the need for a standardized protocol for AHSV investigation in Culicoides midges especially for comparison among different studies and for the determination of infection rate. PMID:27232141

  4. Characterising Non-Structural Protein NS4 of African Horse Sickness Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Lizahn; Potgieter, Christiaan A; Clift, Sarah J; van Staden, Vida

    2015-01-01

    African horse sickness is a serious equid disease caused by the orbivirus African horse sickness virus (AHSV). The virus has ten double-stranded RNA genome segments encoding seven structural and three non-structural proteins. Recently, an additional protein was predicted to be encoded by genome segment 9 (Seg-9), which also encodes VP6, of most orbiviruses. This has since been confirmed in bluetongue virus and Great Island virus, and the non-structural protein was named NS4. In this study, in silico analysis of AHSV Seg-9 sequences revealed the existence of two main types of AHSV NS4, designated NS4-I and NS4-II, with different lengths and amino acid sequences. The AHSV NS4 coding sequences were in the +1 reading frame relative to that of VP6. Both types of AHSV NS4 were expressed in cultured mammalian cells, with sizes close to the predicted 17-20 kDa. Fluorescence microscopy of these cells revealed a dual cytoplasmic and nuclear, but not nucleolar, distribution that was very similar for NS4-I and NS4-II. Immunohistochemistry on heart, spleen, and lung tissues from AHSV-infected horses showed that NS4 occurs in microvascular endothelial cells and mononuclear phagocytes in all of these tissues, localising to the both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Interestingly, NS4 was also detected in stellate-shaped dendritic macrophage-like cells with long cytoplasmic processes in the red pulp of the spleen. Finally, nucleic acid protection assays using bacterially expressed recombinant AHSV NS4 showed that both types of AHSV NS4 bind dsDNA, but not dsRNA. Further studies will be required to determine the exact function of AHSV NS4 during viral replication. PMID:25915516

  5. Induction of Antibody Responses to African Horse Sickness Virus (AHSV) in Ponies after Vaccination with Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA)

    OpenAIRE

    Chiam, Rachael; Sharp, Emma; Maan, Sushila; Rao, Shujing; Mertens, Peter; Blacklaws, Barbara; Davis-Poynter, Nick; Wood, James; Castillo-Olivares, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Background African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a non-contagious, infectious disease in equids, with mortality rates that can exceed 90% in susceptible horse populations. AHSV vaccines play a crucial role in the control of the disease; however, there are concerns over the use of polyvalent live attenuated vaccines particularly in areas where AHSV is not endemic. Therefore, it is important to consider alternative approaches for AHSV vaccine development. We have carried out a pilot study ...

  6. Development of a Luminex-Based DIVA Assay for Serological Detection of African Horse Sickness Virus in Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Matamoros, A; Nieto-Pelegrín, E; Beck, C; Rivera-Arroyo, B; Lecollinet, S; Sailleau, C; Zientara, S; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2016-08-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is considered a fatal re-emergent vector-borne disease of horses. In the absence of any effective treatment for AHS, vaccination remains the most effective form of disease control. The new generation of vaccines, such as one based on purified, inactivated AHS virus (AHSV, serotype 4), which does not induce antibodies against non-structural protein 3 (NS3), enables the development of diagnostic methods that differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA assays). As detecting AHS in AHSV-free countries may lead to restrictions on international animal movements and thereby cause significant economic damage, these DIVA assays are crucial for reducing movement restrictions. In this article, we describe a Luminex-based multiplex assay for DIVA diagnosis of AHS, and we validate it in a duplex format to detect antibodies against structural protein 7 (VP7) and NS3 in serum samples from horses vaccinated with inactivated AHSV4 vaccine or infected with a live virus of the same serotype. Results of the Luminex-based assay for detecting anti-NS3 antibodies showed good positive correlation with results from an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Thus, the Luminex-based technique described here may allow multiplex DIVA antibody detection in a single sample in less than 2 h, and it may prove adaptable for the development of robust, multiplex serological assays. PMID:27090377

  7. Induction of antibody responses to African horse sickness virus (AHSV in ponies after vaccination with recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Chiam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: African horse sickness virus (AHSV causes a non-contagious, infectious disease in equids, with mortality rates that can exceed 90% in susceptible horse populations. AHSV vaccines play a crucial role in the control of the disease; however, there are concerns over the use of polyvalent live attenuated vaccines particularly in areas where AHSV is not endemic. Therefore, it is important to consider alternative approaches for AHSV vaccine development. We have carried out a pilot study to investigate the ability of recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA vaccines expressing VP2, VP7 or NS3 genes of AHSV to stimulate immune responses against AHSV antigens in the horse. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: VP2, VP7 and NS3 genes from AHSV-4/Madrid87 were cloned into the vaccinia transfer vector pSC11 and recombinant MVA viruses generated. Antigen expression or transcription of the AHSV genes from cells infected with the recombinant viruses was confirmed. Pairs of ponies were vaccinated with MVAVP2, MVAVP7 or MVANS3 and both MVA vector and AHSV antigen-specific antibody responses were analysed. Vaccination with MVAVP2 induced a strong AHSV neutralising antibody response (VN titre up to a value of 2. MVAVP7 also induced AHSV antigen-specific responses, detected by western blotting. NS3 specific antibody responses were not detected. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study demonstrates the immunogenicity of recombinant MVA vectored AHSV vaccines, in particular MVAVP2, and indicates that further work to investigate whether these vaccines would confer protection from lethal AHSV challenge in the horse is justifiable.

  8. Culicoides species abundance and potential over-wintering of African horse sickness virus in the Onderstepoort area, Gauteng, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Gert J; Labuschagne, Karien; Majatladi, Daphney; Boikanyo, Solomon N B; Lourens, Carina; Ebersohn, Karen; Venter, Estelle H

    2014-01-01

    In South Africa, outbreaks of African horse sickness (AHS) occur in summer; no cases are reported in winter, from July to September. The AHS virus (AHSV) is transmitted almost exclusively by Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), of which Culicoides imicola is considered to be the most important vector. The over-wintering mechanism of AHSV is unknown. In this study, more than 500 000 Culicoides midges belonging to at least 26 species were collected in 88 light traps at weekly intervals between July 2010 and September 2011 near horses in the Onderstepoort area of South Africa. The dominant species was C. imicola. Despite relatively low temperatures and frost, at least 17 species, including C. imicola, were collected throughout winter (June-August). Although the mean number of midges per night fell from > 50 000 (March) to < 100 (July and August), no midge-free periods were found. This study, using virus isolation on cell cultures and a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, confirmed low infection prevalence in field midges and that the detection of virus correlated to high numbers. Although no virus was detected during this winter period, continuous adult activity indicated that transmission can potentially occur. The absence of AHSV in the midges during winter can be ascribed to the relatively low numbers collected coupled to low infection prevalence, low virus replication rates and low virus titres in the potentially infected midges. Cases of AHS in susceptible animals are likely to start as soon as Culicoides populations reach a critical level. PMID:25686125

  9. Culicoides species abundance and potential over-wintering of African horse sickness virus in the Onderstepoort area, Gauteng, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Venter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, outbreaks of African horse sickness (AHS occur in summer; no cases are reported in winter, from July to September. The AHS virus (AHSV is transmitted almost exclusively by Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, of which Culicoides imicola is considered to be the most important vector. The over-wintering mechanism of AHSV is unknown. In this study, more than 500 000 Culicoides midges belonging to at least 26 species were collected in 88 light traps at weekly intervals between July 2010 and September 2011 near horses in the Onderstepoort area of South Africa. The dominant species was C. imicola. Despite relatively low temperatures and frost, at least 17 species, including C. imicola, were collected throughout winter (June–August. Although the mean number of midges per night fell from > 50 000 (March to < 100 (July and August, no midge-free periods were found. This study, using virus isolation on cell cultures and a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay, confirmed low infection prevalence in field midges and that the detection of virus correlated to high numbers. Although no virus was detected during this winter period, continuous adult activity indicated that transmission can potentially occur. The absence of AHSV in the midges during winter can be ascribed to the relatively low numbers collected coupled to low infection prevalence, low virus replication rates and low virus titres in the potentially infected midges. Cases of AHS in susceptible animals are likely to start as soon as Culicoides populations reach a critical level.

  10. VP7 from African horse sickness virus serotype 9 protects mice against a lethal, heterologous serotype challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade-Evans, A M; Pullen, L; Hamblin, C; O'Hara, R S; Burroughs, J N; Mertens, P P

    1998-01-01

    An established mouse model system was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the major outer core protein VP7 of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) serotype 9 as a subunit vaccine. Balb C mice were immunised with VP7 crystals purified from AHSV infected BHK cells. In groups of mice, each of which was immunised with > or = 1.5 micrograms of the protein in Freund's adjuvant, > or = 80% of mice survived challenge with a virulent strain of a heterologous AHSV serotype (AHSV 7), that killed > or = 80% of the mice in the uninoculated control groups. This level of protection was significantly greater than that observed in mice inoculated with equivalent amounts of either denatured VP7 (50% survival), or GST/VP7 fusion protein (50-70% survival), or which were vaccinated with AHSV 9 (40-50% survival). The VP7 protein folding, or its assembly into crystals, are thought to play some role in the effectiveness of the protective response observed. Titres of circulating antibodies against AHSV VP7 were determined by competitive ELISA but did not appear to correlate with the levels of protection observed. Passive transfer of these antibodies to syngeneic recipients also failed to protect Balb C mice from the AHSV 7 challenge. The observed protection is therefore unlikely to be due to an antibody mediated immune response. PMID:9785508

  11. Climate change and the distribution of vector borne diseases with special reference to African horse sickness virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of climate change, those components of climate that are likely to have major effects upon distribution, seasonal incidence and prevalence of vector borne diseases are described. On the basis of a predicted, mean temperature increase of the order of 1 to 3.5 deg. C., examples are given of the sort of changes that are to be expected by using a range of internationally important human and animal pathogens. Recent dramatic alterations in the epidemiology of the OIE List ''A'' disease, African horse sickness, are drawn upon to put forward the proposition that climate change may already be having a major effect upon some vector borne diseases. (author)

  12. A Modified Vaccinia Ankara Virus (MVA) Vaccine Expressing African Horse Sickness Virus (AHSV) VP2 Protects Against AHSV Challenge in an IFNAR −/− Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo-Olivares, Javier; Calvo-Pinilla, Eva; Casanova, Isabel; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Chiam, Rachael; Maan, Sushila; Nieto, Jose Maria; Ortego, Javier; Mertens, Peter Paul Clement

    2011-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a lethal viral disease of equids, which is transmitted by Culicoides midges that become infected after biting a viraemic host. The use of live attenuated vaccines has been vital for the control of this disease in endemic regions. However, there are safety concerns over their use in non-endemic countries. Research efforts over the last two decades have therefore focused on developing alternative vaccines based on recombinant baculovirus or live viral vectors exp...

  13. Serological survey of African horse sickness in selected districts of Jimma zone, Southwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitew, Molalegne; Andargie, Ashenafi; Bekele, Mihreteab; Jenberie, Shiferaw; Ayelet, Gelagay; Gelaye, Esayas

    2011-12-01

    A cross-sectional serological survey was undertaken in selected districts of different agro-ecology of Jimma zone (Dedo, Yebu, Seka, Serbo, and Jimma town) from November 2009 to February 2010 to determine the seroprevalence of African horse sickness virus and associated risk factors of the disease. Two hundred seventy-four equids (189 horses, 43 mules, and 47 donkeys) with a history of non-vaccination for at least 2 years were selected randomly from the above areas. Sera samples were collected and assayed for the presence of specific antibody against African horse sickness virus using blocking ELISA. An overall seroprevalence of 89 (32.5%) was found and it was 24 (51.1%) for donkeys, 13 (30.2%) for mules, and 52(28.3%) for horses. Seroprevalence was significantly (X(2) = 11.05, P 0.05 and X(2) = 3.38, P > 0.05, respectively) associated with seroprevalence of AHSV. The present study showed that African horse sickness (AHS) is highly prevalent disease for the horses followed by mules and then donkeys in Jimma zone explained by lower seroconversion rate. Therefore, control strategy against AHS should target at high risk species of all age and sex in their locality in the initial stage for better containment of the disease. PMID:21465102

  14. A Modified Vaccinia Ankara Virus (MVA) Vaccine Expressing African Horse Sickness Virus (AHSV) VP2 Protects Against AHSV Challenge in an IFNAR −/− Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Olivares, Javier; Calvo-Pinilla, Eva; Casanova, Isabel; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Chiam, Rachael; Maan, Sushila; Nieto, Jose Maria; Ortego, Javier; Mertens, Peter Paul Clement

    2011-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a lethal viral disease of equids, which is transmitted by Culicoides midges that become infected after biting a viraemic host. The use of live attenuated vaccines has been vital for the control of this disease in endemic regions. However, there are safety concerns over their use in non-endemic countries. Research efforts over the last two decades have therefore focused on developing alternative vaccines based on recombinant baculovirus or live viral vectors expressing structural components of the AHS virion. However, ethical and financial considerations, relating to the use of infected horses in high biosecurity installations, have made progress very slow. We have therefore assessed the potential of an experimental mouse-model for AHSV infection for vaccine and immunology research. We initially characterised AHSV infection in this model, then tested the protective efficacy of a recombinant vaccine based on modified vaccinia Ankara expressing AHS-4 VP2 (MVA-VP2). PMID:21298069

  15. Ns1 is a key protein in the vaccine composition to protect Ifnar(-/- mice against infection with multiple serotypes of African horse sickness virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de la Poza

    Full Text Available African horse sickness virus (AHSV belongs to the genus Orbivirus. We have now engineered naked DNAs and recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA expressing VP2 and NS1 proteins from AHSV-4. IFNAR((-/- mice inoculated with DNA/rMVA-VP2,-NS1 from AHSV-4 in an heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategy generated significant levels of neutralizing antibodies specific of AHSV-4. In addition, vaccination stimulated specific T cell responses against the virus. The vaccine elicited partial protection against an homologous AHSV-4 infection and induced cross-protection against the heterologous AHSV-9. Similarly, IFNAR((-/- mice vaccinated with an homologous prime-boost strategy with rMVA-VP2-NS1 from AHSV-4 developed neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity against AHSV-4. Furthermore, the levels of immunity were very high since none of vaccinated animals presented viraemia when they were challenged against the homologous AHSV-4 and very low levels when they were challenged against the heterologous virus AHSV-9. These data suggest that the immunization with rMVA/rMVA was more efficient in protection against a virulent challenge with AHSV-4 and both strategies, DNA/rMVA and rMVA/rMVA, protected against the infection with AHSV-9. The inclusion of the protein NS1 in the vaccine formulations targeting AHSV generates promising multiserotype vaccines.

  16. The 2011 outbreak of African horse sickness in the African horse sickness controlled area in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Grewar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available African horse sickness (AHS is a controlled animal disease in South Africa, and as a result of the high mortality rates experienced, outbreaks in the AHS controlled area in the Western Cape Province have a significant impact on affected properties as well as on the exportation of live horses from the AHS free zone in metropolitan Cape Town. An outbreak of AHS serotype 1 occurred in the surveillance zone of the AHS controlled area of the Western Cape during the summer of 2011. The epicentre of the outbreak was the town of Mamre in the magisterial district of Malmesbury and the outbreak was confined to a defined containment zone within this area by movement control of all equids and a blanket vaccination campaign. A total of 73 cases of AHS were confirmed during this outbreak, which included four confirmed subclinical cases. The morbidity rate for the outbreak was 16%with a mortality rate of 14%and a case fatality rate of 88%. Outbreak disease surveillance relied on agent identification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based assays, which is novel for an AHS outbreak in South Africa. The source of this outbreak was never confirmed although it is believed to be associated with the illegal movement of an infected animal into the Mamre area. This detailed description of the outbreak provides a sound scientific basis to assist decision making in future AHS outbreaks in the AHS controlled area of South Africa and in countries where AHS is an exotic or emerging disease.

  17. Quantitative Risk Assessment for African Horse Sickness in Live Horses Exported from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Evan S; Grewar, John D; Weyer, Camilla T; Guthrie, Alan J

    2016-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a severe, often fatal, arbovirus infection of horses, transmitted by Culicoides spp. midges. AHS occurs in most of sub-Saharan Africa and is a significant impediment to export of live horses from infected countries, such as South Africa. A stochastic risk model was developed to estimate the probability of exporting an undetected AHS-infected horse through a vector protected pre-export quarantine facility, in accordance with OIE recommendations for trade from an infected country. The model also allows for additional risk management measures, including multiple PCR tests prior to and during pre-export quarantine and optionally during post-arrival quarantine, as well as for comparison of risk associated with exports from a demonstrated low-risk area for AHS and an area where AHS is endemic. If 1 million horses were exported from the low-risk area with no post-arrival quarantine we estimate the median number of infected horses to be 5.4 (95% prediction interval 0.5 to 41). This equates to an annual probability of 0.0016 (95% PI: 0.00015 to 0.012) assuming 300 horses exported per year. An additional PCR test while in vector-protected post-arrival quarantine reduced these probabilities by approximately 12-fold. Probabilities for horses exported from an area where AHS is endemic were approximately 15 to 17 times higher than for horses exported from the low-risk area under comparable scenarios. The probability of undetected AHS infection in horses exported from an infected country can be minimised by appropriate risk management measures. The final choice of risk management measures depends on the level of risk acceptable to the importing country. PMID:26986002

  18. Quantitative Risk Assessment for African Horse Sickness in Live Horses Exported from South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan S Sergeant

    Full Text Available African horse sickness (AHS is a severe, often fatal, arbovirus infection of horses, transmitted by Culicoides spp. midges. AHS occurs in most of sub-Saharan Africa and is a significant impediment to export of live horses from infected countries, such as South Africa. A stochastic risk model was developed to estimate the probability of exporting an undetected AHS-infected horse through a vector protected pre-export quarantine facility, in accordance with OIE recommendations for trade from an infected country. The model also allows for additional risk management measures, including multiple PCR tests prior to and during pre-export quarantine and optionally during post-arrival quarantine, as well as for comparison of risk associated with exports from a demonstrated low-risk area for AHS and an area where AHS is endemic. If 1 million horses were exported from the low-risk area with no post-arrival quarantine we estimate the median number of infected horses to be 5.4 (95% prediction interval 0.5 to 41. This equates to an annual probability of 0.0016 (95% PI: 0.00015 to 0.012 assuming 300 horses exported per year. An additional PCR test while in vector-protected post-arrival quarantine reduced these probabilities by approximately 12-fold. Probabilities for horses exported from an area where AHS is endemic were approximately 15 to 17 times higher than for horses exported from the low-risk area under comparable scenarios. The probability of undetected AHS infection in horses exported from an infected country can be minimised by appropriate risk management measures. The final choice of risk management measures depends on the level of risk acceptable to the importing country.

  19. Quantitative Risk Assessment for African Horse Sickness in Live Horses Exported from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Evan S.

    2016-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a severe, often fatal, arbovirus infection of horses, transmitted by Culicoides spp. midges. AHS occurs in most of sub-Saharan Africa and is a significant impediment to export of live horses from infected countries, such as South Africa. A stochastic risk model was developed to estimate the probability of exporting an undetected AHS-infected horse through a vector protected pre-export quarantine facility, in accordance with OIE recommendations for trade from an infected country. The model also allows for additional risk management measures, including multiple PCR tests prior to and during pre-export quarantine and optionally during post-arrival quarantine, as well as for comparison of risk associated with exports from a demonstrated low-risk area for AHS and an area where AHS is endemic. If 1 million horses were exported from the low-risk area with no post-arrival quarantine we estimate the median number of infected horses to be 5.4 (95% prediction interval 0.5 to 41). This equates to an annual probability of 0.0016 (95% PI: 0.00015 to 0.012) assuming 300 horses exported per year. An additional PCR test while in vector-protected post-arrival quarantine reduced these probabilities by approximately 12-fold. Probabilities for horses exported from an area where AHS is endemic were approximately 15 to 17 times higher than for horses exported from the low-risk area under comparable scenarios. The probability of undetected AHS infection in horses exported from an infected country can be minimised by appropriate risk management measures. The final choice of risk management measures depends on the level of risk acceptable to the importing country. PMID:26986002

  20. African horse sickness surveillance systems and regionalisation/zoning: the case of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosman, P; Brückner, G K; Faul, A

    1995-09-01

    Central and Southern Africa are generally regarded as being endemic areas for African horse sickness (AHS). With the advent of the concepts of risk analysis and regionalisation/zoning, however, the possibility has now arisen of establishing 'zones' within South Africa for AHS surveillance purposes. In 1993, a protocol was submitted to the European Community (now European Union: EU), proposing the establishment of an AHS-free zone in the Cape peninsula. The proposal is based on historical evidence that AHS virus overwinters (in zebra) only in the Kruger National Park, from where it spreads westwards and southwards every year. The infection only extends to the Western Cape Province once every fifteen years. A ban on vaccination in the proposed AHS-free zone has been suggested, together with strict control of the movement of horses into and through this zone. The entire equine population of this zone (some 8,000 animals) would serve as sentinels. All equine mortalities would be notifiable, with mandatory post-mortem examinations. The establishment of an insect-free quarantine station in this zone would enable the movement of certified AHS virus-free horses from South Africa to the EU and the rest of the world. PMID:8593398

  1. Antigenic profile of African horse sickness virus serotype 4 VP5 and identification of a neutralizing epitope shared with bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Torrecuadrada, J.L.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Venteo, A.;

    1999-01-01

    function of VP5, the other component of the capsid, is unknown. In this report, AHSV VP5, expressed in insect cells alone or together with VP2, was able to induce AHSV-specific neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, two VP5-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that were able to neutralize the virus in a....... Neutralizing epitopes were defined at positions 85-92 (PDPLSPGE) for MAb 10AE12 and at 179-185 (EEDLRTR) for MAb 10AC6. Epitope 10AE12 is highly conserved between the different orbiviruses. MAb 10AE12 was able to recognize bluetongue virus VP5 and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus VP5 by several techniques...

  2. Culicoides species composition and environmental factors influencing African horse sickness distribution at three sites in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenberg, Danica; Piketh, Stuart; Labuschagne, Karien; Venter, Gert; Greyling, Telane; Mienie, Charlotte; de Waal, Tania; van Hamburg, Huib

    2016-11-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is one of the most lethal infectious, non-contagious, vector-borne disease of equids. The causative agent, African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is transmitted via Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). AHS is endemic to Namibia but detailed studies of Culicoides communities and influencing environmental parameters are limited. This study aims to determine the Culicoides species composition at three different sites and to assess environmental parameters influencing the geographical distribution of AHS in Namibia. Weekly collections of Culicoides were made during the AHS peak season from January to May for 2013 and 2014 using the Onderstepoort 220V UV-light trap. Out of 397 collections made, 124 collections (3287 Culicoides) were analysed for AHSV presence with RT-qPCR. A total of 295 collections were analysed for total Culicoides (all collected Culicoides individuals) and in 75% of these collections the Culicoides were identified to species level. C. imicola was the dominant species with proportional representation of 29.9%. C. subschultzei, C. exspectator and C. ravus each contribute more than 10% to the species composition. The lowest number of Culicoides was collected at Aus 9980, a total of 21819 at Windhoek and the highest number at Okahandja 47343. AHSV was present at all three sites during 2013 but only in Windhoek and Okahandja during 2014. Multivariate analyses of data from the two year survey indicate the environmental parameters in order of importance for the distribution of AHS in Namibia as precipitation>temperature>clay>relative humidity>NDVI. The implication of these findings is that any precipitation event increases Culicoides numbers significantly. Together with these results the high number of species found of which little is known regarding their vector competence, add to the complexity of the distribution of AHS in Namibia. PMID:27491343

  3. African horse sickness virus serotype 4 antigens, VP1-1, VP2-2, VP4, VP7 and NS3, induce cytotoxic T cell responses in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, F E; van Kleef, M; Tshilwane, S I; Pretorius, A

    2016-07-15

    It was shown in a previous study that proliferating CD8+ T cells could be detected in immune horse peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) when stimulated with African horse sickness virus serotype 4 (AHSV4). In this study the cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cells were tested by using the fluorescent antigen-transfected target cells-cytotoxic T lymphocytes (FATT-CTL) assay, for both the virus and its individual proteins expressed in Escherichia coli. This CTL assay measures the killing of viral protein expressing cells. AHSV proteins were successfully expressed in E. coli using the pET102/D-TOPO expression vector and the effector cells were stimulated with these recombinant proteins or with live viable virulent AHSV4. The AHSV genes were amplified and cloned into the pIRES-hrGFP II (pGFPempty) vector and these plasmid vectors encoding antigen-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins were used to nucleofect PBMC, the target cells. The elimination of antigen-GFP expressing cells by CTL was quantified by flowcytometry. VP1-1, VP2-2, VP4, VP7 and NS3, antigen-specific CD8+ T cells resulted in cell lysis suggesting that CTL may play a role in the immune response induced against the AHSV4 vaccine strain. PMID:27063332

  4. Vector-borne diseases and the basic reproduction number: a case study of African horse sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Lord, C.C.; Woolhouse, M. E. J.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Mellor, P.S.

    1996-01-01

    The basic reproduction number, R0, can be used to determine factors important in the ability of a disease to invade or persist. We show how this number can be derived or estimated for vector-borne diseases with different complicating factors. African horse sickness is a viral disease transmitted mainly by the midge Culicoides imicola. We use this as an example of such a vector-transmitted disease where latent periods, seasonality in vector populations, and multiple host types may be important...

  5. African horse sickness: The potential for an outbreak in disease-free regions and current disease control and elimination techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, M; Page, P; Archer, D; Baylis, M

    2016-09-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is an arboviral disease of equids transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. The virus is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and official AHS disease-free status can be obtained from the World Organization for Animal Health on fulfilment of a number of criteria. AHS is associated with case fatality rates of up to 95%, making an outbreak among naïve horses both a welfare and economic disaster. The worldwide distributions of similar vector-borne diseases (particularly bluetongue disease of ruminants) are changing rapidly, probably due to a combination of globalisation and climate change. There is extensive evidence that the requisite conditions for an AHS epizootic currently exist in disease-free countries. In particular, although the stringent regulations enforced upon competition horses make them extremely unlikely to redistribute the virus, there are great concerns over the effects of illegal equid movement. An outbreak of AHS in a disease free region would have catastrophic effects on equine welfare and industry, particularly for international events such as the Olympic Games. While many regions have contingency plans in place to manage an outbreak of AHS, further research is urgently required if the equine industry is to avoid or effectively contain an AHS epizootic in disease-free regions. This review describes the key aspects of AHS as a global issue and discusses the evidence supporting concerns that an epizootic may occur in AHS free countries, the planned government responses, and the roles and responsibilities of equine veterinarians. PMID:27292229

  6. A web-based survey of horse owners' perceptions and network analysis of horse movements relating to African horse sickness distribution in Namibia and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenberg, Danica; Piketh, Stuart; van Hamburg, Huib

    2016-06-01

    Africa horse sickness (AHS) is the most lethal infectious non-contagious horse disease and has accordingly been declared notifiable by the World Organisation for Animal Health. AHS is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa and causes considerable losses to the equestrian industry. The effect of diseases in livestock on socio-economic factors is well researched, but the effect of anthropogenic factors on the distribution of a disease is poorly understood. The purpose of the study was to assess Namibian and South African horse owners' perceptions and the effect of horse movement on AHS distribution. A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect information from horse owners in Namibia and South Africa. To that end 'Fluid survey' was used for survey development. The survey was launched on Facebook and the link shared to horse related focus groups in Namibia and South Africa. A total of 508 responses were collected during the survey period. Of the 417 completed questionnaires received, 22% were from Namibia and 78% from South Africa. The participants comprised of 71% social and 29% professional riders. The most popular precautionary measures used, in addition to vaccination, were chemical repellents (64%) and stabling of horses during dusk and dawn (59%). A network analysis was performed in Gephi 0.8.2.B to illustrate the movement of horses between countries and districts/provinces. Network analysis results indicate that areas with the highest movement of horses corresponded to the areas with a high occurrence of AHS. Although 93% of the participants were aware that AHS is a notifiable and controlled disease, the process and efficiency of reporting is mostly unknown. With this snapshot of horse owners' perceptions and the effect of horse movement on the distribution of AHS, it is clear that a more holistic approach is needed. To that end, all environmental and social factors must be taken into account in effective management strategies. PMID:26970371

  7. Immunogenicity of two adjuvant formulations of an inactivated African horse sickness vaccine in guinea-pigs and target animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Federico Ronchi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Monovalent, inactivated and adjuvanted vaccines against African horse sickness, prepared with serotypes 5 and 9, were tested on guinea-pigs to select the formulation that offered the greatest immunity. The final formulation of the vaccines took into account the immune response in the guinea-pig and the inflammatory properties of two types of adjuvant previously tested on target animals. A pilot study was subsequently conducted on horses using a vaccine prepared with serotype 9. The vaccine stimulated neutralising antibodies from the first administration and, after the booster dose, 28 days later; high antibody levels were recorded for at least 10 months. The guinea-pig appears to be a useful laboratory model for the evaluation of the antigenic properties of African horse sickness vaccines.

  8. Multiple vectors and their differing ecologies: observations on two bluetongue and African horse sickness vector Culicoides species in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiswinkel, R; Labuschagne, K; Baylis, M; Mellor, P S

    2004-01-01

    Blacklight traps were used to collect Culicoides biting midges weekly between September 1996 and August 1998 at 40 sites distributed equidistantly across South Africa. The seasonal and geographic prevalences of 86 species of Culicoides were elucidated simultaneously, and included C. imicola Kieffer and C. bolitinos Meiswinkel the principal vectors of bluetongue (BT) and African horse sickness (AHS) in the region. These two species were amongst the most prevalent Culicoides to be found and, together, comprised >50% of the more than three million biting midges captured. The data are presented as coloured matrices, and are transformed also into inverse distance weighting (IDW) interpolative maps. The data reveal that the prevalence of each vector is somewhat fractured and it is posited that this is (in part) due to significant differences in their respective breeding habitats. The results illustrate also that the presence of multiple vectors (in any region of the world) will complicate both the epidemiology of the orbiviral diseases they transmit and the formulation of rational livestock movement and disease control strategies. This is especially true for southern Europe where the recent devastating cycle of BT has been shown to involve at least three vectors. Finally, the influence that man has on the development of large foci of vector Culicoides around livestock may be less important than previously suggested but must be investigated further. PMID:20419682

  9. Immunization of horses with a polyvalent live-attenuated African horse sickness vaccine: Serological response and disease occurrence under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Molini

    2015-01-01

    Our data confirm that vaccination with LAV is a useful tool to reduce the severity of the disease in endemic areas. However, clinical and sometimes fatal AHS can still affect young vaccinated horses, thus highlighting the necessity to better understand the immune response to AHSV and to dispose of more effective vaccines.

  10. Pathology of fatal lineage 1 and 2 West Nile virus infections in horses in South Africa

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    June H. Williams

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 2007, West Nile virus (WNV has been reported in South African horses, causing severe neurological signs. All cases were of lineage 2, except for one case that clustered with lineage 1 viruses. In the present study, gross and microscopic lesions of six South African lineage 2-infected horses and the one lineage 1 case are described. Diagnoses were confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR of central nervous system (CNS tissue and one by RT-PCR of a brain virus isolate. The CNS of all cases was negative by RT-PCR or immunohistochemistry (IHC for African horse sickness (AHS, equine encephalosis virus, equine herpes viruses 1 and 4, other zoonotic flaviviruses, alphaviruses, and shunivirus, and either by immunofluorescence or IHC for rabies. Gross visceral lesions were nonspecific but often mimicked those of AHS. The CNS histopathology of WNV lineage 2 cases resembled the nonsuppurative polioencephalomyelitis reported in the Northern Hemisphere lineage 1 and recent Hungarian lineage 2 cases. Occasional meningitis, focal spinal ventral horn poliomalacia, dorsal and lateral horn poliomyelitis, leucomyelitis, asymmetrical ventral motor spinal neuritis and frequent olfactory region involvement were also seen. Lineage 2 cases displayed marked variations in CNS lesion severity, type and distribution, and suggested various viral entry routes into the CNS, based on findings in experimental mice and hamsters. Lineage 1 lesions were comparable to the milder lineage 2 cases. West Nile virus IHC on CNS sections with marked lesions from all cases elicited only two antigen-positive cells in the olfactory cortex of one case. The presence in the CNS of T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophage-monocytes was confirmed by cluster of differentiation (CD 3, CD20, multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1 and macrophage (MAC 387 IHC.

  11. Pathology of fatal lineage 1 and 2 West Nile virus infections in horses in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, June H; van Niekerk, Stephanie; Human, Stacey; van Wilpe, Erna; Venter, Marietjie

    2014-01-01

    Since 2007, West Nile virus (WNV) has been reported in South African horses, causing severe neurological signs. All cases were of lineage 2, except for one case that clustered with lineage 1 viruses. In the present study, gross and microscopic lesions of six South African lineage 2-infected horses and the one lineage 1 case are described. Diagnoses were confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of central nervous system (CNS) tissue and one by RT-PCR of a brain virus isolate. The CNS of all cases was negative by RT-PCR or immunohistochemistry (IHC) for African horse sickness (AHS), equine encephalosis virus, equine herpes viruses 1 and 4, other zoonotic flaviviruses, alphaviruses, and shunivirus, and either by immunofluorescence or IHC for rabies. Gross visceral lesions were nonspecific but often mimicked those of AHS. The CNS histopathology of WNV lineage 2 cases resembled the nonsuppurative polioencephalomyelitis reported in the Northern Hemisphere lineage 1 and recent Hungarian lineage 2 cases. Occasional meningitis, focal spinal ventral horn poliomalacia, dorsal and lateral horn poliomyelitis, leucomyelitis, asymmetrical ventral motor spinal neuritis and frequent olfactory region involvement were also seen. Lineage 2 cases displayed marked variations in CNS lesion severity, type and distribution, and suggested various viral entry routes into the CNS, based on findings in experimental mice and hamsters. Lineage 1 lesions were comparable to the milder lineage 2 cases. West Nile virus IHC on CNS sections with marked lesions from all cases elicited only two antigen-positive cells in the olfactory cortex of one case. The presence in the CNS of T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophage-monocytes was confirmed by cluster of differentiation (CD) 3, CD20, multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1) and macrophage (MAC) 387 IHC. PMID:25686260

  12. Hendra virus and horse owners--risk perception and management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kung

    Full Text Available Hendra virus is a highly pathogenic novel paramyxovirus causing sporadic fatal infection in horses and humans in Australia. Species of fruit-bats (genus Pteropus, commonly known as flying-foxes, are the natural host of the virus. We undertook a survey of horse owners in the states of Queensland and New South Wales, Australia to assess the level of adoption of recommended risk management strategies and to identify impediments to adoption. Survey questionnaires were completed by 1431 respondents from the target states, and from a spectrum of industry sectors. Hendra virus knowledge varied with sector, but was generally limited, with only 13% of respondents rating their level of knowledge as high or very high. The majority of respondents (63% had seen their state's Hendra virus information for horse owners, and a similar proportion found the information useful. Fifty-six percent of respondents thought it moderately, very or extremely likely that a Hendra virus case could occur in their area, yet only 37% said they would consider Hendra virus if their horse was sick. Only 13% of respondents stabled their horses overnight, although another 24% said it would be easy or very easy to do so, but hadn't done so. Only 13% and 15% of respondents respectively had horse feed bins and water points under solid cover. Responses varied significantly with state, likely reflecting different Hendra virus history. The survey identified inconsistent awareness and/or adoption of available knowledge, confusion in relation to Hendra virus risk perception, with both over-and under-estimation of true risk, and lag in the uptake of recommended risk minimisation strategies, even when these were readily implementable. However, we also identified frustration and potential alienation by horse owners who found the recommended strategies impractical, onerous and prohibitively expensive. The insights gained from this survey have broader application to other complex risk

  13. Confirmation of Elsey virus infection in a Queensland horse with mild neurologic signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, Kalpana; Pease, Bradley; Oakey, Jane; Campbell, Grant

    2016-07-01

    In 2011, a 2-year-old horse in northern Queensland, Australia, was reported to have developed mild neurologic signs, and a blood sample was submitted for laboratory investigation. Virus isolation was performed using the blood sample, and an orbivirus was isolated. This was confirmed to be a strain of Elsey virus (ELSV) after transmission electron microscopy and nucleotide sequencing. The nucleotide sequence was compared with those in GenBank, and had 100% identity with ELSV previously reported from the Northern Territory, Australia. ELSV is taxonomically closely related to Peruvian horse sickness virus. PMID:27240568

  14. Isolation and identification of African horsesickness virus from naturally infected dogs in Upper Egypt.

    OpenAIRE

    Salama, S.A.; Dardiri, A. H.; Awad, F. I.; A. M. Soliman; M.M Amin

    1981-01-01

    African horsesickness virus was isolated from blood samples of street dogs in Aswan Province in Arab Republic of Egypt. Of six isolated "dog strain" African horsesickness viruses, three viruses designated D2, D6 and D10 have been identified as type 9 African horsesickness virus. Methods of isolation, tissue culture adaptation, serological indentification and typing are described. Horses experimentally infected with dog viruses showed febrile reaction and characteristic clinical and pathologic...

  15. Influenza virus vaccine for neglected hosts: horses and dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This study provides information regarding vaccine research and the epidemiology of influenza virus in neglected hosts (horses and dogs). Equine influenza virus (EIV) causes a highly contagious disease in horses and other equids, and outbreaks have occurred worldwide. EIV has resulted in costly damage to the horse industry and has the ability of cross the host species barrier from horses to dogs. Canine influenza is a virus of equine or avian origin and infects companion animals that live in close contact with humans; this results in possible exposure to the seasonal epizootic influenza virus. There have been case reports of genetic reassortment between human and canine influenza viruses, which results in high virulence and the ability of transmission to ferrets. This emphasizes the need for vaccine research on neglected hosts to update knowledge on current strains and to advance technology for controlling influenza outbreaks for public health. PMID:27489801

  16. Identification of a pegivirus (GB virus-like virus) that infects horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapoor, Amit; Simmonds, Peter; Cullen, John M;

    2013-01-01

    The recent identification of nonprimate hepaciviruses in dogs and then in horses prompted us to look for pegiviruses (GB virus-like viruses) in these species. Although none were detected in canines, we found widespread natural infection of horses by a novel pegivirus. Unique genomic features...

  17. The Phosphoproteome of Bloodstream Form Trypanosoma brucei, Causative Agent of African Sleeping Sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Nett, Isabelle R. E.; Martin, David M. A.; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Lamont, Douglas; Barber, Jonathan D.; Mehlert, Angela; Ferguson, Michael A. J.

    2009-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of human African sleeping sickness and related animal diseases, and it has over 170 predicted protein kinases. Protein phosphorylation is a key regulatory mechanism for cellular function that, thus far, has been studied in T.brucei principally through putative kinase mRNA knockdown and observation of the resulting phenotype. However, despite the relatively large kinome of this organism and the demonstrated essentiality of severa...

  18. The South African Defence Force and Horse Mounted Infantry Operations, 1974-1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques J. P. De Vries

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The South African Defence Force (SADF made effective use of the horse mounted soldier in the Namibian Independence War or ‘Border War’, 1966 to 1989, in Namibia (South West African and Angola, in a conflict usually depicted as a series of high profile mechanised infantry operations. Nevertheless, the legacy of the horse-mounted infantryman of the South African War era commando was evident in this unit, which proved competent in the counter-insurgency patrol in the Area of Operations, and subsequently domestic deployment during civilian struggle during the State of Emergency. This article offers an exploration of the Potchefstroom Equestrian Centre’s contribution to horse and rider training and the military use of horses in counterinsurgency and urban peace enforcement operations in the period c.1974-1985.

  19. Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Infants and Young Children Publications & Materials Announcements Horses Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir See the ... and deworming for your horse. Tips for preventing horse-associated diseases and injuries Before choosing a horse ...

  20. Population genetics of Glossina palpalis palpalis from central African sleeping sickness foci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solano Philippe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glossina palpalis palpalis (Diptera: Glossinidae is widespread in west Africa, and is the main vector of sleeping sickness in Cameroon as well as in the Bas Congo Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, little is known on the structure of its populations. We investigated G. p. palpalis population genetic structure in five sleeping sickness foci (four in Cameroon, one in Democratic Republic of Congo using eight microsatellite DNA markers. Results A strong isolation by distance explains most of the population structure observed in our sampling sites of Cameroon and DRC. The populations here are composed of panmictic subpopulations occupying fairly wide zones with a very strong isolation by distance. Effective population sizes are probably between 20 and 300 individuals and if we assume densities between 120 and 2000 individuals per km2, dispersal distance between reproducing adults and their parents extends between 60 and 300 meters. Conclusions This first investigation of population genetic structure of G. p. palpalis in Central Africa has evidenced random mating subpopulations over fairly large areas and is thus at variance with that found in West African populations of G. p. palpalis. This study brings new information on the isolation by distance at a macrogeographic scale which in turn brings useful information on how to organise regional tsetse control. Future investigations should be directed at temporal sampling to have more accurate measures of demographic parameters in order to help vector control decision.

  1. Cloning the Horse RNA Polymerase I Promoter and Its Application to Studying Influenza Virus Polymerase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Gang; He, Dong; Wang, Zengchao; Ou, Shudan; Yuan, Rong; Li, Shoujun

    2016-01-01

    An influenza virus polymerase reconstitution assay based on the human, dog, or chicken RNA polymerase I (PolI) promoter has been developed and widely used to study the polymerase activity of the influenza virus in corresponding cell types. Although it is an important member of the influenza virus family and has been known for sixty years, no studies have been performed to clone the horse PolI promoter or to study the polymerase activity of equine influenza virus (EIV) in horse cells. In our study, the horse RNA PolI promoter was cloned from fetal equine lung cells. Using the luciferase assay, it was found that a 500 bp horse RNA PolI promoter sequence was required for efficient transcription. Then, using the developed polymerase reconstitution assay based on the horse RNA PolI promoter, the polymerase activity of two EIV strains was compared, and equine myxovirus resistance A protein was identified as having the inhibiting EIV polymerase activity function in horse cells. Our study enriches our knowledge of the RNA PolI promoter of eukaryotic species and provides a useful tool for the study of influenza virus polymerase activity in horse cells. PMID:27258298

  2. Cloning the Horse RNA Polymerase I Promoter and Its Application to Studying Influenza Virus Polymerase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Gang; He, Dong; Wang, Zengchao; Ou, Shudan; Yuan, Rong; Li, Shoujun

    2016-01-01

    An influenza virus polymerase reconstitution assay based on the human, dog, or chicken RNA polymerase I (PolI) promoter has been developed and widely used to study the polymerase activity of the influenza virus in corresponding cell types. Although it is an important member of the influenza virus family and has been known for sixty years, no studies have been performed to clone the horse PolI promoter or to study the polymerase activity of equine influenza virus (EIV) in horse cells. In our study, the horse RNA PolI promoter was cloned from fetal equine lung cells. Using the luciferase assay, it was found that a 500 bp horse RNA PolI promoter sequence was required for efficient transcription. Then, using the developed polymerase reconstitution assay based on the horse RNA PolI promoter, the polymerase activity of two EIV strains was compared, and equine myxovirus resistance A protein was identified as having the inhibiting EIV polymerase activity function in horse cells. Our study enriches our knowledge of the RNA PolI promoter of eukaryotic species and provides a useful tool for the study of influenza virus polymerase activity in horse cells. PMID:27258298

  3. Estimation Models for the Morbidity of the Horses Infected with Equine Influenza Virus

    OpenAIRE

    SUGITA, Shigeo; OKI, Hironori; HASEGAWA, Telhisa; ISHIDA, Nobushige

    2008-01-01

    Estimation formulas for the morbidity of horses infected with equine influenza virus by linear regression, logistic regression and probit transformation were developed, using data from the outbreak at the Sha Tin Racing Track in Hong Kong in 1992. Using these formulas, we estimated the equine influenza virus morbidity rates at training centers belonging to the Japan Racing Association (JRA) in October 1997 and in October 1998. In 1998 JRA started a new vaccination program, and every horse mus...

  4. Experimental vesicular stomatitis virus infection in horses: effect of route of inoculation and virus serotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howerth, E W; Mead, D G; Mueller, P O; Duncan, L; Murphy, M D; Stallknecht, D E

    2006-11-01

    Horses were inoculated with Vesicular stomatitis New Jersey and Indiana viruses by routes simulating contact and vector transmission. Clinical signs, lesions, antibody development, viral shedding and persistence, and viremia were monitored. Horses were infected with both viruses by all routes as confirmed by seroconversion. Salivation, primary lesions at inoculation sites, and secondary oral lesions were the most common clinical findings. Viral shedding was most often from the oral cavity, followed by the nasal cavity; titers were highest from oral cavity samples. Virus was rarely isolated from the conjunctival sac and never from feces or blood. Development of neutralizing antibody coincided with cessation of lesion development and detection of virus by isolation. Circulating virus-specific IgM, IgG, IgA, and neutralizing antibodies developed in most animals postinoculation (PI) days 6 to 12, depending on the route of inoculation. At postmortem (PI days 12 to 15), lesions were healing, were not vesicular, and did not contain detectable virus by isolation, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, or immunohistochemistry. Numerous infiltrating lymphocytes and plasma cells suggested that lesion resolution was partially due to local immunity. Detection of viral RNA from tonsil and lymph nodes of head at necropsy suggests that these tissues play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease; molecular techniques targeting these tissues may be useful for confirming infection in resolving stages of disease. The routes of inoculation used in this study reflect the diversity of transmission routes that may occur during outbreaks and can be used to further study contact and vector transmission, vaccine development, and clarify pathogenesis of the disease in horses. PMID:17099151

  5. Gene fusion analysis in the battle against the African endemic sleeping sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Trimpalis

    Full Text Available The protozoan Trypanosoma brucei causes African Trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness in humans, which can be lethal if untreated. Most available pharmacological treatments for the disease have severe side-effects. The purpose of this analysis was to detect novel protein-protein interactions (PPIs, vital for the parasite, which could lead to the development of drugs against this disease to block the specific interactions. In this work, the Domain Fusion Analysis (Rosetta Stone method was used to identify novel PPIs, by comparing T. brucei to 19 organisms covering all major lineages of the tree of life. Overall, 49 possible protein-protein interactions were detected, and classified based on (a statistical significance (BLAST e-value, domain length etc., (b their involvement in crucial metabolic pathways, and (c their evolutionary history, particularly focusing on whether a protein pair is split in T. brucei and fused in the human host. We also evaluated fusion events including hypothetical proteins, and suggest a possible molecular function or involvement in a certain biological process. This work has produced valuable results which could be further studied through structural biology or other experimental approaches so as to validate the protein-protein interactions proposed here. The evolutionary analysis of the proteins involved showed that, gene fusion or gene fission events can happen in all organisms, while some protein domains are more prone to fusion and fission events and present complex evolutionary patterns.

  6. A Saint Louis encephalitis and Rocio virus serosurvey in Brazilian horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Raymondi Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Arboviruses are an important public health problem in Brazil, in especially flaviviruses, including the Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV and the Rocio virus (ROCV, are especially problematic. These viruses are transmitted to humans or other vertebrates through arthropod bites and may cause diseases with clinical manifestations that range from asymptomatic infection, viral hemorrhagic fever to encephalitis. Methods A serological survey of horses from various regions of Brazil using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA with recombinant SLEV domain III peptides and ROCV E protein as antigens. Results Overall, 415 (55.1% of the 753 horses that were screened were seropositive for flavivirus and, among them, monotypic reactions were observed to SLEV in 93 (12.3% and to ROCV in 46 (6.1%. These results suggested that these viruses, or other closely related viruses, are infecting horses in Brazil. However, none of the studied horses presented central nervous system infection symptoms. Conclusions Our results suggest that SLEV and ROCV previously circulated among horses in northeast, west-central and southeast Brazil.

  7. Use of Competition ELISA for Monitoring of West Nile Virus Infections in Horses in Germany

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    Martin H. Groschup

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a mosquito-borne viral pathogen of global importance and is considered to be the most widespread flavivirus in the World. Horses, as dead-end hosts, can be infected by bridge mosquito vectors and undergo either subclinical infections or develop severe neurological diseases. The aim of this study was to detect WNV specific antibodies in horses in Germany as an indicator for an endemic circulation of WNV. Sera from more than 5,000 horses (primarily fallen stock animals were collected in eight different federal states of Germany from 2010 to 2012. Sera were screened by a competitive ELISA and positive reactions were verified by an indirect IgM ELISA and/or by virus neutralization tests (VNT for WNV and Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV in order to exclude cross-reacting antibody reactions. In essence WNV specific antibodies could not be detected in any of the horse sera. Not surprisingly, a small number of sera contained antibodies against TBEV. It is noteworthy that equine sera were often collected from horse carcasses and therefore were of poor quality. Nonetheless, these sera were still suitable for WNV ELISA testing, i.e., they did not produce a high background reaction which is a frequently observed phenomenon. According to these data there is no evidence for indigenous WNV infections in horses in Germany at present.

  8. The phosphoproteome of bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei, causative agent of African sleeping sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nett, Isabelle R E; Martin, David M A; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Lamont, Douglas; Barber, Jonathan D; Mehlert, Angela; Ferguson, Michael A J

    2009-07-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of human African sleeping sickness and related animal diseases, and it has over 170 predicted protein kinases. Protein phosphorylation is a key regulatory mechanism for cellular function that, thus far, has been studied in T.brucei principally through putative kinase mRNA knockdown and observation of the resulting phenotype. However, despite the relatively large kinome of this organism and the demonstrated essentiality of several T. brucei kinases, very few specific phosphorylation sites have been determined in this organism. Using a gel-free, phosphopeptide enrichment-based proteomics approach we performed the first large scale phosphorylation site analyses for T.brucei. Serine, threonine, and tyrosine phosphorylation sites were determined for a cytosolic protein fraction of the bloodstream form of the parasite, resulting in the identification of 491 phosphoproteins based on the identification of 852 unique phosphopeptides and 1204 phosphorylation sites. The phosphoproteins detected in this study are predicted from their genome annotations to participate in a wide variety of biological processes, including signal transduction, processing of DNA and RNA, protein synthesis, and degradation and to a minor extent in metabolic pathways. The analysis of phosphopeptides and phosphorylation sites was facilitated by in-house developed software, and this automated approach was validated by manual annotation of spectra of the kinase subset of proteins. Analysis of the cytosolic bloodstream form T. brucei kinome revealed the presence of 44 phosphorylated protein kinases in our data set that could be classified into the major eukaryotic protein kinase groups by applying a multilevel hidden Markov model library of the kinase catalytic domain. Identification of the kinase phosphorylation sites showed conserved phosphorylation sequence motifs in several kinase activation segments, supporting the view that

  9. Bat Virus Downunder: The Hendra Virus and Its Relationship to Native Fruit Bats, Horses and Human --Learning and Teaching Opportunities for Classroom Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    2013-01-01

    The fatal effect of the Hendra virus was noticed first in Queensland, Australia in 1994 when several horses died from an "unidentified cause". This was followed by the death of trainers and veterinarians called to assist affected horses. It is now known that the "unidentified cause", is a virus harboured in native Australian…

  10. Seroconversion for west Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses among sentinel horses in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We prospectively sampled flavivirus-naïve horses in northern Colombia to detect West Nile virus (WNV and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV seroconversion events, which would indicate the current circulation of these viruses. Overall, 331 (34.1% of the 971 horses screened were positive for past infection with flaviviruses upon initial sampling in July 2006. During the 12-month study from July 2006-June 2007, 33 WNV seroconversions and 14 SLEV seroconversions were detected, most of which occurred in the department of Bolivar. The seroconversion rates of horses in Bolivar for the period of March-June 2007 reached 12.4% for WNV and 6.7% for SLEV. These results comprise the first serologic evidence of SLEV circulation in Colombia. None of the horses sampled developed symptoms of encephalitis within three years of initial sampling. Using seroconversions in sentinel horses, we demonstrated an active circulation of WNV and SLEV in northern Colombia, particularly in the department of Bolivar. The absence of WNV-attributed equine or human disease in Colombia and elsewhere in the Caribbean Basin remains a topic of debate and speculation.

  11. Experimental transmission of equine hepacivirus in horses as a model for hepatitis C virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equine hepacivirus (EHCV; non-primate hepacivirus) is a hepatotropic member of the Flaviviridae family that infects horses. Although EHCV is the closest known relative to hepatitis C virus (HCV), its complete replication kinetics in vivo have not been described, and direct evidence that it causes he...

  12. EXPERIENCE OF USING SEROLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR TESTS TO DETECT EQUINE INFECTIOUS ANEMIA VIRUS IN HORSE

    OpenAIRE

    N.N. GERASIMOVA; O.L. KOLBASOVA; S.Zh. TSYBANOV; A.V. LUNITSIN; D.V. KOLBASOV

    2014-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia in horses is caused by equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV, Lentivirus, Retroviridae), affecting hematopoietic organs. The symptoms of the disease are relapsing or continued fever, anemia and a disturbance of cardiovascular functions. Duly virus detection is the only effective way to control infection. Serological methods used to indicate EIAV have some limitations. For instance, they did not allow identifying infected animals prior to seroconversion. Also an immunod...

  13. Antibody responses of horses to equine influenza viruses during a postepizootic period in Japan.

    OpenAIRE

    Goto, H; Shimizu, K; Taya, Y; Noda, H; Tokunaga, T

    1982-01-01

    The antibody responses to equine influenza viruses were investigated during a postepizootic period of the disease. Serum samples were collected from a total of 128 horses on three occasions during the years 1967-77. No significant increase of hemagglutination-inhibition antibody titers to subtypes 1 and 2 of equine influenza virus were detected in any of the sera tested. The maternal hemagglutination-inhibition antibody titers of foals decreased over a four month interval. A marked increase o...

  14. Estimation models for the morbidity of the horses infected with equine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Shigeo; Oki, Hironori; Hasegawa, Telhisa; Ishida, Nobushige

    2008-01-01

    Estimation formulas for the morbidity of horses infected with equine influenza virus by linear regression, logistic regression and probit transformation were developed, using data from the outbreak at the Sha Tin Racing Track in Hong Kong in 1992. Using these formulas, we estimated the equine influenza virus morbidity rates at training centers belonging to the Japan Racing Association (JRA) in October 1997 and in October 1998. In 1998 JRA started a new vaccination program, and every horse must now be vaccinated twice per year. At that time, the vaccine included two US lineage virus strains, the A/equine/Kentucky/81 strain and the A/equine/La Plata/93 (LP93) strain, against equine type-2 influenza viruses; it did not include any EU lineage virus strains, such as A/equine/Suffolk/89 (SF89). Comparing the geometric mean (GM) values of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers between the LP93 strain and the SF89 strain in 1997 and in 1998, they both rose significantly at every age (pequine virus strains represented by the morbidity of infected horses. Thus, they are useful for vaccine evaluation. PMID:24833957

  15. Chronic Physical Stress Does Not Interact with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-Encoded Dutpase to Alter the Sickness Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Zachary M.; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Ariza, Maria Eugenia; Williams, Marshall; Reader, Brenda; Glaser, Ronald; Sheridan, John; Nelson, Randy J.

    2016-01-01

    Most adult humans have been infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which is thought to contribute to the development of chronic fatigue syndrome. Stress is known to influence the immune system and can exacerbate the sickness response. Although a role for psychological stress in the sickness response, particularly in combination with EBV-encoded deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase) has been established, and the role of physical stressors in these interactions remains unspecified. In this study, we seek to determine the interaction of chronic physical (swim) stress and EBV-encoded dUTPase injection. We hypothesize that a chronic physical stressor will exacerbate the sickness response following EBV-encoded dUTPase injection. To test this hypothesis mice receive daily injections of EBV-encoded dUTPase or vehicle and are subjected to 15 min of swim stress each day for 14 days or left unmanipulated. On the final evening of injections mice undergo behavioral testing. EBV-encoded dUTPase injection alone produces some sickness behaviors. The physical swimming stress does not alter the sickness response.

  16. Brain Endothelial- and Epithelial-Specific Interferon Receptor Chain 1 Drives Virus-Induced Sickness Behavior and Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Thomas; Detje, Claudia N; Spieß, Alena; Hagemeyer, Nora; Brendecke, Stefanie M; Wolfart, Jakob; Staszewski, Ori; Zöller, Tanja; Papageorgiou, Ismini; Schneider, Justus; Paricio-Montesinos, Ricardo; Eisel, Ulrich L M; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise; Jansen, Stephan; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Lu, Bao; Imai, Yumiko; Müller, Marcus; Goelz, Susan E; Baker, Darren P; Schwaninger, Markus; Kann, Oliver; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Kalinke, Ulrich; Prinz, Marco

    2016-04-19

    Sickness behavior and cognitive dysfunction occur frequently by unknown mechanisms in virus-infected individuals with malignancies treated with type I interferons (IFNs) and in patients with autoimmune disorders. We found that during sickness behavior, single-stranded RNA viruses, double-stranded RNA ligands, and IFNs shared pathways involving engagement of melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5), retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I), and mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), and subsequently induced IFN responses specifically in brain endothelia and epithelia of mice. Behavioral alterations were specifically dependent on brain endothelial and epithelial IFN receptor chain 1 (IFNAR). Using gene profiling, we identified that the endothelia-derived chemokine ligand CXCL10 mediated behavioral changes through impairment of synaptic plasticity. These results identified brain endothelial and epithelial cells as natural gatekeepers for virus-induced sickness behavior, demonstrated tissue specific IFNAR engagement, and established the CXCL10-CXCR3 axis as target for the treatment of behavioral changes during virus infection and type I IFN therapy. PMID:27096319

  17. Evaluation of in vitro methods for assessment of infection of Australian Culicoides spp. with bluetongue viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Saag, Matthew; Nicholas, Adrian; Ward, Michael; Kirkland, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Biting midges from the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are the vectors of several globally important arboviruses that affect livestock. These include orbiviruses from the bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV) groups and members of the Simbu serogroup of orthobunyaviruses, such as the recently emerged Schmallenberg virus. In this article, the authors evaluate several methods for feeding wild‑caught Australian Culicoides on BTV infected preparations of blood and sucrose. Feeding Culicoides on the membrane of embryonated chicken eggs was identified as the preferred feeding method. Although, cotton wool pads soaked in either virus‑infected blood or virus‑sucrose mixtures were also successful. A non‑destructive nucleic acid extraction technique for the detection of viral RNA in Culicoides was also evaluated as it allows for readily differentiating infected from non‑infected Culicoides. PMID:26741248

  18. Genetic characterization of H1N2 influenza a virus isolated from sick pigs in Southern China in 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Kong Wei; Huang Liang; Qi Hai; Cao Nan; Zhang Liang; Wang Heng; Guan Shang; Qi Wen; Jiao Pei; Liao Ming; Zhang Gui

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In China H3N2 and H1N1 swine influenza viruses have been circulating for many years. In January 2010, before swine were infected with foot and mouth disease in Guangdong, some pigs have shown flu-like symptoms: cough, sneeze, runny nose and fever. We collected the nasopharyngeal swab of all sick pigs as much as possible. One subtype H1N2 influenza viruses were isolated from the pig population. The complete genome of one isolate, designated A/swine/Guangdong/1/2010(H1N2), was sequence...

  19. Putative Lineage of Novel African Usutu Virus, Central Europe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-10-15

    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of "Putative Lineage of Novel African Usutu Virus, Central Europe.".  Created: 10/15/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/15/2015.

  20. Tick-borne encephalitis virus in horses, Austria, 2011

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rushton, J. O.; Lecollinet, S.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Svobodová, Petra; Lussy, H.; Nowotny, N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2013), s. 635-637. ISSN 1080-6040 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) * strains Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 7.327, year: 2013

  1. Flying-fox species density--a spatial risk factor for Hendra virus infection in horses in eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Smith

    Full Text Available Hendra virus causes sporadic but typically fatal infection in horses and humans in eastern Australia. Fruit-bats of the genus Pteropus (commonly known as flying-foxes are the natural host of the virus, and the putative source of infection in horses; infected horses are the source of human infection. Effective treatment is lacking in both horses and humans, and notwithstanding the recent availability of a vaccine for horses, exposure risk mitigation remains an important infection control strategy. This study sought to inform risk mitigation by identifying spatial and environmental risk factors for equine infection using multiple analytical approaches to investigate the relationship between plausible variables and reported Hendra virus infection in horses. Spatial autocorrelation (Global Moran's I showed significant clustering of equine cases at a distance of 40 km, a distance consistent with the foraging 'footprint' of a flying-fox roost, suggesting the latter as a biologically plausible basis for the clustering. Getis-Ord Gi* analysis identified multiple equine infection hot spots along the eastern Australia coast from far north Queensland to central New South Wales, with the largest extending for nearly 300 km from southern Queensland to northern New South Wales. Geographically weighted regression (GWR showed the density of P. alecto and P. conspicillatus to have the strongest positive correlation with equine case locations, suggesting these species are more likely a source of infection of Hendra virus for horses than P. poliocephalus or P. scapulatus. The density of horses, climate variables and vegetation variables were not found to be a significant risk factors, but the residuals from the GWR suggest that additional unidentified risk factors exist at the property level. Further investigations and comparisons between case and control properties are needed to identify these local risk factors.

  2. Spatial predictions of Rhodesian Human African Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness prevalence in Kaberamaido and Dokolo, two newly affected districts of Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola A Batchelor

    Full Text Available The continued northwards spread of Rhodesian sleeping sickness or Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT within Uganda is raising concerns of overlap with the Gambian form of the disease. Disease convergence would result in compromised diagnosis and treatment for HAT. Spatial determinants for HAT are poorly understood across small areas. This study examines the relationships between Rhodesian HAT and several environmental, climatic and social factors in two newly affected districts, Kaberamaido and Dokolo. A one-step logistic regression analysis of HAT prevalence and a two-step logistic regression method permitted separate analysis of both HAT occurrence and HAT prevalence. Both the occurrence and prevalence of HAT were negatively correlated with distance to the closest livestock market in all models. The significance of distance to the closest livestock market strongly indicates that HAT may have been introduced to this previously unaffected area via the movement of infected, untreated livestock from endemic areas. This illustrates the importance of the animal reservoir in disease transmission, and highlights the need for trypanosomiasis control in livestock and the stringent implementation of regulations requiring the treatment of cattle prior to sale at livestock markets to prevent any further spread of Rhodesian HAT within Uganda.

  3. Interstitial lung disease associated with Equine Infectious Anemia Virus infection in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolfa, Pompei; Nolf, Marie; Cadoré, Jean-Luc; Catoi, Cornel; Archer, Fabienne; Dolmazon, Christine; Mornex, Jean-François; Leroux, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    EIA (Equine Infectious Anemia) is a blood-borne disease primarily transmitted by haematophagous insects or needle punctures. Other routes of transmission have been poorly explored. We evaluated the potential of EIAV (Equine Infectious Anemia Virus) to induce pulmonary lesions in naturally infected equids. Lungs from 77 EIAV seropositive horses have been collected in Romania and France. Three types of lesions have been scored on paraffin-embedded lungs: lymphocyte infiltration, bronchiolar inflammation, and thickness of the alveolar septa. Expression of the p26 EIAV capsid (CA) protein has been evaluated by immunostaining. Compared to EIAV-negative horses, 52% of the EIAV-positive horses displayed a mild inflammation around the bronchioles, 22% had a moderate inflammation with inflammatory cells inside the wall and epithelial bronchiolar hyperplasia and 6.5% had a moderate to severe inflammation, with destruction of the bronchiolar epithelium and accumulation of smooth muscle cells within the pulmonary parenchyma. Changes in the thickness of the alveolar septa were also present. Expression of EIAV capsid has been evidenced in macrophages, endothelial as well as in alveolar and bronchiolar epithelial cells, as determined by their morphology and localization. To summarize, we found lesions of interstitial lung disease similar to that observed during other lentiviral infections such as FIV in cats, SRLV in sheep and goats or HIV in children. The presence of EIAV capsid in lung epithelial cells suggests that EIAV might be responsible for the broncho-interstitial damages observed. PMID:24289102

  4. Interspecies transmission of equine influenza virus (H3N8) to dogs by close contact with experimentally infected horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Takashi; Nemoto, Manabu; Tsujimura, Koji; Kondo, Takashi; Matsumura, Tomio

    2009-11-18

    In horse populations, influenza A virus subtype H3N8 (equine influenza virus, EIV) is a very important pathogen that leads to acute respiratory disease. Recently, EIV has emerged in dogs, and has become widespread among the canine population in the United States. The interspecies transmission route had thus far remained unclear. Here, we tested whether the interspecies transmission of EIV to dogs could occur as a result of close contact with experimentally EIV-infected horses. Three pairs consisting of an EIV-infected horse and a healthy dog were kept together in individual stalls for 15 consecutive days. A subsequent hemagglutination inhibition test revealed that all three dogs exhibited seroconversion. Moreover, two of the three dogs exhibited virus shedding. However, the dogs exhibited no clinical signs throughout the course of the study. These data suggest that the interspecies transmission of EIV to dogs could occur as a result of close contact with EIV-infected horses without clinical symptoms. Although the interspecies transmission of EIV is unlikely to become an immediate threat to canine hygiene, close contact between EIV-infected horses and dogs should be avoided during an EI epidemic. PMID:19596528

  5. Sleeping Sickness and Nagana Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Steverding, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    The hemoflagellate Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of human and animal African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness and nagana disease, respectively. The infec-tious disease is transmitted by the bite of infected tsetse flies and afflicts mainly rural popula-tions in sub-Saharan Africa. The subspecies T. b. gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense are responsi-ble for the two forms of human African trypanosomiasis, the West and East African sleeping sickness, respectively. A thir...

  6. No evidence of horizontal infection in horses kept in close contact with dogs experimentally infected with canine influenza A virus (H3N8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamanaka Takashi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since equine influenza A virus (H3N8 was transmitted to dogs in the United States in 2004, the causative virus, which is called canine influenza A virus (CIV, has become widespread in dogs. To date, it has remained unclear whether or not CIV-infected dogs could transmit CIV to horses. To address this, we tested whether or not close contact between horses and dogs experimentally infected with CIV would result in its interspecies transmission. Methods Three pairs of animals consisting of a dog inoculated with CIV (108.3 egg infectious dose50/dog and a healthy horse were kept together in individual stalls for 15 consecutive days. During the study, all the dogs and horses were clinically observed. Virus titres in nasal swab extracts and serological responses were also evaluated. In addition, all the animals were subjected to a gross pathological examination after euthanasia. Results All three dogs inoculated with CIV exhibited clinical signs including, pyrexia, cough, nasal discharge, virus shedding and seroconversion. Gross pathology revealed lung consolidations in all the dogs, and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus was isolated from the lesions. Meanwhile, none of the paired horses showed any clinical signs, virus shedding or seroconversion. Moreover, gross pathology revealed no lesions in the respiratory tracts including the lungs of the horses. Conclusions These findings may indicate that a single dog infected with CIV is not sufficient to constitute a source of CIV infection in horses.

  7. The Working Principle and Control Strategies of Trojan Horse Virus%木马病毒的攻击原理与防治策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王树森; 陈平

    2012-01-01

    木马病毒已经严重影响了计算机系统的安全。在详细研究木马病毒工作原理和基本特征的基础上,提出了防治木马病毒的策略。研究认为,对付木马病毒应先防后治。通过安装杀毒软件、养成良好上网习惯和堵住计算机通信漏洞,使计算机远离木马病毒。以木马病毒特征和入侵手段为突破口,使用手动或杀毒软件的方法查杀木马病毒。%The Trojan horse virus has a serious impact on the safe use of the computer system.On the basis of the study in detail the working principle and basic characteristics of Trojan horse virus,Trojan horse virus prevention strategies have been proposed.To deal with the Trojan virus should be anti-after rule.By installing anti-virus software,Developing good online habits and blocking the loopholes in the computer communications,these measures can make the computer from Trojan horse virus.According to the Trojan horse virus signatures and intrusion methods,using manual or antivirus software kill Trojan horse virus.

  8. Genetic characterization of H1N2 influenza a virus isolated from sick pigs in Southern China in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Wei

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In China H3N2 and H1N1 swine influenza viruses have been circulating for many years. In January 2010, before swine were infected with foot and mouth disease in Guangdong, some pigs have shown flu-like symptoms: cough, sneeze, runny nose and fever. We collected the nasopharyngeal swab of all sick pigs as much as possible. One subtype H1N2 influenza viruses were isolated from the pig population. The complete genome of one isolate, designated A/swine/Guangdong/1/2010(H1N2, was sequenced and compared with sequences available in GenBank. The nucleotide sequences of all eight viral RNA segments were determined, and then phylogenetic analysis was performed using the neighbor-joining method. HA, NP, M and NS were shown to be closely to swine origin. PB2 and PA were close to avian origin, but NA and PB1were close to human origin. It is a result of a multiple reassortment event. In conclusion, our finding provides further evidence about the interspecies transmission of avian influenza viruses to pigs and emphasizes the importance of reinforcing swine influenza virus (SIV surveillance, especially before the emergence of highly pathogenic FMDs in pigs in Guangdong.

  9. No evidence of African swine fever virus replication in hard ticks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho Ferreira, de H.C.; Zúquete, S.T.; Wijnveld, M.; Weesendorp, E.; Jongejan, F.; Stegeman, J.A.; Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2014-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), a tick-borne DNA virus. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are the only biological vectors of ASFV recognized so far. Although other hard ticks have been tested for vector competence, two commonly found tick species in Europe

  10. Type A influenza virus detection from horses by real-time RT-PCR and insulated isothermal RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2014-01-01

    Equine influenza (EI) is a highly contagious disease of horses caused by the equine influenza virus (EIV) H3N8 subtype. EI is the most important respiratory virus infection of horses and can disrupt major equestrian events and cause significant economic losses to the equine industry worldwide. Influenza H3N8 virus spreads rapidly in susceptible horses and can result in very high morbidity within 24-48 h after exposure to the virus. Therefore, rapid and accurate diagnosis of EI is critical for implementation of prevention and control measures to avoid the spread of EIV and to reduce the economic impact of the disease. The probe-based real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays targeting various EIV genes are reported to be highly sensitive and specific compared to the Directigen Flu A(®) test and virus isolation in embryonated hens' eggs. Recently, a TaqMan(®) probe-based insulated isothermal RT-PCR (iiRT-PCR) assay for the detection of EIV H3N8 subtype has been described. These molecular based diagnostic assays provide a fast and reliable means of EIV detection and disease surveillance. PMID:24899448

  11. Ross River Virus (RRV Infection in Horses and Humans: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dhama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A fascinating and important arbovirus is Ross River Virus (RRV which is endemic and epizootic in nature in certain parts of the world. RRV is a member of the genus Alphavirus within the Semliki Forest complex of the family Togaviridae, which also includes the Getah virus. The virus is responsible for causing disease both in humans as well as horses. Mosquito species (Aedes camptorhynchus and Aedes vigilax; Culex annulirostris are the most important vector for this virus. In places of low temperature as well as low rainfall or where there is lack of habitat of mosquito there is also limitation in the transmission of the virus. Such probability is higher especially in temperate regions bordering endemic regions having sub-tropical climate. There is involvement of articular as well as non-articular cells in the replication of RRV. Levels of pro-inflammatory factors viz., tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α; interferon-gamma (IFN-γ; and macrophage chemo-attractant protein-1 (MAC-1 during disease pathogenesis have been found to be reduced. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR is the most advanced molecular diagnostic tool along with epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detecting RRV infection. Treatment for RRV infection is only supportive. Vaccination is not a fruitful approach. Precise data collection will help the researchers to understand the RRV disease dynamics and thereby designing effective prevention and control strategy. Advances in diagnosis, vaccine development and emerging/novel therapeutic regimens need to be explored to their full potential to tackle RRV infection and the disease it causes.

  12. Susceptibility of pea, horse bean and bean to viruses in dependence on the age of the inoculated plants

    OpenAIRE

    Władysław Błaszczak; Grażyna Ellmann-Wąsik; Renata Lesiak-Jerzyk

    2013-01-01

    Three cultivars of pea did not differ in their susceptibility to Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) notwithstanding the age of the inoculated plants. But their susceptibility to infection with Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus (BYMV) differed. Horse bean cultivars 'Nadwiślański' and 'Major' proved to be less susceptible to Broad Bean True Mosaic Virus (BBTMV) when older plants were-inoculated. Two bean cultivars 'Złota Saxa' and 'Earle' appeared to be susceptible to BBTMV only in the phase of developing prim...

  13. Dendritic cells as Achilles' heel and Trojan horse during varicella zoster virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther eSchönrich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Varicella zoster virus (VZV, a human alphaherpesvirus, causes varicella and subsequently estab-lishes latency within sensory nerve ganglia. Later in life VZV can reactivate to cause herpes zoster. A reduced frequency of VZV-specific T cells is strongly associated with herpes zoster illustrating that these immune cells are central to control latency. Dendritic cells (DCs are required for the generation of VZV-specific T cells. However, DCs can also be infected in vitro and in vivo allowing VZV to evade the antiviral immune response. Thus, DCs represent the immune systems’ Achilles heel. Uniquely among the human herpesviruses, VZV infects both DCs and T cells, and exploits both as Trojan horses. During primary infection VZV-infected DCs traffic to the draining lymph nodes and tonsils, where the virus is transferred to T cells. VZV-infected T cells subsequently spread infection throughout the body to give the typical varicella skin rash. The delicate interplay between VZV and DCs and its consequences for viral immune evasion and viral dissemination will be discussed in this article.

  14. Dendritic cells as Achilles' heel and Trojan horse during varicella zoster virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönrich, Günther; Raftery, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV), a human alphaherpesvirus, causes varicella and subsequently establishes latency within sensory nerve ganglia. Later in life VZV can reactivate to cause herpes zoster. A reduced frequency of VZV-specific T cells is strongly associated with herpes zoster illustrating that these immune cells are central to control latency. Dendritic cells (DCs) are required for the generation of VZV-specific T cells. However, DCs can also be infected in vitro and in vivo allowing VZV to evade the antiviral immune response. Thus, DCs represent the immune systems' Achilles heel. Uniquely among the human herpesviruses, VZV infects both DCs and T cells, and exploits both as Trojan horses. During primary infection VZV-infected DCs traffic to the draining lymph nodes and tonsils, where the virus is transferred to T cells. VZV-infected T cells subsequently spread infection throughout the body to give the typical varicella skin rash. The delicate interplay between VZV and DCs and its consequences for viral immune evasion and viral dissemination will be discussed in this article. PMID:26005438

  15. Comparative measurement of equine influenza virus antibodies in horse sera by single radial hemolysis, neutralization, and hemagglutination inhibition tests.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamagishi, H; Nagamine, T; Shimoda, K; Ide, S.; Igarashi, Y; Yoshioka, I; Matumoto, M

    1982-01-01

    Single radial hemolysis (SRH), neutralization (NT), and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests were carried out on sera from horses immunized against the Prague and Miami strains of equine influenza virus. The HI and NT tests demonstrated good sensitivity; the sensitivity of the SRH test was somewhat lower. The NT titers of individual sera were correlated very closely with the HI titers, although the NT titers were higher. SRH zone diameters of individual sera also showed significant correlat...

  16. Morning Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these methods to relieve or prevent morning sickness: Acupressure wristbands. Wearing these wristbands may help with morning ... these methods to relieve or prevent morning sickness: Acupressure wristbands. Wearing these wristbands may help with morning ...

  17. Sleeping sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001362.htm Sleeping sickness To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sleeping sickness is an infection caused by germs carried ...

  18. Car Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Action Medical Editor & Editorial Advisory Board Sponsors Sponsorship Opporunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a ... Share Car Sickness Page Content Article Body My child gets sick in the car quite often. How ...

  19. 42 CFR 71.56 - African rodents and other animals that may carry the monkeypox virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false African rodents and other animals that may carry the monkeypox virus. 71.56 Section 71.56 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING FOREIGN QUARANTINE Importations § 71.56 African...

  20. Epitope specificity is critical for high and moderate avidity cytotoxic T lymphocytes associated with control of viral load and clinical disease in horses with equine infectious anemia virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a lentivirus that causes persistent infections in horses. We hypothesized that high-avidity CTL specific for nonvariable epitopes might be associated with low viral load and minimal disease in EIAV-infected horses. To test this hypothesis, memory CTL (CTLm) responses were analyzed in two infected horses with high plasma viral loads and recurrent disease (progressors), and in two infected horses with low-to-undetectable viral loads and mild disease (nonprogressors). High-avidity CTLm in one progressor recognized an envelope gp90 epitope, and the data documented for the first time in EIAV that viral variation led to CTL escape. Each of the nonprogressors had high-to-moderate avidity CTLm directed against epitopes within Rev, including the nuclear export and nuclear localization domains. These results suggested that the epitope specificity of high- and moderate-avidity CTLm was an important determinant for disease outcome in the EIAV-infected horses examined

  1. The trans Golgi Network Is Lost from Cells Infected with African Swine Fever Virus

    OpenAIRE

    McCrossan, Mari; Windsor, Miriam; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan; Armstrong, John; Wileman, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The cellular secretory pathway is important during the assembly and envelopment of viruses and also controls the transport of host proteins, such as cytokines and major histocompatibility proteins, that function during the elimination of viruses by the immune system. African swine fever virus (ASFV) encodes at least 26 proteins with stretches of hydrophobic amino acids suggesting entry into the secretory pathway (R. J. Yanez, J. M. Rodriguez, M. L. Nogal, L. Yuste, C. Enriquez, J. F. Rodrigue...

  2. Challenges towards the elimination of Human African Trypanosomiasis in the sleeping sickness focus of Campo in southern Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simo, Gustave; Mbida Mbida, Jean Arthur; Ebo'o Eyenga, Vincent; Asonganyi, Tazoacha; Njiokou, Flobert; Grébaut, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The sleeping sickness focus of Campo lies along the Atlantic coast and extends along the Ntem River, which constitutes the Cameroonian and Equatorial Guinean border. It is a hypo-endemic focus with the disease prevalence varying from 0.3 to 0.86% during the last few decades. Investigations on animal reservoirs revealed a prevalence of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense of 0.6% in wild animals and 4.83% in domestic animals of this focus. From 2001 to 2012, about 19 931 tsetse were collected in this focus and five tsetse species including Glossina palpalis palpalis, G. pallicera, G. nigrofusca, G. tabaniformis and G. caliginea were identified. The analysis of blood meals of these flies showed that they feed on human, pig, goat, sheep, and wild animals such as antelope, duiker, wild pig, turtle and snake. The percentage of blood meals taken on these hosts varies according to sampling periods. For instance, 6.8% of blood meals from pig were reported in 2004 and 22% in 2008. This variation is subjected to considerable evolutions because the Campo HAT focus is submitted to socio-economic mutations including the reopening of a new wood company, the construction of autonomous port at "Kribi" as well as the dam at "Memve ele". These activities will bring more that 3000 inhabitants around Campo and induce the deforestation for the implementation of farmlands as well as breeding of domestic animals. Such mutations have impacts on the transmission and the epidemiology of sleeping sickness due to the modification of the fauna composition, the nutritional behavior of tsetse, the zoophilic/anthropophilic index. To achieve the elimination goal in the sleeping sickness focus of Campo, we report in this paper the current epidemiological situation of the disease, the research findings of the last decades notably on the population genetics of trypanosomes, the modifications of nutritional behavior of tsetse, the prevalence of T. b. gambiense in humans, domestic and wild animals. An overview

  3. The Molecular Dynamics of Trypanosoma brucei UDP-Galactose 4′-Epimerase: A Drug Target for African Sleeping Sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Aaron J; Durrant, Jacob D.; Pierce, Levi C. T.; McCorvie, Thomas J; Timson, David J; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2012-01-01

    During the past century, several epidemics of human African trypanosomiasis, a deadly disease caused by the protist Trypanosoma brucei, have afflicted sub-Saharan Africa. Over 10 000 new victims are reported each year, with hundreds of thousands more at risk. As current drug treatments are either highly toxic or ineffective, novel trypanocides are urgently needed. The T. brucei galactose synthesis pathway is one potential therapeutic target. Although galactose is essential for T. brucei survi...

  4. Hendra virus survival does not explain spillover patterns and implicates relatively direct transmission routes from flying foxes to horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gerardo; Plowright, Raina; Chen, Carla; Kault, David; Selleck, Paul; Skerratt, Lee F

    2015-06-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) is lethal to humans and horses, and little is known about its epidemiology. Biosecurity restrictions impede advances, particularly on understanding pathways of transmission. Quantifying the environmental survival of HeV can be used for making decisions and to infer transmission pathways. We estimated HeV survival with a Weibull distribution and calculated parameters from data generated in laboratory experiments. HeV survival rates based on air temperatures 24 h after excretion ranged from 2 to 10 % in summer and from 12 to 33 % in winter. Simulated survival across the distribution of the black flying fox (Pteropus alecto), a key reservoir host, did not predict spillover events. Based on our analyses we concluded that the most likely pathways of transmission did not require long periods of virus survival and were likely to involve relatively direct contact with flying fox excreta shortly after excretion. PMID:25667321

  5. Epidemiology of chicken anemia virus in Central African Republic and Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snoeck Chantal J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although chicken anemia virus (CAV has been detected on all continents, little is known about this virus in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to detect and characterize CAV for the first time in Central African Republic and in Cameroon. Results An overall flock seroprevalence of 36.7% was found in Central African Republic during the 2008–2010 period. Virus prevalences were 34.2% (2008, 14.3% (2009 and 10.4% (2010 in Central African Republic and 39% (2007 and 34.9% (2009 in Cameroon. CAV DNA was found in cloacal swabs of 76.9% of seropositive chickens, suggesting that these animals excreted the virus despite antibodies. On the basis of VP1 sequences, most of the strains in Central African Republic and Cameroon belonged to 9 distinct phylogenetic clusters at the nucleotide level and were not intermixed with strains from other continent. Several cases of mixed infections in flocks and individual chickens were identified. Conclusions Our results suggest multiple introductions of CAV in each country that later spread and diverged locally. Mixed genotype infections together with the observation of CAV DNA in cloacal samples despite antibodies suggest a suboptimal protection by antibodies or virus persistence.

  6. OCCURRENCE OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST EQUINE HERPESVIRUS AND EQUINE ARTERITIS VIRUS IN HORSE HERDS OF RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Anne Ford Diaz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Infections by equine herpesvirus (EHV and equine arteritis virus (EAV have been associated with important economic losses for the equine industry worldwide. Serological studies have indicated the presence of these agents in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of specific antibodies against EAV and EHV in horse herds from different regions of Rio de Janeiro state. For this purpose, serum samples of 581 non-vaccinated animals and 44 breeding mares regularly vaccinated against equine rhinopneumonitis were collected. All samples were submitted to the virus neutralization test for the detection of specific antibodies to each virus. Results showed 29.6% (172/581 of seropositive animals for EHV (titers between 2 and ≥ 256 and 0.79% (5/630 for EAV (titers between 2 and 4,096. Considering the non-vaccinated animals, these findings demonstrated that specific antibodies were induced after natural exposure to the respective viruses, suggesting a probable circulation of these agents in the studied herds.

  7. Susceptibility of pea, horse bean and bean to viruses in dependence on the age of the inoculated plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Błaszczak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Three cultivars of pea did not differ in their susceptibility to Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV notwithstanding the age of the inoculated plants. But their susceptibility to infection with Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus (BYMV differed. Horse bean cultivars 'Nadwiślański' and 'Major' proved to be less susceptible to Broad Bean True Mosaic Virus (BBTMV when older plants were-inoculated. Two bean cultivars 'Złota Saxa' and 'Earle' appeared to be susceptible to BBTMV only in the phase of developing primary leaves and the age-dependent resistance to infection increased faster in plants of the cv. 'Złota Saxa'. Both cultivars of bean showed also age-dependent resistance to infection by BYMV. All these viruses restricted growth and yield of plants. The decreases were greater when younger plants were inoculated. These dependences appeared most distinctly in pea cv. 'Sześciotygodniowy' infected with CMV and in two cultivars of bean infected with BYMV.

  8. Cross-Neutralization between Human and African Bat Mumps Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Kubota, Toru; Ihara, Toshiaki; Maeda, Ken; Takeda, Makoto; Kidokoro, Minoru

    2016-04-01

    Recently, a new paramyxovirus closely related to human mumps virus (MuV) was detected in bats. We generated recombinant MuVs carrying either or both of the fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase bat virus glycoproteins. These viruses showed replication kinetics similar to human MuV in cultured cells and were neutralized efficiently by serum from healthy humans. PMID:26982800

  9. Cross-Neutralization between Human and African Bat Mumps Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Kubota, Toru; Ihara, Toshiaki; Maeda, Ken; Kidokoro, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a new paramyxovirus closely related to human mumps virus (MuV) was detected in bats. We generated recombinant MuVs carrying either or both of the fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase bat virus glycoproteins. These viruses showed replication kinetics similar to human MuV in cultured cells and were neutralized efficiently by serum from healthy humans. PMID:26982800

  10. Radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequency of radiation sickness in 1,060 patients treated at our Department was 12.8 percent. It was frequent in patients with brain cancer (12 percent), whole spine cancer (47 percent), uterus cancer (28 percent), lung cancer (22 percent) and esophagus cancer (12 percent). Radiation sickness following X-irradiation was studied in its relation to patient's age, size of radiation fields, dosis and white blood cell count. However, we could not find any definite clinical feature relevant to occurrence. There are many theories published concerning the mechanism of radiation sickness. Clinical experiences have shown that radiation sickness cannot be explained by one theory alone but by several theories such as those based on psychology, stress or histamine. (author)

  11. Sickness insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Mráčková, Věra

    2011-01-01

    "Sickness insurance" was selected as a theme of this bachelor work. The first part of this work focuses on the general conditions of the health insurance in the Czech Republic, including the current legislation and the identification of the institutions such as Czech Social Security Administration. In addition it focuses on the range of insured persons and of the detailed description of health insurance benefits, sick-benefits, nursing care, maternity benefits and compensatory allowance durin...

  12. Full-Genome Sequence of a Neuroinvasive West Nile Virus Lineage 2 Strain from a Fatal Horse Infection in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentoor, Juliet L D; Lubisi, Alison B; Gerdes, Truuska; Human, Stacey; Williams, June H; Venter, Marietjie

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of a lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV) strain that resulted in fatal neurological disease in a horse in South Africa. Several recent reports exist of neurological disease associated with lineage 2 WNV in humans and horses in South Africa and Europe; however, there are a lack of sequencing data from recent fatal cases in Southern Africa, where these strains likely originate. A better understanding of the genetic composition of highly neuroinvasive lineage 2 strains may facilitate the identification of putative genetic factors associated with increased virulence. PMID:27469963

  13. Full-Genome Sequence of a Neuroinvasive West Nile Virus Lineage 2 Strain from a Fatal Horse Infection in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentoor, Juliet L. D.; Lubisi, Alison B.; Gerdes, Truuska; Human, Stacey; Williams, June H.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of a lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV) strain that resulted in fatal neurological disease in a horse in South Africa. Several recent reports exist of neurological disease associated with lineage 2 WNV in humans and horses in South Africa and Europe; however, there are a lack of sequencing data from recent fatal cases in Southern Africa, where these strains likely originate. A better understanding of the genetic composition of highly neuroinvasive lineage 2 strains may facilitate the identification of putative genetic factors associated with increased virulence. PMID:27469963

  14. Detection of East/Central/South African Genotype of Chikungunya Virus in Myanmar, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Tun, Mya Myat Ngwe; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Inoue, Shingo; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Aoki, Kotaro; Kyaw, Aung Kyaw; Myint, Tin; Tar, Thi; Maung, Kay Thwe Thwe; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Morita, Kouichi

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, chikungunya virus of the East Central South African genotype was isolated from 4 children in Myanmyar who had dengue-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 gene revealed that the isolates were closely related to isolates from China, Thailand, and Malaysia that harbor the A226V mutation in this gene.

  15. Complete genome analysis of hepatitis B virus in human immunodeficiency virus infected and uninfected South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gededzha, Maemu P; Muzeze, Muxe; Burnett, Rosemary J; Amponsah-Dacosta, Edina; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey; Selabe, Selokela G

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are highly endemic in South Africa. Data on the complete genome sequences of HBV in HIV-positive patients in South Africa are scanty. This study characterized the complete HBV genome isolated from both HIV-positive and negative patients at the Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital (DGMAH), Pretoria. Serum samples from nine (five HIV-positive and four HIV-negative) patients attending the DGMAH from 2007 to 2011 were serologically tested, amplified, and sequenced for complete genome. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA6.0. Mutations were analyzed by comparing the sequences with genotype-matched GenBank references. Eight patients were HBsAg positive, with only one from the HIV positive group being negative. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome sequences classified them into five genotypes; A1 (n = 4), A2 (n = 1), C1 (n = 2), D1 (n = 1), and D3 (n = 1). Deletions up to 35 nucleotides in length were identified in this study. No drug resistance mutations were identified in the P ORF, while the L217R mutation was identified in one subgenotype A2 sequence. The double (A1762T/G1764A) and triple (T1753C/A1762T/G1764A) mutations in the Basal core promoter were identified in four and two sequences, respectively. In the core region, mutation G1888A was identified in four of the subgenotype A1 sequences. In conclusion, this study has added to the limited South African data on HBV genotypes and mutations in HBV/HIV co-infected and HBV mono-infected patients, based on complete HBV genome analysis. Subgenotype A1 was predominant, and no drug-resistant mutants were detected in the study. J. Med. Virol. 88:1560-1566, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26890489

  16. FATAL ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS INFECTION IN AN AFRICAN SAVANNA ELEPHANT (LOXODONTA AFRICANA) IN A FRENCH ZOO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamglait, Benjamin; Joris, Antoine; Romey, Aurore; Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib; Lemberger, Karin

    2015-06-01

    A fatal case of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) involving an African elephant ( Loxodonta africana ) occurred in November 2013 at the Réserve Africaine de Sigean, France. An adult female was found dead without any preliminary symptoms. Gross pathologic changes consisted of petechiae and hemorrhages on mucosae and internal organs, abundant transudate in the abdominal and pericardial cavities, and myocarditis. Histopathologic examination showed extensive degeneration and necrosis of ventricular cardiomyocytes with concurrent lymphoplasmocytic and eosinophilic infiltrate. An EMCV was isolated from several organs and considered the causative agent of the myocarditis. The same strain of virus was also isolated in rodents captured on zoo premises and considered to be the reservoir of the virus. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first EMCV case in a captive African elephant in Europe. PMID:26056902

  17. Improved prognosis of Epstein-Barr virus associated childhood Hodgkin's lymphoma: study of 47 South African cases

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, M.; Essop, M; Close, P; Hartley, P.; Pallesen, G; Sinclair-Smith, C

    2000-01-01

    Aim—To study the distribution of Hodgkin's lymphoma in South African children and report the incidence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as regards age, race, sex, and histological subtype; to investigate whether EBV is relevant to survival.

  18. Functional characterization and inhibition of the type II DNA topoisomerase coded by African swine fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, João; Ferreira, Fernando; Martins, Carlos; Leitão, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    DNA topoisomerases are essential for DNA metabolism and while their role is well studied in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, it is less known for virally-encoded topoisomerases. African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA virus that infects Ornithodoros ticks and all members of the family Suidae, representing a global threat for pig husbandry with no effective vaccine nor treatment. It was recently demonstrated that ASFV codes for a type II topoisomerase, highlighting a possible target for control of the virus. In this work, the ASFV DNA topoisomerase II was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and found to efficiently decatenate kDNA and to processively relax supercoiled DNA. Optimal conditions for its activity were determined and its sensitivity to a panel of topoisomerase poisons and inhibitors was evaluated. Overall, our results provide new knowledge on viral topoisomerases and on ASFV, as well as a possible target for the control of this virus. PMID:27060564

  19. African swine fever virus serodiagnosis: a general review with a focus on the analyses of African serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubillos, Carolina; Gómez-Sebastian, Silvia; Moreno, Noelia; Nuñez, María C; Mulumba-Mfumu, Leopold K; Quembo, Carlos J; Heath, Livio; Etter, Eric M C; Jori, Ferran; Escribano, Jose M; Blanco, Esther

    2013-04-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is an infectious disease that causes heavy mortality in domestic pigs. At present there is no vaccine against ASF, and eradication in countries where the disease is endemic is based only on competent diagnosis programs and the sacrifice of infected animals. Due to the presence of natural attenuated strains, certain infection conditions may result in reduced mortality. In these situations, the disease can be diagnosed by detection of specific antibodies. The use of classical and validated diagnosis assays, such as ELISA and Indirect Immunofluorescence or Immunoblotting, allowed the eradication of ASF in the Iberian Peninsula in the 1990s. However, given that conventional tests include the use of antigens obtained from ASF virus (ASFV)-infected cells, they have several disadvantages, such as difficulties to achieve standardization and also the risks associated with the manipulation of live virus. Such drawbacks have led to the development of alternative and more robust systems for the production of ASFV antigens for use in anti-ASFV antibody detection systems. In the present review, we provide an update on current knowledge about antigen targets for ASFV serodiagnosis, the significant progress made in recombinant antigen production, and the refinement of ASF serological diagnostic assays. Moreover, we describe the accuracy of an ELISA developed for the serodiagnosis of ASFV in Africa. This assay is based on a novel p30 recombinant protein (p30r) obtained from an Eastern African viral isolate (Morara strain), which shares 100% amino acid sequence identity with the Georgia virus isolate. That study included the analyses of 587 field sera collected from domestic pigs and warthogs in Senegal (West Africa), the Democratic Republic of Congo (Central Africa), Mozambique (South-East Africa), and South Africa. The results revealed that the novel p30r-based ELISA allows the accurate detection of antibodies against ASFV, independently of the

  20. Serologic evidence of the recent circulation of Saint Louis encephalitis virus and high prevalence of equine encephalitis viruses in horses in the Nhecolândia sub-region in South Pantanal, Central-West Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Pauvolid-Corrêa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As in humans, sub-clinical infection by arboviruses in domestic animals is common; however, its detection only occurs during epizootics and the silent circulation of some arboviruses may remain undetected. The objective of the present paper was to assess the current circulation of arboviruses in the Nhecolândia sub-region of South Pantanal, Brazil. Sera from a total of 135 horses, of which 75 were immunized with bivalent vaccine composed of inactive Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV and Western equine encephalitis virus(WEEV and 60 were unvaccinated, were submitted to thorough viral isolation, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and neutralization tests for Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV, EEEV, WEEV and Mayaro virus (MAYV. No virus was isolated and viral nucleic-acid detection by RT-PCR was also negative. Nevertheless, the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in horses older than seven months was 43.7% for SLEV in equines regardless of vaccine status, and 36.4% for WEEV and 47.7% for EEEV in unvaccinated horses. There was no evidence of MAYV infections. The serologic evidence of circulation of arboviruses responsible for equine and human encephalitis, without recent official reports of clinical infections in the area, suggests that the Nhecolândia sub-region in South Pantanal is an important area for detection of silent activity of arboviruses in Brazil.

  1. DNA Vaccination Partially Protects against African Swine Fever Virus Lethal Challenge in the Absence of Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Jordi M Argilaguet; Pérez Martín, Eva; Nofrarías Espadamala, Miquel; Gallardo, Carmina; Accensi Alemany, Francesc; Lacasta, Anna; Mora Salvatierra, Mercedes; Ballester Devis, Maria; Galindo Cardiel, Iván; López Soria, Sergio; José M Escribano; Reche, Pedro A.; Rodríguez, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The lack of available vaccines against African swine fever virus (ASFV) means that the evaluation of new immunization strategies is required. Here we show that fusion of the extracellular domain of the ASFV Hemagglutinin (sHA) to p54 and p30, two immunodominant structural viral antigens, exponentially improved both the humoral and the cellular responses induced in pigs after DNA immunization. However, immunization with the resulting plasmid (pCMV-sHAPQ) did not confer protection against letha...

  2. Predicting antigenic sites on the foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid of the South African Territories (SAT) types using virus neutralization data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) outer capsid proteins 1B, 1C and 1D contribute to the virus serotype distribution and antigenic variants that exist within each of the seven serotypes. This study presents a phylogenetic, genetic and antigenic analysis of the South African Territories (SAT) seroty...

  3. Viruses, Trojan Horses, and Other Badware: Information and Implications for Online Searchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Steve

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the various forms of computer viruses and the threat they pose to online databases. Available protection programs are described, and a list of online sources of protection programs and news is provided. (14 references) (CLB)

  4. Molecular characterization of the African orthobunyavirus Ilesha virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pachler, K.; Růžek, Daniel; Nowotny, N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, DEC 2013 (2013), s. 124-130. ISSN 1567-1348 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED0006/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ilesha virus * Orthobunyavirus * Genome characterization * Phylogenetic analysis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.264, year: 2013

  5. Equine encephalosis in Thoroughbred foals on a South African stud farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Grewar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Thoroughbred foal body temperature data were collected from shortly after birth until shortly after weaning during the 2007/2008 season on a stud farm in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Equine encephalosis (EE caused by EE virus (EEV serotype 4 (EEV-4 occurred in the foal group during the first autumn after their birth (March and April 2008. A descriptive study was undertaken to provide data on the EEV maternal antibody status, the association between pyrexia and EEV infection, and the incidence of infection amongst the foals prior to and during the episode. This included the frequent capturing of foal body temperature data and regular collection of serum and whole blood during pyretic episodes. Infection by EEV was determined using both virological and serological methods. A high EE incidence of at least 94% occurred amongst the foal cohort, despite the fact that 37% of foals had previously shown maternal antibody to EEV-4. Pyrexia in foals was not directly associated with EE infection and 41% of infected foals showed no detectable pyretic episode. Information obtained from this EE episode showed the high incidence of EEV infection in foals during the first autumn after their birth. Monitoring foal body temperature can alert farmers to outbreaks of infectious disease, such as EE. These results are relevant to the epidemiology of EE and facilitate greater understanding of it as a differential diagnosis of African horse sickness (AHS, given that EE and AHS have similar epidemiologic profiles.

  6. Antibody-mediated neutralization of African swine fever virus: myths and facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, José M; Galindo, Inmaculada; Alonso, Covadonga

    2013-04-01

    Almost all viruses can be neutralized by antibodies. However, there is some controversy about antibody-mediated neutralization of African swine fever virus (ASFV) with sera from convalescent pigs and about the protective relevance of antibodies in experimentally vaccinated pigs. At present, there is no vaccine available for this highly lethal and economically relevant virus and all classical attempts to generate a vaccine have been unsuccessful. This failure has been attributed, in part, to what many authors describe as the absence of neutralizing antibodies. The findings of some studies clearly contradict the paradigm of the impossibility to neutralize ASFV by means of monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies. This review discusses scientific evidence of these types of antibodies in convalescent and experimentally immunized animals, the nature of their specificity, the neutralization-mediated mechanisms demonstrated, and the potential relevance of antibodies in protection. PMID:23159730

  7. Experimental infection of warthos (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) with African swine fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, G R; Gainaru, M D; Van Dellen, A F

    1980-03-01

    Although there were no obvious signs of illness following experimental infection of young warthog with African swine fever virus, the animals developed viraemias between 10(2,4) and 10(3,6) HD50/ml within the first week of infection, and virus concentrations in a number of lymphatic tissues attained high levels (greater than or equal to 10(6) HD50/g). Unlike in blood, and to some extent in the spleen, virus titres in lymph nodes did not decline appreciable during the 33-day observation period, since at the end of the period lymphatic tissues from 2 warthog were still infectious for domestic pigs to which these tissues were fed. PMID:7454231

  8. 'High-health, high-performance' horses: risk mitigation strategies for OIE-listed diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, M; Münstermann, S; Murray, G; Timoney, P

    2015-12-01

    The 'high-health, high-performance' (HHP) horse concept has been developed by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) together with the F6ddration Equestre Internationale and the International Federation of Horseracing Authorities. This concept is outlined in the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code (Chapter 4.16). It aims to address impediments to the international movement of competition horses through a harmonised, practically feasible, globally applicable framework based on simplified certification requirements for the temporary importation of HHP horses and for their return to their country of usual residence. Based on the principle of compartmentalisation, the high health status of these horses would be established by the application, at all times, of stringent health management practices and biosecurity measures to create and maintain a functional separation between horses within the defined compartment and all other equids. These provisions are intended to mitigate the risk of disease spread for most OIE-listed diseases. For six OIE-listed diseases (African horse sickness, equine influenza, equine infectious anaemia, equine piroplasmosis, glanders and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis), the OIE recommends disease-specific mitigation measures, which have been included in a model HHP Veterinary Certificate, to provide additional guarantees to mitigate the risk of disease spread. This article presents the HH P disease risk mitigation strategy. It demonstrates how continuous observance of the HHP biosecurity measures and health management practices provides a scientific rationale for limiting the list of diseases for which HHP horses should be screened with respect to their temporary importation for competition purposes. PMID:27044155

  9. Sick sinus syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chambers is a common cause of sick sinus syndrome. Coronary artery disease , high blood pressure, and aortic and ... pressure may be normal or low. Sick sinus syndrome may cause symptoms of heart failure to start or get worse. Sick sinus ...

  10. Acute mountain sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  11. Visualization of the African swine fever virus infection in living cells by incorporation into the virus particle of green fluorescent protein-p54 membrane protein chimera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many stages of African swine fever virus infection have not yet been studied in detail. To track the behavior of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in the infected cells in real time, we produced an infectious recombinant ASFV (B54GFP-2) that expresses and incorporates into the virus particle a chimera of the p54 envelope protein fused to the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The incorporation of the fusion protein into the virus particle was confirmed immunologically and it was determined that p54-EGFP was fully functional by confirmation that the recombinant virus made normal-sized plaques and presented similar growth curves to the wild-type virus. The tagged virus was visualized as individual fluorescent particles during the first stages of infection and allowed to visualize the infection progression in living cells through the viral life cycle by confocal microscopy. In this work, diverse potential applications of B54GFP-2 to study different aspects of ASFV infection are shown. By using this recombinant virus it was possible to determine the trajectory and speed of intracellular virus movement. Additionally, we have been able to visualize for first time the ASFV factory formation dynamics and the cytophatic effect of the virus in live infected cells. Finally, we have analyzed virus progression along the infection cycle and infected cell death as time-lapse animations

  12. The effect of heterotypic infections of older horses with equine influenza virus type-2 on some clinical and immunological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleska, M; Anusz, K; Winnicka, A; Kita, J

    2010-01-01

    Twelve horses, all of them 10 years old, were vaccinated intramuscularly on 0 and 28 days of the experiment with inactivated vaccine containing only antigens of A-equi-2/Miami/63. Another three unvaccinated horses, each at the age of 10 years, were the negative control group. One, ten-year-old horse was vaccinated with commercial inactivated vaccine containing both antigens of A-equi-2/Miami/63 as well as A-equi-1/Praha/56 as positive control. Three horses were challenged intranasally with homotypic strain of Miami/63, while six other were challenged with heterotypic strains--three with Suffolk/89 and three with Kentucky/86. Three horses vaccinated with vaccine containing only strain A-equi-2/Miami/63 were not challenged. In the group of three unvaccinated horses, each one was challenged intranasally with different strains studied in this experiment. The horse vaccinated with commercial vaccine was not challenged. Replication of each strain was done in chick embryos. During the experiment blood from horses was collected for hematological and immunological examinations (antigen-specific and antigen-nonspecific lymphocyte transformation tests, lymphocyte immunophenotyping, antigen-specific leukocyte migration inhibition test and hemagglutination inhibition test). The statistical analysis showed that the dynamics of lymphocyte immunological reactivity in horses vaccinated with inactivated vaccine containing antigens of A-equi-2/Miami/63 in response to further antigen stimulation (in vitro) was different comparing the homotypic or nearly homotypic challenging with Miami/63 and Suffolk/89 respectively, to the more heterotypic one with the strain Kentucky/86. In horses challenged with classical homotypic strain of Miami/63 no clinical signs were observed. These results confirm that the vaccine shall consist of the strains currently circulating in the horse population. PMID:21033567

  13. Dendritic cells as Achilles' heel and Trojan horse during varicella zoster virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Günther eSchönrich; Raftery, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV), a human alphaherpesvirus, causes varicella and subsequently estab-lishes latency within sensory nerve ganglia. Later in life VZV can reactivate to cause herpes zoster. A reduced frequency of VZV-specific T cells is strongly associated with herpes zoster illustrating that these immune cells are central to control latency. Dendritic cells (DCs) are required for the generation of VZV-specific T cells. However, DCs can also be infected in vitro and in vivo allowing V...

  14. Dendritic cells as Achilles’ heel and Trojan horse during varicella zoster virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Schönrich, Günther; Raftery, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV), a human alphaherpesvirus, causes varicella and subsequently establishes latency within sensory nerve ganglia. Later in life VZV can reactivate to cause herpes zoster. A reduced frequency of VZV-specific T cells is strongly associated with herpes zoster illustrating that these immune cells are central to control latency. Dendritic cells (DCs) are required for the generation of VZV-specific T cells. However, DCs can also be infected in vitro and in vivo allowing VZ...

  15. Disinfection of foot-and-mouth disease and African swine fever viruses with citric acid and sodium hypochlorite on birch wood carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transboundary animal disease viruses such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and African swine fever virus (ASFV) are highly contagious and cause severe morbidity and mortality in livestock. Proper disinfection during an outbreak can help prevent virus spread and will shorten the time for contam...

  16. Experimental Rhodococcus equi and equine infectious anemia virus DNA vaccination in adult and neonatal horses: effect of IL-12, dose, and route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealey, R H; Stone, D M; Hines, M T; Alperin, D C; Littke, M H; Leib, S R; Leach, S E; Hines, S A

    2007-10-23

    Improving the ability of DNA-based vaccines to induce potent Type1/Th1 responses against intracellular pathogens in large outbred species is essential. Rhodoccocus equi and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) are two naturally occurring equine pathogens that also serve as important large animal models of neonatal immunity and lentiviral immune control. Neonates present a unique challenge for immunization due to their diminished immunologic capabilities and apparent Th2 bias. In an effort to augment R. equi- and EIAV-specific Th1 responses induced by DNA vaccination, we hypothesized that a dual promoter plasmid encoding recombinant equine IL-12 (rEqIL-12) would function as a molecular adjuvant. In adult horses, DNA vaccines induced R. equi- and EIAV-specific antibody and lymphoproliferative responses, and EIAV-specific CTL and tetramer-positive CD8+ T lymphocytes. These responses were not enhanced by the rEqIL-12 plasmid. In neonatal foals, DNA immunization induced EIAV-specific antibody and lymphoproliferative responses, but not CTL. The R. equi vapA vaccine was poorly immunogenic in foals even when co-administered with the IL-12 plasmid. It was concluded that DNA immunization was capable of inducing Th1 responses in horses; dose and route were significant variables, but rEqIL-12 was not an effective molecular adjuvant. Additional work is needed to optimize DNA vaccine-induced Th1 responses in horses, especially in neonates. PMID:17889970

  17. Horse Chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Horse Chestnut Share: On This Page Introduction What the ... More Information Key References © Steven Foster Common Names: horse chestnut, buckeye, Spanish chestnut Latin Name: Aesculus hippocastanum ...

  18. Horse parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Kunová, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    Among the horse breeders, it has always been known that the most common cause of malnutrition of horses is an incidence of parasites. Problems with parasites are ever discussed topic of many scientists and veterinarians. The reason is not just poor nutritional status of horses, but parasites can also cause severe colic, diarrhea and damage the intestinal mucosa. Young infestated horses grow poorly and are unable to absorb all the nutrients from their feed. Ectoparasites can cause very miserab...

  19. Return to work following sickness absence due to infectious mononucleosis

    OpenAIRE

    Koopmans, P. C.; Bakhtali, R.; Katan, A.A.; Groothoff, J. W.; Roelen, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis among adults is notorious because of the prolonged incapacitating fatigue it causes. AIMS: To investigate the duration of sickness absence and return to work following infectious mononucleosis. METHODS: Episodes of sickness absence due to infectious mononucleosis were selected from an occupational health services register. The duration of sickness absence and return to work was assessed with Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. RESULTS: Two t...

  20. Vascular mineralization in the brain of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Jorge; Montgomery, Donald L; Uzal, Francisco A

    2012-05-01

    Vascular mineralization (siderocalcinosis) in the brain of horses has been usually assumed to be an incidental age-related finding with no clinic significance. In the present study, eight 15-32-year-old horses of different breeds with cerebral siderocalcinosis were studied. Four of these horses had acute and severe central nervous system clinical signs of unknown etiology, 2 horses had neurological signs of known cause, and 2 horses did not have neurological signs. Gross examination of the brains in 4 animals revealed symmetrical foci of malacia in the cerebellar white matter. Histologically, moderate to severe mineralization of blood vessels and parenchyma were observed in all 8 horses, occasionally associated with necrosis of the adjacent tissue. Some horses were tested by virus isolation, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and serology to investigate Rabies virus; West Nile virus; Equid herpesvirus 1 and 4; Eastern, Western, Venezuelan, and Saint Louis encephalitis virus; and Sarcocystis neurona infection. These tests were negative in all samples analyzed. Brain cholinesterase activity and heavy metal screening were also unremarkable. The significance of the vascular and parenchymal mineralization in the brains of some of these horses remains undetermined. However, the severity of the lesions observed in the brains of some of the animals in the present study, coupled with the negative results for other common causes of neurological disease in horses, suggests a possible relationship between siderocalcinosis and the clinical signs observed. PMID:22529137

  1. Return to work following sickness absence due to infectious mononucleosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P.C.; Bakhtali, R.; Katan, A.A.; Groothoff, J.W.; Roelen, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis among adults is notorious because of the prolonged incapacitating fatigue it causes. AIMS: To investigate the duration of sickness absence and return to work following infectious mononucleosis. METHODS: Episodes of sickness absence due to infec

  2. The molecular dynamics of Trypanosoma brucei UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase:a drug target for African sleeping sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Aaron J; Durrant, Jacob D.; Pierce, Levi C. T.; McCorvie, Thomas J; Timson, David J; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2012-01-01

    During the past century, several epidemics of human African trypanosomiasis, a deadly disease caused by the protist Trypanosoma brucei, have afflicted sub-Saharan Africa. Over 10 000 new victims are reported each year, with hundreds of thousands more at risk. As current drug treatments are either highly toxic or ineffective, novel trypanocides are urgently needed. The T. brucei galactose synthesis pathway is one potential therapeutic target. Although galactose is essential for T. brucei survi...

  3. Evidence for widespread infection of African bats with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever-like viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Marcel A; Devignot, Stéphanie; Lattwein, Erik; Corman, Victor Max; Maganga, Gaël D; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Binger, Tabea; Vallo, Peter; Emmerich, Petra; Cottontail, Veronika M; Tschapka, Marco; Oppong, Samuel; Drexler, Jan Felix; Weber, Friedemann; Leroy, Eric M; Drosten, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a highly virulent tick-borne pathogen that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans. The geographic range of human CCHF cases largely reflects the presence of ticks. However, highly similar CCHFV lineages occur in geographically distant regions. Tick-infested migratory birds have been suggested, but not confirmed, to contribute to the dispersal. Bats have recently been shown to carry nairoviruses distinct from CCHFV. In order to assess the presence of CCHFV in a wide range of bat species over a wide geographic range, we analyzed 1,135 sera from 16 different bat species collected in Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Germany, and Panama. Using a CCHFV glycoprotein-based indirect immunofluorescence test (IIFT), we identified reactive antibodies in 10.0% (114/1,135) of tested bats, pertaining to 12/16 tested species. Depending on the species, 3.6%-42.9% of cave-dwelling bats and 0.6%-7.1% of foliage-living bats were seropositive (two-tailed t-test, p = 0.0447 cave versus foliage). 11/30 IIFT-reactive sera from 10 different African bat species had neutralizing activity in a virus-like particle assay. Neutralization of full CCHFV was confirmed in 5 of 7 sera. Widespread infection of cave-dwelling bats may indicate a role for bats in the life cycle and geographic dispersal of CCHFV. PMID:27217069

  4. Diagnosis and genotyping of African swine fever viruses from 2015 outbreaks in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoromo, Jonas; Simulundu, Edgar; Chambaro, Herman M; Mataa, Liywalii; Lubaba, Caesar H; Pandey, Girja S; Takada, Ayato; Misinzo, Gerald; Mweene, Aaron S

    2016-01-01

    In early 2015, a highly fatal haemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs resembling African swine fever (ASF) occurred in North Western, Copperbelt, and Lusaka provinces of Zambia. Molecular diagnosis by polymerase chain reaction targeting specific amplification of p72 (B646L) gene of ASF virus (ASFV) was conducted. Fourteen out of 16 domestic pigs from the affected provinces were found to be positive for ASFV. Phylogenetic analyses based on part of the p72 and the complete p54 (E183L) genes revealed that all the ASFVs detected belonged to genotypes I and Id, respectively. Additionally, epidemiological data suggest that the same ASFV spread from Lusaka to other provinces possibly through uncontrolled and/or illegal pig movements. Although the origin of the ASFV that caused outbreaks in domestic pigs in Zambia could not be ascertained, it appears likely that the virus may have emerged from within the country or region, probably from a sylvatic cycle. It is recommended that surveillance of ASF, strict biosecurity, and quarantine measures be imposed in order to prevent further spread and emergence of new ASF outbreaks in Zambia. PMID:27247062

  5. Evidence for widespread infection of African bats with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever-like viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Marcel A.; Devignot, Stéphanie; Lattwein, Erik; Corman, Victor Max; Maganga, Gaël D.; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Binger, Tabea; Vallo, Peter; Emmerich, Petra; Cottontail, Veronika M.; Tschapka, Marco; Oppong, Samuel; Drexler, Jan Felix; Weber, Friedemann; Leroy, Eric M.; Drosten, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a highly virulent tick-borne pathogen that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans. The geographic range of human CCHF cases largely reflects the presence of ticks. However, highly similar CCHFV lineages occur in geographically distant regions. Tick-infested migratory birds have been suggested, but not confirmed, to contribute to the dispersal. Bats have recently been shown to carry nairoviruses distinct from CCHFV. In order to assess the presence of CCHFV in a wide range of bat species over a wide geographic range, we analyzed 1,135 sera from 16 different bat species collected in Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Germany, and Panama. Using a CCHFV glycoprotein-based indirect immunofluorescence test (IIFT), we identified reactive antibodies in 10.0% (114/1,135) of tested bats, pertaining to 12/16 tested species. Depending on the species, 3.6%–42.9% of cave-dwelling bats and 0.6%–7.1% of foliage-living bats were seropositive (two-tailed t-test, p = 0.0447 cave versus foliage). 11/30 IIFT-reactive sera from 10 different African bat species had neutralizing activity in a virus-like particle assay. Neutralization of full CCHFV was confirmed in 5 of 7 sera. Widespread infection of cave-dwelling bats may indicate a role for bats in the life cycle and geographic dispersal of CCHFV. PMID:27217069

  6. Properties of African Cassava Mosaic Virus Capsid Protein Expressed in Fission Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, Katharina; Schäfer, Benjamin; Kepp, Gabi; Jeske, Holger

    2016-01-01

    The capsid proteins (CPs) of geminiviruses combine multiple functions for packaging the single-stranded viral genome, insect transmission and shuttling between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) CP was expressed in fission yeast, and purified by SDS gel electrophoresis. After tryptic digestion of this protein, mass spectrometry covered 85% of the amino acid sequence and detected three N-terminal phosphorylation sites (threonine 12, serines 25 and 62). Differential centrifugation of cell extracts separated the CP into two fractions, the supernatant and pellet. Upon isopycnic centrifugation of the supernatant, most of the CP accumulated at densities typical for free proteins, whereas the CP in the pellet fraction showed a partial binding to nucleic acids. Size-exclusion chromatography of the supernatant CP indicated high order complexes. In DNA binding assays, supernatant CP accelerated the migration of ssDNA in agarose gels, which is a first hint for particle formation. Correspondingly, CP shifted ssDNA to the expected densities of virus particles upon isopycnic centrifugation. Nevertheless, electron microscopy did not reveal any twin particles, which are characteristic for geminiviruses. PMID:27399762

  7. Characterisation of recent foot-and-mouth disease viruses from African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and cattle in Kenya is consistent with independent virus populations

    OpenAIRE

    Nabalayo Wekesa, Sabenzia; Kiprotich Sangula, Abraham; Belsham, Graham; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Vincent B Muwanika; Gakuya, Francis; Mijele, Dominic; Redlef Siegismund, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), including roles played by different hosts, is essential for improving disease control. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a reservoir for the SAT serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV). Large buffalo populations commonly intermingle with livestock in Kenya, yet earlier studies have focused on FMD in the domestic livestock, hence the contribution of buffalo to disease in livestock is largely unknown. This study analysed 47...

  8. Cross-reactivity to human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus and molecular cloning of simian T-cell lymphotropic virus type III from African green monkeys.

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, V.; Riedel, N.; Kornfeld, H; Kanki, P J; M Essex; Mullins, J I

    1986-01-01

    Simian T-lymphotropic retroviruses with structural, antigenic, and cytopathic features similar to the etiologic agent of human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV), have been isolated from a variety of primate species including African green monkeys (STLV-IIIAGM). This report describes nucleic acid cross-reactivity between STLV-IIIAGM and HTLV-III/LAV, molecular cloning of the STLV-IIIAGM genome, and evaluation...

  9. Infection with Possible Novel Parapoxvirus in Horse, Finland, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airas, Niina; Hautaniemi, Maria; Syrjä, Pernilla; Knuuttila, Anna; Putkuri, Niina; Coulter, Lesley; McInnes, Colin J; Vapalahti, Olli; Huovilainen, Anita; Kinnunen, Paula M

    2016-07-01

    A horse in Finland exhibited generalized granulomatous inflammation and severe proliferative dermatitis. After euthanization, we detected poxvirus DNA from a skin lesion sample. The virus sequence grouped with parapoxviruses, closely resembling a novel poxvirus detected in humans in the United States after horse contact. Our findings indicate horses may be a reservoir for zoonotic parapoxvirus. PMID:27315302

  10. African swine fever virus AP endonuclease is a redox-sensitive enzyme that repairs alkylating and oxidative damage to DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Redrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto; Alexander A Ishchenko; Saparbaev, Murat K.; Salas, María L.; Salas, José

    2009-01-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) encodes an AP endonuclease (pE296R) which is essential for virus growth in swine macrophages. We show here that the DNA repair functions of pE296R (AP endonucleolytic, 3′ → 5′ exonuclease, 3′-diesterase and nucleotide incision repair (NIR) activities) and DNA binding are inhibited by reducing agents. Protein pE296R contains one intramolecular disulfide bond, whose disruption by reducing agents might perturb the interaction of the viral AP endonuclease with the...

  11. Assessment of the potential for international dissemination of Ebola virus via commercial air travel during the 2014 west African outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    Bogoch, Isaac I.; Creatore, Maria I.; Cetron, Martin S; Brownstein, John S.; Pesik, Nicki; Miniota, Jennifer; Tam, Theresa; Hu, Wei; Nicolucci, Adriano; Ahmed, Saad; Yoon, James W; Berry, Isha; Hay, Simon I; Anema, Aranka; Tatem, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The WHO declared the 2014 west African Ebola epidemic a public health emergency of international concern in view of its potential for further international spread. Decision makers worldwide are in need of empirical data to inform and implement emergency response measures. Our aim was to assess the potential for Ebola virus to spread across international borders via commercial air travel and assess the relative efficiency of exit versus entry screening of travellers at comme...

  12. Hendra Virus Infection Dynamics in the Grey-Headed Flying Fox (Pteropus poliocephalus at the Southern-Most Extent of Its Range: Further Evidence This Species Does Not Readily Transmit the Virus to Horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A L Burroughs

    Full Text Available Hendra virus (HeV is an important emergent virus in Australia known to infect horses and humans in certain regions of the east coast. Whilst pteropid bats ("flying foxes" are considered the natural reservoir of HeV, which of the four mainland species is the principal reservoir has been a source of ongoing debate, particularly as shared roosting is common. To help resolve this, we sampled a colony consisting of just one of these species, the grey-headed flying fox, (Pteropus poliocephalus, at the southernmost extent of its range. Using the pooled urine sampling technique at approximately weekly intervals over a two year period, we determined the prevalence of HeV and related paramyxoviruses using a novel multiplex (Luminex platform. Whilst all the pooled urine samples were negative for HeV nucleic acid, we successfully identified four other paramyxoviruses, including Cedar virus; a henipavirus closely related to HeV. Collection of serum from individually caught bats from the colony showed that antibodies to HeV, as estimated by a serological Luminex assay, were present in between 14.6% and 44.5% of animals. The wide range of the estimate reflects uncertainties in interpreting intermediate results. Interpreting the study in the context of HeV studies from states to the north, we add support for an arising consensus that it is the black flying fox and not the grey-headed flying fox that is the principal source of HeV in spillover events to horses.

  13. A Characterization of Aerosolized Sudan Virus Infection in African Green Monkeys, Cynomolgus Macaques, and Rhesus Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald K. Nichols

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Filoviruses are members of the genera Ebolavirus, Marburgvirus, and “Cuevavirus”. Because they cause human disease with high lethality and could potentially be used as a bioweapon, these viruses are classified as CDC Category A Bioterrorism Agents. Filoviruses are relatively stable in aerosols, retain virulence after lyophilization, and can be present on contaminated surfaces for extended periods of time. This study explores the characteristics of aerosolized Sudan virus (SUDV Boniface in non-human primates (NHP belonging to three different species. Groups of cynomolgus macaques (cyno, rhesus macaques (rhesus, and African green monkeys (AGM were challenged with target doses of 50 or 500 plaque-forming units (pfu of aerosolized SUDV. Exposure to either viral dose resulted in increased body temperatures in all three NHP species beginning on days 4–5 post-exposure. Other clinical findings for all three NHP species included leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, anorexia, dehydration, and lymphadenopathy. Disease in all of the NHPs was severe beginning on day 6 post-exposure, and all animals except one surviving rhesus macaque were euthanized by day 14. Serum alanine transaminase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST concentrations were elevated during the course of disease in all three species; however, AGMs had significantly higher ALT and AST concentrations than cynos and rhesus. While all three species had detectable viral load by days 3-4 post exposure, Rhesus had lower average peak viral load than cynos or AGMs. Overall, the results indicate that the disease course after exposure to aerosolized SUDV is similar for all three species of NHP.

  14. Complete Genome Characterization of the Arumowot Virus (Unclassified Phlebovirus) Isolated from Turdus libonyanus Birds in the Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthet, Nicolas; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Gessain, Antoine; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2016-02-01

    The Bunyaviridae family is currently composed of five genera, including Phlebovirus, in which several phleboviruses are associated with human diseases. Using high-throughput sequencing, we obtained and characterized one complete genome of the Arumowot virus (AMTV) isolated in 1978 from Turdus libonyanus, the Kurrichane Thrush, in the Central African Republic (CAR). The genomic segment of the new strain of AMTV isolated in the CAR had 75.4-83.5% sequence similarity and 82-98.4% amino acid similarity to the prototype sequence of AMTV. The different conserved proteins of the small (S) and large (L) segments (Nc, NSP, and RNA polymerase) showed close similarity at the amino acid level, whereas the polyprotein of the medium (M) segment was highly divergent, with 18% and 37.7%, respectively, for the prototype sequence of AMTV and the Odrenisrou virus (ODRV) isolated from Culex (Cx.) albiventris mosquitoes in the Tai forest, Ivory Coast. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the sequence homology analysis and indicated that AMTV-CAR clustered into the Salehabad virus antigenic complex. The two closest viruses were the prototype sequences of AMTV originally isolated from Cx. antennatus mosquitoes and ODRV. These molecular data suggest the need for a deep genetic characterization of the diversity of this viral species to enhance its detection in the Central African region and to understand better its behavior and life cycle so that its potential spread to the human population can be prevented. PMID:26807610

  15. Charley horse

    Science.gov (United States)

    A charley horse is the common name for a muscle spasm or cramp. Muscle spasms can occur in any muscle in ... Geiderman JM, Katz D. General principles of orthopedic injuries. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  16. Antigenic and genetic characterization of a divergent African virus, Ikoma lyssavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Daniel L; Banyard, Ashley C; Marston, Denise A; Wise, Emma; Selden, David; Nunez, Alejandro; Hicks, Daniel; Lembo, Tiziana; Cleaveland, Sarah; Peel, Alison J; Kuzmin, Ivan V; Rupprecht, Charles E; Fooks, Anthony R

    2014-05-01

    In 2009, a novel lyssavirus (subsequently named Ikoma lyssavirus, IKOV) was detected in the brain of an African civet (Civettictis civetta) with clinical rabies in the Serengeti National Park of Tanzania. The degree of nucleotide divergence between the genome of IKOV and those of other lyssaviruses predicted antigenic distinction from, and lack of protection provided by, available rabies vaccines. In addition, the index case was considered likely to be an incidental spillover event, and therefore the true reservoir of IKOV remained to be identified. The advent of sensitive molecular techniques has led to a rapid increase in the discovery of novel viruses. Detecting viral sequence alone, however, only allows for prediction of phenotypic characteristics and not their measurement. In the present study we describe the in vitro and in vivo characterization of IKOV, demonstrating that it is (1) pathogenic by peripheral inoculation in an animal model, (2) antigenically distinct from current rabies vaccine strains and (3) poorly neutralized by sera from humans and animals immunized against rabies. In a laboratory mouse model, no protection was elicited by a licensed rabies vaccine. We also investigated the role of bats as reservoirs of IKOV. We found no evidence for infection among 483 individuals of at least 13 bat species sampled across sites in the Serengeti and Southern Kenya. PMID:24496827

  17. African Swine Fever Virus Undergoes Outer Envelope Disruption, Capsid Disassembly and Inner Envelope Fusion before Core Release from Multivesicular Endosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hernáez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever virus (ASFV is a nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV that causes a highly lethal disease in domestic pigs. As other NCLDVs, the extracellular form of ASFV possesses a multilayered structure consisting of a genome-containing nucleoid successively wrapped by a thick protein core shell, an inner lipid membrane, an icosahedral protein capsid and an outer lipid envelope. This structural complexity suggests an intricate mechanism of internalization in order to deliver the virus genome into the cytoplasm. By using flow cytometry in combination with pharmacological entry inhibitors, as well as fluorescence and electron microscopy approaches, we have dissected the entry and uncoating pathway used by ASFV to infect the macrophage, its natural host cell. We found that purified extracellular ASFV is internalized by both constitutive macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Once inside the cell, ASFV particles move from early endosomes or macropinosomes to late, multivesicular endosomes where they become uncoated. Virus uncoating requires acidic pH and involves the disruption of the outer membrane as well as of the protein capsid. As a consequence, the inner viral membrane becomes exposed and fuses with the limiting endosomal membrane to release the viral core into the cytosol. Interestingly, virus fusion is dependent on virus protein pE248R, a transmembrane polypeptide of the inner envelope that shares sequence similarity with some members of the poxviral entry/fusion complex. Collective evidence supports an entry model for ASFV that might also explain the uncoating of other multienveloped icosahedral NCLDVs.

  18. African Swine Fever Virus Undergoes Outer Envelope Disruption, Capsid Disassembly and Inner Envelope Fusion before Core Release from Multivesicular Endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernáez, Bruno; Guerra, Milagros; Salas, María L; Andrés, Germán

    2016-04-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) that causes a highly lethal disease in domestic pigs. As other NCLDVs, the extracellular form of ASFV possesses a multilayered structure consisting of a genome-containing nucleoid successively wrapped by a thick protein core shell, an inner lipid membrane, an icosahedral protein capsid and an outer lipid envelope. This structural complexity suggests an intricate mechanism of internalization in order to deliver the virus genome into the cytoplasm. By using flow cytometry in combination with pharmacological entry inhibitors, as well as fluorescence and electron microscopy approaches, we have dissected the entry and uncoating pathway used by ASFV to infect the macrophage, its natural host cell. We found that purified extracellular ASFV is internalized by both constitutive macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Once inside the cell, ASFV particles move from early endosomes or macropinosomes to late, multivesicular endosomes where they become uncoated. Virus uncoating requires acidic pH and involves the disruption of the outer membrane as well as of the protein capsid. As a consequence, the inner viral membrane becomes exposed and fuses with the limiting endosomal membrane to release the viral core into the cytosol. Interestingly, virus fusion is dependent on virus protein pE248R, a transmembrane polypeptide of the inner envelope that shares sequence similarity with some members of the poxviral entry/fusion complex. Collective evidence supports an entry model for ASFV that might also explain the uncoating of other multienveloped icosahedral NCLDVs. PMID:27110717

  19. African swine fever virus infection of the bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) and its significance in the epidemiology of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E C; Hutchings, G H; Mukarati, N; Wilkinson, P J

    1998-04-30

    Warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), giant forest hog (Hylochoerus meinertzhageni) and bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) are known to be susceptible to infection with African swine fever (ASF) virus. Little however, is known about the ecology of the disease in the bushpig. This study has shown that the bushpig remains viraemic for between 35 and 91 days following infection during which time it is able to infect the tick vector O. moubata. These ticks were able to transmit the disease to pigs. The virus persists in the lymphatic tissues for less than 34 weeks. Bushpigs infected with LIL 20/l virus but not VIC T90/l virus transmitted infection to in-contact pigs. Infected domestic pigs did not transmit the infection to in-contact bushpigs. ASF virus was able to replicate in in vitro cultures of bushpig leucocytes and endothelial cells. Recovered bushpigs could be reinfected with some strains of virus but not others. While it has been demonstrated that bushpigs remain carriers of ASFV following infection a complete understanding of their significance in the epidemiology of the disease awaits further investigations of their association with O. moubata. PMID:9659687

  20. African Swine Fever Virus Undergoes Outer Envelope Disruption, Capsid Disassembly and Inner Envelope Fusion before Core Release from Multivesicular Endosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernáez, Bruno; Guerra, Milagros; Salas, María L.

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) that causes a highly lethal disease in domestic pigs. As other NCLDVs, the extracellular form of ASFV possesses a multilayered structure consisting of a genome-containing nucleoid successively wrapped by a thick protein core shell, an inner lipid membrane, an icosahedral protein capsid and an outer lipid envelope. This structural complexity suggests an intricate mechanism of internalization in order to deliver the virus genome into the cytoplasm. By using flow cytometry in combination with pharmacological entry inhibitors, as well as fluorescence and electron microscopy approaches, we have dissected the entry and uncoating pathway used by ASFV to infect the macrophage, its natural host cell. We found that purified extracellular ASFV is internalized by both constitutive macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Once inside the cell, ASFV particles move from early endosomes or macropinosomes to late, multivesicular endosomes where they become uncoated. Virus uncoating requires acidic pH and involves the disruption of the outer membrane as well as of the protein capsid. As a consequence, the inner viral membrane becomes exposed and fuses with the limiting endosomal membrane to release the viral core into the cytosol. Interestingly, virus fusion is dependent on virus protein pE248R, a transmembrane polypeptide of the inner envelope that shares sequence similarity with some members of the poxviral entry/fusion complex. Collective evidence supports an entry model for ASFV that might also explain the uncoating of other multienveloped icosahedral NCLDVs. PMID:27110717

  1. Presenteeism among sick workers

    OpenAIRE

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2003-01-01

    Much attention has been focused on absenteeism. However, ‘presenteeism’ is also an issue, i.e. staying at work even when feeling sick. Analyses have shown that, the greater the work pressure, the higher the percentage of people who keep working when feeling sick.

  2. Viremia and antibody response of small African and laboratory animals to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, A J; Leman, P A; Swanepoel, R

    1989-05-01

    Eleven species of small African wild mammals, laboratory rabbits, guinea pigs, and Syrian hamsters were infected with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus. Low-titered viremia followed by development of antibody was observed in scrub hares (Lepus saxatilis), Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris), red veld rats (Aethomys chrysophilus), white tailed rats (Mystromys albicaudatus), bushveld gerbils (Tatera leucogaster), striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio), and guinea pigs. The maximum viremic titer in 4 scrub hares was 10(1.7-4.2) 50% mouse lethal doses/ml. Viremia was detected in 1/17 infected laboratory rabbits. Antibody response was only detected in South African hedgehogs (Atelerix frontalis), highveld gerbils (T. brantsii), Namaqua gerbils (Desmodillus auricularis), 2 species of multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis and M. coucha), and Syrian hamsters. The results of the study indicate that a proportion of infected scrub hares develop CCHF viremia of an intensity shown in the Soviet Union to be sufficient for infection of feeding immature ixodid ticks, but that South African hedgehogs and wild rodents are unlikely to be of importance as maintenance hosts of the virus in southern Africa. PMID:2499205

  3. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reperant, L A; Brown, I H; Haenen, O L; de Jong, M D; Osterhaus, A D M E; Papa, A; Rimstad, E; Valarcher, J-F; Kuiken, T

    2016-07-01

    Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance. In total, 138 virus species reportedly capable of infecting companion animals were of concern for human and food production animal health: 59 of these viruses were infectious for human beings, 135 were infectious for food production mammals and birds, and 22 were infectious for food production fishes. Viruses of highest concern for human health included hantaviruses, Tahyna virus, rabies virus, West Nile virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, Aichi virus, European bat lyssavirus, hepatitis E virus, cowpox virus, G5 rotavirus, influenza A virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production mammals and birds included bluetongue virus, African swine fever virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus, porcine circovirus, classical swine fever virus, equine herpesvirus 9, peste des petits ruminants virus and equine infectious anaemia virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production fishes included cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Of particular concern as sources of zoonotic or food production animal viruses were domestic carnivores, rodents and food production animals kept as companion animals. The current list of viruses provides an objective

  4. Munchausen syndrome: Playing sick or sick player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Jyoti; Das, R C; Srivastava, K; Patra, P; Khan, S A; Shashikumar, R

    2014-01-01

    Munchausen syndrome is rare factitious disorder which entails frequent hospitalization, pathological lying and intentional production of symptoms for sick role. Management requires collateral history taking, sound clinical approach, exclusion of organicity and addressing psychological issues. A case which presented with unusual symptoms of similar dimension is discussed here. The case brings out finer nuances in evaluation and management of this entity. PMID:25535450

  5. Munchausen syndrome: Playing sick or sick player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Munchausen syndrome is rare factitious disorder which entails frequent hospitalization, pathological lying and intentional production of symptoms for sick role. Management requires collateral history taking, sound clinical approach, exclusion of organicity and addressing psychological issues. A case which presented with unusual symptoms of similar dimension is discussed here. The case brings out finer nuances in evaluation and management of this entity .

  6. Beak and feather disease virus haemagglutinating activity using erythrocytes from African Grey parrots and Brown-headed parrots : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kondiah

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD is a common viral disease of wild and captive psittacine birds characterized by symmetric feather loss and beak deformities. The causative agent, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV, is a small, circular single-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the genus Circovirus. BFDV can be detected by PCR or the use of haemagglutination (HA and haemagglutination inhibition (HI assays that detect antigen and antibodies respectively. Erythrocytes from a limited number of psittacine species of Australian origin can be used in these tests. In South Africa, the high cost of these birds makes them difficult to obtain for experimental purposes. Investigation into the use of erythrocytes from African Grey parrots and Brown-headed parrots yielded positive results showing the haemagglutinating activity of their erythrocytes with purified BFDV obtained from confirmed clinical cases of the disease. The HA activity was further confirmed by the demonstration of HI using BFDV antiserum from three different African Grey parrots previously exposed to the virus and not showing clinical signs of the disease.

  7. Evaluation of Jatropha curcas as an alternative host of African cassava mosaic virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to evaluate ten local accessions of Jatropha curcas L. (physic nut) as an alternative host of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV). The ten local accessions of J. curcas were planted in a field trial at the research farm of the Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, intercropped with ACMV-infected cassava cultivar 'Afisiafi' and left to natural spread of ACMV from the cassava to J. curcas. The J. curcas plants which became infected generally showed mild symptoms, with severity ranging from 1.00 at eight weeks after planting (WAP) to 3.00 at 16 WAP on a scale of 1 (no symptoms) to 5 (severe symptoms). Whitefly populations recorded on the J. curcas accessions in the wet (Sept. - Oct., 2008) and dry (Jan. - Feb., 2009) seasons were generally low. However, significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in the mean whitefly numbers found on the individual J. curcas accessions in the dry season. Disease incidence as determined by symptom expression varied among accessions at eight, twelve and sixteen weeks after planting, though the differences not statistically significant. Leaf samples from the ten J. curcas accessions were tested at six, nine and twelve months after planting (MAP) for the presence of ACMV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). ELISA tests using monoclonal antibody SCRI 33, in a double antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA) showed ACMV infection in the J. curcas accessions. Infection ranged from 0% at 6MAP to 50% at 12MAP. Molecular analysis by PCR with a virus-specific primer (JSP001/JSP002) of the viral DNA extracted from leaves of the number of samples tested, as against 37.7% by ELISA. Infection among the accessions as shown by to PCR varied significantly (p < 0.05) and ranged from as low as 16.6% to as high as 91.6%. ACMV infection of the J. curcas plants was further confirmed by infectivity tests on Nicotiana benthamiana indicator plants. Three of (3) out of 132

  8. Short deletions in nuclear targeting sequences of African cassava mosaic virus coat protein prevent geminivirus twinned particle formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coat proteins (CPs) of geminiviruses are multifunctional proteins. Using transient expression experiments, we have recently identified putative sequence motifs of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) CP involved in nuclear import (NLS) and export (NES) (Virology 286 (2001) 373). Here, we report on the effect of corresponding deletion mutants in the context of infecting viruses. Since NLS and NES may overlap with DNA binding and multimerisation domains, we have investigated their effect on viral infection, particularly, on particle formation. All deletion mutants were infectious in Nicotiana benthamiana when co-inoculated with DNA B, but poorly sap-transmissible. Some of the mutants showed reduced levels of viral single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), whereas the amount of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) was not greatly affected. None of these CP mutants was able to produce stable virus particles. In contrast, viruses with CP fused to Flag epitopes at the N- or C-terminus (CP:Flag or Flag:CP) were readily sap-transmissible and formed amorphous nucleoprotein particles but only few geminate structures. The relevance of the identified sequences in replicating viruses with reference to nuclear import and export as well as to particle stability and DNA binding is discussed

  9. Influenza hemagglutination inhibiting activity in respiratory mucus from horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disorders (heaves syndrome).

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsen, J; Willoughby, R A; McDonell, W; Valli, V. E.; Viel, L; Bignell, W

    1983-01-01

    Samples of mucus from the lower trachea were collected from 53 horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and from 24 clinically normal horses. Serum samples were collected from 35 of the horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and from the 24 normal horses. Samples were tested for inhibition of hemagglutination by influenza A equine 1 and 2 viruses. There were high levels of hemagglutination inhibiting activity against influenza A equine 1 in mucus samples from horses with c...

  10. Comparison of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVagmVer Replication and CD4+ T-Cell Dynamics in Vervet and Sabaeus African Green Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Simoy; Brown, Charles R.; Ourmanov, Ilnour; Pandrea, Ivona; Buckler-White, Alicia; Erb, Christopher; Nandi, Jayashree S; Foster, Gabriel J.; Autissier, Patrick; Schmitz, Jörn E.; Hirsch, Vanessa M.

    2006-01-01

    The simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV) naturally infect a wide range of African primates, including African green monkeys (AGM). Despite moderate to high levels of plasma viremia in naturally infected AGM, infection is not associated with immunodeficiency. We recently reported that SIVagmVer90 isolated from a naturally infected vervet AGM induced AIDS following experimental inoculation of pigtailed macaques. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the replication of this isolate in t...

  11. Detection of a pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) in an African hedgehog (Atelerix arbiventris) with suspected wobbly hedgehog syndrome (WHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madarame, Hiroo; Ogihara, Kikumi; Kimura, Moe; Nagai, Makoto; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Ochiai, Hideharu; Mizutani, Tetsyuya

    2014-09-17

    A pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) from an African hedgehog (Atelerix arbiventris) with suspected wobbly hedgehog syndrome (WHS) was detected and genetically characterized. The affected hedgehog had a nonsuppurative encephalitis with vacuolization of the white matter, and the brain samples yielded RNA reads highly homogeneous to PVM strain 15 (96.5% of full genomic sequence homology by analysis of next generation sequencing). PVM antigen was also detected in the brain and the lungs immunohistochemically. A PVM was strongly suggested as a causative agent of encephalitis of a hedgehog with suspected WHS. This is a first report of PVM infection in hedgehogs. PMID:25129384

  12. Expression of aggregative adherence to hela cells by Escherichia coli strains isolated from sick horses Expressão de aderência agregativa em células HeLa por amostras de E. coli isoladas de eqüinos doentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Alvim Liberatore

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The virulence attributes of 56 Escherichia coli strains isolated from sick horses (secretions of uterine cervices; gastrointestinal and lung fragments of necropsy; diarrheic feces, and tracheal washings was examined by determining their adherence pattern to HeLa cells and searching for the presence of virulence genes of the various E. coli pathotypes. Two non-adherent strains presented astA, which encodes the enteroaggregative E. coli heat-stable toxin. Twenty-seven strains (48.2% adhered to HeLa cells, 21 (77.8% of which presented the aggregative adherence pattern (AA that characterize the Enteroaggregative E. coli pathotype (EAEC. Nine of the strains presenting AA were isolated from secretions of uterine cervix, including one carrying virulence genes of the EAEC pathotype (aggR,aap,irp2, and pic. This is the first description of the AA phenotype amongst E. coli strains from sick horses. Such strains should be further evaluated regarding their potential role in the pathogenesis of diverse equine diseases and as reservoirs of human infections.Características de virulência de 56 amostras de Escherichia coli isoladas de eqüinos doentes (secreção de colo uterino, fragmentos de necrópsia do trato gastrointestinal e de pulmões, fezes diarréicas e lavado traqueal foram examinadas para determinar o padrão de aderência em células HeLa e pesquisar a presença de genes de virulência de vários patotipos de E. coli. Duas amostras não aderentes apresentaram astA, gene que codifica a toxina termo-estável de E. coli enteroagregativa. Das vinte e sete amostras (48,2% que aderiram a células HeLa, 21 (77,8% apresentaram o padrão de aderência agregativa (AA que caracteriza o patotipo de E. coli Enteroagregativa (EAEC. Nove destas amostras que apresentaram AA foram isoladas de secreção de colo uterino, incluindo uma que apresentava genes de virulência de patotipos de EAEC (aggR,aap,irp2 e pic. Esta é a primeira descrição do fenótipo AA em

  13. Sickness Absence and Business Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Erik Askildsen; Espen Bratberg; Oivind Anti Nilsen

    2000-01-01

    Absenteeism is affected by the sickness benefit system. Countries with generous compensation during sick leaves also experience high numbers of sick leave. Sick leaves may vary over the business cycle due to unemployment disciplining effects or changes in labour force composition. The latter hypothesis maintains that sickness may be pro-cyclical due to employment of `marginal' workers with poorer health when demand increases. Using individual records of labour force participants in Norway, we...

  14. Got a Sick Fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Got a sick fish? Fish with disease can show a variety of signs. If you notice your pet fish having any unusual disease signs, contact your veterinarian ...

  15. Travelers' Health: Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visiting Friends and Family in Areas with Chikungunya, Dengue, or Zika Travel to the Olympics Infographic: Olympic ... ibandronate sodium, risedronate sodium TREATMENT Nonpharmacologic treatments for preventing and treating motion sickness can be effective with ...

  16. Computer Viruses. Technology Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Tim, Comp.; Ropog, Marty, Comp.; Keating, Joseph, Comp.

    This document provides general information on computer viruses, how to help protect a computer network from them, measures to take if a computer becomes infected. Highlights include the origins of computer viruses; virus contraction; a description of some common virus types (File Virus, Boot Sector/Partition Table Viruses, Trojan Horses, and…

  17. Sick of Taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    I estimate a price elasticity of sickness absence. Sick leave is an intensive margin of labor supply where individuals are free to adjust. I exploit variation in tax rates over two decades, which provide thousands of differential incentives across time and space, to estimate the price responsiven......I estimate a price elasticity of sickness absence. Sick leave is an intensive margin of labor supply where individuals are free to adjust. I exploit variation in tax rates over two decades, which provide thousands of differential incentives across time and space, to estimate the price...... responsiveness. High taxes provide an incentive to take more sick leave, as less after tax income is lost when taxes are high. The panel data, which is representative of the Swedish population, allow for extensive controls including unobserved individual characteristics. I find a substantial price elasticity of...... sick leave, -0.7, with respect to the net of tax rate. Though large relative to traditional labor supply elasticities, Swedes are half as price elastic as bike messengers, and just as elastic as stadium vendors on the margin which they can adjust freely....

  18. Complete Nucleotide Sequence of a South African Isolate of Grapevine Fanleaf Virus and Its Associated Satellite RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan T. Burger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The complete sequences of RNA1, RNA2 and satellite RNA have been determined for a South African isolate of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV-SACH44. The two RNAs of GFLV-SACH44 are 7,341 nucleotides (nt and 3,816 nt in length, respectively, and its satellite RNA (satRNA is 1,104 nt in length, all excluding the poly(A tail. Multiple sequence alignment of these sequences showed that GFLV-SACH44 RNA1 and RNA2 were the closest to the South African isolate, GFLV-SAPCS3 (98.2% and 98.6% nt identity, respectively, followed by the French isolate, GFLV-F13 (87.3% and 90.1% nt identity, respectively. Interestingly, the GFLV-SACH44 satRNA is more similar to three Arabis mosaic virus satRNAs (85%–87.4% nt identity than to the satRNA of GFLV-F13 (81.8% nt identity and was most distantly related to the satRNA of GFLV-R2 (71.0% nt identity. Full-length infectious clones of GFLV-SACH44 satRNA were constructed. The infectivity of the clones was tested with three nepovirus isolates, GFLV-NW, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV-NW and GFLV-SAPCS3. The clones were mechanically inoculated in Chenopodium quinoa and were infectious when co-inoculated with the two GFLV helper viruses, but not when co-inoculated with ArMV-NW.

  19. Assessment of the potential for international dissemination of Ebola virus via commercial air travel during the 2014 west African outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Creatore, Maria I; Cetron, Martin S; Brownstein, John S; Pesik, Nicki; Miniota, Jennifer; Tam, Theresa; Hu, Wei; Nicolucci, Adriano; Ahmed, Saad; Yoon, James W; Berry, Isha; Hay, Simon I; Anema, Aranka; Tatem, Andrew J; MacFadden, Derek; German, Matthew; Khan, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The WHO declared the 2014 west African Ebola epidemic a public health emergency of international concern in view of its potential for further international spread. Decision makers worldwide are in need of empirical data to inform and implement emergency response measures. Our aim was to assess the potential for Ebola virus to spread across international borders via commercial air travel and assess the relative efficiency of exit versus entry screening of travellers at commercial airports. Methods We analysed International Air Transport Association data for worldwide flight schedules between Sept 1, 2014, and Dec 31, 2014, and historic traveller flight itinerary data from 2013 to describe expected global population movements via commercial air travel out of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Coupled with Ebola virus surveillance data, we modelled the expected number of internationally exported Ebola virus infections, the potential effect of air travel restrictions, and the efficiency of airport-based traveller screening at international ports of entry and exit. We deemed individuals initiating travel from any domestic or international airport within these three countries to have possible exposure to Ebola virus. We deemed all other travellers to have no significant risk of exposure to Ebola virus. Findings Based on epidemic conditions and international flight restrictions to and from Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone as of Sept 1, 2014 (reductions in passenger seats by 51% for Liberia, 66% for Guinea, and 85% for Sierra Leone), our model projects 2·8 travellers infected with Ebola virus departing the above three countries via commercial flights, on average, every month. 91 547 (64%) of all air travellers departing Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone had expected destinations in low-income and lower-middle-income countries. Screening international travellers departing three airports would enable health assessments of all travellers at highest risk

  20. WAR HORSES:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille...

  1. Crystal structure of the 3C protease from Southern African Territories type 2 foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingjie; Leen, Eoin N.; Maree, Francois F.

    2016-01-01

    The replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is dependent on the virus-encoded 3C protease (3Cpro). As in other picornaviruses, 3Cpro performs most of the proteolytic processing of the polyprotein expressed from the large open reading frame in the RNA genome of the virus. Previous work revealed that the 3Cpro from serotype A—one of the seven serotypes of FMDV—adopts a trypsin-like fold. On the basis of capsid sequence comparisons the FMDV serotypes are grouped into two phylogenetic clusters, with O, A, C, and Asia 1 in one, and the three Southern African Territories serotypes, (SAT-1, SAT-2 and SAT-3) in another, a grouping pattern that is broadly, but not rigidly, reflected in 3Cpro amino acid sequences. We report here the cloning, expression and purification of 3C proteases from four SAT serotype viruses (SAT2/GHA/8/91, SAT1/NIG/5/81, SAT1/UGA/1/97, and SAT2/ZIM/7/83) and the crystal structure at 3.2 Å resolution of 3Cpro from SAT2/GHA/8/91. PMID:27168976

  2. Crystal structure of the 3C protease from Southern African Territories type 2 foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingjie; Leen, Eoin N; Maree, Francois F; Curry, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is dependent on the virus-encoded 3C protease (3C(pro)). As in other picornaviruses, 3C(pro) performs most of the proteolytic processing of the polyprotein expressed from the large open reading frame in the RNA genome of the virus. Previous work revealed that the 3C(pro) from serotype A-one of the seven serotypes of FMDV-adopts a trypsin-like fold. On the basis of capsid sequence comparisons the FMDV serotypes are grouped into two phylogenetic clusters, with O, A, C, and Asia 1 in one, and the three Southern African Territories serotypes, (SAT-1, SAT-2 and SAT-3) in another, a grouping pattern that is broadly, but not rigidly, reflected in 3C(pro) amino acid sequences. We report here the cloning, expression and purification of 3C proteases from four SAT serotype viruses (SAT2/GHA/8/91, SAT1/NIG/5/81, SAT1/UGA/1/97, and SAT2/ZIM/7/83) and the crystal structure at 3.2 Å resolution of 3C(pro) from SAT2/GHA/8/91. PMID:27168976

  3. Remarkable sequence similarity between the dinoflagellate-infecting marine girus and the terrestrial pathogen African swine fever virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claverie Jean-Michel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heterocapsa circularisquama DNA virus (HcDNAV; previously designated as HcV is a giant virus (girus with a ~356-kbp double-stranded DNA (dsDNA genome. HcDNAV lytically infects the bivalve-killing marine dinoflagellate H. circularisquama, and currently represents the sole DNA virus isolated from dinoflagellates, one of the most abundant protists in marine ecosystems. Its morphological features, genome type, and host range previously suggested that HcDNAV might be a member of the family Phycodnaviridae of Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Large DNA Viruses (NCLDVs, though no supporting sequence data was available. NCLDVs currently include two families found in aquatic environments (Phycodnaviridae, Mimiviridae, one mostly infecting terrestrial animals (Poxviridae, another isolated from fish, amphibians and insects (Iridoviridae, and the last one (Asfarviridae exclusively represented by the animal pathogen African swine fever virus (ASFV, the agent of a fatal hemorrhagic disease in domestic swine. In this study, we determined the complete sequence of the type B DNA polymerase (PolB gene of HcDNAV. The viral PolB was transcribed at least from 6 h post inoculation (hpi, suggesting its crucial function for viral replication. Most unexpectedly, the HcDNAV PolB sequence was found to be closely related to the PolB sequence of ASFV. In addition, the amino acid sequence of HcDNAV PolB showed a rare amino acid substitution within a motif containing highly conserved motif: YSDTDS was found in HcDNAV PolB instead of YGDTDS in most dsDNA viruses. Together with the previous observation of ASFV-like sequences in the Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling metagenomic datasets, our results further reinforce the ideas that the terrestrial ASFV has its evolutionary origin in marine environments.

  4. [Health Communication: Preventing the Spread of Ebola Virus Disease in the Portuguese Spoken African Countries--Methodology KISS & KEYWORDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Isabel De; Miguel, José Pereira; Antunes, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    In this work, Health Communication is considered as an important discipline in medicine and health sciences for his role as true determinant of health. We highlight their contribution to health promotion and disease prevention. Thus, the Health Communication Plan (PCS): Preventing the spread of Ebola virus disease in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries - KISS & KEYWORDS methodology is a tool that aims to minimize the risk of infection by Ebola virus in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries and also train for a general improvement of health conditions of the local populations. In the PCS design are especially considered the social and cultural contexts of the target populations, especially the customs, traditions and religion. Health Communication is considered as an Essential Function of Public Health and its main is to provide a population-based approach. The target of communication actions are population groups in addition to the individual communication, target-audiences are people without access to the media, in Guinea Bissau, Cape Verde and Sao Tome and Principe. Under the communication plan uses the methodology, models and practices both by media professionals as health. A proximity approach and cultural mediation, previously identified key facts, are defined objectives; outlines to the Plan in concrete and its implementation methodology (target-audience and following intervention, materials to be used and key-messages and partners to mobilize) following the World Health Organisation standards. PMID:26061502

  5. Comparison of immunofluorescence, particle agglutination, and enzyme immunoassays for detection of human T-cell leukemia virus type I antibody in African sera.

    OpenAIRE

    Verdier, M.; Denis, F.; Leonard, G; A. Sangare; Patillaud, S; Prince-David, M.; M Essex

    1990-01-01

    The effectiveness of four screening tests for detecting antibody to human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) was determined by using 2,700 African serum specimens. The tests studied were indirect immunofluorescence, particle agglutination from Fujirebio, and two enzyme immunoassays, one from Abbott Laboratories that used virus lysate from HUT 102 cells and the other from Cambridge BioScience Corp. that used an env recombinant protein. Positive and doubtful sera were confirmed by Western im...

  6. Functional CD1d and/or NKT cell invariant chain transcript in horse, pig, African elephant and guinea pig, but not in ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Looringh van Beeck, Frank A.; Reinink, Peter; Hermsen, Roel; Zajonc, Dirk M.; Laven, Marielle J.; Fun, Axel; Troskie, Milana; Schoemaker, Nico J.; Morar, Darshana; Lenstra, Johannes A.; Vervelde, Lonneke; Rutten, Victor P.M.G.; van Eden, Willem; Van Rhijn, Ildiko

    2009-01-01

    CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T cells (NKT cells) have been well characterized in humans and mice, but it is unknown whether they are present in other species. Here we describe the invariant TCR α chain and the full length CD1d transcript of pig and horse. Molecular modeling predicts that porcine (po) invariant TCR α chain/poCD1d/α-GalCer and equine (eq) invariant TCR α chain/eqCD1d/α-GalCer form complexes that are highly homologous to the human complex. Since a prerequisite for th...

  7. Functional CD1d and/or NKT cell invariant chain transcript in horse, pig, African elephant and guinea pig, but not in ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    van Beeck, Frank A. Looringh; Reinink, Peter; Hermsen, Roel; Zajonc, Dirk M; Laven, Marielle J.; Fun, Axel; Troskie, Milana; Schoemaker, Nico J.; Morar, Darshana; Lenstra, Johannes A.; Vervelde, Lonneke; Victor P. M. G. Rutten; Van Eden, Willem; Van Rhijn, Ildiko

    2009-01-01

    CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T cells (NKT cells) have been well characterized in humans and mice, but it is unknown whether they are present in other species. Here we describe the invariant TCR alpha chain and the full length CD1d transcript of pig and horse. Molecular modeling predicts that porcine (po) invariant TCR alpha chain/poCD1d/alpha-GalCer and equine (eq) invariant TCR alpha chain/eqCD1d/alpha-GalCer form complexes that are highly homologous to the human complex. Since a...

  8. Buying Your First Horse

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Patricia; Turner, Jason

    2007-01-01

    This publications gives information about evaluating a horse for purchase, age and experience of new owner, breed and sex of horse, intended use, care and housing, cost of ownership, locating the right horse, and trying it out.

  9. Serum Urea and Creatinine Levels in Nigerian Local Horses Naturally Infected with Babesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. M. Garba*, A. K. B. Sackey1, R. I. S. Agbede2, L. B. Tekdek1 and M. Bisalla3

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of Babesia infection on urea and creatinine serum samples were randomly collected from 253 Nigerian local (Arewa breed of Royal stallions and their Arabian and Sudanese crosses from five towns in Niger state, Nigeria. These horses were categorized into 5 groups based on their infection status. Urea and creatinine was assayed using spectrophotometer. Collected fecal samples were analy- zed using simple floatation method. The result showed non significant difference in serum levels of urea and creatinine in the various categories of horses namely Babesia infected horses, mixed Babesia + gastro-intestinal parasites infected horses, gastrointestinal parasites infected horses, negative apparently healthy and negative apparently sick horses. It can be concluded that natural Babesia infection in Nigerian local horses does not alter serum urea and creatinine levels.

  10. Sick building syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Sick building syndrome describes a number of mostly unspesific complaints of some occupants of the building. The exact pathophysiological mechanism remains elusive. It is a multi factorial event which may include physical, chemical, biological as well as psycological factors. In many cases it is due to insufficient maintenance of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, air conditioning system in the building. Sign and symptoms can be uncomfortable and even disabling, which may include mucus membrane irritation, neurotoxic symptoms, asthma like symptoms, skin complaints, gastrointestinal symptoms and other related symptoms. There are various investigation methods to diagnose sick building syndrome, and on site assessment of the building is extremely useful. Prevention through a proactive air quality monitoring program is far more desirable than dealing with an actual sick building. Indoor air and the sick building symdrome serves as a paradigm of modern occupational and environmental medicine. (Med J Indones 2002; 11:124-31Keywords: indoor air pollution, sick building syndrome, building related illness

  11. Troyan horses

    OpenAIRE

    Toman, Michal

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the analysis of malicious softwares, which are collectively referred as malware and then with programming a simple Trojan horse. The first part of the thesis focuses on the basic distribution of individual malicious programs with a brief description. For each type of infiltration are selected two best-known real threats, which are described in detail. The next section in more detailed to the Trojans, which are divided into basic categories and each category...

  12. The pathogenesis of highly virulent African Swine Fever virus in domestic pigs exposed via intraoropharyngeal, intranasopharyngeal, and intramuscular inoculation, and by direct contact with infected pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to optimize novel systems for African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) vaccine development, domestic pigs were challenged with the highly virulent ASFV-Malawi strain via intraoropharyngeal (IOP), intranasopharyngeal (INP), intramuscular (IM), and direct contact (DC) routes. Direct challenge doses ...

  13. The Role of the Polio Program Infrastructure in Response to Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in Nigeria 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz, Rui G.; Mkanda, Pascal; Banda, Richard; Komkech, William; Ekundare-Famiyesin, Olubowale O.; Onyibe, Rosemary; Abidoye, Sunday; Nsubuga, Peter; Maleghemi, Sylvester; Hannah-Murele, Bolatito; Tegegne, Sisay G.

    2016-01-01

    Background.  The current West African outbreak of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) began in Guinea in December 2013 and rapidly spread to Liberia and Sierra Leone. On 20 July 2014, a sick individual flew into Lagos, Nigeria, from Monrovia, Liberia, setting off an outbreak in Lagos and later in Port Harcourt city. The government of Nigeria, supported by the World Health Organization and other partners, mounted a response to the outbreak relying on the polio program experiences and infrastructure....

  14. The Ebola contagion and forecasting virus: evidence from four African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Nadhem, Selmi; Nejib, Hachicha D

    2015-01-01

    This paper is focused on examining the number of deaths’ increases participation in the propagating the Ebola virus during the period ranging from March to October 2014. An application of the MGARCH-DCC model regressions on four countries has led to discover that the finding that human contact play a significant role in transmitting the Ebola virus. Our findings also reveal that Guinea has already suffered from a spread-like virus originating from Sierra Lione and Liberia. Noteworthy also, ot...

  15. Sensitivity of African swine fever virus to type I interferon is linked to genes within multigene families 360 and 505.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Josephine P; Goatley, Lynnette; Goodbourn, Steve; Dixon, Linda K; Taylor, Geraldine; Netherton, Christopher L

    2016-06-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a lethal haemorrhagic disease of pigs. There are conflicting reports on the role of interferon in ASFV infection. We therefore analysed the interaction of ASFV with porcine interferon, in vivo and in vitro. Virulent ASFV induced biologically active IFN in the circulation of pigs from day 3-post infection, whereas low virulent OUR T88/3, which lacks genes from multigene family (MGF) 360 and MGF505, did not. Infection of porcine leucocytes enriched for dendritic cells, with ASFV, in vitro, induced high levels of interferon, suggesting a potential source of interferon in animals undergoing acute ASF. Replication of OUR T88/3, but not virulent viruses, was reduced in interferon pretreated macrophages and a recombinant virus lacking similar genes to those absent in OUR T88/3 was also inhibited. These findings suggest that as well as inhibiting the induction of interferon, MGF360 and MGF505 genes also enable ASFV to overcome the antiviral state. PMID:27043071

  16. Molecular evolution of Azagny virus, a newfound hantavirus harbored by the West African pygmy shrew (Crocidura obscurior in Côte d'Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Hae Ji

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanganya virus (TGNV, the only shrew-associated hantavirus reported to date from sub-Saharan Africa, is harbored by the Therese's shrew (Crocidura theresae, and is phylogenetically distinct from Thottapalayam virus (TPMV in the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus and Imjin virus (MJNV in the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura. The existence of myriad soricid-borne hantaviruses in Eurasia and North America would predict the presence of additional hantaviruses in sub-Saharan Africa, where multiple shrew lineages have evolved and diversified. Methods Lung tissues, collected in RNAlater®, from 39 Buettikofer's shrews (Crocidura buettikoferi, 5 Jouvenet's shrews (Crocidura jouvenetae, 9 West African pygmy shrews (Crocidura obscurior and 21 African giant shrews (Crocidura olivieri captured in Côte d'Ivoire during 2009, were systematically examined for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Results A genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Azagny virus (AZGV, was detected in the West African pygmy shrew. Phylogenetic analysis of the S, M and L segments, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, under the GTR+I+Γ model of evolution, showed that AZGV shared a common ancestry with TGNV and was more closely related to hantaviruses harbored by soricine shrews than to TPMV and MJNV. That is, AZGV in the West African pygmy shrew, like TGNV in the Therese's shrew, did not form a monophyletic group with TPMV and MJNV, which were deeply divergent and basal to other rodent- and soricomorph-borne hantaviruses. Ancestral distributions of each hantavirus lineage, reconstructed using Mesquite 2.74, suggested that the common ancestor of all hantaviruses was most likely of Eurasian, not African, origin. Conclusions Genome-wide analysis of many more hantaviruses from sub-Saharan Africa are required to better understand how the biogeographic origin and radiation of African shrews might have contributed to, or have resulted from, the evolution

  17. Characterisation of recent foot-and-mouth disease viruses from African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer )and cattle in Kenya is consistent with independent virus populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabalayo Wekesa, Sabenzia; Kiprotich Sangula, Abraham; Belsham, Graham;

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), including roles played by different hosts, is essential for improving disease control. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a reservoir for the SAT serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV). Large buffalo populations commonly...... samples collected from buffalo in three different Kenyan ecosystems; Maasai-Mara (MME) (n = 40), Tsavo (TSE) (n = 33), and Meru (ME) (n = 29). Results Antibodies against FMDV non-structural proteins were found in 65 of 102 (64%) sera from buffalo with 44/102 and 53/102 also having neutralising antibodies...... directed against FMDV SAT 1 and SAT 2, respectively. FMDV RNA was detected in 42% of the buffalo probang samples by RT-qPCR (Cycle Threshold (Ct) ≤32). Two buffalo probang samples were positive by VI and were identified as FMDV SAT 1 and SAT 2 by Ag-ELISA, while the latter assay detected serotypes O (1...

  18. Sickness and love: an introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Geest, der; Vandamme, S.

    2008-01-01

    Love is a neglected topic in anthropology, for good reasons: it has always resisted scientific definition and analysis. By associating love with sickness seven authors attempt to capture various meanings and experiences of love. Two broad concepts arise: love as sickness and love in response to sickness; the former refers mainly to 'romantic love', the latter to love as care and doing / testing love.

  19. Sickness and love: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van der Geest; S. Vandamme

    2008-01-01

    Love is a neglected topic in anthropology, for good reasons: it has always resisted scientific definition and analysis. By associating love with sickness seven authors attempt to capture various meanings and experiences of love. Two broad concepts arise: love as sickness and love in response to sick

  20. Detection of H5 and H7 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus with lateral flow devices: performance with healthy, sick and dead chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in the field is critical for effective disease control and to differentiate it from other diseases, such as Newcastle disease. Lateral flow devices (LFD) are commercially available and provide a fast, highly specific, on-site test fo...

  1. Prescriptions for Sick Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, Allan C.

    1993-01-01

    Increasing insulation in schools as an energy-saving measure has given rise to the Sick Building Syndrome (SBS), which afflicts roughly one-third of the nation's schools. This article examines asbestos, radon, electromagnetic radiation, and chemical pollutants and describes steps to make schools environmentally safe for students. School officials…

  2. Coping and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhenen, W. van; Schaufeli, W.B.; Dijk, F.J.H. van; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine the role of coping styles in sickness absence. In line with findings that contrast the reactive-passive focused strategies, problem-solving strategies are generally associated with positive results in terms of well-being and overall health outcomes; ou

  3. [Mountaineering and altitude sickness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiorini, M

    2001-06-01

    Almost every second trekker or climber develops two to three symptoms of the high altitude illness after a rapid ascent (> 300 m/day) to an altitude above 4000 m. We distinguish two forms of high altitude illness, a cerebral form called acute mountain sickness and a pulmonary form called high altitude pulmonary edema. Essentially, acute mountain sickness is self-limiting and benign. Its symptoms are mild to moderate headache, loss of appetite, nausea, dizziness and insomnia. Nausea rarely progresses to vomiting, but if it does, this may anticipate a progression of the disease into the severe form of acute mountain sickness, called high altitude cerebral edema. Symptoms and signs of high altitude cerebral edema are severe headache, which is not relieved by acetaminophen, loss of movement coordination, ataxia and mental deterioration ending in coma. The mechanisms leading to acute mountain sickness are not very well understood; the loss of cerebral autoregulation and a vasogenic type of cerebral edema are being discussed. High altitude pulmonary edema presents in roughly twenty percent of the cases with mild symptoms of acute mountain sickness or even without any symptoms at all. Symptoms associated with high altitude pulmonary edema are incapacitating fatigue, chest tightness, dyspnoe at the minimal effort that advances to dyspnoe at rest and orthopnoe, and a dry non-productive cough that progresses to cough with pink frothy sputum due to hemoptysis. The hallmark of high altitude pulmonary edema is an exaggerated hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Successful prophylaxis and treatment of high altitude pulmonary edema using nifedipine, a pulmonary vasodilator, indicates that pulmonary hypertension is crucial for the development of high altitude pulmonary edema. The primary treatment of high altitude illness consists in improving hypoxemia and acclimatization. For prophylaxis a slow ascent at a rate of 300 m/day is recommended, if symptoms persist, acetazolamide at a

  4. Rift Valley fever virus infection in African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) herds in rural South Africa: Evidence of interepidemic transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBeaud, A.D.; Cross, P.C.; Getz, W.M.; Glinka, A.; King, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging biodefense pathogen that poses significant threats to human and livestock health. To date, the interepidemic reservoirs of RVFV are not well defined. In a longitudinal survey of infectious diseases among African buffalo during 2000-2006, 550 buffalo were tested for antibodies against RVFV in 820 capture events in 302 georeferenced locations in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Overall, 115 buffalo (21%) were seropositive. Seroprevalence of RVFV was highest (32%) in the first study year, and decreased progressively in subsequent years, but had no detectable impact on survival. Nine (7%) of 126 resampled, initially seronegative animals seroconverted during periods outside any reported regional RVFV outbreaks. Seroconversions for RVFV were detected in significant temporal clusters during 2001-2003 and in 2004. These findings highlight the potential importance of wildlife as reservoirs for RVFV and interepidemic RVFV transmission in perpetuating regional RVFV transmission risk. Copyright ?? 2011 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  5. Detection of African swine fever virus from formalin fixed and non-fixed tissues by polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Luka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Formalin fixing and paraffin embedding of tissue samples is one of the techniques for preserving the structural integrity of cells for a very long time. However, extraction and analysis of genomic material from formalin fixed tissue (FFT remains a challenge despite numerous attempts to develop a more effective method. The success of polymerase chain reaction (PCR depends on the quality of DNA extract. Materials and Methods: Here we assessed the conventional method of DNA extraction from FFT for African swine fever virus (ASFV detection. The modified conventional method gave a higher quality DNA when compared with commercially available DNA extraction kits (QIAamp® DNA Mini Kit, DNeasy® Blood and Tissue Kit, and ZR Genomic DNA™ Tissue MiniPrep. Results: An average A260/A280 DNA purity of 0.86-1.68 and 3.22-5.32 μg DNA/mg for formalin fixed and non-fixed tissues, respectively using a conventional method. In a reproducible and three times repeat PCR, the ASFV DNA expected product size of 278 bp was obtained from the DNA extract of the conventional method but not from the DNA extract of the commercial kits. Conclusion: The present study has demonstrated that the conventional method extracts ASFV genome better than commercial kit. In summary, the commercial kit extraction appeared not suitable to purify ASFV DNA from FFT. We, therefore, recommend that the use of the conventional method be considered for African swine fever DNA extraction from FFT.

  6. Reproduction of Przewalski's Horse

    OpenAIRE

    Kovaříková, Lucie

    2012-01-01

    This work is about reproduction of Przewalski’s horses (Equus Przewalskii, Poliakov, 1881), which is similar to reproduction of domestic horses (Equus caballus, Linaeus, 1758). Przewalski’s horses are considered to only living ancestor of domestic horses, logically they have similar biology and reproduction. Despite different numbers of chromosome they could have fertile offspring. Reproductive differences are mainly in length of reproduction indicators. For example Przewalsky’s horses ar...

  7. Homeostatic Cytokines Induce CD4 Downregulation in African Green Monkeys Independently of Antigen Exposure To Generate Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Resistant CD8αα T Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Molly R Perkins; Briant, Judith A.; Calantone, Nina; Whitted, Sonya; Vinton, Carol L.; Klatt, Nichole R.; Ourmanov, Ilnour; Ortiz, Alexandra M.; Vanessa M Hirsch; Brenchley, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    African green monkeys (AGMs; genus Chlorocebus) are a natural host of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVAGM). As they do not develop simian AIDS, there is great interest in understanding how this species has evolved to avoid immunodeficiency. Adult African green monkeys naturally have low numbers of CD4 T cells and a large population of major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted CD8αdim T cells that are generated through CD4 downregulation in CD4+ T cells. Mechanisms that drive this...

  8. Mycoplasma felis pleuritis in two show-jumper horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, A M; Baird, J D; Kloeze, H J; Rosendal, S; Bell, M

    1992-04-01

    Mycoplasma felis was identified as the cause of acute pleuritis in 2 show-jumping horses. The pleural exudate was proteinaceous, contained large numbers of neutrophils, and had a markedly increased lactate concentration. M. felis was isolated in pure culture from pleural fluid. Rising serum antibody titers to M. felis as well as a precipitous decline in titers to equine influenza virus were demonstrated in both horses. Pleural effusion in both horses and a pneumothorax detected in one of the horses resolved following a single drainage of pleural fluid and intravenous fluid, antibiotic, and analgesic therapy. PMID:1623728

  9. Antigenic and genetic characterization of a divergent African virus, Ikoma lyssavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Horton, Daniel L.; Banyard, Ashley C.; Marston, Denise A.; Wise, Emma; Selden, David; Nunez, Alejandro; Hicks, Daniel; Lembo, Tiziana; Cleaveland, Sarah; Peel, Alison J.; Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Fooks, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, a novel lyssavirus (subsequently named Ikoma lyssavirus, IKOV) was detected in the brain of an African civet (Civettictis civetta) with clinical rabies in the Serengeti National Park of Tanzania. The degree of nucleotide divergence between the genome of IKOV and those of other lyssaviruses predicted antigenic distinction from, and lack of protection provided by, available rabies vaccines. In addition, the index case was considered likely to be an incidental spillover event, and there...

  10. Introduction of East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus to Oman harks back to "Zanzibar, the capital of Oman".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Akhtar J; Akhtar, Sohail; Al-Matrushi, Abdulrahman M; Fauquet, Claude M; Briddon, Rob W

    2013-02-01

    Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) is the most devastating disease of the subsistence crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) across Africa and the Indian subcontinent. The disease is caused by viruses of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae)-seven species have been identified so far. The Sultanate of Oman is unusual among countries in Arabia in growing cassava on a small scale for local consumption. During a recent survey in A'Seeb wilayat of Muscat governorate, Oman, cassava plants were identified with symptoms typical of CMD. A begomovirus, East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus (EACMZV), was isolated from symptomatic plants. This virus was previously only known to occur in Zanzibar and Kenya. During the 19th Century, Zanzibar was governed by Oman and was so important that the Sultan of Oman moved his capital there from Muscat. After a period of colonial rule, the governing Arab elite was overthrown, following independence in the 1960s, and many expatriate Omanis returned to their homeland. Having gained a liking for the local Zanzibar cuisine, it appears that returning Omanis did not wish to do without dishes made from one particular favorite, cassava. Consequently, they carried planting material back to Oman for cultivation in their kitchen gardens. The evidence suggests that this material harbored EACMZV. Recently, Oman has been shown to be a nexus for geminiviruses and their associated satellites from diverse geographic origins. With their propensity to recombine, a major mechanism for evolution of geminiviruses, and the fact that Oman (and several other Arabian countries) is a major hub for trade and travel by air and sea, the possibility of onward spread is worrying. PMID:23085885

  11. Antibodies Against Foot-and-mouth Disease (FMD) Virus in African Buffalos (Syncerus caffer) in Selected National Parks in Uganda (2001–2003)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayebazibwe, C.; Mwiine, F. N.; Balinda, S. N.;

    2010-01-01

    In East Africa, the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus (FMDV) isolates have over time included serotypes O, A, C, Southern African Territories (SAT) 1 and SAT 2, mainly from livestock. SAT 3 has only been isolated in a few cases and only in African buffalos (Syncerus caffer). To investigate...... the presence of antibodies against FMDV serotypes in wildlife in Uganda, serological studies were performed on buffalo serum samples collected between 2001 and 2003. Thirty-eight samples from African buffalos collected from Lake Mburo, Kidepo Valley, Murchison Falls and Queen Elizabeth National Parks were...... screened using Ceditest® FMDV NS to detect antibodies against FMDV non-structural proteins (NSP). The seroprevalence of antibodies against non-structural proteins was 74%. To characterize FMDV antibodies, samples were selected and titrated using serotype-specific solid phase blocking enzyme linked...

  12. Evidence for widespread infection of African bats with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever-like viruses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müller, M. A.; Devignot, S.; Lattwein, E.; Corman, V. M.; Maganga, G. D.; Gloza-Rausch, F.; Binger, T.; Vallo, Peter; Emmerich, P.; Cottontail, V. M.; Tschapka, M.; Oppong, S.; Drexler, J. F.; Weber, F.; Leroy, E. M.; Drosten, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 26637 (2016), s. 26637. ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : sheep disease virus * family Bunyaviridae * serological relationships * antibody-response * migratory birds * rapid detection * viral load * ticks * nairovirus * genus Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 5.578, year: 2014

  13. Duration of serum antibody response to rabies vaccination in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Alison M; Watson, Johanna L; Brault, Stephanie A; Edman, Judy M; Moore, Susan M; Kass, Philip H; Wilson, W David

    2016-08-15

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the impact of age and inferred prior vaccination history on the persistence of vaccine-induced antibody against rabies in horses. DESIGN Serologic response evaluation. ANIMALS 48 horses with an undocumented vaccination history. PROCEDURES Horses were vaccinated against rabies once. Blood samples were collected prior to vaccination, 3 to 7 weeks after vaccination, and at 6-month intervals for 2 to 3 years. Serum rabies virus-neutralizing antibody (RVNA) values were measured. An RVNA value of ≥ 0.5 U/mL was used to define a predicted protective immune response on the basis of World Health Organization recommendations for humans. Values were compared between horses vaccinated and those inferred to be immunologically naïve. RESULTS A protective RVNA value (≥ 0.5 U/mL) was maintained for 2 to 3 years in horses inferred to have been previously vaccinated on the basis of prevaccination RVNA values. No significant difference was evident in response to rabies vaccination or duration of protective RVNA values between horses vaccination. Significant differences were identified between horses inferred to have been previously vaccinated and horses inferred to be naïve prior to the study. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A rabies vaccination interval > 1 year may be appropriate for previously vaccinated horses but not for horses vaccinated only once. Additional research is required to confirm this finding and characterize the optimal primary dose series for rabies vaccination. PMID:27479286

  14. Pregnancy, body weight and human immunodeficiency virus infection in African women : a prospective cohort study in Kigali (Rwanda), 1992-1994

    OpenAIRE

    Ladner, J.; Castetbon, Katia; Leroy, V; Nyiraziraje, M.; Chauliac, M.; Karita, E.; De Clercq, A; Van de Perre, P; DABIS, F.

    1998-01-01

    Objective : to study the relationship between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and body weight in African women during and after pregnancy. Methods : a prospective cohort study was initiated at the Centre Hospitalier de Kigali in July 1992. Every woman seen at the antenatal clinic and with a gestational age of less than 28 weeks was offered HIV-1 antibody testing. Comparable numbers of HIV-infected (HIV+) and uninfected (HIV-) women were recruited. At inclusion, socio-demographic ...

  15. Prevalence and Predictors of Intestinal Helminth Infections Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1–Infected Adults in an Urban African Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Modjarrad, Kayvon; Zulu, Isaac; Redden, David T.; Njobvu, Lungowe; Freedman, David O; Vermund, Sten H.

    2005-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is disproportionately burdened by intestinal helminth and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. Recent evidence suggests detrimental immunologic effects from concomitant infection with the two pathogens. Few studies, however, have assessed the prevalence of and predictors for intestinal helminth infection among HIV-1–infected adults in urban African settings where HIV infection rates are highest. We collected and analyzed sociodemographic and parasitologic data fr...

  16. Next-generation sequencing of southern African Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus isolates reveals a high frequency of M segment reassortment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedhals, D; Bester, P A; Paweska, J T; Swanepoel, R; Burt, F J

    2014-09-01

    Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a bunyavirus with a single-stranded RNA genome consisting of three segments (S, M, L), coding for the nucleocapsid protein, envelope glycoproteins and RNA polymerase, respectively. To date only five complete genome sequences are available from southern African isolates. Complete genome sequences were generated for 10 southern African CCHFV isolates using next-generation sequencing techniques. The maximum-likelihood method was used to generate tree topologies for 15 southern African plus 26 geographically distinct complete sequences from GenBank. M segment reassortment was identified in 10/15 southern African isolates by incongruencies in grouping compared to the S and L segments. These reassortant M segments cluster with isolates from Asia/Middle East, while the S and L segments cluster with strains from South/West Africa. The CCHFV M segment shows a high level of genetic diversity, while the S and L segments appear to co-evolve. The reason for the high frequency of M segment reassortment is not known. It has previously been suggested that M segment reassortment results in a virus with high fitness but a clear role in increased pathogenicity has yet to be shown. PMID:24786748

  17. Genetics Home Reference: sick sinus syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions sick sinus syndrome sick sinus syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... Print All Open All Close All Description Sick sinus syndrome (also known as sinus node dysfunction) is ...

  18. Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About ACOG Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Morning Sickness: Nausea ... PDF Format Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Pregnancy How common is nausea and vomiting of ...

  19. The West African ebola virus disease epidemic 2014-2015: A commissioned review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omilabu, S A; Salu, O B; Oke, B O; James, A B

    2016-01-01

    The first epidemic of Ebola haemorrhagic disease in West Africa is the largest and longest Ebola epidemic till date, where the outbreak notably involved three countries with distant spread to other countries. It has caused significant mortality, with reported case fatality rates of up to 70%. Data and relevant information were extracted from the review of majorly relevant publications/papers about the Ebola epidemic in West Africa and other previous outbreaks of Ebola virus (EBOV). As of 2016, with the epidemic under control, the World Health Organization has warned that flare-ups of the disease are likely to continue for some time as recently occurred in Sierra Leone and the on-going in Guinea. As this may not be the last outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa, there is a need to focus on diagnostic and research capacity required to curtail EVD with adequate measures for emergency preparedness and policies for innovative treatment strategies. PMID:27424613

  20. Sick as a Dog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    当形容一个人病得很重时,英语中有这样的说法:Sick as a dog,为什么人们会用"狗"来表示"生病"的意思呢?原来,英语中dog一词有时含有贬义,比如:俚语going to the dogs,表示"糟糕透顶";dog in the manger,表示"犬占马槽、自私自利"的意思。

  1. Fear in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Janne Winther

    2006-01-01

    Fear is generally considered to be an undesirable emotional state that may reduce welfare, growth and reproductive performance in animals. Fear in horses is additionally problematic, because fear reactions can cause serious injury to both horse and human. Horses are primarily used for sports and leisure for a large number of children and young women. Unfortunately, horse riding ranks as one of the most dangerous sports in terms of the number and seriousness of accidents, and the ability of a ...

  2. Vaccine Potential of Two Previously Uncharacterized African Swine Fever Virus Isolates from Southern Africa and Heterologous Cross Protection of an Avirulent European Isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, R; Mutowembwa, P; van Heerden, J; Fosgate, G T; Heath, L; Vosloo, W

    2016-04-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a mostly fatal viral infection of domestic pigs for which there is no vaccine available. The disease is endemic to most of sub-Saharan Africa, causes severe losses and threatens food security in large parts of the continent. Naturally occurring attenuated ASF viruses have been tested as vaccine candidates, but protection was variable depending on the challenge virus. In this study, the virulence of two African isolates, one from a tick vector and the other from an indigenous pig, was determined in domestic pigs to identify a potential vaccine strain for southern Africa. Neither isolate was suitable as the tick isolate was moderately virulent and the indigenous pig virus was highly virulent. The latter was subsequently used as heterologous challenge in pigs first vaccinated with a naturally attenuated isolate previously isolated in Portugal. Although a statistically significant reduction in death rate and virus load was observed compared with unvaccinated pigs post-challenge, all pigs succumbed to infection and died. PMID:25073549

  3. Dust and the Sick Building Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyntelberg, Finn; Suadicani, Poul; Wohlfahrt Nielsen, Jan; Skov, Peder; Valbjørn, Ole; Nielsen, Peter A.; Schneider, Thomas; Jørgensen, Ole; Wolkoff, Peder; Wilkins, C. K.; Gravesen, Suzanne; Norn, Svend

    Farmakologi, bacteria, dust, histamine, disease, gram-negative, indoor climate, sick building syndrome......Farmakologi, bacteria, dust, histamine, disease, gram-negative, indoor climate, sick building syndrome...

  4. Cinerama sickness and postural instability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Ledegang, W.D.; Lubeck, A.J.A.; Stins, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms and increased postural instability induced by motion pictures have been reported in a laboratory, but not in a real cinema. We, therefore, carried out an observational study recording sickness severity and postural instability in 19 subjects before, immediately and 45 min af

  5. Envelope-specific B-cell populations in African green monkeys chronically infected with simian immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruijun; Martinez, David R; Nguyen, Quang N; Pollara, Justin; Arifin, Trina; Stolarchuk, Christina; Foulger, Andrew; Amos, Josh D; Parks, Robert; Himes, Jonathon E; Wang, Minyue; Edwards, Regina W; Trama, Ashley M; Vandergrift, Nathan; Colvin, Lisa; Dewar, Ken; Juretic, Nikoleta; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Ferrari, Guido; Liao, Hua-Xin; Permar, Sallie R

    2016-01-01

    African green monkeys (AGMs) are natural primate hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Interestingly, features of the envelope-specific antibody responses in SIV-infected AGMs are distinct from that of HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected rhesus monkeys, including gp120-focused responses and rapid development of autologous neutralization. Yet, the lack of genetic tools to evaluate B-cell lineages hinders potential use of this unique non-human primate model for HIV vaccine development. Here we define features of the AGM Ig loci and compare the proportion of Env-specific memory B-cell populations to that of HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected rhesus monkeys. AGMs appear to have a higher proportion of Env-specific memory B cells that are mainly gp120 directed. Furthermore, AGM gp120-specific monoclonal antibodies display robust antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and CD4-dependent virion capture activity. Our results support the use of AGMs to model induction of functional gp120-specific antibodies by HIV vaccine strategies. PMID:27381634

  6. Horse trichinellosis, an unresolved puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Pozio E.; Tamburrini A.; De La Rosa G

    2001-01-01

    In spite of routine controls to detect Trichinella larvae in horse-meat, human infections due to horse-meat consumption continue to occur in France and Italy, The epidemiology of horse trichinellosis since its discovery in 1975 is outlined, addressing the possible modes of natural transmission to horses, the need to develop more sensitive methods for detecting Trichinella larvae in horses, and the economic impact of horse trichinellosis. Investigations of human outbreaks due to horse-meat con...

  7. Gaucho [and horses

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad Martens

    2007-01-01

    Drawing. The sky is blank; the sun shines from behind Martens' vantage point. The annotation in the base left reads: "Page 48 Vol 3". Two human figures stand in the left centre and centre of the picture, behind whom a saddled horse is sketched flank-on facing right. To its right a second saddled horse stands head-on to the viewer. The annotation beneath the left centre figure reads: "Gaucho"; that beneath the left-hand horse: "darkest[?] horse"; that beneath the right-hand horse probably: "pa...

  8. Sequences enhancing cassava mosaic disease symptoms occur in the cassava genome and are associated with South African cassava mosaic virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maredza, A T; Allie, F; Plata, G; Rey, M E C

    2016-06-01

    Cassava is an important food security crop in Sub-Saharan Africa. Two episomal begomovirus-associated sequences, named Sequences Enhancing Geminivirus Symptoms (SEGS1 and SEGS2), were identified in field cassava affected by the devastating cassava mosaic disease (CMD). The sequences reportedly exacerbated CMD symptoms in the tolerant cassava landrace TME3, and the model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana, when biolistically co-inoculated with African cassava mosaic virus-Cameroon (ACMV-CM) or East African cassava mosaic virus-UG2 (EACMV-UG2). Following the identification of small SEGS fragments in the cassava EST database, the intention of this study was to confirm their presence in the genome, and investigate a possible role for these sequences in CMD. We report that multiple copies of varying lengths of both SEGS1 and SEGS2 are widely distributed in the sequenced cassava genome and are present in several other cassava accessions screened by PCR. The endogenous SEGS1 and SEGS2 are in close proximity or overlapping with cassava genes, suggesting a possible role in regulation of specific biological processes. We confirm the expression of SEGS in planta using EST data and RT-PCR. The sequence features of endogenous SEGS (iSEGS) are unique but resemble non-autonomous transposable elements (TEs) such as MITEs and helitrons. Furthermore, many SEGS-associated genes, some involved in virus-host interactions, are differentially expressed in susceptible (T200) and tolerant TME3) cassava landraces infected by South African cassava mosaic virus (SACMV) of susceptible (T200) and tolerant (TME3) cassava landraces. Abundant SEGS-derived small RNAs were also present in mock-inoculated and SACMV-infected T200 and TME3 leaves. Given the known role of TEs and associated genes in gene regulation and plant immune responses, our observations are consistent with a role of these DNA elements in the host's regulatory response to geminiviruses. PMID:25920485

  9. Drivers and risk factors for circulating African swine fever virus in Uganda, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabuuka, T; Kasaija, P D; Mulindwa, H; Shittu, A; Bastos, A D S; Fasina, F O

    2014-10-01

    We explored observed risk factors and drivers of infection possibly associated with African swine fever (ASF) epidemiology in Uganda. Representative sub-populations of pig farms and statistics were used in a case-control model. Indiscriminate disposal of pig viscera and waste materials after slaughter, including on open refuse dumps, farm-gate buyers collecting pigs and pig products from within a farm, and retention of survivor pigs were plausible risk factors. Wire mesh-protected windows in pig houses were found to be protective against ASF infection. Sighting engorged ticks on pigs, the presence of a lock for each pig pen and/or a gate at the farm entrance were significantly associated with infection/non-infection; possible explanations were offered. Strict adherence to planned within-farm and community-based biosecurity, and avoidance of identified risk factors is recommended to reduce infection. Training for small-scale and emerging farmers should involve multidimensional and multidisciplinary approaches to reduce human-related risky behaviours driving infection. PMID:25066802

  10. Mitochondrial DNA and the origins of the domestic horse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Thomas; Forster, Peter; Levine, Marsha A.; Oelke, Hardy; Hurles, Matthew; Renfrew, Colin; Weber, Jürgen; Olek, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    The place and date of the domestication of the horse has long been a matter for debate among archaeologists. To determine whether horses were domesticated from one or several ancestral horse populations, we sequenced the mitochondrial D-loop for 318 horses from 25 oriental and European breeds, including American mustangs. Adding these sequences to previously published data, the total comes to 652, the largest currently available database. From these sequences, a phylogenetic network was constructed that showed that most of the 93 different mitochondrial (mt)DNA types grouped into 17 distinct phylogenetic clusters. Several of the clusters correspond to breeds and/or geographic areas, notably cluster A2, which is specific to Przewalski's horses, cluster C1, which is distinctive for northern European ponies, and cluster D1, which is well represented in Iberian and northwest African breeds. A consideration of the horse mtDNA mutation rate together with the archaeological timeframe for domestication requires at least 77 successfully breeding mares recruited from the wild. The extensive genetic diversity of these 77 ancestral mares leads us to conclude that several distinct horse populations were involved in the domestication of the horse. PMID:12130666

  11. HEALING AND WOMEN HEALERS IN YORUBA RELIGION AND AFRICAN CHRISTIANITY

    OpenAIRE

    Oyeronke Olademo

    2012-01-01

    Healing in African indigenous cultures is a corporate matter involving the totality of the person, family and community. Healing presupposes sickness; its practice is therefore interlocked with a people’s conception of sickness and diseases. In Africa, sickness is an attestation to the fact that an individual is out of tune with nature and the supernatural, which is represented by the various deities. The physical signs are therefore a part of the story and not the whole story. Similarly, the...

  12. Nonconventional approaches to develop resistance to peanut clump virus : West African isolate

    OpenAIRE

    Dollet, M.; Manohar, S.K.; Dubern, Jean

    1992-01-01

    Des explorations de routine ont démontré la présence constante du virus de Rabougrissement de l'Arachide au Sénégal, Burkina Faso, Mali, dans l'Arachide et également dans la Canne-à-sucre, le Sorgho, le Maïs. La grande diversité des symptômes, la grande extension de la maladie, son taux élevé de transmission par semences et par le sol, et l'absence de résistance réelle orientent les études vers la transformation génétique de l'Arachide. Dans un premier temps les travaux sont axés sur l'étude ...

  13. [Epidemiology of "sick buildings"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, T D; Collett, C; Rumel, D

    1991-02-01

    The indoor environment of modern buildings, especially those designed for commercial and administrative purposes, constitutes a unique ecological niche with its own biochemical environment, fauna and flora. Sophisticated construction methods and the new materials and machinery required to maintain the indoor environment of these enclosed structures produce a large number of chemical by-products and permit the growth of many different microorganisms. Because modern office buildings are sealed, the regulation of humidification and temperature of ducted air presents a dilemma, since difference species of microorganisms flourish at different combinations of humidity and temperature. If the indoor environment of modern office buildings is not properly maintained, the environment may become harmful to its occupants' health. Such buildings are classified as "Sick Buildings". A review of the epidemiology of building illness is presented. The etiology of occupant illnesses, sources of toxic substances, and possible methods of maintaining a safe indoor environment are described. PMID:1784964

  14. Social inequalities in 'sickness'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wel, Kjetil A. van der; Dahl, Espen; Thielen, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    inequalities in health by studying the often overlooked ‘sickness’-dimension of health, namely employment behaviour among people with illnesses. We use European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) data from 2005 covering 26 European countries linked to country characteristics derived...... from Eurostat and OECD that include spending on active labour market policies, benefit generosity, income inequality, and employment protection. Using multilevel techniques we find that comprehensive welfare states have lower absolute and relative social inequalities in sickness, as well as more......The aim of this paper is to examine educational inequalities in the risk of non-employment among people with illnesses and how they vary between European countries with different welfare state characteristics. In doing so, the paper adds to the growing literature on welfare states and social...

  15. Increased risk of horse sensitization in southwestern Iranian horse riders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Moghtaderi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study has been to investigate the frequency of sensitization to horse allergens and clinical symptoms in horse riders. Material and Methods: A total of 42 horse riders and 50 healthy individuals were examined by means of skin prick tests for a panel of horse and common animal allergens, and pulmonary function tests were done by spirometry. Results: The rate of sensitization to horse allergens was 31% as proven by the skin prick test in horse riders whereas horse sensitization was not seen in the control group. Occupational allergy symptoms were reported by 19 horse riders. Two horse riders with no history of clinical symptoms showed positive skin reactions to horse allergens. Conclusions: To decrease the high risk of occupational sensitization among horse riders, workplace conditions should be improved to reduce the load of airborne horse allergens.

  16. Molecular monitoring of African swine fever virus using surveys targeted at adult Ornithodoros ticks : a re-evaluation of Mkuze Game Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Arnot

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mkuze Game Reserve (MGR, in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa is an African swine fever virus (ASF controlled area. In a survey conducted in 1978, ASF prevalence in warthogs and Ornithodoros ticks in MGR was determined to be 2 % and 0.06 %, respectively. These values, acknowledged as being unusually low compared to other East and southern African ASF-positive sylvatic-cycle host populations, have not been assessed since. The availability of a sensitive PCR-based virus detection method, developed specifically for the sylvatic tampan host, prompted a re-evaluation of ASF virus (ASFV prevalence in MGR ticks. Of the 98 warthog burrows inspected for Ornithodoros presence, 59 (60.2 % were found to contain tampans and tick sampling was significantly male-biased. Whilst gender sampling-bias is not unusual, the 27 % increase in infestation rate of warthog burrows since the 1978 survey is noteworthy as it anticipates a concomitant increase in ASFV prevalence, particularly in light of the high proportion (75 % of adult ticks sampled. However, despite DNA integrity being confirmed by internal control amplification of the host 16S gene, PCR screening failed to detect ASFV. These results suggest that ASFV has either disappeared from MGR or if present, is localized, occurring at exceptionally low levels. Further extensive surveys are required to establish the ASFV status of sylvatic hosts in this controlled area.

  17. Antibodies to some pathogenic agents in free-living wild species in Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamblin, C.; Anderson, E. C.; Jago, M.; Mlengeya, T.; Hipji, K.

    1990-01-01

    A total of 535 sera from eight species of wildlife were collected from different game areas in Tanzania between 1987 and 1989. These sera were tested for antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease, bovine herpes virus types 1 and 2, lumpy skin disease, bovine viral diarrhoea, Akabane, bovine ephemeral fever, bluetongue, enzootic bovine leucosis, African horse sickness and African swine fever viruses and Brucella abortus based on the expected species susceptibility. Sera from buffalo Syncerus c...

  18. Hendra and Nipah viruses: pathogenesis, animal models and recent breakthroughs in vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weingartl HM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hana M Weingartl National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Abstract: Hendra and Nipah viruses are two highly pathogenic zoonotic members of the genus Henipavirus, family Paramyxoviridae, requiring work under biosafety level 4 conditions due to a lack of effective therapy and human vaccines. Several vaccine candidates were protective in animal models: recombinant vaccinia virus expressing Nipah virus (NiV F and G proteins in hamsters against NiV; recombinant ALVAC–NiV F and G in swine against NiV; recombinant Hendra virus (HeV soluble G protein (sGHeV against HeV and NiV in cats, ferrets, horses, and African green monkeys (AGM; recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based vectors expressing NiV F or G against NiV in hamsters and ferrets; measles virus-based NiV G vaccine candidate in hamsters and AGMs against NiV; and adenoassociated virus expressing NiG protein, which protected hamsters against NiV. The sGHeV was licensed for use in horses (Equivac HeV® in 2012. It is the first vaccine candidate licensed against a biosafety level 4 agent. With the development of suitable animal models (ferret, hamster and, importantly, AGM, progress can be made toward development of a human vaccine.Keywords: henipavirus, equine, swine, human infection, animal models, vaccine candidates

  19. The RXL motif of the African cassava mosaic virus Rep protein is necessary for rereplication of yeast DNA and viral infection in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hipp, Katharina; Rau, Peter; Schäfer, Benjamin [Institut für Biomaterialien und biomolekulare Systeme, Abteilung für Molekularbiologie und Virologie der Pflanzen, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Gronenborn, Bruno [Institut des Sciences du Végétal, CNRS, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Jeske, Holger, E-mail: holger.jeske@bio.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Biomaterialien und biomolekulare Systeme, Abteilung für Molekularbiologie und Virologie der Pflanzen, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Geminiviruses, single-stranded DNA plant viruses, encode a replication-initiator protein (Rep) that is indispensable for virus replication. A potential cyclin interaction motif (RXL) in the sequence of African cassava mosaic virus Rep may be an alternative link to cell cycle controls to the known interaction with plant homologs of retinoblastoma protein (pRBR). Mutation of this motif abrogated rereplication in fission yeast induced by expression of wildtype Rep suggesting that Rep interacts via its RXL motif with one or several yeast proteins. The RXL motif is essential for viral infection of Nicotiana benthamiana plants, since mutation of this motif in infectious clones prevented any symptomatic infection. The cell-cycle link (Clink) protein of a nanovirus (faba bean necrotic yellows virus) was investigated that activates the cell cycle by binding via its LXCXE motif to pRBR. Expression of wildtype Clink and a Clink mutant deficient in pRBR-binding did not trigger rereplication in fission yeast. - Highlights: • A potential cyclin interaction motif is conserved in geminivirus Rep proteins. • In ACMV Rep, this motif (RXL) is essential for rereplication of fission yeast DNA. • Mutating RXL abrogated viral infection completely in Nicotiana benthamiana. • Expression of a nanovirus Clink protein in yeast did not induce rereplication. • Plant viruses may have evolved multiple routes to exploit host DNA synthesis.

  20. The RXL motif of the African cassava mosaic virus Rep protein is necessary for rereplication of yeast DNA and viral infection in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geminiviruses, single-stranded DNA plant viruses, encode a replication-initiator protein (Rep) that is indispensable for virus replication. A potential cyclin interaction motif (RXL) in the sequence of African cassava mosaic virus Rep may be an alternative link to cell cycle controls to the known interaction with plant homologs of retinoblastoma protein (pRBR). Mutation of this motif abrogated rereplication in fission yeast induced by expression of wildtype Rep suggesting that Rep interacts via its RXL motif with one or several yeast proteins. The RXL motif is essential for viral infection of Nicotiana benthamiana plants, since mutation of this motif in infectious clones prevented any symptomatic infection. The cell-cycle link (Clink) protein of a nanovirus (faba bean necrotic yellows virus) was investigated that activates the cell cycle by binding via its LXCXE motif to pRBR. Expression of wildtype Clink and a Clink mutant deficient in pRBR-binding did not trigger rereplication in fission yeast. - Highlights: • A potential cyclin interaction motif is conserved in geminivirus Rep proteins. • In ACMV Rep, this motif (RXL) is essential for rereplication of fission yeast DNA. • Mutating RXL abrogated viral infection completely in Nicotiana benthamiana. • Expression of a nanovirus Clink protein in yeast did not induce rereplication. • Plant viruses may have evolved multiple routes to exploit host DNA synthesis

  1. Evaluation of possible mitigation measures to prevent introduction and spread of African swine fever virus through wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This scientific report has been prepared in response to a request for urgent scientific and technical assistance under Art 31 of Regulation (EC No 178/2002, in relation to possible mitigation measures to prevent introduction and spread of African swine fever virus (ASFV. It was requested to assess the feasibility to drastically reduce the wild boar population by hunting or by the use of traps, and to assess if prevention of movement of wild boars by feeding or by artificial physical barriers reduces the risk of spread of ASFV. No evidence was found in scientific literature proving that wild boar populations can be drastically reduced by hunting or trapping in Europe. The main reasons are the adaptive behaviour of wild boar, compensatory growth of the population and the possible influx of wild boar from adjacent areas. Thus, drastic hunting is not a tool to reduce the risk for introduction and spread of ASFV in wild boar populations. Furthermore, wild boar density thresholds for introduction, spread and persistence of ASFV in the wild boar populations are currently impossible to establish, due to the uncertainty regarding the extent of the spread and maintenance of ASFV, the biases in population datasets, the complex population structures and dynamics. Furthermore, attempts to drastically reduce wild boar populations may even increase transmission and facilitate progressive geographical spread of ASFV, since intensive hunting pressure on wild boar populations leads to dispersion of groups and individuals. Artificial feeding of wild boar might increase the risk of ASFV spread. Fencing can restrict wild boar movements, however further knowledge of the ASF epidemiology and spatial distribution of wild boar is required to identify the areas where fencing could be used as one possible element of a control programme and to assess the feasibility of its implementation.

  2. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Peter D; Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M; Read, Andrew J; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog's kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses. PMID:26583697

  3. When You're Sick

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dehydrated. These are liquids like water and diet soft drinks. It's easy to run low on fluids when ... sick-day plan may include regular (not diet) soft drinks. Other high-carbohydrate liquids and almost-liquids are ...

  4. Welfare in horse breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, M L H; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes hel...

  5. Bone scintigraphy for horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintigraphy (bone scan) is being used approximately since 1980 in the horse under general anaesthesia. With the construction of custom-made overhead gantries for gamma-cameras scintigraphy found widespread entry in big equine referral hospitals for bone-scanning of the standing horse. Indications for the use of a bone scan in the horse are inflammatory alterations in the locomotor apparatus. It is primarily used for diagnosis of lameness of unknown origin, suspect of stress fracture or hairline fracture and for horses with bad riding comfort with suspected painful lesions in the spine. (orig.)

  6. Drugs in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Olsén, Lena

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis the fate and effect of some drugs have been examined in horses. Studies have also been performed to explore some factors which may affect the pharmacokinetics and the pharmacodynamics of drugs in horses. Investigations on the drug metabolising enzyme cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) in the intestines of horses showed high gene expression and metabolic activity in the proximal parts of the intestines. The results indicate that CYP3A in the intestines of horse plays a major role in the...

  7. The Ep152R ORF of African swine fever virus strain Georgia encodes for an essential gene that interacts with host protein BAG6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borca, Manuel V; O'Donnell, Vivian; Holinka, Lauren G; Rai, Devendra K; Sanford, Brenton; Alfano, Marialexia; Carlson, Jolene; Azzinaro, Paul A; Alonso, Covadonga; Gladue, Douglas P

    2016-09-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of a contagious and often lethal disease of domestic pigs that has significant economic consequences for the swine industry. The viral genome encodes for more than 150 genes, and only a select few of these genes have been studied in some detail. Here we report the characterization of open reading frame Ep152R that has a predicted complement control module/SCR domain. This domain is found in Vaccinia virus proteins that are involved in blocking the immune response during viral infection. A recombinant ASFV harboring a HA tagged version of the Ep152R protein was developed (ASFV-G-Ep152R-HA) and used to demonstrate that Ep152R is an early virus protein. Attempts to construct recombinant viruses having a deleted Ep152R gene were consistently unsuccessful indicating that Ep152R is an essential gene. Interestingly, analysis of host-protein interactions for Ep152R using a yeast two-hybrid screen, identified BAG6, a protein previously identified as being required for ASFV replication. Furthermore, fluorescent microscopy analysis confirms that Ep152R-BAG6 interaction actually occurs in cells infected with ASFV. PMID:27497620

  8. Development and validation of a multiplex, real-time RT PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of classical and African swine fever viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity J Haines

    Full Text Available A single-step, multiplex, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was developed for the simultaneous and differential laboratory diagnosis of Classical swine fever virus (CSFV and African swine fever virus (ASFV alongside an exogenous internal control RNA (IC-RNA. Combining a single extraction methodology and primer and probe sets for detection of the three target nucleic acids CSFV, ASFV and IC-RNA, had no effect on the analytical sensitivity of the assay and the new triplex RT-PCR was comparable to standard PCR techniques for CSFV and ASFV diagnosis. After optimisation the assay had a detection limit of 5 CSFV genome copies and 22 ASFV genome copies. Analytical specificity of the triplex assay was validated using a panel of viruses representing 9 of the 11 CSFV subgenotypes, at least 8 of the 22 ASFV genotypes as well as non-CSFV pestiviruses. Positive and negative clinical samples from animals infected experimentally, due to field exposure or collected from the UK which is free from both swine diseases, were used to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for detection of both viruses. The diagnostic sensitivity was 100% for both viruses whilst diagnostic specificity estimates were 100% for CSFV detection and 97.3% for ASFV detection. The inclusion of a heterologous internal control allowed identification of false negative results, which occurred at a higher level than expected. The triplex assay described here offers a valuable new tool for the differential detection of the causative viruses of two clinically indistinguishable porcine diseases, whose geographical occurrence is increasingly overlapping.

  9. Sick Leave and Subjective Health Complaints

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this thesis were to identify risk factors for high levels of sick leave and investigate what – if anything – can be done to reduce sick leave. What is the role of “subjective health complaints”, coping, and psychosocial work factors in relation to sick leave, and to what extent do these factors and the sick leave relate to quality of life? Are there any interventions with a documented effect on sick leave in the literature? Is it possible to influence sick leave thr...

  10. Increased risk of horse sensitization in southwestern Iranian horse riders

    OpenAIRE

    Mozhgan Moghtaderi; Shirin Farjadian; Zeynab Hosseini; Alireza Raayat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study has been to investigate the frequency of sensitization to horse allergens and clinical symptoms in horse riders. Material and Methods: A total of 42 horse riders and 50 healthy individuals were examined by means of skin prick tests for a panel of horse and common animal allergens, and pulmonary function tests were done by spirometry. Results: The rate of sensitization to horse allergens was 31% as proven by the skin prick test in horse riders whereas horse se...

  11. Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their Relationship to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and ...

  12. Horse in the Turkmen Culture

    OpenAIRE

    BEŞEN DELİCE, Tuna

    2015-01-01

    Horses have provided speed and mobility for Turkish people in steppes. Through war capability and skil ls of riding horse they were successful against resident communities in different geographies throughout history and when circumstances became difficult they migrated to convenient land riding horses. They benefited from horse's milk and meat as well as it s power and speed. In feast and festivals they compete with each other using horse...

  13. Reporting Sick: Are Sporting Events Contagious?

    OpenAIRE

    Skogman Thoursie, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Moral hazard is easy to justify theoretically but difficult to detect empirically. Individuals may report sick due to illness as well as for moral hazard reasons. Potential abuse of the sickness insurance system in Sweden is estimated by comparing the change between the number of men and women who report sick during a popular sporting event and a preceding time period. Difference-in- difference estimates provide clear evidence that the number of men who reported sick increased in order to wat...

  14. Tsetse elimination: its interest and feasibility in the historical sleeping sickness focus of Loos islands, Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kagbadouno M.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Guinea is the West African country which is currently the most prevalent for sleeping sickness. The littoral area is the region where most of the recent sleeping sickness cases have been described, especially the mangrove sleeping sickness foci of Dubreka and Boffa where Glossina palpalis gambiensis is the vector. Loos islands constitute a small archipelago 5 km apart from the capital, Conakry. Medical, animal, and entomological surveys were implemented in these islands in Oct-Nov 2006. No pathogenic trypanosomes were found in these surveys. The locally very high tsetse densities (up to more than 100 tsetse/trap/day linked to pig rearing, constitute a high potential risk for humans (taking into account populations movements with neighboring active sleeping sickness foci of the Guinea littoral, and the history of sleeping sickness on these islands, and for the economically important pig rearing, as well as a danger for tourism. This situation, associated to the possibility of elimination of these tsetse populations due to low possibility of reinvasion, led the National Control Program to launch a tsetse elimination project following an “area wide” strategy for the first time in West Africa, which participates in the global objective of the PATTEC (Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign.

  15. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and...

  16. [Review article: actual danger to the domestic animal populations of exotic animal epidemics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaden, O R; Haas, L

    1989-05-01

    Most of the formerly important virus diseases like foot-and-mouth disease and enzootic bovine leukosis were eradicated in the Federal Republic of Germany during the recent decades. However, there is a continuous menace of our domestic animal population by exotic virus epidemics related to the concentration of animals in large farms, the intensified international trade of animals and their meat or milk products, and the introduction of a common European market starting in 1992. This view is emphasized by the recent outbreaks of African horse sickness in Spain in 1987/1988. In this article, foot-and-mouth disease and African horse sickness will be described as potentially dangerous virus epidemics. Furthermore, the occurrence of formerly unknown diseases has to be considered. Haemorrhagic disease of rabbits which was recently introduced in Germany is an example of new developments in virus epidemics. These three diseases, their epidemiology and the biology of the corresponding viruses will be discussed in detail. PMID:2667934

  17. Human African Trypanosomiasis Transmission, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabakana, Philemon Mansinsa; Mesu, Victor Kande Betu Ku; Manzambi, Emile Zola; Ollivier, Gaelle; Asonganyi, Tazoacha; Cuny, Gerard; Grébaut, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2 entomologic surveys were conducted in 2005. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and human-blood meals were found in tsetse fly midguts, which suggested active disease transmission. Vector control should be used to improve human African trypanosomiasis control efforts. PMID:17326955

  18. Residual viruses in pork products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKercher, P D; Hess, W R; Hamdy, F

    1978-01-01

    Partly cooked canned hams and dried pepperoni and salami sausages were prepared from the carcasses of pigs infected with African swine fever virus and pigs infected with hog cholera virus. Virus was not recovered from the partly cooked canned hams; however, virus was recovered in the hams before heating in both instances. Both African swine fever virus and hog cholera virus were recovered from the dried salami and pepperoni sausages, but not after the required curing period. PMID:564162

  19. Parenthood, gender and sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastekaasa, A

    2000-06-01

    It is well documented that women have generally higher morbidity rates than men. In line with this women are also more absent from work due to sickness. This paper considers one popular explanation of the morbidity difference in general and of the difference in sickness absence in particular, viz. that women to a greater extent than men are exposed to the 'double burden' of combining paid work with family obligations. We discuss theories of role overload and role conflict, which both assume that the combination of multiple roles may have negative health effects, as well theories of role enhancement, which assume positive health effects of multiple roles. Using two large Norwegian data sets, the relationship between the number of and the age of children on the one hand and sickness absence on the other is examined separately for men and women and for a number of theoretically interesting subpopulations of women defined in terms of marital status (also taking account of unmarried cohabitation), level of education, and working hours. Generally speaking the association between children and sickness absence is weak, particularly for married people of both genders. To the extent that married persons with children are more absent than married persons without children, this is largely due to respiratory conditions. The relationship between children and sickness absence is somewhat stronger for single, never married mothers, but not for single mothers who have been previously married or for women living in unmarried cohabitation. The findings thus provide little support for either role overload/conflict or role enhancement theories. The possibility that these effects are both present and counterbalancing each other or that they are confounded with uncontrolled selection effects can not, however, be ruled out. PMID:10798335

  20. Computer viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

  1. Hoof Comfort for Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Aquila Equine Enhancement Products, Inc., of Woburn, Massachusetts, developed magnetic hoof protector pads, called "Power Pads," which support and cushion the impact on a horse's hooves and legs to provide comfort and protection against injuries. The pads were tested by Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing Laboratory for strength and durability. Putting the pads on a horse does not interfere with its natural movement or flexibility and can be compared to a person changing into athletic shoes for a sporting event. The pads are cut to the appropriate size, and then mounted onto a horse's hooves using conventional shoeing methods. Once attached, the pads protect the hard and soft parts of the hoof by cushioning blows against the hard ground. The design also protects the vulnerable "heel" of the hoof. They are a cost-effective way to protect a horse's hooves since they can be reused.

  2. The Last Horse Trains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Horse trains used to be the chief means of transport in southwest China's mountainous areas, areas that were almost inaccessible because of the difficult terrain. They have largely disappeared as most such areas are already serviced by modern road systems. At binzhonluo, however, the last horse trains can still be found, their drivers being Nus, Lisus and Tibetans. As I discovered at country fairs, goods shipped in by horse trains from Tibetan are mostly butter tea, edible fungus and wild orchid plants, and goods shipped to Tibet include drinks, batteries, salt and instant noodles. For centuries,horse trains have traversed the Nujiang Canyon or the Tibetan-Yi Corridor which, to be accurate, should be called an economic and cultural corridor linking Tibet and the rest of China.

  3. Complete Genome Sequences of Three African Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses from Clinical Samples Isolated in 2009 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosseel, Toon; Haegeman, Andy; Fana, Mpolokang Elliot; Seoke, Latoa; Hyera, Joseph; Matlho, George; Vandenbussche, Frank; De Clercq, Kris

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of three foot-and-mouth disease viruses (one virus of each serotype SAT1, SAT2 and O) were directly sequenced from RNA extracted from clinical bovine samples, demonstrating the feasibility of full-genome sequencing from strong positive samples taken from symptomatic animals. PMID:27151795

  4. Complete Genome Sequences of Three African Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses from Clinical Samples Isolated in 2009 and 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Van Borm, Steven; Rosseel, Toon; Haegeman, Andy; Fana, Mpolokang Elliot; Seoke, Latoa; Hyera, Joseph; Matlho, George; Vandenbussche, Frank; De Clercq, Kris

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of three foot-and-mouth disease viruses (one virus of each serotype SAT1, SAT2 and O) were directly sequenced from RNA extracted from clinical bovine samples, demonstrating the feasibility of full-genome sequencing from strong positive samples taken from symptomatic animals.

  5. Complete Genome Sequences of Three African Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses from Clinical Samples Isolated in 2009 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Borm, Steven; Rosseel, Toon; Haegeman, Andy; Fana, Mpolokang Elliot; Seoke, Latoa; Hyera, Joseph; Matlho, George; Vandenbussche, Frank; De Clercq, Kris

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of three foot-and-mouth disease viruses (one virus of each serotype SAT1, SAT2 and O) were directly sequenced from RNA extracted from clinical bovine samples, demonstrating the feasibility of full-genome sequencing from strong positive samples taken from symptomatic animals. PMID:27151795

  6. Horse in the Turkmen Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuna BEŞEN DELİCE

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Horses have provided speed and mobility for Turkish people in steppes. Through war capability and skil ls of riding horse they were successful against resident communities in different geographies throughout history and when circumstances became difficult they migrated to convenient land riding horses. They benefited from horse's milk and meat as well as it s power and speed. In feast and festivals they compete with each other using horses, even if they played on horseback. This indicates that horses were how important for Turks in the political, civil, economic, social and cultural fields. Horse was located in the center of the lives of Turks throughout history. Such that, robbing a horse conneted was capital offence as well as rebellion, treason, murder, adultery according to the criminal law of the former Turks. Horse still has not lost its importance in t he present Turkish regions, especially Central Asian geography. Horse is so important for Turkmens that horse figure has taken place in the state coat of arms of Turkmenistan and the last sunday in April is celebrated as a feast in Turkmenistan. Ahal - Teke which is most exclusive horse breed of the word is brought up in Turkmenistan. Horse has also an important place in the vocabulary. In this work, it would be determine horse’s important in social and cultural life of Turkmens as following both language and non - language indicators.

  7. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells as a Trojan horse

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Ping-Ying; Chen, Hui-Ming; Chen, Shu-Hsia

    2013-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that oncolytic vesicular stomatitis viruses can be efficiently and selectively delivered to neoplastic lesions by myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Importantly, the loading of viruses onto MDSCs inhibited their immunosuppressive properties and endowed them with immunostimulatory and tumoricidal functions. Our study demonstrates the potential use of MDSCs as a Trojan horse for the tumor-targeted delivery of various anticancer therapeutics.

  8. Beak and feather disease virus haemagglutinating activity using erythrocytes from African Grey parrots and Brown-headed parrots : research communication

    OpenAIRE

    K. Kondiah; Albertyn, J; R.R. Bragg

    2005-01-01

    Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) is a common viral disease of wild and captive psittacine birds characterized by symmetric feather loss and beak deformities. The causative agent, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), is a small, circular single-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the genus Circovirus. BFDV can be detected by PCR or the use of haemagglutination (HA) and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays that detect antigen and antibodies respectively. Erythrocytes from ...

  9. A Novel Model of Lethal Hendra Virus Infection in African Green Monkeys and the Effectiveness of Ribavirin Treatment▿

    OpenAIRE

    Rockx, Barry; Bossart, Katharine N.; Feldmann, Friederike; Geisbert, Joan B.; Hickey, Andrew C.; Brining, Douglas; Callison, Julie; Safronetz, David; Marzi, Andrea; Kercher, Lisa; Long, Dan; Broder, Christopher C.; Feldmann, Heinz; Geisbert, Thomas W

    2010-01-01

    The henipaviruses, Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV), are emerging zoonotic paramyxoviruses that can cause severe and often lethal neurologic and/or respiratory disease in a wide variety of mammalian hosts, including humans. There are presently no licensed vaccines or treatment options approved for human or veterinarian use. Guinea pigs, hamsters, cats, and ferrets, have been evaluated as animal models of human HeV infection, but studies in nonhuman primates (NHP) have not been reporte...

  10. Sick, the spectroscopic inference crank

    CERN Document Server

    Casey, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives which remain severely under-utilised. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analysing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this Article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbour estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimised point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalise on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-di...

  11. Bone scintigraphy of decompression sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Value of bone scintigraphy in decompression sickness of 42 patients was retrospectively evaluated. Bone scintigraphy was positive in 30 of 42 patients (83 lesions), while radiography and symptoms were positive in 23 patients (48 lesions), and in 29 patients (44 lesions) respectively. Bone scintigraphy was positive in many lesions with negative radiography or symptoms. However, approximately half of the lesions in which either radiography or symptoms was positive could not be detected by bone scintigraphy. These cases mostly showed radiographic abnormalities such as irregular calcified areas and ''bone island'' in the cervical regions of the humerus, femur and tibia. Both bone scintigraphy and radiography were positive in most of the patients with symptoms of the bends and there seems to be a close relationship between the bends symptoms and bone lesion. We concluded that bone scintigraphy is useful for the evaluation of decompression sickness, but it must be complemented by bone radiography to avoid a significant number of false negative cases. (author)

  12. Spacelab experiments on space motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Charles M.

    Recent research results from ground and flight experiments on motion sickness and space sickness conducted by the Man Vehicle Laboratory are reviewed. New tools developed include a mathematical model for motion sickness, a method for quantitative measurement of skin pallor and blush in ambulatory subjects, and a magnitude estimation technique for ratio scaling of nausea or discomfort. These have been used to experimentally study the time course of skin pallor and subjective symptoms in laboratory motion sickness. In prolonged sickness, subjects become hypersensitive to nauseogenic stimuli. Results of a Spacelab-1 flight experiment are described in which four observers documented the stimulus factors for and the symptoms/signs of space sickness. The clinical character of space sickness differs somewhat from acute laboratory motion sickness. However SL-1 findings support the view that space sickness is fundamentally a motion sickness. Symptoms were subjectively alleviated by head movement restriction, maintenance of a familiar orientation with respect to the visual environment, and wedging between or strapping onto surfaces which provided broad contact cues confirming the absence of body motion.

  13. Spaceflight Decompression Sickness Contingency Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervay, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the Decompression Sickness (DCS) Contingency Plan for manned spaceflight is shown. The topics include: 1) Approach; 2) DCS Contingency Plan Overview; 3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Cuff Classifications; 4) On-orbit Treatment Philosophy; 5) Long Form Malfunction Procedure (MAL); 6) Medical Checklist; 7) Flight Rules; 8) Crew Training; 9) Flight Surgeon / Biomedical Engineer (BME) Training; and 10) DCS Emergency Landing Site.

  14. Sickness Behavior in Honey Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskas, Nadia; Klappenbach, Martín; Depino, Amaicha M.; Locatelli, Fernando F.

    2016-01-01

    During an infection, animals suffer several changes in their normal physiology and behavior which may include lethargy, appetite loss, and reduction in grooming and general movements. This set of alterations is known as sickness behavior and although it has been extensively believed to be orchestrated primarily by the immune system, a relevant role for the central nervous system has also been established. The aim of the present work is to develop a simple animal model to allow studying how the immune and the nervous systems interact coordinately during an infection. We administered a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the thorax of honey bees to mimic a bacterial infection, and then we evaluated a set of stereotyped behaviors of the animals that might be indicative of sickness behavior. First, we show that this immune challenge reduces the locomotor activity of the animals in a narrow time window after LPS injection. Furthermore, bees exhibit a loss of appetite 60 and 90 min after injection, but not 15 h later. We also demonstrate that LPS injection reduces spontaneous antennal movements in harnessed animals, which suggests a reduction in the motivational state of the bees. Finally, we show that the LPS injection diminishes the interaction between animals, a crucial behavior in social insects. To our knowledge these results represent the first systematic description of sickness behavior in honey bees and provide important groundwork for the study of the interaction between the immune and the neural systems in an insect model. PMID:27445851

  15. Nutrient needs of performance horses

    OpenAIRE

    Laurie Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    In 1989, the National Research Council (NRC) Subcommittee on Horse Nutrition defined three categories of exercise: light, moderate or intense. In the 6th revised edition of "The Nutrient Requirements of Horses" (NRC, 2007), there are four categories for exercising horses: light exercise, moderate exercise, heavy exercise and very heavy exercise. Light exercise is described as 1 to 3 hours/week of mostly walking and trotting. Many horses kept for recreational riding would be included in the li...

  16. Veterinary management of horse transport

    OpenAIRE

    Des Leadon; Natalie Waran; Conny Herholz; Mariann Klay

    2008-01-01

    Enormous numbers of horses are transported locally, nationally and internationally every year. National legislation and international guidelines set standards for the health and welfare of animals during transport. As a consequence, equine clinicians have major responsibilities in safeguarding the horse industry against the spread of disease and in being aware of the problems inherent in horse transport. The authors explore road, sea and air transport and their effect on horses. Various types...

  17. Fundamental aspects of horse nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    SMÍTKOVÁ, Tereza

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to process a literary study and evaluate basic aspects of the horse nourishment. The thesis deals with the importance of the nutrients, minerals and vitamins in the feeding ration. It also describes fodder used for the horse feeding and the techniques of feeding. It particularly focuses on the young horse categories but a category of gravid breast-feeding mares and ageing horses is also introduced.

  18. Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 Expressing the Native or Soluble Fusion (F) Protein of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Confers Protection from RSV Infection in African Green Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Roderick S.; MacPhail, Mia; Schickli, Jeanne H; Kaur, Jasmine; Robinson, Christopher L.; Lawlor, Heather A.; Guzzetta, Jeanne M.; Spaete, Richard R.; Haller, Aurelia A.

    2004-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes respiratory disease in young children, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals, often resulting in hospitalization and/or death. After more than 40 years of research, a Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccine for RSV is still not available. In this study, a chimeric bovine/human (b/h) parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) expressing the human PIV3 (hPIV3) fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) proteins from an otherwise bovine PIV3 (b...

  19. Exploring sexual practices of South African soldiers to determine their vulnerability to the human immune-deficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela De Jong

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Although HIV occurs in all social groups in South African society, certain populations are more vulnerable to HIV through risky behaviour patterns. Of relevance to the present study are the high risk situations that deployed soldiers are exposed to. Three issues indicated the necessity for a study of this kind to be conducted; (a the statistics pointing to a higher incidence of HIV infections among military personnel than among the general population, (b military personnel’s unique vulnerability profile, and (c the South African National Defence Force’s (SANDF increasing participation in international peacekeeping missions. The knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning HIV/AIDS of deployed soldiers were analysed. Results indicated that soldiers were taking sexual risks, although they had high levels of knowledge and had healthy attitudes concerning HIV/AIDS.

  20. Morphological findings in the cranial mesenteric artery of horses with verminous arteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cranial mesenteric arteries of 18 sacrificed necropsied horses of both sexes and different age groups were described in this paper. After macroscopic examination tissue samples for pathohistological examinations were routinely processed and stained with hematoxylin eosine (HE, Weigert van Gieson and Periodic-Acid-Schiff (PAS staining. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on selected sections using avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex technique for ásmooth muscle actin (α-SMA. Enlarged, thickened cranial mesenteric arteries with a hardelastic consistency and narrowed lumen, were macroscopically evident in all examined sick horses. Live larvae of Strongylus vulgaris, situated free in the lumen, or attached to the intima of the blood vessel or incorporated in the thrombus were noted macroscopically in 37.5% examined sick horses. Inflammatory and fibrous changes were noticed and were present in the intima, media and adventitia of the blood vessel. The inflammatory infiltrate in the intima of the cranial mesenteric artery consisted of eosinophils, macrophages, plasma cells, lymphocytes and rare multinucleated giant cells and was situated mostly close to the Strongylus vulgaris larvae. Beside inflammatory changes, intimal fibrosis and extension, characterized by increased proliferation of α-SMA positive cells, was notable. Lesions of the internal elastic lamina consequently led to an inflammatory and fibrotic reaction in the tunica media. Fibrosis of the media characterized by the presence of connective tissue cells and fibers, as well as smoothmuscle cells, was present in 93.75% examined sick horses. Inflammation and fibrosis were mildest in the adventitia. Lesions of vasa vasorum were present in 81.25% examined sick animals were characterized by fibrosis, obliteration, perivascular cellular infiltration, mostly with eosinophils and findings of intimal bodies. All described changes are characteristic for cranial mesenteric artery verminous

  1. Hendra Virus Re-visited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hume Field

    2009-01-01

    Hendra virus, a novel member of the family Paramyxovirus that has emerged from bats in Australia, causes fatal disease in livestock and humans. Eleven spillover events have been identified since the first description of the virus in 1994, resulting in a total of 37 equine cases and six human cases. All human cases have been attributed to exposure to infected horses; there is no evidence of bat-to-human or human-to-human transmission. Low infectivity and a high case fatality rate are features of Hendra virus infection in both horses and humans. The temporal pattern of spillover events suggests seasonal factors (plausibly be environmental, biological or ecological) as the proximate triggers for spillover. Minimisation of the future occurrence and impact of Hendra virus infections requires an understanding of the ecology of flying foxes, of virus infection dynamics in flying foxes, and of the factors that promote spillover. Management strategies seek to minimize the opportunity for effective contact between bats and horses, and limit potential horse-to-horse and horse-to-human transmission. Incomplete knowledge of the ecology of the virus, of the proximate factors associated with spillover, and the inherent difficulties of effectively managing wild populations, preclude a management approach targeted at bats.

  2. Horse madness (hippomania) and hippophobia

    OpenAIRE

    Papakostas, Yiannis G.; Daras, Michael D.; Liappas, Ioannis A.; Markianos, Manolis

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Anthropophagic horses have been described in classical mythology. From a current perspective, two such instances are worth mentioning and describing: Glaucus of Potniae, King of Efyra, and Diomedes, King of Thrace, who were both devoured by their horses. In both cases, the horses? extreme aggression and their subsequent anthropophagic behaviour were attributed to their madness (hippomania) ...

  3. Absence of Ornithodoros moubata, the vector of African swine fever virus, from the main pig producing area of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekue, N F; Wilkinson, P J

    1990-05-01

    No evidence for the presence of soft ticks of the Ornithodoros moubata complex was found during a survey of African swine fever carried out between 1985 and 1988 in the West Province and southern parts of the North West and South West Provinces of Cameroon. The survey consisted of interviews of veterinary assistants and farmers, distribution of a questionnaire and tick searches both manually and with carbon dioxide traps. The absence of warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) from these areas was also recorded. PMID:2371751

  4. Investigation into the Epidemiology of African Swine Fever Virus at the Wildlife - Domestic Interface of the Gorongosa National Park, Central Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quembo, C J; Jori, F; Heath, L; Pérez-Sánchez, R; Vosloo, W

    2016-08-01

    An epidemiological study of African swine fever (ASF) was conducted between March 2006 and September 2007 in a rural area adjacent to the Gorongosa National park (GNP) located in the Central Mozambique. Domestic pigs and warthogs were sampled to determine the prevalence of antibodies against ASF virus and the salivary antigens of Ornithodoros spp. ticks, while ticks collected from pig pens were tested for the presence of ASFV. In addition, 310 framers were interviewed to gain a better understanding of the pig value chain and potential practices that could impact on the spread of the virus. The sero-prevalence to ASFV was 12.6% on farms and 9.1% in pigs, while it reached 75% in warthogs. Approximately 33% of pigs and 78% of warthogs showed antibodies against salivary antigens of ticks. The differences in sero-prevalence between farms close to the GNP, where there is greater chance for the sylvatic cycle to cause outbreaks, and farms located in the rest of the district, where pig to pig transmission is more likely to occur, were marginally significant. Ornithodoros spp. ticks were found in only 2 of 20 pig pens outside the GNP, and both pens had ticks testing positive for ASFV DNA. Interviews carried out among farmers indicated that biosecurity measures were mostly absent. Herd sizes were small with pigs kept in a free-ranging husbandry system (65%). Only 1.6% of farmers slaughtered on their premises, but 51% acknowledged allowing visitors into their farms to purchase pigs. ASF outbreaks seemed to have a severe economic impact with nearly 36% of farmers ceasing pig farming for at least 1 year after a suspected ASF outbreak. This study provides the first evidence of the existence of a sylvatic cycle in Mozambique and confirms the presence of a permanent source of virus for the domestic pig value chain. PMID:25483914

  5. Ebola virus: recommendations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2014-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service has been closely following, in particular via the WHO, the development of the Ebola virus outbreak currently affecting some African countries. This infectious disease may be passed on through direct contact with the bodily fluids of a sick person.   Based on the recommendations of the WHO and the two Host States, Switzerland and France, as updated on their respective websites, so far there has been no ban on travel to the countries concerned. However, unless it is absolutely essential, you are advised not to visit any of the countries affected by Ebola (Guinea, Republic of Sierra Leone, Liberia, Nigeria). The two Host States have established an alert system, and a check is carried out on departure from the airports of those countries. It is strongly recommended that you contact the Medical Service if you are travelling to those countries. We remind you to observe the basic rules of hygiene such as frequent hand washing, whatever your destination. The Medical Service is...

  6. [Treating sleeping sickness, Takalafiya, c.1940

    OpenAIRE

    Unknown

    2003-01-01

    Showing a woman being given an injection. The photograph is part of a series of British Official photographs (Crown Copyright Reserved) issued under the general title 'Sleeping sickness experiment is pattern for progress in rural Africa'. It has two typewritten captions on the reverse. The first reads: 'At the Takalafiya dispensary this woman victim of sleeping sickness is given intravenous injections of tryparsimide by the sleeping sickness service attendant'. The second reads: 'The Br...

  7. Animal models in motion sickness research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunton, Nancy G.

    1990-01-01

    Practical information on candidate animal models for motion sickness research and on methods used to elicit and detect motion sickness in these models is provided. Four good potential models for use in motion sickness experiments include the dog, cat, squirrel monkey, and rat. It is concluded that the appropriate use of the animal models, combined with exploitation of state-of-the-art biomedical techniques, should generate a great step forward in the understanding of motion sickness mechanisms and in the development of efficient and effective approaches to its prevention and treatment in humans.

  8. Year of the Horse

    OpenAIRE

    Strank, Willem

    2010-01-01

    YEAR OF THE HORSE, eine Konzertdokumentation der Welttournee von Neil Young & Crazy Horse aus dem Jahre 1996, ist nach RUST NEVER SLEEPS (1979, Bernard Shakey [= Neil Young]), WELD (1990, unbekannter Regisseur), RAGGED GLORY (1991, Julien Temple) und THE COMPLEX SESSIONS (1995, Jonathan Demme) bereits der fünfte Film über die Band, sieht man von zwei mehr oder eher weniger bekannten Bootlegs (LIVE, o.J.; LIVE AT THE FILLMORE 1970, o.J.) einmal ab. Während der Titel die Tournee zum Album Broke...

  9. Transmission of Avian Influenza A Viruses Between Animals and People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsletters Transmission of Avian Influenza A Viruses Between Animals and People Language: English Español Recommend on ... Compartir Influenza A viruses have infected many different animals, including ducks, chickens, pigs, whales, horses, and seals. ...

  10. Interactions of the DNA Polymerase X From African Swine Fever Virus With the ssDNA. Properties of the Total DNA-Binding Site and the Strong DNA-Binding Subsite§

    OpenAIRE

    Jezewska, Maria J.; Szymanski, Michal R.; Bujalowski, Wlodzimierz

    2011-01-01

    Interactions of the polymerase X from the African Swine Fever Virus with the ssDNA have been studied, using quantitative fluorescence titration and fluorescence resonance energy transfer techniques. The primary DNA-binding subsite of the enzyme, independent of the DNA conformation, is located on the C-terminal domain. Association of the bound DNA with the catalytic N-terminal domain finalizes the engagement of the total DNA-binding site of the enzyme and induces a large topological change in ...

  11. [Concomitant activity of 2 bunyaviruses in horses in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara, A; Contigiani, M S; Medeot, S I

    1990-01-01

    A serologic survey of horses for Kairi (KRI) and Cache Valley (CV), two related Bunyaviruses, was conducted simultaneously in Cordoba and Santa Fe provinces, Argentina, during late 1983 and 1984. The prevalence of neutralizing antibodies only for KRI was 13.3% and only for CV was 40.0%; but if the total positive sera for KRI and CV were taken into account, the prevalence reached 48.3 and 75.0%, respectively. The prevalence for CV was higher than for KRI in Cordoba (p less than 0.01), but both were similar in Santa Fe province. The demonstration of seroconversion in horses of the two zones for both viruses indicates that these viruses have a concomitant activity. The infection rates (number of infections per 100 horses-month) were very high in Cordoba (4.4 and 7.1 for KRI and CV) but also in Santa Fe (2.9 and 9.5 for the two viruses respectively), without significant difference in each province. Despite this high activity, no signs of illness or death imputed to these viruses were registered, in these areas during the period of observation. This apparent absence of associated equine disease may be the consequence of the low or null virus pathogenicity or the underrecognition or underreporting of the clinical cases. PMID:2126879

  12. African swine fever virus Georgia isolate harboring deletions of 9GL and MGF360/505 genes is highly attenuated in swine but does not confer protection against parental virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Vivian; Holinka, Lauren G; Sanford, Brenton; Krug, Peter W; Carlson, Jolene; Pacheco, Juan M; Reese, Bo; Risatti, Guillermo R; Gladue, Douglas P; Borca, Manuel V

    2016-08-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) produces a contagious disease of domestic pigs that results in severe economic consequences to the swine industry. Control of the disease has been hampered by the unavailability of vaccines. We recently reported the development of two experimental vaccine strains (ASFV-G-Δ9GL and ASFV-G-ΔMGF) based on the attenuation of the highly virulent and epidemiologically relevant Georgia2007 isolate. Deletion of the 9GL gene or six genes of the MGF360/505 group produced two attenuated ASFV strains which were able to confer protection to animals when challenged with the virulent parental virus. Both viruses, although efficient in inducing protection, present concerns regarding their safety. In an attempt to solve this problem we developed a novel virus strain, ASFV-G-Δ9GL/ΔMGF, based on the deletion of all genes deleted in ASFV-G-Δ9GL and ASFV-G-ΔMGF. ASFV-G-Δ9GL/ΔMGF is the first derivative of a highly virulent ASFV field strain subjected to a double round of recombination events seeking to sequentially delete specific genes. ASFV-G-Δ9GL/ΔMGF showed a decreased ability to replicate in primary swine macrophage cultures relative to that of ASFV-G and ASFV-G-ΔMGF but similar to that of ASFV-G-Δ9GL. ASFV-G-Δ9GL/ΔMGF was attenuated when intramuscularly inoculated into swine, even at doses as high as 10(6) HAD50. Animals infected with doses ranging from 10(2) to 10(6) HAD50 did not present detectable levels of virus in blood at any time post-infection and they did not develop detectable levels of anti-ASFV antibodies. Importantly, ASFV-G-Δ9GL/ΔMGF does not induce protection against challenge with the virulent parental ASFV-G isolate. Results presented here suggest caution towards approaches involving genomic manipulations when developing rationally designed ASFV vaccine strains. PMID:27182007

  13. Estimates of the duration of the early and late stage of gambiense sleeping sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Chandramohan Daniel; Haydon Daniel T; Filipe João AN; Checchi Francesco; Chappuis François

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The durations of untreated stage 1 (early stage, haemo-lymphatic) and stage 2 (late stage, meningo-encephalitic) human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense are poorly quantified, but key to predicting the impact of screening on transmission. Here, we outline a method to estimate these parameters. Methods We first model the duration of stage 1 through survival analysis of untreated serological suspects detected during Médecins Sans...

  14. sick: The Spectroscopic Inference Crank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Andrew R.

    2016-03-01

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives that remain severely under-utilized. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analyzing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick is agnostic to the wavelength coverage, resolving power, or general data format, allowing any user to easily construct a generative model for their data, regardless of its source. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbor estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimized point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalize on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-dimensional interpolation, or a Cannon-based model. Additional phenomena that transform the data (e.g., redshift, rotational broadening, continuum, spectral resolution) are incorporated as free parameters and can be marginalized away. Outlier pixels (e.g., cosmic rays or poorly modeled regimes) can be treated with a Gaussian mixture model, and a noise model is included to account for systematically underestimated variance. Combining these phenomena into a scalar-justified, quantitative model permits precise inferences with credible uncertainties on noisy data. I describe the common model features, the implementation details, and the default behavior, which is balanced to be suitable for most astronomical applications. Using a forward model on low-resolution, high signal

  15. Homegrown Olympic Horses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Potential equine Olympians prepare for 2008 "All the horses for the modern pentathlon at the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games will be made-in-China," said Zhang Bin, Deputy Director of the Competition Office of the Modern Pentathlon WorldCup Final, which was recently held in Beijing.

  16. The molecular basis of livestock diseases in developing countries as illustrated by African trypanosomosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Viral, bacterial, protozoan and helminthic diseases of domestic livestock continue to be serious impediments to the agricultural economies of most developing countries. Many of these livestock pathogens have evolved sophisticated molecular mechanisms for evading or circumventing the mammalian immune system. These same pathogens frequently acquire resistance to drugs that are initially effective. African trypanosomes are protozoan parasites that cause the fatal diseases of ngana in cattle, surra in camels and horses and sleeping sickness in humans. They are the paradigm for a livestock pathogen in developing countries for which much is now known, yet little has been achieved in controlling or eliminating the disease. African trypanosomes were identified as the cause of trypanosomosis more than 100 years ago and in many ways are ideal pathogens to study in the laboratory. From the perspective of research on the parasites themselves, excellent laboratory rodent models for their infection exist. They can be readily grown in vitro in culture flasks. Their mechanism of immune evasion is known. The completed DNA sequence of their genome is nearly determined. They can be manipulated genetically in the laboratory - genes can be mutated and deleted from, or inserted into, their genome. They contain unique organelles and metabolic pathways not found in mammals that could potentially be exploited for new drug development. They are pathogens of humans as well as livestock, so they attract the interests and enormous resources of the medical research community. Advantages also exist from the standpoint of experiments on their animal hosts. Breeds of domestic cattle that are either 'trypanotolerant' or trypanosome-sensitive are well known and animals of each type have been cross-bred. The molecular basis of trypanosome-tolerance in at least one indigenous wild animal species (the Cape buffalo) has been elucidated. The reason some African trypanosome species are killed

  17. PROTEINS OF AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS Белки вируса африканской чумы свиней

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sereda A. D.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The review presents some data on structural and non-structural, regulatory proteins and enzymes of African swine fever (ASF virus. The variety of the virus biological characteristics is substantially caused by proteins belonging to multigenic families. It is suggested, that the protection development at ASF is provided not only by the membrane proteins, but also by the regulatory ones

  18. Indoor air pollution and sick building syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topics discussed in this paper are accept that SBS (Sick building syndrome) is a reality ; understand the dimensions of the problem ; differentiate between sick building syndrome and building related illness ; introduce standards ; understanding the economics ; act pro-actively not re-actively

  19. Predicting motion sickness during parabolic flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harm, Deborah L.; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are large individual differences in susceptibility to motion sickness. Attempts to predict who will become motion sick have had limited success. In the present study, we examined gender differences in resting levels of salivary amylase and total protein, cardiac interbeat intervals (R-R intervals), and a sympathovagal index and evaluated their potential to correctly classify individuals into two motion sickness severity groups. METHODS: Sixteen subjects (10 men and 6 women) flew four sets of 10 parabolas aboard NASA's KC-135 aircraft. Saliva samples for amylase and total protein were collected preflight on the day of the flight and motion sickness symptoms were recorded during each parabola. Cardiovascular parameters were collected in the supine position 1-5 days before the flight. RESULTS: There were no significant gender differences in sickness severity or any of the other variables mentioned above. Discriminant analysis using salivary amylase, R-R intervals and the sympathovagal index produced a significant Wilks' lambda coefficient of 0.36, p=0.006. The analysis correctly classified 87% of the subjects into the none-mild sickness or the moderate-severe sickness group. CONCLUSIONS: The linear combination of resting levels of salivary amylase, high-frequency R-R interval levels, and a sympathovagal index may be useful in predicting motion sickness severity.

  20. Genetic aspects of sick sinus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernova A.A.

    2013-03-01

    consistent with that of the genotypes of the above genes in the general population of primary sick sinus syndrome patients. The allelic variants of the above genes were not found to be associated with ompensated sick sinus syndrome. Conclusion. The genetic predictors of idiopathic sick sinus syndrome are heterozygous genotypes 44 GA and 4a/4b genes Cx 40 and NOS3 as well as homozygous genotypes in rare allele DD and GG genes ADRA2B and SCN5A. Polymorphic allelic variant 2161C > T (Arg721Trp of MYH6 gene was not revealed in the examined cohort of Krasnoyarsk population. The distribution of the genotypes of the investigated genes in latent sick sinus syndrome patients was found to be consistent with that of the genotypes in the general population of primary sick sinus syndrome patients.

  1. Relation between phylogeny of African green monkey CD4 genes and their respective simian immunodeficiency virus genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, Anders; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela C.; Diop, Ousmane;

    1997-01-01

    An apparent species-specific relatedness of SIVagm suggests a coevolution with their natural hosts. However, the exact species or subspecies classification of African green monkeys, AGM, is uncertain because current classification schemes rely on phenotype markers, while more definitive genetic...... data are lacking. In this study, the CD4 protein involved in tissue type recognition was gentically cloned and sequence from PBMC RNA from all AGM species, including Barbados green monkeys (BGM). Phylogenetic trees were constructed that also included genomic CD4 nucleotide sequences from patas, sooty......, tantalus, vervets, grivets, and sabaeus formed separate subgroups with BGM grouping closely with vervets. The branching order of the AGM species was related to that of their respective SIVagm env sequences. The study suggests a strong correlation between CD4 phylogeny and the susceptibility of the host...

  2. Archives, libraries and museums: containers often sick, sometimes seriously sick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Nicolucci

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available As far as the feeling of quietness and peace that they often convey, archives, museums and libraries also hide dangers that you may not imagine, either for visitors or especially for the members of the staff. Indeed the poor microclimatic conditions – often the consequences of materials and construction or building technologies that appear definitely obsolete – often arouse suspicion and worry among the staff. Wrong Thermo hygrometric parameters, the presence of volatile organic elements, mineral fibers, biocides, radon gas, aerial dispersive molecules, are among others some of the chemical physical polluters of major influence that may contribute to giving life to the so-called Sick Building Syndrome. But such spaces also bear biological polluters that can provoke pathologies of various types and importance, among which the feared Illness of Legionnaire. The presence of electromagnetic fields, but above all wrong lighting and wrong ergonomic working positions represent some risk factors for members of staff and visitors.

  3. Orchitis as an unusual manifestation of human African trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Stephan; Lippert, Ute; Burchard, Gerd D; Sudeck, Hinrich

    2006-01-01

    African trypanosomiasis is a re-emerging disease. We report the case of an African patient whose predominant symptom was infertility due to a granulomatous orchitis. The patient was afebrile and had not been in Africa for years. Lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly led us eventually to the diagnosis of sleeping sickness. After treatment with suramin his spermiogram returned to normal. Sleeping sickness evolves through clinically different stages and leads to death if left untreated. The disease may, however, present clinically extremely variable and may thus be difficult to diagnose. PMID:15936085

  4. Injuries in group kept horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdell, C.M.; Jorgensen, G.M.; Keeling, L.;

    2014-01-01

    Group housing of horses is not very widespread, despite obvious advantages for their development and mental well-being. One often expressed rationale for this is that horse owners are worried about the risk of injuries due to kicks, bites or being chased into obstacles. To address this concern, we...... developed and validated a scoring system for external injuries in horses to be able to record the severity of a lesion in a standardized and simple way under field conditions. The scoring system has five categories from insignificant loss of hair to severe, life threatening injuries. It was used...... to categorize 1124 injuries in 478 horses. Most of these horses were allocated to groups to study the effect of group composition (i.e. same age or mixed, same gender or mixed, socially stable or unstable groups) on behaviour and injuries. The material included mainly riding and leisure purpose horses...

  5. Natural Exposure of Horses to Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses in South-East Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2011 an unprecedented epidemic of equine encephalitis occurred in south-eastern (SE Australia following heavy rainfall and severe flooding in the preceding 2–4 months. Less than 6% of the documented cases occurred in Queensland, prompting the question of pre-existing immunity in Queensland horses. A small-scale serological survey was conducted on horses residing in one of the severely flood-affected areas of SE-Queensland. Using a flavivirus-specific blocking-ELISA we found that 63% (39/62 of horses older than 3 years were positive for flavivirus antibodies, and of these 18% (7/38 had neutralizing antibodies to Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV, Kunjin virus (WNVKUN and/or Alfuy virus (ALFV. The remainder had serum-neutralizing antibodies to viruses in the Kokobera virus (KOKV complex or antibodies to unknown/untested flaviviruses. Amongst eight yearlings one presented with clinical MVEV-encephalomyelitis, while another, clinically normal, had MVEV-neutralizing antibodies. The remaining six yearlings were flavivirus antibody negative. Of 19 foals born between August and November 2011 all were flavivirus antibody negative in January 2012. This suggests that horses in the area acquire over time active immunity to a range of flaviviruses. Nevertheless, the relatively infrequent seropositivity to MVEV, WNVKUN and ALFV (15% suggests that factors other than pre-existing immunity may have contributed to the low incidence of arboviral disease in SE-Queensland horses during the 2011 epidemic.

  6. Natural exposure of horses to mosquito-borne flaviviruses in south-east Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prow, Natalie A; Tan, Cindy S E; Wang, Wenqi; Hobson-Peters, Jody; Kidd, Lisa; Barton, Anita; Wright, John; Hall, Roy A; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

    2013-09-01

    In 2011 an unprecedented epidemic of equine encephalitis occurred in south-eastern (SE) Australia following heavy rainfall and severe flooding in the preceding 2-4 months. Less than 6% of the documented cases occurred in Queensland, prompting the question of pre-existing immunity in Queensland horses. A small-scale serological survey was conducted on horses residing in one of the severely flood-affected areas of SE-Queensland. Using a flavivirus-specific blocking-ELISA we found that 63% (39/62) of horses older than 3 years were positive for flavivirus antibodies, and of these 18% (7/38) had neutralizing antibodies to Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), Kunjin virus (WNV(KUN)) and/or Alfuy virus (ALFV). The remainder had serum-neutralizing antibodies to viruses in the Kokobera virus (KOKV) complex or antibodies to unknown/untested flaviviruses. Amongst eight yearlings one presented with clinical MVEV-encephalomyelitis, while another, clinically normal, had MVEV-neutralizing antibodies. The remaining six yearlings were flavivirus antibody negative. Of 19 foals born between August and November 2011 all were flavivirus antibody negative in January 2012. This suggests that horses in the area acquire over time active immunity to a range of flaviviruses. Nevertheless, the relatively infrequent seropositivity to MVEV, WNV(KUN) and ALFV (15%) suggests that factors other than pre-existing immunity may have contributed to the low incidence of arboviral disease in SE-Queensland horses during the 2011 epidemic. PMID:24048209

  7. Sensitive detection of African swine fever virus using real-time PCR with a 5' conjugated minor groove binding probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKillan, John; McMenamy, Michael; Hjertner, Bernt; McNeilly, Francis; Uttenthal, Åse; Gallardo, Carmina; Adair, Brian; Allan, Gordon

    detect any of the other common swine DNA viruses tested in this study. The assay can detect ASFV DNA in a range of clinical samples. Sensitivity was equivalent to the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) recommended TaqMan assay. In addition the assay was found to have a detection limit 10-fold more...... sensitive than the conventional PCR recommended by the OIE. Linear range was ten logs from 2 × 101 to 2 × 1010. The assay is rapid with an amplification time just over 2 h. The development of this assay provides a useful tool for the specific diagnosis of ASF in statutory or emergency testing programs or...

  8. The origin of ambling horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutke, Saskia; Andersson, Leif; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Gonzalez, Javier; Hallsson, Jón Hallsteinn; Lõugas, Lembi; Magnell, Ola; Morales-Muniz, Arturo; Orlando, Ludovic; Pálsdóttir, Albína Hulda; Reissmann, Monika; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Mariana B; Ruttkay, Matej; Trinks, Alexandra; Hofreiter, Michael; Ludwig, Arne

    2016-08-01

    Horseback riding is the most fundamental use of domestic horses and has had a huge influence on the development of human societies for millennia. Over time, riding techniques and the style of riding improved. Therefore, horses with the ability to perform comfortable gaits (e.g. ambling or pacing), so-called 'gaited' horses, have been highly valued by humans, especially for long distance travel. Recently, the causative mutation for gaitedness in horses has been linked to a substitution causing a premature stop codon in the DMRT3 gene (DMRT3_Ser301STOP) [1]. In mice, Dmrt3 is expressed in spinal cord interneurons and plays an important role in the development of limb movement coordination [1]. Genotyping the position in 4396 modern horses from 141 breeds revealed that nowadays the mutated allele is distributed worldwide with an especially high frequency in gaited horses and breeds used for harness racing [2]. Here, we examine historic horse remains for the DMRT3 SNP, tracking the origin of gaitedness to Medieval England between 850 and 900 AD. The presence of the corresponding allele in Icelandic horses (9(th)-11(th) century) strongly suggests that ambling horses were brought from the British Isles to Iceland by Norse people. Considering the high frequency of the ambling allele in early Icelandic horses, we believe that Norse settlers selected for this comfortable mode of horse riding soon after arrival. The absence of the allele in samples from continental Europe (including Scandinavia) at this time implies that ambling horses may have spread from Iceland and maybe also the British Isles across the continent at a later date. PMID:27505236

  9. Workplace bullying and sickness presenteeism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Clausen, Thomas; Hansen, Åse Marie;

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate exposure to workplace bullying as a potential risk factor for sickness presenteeism (SP), i.e., working while ill. Methods: This study is based on data collected through self-reported questionnaires in a 2-year prospective study on employees in...... missing values, the final samples were composed of 2,865 and 1,331participants in the cross-sectional and prospective analyses, respectively. Results: Modified poisson regression analyses showed that frequent (i.e., daily or weekly) exposure to workplace bullying was associated with reporting 8 or more...... indications of a significant relationship between exposure to frequent workplace bullying and SP, although causal connections could not be established. Methodological and theoretical considerations about study findings are provided, which could be of benefit to future studies examining the impact of being a...

  10. Immune Dysfunction in Aged Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Dianne

    2016-08-01

    The aging process in people is associated with changes in adaptive and innate immune responses. Similar changes occur in aged horses. Age-related progressive impairment in the ability to respond to pathogen challenge and an increased inflammatory reactivity may predispose geriatric horses to many diseases of old age. Specific recommendations for immune modification of older horses, including an age-appropriate vaccination schedule, are not currently available. In addition, the effect of old age on risk of infectious disease is poorly documented. More work is needed to better understand the interactions of age on immunity, vaccine response, and disease risk in horses. PMID:27329495

  11. No Fools with Horses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MarkGodfrey

    2004-01-01

    HORSES have been around China for a long time. The Mongols conquered China on horseback and ruled as the Yuan Dynasty for a century. The terracotta warriors in Xi'an, cavalrymen by their steeds, date from the pre-millennial Qin Dynasty. Tang Dynasty ceramics depic thorses and camels, and many generals of the Republic of China in the 1920s had a predilection for equestrian statues of themselves.

  12. Ducks: the "Trojan horses" of H5N1 influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Ki; Negovetich, Nicholas J; Forrest, Heather L; Webster, Robert G

    2009-07-01

    Wild ducks are the main reservoir of influenza A viruses that can be transmitted to domestic poultry and mammals, including humans. Of the 16 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes of influenza A viruses, only the H5 and H7 subtypes cause highly pathogenic (HP) influenza in the natural hosts. Several duck species are naturally resistant to HP Asian H5N1 influenza viruses. These duck species can shed and spread virus from both the respiratory and intestinal tracts while showing few or no disease signs. While the HP Asian H5N1 viruses are 100% lethal for chickens and other gallinaceous poultry, the absence of disease signs in some duck species has led to the concept that ducks are the "Trojan horses" of H5N1 in their surreptitious spread of virus. An important unresolved issue is whether the HP H5N1 viruses are maintained in the wild duck population of the world. Here, we review the ecology and pathobiology of ducks infected with influenza A viruses and ducks' role in the maintenance and spread of HP H5N1 viruses. We also identify the key questions about the role of ducks that must be resolved in order to understand the emergence and control of pandemic influenza. It is generally accepted that wild duck species can spread HP H5N1 viruses, but there is insufficient evidence to show that ducks maintain these viruses and transfer them from one generation to the next. PMID:19627369

  13. Poor efficacy of the most commonly used anthelmintics in sport horse nematodes in Morocco in relation to resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouiten H.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Sport and leisure horses in Morocco are treated with several anthelmintics, organophosphates (dichlorvos, benzimidazoles (mostly thiabendazole or tetrahydropyrimidines (mostly pyrantel pamoate against nematodes. We studied three horse stables in Rabat, one in Meknes and one in Bouznika. Two of the Rabat and Bouznika stables had introduced a large number of horses from countries (Argentina or Europe where resistance to benzimidazoles is frequent, whereas the Meknes stud farm remained without foreign introduction. The number of treatments was not very frequent (twice a year in adult horses but the same anthelmintics were used repeatedly. No resistance to dichlorvos was detected whereas benzimidazole and pyrantel pamoate resistances were detected for the first time in African horses, outside South Africa.

  14. Detection of antibodies against the orthopox virus cameli in sera of East African dromedaries using two different ELISAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The suitability of using two different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of immunoglobulin G antibodies against the camel pox virus has been tested by examining 297 sera of dromedaries from Kenya, Somalia and Sudan. The ELISAs were based on an indirect method of antibody detection. One technique used direct conjugation of enzymes to antispecies-antibodies (C-EL), the other a biotin-avidin amplification system (BA-EL). Using the conventional technique (C-EL) on 196 sera of dromedaries from different ranches in Kenya during the period 1981 to 1984 we determined a high prevalence of antibodies, with titres of up to 1:4096. A comparison made for the years 1981 to 1984 showed a slight decrease in antibody titres. Five animals suffering from acute camel pox showed titres between 1:8192 and 1:32768; eight serum samples from Somalia, collected during an outbreak of camel pox, showed titres of 1:2048 to 1:8192. A high prevalence of antibodies was also found in 93 samples from Sudan; 95% of the animals showed titres of between 1:128 and 1:4096. Differences due to sex or age could not be determined. According to these results, camel pox appears to be endemic in the areas investigated. To test the applicability of the new BA-EL method, 60 camel sera were investigated. It was found that the sensitivity and specificity of this technique seem to be superior to those of the standard ELISA. The advantage of BA-EL is that it avoids direct conjugation of enzymes to antispecies-globulins which, in the case of exotic animals, are not commercially available. Both ELISAs can be regarded as suitable for serological screening tests and for rapid serological differentiation of orthopox and parapox virus infections, also in camels. (author)

  15. Nutrient needs of performance horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Lawrence

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1989, the National Research Council (NRC Subcommittee on Horse Nutrition defined three categories of exercise: light, moderate or intense. In the 6th revised edition of "The Nutrient Requirements of Horses" (NRC, 2007, there are four categories for exercising horses: light exercise, moderate exercise, heavy exercise and very heavy exercise. Light exercise is described as 1 to 3 hours/week of mostly walking and trotting. Many horses kept for recreational riding would be included in the light exercise category. Moderate exercise consists of 3 to 5 hours/week of mostly trotting with some walking, some cantering and possibly some jumping or other type of more difficult activity. Horses used for horse shows, ranch work and frequent recreational riding would fit into the moderate exercise category. Heavy exercise is described as 4 to 5 hours/week of trotting, cantering, galloping and some jumping, cattle work, etc. Horses engaged in three day eventing, polo, endurance racing or other competitive events would be in this category. The very heavy exercise category includes racehorses and a few other horses that compete at the elite level of endurance or three day eventing. The NRC (2007 provides recommendations for nutrient intakes by mature exercising horses and for yearlings and two year olds that are receiving regular exercise. Many of the recommendations are similar to those in the 1989 publication, but others have been increased or decreased. For example, crude protein recommendations for exercising horses are generally lower than in the last edition. However, lysine requirements are relatively similar and the publication suggests that protein quality should be emphasized more than in the past. The 2007 NRC contains more information about the factors that influence the requirements for each nutrient, making it easier for users to develop diets for individual horses.

  16. Prevalência de anticorpos contra os vírus da influenza, da arterite viral e herpesvírus em eqüinos do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Prevalence of antibodies to influenza virus, viral arteritis and herpesvirus in horses of the Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Gustavo Diel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a prevalência de anticorpos contra os vírus da influenza (EIV, da arterite viral (EVAV e herpesvírus (EHV em eqüinos no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brasil. Amostras de soro provenientes de eqüinos de 65 municípios do Estado foram submetidas ao teste de inibição da hemaglutinação (HI para a pesquisa de anticorpos contra o EIV, e à técnica de soroneutralização (SN, para a detecção de anticorpos contra os vírus da EVA e da EHV. Das 1.506 amostras testadas, 986 (65,4% apresentaram anticorpos para o EIV (títulos entre 10 e 1280, 33 (2,2% para o EVAV (2-16 e 67 (4,5% foram positivas para o EHV (2-64. Dentre os 65 municípios amostrados, 55 (84,6% apresentaram pelo menos um animal positivo para o EIV, 15 (23% para o EVAV e 12 (18,5% para o EHV. A prevalência de anticorpos para cada vírus não variou muito entre animais de diferentes propósitos (esporte, exposição e reprodução e entre machos e fêmeas, indicando que os diferentes sistemas de criação apresentam condições epidemiológicas semelhantes em relação a essas infecções. Os resultados obtidos sugerem a circulação desses agentes na população eqüina do RS e alertam para a necessidade de estudos adicionais sobre a importância e o impacto econômico-sanitário dessas viroses para a eqüideocultura do Estado.This study was aimed at investigating the prevalence of antibodies against infections virus of influenza virus (EIV, viral viral arteritis (EVAV, and herpesvirus (EHV among horses in Rio Grande do Sul (RS state, Brazil. Serum samples from horses of Serum samples from horses from 65 counties of northern and northwestern of RS, submitted to serological diagnosis for equine infectious anemia (EIA at the University of Passo Fundo (UPF, were tested by inhibition hemaglutination test (HI for EIV and by virus -neutralization test (VN for EVAV and EHV antibodies. From 1506 samples, 986 (65.4% presented antibodies

  17. Treatment with hyperimmune equine immunoglobulin or immunoglobulin fragments completely protects rodents from Ebola virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xuexing; Wong, Gary; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Hualei; He, Shihua; Bi, Yuhai; Chen, Weijin; Jin, Hongli; Gai, Weiwei; Chu, Di; Cao, Zengguo; Wang, Chong; Fan, Quanshui; Chi, Hang; Gao, Yuwei; Wang, Tiecheng; Feng, Na; Yan, Feihu; Huang, Geng; Zheng, Ying; Li, Nan; Li, Yuetao; Qian, Jun; Zou, Yong; Kobinger, Gary; Gao, George Fu; Qiu, Xiangguo; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-01-01

    Recent successes with monoclonal antibody cocktails ZMappTM and MIL77 against Ebola virus (EBOV) infections have reignited interest in antibody-based therapeutics. Since the production process for monoclonal antibodies can be prolonged and costly, alternative treatments should be investigated. We produced purified equine antisera from horses hyperimmunized with EBOV virus-like particles, and tested the post-exposure efficacy of the antisera in a mouse model of infection. BALB/c mice were given up to 2 mg of purified equine antisera per animal, at 30 minutes, 1 or 2 days post-infection (dpi), in which all animals survived. To decrease the possibility of serum sickness, the equine antisera was digested with pepsin to generate F(ab′)2 fragments, with in vitro neutralizing activity comparable to whole immunoglobulin. Full protection was achieved with when treatment was initiated at 1 dpi, but the suboptimal protection observed with the 30 minute and 2 dpi groups demonstrate that in addition to virus neutralization, other Fc-dependent antibody mechanisms may also contribute to survival. Guinea pigs given 20 mg of antisera or F(ab′)2 at or starting at 1 or 2 dpi were also fully protected from EBOV infection. These results justify future efficacy studies for purified equine products in NHPs. PMID:27067649

  18. Treatment with hyperimmune equine immunoglobulin or immunoglobulin fragments completely protects rodents from Ebola virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xuexing; Wong, Gary; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Hualei; He, Shihua; Bi, Yuhai; Chen, Weijin; Jin, Hongli; Gai, Weiwei; Chu, Di; Cao, Zengguo; Wang, Chong; Fan, Quanshui; Chi, Hang; Gao, Yuwei; Wang, Tiecheng; Feng, Na; Yan, Feihu; Huang, Geng; Zheng, Ying; Li, Nan; Li, Yuetao; Qian, Jun; Zou, Yong; Kobinger, Gary; Gao, George Fu; Qiu, Xiangguo; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-01-01

    Recent successes with monoclonal antibody cocktails ZMapp(TM) and MIL77 against Ebola virus (EBOV) infections have reignited interest in antibody-based therapeutics. Since the production process for monoclonal antibodies can be prolonged and costly, alternative treatments should be investigated. We produced purified equine antisera from horses hyperimmunized with EBOV virus-like particles, and tested the post-exposure efficacy of the antisera in a mouse model of infection. BALB/c mice were given up to 2 mg of purified equine antisera per animal, at 30 minutes, 1 or 2 days post-infection (dpi), in which all animals survived. To decrease the possibility of serum sickness, the equine antisera was digested with pepsin to generate F(ab')2 fragments, with in vitro neutralizing activity comparable to whole immunoglobulin. Full protection was achieved with when treatment was initiated at 1 dpi, but the suboptimal protection observed with the 30 minute and 2 dpi groups demonstrate that in addition to virus neutralization, other Fc-dependent antibody mechanisms may also contribute to survival. Guinea pigs given 20 mg of antisera or F(ab')2 at or starting at 1 or 2 dpi were also fully protected from EBOV infection. These results justify future efficacy studies for purified equine products in NHPs. PMID:27067649

  19. Evidence Report: Risk of Decompression Sickness (DCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, Johnny; Norcross, Jason R.; Wessel, James H., III; Klein, Jill S.; Dervay, Joseph P.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Given that tissue inert gas partial pressure is often greater than ambient pressure during phases of a mission, primarily during extravehicular activity (EVA), there is a possibility of decompression sickness (DCS).

  20. Occupational exposures and sick leave during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette; Kristensen, Jette Kolding; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate associations between work postures, lifting at work, shift work, work hours, and job strain and the risk of sick leave during pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy weeks in a large cohort of Danish pregnant women. METHODS: Data from 51 874 pregnancies...... time of first episode of sick leave as the primary outcome. RESULTS: We found statistically significant associations between all the predictors and risk of sick leave; for non-sitting work postures (HRrange 1.55-2.79), cumulative lifting HRtrend 1.29, 95% CI 1.26-1.31, shift work (HRevening 1.90, 95......: Our results support previous findings and suggest that initiatives to prevent sick leave during pregnancy could be based on work conditions. Preventive measures may have important implications for pregnant women and workplaces....

  1. Metals: In Sickness and in Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Metals: In Sickness and in Health By Stephanie Dutchen ... 2012 We're not quite Iron Man, but metals are intricately entwined with our bodies. They make ...

  2. HORSE RACE IN NORTH TIBET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This annual horse race takes place in every township of the north Tibetan grassland,one by one,starting from August 1st. The principal activities are usually a horse race and a blessing by touching the foreheads of people by a Rinpoche.

  3. Stocking Rates for Horse Pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decision on which stocking rate to graze a horse pasture is critical, particularly if the forage is expected to meet the nutrient needs of the horses. Challenges and management for targeting the optimum stocking rate, defined as the stocking rate that allows forage consumption to approximately equ...

  4. The illness flexibility model and sickness absence

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Gun

    2007-01-01

    Research on sickness absence has repeatedly been described as theoretically undeveloped. In this thesis the model of illness flexibility is introduced. In this model, sickness absence is assumed to be caused by people’s ability and motivation to work. Ability and motivation will in turn be affected by conditions met in and outside work. In the model, five basic components are discerned describing such conditions. Adjustment latitude describes opportunities to adjust work to ...

  5. A trojan horse for human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catuogno, Silvia; Esposito, Carla Lucia; de Franciscis, Vittorio

    2015-03-19

    In this issue of Chemistry & Biology, Zhou et al. demonstrate the possibility of effective multiple targeting of HIV infection by using a multifunctional molecule in which an anti-CCR5 receptor aptamer (G-3) is conjugated to an anti-TNPO3 siRNA. PMID:25794434

  6. We Remember… Elders' Memories and Perceptions of Sleeping Sickness Control Interventions in West Nile, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Kovacic

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional role of African elders and their connection with the community make them important stakeholders in community-based disease control programmes. We explored elders' memories related to interventions against sleeping sickness to assess whether or not past interventions created any trauma which might hamper future control operations. Using a qualitative research framework, we conducted and analysed twenty-four in-depth interviews with Lugbara elders from north-western Uganda. Participants were selected from the villages inside and outside known historical sleeping sickness foci. Elders' memories ranged from examinations of lymph nodes conducted in colonial times to more recent active screening and treatment campaigns. Some negative memories dating from the 1990s were associated with diagnostic procedures, treatment duration and treatment side effects, and were combined with memories of negative impacts related to sleeping sickness epidemics particularly in HAT foci. More positive observations from the recent treatment campaigns were reported, especially improvements in treatment. Sleeping sickness interventions in our research area did not create any permanent traumatic memories, but memories remained flexible and open to change. This study however identified that details related to medical procedures can remain captured in a community's collective memory for decades. We recommend more emphasis on communication between disease control programme planners and communities using detailed and transparent information distribution, which is not one directional but rather a dialogue between both parties.

  7. We Remember… Elders' Memories and Perceptions of Sleeping Sickness Control Interventions in West Nile, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, Vanja; Tirados, Inaki; Esterhuizen, Johan; Mangwiro, Clement T N; Lehane, Michael J; Torr, Stephen J; Smith, Helen

    2016-06-01

    The traditional role of African elders and their connection with the community make them important stakeholders in community-based disease control programmes. We explored elders' memories related to interventions against sleeping sickness to assess whether or not past interventions created any trauma which might hamper future control operations. Using a qualitative research framework, we conducted and analysed twenty-four in-depth interviews with Lugbara elders from north-western Uganda. Participants were selected from the villages inside and outside known historical sleeping sickness foci. Elders' memories ranged from examinations of lymph nodes conducted in colonial times to more recent active screening and treatment campaigns. Some negative memories dating from the 1990s were associated with diagnostic procedures, treatment duration and treatment side effects, and were combined with memories of negative impacts related to sleeping sickness epidemics particularly in HAT foci. More positive observations from the recent treatment campaigns were reported, especially improvements in treatment. Sleeping sickness interventions in our research area did not create any permanent traumatic memories, but memories remained flexible and open to change. This study however identified that details related to medical procedures can remain captured in a community's collective memory for decades. We recommend more emphasis on communication between disease control programme planners and communities using detailed and transparent information distribution, which is not one directional but rather a dialogue between both parties. PMID:27253367

  8. Fever and sickness behavior: Friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, L M; Kent, S; Pittman, Q J; Roth, J

    2015-11-01

    Fever has been recognized as an important symptom of disease since ancient times. For many years, fever was treated as a putative life-threatening phenomenon. More recently, it has been recognized as an important part of the body's defense mechanisms; indeed at times it has even been used as a therapeutic agent. The knowledge of the functional role of the central nervous system in the genesis of fever has greatly improved over the last decade. It is clear that the febrile process, which develops in the sick individual, is just one of many brain-controlled sickness symptoms. Not only will the sick individual appear "feverish" but they may also display a range of behavioral changes, such as anorexia, fatigue, loss of interest in usual daily activities, social withdrawal, listlessness or malaise, hyperalgesia, sleep disturbances and cognitive dysfunction, collectively termed "sickness behavior". In this review we consider the issue of whether fever and sickness behaviors are friend or foe during: a critical illness, the common cold or influenza, in pregnancy and in the newborn. Deciding whether these sickness responses are beneficial or harmful will very much shape our approach to the use of antipyretics during illness. PMID:26187566

  9. N-myristoyltransferase inhibitors as new leads to treat sleeping sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frearson, Julie A.; Brand, Stephen; McElroy, Stuart P.; Cleghorn, Laura A.T.; Smid, Ondrej; Stojanovski, Laste; Price, Helen P.; Guther, M. Lucia S.; Torrie, Leah S.; Robinson, David A.; Hallyburton, Irene; Mpamhanga, Chidochangu P.; Brannigan, James A.; Wilkinson, Anthony J.; Hodgkinson, Michael; Hui, Raymond; Qiu, Wei; Raimi, Olawale G.; van Aalten, Daan M.F.; Brenk, Ruth; Gilbert, Ian H.; Read, Kevin D.; Fairlamb, Alan H.; Ferguson, Michael A.J.; Smith, Deborah F.; Wyatt, Paul G. (York); (Toronto); (Dundee)

    2010-11-05

    African sleeping sickness or human African trypanosomiasis, caused by Trypanosoma brucei spp., is responsible for {approx}30,000 deaths each year. Available treatments for this disease are poor, with unacceptable efficacy and safety profiles, particularly in the late stage of the disease when the parasite has infected the central nervous system. Here we report the validation of a molecular target and the discovery of associated lead compounds with the potential to address this lack of suitable treatments. Inhibition of this target - T. brucei N-myristoyltransferase - leads to rapid killing of trypanosomes both in vitro and in vivo and cures trypanosomiasis in mice. These high-affinity inhibitors bind into the peptide substrate pocket of the enzyme and inhibit protein N-myristoylation in trypanosomes. The compounds identified have promising pharmaceutical properties and represent an opportunity to develop oral drugs to treat this devastating disease. Our studies validate T. brucei N-myristoyltransferase as a promising therapeutic target for human African trypanosomiasis.

  10. Thoracic trauma in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprayberry, Kim A; Barrett, Elizabeth J

    2015-04-01

    Traumatic injuries involving the thorax can be superficial, necessitating only routine wound care, or they may extend to deeper tissue planes and disrupt structures immediately vital to respiratory and cardiac function. Diagnostic imaging, especially ultrasound, should be considered part of a comprehensive examination, both at admission and during follow-up. Horses generally respond well to diligent monitoring, intervention for complications, and appropriate medical or surgical care after sustaining traumatic wounds of the thorax. This article reviews the various types of thoracic injury and their management. PMID:25770070

  11. A Dark Horse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康成

    2012-01-01

    What s the meamng of a "dark horse "? It's soineone who wins while no one expects it. Han Xiaopeng became an Olympic "dark horse" by winning the gold medal in men's freest~ie aerial skiing ( 自由式滑雪空中技巧) in Turin, Italy. He made two almost perfect jumps for the highest score: Han had never won a world gold medal before, let alone (更不用说) in the Olympics!

  12. Horse Hoof Protectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Power Pads, shown here, were designed to support and cushion horses' hooves while walking, rurning, and jumping, thus reducing the risk of injury. The pads utilize magnets implanted in the pads to increase blood circulation, not only reducing the chance of injury, but also speeding up the healing process if an injury does occur. Marshall Space Flight Center materials engineer Deborah Dianne Schmidt and materials technician Anthony Schaffer contributed to the design by providing fatigue stress analysis to the prototypes, thus helping determine the best configuration and maximum durability.

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV distribution and sexual behaviors across gender and age group in an African setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Fleury Djoba Siawaya

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to (1 describe the distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV cases across gender and age groups in Libreville (Gabon; (2 examine Gabonese Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs-related risk behaviour. METHODS: The sampled population was people attending the "Laboratoire National de Santé Plublique". Between 2007 and 2011, 14 667 and 9 542 people respectively, were tested for CT and HIV infections. 1 854 of them were tested for both infections. We calculated CT and HIV rates across gender and age groups. Also analysed was the groups' contribution to the general CT and HIV epidemiology. STIs-related risk behaviours were assessed in 224 men and 795 women (between July 2011 and March 2013 who agreed and answered a questionnaire including questions on their marital status, number of sex partners, sexual practices, history of STIs, sex frequency and condom use. RESULTS: Data showed a 24% dropped in the CT infection rate between 2007 and 2010, followed by a 14% increase in 2011. The HIV infection rates for the same period were between 15% and 16%. The risk of a CT-positive subject getting HIV is about 0.71 times the risk of a CT-negative subject. Young adult aged between 18 and 35 years old represented 65.2% of people who had STIs. 80% of women and 66% of men confessed to an inconsistent use of condoms. 11.6% of women and 48% of men declared having multiple sex partners. 61% of questioned women and 67% of men declared knowing their HIV status. CONCLUSIONS: In this Gabonese setting, the population-aged from 18 to 35 years is the most affected by STIs. Other matters of concern are the inconsistent use of protection and sex with non-spousal or non-life partners.

  14. Seroepidemiology of HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B and C viruses among blood donors in Bangui, Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambei, W S; Rawago-Mandjiza, D; Gbangbangai, E

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HIV, the hepatitis B and C viruses, and syphilis as well the risk factors for these diseases among blood donors in Bangui, Central Africa Republic. This cross-sectional study examined samples from donors giving blood in August and September, 2013. HIV1/2 antibodies was screened with the Determine and Unigold HIV tests. Hepatitis B surface antigens were detected by sandwich immunochromatographic methods (DIAspot HBsAg test), and antibodies to HCV by the DIAspot test strip. Syphilis was diagnosed with the VDRL and TPHA methods (Omega Diagnostic, UK). The Chi(2) test was used for statistical analysis. The study included samples from 551 individuals, 350 (63.52%) of whom were frequent volunteer donors. In all, 132 (23.95%) were infected with at least one pathogen. The overall seroprevalence rate was 8.89% for HBV, 4.72% for HCV, 4.36% for syphilis, and 5.98% for HIV. Eight patients had two concomitant infections, with HIV-HBV the most common combination. Compared to long-term volunteers, first-time donors were more often infected by at least one of the pathogens we screened for, most especially HVB (OR = 5.06; 95% CI = 4.22-7.11) and syphilis (OR = 2.05; 95% CI = 2.02-7.44). Our findings indicate the high seroprevalence of transfusion-transmitted infections in blood donated in Bangui. The most common combined infections were HIV-HBV. The most common risk factor was a family history of HBV infection, and especially, mother-child transmission. PMID:27412978

  15. Morphological evolution of the Haflinger horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pasquini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Haflinger horse has certainly a lot of success, considering its popularity not only in its native region, South Tyrol, but also worldwide. Therefore, for its preservation and mainly for a larger diffusion of these horses, Haflinger horse’ breeders thought it could be useful to change, with an appropriated selection, the functional type, originally a pack-horse and a horse for agricultural work, into a saddle horse for riding purpose (Pagnacco, 1994...

  16. Morphological evolution of the Haflinger horse

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquini, M.; Rizzi, S; A. Falaschini

    2011-01-01

    The Haflinger horse has certainly a lot of success, considering its popularity not only in its native region, South Tyrol, but also worldwide. Therefore, for its preservation and mainly for a larger diffusion of these horses, Haflinger horse’ breeders thought it could be useful to change, with an appropriated selection, the functional type, originally a pack-horse and a horse for agricultural work, into a saddle horse for riding purpose (Pagnacco, 1994)...

  17. Coprophilous fungi of the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointelli, E; Santa-maria, M A; Caretta, G

    1981-05-01

    A total of 1267 microfungi, including 35 Myxomycetes, were recorded from the fecal samples of the 60 horses; of these 395 were found on 20 saddle-horse feces, 363 on 20 race-horses and 509 on 20 working horses. Eighty two species representing 53 genera were recorded; of these 7 were Zygomycetes, 18 Ascomycetes, 1 Basidiomycetes and 25 Fungi Imperfecti: 2 Myxomycetes. Common coprophilous fungi are in decreasing order Pilobolus kleinii, Saccobolus depauperatus, Mucor hiemalis, Lasiobolus ciliatus, Podospora curvula, Petriella guttulata, M. circinelloides, Coprinus radiatus, Dictyostelium mucoroides, Sordaria fimicola, C. miser, C. stercorariusm, Acremonium sp., Coprotus granuliformis, Graphium putredinis, Iodophanus carneus, Chaetomium murorum, Podospora communis, P. inaequalis, P. setosa, Saccobolus versicolor and Cladosporium cucumerinum. Species of Myrothecium verrucaria, Actinomucor elegans, Kernia nitida, Spiculostilbella dendritica and Mucor parvispora were found exclusively in working-horses feces. Badhamia sp., Anixiopsis stercoraria, Echinobotryum state of D. stemonitis, Geotrichum candidum and Oidiodendron sp. were found only in saddle-horses feces. Chlamidomyces palmarum, Philocopra sp. were found exclusively in race-horses feces. Notes on infrequent or interesting fungi include Thamnostylum piriforme, Phialocephala dimorphospora, Rhopalomyces elegans and Spiculostilbella dendritica. PMID:7242651

  18. Epizootiological aspects of type 1 and type 4 equine herpesvirus infections among horse populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, T; Sugiura, T; Imagawa, H; Fukunaga, Y; Kamada, M

    1992-04-01

    The dissemination of equine herpesvirus types 1 (EHV-1) and 4 (EHV-4) among various horse populations in Japan was investigated through the isolation and typing of virus strains from horses with respiratory diseases. Type specific monoclonal antibody pools were used for the typing of isolates. The 42 strains of EHV-1 and 64 strains of EHV-4 were isolated from 4593 nasal swabs and/or blood plasma samples collected from 3326 horses during a period from 1979 to 1990. All the strains of EHV-1 were isolated from racehorses only and during the winter season exclusively, when the epizootic of respiratory diseases occurred among racehorse populations at two Training Centers of the Japan Racing Association. In contrast, the strains of EHV-4 were isolated from horses irrespective of the season, facility, or horse population; foals and yearlings in breeding farms and our institute, rearing horses in rearing farms, and racehorses. Especially, 4 strains of EHV-4 were isolated from plasma samples containing buffy coat cells. We believe this is the first reported case of EHV-4 cell-associated viremia in the world. All 87 strains isolated from aborted fetuses were identified as EHV-1. The results suggest that EHV-1 is responsible for epizootic respiratory diseases in racehorses in the winter and abortion among mares at the late stage of gestation, and that EHV-4 causes respiratory diseases throughout the year among all horse populations. PMID:1318750

  19. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September.This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,a leading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  20. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September. This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,aleading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  1. Prevention and control of malaria and sleeping sickness in Africa : where are we and where are we going ?

    OpenAIRE

    Corbel Vincent; Henry Marie-Claire

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The International Symposium on Malaria and Human African Trypanosomiasis: New Strategies for their Prevention & Control was held 7-8 October, 2010 in Cotonou, Benin with about 250 participants from 20 countries. This scientific event aimed at identifying the gaps and research priorities in the prevention and control of malaria and sleeping sickness in Africa and to promote exchange between North and South in the fields of medical entomology, epidemiology, immunology and parasitology....

  2. Seroprevalence of antibodies against highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1 virus among poultry workers in Bangladesh, 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifa Nasreen

    Full Text Available We conducted a cross-sectional study in 2009 to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors for highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1 [HPAI H5N1] virus antibodies among poultry workers at farms and live bird markets with confirmed/suspected poultry outbreaks during 2009 in Bangladesh. We tested sera by microneutralization assay using A/Bangladesh/207095/2008 (H5N1; clade 2.2.2 virus with confirmation by horse red blood cell hemagglutination inhibition and H5-specific Western blot assays. We enrolled 212 workers from 87 farms and 210 workers from three live bird markets. One hundred and two farm workers (48% culled poultry. One hundred and ninety-three farm workers (91% and 178 market workers (85% reported direct contact with poultry that died during a laboratory confirmed HPAI H5N1 poultry farm outbreak or market poultry die-offs from suspected HPAI H5N1. Despite exposure to sick poultry, no farm or market poultry workers were seropositive for HPAI H5N1 virus antibodies (95% confidence interval 0-1%.

  3. Identification of a Hepatitis B Virus Genome in Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthi) from East Africa Indicates a Wide Geographical Dispersion among Equatorial African Primates†

    OpenAIRE

    Vartanian, Jean-Pierre; Pineau, Pascal; Henry, Michel; Hamilton, William D.; Muller, Martin N.; Wrangham, Richard W.; Wain-Hobson, Simon

    2002-01-01

    DNAs from four wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthi) from eastern Africa were screened for 14 DNA viruses and retroviruses. Between two and three viruses were found in each animal. An entire hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome was amplified and sequenced from samples taken from one animal. This indicates that HBV is distributed across the entire range of chimpanzee habitats.

  4. Persistently infected cultures as a source of hepatitis A virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Simmonds, R S; Szücs, G.; Metcalf, T. G.; Melnick, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Primary African green monkey kidney, continuous African green monkey kidney cell line BS-C-1, and buffalo green monkey kidney cultures were infected with a uniform inoculum of hepatitis A virus (HAV). Although both the cell line BS-C-1 and primary African green monkey kidney cultures produced useful amounts of virus, HAV was detected earlier and in greater quantities in primary African green monkey kidney cultures. A persistently infected primary African green monkey kidney culture was develo...

  5. The exhausted horse syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, J H

    1998-04-01

    Exhaustion occurs in most equestrian sports, but it is more frequent in events that require sustained endurance work such as endurance racing, three-day eventing, trial riding, and hunting. Exhaustion is also more likely when an unfit, unacclimatized, or unsound horse is exercised. Mechanisms that contribute to exhaustion include heat retention, fluid and electrolyte loss, acid-base imbalance, and intramuscular glycogen depletion. Clinical signs include elevated temperature, pulse, and respiratory rate; depression; anorexia; unwillingness to continue to exercise; dehydration; weakness; stiffness; hypovolemic shock; exertional myopathy; synchronous diaphragmatic flutter; atrial fibrillation; diarrhea; colic; and laminitis. Treatment includes stopping exercise; rapid cooling; rapid large volume intravenous or oral fluid administration; and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration. PMID:9561696

  6. Postanesthetic Poliomyelomalacia in a Horse

    OpenAIRE

    Zink, M. Christine

    1985-01-01

    A clinically normal horse was anesthetized preparatory to surgery in dorsal recumbency for removal of a retained testicle. After recovery from the anesthetic, the horse was weak in the hind legs, subsequently deteriorated and became unable to rise and died on the eighth day after surgery. On microscopic examination, extensive poliomalacia of the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord was found. It is postulated that this lesion was a result of ischemic insult to the spinal cord during anesthesia and...

  7. Leptospirosis in horses in Ontario.

    OpenAIRE

    Kitson-Piggot, A W; Prescott, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Sera from Thoroughbred and Standardbred horses in southwest Ontario were tested for antibody to seven Leptospira interrogans serovars (autumnalis, bratislava, canicola, grippotyphosa, hardjo, icterohaemorrhagiae, pomona), using the microscopic agglutination test. There was significantly higher seroprevalence of bratislava than of other serovars, in which prevalence was low. Seroprevalence of bratislava increased significantly with age; only 5% of two to three year old horses had titers greate...

  8. Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals

  9. Increase the Great Sports Events Sick Leave?

    OpenAIRE

    Štefánik, Adam

    2012-01-01

    In case that watching sports yields more benefits than costs of the activity, employees are tempted to find a way to avoid work and watch sports. The thesis looks into influence of the most watched sport events on amount of sickness rate among employees in the Czech Republic using daily data from 2004 to 2010. Gender-specific regression analysis proved relevant impact of summer Olympic Games 2004 and 2008 on rising of men and women sickness rate. During these Olympic Games by more than 16 per...

  10. Trends in sickness absence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kristina; Bihrmann, Kristine; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2009-01-01

    linear regression analysis to analyze time trends in sickness absence based on datasets from the Danish Employers Confederation, the State Employer's Authority, the Labour Force Survey, and Statistics Denmark. RESULTS: The findings from the Confederation of Danish Employers, the State Employer......'s Authority, and the Labor Force Survey indicated a stable and largely unaltered pattern of sickness absence during the last 20 years. Findings from Statistics Denmark showed an increase in the cumulative incidence proportion from 6.6 to 7.5% among employed people between 2000 and 2007. CONCLUSION: Our data...

  11. SOME SLAUGHTER-HOUSE RATES OF HORSES

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasta Mandić; Tatjana Tušek; Damir Alagić; Josip Ljubešić

    2000-01-01

    Nowdays horses are raised and used almost only for sport and recreation and, of course, for meat production. With the possibility of buying fresh horse meat and products based on horse meat, new eating habits have been acquired. The number of horses in the Republic of Croatia has been decreasing continually, which can result in import rather than in export of horse meat, unless a proper and a good breeding plan for horse meat production is made soon. In existing small private slaughter-house...

  12. CAPTIVES COURAGEOUS: SOUTH AFRICAN PRISONERS OF WAR WORLD WAR II

    OpenAIRE

    David McLennan

    2012-01-01

    Captives Courageous; South African prisoners of war in World War II is the ninth work in the South Africans at War series published by Ashanti Press. Leigh has divided his book into two parts. In the first part, entitled "Into the bag", he details the capture of South Africans in the Western Desert and their rapid transition from efficient fighting men to often sickly and weak prisoners of war (POW). The Western Desert was an unforgiving environment in which to find oneself a prisoner of wa...

  13. Sickness absence due to depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P. C.; Roelen, C. A. M.; Groothoff, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective There is no information on the duration of absence of depressed Dutch workers. The aim of this study was to determine the duration of sickness absence due to depressive symptoms in the working population. Methods In this observational study of 15% of the Dutch working population, all absen

  14. Sensory neurobiology: demystifying the sick sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozza, Thomas

    2015-02-16

    The vomeronasal organ, a sensory structure within the olfactory system, detects chemical signals that affect social and sexual behaviors and that elicit responses to predator odors. A recent study demonstrates that innate avoidance of sick conspecifics requires an intact vomeronasal organ, expanding the repertoire of biological functions known to be mediated by this olfactory subsystem. PMID:25689911

  15. [23andMe and motion sickness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Bertrand

    2016-05-01

    A Genome Wide Association Study on propensity to motion sickness published by 23andMe gives interesting results, shows validity for self-reported phenotypic information and underlines the value of the model developed by the company for customer participation in genetic studies. PMID:27225928

  16. Cerebral blood flow in acute mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J B; Wright, Anne; Lassen, N A;

    1990-01-01

    Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured using the radioactive xenon technique and were related to the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS). In 12 subjects, ascending from 150 to 3,475 m, CBF was 24% increased at 24 h [45.1 to 55.9 initial slope index (ISI) units] and 4% increased...

  17. Stroboscopic Goggles for Reduction of Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Somers, Jeffrey T.

    2005-01-01

    A device built around a pair of electronic shutters has been demonstrated to be effective as a prototype of stroboscopic goggles or eyeglasses for preventing or reducing motion sickness. The momentary opening of the shutters helps to suppress a phenomenon that is known in the art as retinal slip and is described more fully below. While a number of different environmental factors can induce motion sickness, a common factor associated with every known motion environment is sensory confusion or sensory mismatch. Motion sickness is a product of misinformation arriving at a central point in the nervous system from the senses from which one determines one s spatial orientation. When information from the eyes, ears, joints, and pressure receptors are all in agreement as to one s orientation, there is no motion sickness. When one or more sensory input(s) to the brain is not expected, or conflicts with what is anticipated, the end product is motion sickness. Normally, an observer s eye moves, compensating for the anticipated effect of motion, in such a manner that the image of an object moving relatively to an observer is held stationary on the retina. In almost every known environment that induces motion sickness, a change in the gain (in the signal-processing sense of gain ) of the vestibular system causes the motion of the eye to fail to hold images stationary on the retina, and the resulting motion of the images is termed retinal slip. The present concept of stroboscopic goggles or eyeglasses (see figure) is based on the proposition that prevention of retinal slip, and hence, the prevention of sensory mismatch, can be expected to reduce the tendency toward motion sickness. A device according to this concept helps to prevent retinal slip by providing snapshots of the visual environment through electronic shutters that are brief enough that each snapshot freezes the image on each retina. The exposure time for each snapshot is less than 5 ms. In the event that a higher

  18. Ecological problems in horse-breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Y. V. Zachinyaew; A. A. Anischenko

    2005-01-01

    In the article is represented general information devoted to environmental problems in the horse- breeding. The concept of development of ecological explorations in the horse-breeding is considered as well.

  19. Four Legged Healers: Horse Culture as Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    White Plume, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    For tribal communities to overcome the health disparities that plague them, they need to honor Indigenous healthcare paradigms. The Horse Nation Initiative at Nueta Hidatsa Sahnish College embraces the people's historical connection to the horse as an avenue to wellness.

  20. Hantavirus in African Wood Mouse, Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Klempa, Boris; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Lecompte, Emilie; Auste, Brita; Aniskin, Vladimir; Meisel, Helga; Denys, Christiane; Koivogui, Lamine; ter Meulen, Jan; Krüger, Detlev H.

    2006-01-01

    Hantaviruses are rodentborne, emerging viruses that cause life-threatening human diseases in Eurasia and the Americas. We detected hantavirus genome sequences in an African wood mouse (Hylomyscus simus) captured in Sangassou, Guinea. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the genetic material demonstrate a novel hantavirus species, which we propose to name "Sangassou virus."

  1. Periorbital skull fractures in five horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periorbital skull fractures were diagnosed in 5 horses, and were associated with ophthalmic complications including corneal ulceration, uveitis, and entrapment of the eye by retrobulbar bone fragments. Physical examination was of greater diagnostic use than radiography. Surgical repair was performed on all horses and was associated with a more favorable postoperative appearance in horses treated acutely; however, the cosmetic results were considered acceptable in all horses. Major postoperative complications were not observed

  2. Developing a horse nutrition analysis application

    OpenAIRE

    Hagerlund, Janette

    2012-01-01

    Optimized horse nutrition is in a key role when considering performance. Finnish climate is unfavorable for horses and has lead to feeding concentrated feeds and other supplements which are not ideal for horses. The optimization of nutrition can only be achieved by calculating the intake and comparing it to the official recommendations. The objective of this thesis was to design and implement a web application for horse nutrition analysis using Microsoft Silverlight. The study focused on ...

  3. Mapping sleeping sickness in Western Africa in a context of demographic transition and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecchi G.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Human population growth, climate change and economic development are causing major environmental modifications in Western Africa, which will have important repercussions on the epidemiology of sleeping sickness. A new initiative, the Atlas of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, aims at assembling and geo-referencing all epidemiological data derived from both active screening activities and passive surveillance. A geographic database enables to generate up-to-date disease maps at a range of scales and of unprecedented spatial accuracy. We present preliminary results for seven West African countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Mali and Togo and briefly discuss the relevance of the Atlas for future monitoring, control and research activities.

  4. Plasma Procalcitonin Concentration in Healthy Horses and Horses Affected by Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bonelli, F.; Meucci, V.; Divers, T.J.; Jose‐Cunilleras, E.; Corazza, M; Tognetti, R; Guidi, G.; Intorre, L.; Sgorbini, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The diseases most frequent associated with SIRS in adult horses are those involving the gastrointestinal tract. An early diagnosis should be the goal in the management of horses with SIRS. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the plasma procalcitonin (PCT) concentration in healthy and SIRS horses to assess differences between the two groups. Animals Seventy‐eight horses (30 healthy and 48 SIRS). Methods Prospective in vivo multicentric study. Horses were classified...

  5. Cobalt metabolism in horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The levels of serum vitamin B12 were determined on 16 mature partly warm-blooded, partly Finnish rural-race horses by the radioisotopic competitive inhibition assay method. The mean value from three samplings carried out in dupli- or triplicate was 1.54 plus/minus 0.16ng/p. The utilization of seruminorganic cobalt for cyanocobalaminsynthesis was studied on two geldings, which received a dose of 200 μi 58CoCl2 i.v. A Sephadex G-100 gel filtration was carried out with the serum proteins from serial blood samplings at different time intervals 15min. to 48 hrs. after administration. The gel filtration showed the presence of two labelled proteins in the serum, one of them appearing some tie after adminitration and disappearing almost completely towards the end of the experimental period. The two elution peaks are considered to represent inorganic 58Co and 58Co labelled vitamin B12. The appearance of labelling in seru vitamin B12 indicates the passing of cobalt into the intestine, and reabsorption into blood in the form of vitamin B12. (author)

  6. Effect of influenza A/equine/H3N8 virus isolate variation on the measurement of equine antibody responses.

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan, J R; Morley, P S; Townsend, H G; Haines, D M

    1993-01-01

    This study has tested the effect of using homologous or heterologous equine influenza A virus isolates to evaluate serum antibody levels to influenza A virus in vaccinated and naturally-infected horses. In addition, the potential effect of antigenic selection of virus variants in egg versus tissue culture propagation systems was studied. Serum antibody levels in samples from horses recently infected with a local influenza A virus isolate (A/equine 2/Saskatoon/1/90) or recently vaccinated with...

  7. Anthrax vaccine associated deaths in miniature horses

    OpenAIRE

    Wobeser, Bruce K.

    2015-01-01

    During a widespread anthrax outbreak in Canada, miniature horses were vaccinated using a live spore anthrax vaccine. Several of these horses died from an apparent immune-mediated vasculitis temporally associated with this vaccination. During the course of the outbreak, other miniature horses from different regions with a similar vaccination history, clinical signs, and necropsy findings were found.

  8. Anthrax vaccine associated deaths in miniature horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobeser, Bruce K

    2015-04-01

    During a widespread anthrax outbreak in Canada, miniature horses were vaccinated using a live spore anthrax vaccine. Several of these horses died from an apparent immune-mediated vasculitis temporally associated with this vaccination. During the course of the outbreak, other miniature horses from different regions with a similar vaccination history, clinical signs, and necropsy findings were found. PMID:25829553

  9. The biomechanical interaction between horse and rider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cocq, de P.

    2012-01-01

    The forces exerted by a rider on a horse have a direct influence on the mechanical load experienced by the horse and consequently on its motion pattern. The aim of this thesis is to explore the biomechanical interaction between rider, saddle and horse in order to get insight in the loading of the ho

  10. Plants Poisonous to Your Horse - Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Most equine poisonings occur as result to toxic plants contaminating feeds. Mo...

  11. A Framework for Modelling Trojans and Computer Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Thimbleby, H.; Anderson, S; CAIRNS, P.

    1998-01-01

    It is not possible to view a computer operating in the real world, including the possibility of Trojan horse programs and computer viruses, as simply a finite realisation of a Turing machine. We consider the actions of Trojan horses and viruses in real computer systems and suggest a minimal framework for an adequate formal understanding of the phenomena. Some conventional approaches, including biological metaphors, are shown to be inadequate; some suggestions are made towards constructing vir...

  12. Sleeping sickness surveillance: an essential step towards elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattand, P; Jannin, J; Lucas, P

    2001-05-01

    In the last decades, with little or no surveillance sleeping sickness has returned to alarming levels comparable to the early twentieth century. Sixty million people are considered at risk but only 3-4 million are under surveillance, yielding some 45 000 new cases annually. It is estimated that at least 300 000-500 000 people are presently infected. Despite the almost universal presence of the vector in sub-Saharan Africa and the existence of an animal parasite reservoir, it is technically feasible to control and eliminate the disease as a public health problem. The authors describe, step-by-step, a surveillance method based on the epidemiological status of the village and using several approaches ranging from passive to active surveillance. Co-ordinated by the WHO, such surveillance has been incepted in several countries. Epidemiological data is spatially linked to the village, whose geographical co-ordinates are collected using a Global Positioning Systems (GPS). Information is transmitted to WHO through internet. Data analysis and mapping is carried out using Geographical Information System (GIS) software and thematic maps are generated to illustrate epidemiological status. Examples from Central African Republic (CAR), Cameroon and Gabon illustrate the process and mapping. PMID:11348530

  13. Early risk assessment of long-term sick leave among patients in primary health care : risk factors, assessment tools, multidisciplinary intervention, and patients’ views on sick leave conclusion

    OpenAIRE

    von Celsing, Anna-Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Background. Long-term sick leave is one of the main risk factors for permanent exit out of the labour market. The longer the duration of sickness absence, the less likely sick leave conclusion. Objectives and Methods. The aims were to analyse possible determinants of sick leave conclusion and their relative impacts, to analyse the properties of two models for the assessment of sick leave conclusion, to study the impact of a multidisciplinary vocational intervention for sick leave conclusion i...

  14. Diagnosis of moderate acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty patients with malignant lymphoma were given 60Co TLI. 21 cases received 6 Gy and 19 received 8 Gy. It was estimated that a single TLI of 6 and 8 Gy would correspond to TBI of 3.55 Gy and 4.25 Gy (average values) by analysing peripheral blood cell chromosome aberrations and 1.85-2.37 Gy by measuring red bone marrow stem cells clinically. Moderate acute radiation sickness with digestive tract reaction and hemopoietic and immunologic depression was observed. WBC and platelets decreased rapidly. Lymphocytes showed quantitative and qualitative changes even at early stage. All these indexes are significant for diagnosis. Besides, the degree of labial stimulation response, levels of C-reactive protein, corticoid, and urinal nucleoside and alkaloid base presented great changes both pre-and post-irradiation. Early diagnosis of moderate acute radiation sickness could be made in cancer patients subjected to 6-8 Gy TLI

  15. Evolution of canine and equine influenza (H3N8) viruses co-circulating between 2005 and 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influenza virus, subtype H3N8, was transmitted from horses to greyhound dogs in 2004 and subsequently spread to pet dog populations. The co-circulation of H3N8 viruses in dogs and horses makes bi-directional virus transmission between these animal species possible. To understand the dynamics of viral transmission, we performed virologic surveillance in dogs and horses between 2005 and 2008 in the United States. The genomes of influenza A H3N8 viruses isolated from 36 dogs and horses were sequenced to determine their origin and evolution. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that H3N8 influenza viruses from horses and dogs were monophyletic and distinct. There was no evidence of canine influenza virus infection in horses with respiratory disease or new introductions of equine influenza viruses into dogs in the United States. Analysis of a limited number of equine influenza viruses suggested substantial separation in the transmission of viruses causing clinically apparent influenza in dogs and horses.

  16. Psychological climate, sickness absence and gender

    OpenAIRE

    González-Romá, V.; Väänänen, A.; Ripoll, P; Caballer, A.; Peiró, J.M.; Kivimäki, M

    2005-01-01

    We examined whether the relationship between psychological climate and sickness absence is moderated by gender. We expected that this relationship would be stronger among men than among women. We tested this general hypothesis using two samples of men and women nurses (made up of 114 and 189 subjects, respectively). The results obtained supported our expectation. The three climate facets considered (support, goals orientation and rules orientation) showed a significant relationship with sickn...

  17. The Genetic Basis of Chronic Mountain Sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Ronen, Roy; Zhou, Dan; Bafna, Vineet; Haddad, Gabriel G.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is a disease that affects many high-altitude dwellers, particularly in the Andean Mountains in South America. The hallmark symptom of CMS is polycythemia, which causes increased risk of pulmonary hypertension and stroke (among other symptoms). A prevailing hypothesis in high-altitude medicine is that CMS results from a population-specific “maladaptation” to the hypoxic conditions at high altitude. In contrast, the prevalence of CMS is very low in other high-alt...

  18. Visfatin induces sickness responses in the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byong Seo Park

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Visfatin, also known as nicotiamide phosphoribosyltransferase or pre-B cell colony enhancing factor, is a pro-inflammatory cytokine whose serum level is increased in sepsis and cancer as well as in obesity. Here we report a pro-inflammatory role of visfatin in the brain, to mediate sickness responses including anorexia, hyperthermia and hypoactivity. METHODOLOGY: Rats were intracerebroventricularly (ICV injected with visfatin, and changes in food intake, body weight, body temperature and locomotor activity were monitored. Real-time PCR was applied to determine the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines, proopiomelanocortin (POMC and prostaglandin-synthesizing enzymes in their brain. To determine the roles of cyclooxygenase (COX and melanocortin in the visfatin action, rats were ICV-injected with visfatin with or without SHU9119, a melanocortin receptor antagonist, or indomethacin, a COX inhibitor, and their sickness behaviors were evaluated. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Administration of visfatin decreased food intake, body weight and locomotor activity and increased body temperature. Visfatin evoked significant increases in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, prostaglandin-synthesizing enzymes and POMC, an anorexigenic neuropeptide. Indomethacin attenuated the effects of visfatin on hyperthermia and hypoactivity, but not anorexia. Further, SHU9119 blocked visfatin-induced anorexia but did not affect hyperthermia or hypoactivity. CONCLUSIONS: Visfatin induced sickness responses via regulation of COX and the melanocortin pathway in the brain.

  19. Serum sickness secondary to ciprofloxacin use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guharoy, S R

    1994-12-01

    Although serum sickness-like reactions are uncommon, various drugs have recently been implicated to manifest the reaction. The following case report is of a possible serum sickness-like reaction secondary to ciprofloxacin use, a commonly prescribed antibiotic in the US. A 62-y-old female developed polyarthralgias, myalgia and a generalized urticarial rash following 5 d use of ciprofloxacin. On admission to the hospital, patient was placed on cefazolin and gentamicin for suspected bacteremia. However, the regimen was discontinued after 72 h because of worsening clinical condition. Patient was placed on iv methylprednisolone therapy, and within 18 h a significant improvement was noted in her myalgias and rash. Over the next 72 h the steroid therapy was changed to a po regimen and the patient became asymptomatic 5 d after the initiation of steroid therapy. Patient was discharged on day 9 of hospital admission. Though serum sickness-like reactions have been reported with various drugs, only 1 case has been reported implicating ciprofloxacin. Clinicians should be aware of this potential adverse event secondary to ciprofloxacin use. PMID:7900274

  20. Influence of sexually transmitted infections in a horse breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosec Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent problems in horses reproduction are generally divided into those of infectious and non infectious etiology. Common causes of infectious diseases are usual­ly viruses and bacteria, and less frequently protozoa, mykoplasma and fungi. In this work there are presented the most important fact about sexually transmitted diseases, their clinical picture, risk factors, preventive measures as well as measures to prevent and eradicate the diseases. The biggest risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases in horses are breeding stallions, both in natural mating and in artificial insemination. Therefore, in order to prevent genital infections in horses, it is essential that the stallions used for breeding are healthy (non-infected. That can be determined with certainty only if the stallions are examined (tested just before the breeding season on most frequent sexually transmitted diseases (CEM,EAV. It is well known that in most cases the clinical picture of sexually transmitted diseses is not manifested on genitals. As well, variations in clinical picture can be expected also in mares, depending on the stage of the disease and its etiology. Harms arising from sexually transmitted diseases can be divided into direct and indirect. Direct damage occurs in the form of endometritis, miscarriage, stillbirths and births of weak foals, and indirect in restricting the traffic of infected and suspicios animals, isolation of the infected ones as well as medical treatment and interrupting mating.

  1. Morphological evolution of Bardigiano horse

    OpenAIRE

    A. L. Catalano; P. Superchi; S. Filippini; G.P. Pagani; Zanon, A.; Beretti, V.; A. Sabbioni

    2010-01-01

    The Bardigiano horse is a local breed of the province of Parma. Since the institution of the Stud Book in 1977, the breed has improved its diffusion and is currently present with 110 stallions and over 1700 mares in 43 provinces in Italy and beyond that in Germany, Switzerland and Hungary.

  2. Urethrorectal fistula in a horse.

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, A. M.; Barber, S M; Kaestner, S B; Townsend, H G

    1999-01-01

    Anomalies of the urethra are uncommon. Urethrorectal fistula in horses has only been reported in foals and only in conjunction with other congenital anomalies. This report describes the diagnosis, surgical management, and possible etiologies of a unique case of urethrorectal fistula in a mature gelding.

  3. A Trojan Horse in Birmingham

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarker, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    "Trojan Horse" has become journalistic shorthand for an apparent attempt by a small group in East Birmingham to secure control of local non-faith schools and impose policies and practices in keeping with the very conservative (Salafist and Wahhabi) version of Islam which they hold. In this article, Pat Yarker gives an account of two…

  4. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry... § 93.324: Provided, That horses offered for importation from tick-infected areas of Mexico shall...

  5. Molecular analysis and associated pathology of beak and feather disease virus isolated in Italy from young Congo African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) with an "atypical peracute form" of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robino, Patrizia; Grego, Elena; Rossi, Giacomo; Bert, Elena; Tramuta, Clara; Stella, Maria Cristina; Bertoni, Pierfrancesco; Nebbia, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first report on the genetic and pathogenic characterization of beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) occurring in Italy. Twenty BFDV strains isolated in Italy from juvenile Congo African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) were investigated. Seventeen strains showed an "atypical peracute form" (aPF) of the disease, and three a chronic form (CF). The birds with aPF had been weaned, were independent as far as food and protection were concerned and apparently were without lesions. The gene coding for the putative coat protein was amplified in all isolates while the BFDV genome was sequenced completely in 10 samples, eight of them belonging to aPF affected birds and two from CF of the disease. All full genomes clustered into the J strain of BFDV, where two new subtypes were identified. Recombination analyses showed evidence of genetic exchanges in two BFDV genomes. In addition, a correlation between viral isolate and origin of the breeding material was shown, while an association between the genetic features of the virus and the clinical form was not observed. Histologically, apoptosis was detected frequently in aPF samples and sporadically in CF samples. Interestingly, BFDV antigens were detected in the nuclei and cytoplasm of such apoptotic cells. The data presented here support the hypothesis that, in the absence of a defined BFDV genetic variant accountable for a specific clinical form of psittacine beak and feather disease, differences in the apoptotic rate between aPF and CF are strictly host related. PMID:24968067

  6. Influence of Horse and Rider on Stress during Horse-riding Lesson Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Yun, Young-Min

    2016-06-01

    The present study aims to confirm the influence of a horse-riding lesson program (HRLP) on the stress level of horses and riders by respectively analyzing their salivary cortisol concentration. Twenty-four healthy horses and 23 riders participated in this study. The horses were randomly classified into two groups for the horse riding lesson program: Class 1 (for the beginner lesson) and Class 2 (for the intermediate lesson). The Class 1 group consisted of 12 horses and 12 riders, while the Class 2 group consisted of 12 horses and 11 riders. Salivettes cotton wool swabs were used for saliva collection and the saliva analyses were conducted using a two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with SAS version 8. As for the results, the average salivary cortisol concentration of all horses before HRLP significantly increased compared to the baseline (p<0.001) while it decreased after the HRLP. The results of the salivary cortisol concentration of the riders were similar to the horses' results. However, there was no difference during the HRLP between Class 1 and Class 2 in the horse or rider groups. The results suggest that the HRLP did not influence the stress level of the horses or riders. Thus, this study provides the necessary information and guidelines for future studies on stress in horses during riding and gives insight into better horse welfare and management options. PMID:27004819

  7. Prediction of Sickness Absenteeism, Disability Pension and Sickness Presenteeism Among Employees with Back Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Bergström, Gunnar; Hagberg, Jan; Busch, Hillevi; Jensen, Irene; Björklund, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive ability of the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire (ÖMPSQ) concerning long-term sick leave, sickness presenteeism and disability pension during a follow-up period of 2 years. Methods The study group consisted of 195 employees visiting the occupational health service (OHS) due to back pain. Results Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, the area under the curve (AUC) varied from 0.67 to 0.93, wh...

  8. SOME SLAUGHTER-HOUSE RATES OF HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Mandić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowdays horses are raised and used almost only for sport and recreation and, of course, for meat production. With the possibility of buying fresh horse meat and products based on horse meat, new eating habits have been acquired. The number of horses in the Republic of Croatia has been decreasing continually, which can result in import rather than in export of horse meat, unless a proper and a good breeding plan for horse meat production is made soon. In existing small private slaughter-houses, together with other animals, horses are slaughtered but in a very small number (just to meet the needs of the market. As those horses are of different genetic bases, (mostly cold blooded and cross-bred as well as of different age, sex and physical shape, the slaughter-house yield greatly varies. Due to some injuries, blindenss or lameness horses are killed coercively as to gain minimal profit. In distinction from other animals where the percentage of carcass yield is very high, sloughter-house yield of horse carcass is not high due to a small number of killed animals.

  9. The effect of working conditions on teachers'sickness absence

    OpenAIRE

    Rønning, Marte

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of working conditions on the amount of teachers’sickness absence in Norway. Exploiting intertemporal variation within teachers who have not changed schools, the findings indicate that teachers lower their amount of sickness absence if the school’s resource use increases. Increased workload and permanent employment contract are associated with higher sickness absence. When stratifying on teachers’age, increased workload appears to have a larger ...

  10. Cytokines: how important are they in mediating sickness?

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, YS; Poon, DCH; Chang, RCC; Chiu, K.

    2013-01-01

    Sickness refers to a set of coordinated physiological and behavioral changes in response to systemic inflammation. It is characterized by fever, malaise, social withdrawal, fatigue, and anorexia. While these responses collectively represent a protective mechanism against infection and injury, increasing lines of evidence indicate that over-exaggerated or persistent sickness can damage the brain, and could possibly raise the risk to developing delirium. Therefore, a clear understanding in sick...

  11. When HIV is ordinary and diabetes new: Remaking suffering in a South African Township

    OpenAIRE

    Mendenhall, Emily; Norris, Shane A.

    2015-01-01

    Escalation of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among urban South African populations disproportionately afflicted by HIV/AIDS presents not only medical challenges but also new ways in which people understand and experience sickness. In Soweto, the psychological imprints of political violence of the Apartheid era and structural violence of HIV/AIDS have shaped social and health discourses. Yet, as NCDs increasingly become part of social and biomedical discussions in South African townships, ne...

  12. Epidemiological history and phylogeography of West Nile virus lineage 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccozzi, Massimo; Peletto, Simone; Cella, Eleonora; Giovanetti, Marta; Lai, Alessia; Gabanelli, Elena; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Modesto, Paola; Rezza, Giovanni; Platonov, Alexander E; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Zehender, Gianguglielmo

    2013-07-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was first isolated in Uganda. In Europe WNV was sporadically detected until 1996, since then the virus has been regularly isolated from birds and mosquitoes and caused several outbreaks in horses and humans. Phylogenetic analysis showed two main different WNV lineages. The lineage 1 is widespread and segregates into different subclades (1a-c). WNV-1a includes numerous strains from Africa, America, and Eurasia. The spatio-temporal history of WNV-1a in Europe was recently described, identifying two main routes of dispersion, one in Eastern and the second in Western Europe. The West Nile lineage 2 (WNV-2) is mainly present in sub-Saharan Africa but has been recently emerged in Eastern and Western European countries. In this study we reconstruct the phylogeny of WNV-2 on a spatio-temporal scale in order to estimate the time of origin and patterns of geographical dispersal of the different isolates, particularly in Europe. Phylogeography findings obtained from E and NS5 gene analyses suggest that there were at least two separate introductions of WNV-2 from the African continent dated back approximately to the year 1999 (Central Europe) and 2000 (Russia), respectively. The epidemiological implications and clinical consequences of lineage 1 and 2 cocirculation deserve further investigations. PMID:23542457

  13. Pulmonary ultrasonographic abnormalities associated with naturally occurring equine influenza virus infection in standardbred racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Diane K; Morley, Paul S; Hinchcliff, Kenneth W; Reichle, Jean K; Slemons, Richard D

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if naturally occurring acute infectious upper respiratory disease (IRD) caused by equine influenza virus is associated with ultrasonographically detectable pleural and pulmonary abnormalities in horses. Standardbred racehorses were evaluated for signs of IRD, defined as acute coughing or mucopurulent nasal discharge. For every horse with IRD (n = 16), 1 or 2 horses with no signs of IRD and the same owner or trainer (n = 30) were included. Thoracic ultrasonography was performed within 5-10 days of the onset of clinical disease in horses with IRD. Horses without IRD were examined at the same time as the horses with IRD with which they were enrolled. The rank of the ultrasound scores of horses with IRD was compared to that of horses without IRD. Equine influenza virus was identified as the primary etiologic agent associated with IRD in this study. Mild lung consolidation and peripheral pulmonary irregularities were found in 11 (69%) of 16 of the horses with IRD and 11 (37%) of 30 of control horses. Lung consolidation (median score = 1) and peripheral irregularities scores (median score = 1) were greater in horses with IRD compared to horses without IRD (median score = 0; P Pleural effusion was not observed. Equine influenza virus infection can result in abnormalities of the equine lower respiratory tract. Despite the mild nature of IRD observed in this study, lung consolidation and peripheral pulmonary irregularities were more commonly observed in horses with clinical signs of IRD. Further work is needed to determine the clinical significance of these ultrasonographic abnormalities. PMID:15515590

  14. Motion sickness: advances in pathogenesis, prediction, prevention, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupak, Avi; Gordon, Carlos R

    2006-12-01

    Motion sickness has a major influence on modern traveling activities and the rapidly spreading engagement in virtual reality immersion. Recent evidence emphasizes the role of the otoliths in the pathogenesis of motion sickness, and several new theories may help explain its occurrence beyond the traditional sensory conflict theory. A promising new direction is the recently reported association of genetic polymorphism of the alpha2-adrenergic receptor with increased autonomic response to stress and motion sickness. Various physiological measures for the evaluation and prediction of motion sickness have been tested. However, no single parameter has yet been found to be of high enough sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis or prediction of individual motion sickness susceptibility. A number of pharmacological and non-pharmacological countermeasures are used for the prevention and treatment of motion sickness. The non-pharmacological options include all procedures that reduce conflicting sensory input, accelerate the process of multi-sensory adaptation, and promote psychological factors which enable the subject to cope with his/her condition. The most effective anti-motion sickness drugs are central acting anticholinergics and H1 antihistamines; however, adverse effects on psychomotor performance may limit their use in drivers, pilots, and naval crewmembers. Recent studies may be relevant to our understanding of the link between motion sickness, migraine, vertigo, and anxiety. Based on these findings and on recent neurochemical data, the development of new anti-motion sickness agents is a promising field of investigation. PMID:17183916

  15. MR Imaging of Subclinical Cerebral Decompression Sickness. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diving accidents related to barotrauma constitute a unique subset of ischemic insults to the central nervous system. Victims may demonstrate components of arterial gas embolism, which has a propensity for cerebral involvement, and/or decompression sickness, with primarily spinal cord involvement. Decompression sickness-related radiology literature is very limited. We present our MR findings including FLAIR images in a decompression sickness patient with atypical presentation and review the related literature. We believe MR can be useful in follow-up studies and in early diagnosis of decompression sickness when symptoms do not fit the classic picture or loss of consciousness in surfacing

  16. Importance of Wetlands Management for West Nile Virus Circulation Risk, Camargue, Southern France

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie Pradier; Alain Sandoz; Paul, Mathilde C; Gaëtan Lefebvre; Annelise Tran; Josiane Maingault; Sylvie Lecollinet; Agnès Leblond

    2014-01-01

    To assess environmental and horse-level risk factors associated with West Nile Virus (WNV) circulation in Camargue, Southern France, a serosurvey was conducted on non-vaccinated horses (n = 1159 from 134 stables) in 2007 and 2008. Fifteen Landsat images were examined to quantify areas with open water and flooded vegetation around sampled horses. Mean percentages of areas of open water and flooded vegetation, as well as variations in these percentages between 3 periods (November to Februar...

  17. Training young horses to social separation: Effect of a companion horse on training efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, E.; Christensen, Janne Winther; Keeling, LJ

    2011-01-01

    Reasons for performing study: The intensity with which a horse responds to separation from its group and subsequently to being alone is relevant for both horse and handler safety. Identification of training methods that may reduce responses to separation would be useful in practice. Objectives: To...... investigate whether the initial presence of a familiar companion horse modifies responses to separation from the group, lowers stress levels (as measured by heart rate) and increases training efficiency. Hypothesis: Habituation to separation proceeds more quickly if the horse is first trained with a companion......, and heart rate is lower when the horse is subsequently trained alone, compared to control horses trained individually from the start. Methods: Young mares (n = 32), kept in groups of 4 were exposed to social separation: 2 horses of the group were trained singly (S1, n = 16) and the remaining 2 horses...

  18. Virginia Tech Horse Judging Team leaves its mark in Texas

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    The Virginia Tech Horse Judging Team completed a successful spring competition season with a win at the American Paint Horse Association's Spring Intercollegiate Horse Judging Sweepstakes in Fort Worth, Texas.

  19. Keeping horses in groups: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Elke; Søndergaard, Eva; Keeling, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Although husbandry conditions for horses have improved over the last decades, many horses are still kept singly with limited or no physical contact to other horses. This is surprising, given the fact that keeping horses in groups is recognised best to fulfil their physical and behavioural needs......, especially their need for social contact with conspecifics, as well as to have a beneficial effect on horse–human interactions during training. Group housing of farm animals is widely applied in practice. As a consequence, scientists have investigated numerous aspects of group housing to help further improve...... animal welfare and human–animal interactions under these conditions. However, compared to this literature available in farm animals, and the plentiful studies conducted of feral horse populations, there is much less done when it comes to the management of horses kept in groups in the domestic environment...

  20. Inoculation of Goats, Sheep, and Horses with MERS-CoV Does Not Result in Productive Viral Shedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle R. Adney

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV was first recognized in 2012 and can cause severe disease in infected humans. Dromedary camels are the reservoir for the virus, although, other than nasal discharge, these animals do not display any overt clinical disease. Data from in vitro experiments suggest that other livestock such as sheep, goats, and horses might also contribute to viral transmission, although field data has not identified any seropositive animals. In order to understand if these animals could be infected, we challenged young goats and horses and adult sheep with MERS-CoV by intranasal inoculation. Minimal or no virus shedding was detected in all of the animals. During the four weeks following inoculation, neutralizing antibodies were detected in the young goats, but not in sheep or horses.

  1. Inoculation of Goats, Sheep, and Horses with MERS-CoV Does Not Result in Productive Viral Shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adney, Danielle R; Brown, Vienna R; Porter, Stephanie M; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Hartwig, Airn E; Bowen, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first recognized in 2012 and can cause severe disease in infected humans. Dromedary camels are the reservoir for the virus, although, other than nasal discharge, these animals do not display any overt clinical disease. Data from in vitro experiments suggest that other livestock such as sheep, goats, and horses might also contribute to viral transmission, although field data has not identified any seropositive animals. In order to understand if these animals could be infected, we challenged young goats and horses and adult sheep with MERS-CoV by intranasal inoculation. Minimal or no virus shedding was detected in all of the animals. During the four weeks following inoculation, neutralizing antibodies were detected in the young goats, but not in sheep or horses. PMID:27548203

  2. Efficacy of the repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methyl-benzamide (DEET) against tabanid flies on horses evaluated in a field test in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herholz, C; Kopp, C; Wenger, M; Mathis, A; Wägeli, S; Roth, N

    2016-05-15

    Female tabanid flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) can be a serious nuisance for horses because of their painful bites during blood feeding. They also play a primary role in mechanical transmission of a lentivirus causing Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA), a virus that has spread within Europe in recent years. According to the European law for products intended for use as a repellent on horses (recreational and sport horses), a field test is mandatory to demonstrate sufficient repellency of such a substance against the specific target fly species, but currently no agreed protocols are available for testing of potential repellents. The aim of the present study was to establish a protocol for a field test to investigate the efficacy of N,N-diethyl-3-methyl-benzamide (DEET, Brum®, Huebeli-Stud Horse Care AG) in a 15-17% oil-water emulsion against tabanid flies on horses up to four hours. Between July and August 2015, four horses on three farms each were tested on two consecutive days in a cross-over design. The four horses on Farm A were used in the pre-test as well as in the main test. Two and a half hours after repellent application the horses were lunged until sweating. Tabanid fly infestations were both photographed and directly counted during five minutes 3 and 4h after repellent application on the right side of the horses in the area from the head to the flank, belly and first third of the foreleg. Without repellent application, up to 29 tabanid flies were counted on a horse, whereas the maximum for the repellent treated horses was four. In 50% of the horses treated with DEET there were no Tabanids observed (efficacy 100%), and in all horses the tabanid fly counts were lower than in the control horses with one exemption at 4h. The efficacy of the DEET repellent was at least 80% and 71% respectively, three or four hours after application (with a confidence level of 89%). A fly trap (Horse Pal) revealed the presence of the tabanid species Tabanus brominus and Haematopota

  3. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  4. Controlling sickness absence: a study of changes in the Danish sickness absence legislation since 1973

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kristina; Andersen, John Sahl; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Pass, Ole; Raffnsøe, Sverre; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2007-01-01

    amendments to the act. RESULTS: Entitlement to sickness benefit in Denmark has undergone considerable changes during the past 30 years. The guiding principles of the reforms have been financial savings in combination with an assumption that human behaviour can be controlled through bureaucratic...

  5. Influence of Horse and Rider on Stress during Horse-riding Lesson Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Yun, Young-Min

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to confirm the influence of a horse-riding lesson program (HRLP) on the stress level of horses and riders by respectively analyzing their salivary cortisol concentration. Twenty-four healthy horses and 23 riders participated in this study. The horses were randomly classified into two groups for the horse riding lesson program: Class 1 (for the beginner lesson) and Class 2 (for the intermediate lesson). The Class 1 group consisted of 12 horses and 12 riders, while the Class 2 group consisted of 12 horses and 11 riders. Salivettes cotton wool swabs were used for saliva collection and the saliva analyses were conducted using a two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with SAS version 8. As for the results, the average salivary cortisol concentration of all horses before HRLP significantly increased compared to the baseline (p<0.001) while it decreased after the HRLP. The results of the salivary cortisol concentration of the riders were similar to the horses’ results. However, there was no difference during the HRLP between Class 1 and Class 2 in the horse or rider groups. The results suggest that the HRLP did not influence the stress level of the horses or riders. Thus, this study provides the necessary information and guidelines for future studies on stress in horses during riding and gives insight into better horse welfare and management options. PMID:27004819

  6. 78 FR 27001 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... published in the Federal Register on June 7, 2012 (77 FR 33607-33619, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0030), and... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 11 RIN 0579-AD43 Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations... Federal Register on June 7, 2012, and effective on July 9, 2012, we amended the horse...

  7. Population genetics of Trypanosoma brucei circulating in Glossina palpalis palpalis and domestic animals of the Fontem sleeping sickness focus of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Simo, Gustave; Njitchouang, Guy Roger; Melachio, Tresor Tito Tanekou; Njiokou, Flobert; Cuny, Gerard; Tazoacha, Asonganyi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human African Trypanosomiasis is still a public health threat in Cameroon. To assess Trypanosoma brucei strains circulating in the Fontem sleeping sickness focus, we conducted a genetic structure study using microsatellites to assess genotypes circulating in both tsetse flies and domestic animals. Method: For this study, pyramidal traps were set up and 2695 tsetse flies were collected and 1535 (57%) living flies were dissected and their mid- guts collected. Furthermore, blood samp...

  8. Continuity of nursing and the time of sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstad, Ingunn; Torjuul, Kirsti

    2009-04-01

    This paper explores the relationship between temporal continuity in nursing and temporal features of sickness. It is based on phenomenological and hermeneutical philosophy, empirical studies of sickness time, and the nursing theories of Nightingale, of Benner and of Benner and Wrubel. In the first part, temporal continuity is defined as distinct from interpersonal continuity. Tensions between temporal continuity and discontinuity are discussed in the contexts of care management, of conceptualisations of disease and of time itself. Temporal limitations to the methodological concept of situation are discussed. The main part of this paper explores nurses' possibilities to relate to their patients' time, and how temporal features of sickness may warrant temporal continuity of nursing. Three temporal characteristics of sickness are discussed: the immediacy of patients' suffering, the basic continuity of life through sickness and health care, and the indeterminism and precariousness of sickness. The timing of nursing acts is discussed. The paper explores how sickness is both part of the continuity of life, and threatens this continuity. It concludes that this tension is implicitly recognised in the temporal continuity of nursing, which allows for discontinuous and continuous aspects of sickness time. Nurses accordingly perceive the sick person's time at several levels of temporality, and distinguish highly complex temporal processes in their patients' trajectory. Temporal continuity provides the time, flexibility, and closeness for nurses to perceive and act into time dimensions of individual sickness. The paper shows that temporal continuity of nursing is grounded in temporal characteristics of severe sickness. It suggests that temporal continuity is an important theoretical concept in nursing. PMID:19291197

  9. Glossina hytrosavirus control strategies in tsetse fly factories: application of infectomics in virus management

    OpenAIRE

    Kariithi, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    African trypanosomosis is a fatal zoonotic disease transmitted by tsetse flies (Diptera; Glossinidae); blood-sucking insects found only in sub-Saharan Africa. Two forms of trypanosomoses occur: the animal African trypanosomosis (AAT; nagana), and the human African trypanosomosis (HAT; sleeping sickness). Since there are no effective vaccines against trypanosomosis, tsetse fly eradication is the most effective disease control method. Tsetse flies can be effectively eradicated by the sterile in...

  10. Hemogoblin phenotypes in Murgese horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Bottiglieri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this note we describe two new equine hemoglobin phenotypes found during a survey of the Murgese horse, a rare  Apulian native breed, among whose ancestors the Arabian surely plays an important role. To date we have analysed about  300 individual hemolysates by different chromatographic analyses (PAGIF, IPG, CMC. The results pointed out two unusu-  al patterns where the ratio of the α24Phe60Gln band to the α24Phe60Lys band was 93:7 and 70:30 rather than 60:40  which would have been expected of BII homozygote. Given that the three horses exhibiting the unusual patterns shared  a common ancestor and that none of the possible combinations of the known haplotypes can account for 7-8%  α24Phe60Lys, reasonably a triplicated arrangement has to be postulated. 

  11. Hair whorls in the horse

    OpenAIRE

    Baxová, Edita

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY This bachelor thesis is focused primaly on an assessment of hair whirls in the horses due to thein temperament, nature, behavior and movement mechanics. There is explained the biology of the hair growth, its structure, composition and pigmentation and its functions which are very important for the whole organism in the literature review. It is also explained how the hair whirls arise and why the breeders have long been showing interest and attach great importance to them....

  12. Genome mapping of the horse

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgren, Gabriella

    2001-01-01

    Our ability to map and sequence whole genomes is one of the most important developments in biological science. It will provide us with an unprecedented insight into the genetic background of phenotypic traits, such as disease resistance, reproduction and growth and also makes it feasible to study the processes of genome evolution. The main focus of this thesis has been to develop a linkage map of the horse (Equus caballus) genome. A secondary aim was to expand the number of physically mapped ...

  13. KIDNEY ANOMALIES: HORSE SHOE KIDNEY

    OpenAIRE

    Hemalatha; Komarabattina; Nageshwar Rao; Kotikala Prabhakara

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION : Horse Shoe Kidney was first recognized during an autopsy by De Carpi in 1521. This anomaly consists of two distinct renal masses lying vertically on either side of the midline and connected at their respective lower poles by a parenchymatous or fibrous isthmus that crosses the mid pl ane of the body. This isthmus lies at the level of 4th lumbar vertebra just beneath the origin of inferior mesenteric ...

  14. Sexual behaviour in horse herd

    OpenAIRE

    Bímová, Kristýna

    2012-01-01

    Herds of wild horses inhabit diverse environments all around the world. Studies show that different populations living in completely different conditions, have remarkably similar social and spatial arrangement, whether the size and composition of the group, the size of their home districts or to the characteristics of different types of behavior. Breeding takes place mostly in the harem groups – kind of "families" with one stallion and several mares and foals adults. According to one hypoth...

  15. Selection of Variants Utilizing Heparin Sulphate For Cell Entry When South African Territories Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus is Adapted for Growth on Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) attains entry to epithelial cells by affinity for at least four members of the integrin family of receptors. Adaptation of field isolates to grow in cultured cells is an essential step towards development of vaccines against new outbreak strains. This is made poss...

  16. Tsetse Control and Gambian Sleeping Sickness; Implications for Control Strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inaki Tirados

    Full Text Available Gambian sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis, HAT outbreaks are brought under control by case detection and treatment although it is recognised that this typically only reaches about 75% of the population. Vector control is capable of completely interrupting HAT transmission but is not used because it is considered too expensive and difficult to organise in resource-poor settings. We conducted a full scale field trial of a refined vector control technology to determine its utility in control of Gambian HAT.The major vector of Gambian HAT is the tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes which lives in the humid zone immediately adjacent to water bodies. From a series of preliminary trials we determined the number of tiny targets required to reduce G. fuscipes populations by more than 90%. Using these data for model calibration we predicted we needed a target density of 20 per linear km of river in riverine savannah to achieve >90% tsetse control. We then carried out a full scale, 500 km2 field trial covering two HAT foci in Northern Uganda to determine the efficacy of tiny targets (overall target density 5.7/km2. In 12 months, tsetse populations declined by more than 90%. As a guide we used a published HAT transmission model and calculated that a 72% reduction in tsetse population is required to stop transmission in those settings.The Ugandan census suggests population density in the HAT foci is approximately 500 per km2. The estimated cost for a single round of active case detection (excluding treatment, covering 80% of the population, is US$433,333 (WHO figures. One year of vector control organised within the country, which can completely stop HAT transmission, would cost US$42,700. The case for adding this method of vector control to case detection and treatment is strong. We outline how such a component could be organised.

  17. Mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riet-Correa, Franklin; Rivero, Rodolfo; Odriozola, Ernesto; Adrien, Maria de Lourdes; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Schild, Ana Lucia

    2013-11-01

    In the current study, mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses are reviewed, with an emphasis on the occurrence of these diseases in South America. The main mycotoxicoses observed in grazing cattle include intoxications by indole-diterpenoid mycotoxins (Paspalum spp. contaminated by Claviceps paspali, Lolium perenne infected by Neotyphodium lolii, Cynodon dactylon infected by Claviceps cynodontis, and Poa huecu), gangrenous ergotism and dysthermic syndrome (hyperthermia) caused by Festuca arundinacea (syn. Festuca elatior) infected by Neotyphodium coenophialum (syn. Acremonium coenophialum), and photosensitization in pastures contaminated by toxigenic Pithomyces chartarum. Other mycotoxicoses in grazing cattle include slaframine toxicity in clover pastures infected by Rhizoctonia leguminicola and diplodiosis in cattle grazing in corn stubbles. The mycotoxicoses caused by contaminated concentrated food or byproducts in cattle include poisoning by toxins of Aspergillus clavatus, which contaminate barley or sugar beetroot by-products, gangrenous ergotism or dysthermic syndrome caused by wheat bran or wheat screenings contaminated with Claviceps purpurea, and acute respiratory distress caused by damaged sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas). The main mycotoxicosis of horses is leukoencephalomalacia caused by the fumonisins B1 and B2 produced by Fusarium spp. Poisoning by C. purpurea and F. elatior infected by N. coenophialum has also been reported as a cause of agalactia and neonatal mortality in mares. Slaframine toxicosis caused by the ingestion of alfalfa hay contaminated by R. leguminicola has also been reported in horses. PMID:24091682

  18. The VP2 variable region of African and German isolates of infectious bursal disease virus: comparison with very virulent, "classical" virulent, and attenuated tissue culture-adapted strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierenberg, K; Nieper, H; van den Berg, T P; Ezeokoli, C D; Voss, M; Müller, H

    2000-01-01

    11 African and two German IBDV strains isolated in the mid '80s from field outbreaks in vaccinated and unvaccinated chicken flocks displayed features of very virulent (vv) IBDV strains. The sequence data of the VP2 variable region and phylogenetic analysis confirm that these strains can be grouped within vv IBDV strains which appeared at the same time on the three continents Africa, Asia, and Europe. Strain Cu-1wt, responsible for severe IBD outbreaks in Germany 13 years earlier, showed some relatedness to these strains, but also significant differences at the genomic level, even though this strain has also features of the vv IBDV strains. PMID:10664410

  19. [Simultaneous association of tubercular meningitis and cryptococcal meningitis in an African with human immunodeficiency virus HIV positive serology. University Hospital Center of Bujumbura,Burundi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyongabo, T; Aubry, P

    1992-01-01

    The authors report a connection between a meningitis tuberculosis and a meningoencephalitis with cryptococcus in the case of an african VIH+. The diagnostic of a meningitis tuberculosis was retained on an indirect arguments, this of meningoencephalitis of direct arguments (antigen cryptococcus, cultivation on Sabouraud environment). The pulmonary tuberculosis and/or extrapulmonary tuberculosis is current in Central Africa during HIV infection, as well as the crytococcosis during AIDS. But, any observation on neuromeningitis strike of those two infections have been reported up to now. PMID:1406216

  20. Identifying employees at risk for job loss during sick leave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, Peter A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Bultmann, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the associations between medical, work-related, organizational and sociodemographic factors and job loss during sick leave in a Dutch population of 4132 employees on sick leave. Methods: Data were assessed by occupational health physicians (OHPs) on sociodemographic, medical, wor

  1. Reliability of provocative tests of motion sickness susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, D. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Kennedy, R. S.; Dunlop, W. P.

    1987-01-01

    Test-retest reliability values were derived from motion sickness susceptibility scores obtained from two successive exposures to each of three tests: (1) Coriolis sickness sensitivity test; (2) staircase velocity movement test; and (3) parabolic flight static chair test. The reliability of the three tests ranged from 0.70 to 0.88. Normalizing values from predictors with skewed distributions improved the reliability.

  2. The Role of Work Group in Individual Sickness Absence Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaananen, Ari; Tordera, Nuria; Kivimaki, Mika; Kouvonen, Anne; Pentti, Jaana; Linna, Anne; Vahtera, Jussi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of our two-year follow-up study was to examine the effect of the social components of the work group, such as group absence norms and cohesion, on sickness absence behavior among individuals with varying attitudes toward work attendance. The social components were measured using a questionnaire survey, and data on sickness absence…

  3. Sickness absence frequency among women working in hospital care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; Schreuder, Jolanda A. H.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Moen, Bente E.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Frequent short sickness absences result in understaffing and interfere with work processes. We need more knowledge about factors associated with this type of absence. Aims To investigate associations between the frequency of previous sickness absence and self-reported perceptions of healt

  4. Does muscle strength predict future musculoskeletal disorders and sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, A; Sell, L; Hansen, J V;

    2012-01-01

    High muscle strength is considered relevant for preventing musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence. However, prospective studies on the association between muscle strength and future musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence are few and show contrasting results....

  5. Late stage infection in sleeping sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartwig Wolburg

    Full Text Available At the turn of the 19(th century, trypanosomes were identified as the causative agent of sleeping sickness and their presence within the cerebrospinal fluid of late stage sleeping sickness patients was described. However, no definitive proof of how the parasites reach the brain has been presented so far. Analyzing electron micrographs prepared from rodent brains more than 20 days after infection, we present here conclusive evidence that the parasites first enter the brain via the choroid plexus from where they penetrate the epithelial cell layer to reach the ventricular system. Adversely, no trypanosomes were observed within the parenchyma outside blood vessels. We also show that brain infection depends on the formation of long slender trypanosomes and that the cerebrospinal fluid as well as the stroma of the choroid plexus is a hostile environment for the survival of trypanosomes, which enter the pial space including the Virchow-Robin space via the subarachnoid space to escape degradation. Our data suggest that trypanosomes do not intend to colonize the brain but reside near or within the glia limitans, from where they can re-populate blood vessels and disrupt the sleep wake cycles.

  6. The pathologic anatomy of radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monograph considers pathologic anatomy and some problems of injury pathogenesis from external and incorporated radiation sources. The book is based on the generalized results of perennial authors investigations and literary data. The general characteristic of existing knowledge of the material substrate of different forms and types of radiation injuries, as well as of the dependence of structural changes on the nature and type of radiation, is given. Pathomorphology of organic manifestations of acute radiation sickness is thoroughly studied. The dynamics of structural alterations in blood ressels and their role in delayed trophic derangements due to radiation sickness are considered in detail; the peculiarities of infections and noninfections inflammatory changes in an irradiated organism and in the case of injuries due to the effect of incorporated radioactive substances, are described. Special attention is paid to the nonuniform external irradiation. Structural violations due to injuries caused by various radioactive substances and the peculiarities of their microdistribution in the case of different ways of administration into the organism, are described. Spectral attention is paid to delayed consequences of the organism injury by incorporated radioactive substances. The concluding chapter of the book presents the problems of differential pathoanatomical diagnostics of radiation injuries and their delayed effect due to generally spread nosologic forms of disease

  7. Explanation of diagnosis criteria for radiation sickness from internal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A revised edition of the Diagnostic Criteria for Radiation Sickness from Internal Exposure has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. It is necessary to research the internal radiation sickness to adapt to the current serious anti-terrorism situation. This standard was enacted based on the extensive research of related literature, from which 12 cases with internal radiation sickness and screened out were involving 7 types of radionuclide. The Development of Emergency Response Standard Extension Framework: Midterm Evaluation Report is the main reference which approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency and World Health Organization. This amendment contains many new provisions such as internal radiation sickness effects models and threshold dose, and the appendix added threshold dose of serious deterministic effects induced by radionuclide intake and radiotoxicology parameters of some radionuclides. In order to understand and implement this standard, and to diagnose and treat the internal radiation sickness correctly, the contents of this standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  8. Analyzing sickness absence with statistical models for survival data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl Bang; Andersen, Per Kragh; Smith-Hansen, Lars; Nielsen, Martin L; Kristensen, Tage S

    2007-01-01

    absence data deal with events occurring over time, the use of statistical models for survival data has been reviewed, and the use of frailty models has been proposed for the analysis of such data. METHODS: Three methods for analyzing data on sickness absences were compared using a simulation study......OBJECTIVES: Sickness absence is the outcome in many epidemiologic studies and is often based on summary measures such as the number of sickness absences per year. In this study the use of modern statistical methods was examined by making better use of the available information. Since sickness...... involving the following: (i) Poisson regression using a single outcome variable (number of sickness absences), (ii) analysis of time to first event using the Cox proportional hazards model, and (iii) frailty models, which are random effects proportional hazards models. Data from a study of the relation...

  9. Stroboscopic Vision as a Treatment for Space Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, Millard F.; Somers, Jeffrey T.; Ford, George; Krnavek, Jody M.

    2007-01-01

    Results obtained from space flight indicate that most space crews will experience some symptoms of motion sickness causing significant impact on the operational objectives that must be accomplished to assure mission success. Based on the initial work of Melvill Jones we have evaluated stroboscopic vision as a method of preventing motion sickness. Given that the data presented by professor Melvill Jones were primarily post hoc results following a study not designed to investigate motion sickness, it is unclear how motion sickness results were actually determined. Building on these original results, we undertook a three part study that was designed to investigate the effect of stroboscopic vision (either with a strobe light or LCD shutter glasses) on motion sickness using: (1) visual field reversal, (2) Reading while riding in a car (with or without external vision present), and (3) making large pitch head movements during parabolic flight.

  10. Body shape analysis of Bosnian mountain horses using Procrustes statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ino Curik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Procrustes analysis was performed on 4 samples of horse populations (11 Bosniak horses from a private farm in Nevesinje, 2 Bosniak horses from a former state farm in Han Piesak, 12 Bosniak horses from the former state stud farm Borike and 18 purebred Arabian horses from Borike in order to analyse the differences in body shape between the samples. The twodimensional shapes of the horses were presented as coordinates of 11 landmarks, which were constructed from measurements taken from living animals. Relative warp analysis revealed a separation between three of the samples. The private Bosniak horses are located between the Borike Bosniaks and purebred Arabian horses. Due to the similar shape of private Bosniaks and Arabian horses, which could be proven also by thin plate splines, we can conclude that the privat breeder selected Bosniak horses which were smaller than the Borike Bosniaks but more similar to the Arabian type of horse.

  11. Multiple congenital ocular anomalies in Icelandic horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindgren Gabriella

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple congenital ocular anomalies (MCOA syndrome is a hereditary congenital eye defect that was first described in Silver colored Rocky Mountain horses. The mutation causing this disease is located within a defined chromosomal interval, which also contains the gene and mutation that is associated with the Silver coat color (PMEL17, exon 11. Horses that are homozygous for the disease-causing allele have multiple defects (MCOA-phenotype, whilst the heterozygous horses predominantly have cysts of the iris, ciliary body or retina (Cyst-phenotype. It has been argued that these ocular defects are caused by a recent mutation that is restricted to horses that are related to the Rocky Mountain Horse breed. For that reason we have examined another horse breed, the Icelandic horse, which is historically quite divergent from Rocky Mountain horses. Results We examined 24 Icelandic horses and established that the MCOA syndrome is present in this breed. Four of these horses were categorised as having the MCOA-phenotype and were genotyped as being homozygous for the PMEL17 mutation. The most common clinical signs included megaloglobus, iris stromal hypoplasia, abnormal pectinate ligaments, iridociliary cysts occasionally extending into the peripheral retina and cataracts. The cysts and pectinate ligament abnormalities were observed in the temporal quadrant of the eyes. Fourteen horses were heterozygous for the PMEL17 mutation and were characterized as having the Cyst-phenotype with cysts and occasionally curvilinear streaks in the peripheral retina. Three additional horses were genotyped as PMEL17 heterozygotes, but in these horses we were unable to detect cysts or other forms of anomalies. One eye of a severely vision-impaired 18 month-old stallion, homozygous for the PMEL17 mutation was examined by light microscopy. Redundant duplication of non-pigmented ciliary body epithelium, sometimes forming cysts bulging into the posterior chamber

  12. Enemies and turncoats: bovine tuberculosis exposes pathogenic potential of Rift Valley fever virus in a common host, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beechler, B R; Manore, C A; Reininghaus, B; O'Neal, D; Gorsich, E E; Ezenwa, V O; Jolles, A E

    2015-04-22

    The ubiquity and importance of parasite co-infections in populations of free-living animals is beginning to be recognized, but few studies have demonstrated differential fitness effects of single infection versus co-infection in free-living populations. We investigated interactions between the emerging bacterial disease bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and the previously existing viral disease Rift Valley fever (RVF) in a competent reservoir host, African buffalo, combining data from a natural outbreak of RVF in captive buffalo at a buffalo breeding facility in 2008 with data collected from a neighbouring free-living herd of African buffalo in Kruger National Park. RVF infection was twice as likely in individual BTB+ buffalo as in BTB- buffalo, which, according to a mathematical model, may increase RVF outbreak size at the population level. In addition, co-infection was associated with a far higher rate of fetal abortion than other infection states. Immune interactions between BTB and RVF may underlie both of these interactions, since animals with BTB had decreased innate immunity and increased pro-inflammatory immune responses. This study is one of the first to demonstrate how the consequences of emerging infections extend beyond direct effects on host health, potentially altering the dynamics and fitness effects of infectious diseases that had previously existed in the ecosystem on free-ranging wildlife populations. PMID:25788592

  13. Vertebral body osteomyelitis in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical signs, laboratory data, results of nuclear scintigraphy and radiographic examination of five horses with vertebral body osteomyelitis are described together with response to treatment. Three horses were less than five months of age. Four horses demonstrated hindlimb paresis and in three a focus of pain in the thoracolumbar region could be identified. An umbilical abscess, a caudal lobe lung abscess and a patent urachus were considered primary niduses of infection in each of three horses. Leucocytosis, neutrophilia, anaemia and elevated fibrinogen were the most consistent laboratory abnormalities. Nuclear scintigraphy was performed in three horses and identified the site of the vertebral lesion which was subsequently evaluated radiographically. In the other two horses radiographic examination in the region of areas of focal pain identified a lesion. Radiographic abnormalities included compression fractures of vertebral bodies (two), proliferative new bone (three) and soft tissue swelling ventral to a vertebral body (one). Two horses, including one with a compression fracture of the second lumbar vertebra, received parenteral antimicrobial therapy for 40 and 74 days, respectively. When re-examined six months later they showed no neurological abnormalities. The other three horses failed to respond to antimicrobial treatment and were humanely destroyed. The horse with a lung abscess also had an abscess cranial to the right tuber coxae which extended into the vertebral bodies of the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae from which Streptococcus zooepidemicus was cultured. A horse with proliferative new bone on the ventral aspect of the fifth and sixth thoracic vertebrae had a mediastinal mass associated with these vertebrae and fungal granulomas, from which Aspergillus species was cultured, in the heart and aorta, trachea, spleen and kidney. The horse with a patent urachus and soft tissue swelling ventral to the vertebral body of the 12th thoracic vertebra

  14. Genetic Correlations between Young Horse and Dressage Competition Results in Danish Warmblood Horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Lina Johanna Maria; Christiansen, Karina; Holm, Maiken;

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Young horse results of conformation and gaits were studied for their heritability and genetic correlation to future dressage competition results, to assess their value as young horse indicator traits. The young horse gait- and conformation scores generally had higher heritabilities (0.......13˗0.48) than the breeding goal trait of dressage competition results (0.16). Young horse results showed medium high to high genetic correlations to dressage competition results (0.32˗0.91) where most recorded young horse gait- and conformation scores contributed with considerable information to future dressage...... competition results. If considering both accuracy of each young horse trait and genetic correlation to dressage competition results, as rg×rIA, the best young horse indicator traits for future performance were capacity, trot, canter, and rideability, all under own rider. Most important conformation traits...

  15. 0144 Sick leave patterns as predictors of disability pension or long-term sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stapelfeldt, Christina; Vinther Nielsen, Claus; Trolle Andersen, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The public health care sector is challenged by high sick leave rates among home-care personnel. This group also has a high probability of being granted a disability pension. We studied whether a workplace-registered frequent short-term sick leave spell pattern was an early indicator of...... future disability pension or future long-term sick leave among eldercare workers. METHOD: 2774 employees' sick leave days were categorised: 0-2 and 3-17 short (1-7 days) spells, 2-13 mixed short and long (8+ days) spells, and long spells only. Disability pension and long-term sick leave were subsequently...... pattern was not associated with a significantly increased RR compared with a non-frequent short-term pattern. The risk of long-term sick leave was significantly increased (1.35-1.64 (95% CI: 1.12-2.03) for all sick leave patterns beyond 0-2 short spells. CONCLUSIONS: Sick leave length was a better...

  16. Global Health Security: The Lessons from the West African Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic and MERS Outbreak in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghsa Preparation Task Force Team

    2015-12-01

    The Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome outbreak in the Republic of Korea have given huge impacts in different aspects. Health security is no more a new coinage. Global health security became more realistic in its practical application. In the perspective of global health, it will be helpful to peruse lessons learned from the Ebola outbreak in West Africa and MERS outbreak in Korea. PMID:27429901

  17. Simian Varicella Virus Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Mahalingam, Ravi; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Gilden, Don

    2010-01-01

    Because varicella zoster virus (VZV) is an exclusively human pathogen, the development of an animal model is necessary to study pathogenesis, latency, and reactivation. The pathological, virological, and immunological features of simian varicella virus (SVV) infection in nonhuman primates are similar to those of VZV infection in humans. Both natural infection of cynomolgus and African green monkeys as well as intrabronchial inoculation of rhesus macaques with SVV provide the most useful model...

  18. The effect on length of sickness absence by recognition of undetected psychiatric disorder in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    the rate of return to work. RESULTS: The rate of return to work was non-significantly lower for the intervention group than for the control group, except for persons without a psychiatric sick-leave diagnosis who were sick-listed from full time work, who showed a significantly higher rate of return to......BACKGROUND: The burden caused by psychiatric disorders on the individual and society has resulted in more studies examining interventions aimed at reducing sickness absence. AIMS: To examine if detection of undetected psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence (LSA) would improve the rate...... of return to work. METHODS: Over one year all 2,414 incident persons on LSA in a well-defined population were within one week after eight weeks of continuous sickness absence posted the Common Mental Disorders Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ) to screen for mental disorders. In a randomized controlled...

  19. Serological study on WNV presence in horses in Vojvodina after the human outbreak in Serbia in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović T.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To establish the presence of West Nile virus (WNV infection in the animal population in Serbia after the human WNV outbreak, the presence of anti-WNV IgG antibodies was examined by commercial ELISA of blood sera samples of 130 horses collected in 2012 from 6 stables and 1 settlement in Vojvodina Province, northern Serbia. During the blood sampling, hibernating mosquitoes in the vicinity of the sampled horses were collected (31 pools from 4 locations and tested for WNV presence by real-time RT-PCR. The presence of anti-WNV antibodies was observed in 49.23% (64/130 horses. Per stable, the percent of seropositive animals ranged from 35% to 64%. All 31 analyzed pools of hibernating mosquitoes tested negative for WNV RNA. The WNV-antibody prevalence of 49.23% obtained in horses during 2012 was much higher than the prevalence (12% found in horses during 2009/2010. These results, including the confirmed seroconversion in eight horses that tested negative in 2010, indicated an intensive WNV circulation during 2012 in Serbia, and the necessity of implementing surveillance programs. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31084 and III43007

  20. Incomplete linear tibial fractures in two horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incomplete linear tibial fractures were identified in two horses with the aid of scintigraphy. Both horses were treated successfully by strict stall confinement, and both returned to normal athletic activity. Scintigraphy can be used to facilitate the generally difficult diagnosis of incomplete tibial fractures

  1. Frequency of classic stereotypies in endurance horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro E. Muñoz-Alonzo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of classic stereotypies in endurance horses of Región Metropolitana (Chile and the association of these abnormal behaviors with age and sex of the animals. All resident endurance horses from 8 equestrian centres of the Región Metropolitana were studied (n=107. A description of classic stereotipies (crib-biting, weaving and box-walking was given to each horse keeper and then they were asked for this presence or absence, along the name, sex, age and breed, of every horse under their care. To analyze the data, horses were divided by age into 3 groups: 3 to 6 years (n=28, 7 to 9 years (n=42 and 10 to 18 years (n=37. Based on their sex, they were divided into 3 groups: stallions (n =11, geldings (n=64 and mares (n=32. Results are expressed as percentages. Fisher`s test with p < 0.05 was used for statistical analysis of the variables age and sex. A 12.2% of all horses presented stereotypies: crib -biting (0.9%, weaving (6.5% and box-walking (4.7%. No relationship was found between the presence of stereotypies and variables age and sex. This study evidence a high frequency of classic stereotypies in endurance horses of Región Metropolitana, mostly weaving, and no found association between classic stereotypies and the variables age and sex of horses.

  2. Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introd...

  3. African dance

    OpenAIRE

    Mumberson, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The RE Open will be shown at the Mall Gallery London and the international section was judged by major practitioners and educators, print dealers and collectors, President of RE and Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum Dr Bren Unwin, John Purcell, Deborah Roslund, Colin Harrison, Dave Ferry, and Mark Hampson. Piece selected "African Dance" print.

  4. Intra-articular morphine in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Casper

    and laboratory animals. Recent discovery of opioid receptors in the synovial membrane of horses has made it reasonable to expect IA morphine to be analgesic in horses too. Treatment with IA morphine after arthroscopic surgery, or for other painful joint diseases, might therefore be an important contribution......Regardless of species, optimal pain management of animals subjected to various painful procedures is of outmost importance for several reasons, including animal welfare considerations, improved convalescence and improved final outcome. One way of improving pain management in horses is through...... and anti-inflammatory effects, including pharmacokinetics, of IA morphine under inflammatory joint conditions in horses. To pursue potential answers for these issues, the effects of IA morphine were studied in an experiment including 8 horses. The study was carried out as a randomized, observer blinded...

  5. World Organisation for Animal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Official disease status Official recognition policy and procedures FMD Rinderpest BSE CBPP African horse sickness Peste des ... declared disease status Web portal on Avian Influenza FMD Portal BSE Portal BSE situation in the world ...

  6. The Person in a State of Sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Árnason, Vilhjálmur; Hjörleifsson, Stefán

    2016-04-01

    In this article, we discuss the ideas of Eric J. Cassell about the patient-professional relationship. We argue that his approach combines in an interesting way features from the literature on patient autonomy and paternalistic practices. We suggest that these seemingly paternalistic features of practicing medicine, which are widely either ignored or condemned in bioethical discussion, are of vital significance in medical practice. In the first sections of the article, we describe the main features of Cassell's understanding of the sick person and his version of personalized medicine. We pay particular attention to his notion of information control and compare his ideas about conversation with patients to Hans-Georg Gadamer's analysis of patient-professional dialogue. In the latter part of the article, we explore through a couple of examples the implications these ideas have for medical practice. PMID:26957446

  7. Vasopressin and motion sickness in cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, R. A.; Keil, L. C.; Daunton, N. G.; Crampton, G. H.; Lucot, J.

    1987-01-01

    Levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured in cats under several motion-sickness-inducing conditions. Plasma AVP increased significantly in both susceptible and resistant animals exposed to motion. When vomiting occurred, levels of plasma AVP were drmatically elevated (up to 27 times resting levels). There was no difference in resting levels of AVP of susceptible and resistant cats. Levels of CSF-AVP were not elevated immediately after vomiting, but the testing levels of CSF-AVP were lower in animals that vomited during motion than in those animals which did not vomit during motion. The results of these experiments show that changes in systemic AVP are directly related to vomiting induced by motion, however, CSF-AVP apparently does not change in association with vomiting. CSF-AVP does appear to be lower in animals that reach frank vomiting during motion stimulation than in animals which do not vomit.

  8. Habituation of motion sickness in the cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, George H.; Lucot, James B.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty femal cats were subjected to a motion sickness stimulus in three series of tests. A series consisted of five tests given biweekly, weekly, or daily. Each test consisted of 30 min of stimulation followed by 1 min of rest, and series were separated by a period of not less than 14 d. Retching was the dependent variable. No habituation (reduction in the incidence of retching) was found with biweekly testing but pronounced habituation was observed with weekly and daily testing. The 30 cats were divided evenly into high and low susceptibility groups based on the results of the biweekly tests. The rate of habituation was the same for the two susceptibility groups in both the weekly and daily series.

  9. Motivation for social contact in horses measured by operant conditioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Eva; Jensen, Margit Bak; Nicol, Christine J.

    2011-01-01

    and muzzle contact, respectively, to a familiar companion horse. Horses were housed individually next to their companion horse and separations between pens prevented physical contact. During daily test sessions horses were brought to a test area where they could access an arena allowing social contact. Arena...

  10. Behaviour of stabled horses when presented with different odours

    OpenAIRE

    Bonde, M.; Goodwin, Deborah

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally horsemen have used odours to attract, repel and calm horses, and therefore a knowledge of horse preference for certain odours has potential value in horse management. This study investigates the behaviour of horses when presented with 11 test substances of herbal or animal origin and one odourless control.

  11. Knowledge is key to safety; Plants that poison horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally they are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However, there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Other plants may be eaten by some horses even though they are unpalatable...

  12. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be...

  13. Culicoides species attracted to horses with and without insect hypersensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijt, van der R.; Boom, van den R.; Jongema, Y.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine (1) which species of Culicoides is most commonly attracted to horses, (2) whether horses suffering insect hypersensitivity attract more Culicoides spp. than unaffected horses, and (3) the times when Culicoides spp. are most active. Horses affected by insect h

  14. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or cream from horses quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by any person...

  15. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  16. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective enforcement of the Act: (a) Each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other...

  17. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses, certification, and... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.314 Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. (a) Horses offered for importation from any part of the world...

  18. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

  19. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  20. 9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses for immediate slaughter. 93.326... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321,...

  1. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  2. Horses Hotel: Proust a Contrapelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bange

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho articula uma crítica da peça Horses Hotel, dirigida por Alex Cassal e Clara Kutner e que esteve em cartaz no Oi Futuro do Flamengo, no Rio de Janeiro, de dezoito de abril a dois de junho de 2013. A partir de uma investigação do projeto estético disposto sobre o palco, percurso ao longo do qual convido Gustave Flaubert e Marcel Proust, discuto em que medida esse projeto constitui uma estética sintomática, cuja base está na defesa de uma arte pela sensação em si.

  3. Horses Hotel: Proust a Contrapelo

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Bange

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho articula uma crítica da peça Horses Hotel, dirigida por Alex Cassal e Clara Kutner e que esteve em cartaz no Oi Futuro do Flamengo, no Rio de Janeiro, de dezoito de abril a dois de junho de 2013. A partir de uma investigação do projeto estético disposto sobre o palco, percurso ao longo do qual convido Gustave Flaubert e Marcel Proust, discuto em que medida esse projeto constitui uma estética sintomática, cuja base está na defesa de uma arte pela sensação em si.

  4. Hemogoblin phenotypes in Murgese horse

    OpenAIRE

    Carmela Bottiglieri; Rosario Rullo; Aldo Di Luccia; Elisa Pieragostini

    2010-01-01

    In this note we describe two new equine hemoglobin phenotypes found during a survey of the Murgese horse, a rare  Apulian native breed, among whose ancestors the Arabian surely plays an important role. To date we have analysed about  300 individual hemolysates by different chromatographic analyses (PAGIF, IPG, CMC). The results pointed out two unusu-  al patterns where the ratio of the α24Phe60Gln band to the α24Phe60Lys band was 93:7 and 70:30 rather than 60:40&nbs...

  5. Horse impoundments under Control of Horses legislation in the Munster region of Ireland: factors affecting euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane, M; O'Sullivan, E; Collins, D M; Byrne, A W; More, S J

    2015-01-24

    Recently, considerable international attention has been paid to the problem of unwanted horses. In Ireland, stray horses, particularly in urban areas, are a further problem. The Control of Horses Act 1996 was enacted in response to an ongoing problem of uncontrolled horses in public places. As yet, no research work has been conducted focusing on stray horses in Ireland. This paper describes horses impounded under the Act in the Munster region of Ireland during 2005-2012 and the factors influencing decisions regarding their disposal. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate factors influencing the probability that a horse was euthanised during impoundment. In total, 3625 seizure events were recorded, most towards the end of the study period. Predictors for euthanasia during 2010-2012 included seizure location, sex, age, colour, body condition score and year. This study highlights the problem of stray horses in Ireland, particularly in urban areas. There is a need for rigorous enforcement of newly enacted horse identification legislation, allowing a fully integrated traceability system. More is required to manage the long-established societal problems of stray horses in urban settings, with a uniform approach by all Local Authorities being long overdue. PMID:25376504

  6. Genetic characterisation of the Uruguayan Creole horse and analysis of relationships among horse breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, L; Postiglioni, A; De Andrés, D F; Vega-Plá, J L; Gagliardi, R; Biagetti, R; Franco, J

    2002-02-01

    The genetic variability within the Uruguayan Creole horse and its relationship to a group of geographically or historically related breeds (Spanish Pure-bred, Barb, Quarter horse, Paso Fino, Peruvian Paso, Arabian and Thoroughbred horse), was evaluated using 25 loci (seven of blood groups, nine of protein polymorphisms and nine microsatellites) analyzed on a total of 145 Uruguayan Creole horses. In this study, blood group and protein polymorphism variants that are considered to be breed markers of Spanish Pure-bred and Barb horses were detected in the Creole breed. Conversely, some microsatellites and protein polymorphisms alleles were found uniquely in the Creole horse. American horse breeds together with Barb and Arabian horses clearly formed a separate cluster from the Spanish pure-bred and Thoroughbred breeds, as shown by an UPGMA dendrogram based on Nei's standard genetic distance. Data in this study provided evidence for considerable genetic variation within Uruguayan Creole horses and of a distinctive breed profile. Both traits were most likely inherited from the XVIth century Spanish horses, more closely related to Barb than to Spanish Pure-bred. PMID:12002640

  7. Low back pain predict sickness absence among power plant workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtezani, Ardiana; Hundozi, Hajrije; Orovcanec, Nikola; Berisha, Merita; Meka, Vjollca

    2010-01-01

    Background: Low back pain (LBP) remains the predominant occupational health problem in most industrialized countries and low-income countries. Both work characteristics and individual factors have been identified as risk factors. More knowledge about the predictors of sickness absence from LBP in the industry will be valuable in determining strategies for prevention. Objectives: The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate whether individual, work-related physical risk factors were involved in the occurrence of LBP sickness absence. Methods: A follow-up study was conducted among 489 workers, aged 18–65 years, at Kosovo Energetic Corporation in Kosovo. This cross-sectional study used a self-administered questionnaire to collect data on individual and work-related risk factors and the occurrence of LBP sickness absence. Logistic regression models were used to determine associations between risk factors and the occurrence of sickness absence due to LBP. Results: Individual factors did not influence sickness absence, whereas work-related physical factors showed strong associations with sickness absence. The main risk factors for sickness absence due to LBP among production workers were extreme trunk flexion (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.05–2.78) as well as very extreme trunk flexion (OR = 6.04, 95% CI = 1.12–32.49) and exposure to whole-body vibration (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.04–2.95). Conclusion: Reducing sickness absence from LBP among power plant workers requires focusing on the working conditions of blue-collar workers and risk factors for LBP. Increasing social support in the work environment may have effects in reducing sickness absence from LBP. PMID:21120081

  8. Low back pain predict sickness absence among power plant workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtezani Ardiana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low back pain (LBP remains the predominant occupational health problem in most industrialized countries and low-income countries. Both work characteristics and individual factors have been identified as risk factors. More knowledge about the predictors of sickness absence from LBP in the industry will be valuable in determining strategies for prevention. Objectives: The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate whether individual, work-related physical risk factors were involved in the occurrence of LBP sickness absence. Methods: A follow-up study was conducted among 489 workers, aged 18-65 years, at Kosovo Energetic Corporation in Kosovo. This cross-sectional study used a self-administered questionnaire to collect data on individual and work-related risk factors and the occurrence of LBP sickness absence. Logistic regression models were used to determine associations between risk factors and the occurrence of sickness absence due to LBP. Results: Individual factors did not influence sickness absence, whereas work-related physical factors showed strong associations with sickness absence. The main risk factors for sickness absence due to LBP among production workers were extreme trunk flexion (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.05-2.78 as well as very extreme trunk flexion (OR = 6.04, 95% CI = 1.12-32.49 and exposure to whole-body vibration (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.04-2.95. Conclusion: Reducing sickness absence from LBP among power plant workers requires focusing on the working conditions of blue-collar workers and risk factors for LBP. Increasing social support in the work environment may have effects in reducing sickness absence from LBP.

  9. Vector Competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes vittatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Senegal and Cape Verde Archipelago for West African Lineages of Chikungunya Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Diagne, Cheikh T.; Faye, Oumar; Guerbois, Mathilde; Knight, Rachel; Diallo, Diawo; Ba, Yamar; Dia, Ibrahima; Faye, Ousmane; Weaver, Scott C.; Sall, Amadou A; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2014-01-01

    To assess the risk of emergence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in West Africa, vector competence of wild-type, urban, and non-urban Aedes aegypti and Ae. vittatus from Senegal and Cape Verde for CHIKV was investigated. Mosquitoes were fed orally with CHIKV isolates from mosquitoes (ArD30237), bats (CS13-288), and humans (HD180738). After 5, 10, and 15 days of incubation following an infectious blood meal, presence of CHIKV RNA was determined in bodies, legs/wings, and saliva using real-time rev...

  10. Diagnosis of hoof disease in horses using computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovač Milomir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes findings of computed tomography investigations at the Bergische Equine Clinic (Germany of 39 horses with hoof diseaseas. The most frequently findings were the navicular syndrome (eight horses, laminitis (seven horses, keratnoma (six horses and ossification of collateral cartilages in the distal phalanx (four horses. The special value of the computed tomography is in evaluating the size and courses fracture/fissure of the navicular and koffin bones, which were diagnose in five horses. In four of horses no pathologic changes of the hoof were determined by computed tomography.

  11. Diagnosis of hoof diseases in horses using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes findings of computed tomography investigations at the Bergische Equine Clinic (Bergische Tierklinik), Germany, of 39 horses with hoof diseases. The most frequently findings were the navicular syndrome (eight horses), laminitis (seven horses), keratnoma (six horses) and ossification of collateral cartilages in the distal phalanx (four horses). The special value of the computed tomography is in evaluating the size and courses fracture/fissure of the navicular and koffin bones, which were diagnose in five horses. In four of horses no pathologic changes of the hoof were determined by computed tomography

  12. Distal phalanx fractures in horses: a survey of 274 horses with radiographic assessment of healing in 36 horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case records of 274 horses with fractures of the distal phalanx were reviewed. Fifty-two horses had bilateral forelimb fractures, for a total of 326 distal phalanx fractures. The fractures were classified into one of five previously described types, based on the radiographic anatomic configuration of the fracture. Solar margin fractures, which have been briefly described in other reports and previously classified as type V fractures, were identified in 132 horses. This type of fracture is distinct from other distal phalanx fractures. Due to the high incidence of solar margin fractures, these fractures were classified as a separate type (type VI). Follow-up radiographic examinations to assess fracture healing were available for 36 horses. Twenty-two horses with distal phalanx fractures (three type I, nine type II, two type III, one type IV, one type V, and six type VI) had radiographic evidence of complete bony union of the fracture at a mean of 11 months after injury. Eight horses with conplete type II fractures involving the articular surface had bony union of the body and solar margin, but not the subchondral bone at the articular surface, a mean of 11 months after injury. Six horses (four type II and two type IV) had little radiographic evidence of bony healing during the follow-up period. All fractures that eventually healed had evidence of progression toward bony union by 6 months after injury

  13. Identification of rodent homologs of hepatitis C virus and pegiviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapoor, Amit; Simmonds, Peter; Scheel, Troels K H;

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human pegivirus (HPgV or GB virus C) are globally distributed and infect 2 to 5% of the human population. The lack of tractable-animal models for these viruses, in particular for HCV, has hampered the study of infection, transmission, virulence, immunity, and......-like viruses were found in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), a small rodent used in laboratories to study viruses, including hantaviruses. We also identified pegiviruses in rodents that are distinct from the pegiviruses found in primates, bats, and horses. These novel viruses may enable the development of...

  14. Pharmacological and neurophysiological aspects of space/motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucot, James B.; Crampton, George H.

    1991-01-01

    A motorized motion testing device modeled after a Ferris wheel was constructed to perform motion sickness tests on cats. Details of the testing are presented, and some of the topics covered include the following: xylazine-induced emesis; analysis of the constituents of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during motion sickness; evaluation of serotonin-1A (5-HT sub 1A) agonists; other 5HT receptors; antimuscarinic mechanisms; and antihistaminergic mechanisms. The ability of the following drugs to reduce motion sickness in the cats was examined: amphetamines, adenosinergic drugs, opioid antagonists, peptides, cannabinoids, cognitive enhancers (nootropics), dextromethorphan/sigma ligands, scopolamine, and diphenhydramine.

  15. Psychosocial work conditions associated with sickness absence among hospital employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P; Olesen, K; Bonde, J P;

    2014-01-01

    essential covariates of sickness absence. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire study of hospital employees which sought information on elements of the psychosocial work environment, general health status, life style, age, gender and profession. Data on sickness absence were obtained from the employer......'s salary database. RESULTS: A total of 1809 hospital employees took part with a response rate of 65%. The mean age was 43 (range: 20-69) and 75% were female. Totally, 363 study participants (20%) had at least 14 days sickness absence (defined as high absence) during the preceding year. Associations between...

  16. Quantification of Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) provirus load in a rural West African population: no enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 pathogenesis, but HTLV-I provirus load relates to mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariyoshi, K; Berry, N; Cham, F;

    2003-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) provirus load was examined in a cohort of a population in Guinea-Bissau among whom human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2 is endemic. Geometric mean of HIV-2 RNA load among HTLV-I-coinfected subjects was significantly lower than that in subjects...... infected with HIV-2 alone (212 vs. 724 copies/mL; P=.02). Adjusted for age, sex, and HIV status, the risk of death increased with HTLV-I provirus load; mortality hazard ratio was 1.59 for each log10 increase in HTLV-I provirus copies (P=.038). There is no enhancing effect of HTLV-I coinfection on HIV-2...

  17. Diagnosis of hoof disease in horses using computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Kovač Milomir; Nowak Michael; Kaufels Nikola; Tambur Zoran

    2002-01-01

    This study describes findings of computed tomography investigations at the Bergische Equine Clinic (Germany) of 39 horses with hoof diseaseas. The most frequently findings were the navicular syndrome (eight horses), laminitis (seven horses), keratnoma (six horses) and ossification of collateral cartilages in the distal phalanx (four horses). The special value of the computed tomography is in evaluating the size and courses fracture/fissure of the navicular and koffin bones, which were diagnos...

  18. Systemic blastomycosis in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Julia H; Olson, Erik J; Haugen, Edward W; Hunt, Luanne M; Johnson, Jennifer L; Hayden, David W

    2006-11-01

    Progressive multisystemic disease caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis was diagnosed in a 17-year-old Quarter horse broodmare. The mare had been treated unsuccessfully with antibiotics for mastitis 3 months postpartum. The disease progressed to exudative cutaneous lesions affecting the ventrum, pectoral region, and limbs accompanied by weight loss across several months. Yeast bodies were observed in swabs of the cutaneous exudate, suggesting a clinical diagnosis of blastomycosis. Following referral, pleural effusion, cavitated lung lesions, and hyperproteinemia were identified, and the mare was euthanized because of poor prognosis. Necropsy revealed extensive pyogranulomas in the mammary gland, skin, subcutaneous tissues, and lungs, accompanied by thrombi in major blood vessels of the lungs and hind limbs. Histologically, pyogranulomatous inflammation was evident in many tissues, and fungal organisms were seen in sections of mammary gland, skin, subcutis, pericardium, and lung. Blastomyces dermatitidis was cultured from mammary tissue, lungs, lymph node, and an inguinal abscess. Although blastomycosis is endemic in the area of origin of the mare in northwestern Wisconsin, the disease is extremely rare in horses and hence easily misdiagnosed. Unique features of this case included the extent of mammary gland involvement and the presence of thrombi in multiple sites. PMID:17121096

  19. Stress and its effects on horses reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal M. AboEl-Maaty

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 90 mares and horses were subjected to blood sampling for determining the effect of management (farm, reproductive condition, sex, age, breed and month of the year during breeding on circulating levels of cortisol and sex hormones. Blood samples were collected from December to the following June from four farms. Blood sera underwent testosterone, estradiol, progesterone and cortisol assaying using ELISA kits. Cortisol levels were significantly low in lactating mares during their foal heat but significantly high levels were recorded in both repeat breeder mares and horses used for racing. High and significant testosterone and estradiol levels were recorded in both stallions used for breeding especially after semen collection and early pregnant mares. Similar testosterone levels were recorded in both early pregnant mares and racing horses but high levels were recorded in stallions. Estradiol was high in both early pregnant and mares with endometritis but the highest levels were observed in stallions. Horses held in private farms had high cortisol levels compared to those of governmental farms. In contrast to mares, horses had low cortisol and high estradiol levels. Cortisol levels were high from April to June (Spring and early summer compared to its levels from December to March (Winter. Arab horses had low cortisol compared to native and imported foreign breeds. In conclusion, environmental condition, exercise, breed, management and the purpose of raising horses all are affecting its cortisol levels.

  20. Distemper outbreak and its effect on African wild dog conservation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); T. Kuiken (Thijs); A.M. Visee; S. Lema; A.R. Fitzjohn; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn December 2000, an infectious disease spread through a captive breeding group of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in Tanzania, killing 49 of 52 animals within 2 months. The causative agent was identified as Canine distemper virus (CDV) by means of histologic examination, virus isolati

  1. RESEARCES REGARDING THE SANGUINE CORTISOL EVOLUTION, AS BIOCHEMICAL INDEX, IN SPORT HORSES IN COMPLETE HORSE TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EUGENIA ŞOVĂREL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the horse for sport activities needs a good training and an optimization ofphysical and psychical qualities, both contributing to achieve the wantedperformances. Physical effort impose to the horse in different competitions is a stresssituation, fact which induce an endocrine answer, materialised through increasingthe sanguine levels of some hormones and decreasing of others. The purpose of thisstudy was to verify if the training and the effort intensity is reflected in the sanguinecortisol behaviour in sport horses.

  2. BREEDING AND UTILIZATION OF ARABIAN HORSE TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Mandić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Arab horse raising has a hundred year old tradition. A real stud farm raising started by purchasing original reproductive material from Asia in 1895, 1897 and 1899. Apart from state stud in Goražde, Arab horse was also raised in several private stud farms, especially in Slavonia and Srijem region. By the end of the II World war Arab horse raising was restricted to only 2-3 stud farms, regardless the above mentioned oldest Arab stud farm Goražde. According to reports refering to end of 1940 in former Yugoslavia there were slightly more than 150 grown up thoroughbred Arab heads, stallions and mares in both private and public property. A number of well known stud farms was reduced, thus, Arab horse raising was limited only to stud farms Goražde, Inocens Dvor and Karađorđevo. Sires were mostly used in Bosnian-mountain horse breeding whereas in plain areas they were used for ceossing with heavy draft mares or raising of, in that time numerous represented, nonius breed. The year 1970 was characterized by Arab horses reduction, thereby raising stagnation. Horse raising was closed, so, 77 Sabich stallion, bought in Germany, started again Arab horse raising, firstly in Goražde. It was also attributed by raising establishment of agricultural economy Višnjica near Slatina. At the same time Arab horse raising increased slowly at individual raisers in Kutina, Vrbovsko, Istria, Čađavica and Zagreb vicinity. According to available data from 1999 there were approx. 132 stallions and mares due to horse raisers scattered throught Croatia. All male and female reproductive heads were mostly used as raising heads for thoroughbred raising or for crossing with other breeds which is justified by the data from the period 1930-1935. On the other hand one part of reproductive heads, especially males, were used as sports heads for gallop races and distance riding as Arab horses were used by their arrival to present areas and by Arab horse raising tradition.

  3. Ivermectin as an antiparasitic agent in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, J; Swan, G E

    1982-06-01

    Ivermectin, described as 22,23-dihydroavermectin B1, was the compound chosen from the avermectin group of compounds for development as an antiparasitic agent in horses. A review of the literature indicates that parenteral administration in horses at 200 microgram/kg body mass is highly effective against the strongyles Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus edentatus and triodontophorus spp., and adult and immature cyathostomes, including strains resistant to benzimidazole anthelmintics. Other nematodes controlled in horses include Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Trichostrongylus axei, and Habronema spp. Ivermectin is also highly effective against stomach bots (Gastrophilus spp.). PMID:6750120

  4. Sickness absence, moral hazard, and the business cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The procyclical nature of sickness absence has been documented by many scholars in literature. So far, explanations have been based on labor force composition and reduced moral hazard caused by fear of job loss during recessions. In this paper, we propose and test a third mechanism caused by reduced moral hazard during booms and infections. We suggest that the workload is higher during economic booms and thus employees have to go to work despite being sick. In a theoretical model focusing on infectious diseases, we show that this will provoke infections of coworkers leading to overall higher sickness absence during economic upturns. Using state-level aggregated data from 112 German public health insurance funds (out of 145 in total), we find that sickness absence due to infectious diseases shows the largest procyclical pattern, as predicted by our theoretical model. PMID:24737552

  5. Gut Feelings About Gastritis: When Your Stomach's Sick

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disclaimer . Subscribe Gut Feelings About Gastritis When Your Stomach’s Sick Your stomach lining has an important job. It makes acid ... pain or an uncomfortable feeling in their upper stomach. But many other conditions can cause these symptoms. ...

  6. Explanation of nurse standard of external exposure acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National occupational health standard-Nurse Standard of External Exposure Acute Radiation Sickness has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. Based on the extensive research of literature, collection of the previous nuclear and radiation accidents excessive exposed personnel data and specific situations in China, this standard was enacted according to the current national laws, regulations, and the opinions of peer experts. It is mainly used for care of patients with acute radiation sickness, and also has directive significance for care of patients with iatrogenic acute radiation sickness which due to the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation pretreatment. To correctly carry out this standard and to reasonably implement nursing measures for patients with acute radiation sickness, the contents of this standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  7. Stress of Caring for Sick Spouse May Raise Stroke Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157606.html Stress of Caring for Sick Spouse May Raise Stroke ... University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), said chronic stress boosts blood levels of the hormone cortisol and ...

  8. Junior MARSIPAN (Management of Really Sick Patients with Anorexia Nervosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marikar, Dilshad; Reynolds, Sarah; Moghraby, Omer S

    2016-06-01

    We present a review of the Junior MARSIPAN (Management of Really Sick Patients with Anorexia Nervosa) guideline, which provides paediatricians with a framework for managing Anorexia Nervosa in the inpatient setting. PMID:26407730

  9. Braid My Hair - Randy Owen sings out for sick children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Braid My Hair - Randy Owen sings out for sick children Past ... debut performance of his latest song, "Braid My Hair," was the highlight during this year's Songwriter's Dinner ...

  10. Acute Mountain Sickness and Hemoconcentration in Next Generation Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, Johnny

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the threat astronauts face from acute mountain sickness (AMS). It includes information about the symptoms of AMS, the potential threat to astronauts, and future efforts to mitigate the AMS threat.

  11. Undetected common mental disorders in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Background. Undetected Common Mental Disorders (CMDs) amongst people on sick leave complicate rehabilitation and return to work because appropriate treatments are not initiated. Aims. The aim of this study is to estimate (1) the frequencies of CMD, (2) the predictors of undetected CMD, and (3) the...... individuals registered on LSA who were sick-listed without a psychiatric sick leave diagnosis. In this respect, Phase 1 included 831 individuals, who were screened for mental disorders. In Phase 2, following the screening of Phase 1, 227 individuals were thoroughly examined by a psychiatrist applying Present...... State Examination. The analyses of the study were carried out based on the 227 individuals from Phase 2 and, subsequently, weighted to be representative of the 831 individuals in Phase 1. Results. The frequencies of undetected mental disorders among all sick-listed individuals were for any psychiatric...

  12. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  13. SICK EUTHYROID SYNDROME IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sick euthyroid syndrome is an undermined entity seen in many chronic illness. CKD is one of the forerunners in terms of magnitude in the list of chronic illnesses. Also there is evidence of abnormal thyroid metabolism at several levels in uremia. Hence the need to evaluate thyroid function in CKD patients exists, as revealed by recent studies. AIMS: To study thyroid function test in patients of chronic renal failure. Also, to study the correlation between thyroid function test and severity of renal failure, defined by creatinine clearance. MATERIALS & METHODS : In a cross sectional observational case control study, 50 patients of chronic renal failure either on conservative management or on maintenance haemodialysis and 50 normal healthy subjects as control were enrolled. Creatinine clearance was calculated by Cockcroft – Gault Equation. Thyroid function tests were done by C.L.I.A (Chemiluminescence Immunoassay. RESULTS : Of the 50 patients (M:F – 58:42%, with a mean age 40.58 ± 12.65 years, 28 (56% were on conservative management, 22 (44% were on hemodialysis for a minimum period of three months. All patients were clinically euthyroid. Thyroid function tests were normal (all parameters within normal range in 13 (26% patien ts. However 37 (74% out of 50 patients of CKD had deranged thyroid function test (sick euthyroid syndrome. Mean Total T3 in patients of CKD and controls were 71.52 ± 27.88ng/dl and 95.34 ± 16.31ng/dl respectively (p < 0.005. Mean Free T3 in patients of CKD and controls were 2.19 ± 0.70pg/ml and 3.23 ± 0.79pg/ml respectively (p < 0.005. Mean Total T4 in patients of CKD and controls were 6.03 ± 1.60μg/dl and 6.88 ± 1.06μg/dl respectively (p < 0.005. Mean Free T4 in patients of CKD and controls were 1. 18 ± 0.55ng/ml and 1.29 ± 0.24ng/dl respectively (no statistically significant difference. Mean TSH in patients of CKD and controls were 2.90 ± 1.39 vs. 2.81 ± 0.99μIU/ml respectively (no

  14. Genetic variation and dynamics of infections of equid herpesvirus 5 in individual horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Helena; Ullman, Karin; Leijon, Mikael; Söderlund, Robert; Penell, Johanna; Ståhl, Karl; Pringle, John; Valarcher, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Equid herpesvirus 5 (EHV-5) is related to the human Epstein-Barr virus (human herpesvirus 4) and has frequently been observed in equine populations worldwide. EHV-5 was previously assumed to be low to non-pathogenic; however, studies have also related the virus to the severe lung disease equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis (EMPF). Genetic information of EHV-5 is scanty: the whole genome was recently described and only limited nucleotide sequences are available. In this study, samples were taken twice 1 year apart from eight healthy horses at the same professional training yard and samples from a ninth horse that was diagnosed with EMPF with samples taken pre- and post-mortem to analyse partial glycoprotein B (gB) gene of EHV-5 by using next-generation sequencing. The analysis resulted in 27 partial gB gene sequences, 11 unique sequence types and five amino acid sequences. These sequences could be classified within four genotypes (I-IV) of the EHV-5 gB gene based on the degree of similarity of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences, and in this work horses were shown to be identified with up to three different genotypes simultaneously. The observations showed a range of interactions between EHV-5 and the host over time, where the same virus persists in some horses, whereas others have a more dynamic infection pattern including strains from different genotypes. This study provides insight into the genetic variation and dynamics of EHV-5, and highlights that further work is needed to understand the EHV-5 interaction with its host. PMID:26518010

  15. Genetic connections between dressage and show-jumping horses in Dutch Warmblood horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovere, Gabriel; Madsen, Per; Norberg, Elise;

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, the breeding practice within the Dutch Warmblood studbook (KWPN) has resulted in an increasing specialisation of horses into show-jumping (JH) and dressage (DH). The objective of this study was to describe the effect of the specialisation on the connectedness between...... the subpopulations of JH and DH horses registered by KWPN. The subpopulations comprised 23,800 JH horses and 18,125 DH horses, born between 1995 and 2009. Genetic similarity (GS), genetic pool in common (GCx) based on the marginal genetic contribution of common ancestors and coefficient of relationship (r) between...

  16. Cutaneous Finding in Anti Thymocyte Globulin Induced Serum Sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Hesamedin Nabavizadeh; Mehran Karimi; Reza Amin

    2006-01-01

    Polyclonal anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) is used as an immunosuppressive agent in the treatment of aplastic anemia (AA). Serum sickness is a recognized side effect of ATG. We observed abnormal skin manifestation in patient with aplastic anemia who had been treated with ATG. We conclude that abnormal immune function caused by aplastic anemia and ATG and corticosteroids may aggravate the signs of serum sickness.

  17. Neural Circuitry Engaged by Prostaglandins during the Sickness Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Saper, Clifford B.; Andrej A Romanovsky; Scammell, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    During illnesses caused by infectious disease or other sources of inflammation, a suite of brain-mediated responses called the “sickness syndrome” occurs, including fever, anorexia, sleepiness, hyperalgesia, and elevated corticosteroid secretion. Much of the sickness syndrome is mediated by prostaglandins acting on the brain, and can be prevented by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin or ibuprofen, that block prostaglandin synthesis. By examining which prostaglandins are pr...

  18. Management of Sick Leave due to Musculoskeletal Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Faber, Elske

    2007-01-01

    textabstractMusculoskeletal disorders are a common problem that may lead to func-Ational limitations and (work) disability. It is not clear yet how improvement in Apain or functional limitations is related to return to work after an episode of sick Aleave. Furthermore, several physicians are involved in the treatment and man-Aagement of a patient is on sick leave. In the Netherlands a strict separation be-Atween treating physicians and occupational physicians exists, whereby the treating Aphy...

  19. Legitimacy Work : Managing Sick Leave Legitimacy in Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Flinkfeldt, Marie

    2016-01-01

    This thesis studies how sick leave legitimacy is managed in interaction and develops an empirically driven conceptualization of ‘legitimacy work’. The thesis applies an ethnomethodological framework that draws on conversation analysis, discursive psychology, and membership categorization analysis. Naturally occurring interaction is examined in two settings: (1) multi-party meetings at the Swedish Social Insurance Agency, in which participants assess and discuss the ‘status’ of the sick leave ...

  20. GPs’ negotiation strategies regarding sick leave for subjective health complaints

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Stein; Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L.; Maeland, Silje; Magnussen, Liv Heide

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. To explore general practitioners’ (GPs’) specific negotiation strategies regarding sick-leave issues with patients suffering from subjective health complaints. Design. Focus-group study. Setting. Nine focus-group interviews in three cities in different regions of Norway. Participants. 48 GPs (31 men, 17 women; age 32–65), participating in a course dealing with diagnostic practice and assessment of sickness certificates related to patients with subjective health complaints...

  1. Space Motion Sickness and Stress Training Simulator using Electrophysiological Biofeedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudeau, C.; Golding, J. F.; Thevot, F.; Lucas, Y.; Bobola, P.; Thouvenot, J.

    2005-06-01

    An important problem in manned spaceflight is the nausea that typically appears during the first 3 days and then disappears after 5 days. Methods of detecting changes in electrophysiological signals are being studied in order to reduce susceptibility to space motion sickness through biofeedback training, and for the early detection of nausea during EVA. A simulator would allow subjects to control their body functions and to use biofeedback to control space motion sickness and stress.

  2. A New Measure of Decompression Sickness in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Buzzacott; Aleksandra Mazur; Qiong Wang; Kate Lambrechts; Michael Theron; Jacques Mansourati; François Guerrero

    2014-01-01

    In this study we assessed the reliability of a tilting-board grip score as a measure of decompression sickness in rats. In experiments using a hyperbaric compression/decompression protocol, rats were observed for signs of decompression sickness and their grip strength measured on a tilting particle board hinged to a metal frame. Angles at which rats lost grip were converted to gravitational vectors. Decreased mean grip scores following decompression were fitted to a logistic regression model ...

  3. Less sickness with more motion and/or mental distraction

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Motion sickness may reduce passenger comfort and crew performance. Countermeasures are dominated by medication with specific and often undesirable side effects. OBJECTIVE: To shown that sickness due to motion can be reduced by adding an inherent non-sickening vibration and by mental distraction. METHODS: Eighteen blindfolded subjects were exposed to 20 minutes of off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR). Vibration was added by means of a head rest. Effects of OVAR and vibration were test...

  4. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Notenbomer

    Full Text Available Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves.We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD-R model as theoretical framework.Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence.The JD-R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance.

  5. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence

    OpenAIRE

    Annette Notenbomer; Roelen, Corné A. M.; Willem van Rhenen; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year) is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves. Methods We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussion...

  6. Is Physics Sick? [In Praise of Classical Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Ghassib, Hisham

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, it is argued that theoretical physics is more akin to an organism than to a rigid structure.It is in this sense that the epithet, "sick", applies to it. It is argued that classical physics is a model of a healthy science, and the degree of sickness of modern physics is measured accordingly. The malady is located in the relationship between mathematics and physical meaning in physical theory.

  7. PRESENCE OF RESPIRATORY VIRUSES IN EQUINES IN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Dalva Assunção Portari Mancini; Aparecida Santo Pietro Pereira; Rita Maria Zucatelli Mendonça; Adelia Hiroko Nagamori Kawamoto; Rosely Cabette Barbosa Alves; José Ricardo Pinto; Enio Mori; Leonardo José Richtzenhain; Jorge Mancini-Filho

    2014-01-01

    Equines are susceptible to respiratory viruses such as influenza and parainfluenza. Respiratory diseases have adversely impacted economies all over the world. This study was intended to determine the presence of influenza and parainfluenza viruses in unvaccinated horses from some regions of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Blood serum collected from 72 equines of different towns in this state was tested by hemagglutination inhibition test to detect antibodies for both viruses using the corresp...

  8. Human heart rate variability relation is unchanged during motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, T. J.; Berger, R. D.; Oman, C. M.; Cohen, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    In a study of 18 human subjects, we applied a new technique, estimation of the transfer function between instantaneous lung volume (ILV) and instantaneous heart rate (HR), to assess autonomic activity during motion sickness. Two control recordings of ILV and electrocardiogram (ECG) were made prior to the development of motion sickness. During the first, subjects were seated motionless, and during the second they were seated rotating sinusoidally about an earth vertical axis. Subjects then wore prism goggles that reverse the left-right visual field and performed manual tasks until they developed moderate motion sickness. Finally, ILV and ECG were recorded while subjects maintained a relatively constant level of sickness by intermittent eye closure during rotation with the goggles. Based on analyses of ILV to HR transfer functions from the three conditions, we were unable to demonstrate a change in autonomic control of heart rate due to rotation alone or due to motion sickness. These findings do not support the notion that moderate motion sickness is manifested as a generalized autonomic response.

  9. A New Measure of Decompression Sickness in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Buzzacott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we assessed the reliability of a tilting-board grip score as a measure of decompression sickness in rats. In experiments using a hyperbaric compression/decompression protocol, rats were observed for signs of decompression sickness and their grip strength measured on a tilting particle board hinged to a metal frame. Angles at which rats lost grip were converted to gravitational vectors. Decreased mean grip scores following decompression were fitted to a logistic regression model with strain, age, and weight. Decrease in grip score was significantly associated with observed decompression sickness (P=0.0036. The log odds ratio for decompression sickness = 1.40 (decrease in grip score. In rats with no decrease in mean grip score there was a 50% probability of decompression sickness (pDCS. This increased steadily with decreases in mean grip score. A decrease of 0.3 had a 60% pDCS, a decrease of 0.6 had a 70% pDCS, and a decrease of 2.1 had a 95% pDCS. The tilting board grip score is a reliable measure of the probability of decompression sickness.

  10. Changes in sickness absenteeism following the introduction of a qualifying day for sickness benefit--findings from Sweden Post

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, M; Floderus, B; Diderichsen, F

    2001-01-01

    AIMS: In 1993, a qualifying day without sickness benefit was introduced to the Swedish sickness benefit system. The aim of the present study is to investigate sickness absenteeism before and after the introduction of the qualifying day, in the light of conditions inside and outside working life...... observed. Men with heavy lifting at work more often showed an increase in incidence compared to men without heavy lifting, and the same tendency was found for women. CONCLUSION: The reduction in sickness incidence following the introduction of the qualifying day was fairly independent of different work......-related and non-work-related factors. The impact of the qualifying day differed depending on health status and the physical workload....

  11. Distortion effects in Trojan Horse applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzone, R. G.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L. D.; Irgaziev, B.; Bertulani, C. A.; Spitaleri, C. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN , Catania (Italy); Universita di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy); Texas A and M University, College Station (United States); Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Taskent University, Taskent (Uzbekistan); Texas A and M University, Commerce (United States); Universita di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy)

    2012-11-20

    Deuteron induced quasi-free scattering and reactions have been extensively investigated in the past few decades. This was done not only for nuclear structure and processes study but also for the important astrophysical implication (Trojan Horse Method, THM). In particular the width of the neutron momentum distribution in deuteron will be studied as a function of the transferred momentum. The same will be done for other nuclides of possible use as Trojan Horse particles. Trojan horse method applications will also be discussed because the momentum distribution of the spectator particle inside the Trojan horse nucleus is a necessary input for this method. The impact of the width (FWHM) variation on the extraction of the astrophysical S(E)-factor is discussed.

  12. Distortion effects in Trojan Horse applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuteron induced quasi-free scattering and reactions have been extensively investigated in the past few decades. This was done not only for nuclear structure and processes study but also for the important astrophysical implication (Trojan Horse Method, THM). In particular the width of the neutron momentum distribution in deuteron will be studied as a function of the transferred momentum. The same will be done for other nuclides of possible use as Trojan Horse particles. Trojan horse method applications will also be discussed because the momentum distribution of the spectator particle inside the Trojan horse nucleus is a necessary input for this method. The impact of the width (FWHM) variation on the extraction of the astrophysical S(E)-factor is discussed.

  13. Submarine tower escape decompression sickness risk estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveman, G A M; Seddon, E M; Thacker, J C; Stansfield, M R; Jurd, K M

    2014-01-01

    Actions to enhance survival in a distressed submarine (DISSUB) scenario may be guided in part by knowledge of the likely risk of decompression sickness (DCS) should the crew attempt tower escape. A mathematical model for DCS risk estimation has been calibrated against DCS outcome data from 3,738 exposures of either men or goats to raised pressure. Body mass was used to scale DCS risk. The calibration data included more than 1,000 actual or simulated submarine escape exposures and no exposures with substantial staged decompression. Cases of pulmonary barotrauma were removed from the calibration data. The calibrated model was used to estimate the likelihood of DCS occurrence following submarine escape from the United Kingdom Royal Navy tower escape system. Where internal DISSUB pressure remains at - 0.1 MPa, escape from DISSUB depths 60% DCS risk predicted for a 200-meter escape from saturation at 0.21 MPa. Using the calibrated model to predict DCS for direct ascent from saturation gives similar risk estimates to other published models. PMID:25109085

  14. Colonic Fermentation Promotes Decompression sickness in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Maistre, Sébastien; Vallée, Nicolas; Gempp, Emmanuel; Lambrechts, Kate; Louge, Pierre; Duchamp, Claude; Blatteau, Jean-Eric

    2016-01-01

    Massive bubble formation after diving can lead to decompression sickness (DCS). During dives with hydrogen as a diluent for oxygen, decreasing the body's H2 burden by inoculating hydrogen-metabolizing microbes into the gut reduces the risk of DCS. So we set out to investigate if colonic fermentation leading to endogenous hydrogen production promotes DCS in fasting rats. Four hours before an experimental dive, 93 fasting rats were force-fed, half of them with mannitol and the other half with water. Exhaled hydrogen was measured before and after force-feeding. Following the hyperbaric exposure, we looked for signs of DCS. A higher incidence of DCS was found in rats force-fed with mannitol than in those force-fed with water (80%, [95%CI 56, 94] versus 40%, [95%CI 19, 64], p < 0.01). In rats force-fed with mannitol, metronidazole pretreatment reduced the incidence of DCS (33%, [95%CI 15, 57], p = 0.005) at the same time as it inhibited colonic fermentation (14 ± 35 ppm versus 118 ± 90 ppm, p = 0.0001). Pre-diveingestion of mannitol increased the incidence of DCS in fasting rats when colonic fermentation peaked during the decompression phase. More generally, colonic fermentation in rats on a normal diet could promote DCS through endogenous hydrogen production. PMID:26853722

  15. The genetic basis of chronic mountain sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Roy; Zhou, Dan; Bafna, Vineet; Haddad, Gabriel G

    2014-11-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is a disease that affects many high-altitude dwellers, particularly in the Andean Mountains in South America. The hallmark symptom of CMS is polycythemia, which causes increased risk of pulmonary hypertension and stroke (among other symptoms). A prevailing hypothesis in high-altitude medicine is that CMS results from a population-specific "maladaptation" to the hypoxic conditions at high altitude. In contrast, the prevalence of CMS is very low in other high-altitude populations (e.g., Tibetans and Ethiopians), which are seemingly well adapted to hypoxia. In recent years, concurrent with the advent of genomic technologies, several studies have investigated the genetic basis of adaptation to altitude. These studies have identified several candidate genes that may underlie the adaptation, or maladaptation. Interestingly, some of these genes are targeted by known drugs, raising the possibility of new treatments for CMS and other ischemic diseases. We review recent discoveries, alongside the methodologies used to obtain them, and outline some of the challenges remaining in the field. PMID:25362634

  16. [Saints as protectors against falling sickness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moog, Ferdinand Peter; Karenberg, Axel

    2003-01-01

    In Christian Europe of the High Middle Ages, saints played a central role in the everyday life of the ailing. Alongside healing attempts which involved magic and/or scientifically-based medicine, the invocation of specific patron saints for protection against evils or for the curing of ailments was a widespread practise. A large choice of patron saints was "ävailable" for a wide range of diseases, especially those nowadays classified as neurologic or psychiatric. For the falling sickness alone, e.g., there is evidence of some twenty patron saints reputed to have a particular involvement. Surprisingly, there is no evidence of a comparable devotion to patrons for apoplectics. This "negative result"is confirmed by a thorough examination of medieval sources. St. Wolfgang and St. Andreas Avellino are the only two proven stroke patrons. Both, however, were only known within their respective locations. The absence of a specific supportive Christian figure for stroke victims deserves particular analysis: The high fatality rate of apoplexy and the lack of commercial interest on the part of the Christian places of pilgrimage may serve as possible explanations. PMID:15043049

  17. MRI in spinal cord decompression sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal cord decompression sickness (DCS) is a rare condition that can lead to spinal cord infarction. Despite the low incidence of diving-related DCS, we have managed to collect the data and MRI findings of seven patients who have been diagnosed with and treated for DCS in our local hyperbaric facility. This study describes the clinical presentation, MRI spinal cord findings, treatment administered and outcome of these patients. The patient medical records, from 1997 to 2007, were retrospectively reviewed. All patients with a final diagnosis of DCS and who underwent examination were included. The images were independently reviewed by two radiologists who recorded the location and number of lesions within the spinal cord. The Frankel grading was used to assess the initial and clinical outcome response. Patchy-increased T2W changes affecting several levels at the same time were found. Contrary to the popular notion that venous infarction is the leading cause of DCS, most of our patients also demonstrated affliction of grey matter, which is typically seen in an arterial pattern of infarction. Initial involvement of multiple (>6) spinal cord levels was associated with a poor outcome. Patients who continued to have multiple neurological sequelae with less than 50% resolution of symptoms despite recompression treatment were also those who had onset of symptoms within 30 min of resurfacing. DCS is probably a combination of both arterial and venous infarction. Short latency to the onset of neurological symptoms and multilevel cord involvement may be associated with a poorer outcome.

  18. THE OLFACTORY SYSTEM REGULATES ACUTE MOUNTAIN SICKNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitha Nagabhushan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:Hyperventilation is the first response to hypoxia in high altitude (HA. Our study on rats was designed to establish an integrated hypothesis to include hyperventilation, increased activity of hypothalamicpituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA in response to initial exposure to hypoxia and failure of adaptation to stress in olfactory bulbectomised rats. .METHODS:Albino rats whose olfactory lobes were removed were subjected to hypoxia and hypothermic conditions. Blood and urine samples were collected at various stages to measure biochemical parameters. Rats whose olfactory systems were intact were used as controls.RESULTS:The results suggested that the olfactory system regulated pituitary function and that in rats whose olfactory lobes were removed failed to adapt to the stress created by hypoxia and hypothermia.CONCLUSIONS:Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS is a type of stress. Normal rats when subjected to stress such as AMSare able to adapt. This adaptation is lost when the olfactory bulbs are removed. It is postulated that serotonin receptors in the hypothalamus, through the splanchnic pathway regulate stress. This mechanism is independent of ACTH – Cortisol feed back system. Perhaps irregular and rapid respiratory rhythm simulates physiological Olfactory Bulbectomy during rapid climbing and AMS manifests as a failure of stress adaptation.

  19. Embryo technologies in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, E L; Carnevale, E M; McCue, P M; Bruemmer, J E

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that zwitterionic buffers could be used for satisfactory storage of equine embryos at 5 degrees C. The success of freezing embryos is dependent upon size and stage of development. Morulae and blastocysts transfer. The majority of equine embryos are collected from single ovulating mares, as there is no commercially available product for superovulation in equine. However, pituitary extract, rich in FSH, can be used to increase embryo recovery three- to four-fold. Similar to human medicine, assisted reproductive techniques have been developed for the older, subfertile mare. Transfer of in vivo-matured oocytes from young, healthy mares into a recipient's oviduct results in a 70-80% pregnancy rate compared with a 30-40% pregnancy rate when the oocytes are from older, subfertile mares. This procedure can also be used to evaluate in vitro maturation systems. In vitro production of embryos is still quite difficult in the horse. However, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been used to produce several foals. Cleavage rates of 60% and blastocyst rates of 30% have been reported after ICSI of in vitro-matured oocytes. Gamete intrafallopian tube transfer (GIFT) is a possible treatment for subfertile stallions. Transfer of in vivo-matured oocytes with 200,000 sperm into the oviduct of normal mares resulted in a pregnancy rate of 55-82%. Oocyte freezing is a technique that has proven difficult in most species. However, equine oocytes vitrified in a solution of ethylene glycol, DMSO, and Ficoll and loaded onto a cryoloop resulted in three pregnancies of 26 transfers and two live foals produced. Production of a cloned horse appears to be likely, as several cloned pregnancies have recently been produced. PMID:12499026

  20. Whole mitochondrial genome sequencing of domestic horses reveals incorporation of extensive wild horse diversity during domestication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lippold Sebastian

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA target enrichment by micro-array capture combined with high throughput sequencing technologies provides the possibility to obtain large amounts of sequence data (e.g. whole mitochondrial DNA genomes from multiple individuals at relatively low costs. Previously, whole mitochondrial genome data for domestic horses (Equus caballus were limited to only a few specimens and only short parts of the mtDNA genome (especially the hypervariable region were investigated for larger sample sets. Results In this study we investigated whole mitochondrial genomes of 59 domestic horses from 44 breeds and a single Przewalski horse (Equus przewalski using a recently described multiplex micro-array capture approach. We found 473 variable positions within the domestic horses, 292 of which are parsimony-informative, providing a well resolved phylogenetic tree. Our divergence time estimate suggests that the mitochondrial genomes of modern horse breeds shared a common ancestor around 93,000 years ago and no later than 38,000 years ago. A Bayesian skyline plot (BSP reveals a significant population expansion beginning 6,000-8,000 years ago with an ongoing exponential growth until the present, similar to other domestic animal species. Our data further suggest that a large sample of wild horse diversity was incorporated into the domestic population; specifically, at least 46 of the mtDNA lineages observed in domestic horses (73% already existed before the beginning of domestication about 5,000 years ago. Conclusions Our study provides a window into the maternal origins of extant domestic horses and confirms that modern domestic breeds present a wide sample of the mtDNA diversity found in ancestral, now extinct, wild horse populations. The data obtained allow us to detect a population expansion event coinciding with the beginning of domestication and to estimate both the minimum number of female horses incorporated into the domestic gene pool and the