Sample records for african hominoid trichotomy

  1. Scapular shape of extant hominoids and the African ape/modern human last common ancestor. (United States)

    Green, David J; Spiewak, Ted A; Seitelman, Brielle; Gunz, Philipp


    Newly discovered early hominin fossil scapulae have bolstered investigations of scapular shape, which have long been used to interpret behavioral variation among primates. However, unexpected similarities between Pongo and Homo - particularly in scapular spine orientation - have raised questions about the functional utility of scapular morphology and its phylogenetic context in the hominin lineage. Not surprisingly, significant disagreement surrounds disparate morphological reconstructions of the modern human/African ape last common ancestor (LCA). Our study utilizes geometric morphometric (GM) approaches - two employing homologous, anatomical landmarks and a "spine-free" alternative using 98 sliding semilandmarks along the boundary of the subscapular fossa. The landmark-based "wireframe" GM analysis principally sorted groups by spine orientation: Homo and Pongo were similar to one another with more transversely-oriented spines as compared to Hylobates and the African apes. In contrast, Homo and Gorilla clustered together in our semilandmark analysis with superoinferiorly broad blades. Pan scapulae were similar, but had more mediolaterally compressed blades and laterally-positioned superior angles. Hylobates was superoinferiorly narrow, yet obliquely expanded relative to the vertebral border. Pongo scapulae were unique among hominoids in being nearly as broad as they were long. Previously documented 'convergence' of Homo and Pongo scapulae appears to be principally driven by similarities in spine orientation, rather than overall blade shape. Therefore, we contend that it is more parsimonious to reconstruct the African ape/Homo LCA scapula as being Gorilla-like, especially in light of similar characterizations of certain fossil hominin scapulae. Accordingly, the evolution of Pan (highly oblique spine and laterally-situated superior angle) and Homo (transversely-oriented spine) scapular morphology would have involved relatively minor shifts from this ancestral

  2. The Trichotomy of Processes: a philosophical basis for information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Widmeyer


    Full Text Available The principle of trichotomy from the American philosopher Charles S. Peirce can be used to categorize processes into the triad of transactional, relational, and informational. The usefulness of these categories is explicated by a comparison with structuration theory and control theory, and elaborated with a consideration of democracy in a knowledge economy. These three example applications of the process triad show the generality of the conceptual categories and provide a natural way of bringing ideas from social and ethical theories into information systems design. Modeling the world and understanding business applications through the use of the Trichotomy of Processes should facilitate the development of more valuable information systems.

  3. Paranasal sinus anatomy of Aegyptopithecus: Implications for hominoid origins


    Rossie, James B.; Simons, Elwyn L.; Gauld, Suellen C.; Rasmussen, D. Tab


    The East African Early Miocene apes, or proconsulids, have often been considered to be among the earliest members of the Hominoidea, as defined by the divergence of the Cercopithecoidea, but this hypothesis is only weakly supported by available fossil evidence. The ethmofrontal sinus is one of a few morphological features that may link proconsulids with later hominoids. Here we present direct evidence of an ethmofrontal sinus in an early Oligocene stem catarrhine, Aegyptopithecus zeuxis. The ...

  4. Paranasal sinus anatomy of Aegyptopithecus: implications for hominoid origins. (United States)

    Rossie, James B; Simons, Elwyn L; Gauld, Suellen C; Rasmussen, D Tab


    The East African Early Miocene apes, or proconsulids, have often been considered to be among the earliest members of the Hominoidea, as defined by the divergence of the Cercopithecoidea, but this hypothesis is only weakly supported by available fossil evidence. The ethmofrontal sinus is one of a few morphological features that may link proconsulids with later hominoids. Here we present direct evidence of an ethmofrontal sinus in an early Oligocene stem catarrhine, Aegyptopithecus zeuxis. The presence of this sinus in Aegyptopithecus suggests that its presence in proconsulids is most likely to be a retained primitive condition. The morphological evidence bearing on proconsulids' purported hominoid affinities is further weakened by this conclusion, and alternative phylogenetic possibilities, such as the placement of proconsulids as stem catarrhines are considered more likely.

  5. Genetic and developmental basis for parallel evolution and its significance for hominoid evolution. (United States)

    Reno, Philip L


    Greater understanding of ape comparative anatomy and evolutionary history has brought a general appreciation that the hominoid radiation is characterized by substantial homoplasy.(1-4) However, little consensus has been reached regarding which features result from repeated evolution. This has important implications for reconstructing ancestral states throughout hominoid evolution, including the nature of the Pan-Homo last common ancestor (LCA). Advances from evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) have expanded the diversity of model organisms available for uncovering the morphogenetic mechanisms underlying instances of repeated phenotypic change. Of particular relevance to hominoids are data from adaptive radiations of birds, fish, and even flies demonstrating that parallel phenotypic changes often use similar genetic and developmental mechanisms. The frequent reuse of a limited set of genes and pathways underlying phenotypic homoplasy suggests that the conserved nature of the genetic and developmental architecture of animals can influence evolutionary outcomes. Such biases are particularly likely to be shared by closely related taxa that reside in similar ecological niches and face common selective pressures. Consideration of these developmental and ecological factors provides a strong theoretical justification for the substantial homoplasy observed in the evolution of complex characters and the remarkable parallel similarities that can occur in closely related taxa. Thus, as in other branches of the hominoid radiation, repeated phenotypic evolution within African apes is also a distinct possibility. If so, the availability of complete genomes for each of the hominoid genera makes them another model to explore the genetic basis of repeated evolution.

  6. A limit set trichotomy for order-preserving systems on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Poetzsche


    Full Text Available In this paper we derive a limit set trichotomy for abstract order-preserving 2-parameter semiflows in normal cones of strongly ordered Banach spaces. Additionally, to provide an example, Muller's theorem is generalized to dynamic equations on arbitrary time scales and applied to a model from population dynamics.

  7. Locomotion and posture from the common hominoid ancestor to fully modern hominins, with special reference to the last common panin/hominin ancestor. (United States)

    Crompton, R H; Vereecke, E E; Thorpe, S K S


    Based on our knowledge of locomotor biomechanics and ecology we predict the locomotion and posture of the last common ancestors of (a) great and lesser apes and their close fossil relatives (hominoids); (b) chimpanzees, bonobos and modern humans (hominines); and (c) modern humans and their fossil relatives (hominins). We evaluate our propositions against the fossil record in the context of a broader review of evolution of the locomotor system from the earliest hominoids of modern aspect (crown hominoids) to early modern Homo sapiens. While some early East African stem hominoids were pronograde, it appears that the adaptations which best characterize the crown hominoids are orthogrady and an ability to abduct the arm above the shoulder - rather than, as is often thought, manual suspension sensu stricto. At 7-9 Ma (not much earlier than the likely 4-8 Ma divergence date for panins and hominins, see Bradley, 2008) there were crown hominoids in southern Europe which were adapted to moving in an orthograde posture, supported primarily on the hindlimb, in an arboreal, and possibly for Oreopithecus, a terrestrial context. By 7 Ma, Sahelanthropus provides evidence of a Central African hominin, panin or possibly gorilline adapted to orthogrady, and both orthogrady and habitually highly extended postures of the hip are evident in the arboreal East African protohominin Orrorin at 6 Ma. If the traditional idea that hominins passed through a terrestrial 'knuckle-walking' phase is correct, not only does it have to be explained how a quadrupedal gait typified by flexed postures of the hindlimb could have preadapted the body for the hominin acquisition of straight-legged erect bipedality, but we would have to accept a transition from stem-hominoid pronogrady to crown hominoid orthogrady, back again to pronogrady in the African apes and then back to orthogrady in hominins. Hand-assisted arboreal bipedality, which is part of a continuum of orthograde behaviours, is used by modern

  8. Geometric morphometrics of hominoid infraspinous fossa shape. (United States)

    Green, David J; Serrins, Jesse D; Seitelman, Brielle; Martiny, Amy R; Gunz, Philipp


    Recent discoveries of early hominin scapulae from Ethiopia (Dikika, Woranso-Mille) and South Africa (Malapa) have motivated new examinations of the relationship between scapular morphology and locomotor function. In particular, infraspinous fossa shape has been shown to significantly differ among hominoids. However, this region presents relatively few homologous landmarks, such that traditional distance and angle-based methods may oversimplify this three-dimensional structure. To more thoroughly assess infraspinous fossa shape variation as it relates to function among adult hominoid representatives, we considered two geometric morphometric (GM) approaches--one employing five homologous landmarks ("wireframe") and another with 83 sliding semilandmarks along the border of the infraspinous fossa. We identified several differences in infraspinous fossa shape with traditional approaches, particularly in superoinferior fossa breadth and scapular spine orientation. The wireframe analysis reliably captured the range of shape variation in the sample, which reflects the relatively straightforward geometry of the infraspinous fossa. Building on the traditional approach, the GM results highlighted how the orientation of the medial portion of the infraspinous fossa differed relative to both the axillary border and spine. These features distinguished Pan from Gorilla in a way that traditional analyses had not been able to discern. Relative to the wireframe method, the semilandmark approach further distinguished Pongo from Homo, highlighting aspects of infraspinous fossa morphology that may be associated with climbing behaviors in hominoid taxa. These results highlight the ways that GM methods can enhance our ability to evaluate complex aspects of shape for refining and testing hypotheses about functional morphology.

  9. Birth and rapid subcellular adaptation of a hominoid-specific CDC14 protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Rosso


    Full Text Available Gene duplication was prevalent during hominoid evolution, yet little is known about the functional fate of new ape gene copies. We characterized the CDC14B cell cycle gene and the functional evolution of its hominoid-specific daughter gene, CDC14Bretro. We found that CDC14B encodes four different splice isoforms that show different subcellular localizations (nucleus or microtubule-associated and functional properties. A microtubular CDC14B variant spawned CDC14Bretro through retroposition in the hominoid ancestor 18-25 million years ago (Mya. CDC14Bretro evolved brain-/testis-specific expression after the duplication event and experienced a short period of intense positive selection in the African ape ancestor 7-12 Mya. Using resurrected ancestral protein variants, we demonstrate that by virtue of amino acid substitutions in distinct protein regions during this time, the subcellular localization of CDC14Bretro progressively shifted from the association with microtubules (stabilizing them to an association with the endoplasmic reticulum. CDC14Bretro evolution represents a paradigm example of rapid, selectively driven subcellular relocalization, thus revealing a novel mode for the emergence of new gene function.

  10. Trichotomy and Dichotomy Results on the Complexity of Reasoning with Disjunctive Logic Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Truszczynski, Miroslaw


    We present trichotomy results characterizing the complexity of reasoning with disjunctive logic programs. To this end, we introduce a certain definition schema for classes of programs based on a set of allowed arities of rules. We show that each such class of programs has a finite representation, and for each of the classes definable in the schema we characterize the complexity of the existence of an answer set problem. Next, we derive similar characterizations of the complexity of skeptical and credulous reasoning with disjunctive logic programs. Such results are of potential interest. On the one hand, they reveal some reasons responsible for the hardness of computing answer sets. On the other hand, they identify classes of problem instances, for which the problem is "easy" (in P) or "easier than in general" (in NP). We obtain similar results for the complexity of reasoning with disjunctive programs under the supported-model semantics.

  11. Geometric pattern of the hominoid hallucal tarsometatarsal complex. Quantifying the degree of hallux abduction in early hominids (United States)

    Berillon, Gilles


    The degree of hallux abduction in extant and fossil hominoids is analysed in terms of geometric relationships between the first metatarsal and the medial cuneiform and quantified by angular data, in relation to grasping ability and locomotor pattern. The 'australopithecine' pattern corresponds to an abducted first podal ray with some grasping abilities and seems to be derived from a ' Proconsul-like' pattern rather than a 'living African great ape-like' pattern. The Olduvai Hominid 8 condition closely resembles that of the modern human which corresponds to a full bipedalism.

  12. The Large-Bodied hominoids of the Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Trachtengerts


    Full Text Available The review of available data concerning to large-bodied hominoids detected in the Himalayas is presented. They are mainly footprints (photographs by E.Shipton and M.Ward, P.Bordet, F.Smythe, and A.Woodridge and also narration of one remote observation. It is shown that on the whole these data reveal basic features of the undefined creature, most probably humanlike primate, and allow describing it as a separate species. One of its features is unusual four-toed foot with two strong toes and two small toes. A taxonomic name for this hominoid is proposed ¾ Homo pardigitatus sp. nov. ("That has paired toes".

  13. Subnasoalveolar anatomy and hominoid phylogeny: evidence from comparative ontogeny. (United States)

    McCollum, M A; Ward, S C


    The present analysis evaluated extant hominoid subnasal morphological variation from an ontogenetic perspective, documenting both qualitative and allometric details of subnasal maturation in Hylobates, great apes and modern humans. With respect to intraspecific variation, results of log-linear modeling procedures indicate that qualitative features of the subnasal region shown previously to discriminate extant taxa (Ward and Kimbel, 1983; McCollum et al., 1993) do not vary appreciably with either age or sex. In terms of quantitative variation, aside from observed changes in the position of the anterior attachment of the nasal septal cartilage relative to the lateral margins of the nasal cavity, the morphology of the subnasal region does not vary appreciably with age. Furthermore, it was found that sexual dimorphism in subnasal form is present only in Pongo and Gorilla and is the result of sexual bimaturism rather than sexual variation in canine size. In considering interspecific variation in subnasal form, there is a propensity among hominoid taxa for the nasal cavity floor to be free of substantial topographic relief. The smoothly continuous nasal floor topography identified in the majority of hominoid taxa appears to be produced by extensive resorption of the anterior nasal cavity floor that accompanies an upward rotation of the anterior maxilla during craniofacial ontogeny. Comparisons of ontogenetic allometric trajectories indicate that relatively little of the variation in hominoid subnasal form can early be attributed to variation in body/cranial size. Instead, variation in craniofacial orientation, vascular anatomy and incisor size and inclination were identified as potential mediators of hominoid subnasoalveolar anatomy. Although results of this analysis confirm that many detail of the orangutan subnasal morphology are derived for this taxon, there is only little conclusive evidence to support recent reports that the morphology displayed by Gorilla is

  14. First hominoid from the Late Miocene of the Irrawaddy Formation (Myanmar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Jaeger

    Full Text Available For over a century, a Neogene fossil mammal fauna has been known in the Irrawaddy Formation in central Myanmar. Unfortunately, the lack of accurately located fossiliferous sites and the absence of hominoid fossils have impeded paleontological studies. Here we describe the first hominoid found in Myanmar together with a Hipparion (s.l. associated mammal fauna from Irrawaddy Formation deposits dated between 10.4 and 8.8 Ma by biochronology and magnetostratigraphy. This hominoid documents a new species of Khoratpithecus, increasing thereby the Miocene diversity of southern Asian hominoids. The composition of the associated fauna as well as stable isotope data on Hipparion (s.l. indicate that it inhabited an evergreen forest in a C3-plant environment. Our results enlighten that late Miocene hominoids were more regionally diversified than other large mammals, pointing towards regionally-bounded evolution of the representatives of this group in Southeast Asia. The Irrawaddy Formation, with its extensive outcrops and long temporal range, has a great potential for improving our knowledge of hominoid evolution in Asia.

  15. Evolution of the hominoid vertebral column: The long and the short of it. (United States)

    Williams, Scott A; Russo, Gabrielle A


    The postcranial axial skeleton exhibits considerable morphological and functional diversity among living primates. Particularly striking are the derived features in hominoids that distinguish them from most other primates and mammals. In contrast to the primitive catarrhine morphotype, which presumably possessed an external (protruding) tail and emphasized more pronograde trunk posture, all living hominoids are characterized by the absence of an external tail and adaptations to orthograde trunk posture. Moreover, modern humans evolved unique vertebral features that satisfy the demands of balancing an upright torso over the hind limbs during habitual terrestrial bipedalism. Our ability to identify the evolutionary timing and understand the functional and phylogenetic significance of these fundamental changes in postcranial axial skeletal anatomy in the hominoid fossil record is key to reconstructing ancestral hominoid patterns and retracing the evolutionary pathways that led to living apes and modern humans. Here, we provide an overview of what is known about evolution of the hominoid vertebral column, focusing on the currently available anatomical evidence of three major transitions: tail loss and adaptations to orthograde posture and bipedal locomotion.

  16. Morphology and environment in some fossil Hominoids and Pedetids (Mammalia). (United States)

    Senut, Brigitte


    Linking the environment to functional anatomy is not an easy exercise, especially when dealing with fossils, which are often fragmentary and represent animals that are extinct. A holistic approach permits us to fill the gaps in reconstructing the evolutionary patterns in fossil groups. Identifying the environment where animals lived can help to interpret some anatomical structures and, vice versa, the functional morphological pattern can help to refine some fossil environments. Two examples focusing on locomotor behaviours in fossil mammals are considered in this paper: the hominoids and the origins of hominid bipedalism and the springing adaptations in fossil rodents (Pedetidae) in connection with different habitats. In the first case, the limits of the chimp-based models and the necessity to take into account detailed environmental reconstructions will be addressed. The famous 'savannah hypothesis' is no longer tenable because the palaeontological data support a more vegetated environment for the origins of bipedal hominids. Data from the environment will be considered. The earliest putative hominid fossils which preserve skeletal remains of the locomotor apparatus show mixed adaptations to terrestrial bipedalism and arboreal activities. The second example focuses on the variation in springing adaptations in Pedetidae in the Lower Miocene of East Africa and Southern Africa. In the East, the sites where Pedetidae were preserved were mainly forested, whereas in the South the region was more open and drier, with extensive grassy patches. In the first case, pedetids were robust and heavy jumpers, whereas in the South they were smaller, their skeleton more gracile and their springing was lighter. During the desertification of the southern part of Africa, the large pedetid species became extinct, but a smaller species developed. In the case of primates, as in the case of rodents, the skeletal morphology was adapted to its environment.

  17. Tooth crown heights, tooth wear, sexual dimorphism and jaw growth in hominoids. (United States)

    Dean, M C; Beynon, A D


    The aim of this review is to bring together data that link tooth morphology with tooth function and tooth growth: We aim to show how the microanatomy of hominoid teeth is providing evidence about rates of tooth growth that are likely to be a consequence of both masticatory strategy and social behaviour. First, we present data about incisor and molar tooth wear in wild short chimpanzees that demonstrate how crown heights are likely to be related to relative tooth use in a broad sense. Following this we review recent studies that describe the microanatomy of hominoid tooth enamel and show how these studies are providing evidence about tooth crown formation times in hominoids, as well as improving estimates for the age at death of certain juvenile fossil hominids. Next, we outline what is known about the mechanisms of tooth growth in the sexually dimorphic canine teeth of chimpanzees and compare these patterns of growth with tooth growth patterns in the canines of three fossil hominids from Laetoli, Tanzania. Finally, we discuss how selection pressures that operate to increase or reduce the size of anterior teeth interact with jaw size. We argue that the space available to grow developing teeth in the mandibles of juvenile hominoids is determined by the growth patterns of the mandibles, which in turn reflect masticatory strategy. The consequences of selection pressure to grow large or small anterior teeth are likely to be reflected in the times at which these teeth are able to emerge into occlusion.

  18. First hominoid from the Miocene of Ethiopia and the evolution of the catarrhine elbow. (United States)

    Richmond, B G; Fleagle, J G; Kappelman, J; Swisher, C C


    The first known fossil ape from the early-middle Miocene of Fejej, Ethiopia, is described here. The specimen, FJ-18SB-68, is a partial ulna from a locality dated by 40Ar/39Ar and paleomagnetic methods to a minimum age of 16.18 MYA. Compared to a variety of extant and fossil ulnae, FJ-18SB-68 is most similar to Turkanapithecus, Proconsul, and Pliopithecus, and appears to have been an arboreal quadruped with substantial forearm rotational mobility. Among the extant ulnae, canonical variates analysis successfully discriminates platyrrhines from catarrhines and within the latter, cercopithecoids from hominoids. Basal catarrhines (e.g., Aegyptopithecus) are platyrrhine-like in their morphology. Two basic trends appear to evolve from this generalized template: one with less mobile and more habitually pronated forearms, as seen in living and fossil cercopithecoids (including Victoriapithecus and Paracolobus), and another with greater forearm rotational mobility in fossil and modern hominoids. Primitive Miocene apes, including Proconsul, Turkanapithecus, and FJ-18SB-68, share with extant hominoids a more laterally positioned and laterally facing radial notch and an incipient trochlear keel. This morphology, along with a large insertion area for m. brachialis, suggests a departure from the more habitually pronated hand posture of monkeys and may indicate greater climbing abilities in these arboreally quadrupedal apes. Later Miocene apes, such as Oreopithecus and Dryopithecus share additional morphological features with hominoids, indicating considerable suspensory and climbing capabilities.

  19. Variation in anthropoid vertebral formulae: implications for homology and homoplasy in hominoid evolution. (United States)

    Williams, Scott A


    Variation in vertebral formulae within and among hominoid species has complicated our understanding of hominoid vertebral evolution. Here, variation is quantified using diversity and similarity indices derived from population genetics. These indices allow for testing models of hominoid vertebral evolution that call for disparate amounts of homoplasy, and by inference, different patterns of evolution. Results are interpreted in light of "short-backed" (J Exp Zool (Mol Dev Evol) 302B:241-267) and "long-backed" (J Exp Zool (Mol Dev Evol) 314B:123-134) ancestries proposed in different models of hominin vertebral evolution. Under the long-back model, we should expect reduced variation in vertebral formulae associated with adaptively driven homoplasy (independently and repeatedly reduced lumbar regions) and the relatively strong directional selection presumably associated with it, especially in closely related taxa that diverged relatively recently (e.g., Pan troglodytes and Pan paniscus). Instead, high amounts of intraspecific variation are observed among all hominoids except humans and eastern gorillas, taxa that have likely experienced strong stabilizing selection on vertebral formulae associated with locomotor and habitat specializations. Furthermore, analyses of interspecific similarity support an evolutionary scenario in which the vertebral formulae observed in western gorillas and chimpanzees represent a reasonable approximation of the ancestral condition for great apes and humans, from which eastern gorillas, humans, and bonobos derived their unique vertebral profiles. Therefore, these results support the short-back model and are compatible with a scenario of homology of reduced lumbar regions in hominoid primates. Fossil hominin vertebral columns are discussed and shown to support, rather than contradict, the short-back model.

  20. Trabecular bone structure correlates with hand posture and use in hominoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewdi J Tsegai

    Full Text Available Bone is capable of adapting during life in response to stress. Therefore, variation in locomotor and manipulative behaviours across extant hominoids may be reflected in differences in trabecular bone structure. The hand is a promising region for trabecular analysis, as it is the direct contact between the individual and the environment and joint positions at peak loading vary amongst extant hominoids. Building upon traditional volume of interest-based analyses, we apply a whole-epiphysis analytical approach using high-resolution microtomographic scans of the hominoid third metacarpal to investigate whether trabecular structure reflects differences in hand posture and loading in knuckle-walking (Gorilla, Pan, suspensory (Pongo, Hylobates and Symphalangus and manipulative (Homo taxa. Additionally, a comparative phylogenetic method was used to analyse rates of evolutionary changes in trabecular parameters. Results demonstrate that trabecular bone volume distribution and regions of greatest stiffness (i.e., Young's modulus correspond with predicted loading of the hand in each behavioural category. In suspensory and manipulative taxa, regions of high bone volume and greatest stiffness are concentrated on the palmar or distopalmar regions of the metacarpal head, whereas knuckle-walking taxa show greater bone volume and stiffness throughout the head, and particularly in the dorsal region; patterns that correspond with the highest predicted joint reaction forces. Trabecular structure in knuckle-walking taxa is characterised by high bone volume fraction and a high degree of anisotropy in contrast to the suspensory brachiators. Humans, in which the hand is used primarily for manipulation, have a low bone volume fraction and a variable degree of anisotropy. Finally, when trabecular parameters are mapped onto a molecular-based phylogeny, we show that the rates of change in trabecular structure vary across the hominoid clade. Our results support a link

  1. Generalizing Hartogs' Trichotomy Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, David; Blass, Andreas


    A celebrated argument of F. Hartogs (1915) deduces the Axiom of Choice from the hypothesis of comparability for any pair of cardinals. We show how each of a sequence of seemingly much weaker hypotheses suffices. Fixing a finite number $k>1$, the Axiom of Choice follows if merely any family of $k$ cardinals contains at least one comparable pair.

  2. Clay mineralogy indicates a mildly warm and humid living environment for the Miocene hominoid from the Zhaotong Basin, Yunnan, China (United States)

    Zhang, Chunxia; Guo, Zhengtang; Deng, Chenglong; Ji, Xueping; Wu, Haibin; Paterson, Greig A.; Chang, Lin; Li, Qin; Wu, Bailing; Zhu, Rixiang


    Global and regional environmental changes have influenced the evolutionary processes of hominoid primates, particularly during the Miocene. Recently, a new Lufengpithecus cf. lufengensis hominoid fossil with a late Miocene age of ~6.2 Ma was discovered in the Shuitangba (STB) section of the Zhaotong Basin in Yunnan on the southeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau. To understand the relationship between paleoclimate and hominoid evolution, we have studied sedimentary, clay mineralogy and geochemical proxies for the late Miocene STB section (~16 m thick; ca. 6.7-6.0 Ma). Our results show that Lufengpithecus cf. lufengensis lived in a mildly warm and humid climate in a lacustrine or swamp environment. Comparing mid to late Miocene records from hominoid sites in Yunnan, Siwalik in Pakistan, and tropical Africa we find that ecological shifts from forest to grassland in Siwalik are much later than in tropical Africa, consistent with the disappearance of hominoid fossils. However, no significant vegetation changes are found in Yunnan during the late Miocene, which we suggest is the result of uplift of the Tibetan plateau combined with the Asian monsoon geographically and climatically isolating these regions. The resultant warm and humid conditions in southeastern China offered an important refuge for Miocene hominoids.

  3. Dietary Specialization during the Evolution of Western Eurasian Hominoids and the Extinction of European Great Apes


    Daniel DeMiguel; David M Alba; Salvador Moyà-Solà


    Given the central adaptive role of diet, paleodietary inference is essential for understanding the relationship between evolutionary and paleoenvironmental change. Here we rely on dental microwear analysis to investigate the role of dietary specialization in the diversification and extinction of Miocene hominoids from Western Eurasian between 14 and 7 Ma. New microwear results for five extinct taxa are analyzed together with previous data for other Western Eurasian genera. Except Pierolapithe...

  4. Dietary specialization during the evolution of Western Eurasian hominoids and the extinction of European Great Apes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel DeMiguel

    Full Text Available Given the central adaptive role of diet, paleodietary inference is essential for understanding the relationship between evolutionary and paleoenvironmental change. Here we rely on dental microwear analysis to investigate the role of dietary specialization in the diversification and extinction of Miocene hominoids from Western Eurasian between 14 and 7 Ma. New microwear results for five extinct taxa are analyzed together with previous data for other Western Eurasian genera. Except Pierolapithecus (that resembles hard-object feeders and Oreopithecus (a soft-frugivore probably foraging opportunistically on other foods, most of the extinct taxa lack clear extant dietary analogues. They display some degee of sclerocarpy, which is most clearly expressed in Griphopithecus and Ouranopithecus (adapted to more open and arid environments, whereas Anoiapithecus, Dryopithecus and, especially, Hispanopithecus species apparently relied more strongly on soft-frugivory. Thus, contrasting with the prevailing sclerocarpic condition at the beginning of the Eurasian hominoid radiation, soft- and mixed-frugivory coexisted with hard-object feeding in the Late Miocene. Therefore, despite a climatic trend towards cooling and increased seasonality, a progressive dietary diversification would have occurred (probably due to competitive exclusion and increased environmental heterogeneity, although strict folivory did not evolve. Overall, our analyses support the view that the same dietary specializations that enabled Western Eurasian hominoids to face progressive climatic deterioration were the main factor ultimately leading to their extinction when more drastic paleoenvironmental changes took place.

  5. Dietary specialization during the evolution of Western Eurasian hominoids and the extinction of European Great Apes. (United States)

    DeMiguel, Daniel; Alba, David M; Moyà-Solà, Salvador


    Given the central adaptive role of diet, paleodietary inference is essential for understanding the relationship between evolutionary and paleoenvironmental change. Here we rely on dental microwear analysis to investigate the role of dietary specialization in the diversification and extinction of Miocene hominoids from Western Eurasian between 14 and 7 Ma. New microwear results for five extinct taxa are analyzed together with previous data for other Western Eurasian genera. Except Pierolapithecus (that resembles hard-object feeders) and Oreopithecus (a soft-frugivore probably foraging opportunistically on other foods), most of the extinct taxa lack clear extant dietary analogues. They display some degee of sclerocarpy, which is most clearly expressed in Griphopithecus and Ouranopithecus (adapted to more open and arid environments), whereas Anoiapithecus, Dryopithecus and, especially, Hispanopithecus species apparently relied more strongly on soft-frugivory. Thus, contrasting with the prevailing sclerocarpic condition at the beginning of the Eurasian hominoid radiation, soft- and mixed-frugivory coexisted with hard-object feeding in the Late Miocene. Therefore, despite a climatic trend towards cooling and increased seasonality, a progressive dietary diversification would have occurred (probably due to competitive exclusion and increased environmental heterogeneity), although strict folivory did not evolve. Overall, our analyses support the view that the same dietary specializations that enabled Western Eurasian hominoids to face progressive climatic deterioration were the main factor ultimately leading to their extinction when more drastic paleoenvironmental changes took place.

  6. In silico phylogenomics using complete genomes: a case study on the evolution of hominoids (United States)

    Costa, Igor Rodrigues; Prosdocimi, Francisco; Jennings, W. Bryan


    The increasing availability of complete genome data is facilitating the acquisition of phylogenomic data sets, but the process of obtaining orthologous sequences from other genomes and assembling multiple sequence alignments remains piecemeal and arduous. We designed software that performs these tasks and outputs anonymous loci (AL) or anchored enrichment/ultraconserved element loci (AE/UCE) data sets in ready-to-analyze formats. We demonstrate our program by applying it to the hominoids. Starting with human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan genomes, our software generated an exhaustive data set of 292 ALs (∼1 kb each) in ∼3 h. Not only did analyses of our AL data set validate the program by yielding a portrait of hominoid evolution in agreement with previous studies, but the accuracy and precision of our estimated ancestral effective population sizes and speciation times represent improvements. We also used our program with a published set of 512 vertebrate-wide AE “probe” sequences to generate data sets consisting of 171 and 242 independent loci (∼1 kb each) in 11 and 13 min, respectively. The former data set consisted of flanking sequences 500 bp from adjacent AEs, while the latter contained sequences bordering AEs. Although our AE data sets produced the expected hominoid species tree, coalescent-based estimates of ancestral population sizes and speciation times based on these data were considerably lower than estimates from our AL data set and previous studies. Accordingly, we suggest that loci subjected to direct or indirect selection may not be appropriate for coalescent-based methods. Complete in silico approaches, combined with the burgeoning genome databases, will accelerate the pace of phylogenomics. PMID:27435933

  7. Hominoid-specific de novo protein-coding genes originating from long non-coding RNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xie


    Full Text Available Tinkering with pre-existing genes has long been known as a major way to create new genes. Recently, however, motherless protein-coding genes have been found to have emerged de novo from ancestral non-coding DNAs. How these genes originated is not well addressed to date. Here we identified 24 hominoid-specific de novo protein-coding genes with precise origination timing in vertebrate phylogeny. Strand-specific RNA-Seq analyses were performed in five rhesus macaque tissues (liver, prefrontal cortex, skeletal muscle, adipose, and testis, which were then integrated with public transcriptome data from human, chimpanzee, and rhesus macaque. On the basis of comparing the RNA expression profiles in the three species, we found that most of the hominoid-specific de novo protein-coding genes encoded polyadenylated non-coding RNAs in rhesus macaque or chimpanzee with a similar transcript structure and correlated tissue expression profile. According to the rule of parsimony, the majority of these hominoid-specific de novo protein-coding genes appear to have acquired a regulated transcript structure and expression profile before acquiring coding potential. Interestingly, although the expression profile was largely correlated, the coding genes in human often showed higher transcriptional abundance than their non-coding counterparts in rhesus macaque. The major findings we report in this manuscript are robust and insensitive to the parameters used in the identification and analysis of de novo genes. Our results suggest that at least a portion of long non-coding RNAs, especially those with active and regulated transcription, may serve as a birth pool for protein-coding genes, which are then further optimized at the transcriptional level.

  8. Morphology of the thoracolumbar spine of the middle Miocene hominoid Nacholapithecus kerioi from northern Kenya. (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yasuhiro; Nakatsukasa, Masato; Nakano, Yoshihiko; Kunimatsu, Yutaka; Shimizu, Daisuke; Ogihara, Naomichi; Tsujikawa, Hiroshi; Takano, Tomo; Ishida, Hidemi


    A new caudal thoracic and a new lumbar vertebra of Nacholapithecus kerioi, a middle Miocene hominoid from northern Kenya, are reported. The caudal thoracic vertebral body of N. kerioi has a rounded median ventral keel and its lateral sides are moderately concave. The lumbar vertebral body has an obvious median ventral keel. Based on a comparison of vertebral body cranial articular surface size between the caudal thoracic vertebrae in the present study and one discussed in a previous study (KNM-BG 35250BO, a diaphragmatic vertebra), N. kerioi has at least two post-diaphragmatic vertebrae (rib-bearing lumbar-type thoracic vertebrae), unlike extant hominoids. It also has thick, rounded, and moderately long metapophyses on the lumbar vertebra that project dorsolaterally. The spinous process bases of its caudal thoracic and lumbar vertebrae originate caudally between the postzygapophyses, as described previously in the KNM-BG 35250 holotype specimen. In other words, the postzygapophyses of N. kerioi do not project below the caudal border of the spinous processes, similar to those of extant great apes, and unlike small apes and monkeys, which have more caudally projecting postzygapophyses. Nacholapithecus kerioi has a craniocaudally expanded spinous process in relation to vertebral body length, also similar to extant great apes. Both these spinous process features of N. kerioi differ from those of Proconsul nyanzae. The caudal thoracic vertebra of N. kerioi has a caudally-directed spinous process, whose tip is tear-drop shaped. These features resemble those of extant apes. The morphology of the spinous process tips presumably helps vertebral stability by closely stacking adjacent spinous process tips as seen in extant hominoids. The morphology of the spinous process and postzygapophyses limits the intervertebral space and contributes to the stability of the functional lumbar region as seen in extant great apes, suggesting that antipronograde activity was included

  9. The glenohumeral joint of hominoid primates: locomotor correlates, anatomical variation and evolution


    Arias Martorell, Júlia


    [spa] La Tesis Doctoral con título "the glenohumeral joint of hominoid primates: locomotor correlates, anatomical variation and evolution" trata sobre las adaptaciones anatómicas en la articulación del hombro (articulación glenohumeral) de los primates hominoideos. La acción de las fuerzas ejercidas durante la locomoción modelan la forma de la articulación, determinado el rango de movimientos que los animales pueden alcanzar. Los primates hominoideos destacan por tener articulaciones muy móvi...

  10. Canine reduction in the miocene hominoid Oreopithecus bambolii: behavioural and evolutionary implications. (United States)

    Alba, D M; Moyà-Solà, S; Köhler, M


    The degree of canine size sexual dimorphism and relative canine size, which have been related to levels of agonistic behaviour amongst living anthropoid primates, together with relative molar size, are evaluated in the fossil hominoid Oreopithecus bambolii from the Late Miocene of Italy. Although Oreopithecus displays a significant degree of canine height sexual dimorphism, using allometric techniques and body mass estimates for fossil species, it is shown that Oreopithecus males are microdont (smaller postcanine as well as canine teeth than expected) when compared to most living hominoids and its putative ancestor Dryopithecus. Canine reduction in Oreopithecus includes both crown height and, especially, basal area, and most closely resembles the condition found in the pygmy chimpanzee Pan paniscus. Interestingly, it had been previously proposed that Oreopithecus displays, like pygmy chimpanzees, a paedomorphic cranial morphology resulting in a reduction of facial prognathism, which could be related to microdontia in both taxa. Independent canine reduction in several anthropoid lineages (including hominids and P. paniscus) has been related to a relaxation of the selection pressure favouring canine use as a weapon. Although changes in socio-sexual behaviour, as documented in P. paniscus, cannot be currently discarded in Oreopithecus, canine reduction could be also alternatively (although not exclusively) interpreted as an aspect of generalized microdontia. The latter is best considered an adaptive readjustment required by the paedomorphic reduction of prognathism and the resulting lack of space to accommodate the adult dentition. This mechanism of canine reduction highlights the significance of developmental constraints in evolution and had not been previously suggested for any anthropoid primate.

  11. New Material of the Hominoid Ouranopithecus macedoniensis from the Late Miocene of the Axios Valley (Macedonia, Greece) with Some Remarks on Its Sexual Dimorphism. (United States)

    Koufos, George D; de Bonis, Louis; Kugiumtzis, Dimitris


    New hominoid teeth from the late Miocene locality Ravin de la Pluie (RPl) of the Axios Valley (Macedonia, Greece) are studied in this article. Their morphology, dimensions and proportions are similar to the hominoid Ouranopithecus macedoniensis, allowing their attribution to this taxon. The studied material provides some new morphological characters for the female P3 (small asymmetry, small mesiobuccal crown projection, paracone higher than protocone) and the lower canine (mesial groove: large in the male and small in the female, distobuccal fovea: large in the female and small in the male). The new material enriches the collection of O. macedoniensis. The estimated degree of sexual dimorphism of the RPl O. macedoniensis, calculated by the multivariate size dimorphism method, is compared with those of extant hominoids (Gorilla, Pan, Pongo) and of the late Miocene Lufengpithecus lufengensis from China, which is considered as more dimorphic than any living hominoid. The results suggest that Ouranopithecus multivariate size dimorphism for the premolar, molar and post-canine row is similar to those of Pongo and Lufengpithecus, slightly higher than that of Gorilla and clearly higher than that of Pan. Therefore, O. macedoniensis is apparently one of the most sexually dimorphic hominoids and the RPl assemblage is monospecific.

  12. Nucleotide sequences of immunoglobulin eta genes of chimpanzee and orangutan: DNA molecular clock and hominoid evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakoyama, Y.; Hong, K.J.; Byun, S.M.; Hisajima, H.; Ueda, S.; Yaoita, Y.; Hayashida, H.; Miyata, T.; Honjo, T.


    To determine the phylogenetic relationships among hominoids and the dates of their divergence, the complete nucleotide sequences of the constant region of the immunoglobulin eta-chain (C/sub eta1/) genes from chimpanzee and orangutan have been determined. These sequences were compared with the human eta-chain constant-region sequence. A molecular clock (silent molecular clock), measured by the degree of sequence divergence at the synonymous (silent) positions of protein-encoding regions, was introduced for the present study. From the comparison of nucleotide sequences of ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin and ..beta..- and delta-globulin genes between humans and Old World monkeys, the silent molecular clock was calibrated: the mean evolutionary rate of silent substitution was determined to be 1.56 x 10/sup -9/ substitutions per site per year. Using the silent molecular clock, the mean divergence dates of chimpanzee and orangutan from the human lineage were estimated as 6.4 +/- 2.6 million years and 17.3 +/- 4.5 million years, respectively. It was also shown that the evolutionary rate of primate genes is considerably slower than those of other mammalian genes.

  13. Biometrical studies upon hominoid teeth: the coefficient of variation, sexual dimorphism and questions of phylogenetic relationship. (United States)

    Blumenberg, B


    Sexual dimorphism as a function of variation in hominoid tooth metrics has been investigated for four groups of taxa: Recent great apes (two subfamilies), Dryopiths (one subfamily), Ramapiths (one subfamily) and hominids (one family). Gorilla, and to a lesser extent Pan, appear characterized by very high levels of sexual dimorphism and meet several criteria for statistical outliers. Recent great apes are the only group exhibiting consistently high levels of sexual dimorphism. Ramapiths are the only group characterized by low levels of sexual dimorphism and their relative canine length is most similar to Dryopiths. Both Dryopiths and hominids contain taxa with low and intermediate levels of sexual dimorphism. The Gingerich and Shoeninger hypothesis relating coefficients of variation to occlusal complexity is supported. Non-parametric statistics suggest that homogeneity of coefficient of variation profiles over most of the tooth row is characteristic of only the Dryopiths and a composite data set composed of the Dryopith plus Ramapith tooth measurements. Oxnard's model for the multifactorial basis of multiple sexual dimorphisms is also supported. The Dryopith and hominid patterns of sexual dimorphism are similar, an observation that suggests phylogenetic relationship. At the taxonomic level of subfamily or family, sexual dimorphism is a character of cladistic usefulness and possible phylogenetic valence. Assuming that breeding system and sexual dimorphism are functional correlates as many workers suggest, then Ramapithecus sp. China, Sivapithecus indicus and possibly Australopithecus boisei are good candidates for having possessed monogamous breeding/social structures. All Dryopith taxa, S. sivalensis, Sivapithecus sp. China, A. afarensis, Homo habilis and H. erectus emerge as the best candidates for having possessed a polygynous breeding/social structure. No biometrical affinities of Ramapiths with hominids can be demonstrated and some phylogenetic relationship with

  14. Origin of hominids: European or African origin, neither or both?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senut, B.


    Full Text Available For the last twenty years, some scientists have suggested that the African ape and humans lineages emerged in Europe, a scenario known as the “Back to Africa Hypothesis”. Even though hominoids were widespread in Eurasia during the Middle and Upper Miocene due to the tropical conditions which prevailed in this region, we cannot dismiss the fact that they were present in Africa (contra some authors. Actually, they were highly diverse at that same time (at least 10 lineages represented even if the fossil record is less complete than in Eurasia. Postcranial elements from African species suggest that some features of modern hominoids were already present in the Lower and Middle Miocene of Africa and were not restricted to European ones. Considering the available evidence, it is not possible at this stage to favour a European origin over an African one. Hominoids were living in the tropical areas of Northern Africa and Southern Eurasia and faunal exchanges between the two continents occurred throughout the Middle and Upper Miocene, as the Tethys did not act as an effective barrier to interchanges between Europe and Asia.

    Durante los últimos veinte años, algunos científicos han sugerido que los grandes monos africanos y los linajes humanos surgieron en Europa, un escenario conocido como la “ Hipótesis de la vuelta a Africa”. A pesar de que los homínidos se extendieron en Eurasia durante el Mioceno Medio y Superior debido a las condiciones tropicales que prevalecian en esta region, no podemos descartar el hecho de que ellos estuvieron presentes en Africa (contra algunos autores. En realidad, ellos tuvieron una alta diversidad al mismo tiempo (al menos 10 líneas representadas, incluso si el registro fosil es menos completo que el de Eurasia. Elementos postcraneales de especies africanas sugieren que en algunos carácteres los homínidos modernos estaban ya presentes en el Mioceno Inferior y Medio de Africa, no sólo restringidos a

  15. Estimation of hominoid ancestral population sizes under bayesian coalescent models incorporating mutation rate variation and sequencing errors. (United States)

    Burgess, Ralph; Yang, Ziheng


    Estimation of population parameters for the common ancestors of humans and the great apes is important in understanding our evolutionary history. In particular, inference of population size for the human-chimpanzee common ancestor may shed light on the process by which the 2 species separated and on whether the human population experienced a severe size reduction in its early evolutionary history. In this study, the Bayesian method of ancestral inference of Rannala and Yang (2003. Bayes estimation of species divergence times and ancestral population sizes using DNA sequences from multiple loci. Genetics. 164:1645-1656) was extended to accommodate variable mutation rates among loci and random species-specific sequencing errors. The model was applied to analyze a genome-wide data set of approximately 15,000 neutral loci (7.4 Mb) aligned for human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and macaque. We obtained robust and precise estimates for effective population sizes along the hominoid lineage extending back approximately 30 Myr to the cercopithecoid divergence. The results showed that ancestral populations were 5-10 times larger than modern humans along the entire hominoid lineage. The estimates were robust to the priors used and to model assumptions about recombination. The unusually low X chromosome divergence between human and chimpanzee could not be explained by variation in the male mutation bias or by current models of hybridization and introgression. Instead, our parameter estimates were consistent with a simple instantaneous process for human-chimpanzee speciation but showed a major reduction in X chromosome effective population size peculiar to the human-chimpanzee common ancestor, possibly due to selective sweeps on the X prior to separation of the 2 species.

  16. Fossil Orangutan-like hominoid teeth from Late Pleistocene human site of Mulanshan cave in Chongzuo of Guangxi and implications on taxonomy and evolution of orangutan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO LingXia; WANG CuiBin; JIN ChangZhu; QIN DaGong; PAN WenShi


    Fossil records indicate orangutan-like hominoids have been widely distributed in south China during Pleistocene,although currently only surviving in the tropical forests of Kalimantan and Sumatra in Indonesia.This paper describes the recently discovered hominoid fossil teeth from human site of Mulanshan cave in Chongzuo of Guangxi,whose geological age is the Late Pleistocene,about 11000 yeas age based on associated mammal fauna and U-series dating.Compared with those of modern and subfossil orangutans from Indonesia,other fossil great apes from China,the hominoid teeth from Mulanshan cave are orangutan-like,but show somehow different from Indonesia's orangutans,the average sizes of cheek teeth larger and occlusal enamel wrinkles less and simpler.They are classified temporarily as the subspecies of Pongo pygmaeus weidenreichi.Concerning the variations of morphological features and dental sizes of orangutan-like teeth from southern China and neighboring northern Vietnam,different subspecies or species or genus possibly,but the key evidence is necessary to be identified.

  17. African Literature


    Recek, Denis


    The topic of this diploma is the formation and shaping of African literature. The first chapter is about the beginning of African literature. It describes oral literature and its transmission into written literature. Written African literature had great problems in becoming a part of world literature because of its diversity of languages and dialects. Christianity and Islam are mentioned as two religions which had a great impact on African literature. Colonialism is broadly described as an es...

  18. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September. This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,aleading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  19. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September.This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,a leading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  20. Morphometric variation in the hominoid orbital aperture: a case study with implications for the use of variable characters in Miocene catarrhine systematics. (United States)

    Seiffert, E R; Kappelman, J


    Variable characters are ubiquitous in hominoid systematics and present a number of unique problems for phylogenetic analyses that include extinct taxa. As yet, however, few studies have quantified ranges of variation in complex morphometric characters within extant taxa and then used those data to assess the consistency with which discrete character states can be applied to poorly represented fossil species. In this study, ranges of intrageneric morphometric variation in the shape of the hominoid orbital aperture are estimated using exact randomization of average pairwise taxonomic distances (ATDs) derived from size-adjusted centroid, height-width, and elliptic Fourier (EF) variables. Using both centroid and height-width variables, 19 of the 21 possible ATDs between individuals representing seven extinct catarrhine taxa (Aegyptopithecus, Afropithecus, Ankarapithecus, Ouranopithecus, Paranthropus, Sivapithecus and Turkanapithecus) can be observed within a single extant hominoid subspecies, although generally with low probabilities. A resampling study is employed as a means for gauging the effect that this intrataxonomic variation may have on the consistency with which discrete orbital shape character states can be delimited given the small sample sizes available for most Miocene catarrhine taxa preserving this feature (i.e., n=1). For each type of morphometric variable, 100 cluster (UPGMA) analyses of pairwise ATDs are performed in which a single individual is randomly selected from each hominoid genus and analyzed alongside known extinct taxa; consensus trees are computed in order to obtain the frequencies with which different shape clusters appeared in each of the three analyses. The two major clusters appearing most frequently in all three consensus trees are found in only 57% (centroid variables), 49% (height-width variables), and 36% (EF variables) of these trees. If ranges of variation within represented extinct taxa could also be estimated, these frequencies

  1. Hominoid lineage specific amplification of low-copy repeats on 22q11.2 (LCR22s) associated with velo-cardio-facial/digeorge syndrome. (United States)

    Babcock, Melanie; Yatsenko, Svetlana; Hopkins, Janet; Brenton, Matthew; Cao, Qing; de Jong, Pieter; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Lupski, James R; Sikela, James M; Morrow, Bernice E


    Segmental duplications or low-copy repeats (LCRs) constitute approximately 5% of the sequenced portion of the human genome and are associated with many human congenital anomaly disorders. The low-copy repeats on chromosome 22q11.2 (LCR22s) mediate chromosomal rearrangements resulting in deletions, duplications and translocations. The evolutionary mechanisms leading to LCR22 formation is unknown. Four genes, USP18, BCR, GGTLA and GGT, map adjacent to the LCR22s and pseudogene copies are located within them. It has been hypothesized that gene duplication occurred during primate evolution, followed by recombination events, forming pseudogene copies. We investigated whether gene duplication could be detected in non-human hominoid species. FISH mapping was performed using probes to the four functional gene loci. There was evidence for a single copy in humans but additional copies in hominoid species. We then compared LCR22 copy number using LCR22 FISH probes. Lineage specific LCR22 variation was detected in the hominoid species supporting the hypothesis. To independently validate initial findings, real time PCR, and screening of gorilla BAC library filters were performed. This was compared to array comparative genome hybridization data available. The most striking finding was a dramatic amplification of LCR22s in the gorilla. The LCR22s localized to the telomeric or subtelomeric bands of gorilla chromosomes. The most parsimonious explanation is that the LCR22s became amplified by inter-chromosomal recombination between telomeric bands. In summary, our results are consistent with a lineage specific coupling between gene and LCR22 duplication events. The LCR22s thus serve as an important model for evolution of genome variation.

  2. A simulation test of hominoid species number at Lufeng, China: implications for the use of the coefficient of variation in paleotaxonomy. (United States)

    Kelley, J; Plavcan, J M


    High dental metric variation in the large hominoid sample from the late Miocene site of Lufeng, China has been interpreted in two ways: (1) there are two morphologically similar species that broadly overlap in size, and (2) there is one species that is more highly sexually dimorphic in dental size, and perhaps in body size, than any extant primate. It has been claimed that the high levels of dental metric variation falsify the single-species hypothesis, which has been viewed implicitly as corroboration of the two-species hypothesis. However, the two-species hypothesis has not been subjected to testing. Here we test the two-species hypothesis using computer simulations to attempt to reproduce the unusual pattern of intrasexual and intersexual dental metric variation observed in the Lufeng postcanine dentition. Conditions of the simulation experiments were optimized to favor the two-species hypothesis. It was found that, although the Lufeng pattern of metric variation could be reproduced by sampling two species, the likelihood of this occurrence was very low even when the conditions were optimized to the point of improbability. We conclude that the likelihood is very high that the Lufeng sample is composed of one species that is more highly sexually dimorphic in the postcanine dentition than any extent primate species. If so, then the high levels of sexual dimorphism and intraspecific dental metric variation in this species violate the central assumption of methods that employ the coefficient of variation (CV) for paleotaxonomy, namely, that neither can lie outside the ranges observed among extant species. Thus, we further conclude that the CV must be used with caution when evaluating the taxonomic composition of fossil samples and, further, that it cannot be used to falsify a single-species hypothesis in any meaningful way. Other fossil hominoid samples with high measures of dental variation may indicate that considerable sexual size dimorphism typified many

  3. A partial skeleton of the fossil great ape Hispanopithecus laietanus from Can Feu and the mosaic evolution of crown-hominoid positional behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Alba

    Full Text Available The extinct dryopithecine Hispanopithecus (Primates: Hominidae, from the Late Miocene of Europe, is the oldest fossil great ape displaying an orthograde body plan coupled with unambiguous suspensory adaptations. On the basis of hand morphology, Hispanopithecus laietanus has been considered to primitively retain adaptations to above-branch quadrupedalism-thus displaying a locomotor repertoire unknown among extant or fossil hominoids, which has been considered unlikely by some researchers. Here we describe a partial skeleton of H. laietanus from the Vallesian (MN9 locality of Can Feu 1 (Vallès-Penedès Basin, NE Iberian Peninsula, with an estimated age of 10.0-9.7 Ma. It includes dentognathic and postcranial remains of a single, female adult individual, with an estimated body mass of 22-25 kg. The postcranial remains of the rib cage, shoulder girdle and forelimb show a mixture of monkey-like and modern-hominoid-like features. In turn, the proximal morphology of the ulna-most completely preserved in the Can Feu skeleton than among previously-available remains-indicates the possession of an elbow complex suitable for preserving stability along the full range of flexion/extension and enabling a broad range of pronation/supination. Such features, suitable for suspensory behaviors, are however combined with an olecranon morphology that is functionally related to quadrupedalism. Overall, when all the available postcranial evidence for H. laietanus is considered, it emerges that this taxon displayed a locomotor repertoire currently unknown among other apes (extant or extinct alike, uniquely combining suspensory-related features with primitively-retained adaptations to above-branch palmigrady. Despite phylogenetic uncertainties, Hispanopithecus is invariably considered an extinct member of the great-ape-and-human clade. Therefore, the combination of quadrupedal and suspensory adaptations in this Miocene crown hominoid clearly evidences the mosaic nature

  4. Correlation of tooth size and body size in living hominoid primates, with a note on relative brain size in Aegyptopithecus and Proconsul. (United States)

    Gingerich, P D


    Second molar length and body weight are used to test the correlation between tooth size and body size in living Hominoidea. These variates are highly correlated (r= 0.942, p less than 0.001), indicating that tooth size can be used in dentally unspecialized fossil hominoids as one method of predicting the average body weight of species. Based on tooth size, the average body weight of Aegyptopithecus zeuxis is estimated to have been beteen 4.5 and 7.5 kg, which is corroborated by known cranial and postcranial elements. Using Radinsky's estimates of brain size, the encephalization quotient (EQ) for Aegyptopithecus was between 0.65 and 1.04. A similar analysis for Proconsul africanus yields a body weight between 16 and 34 kg, and an EQ between 1.19 and 1.96.

  5. African America. (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.; Brown, Gloria


    Presents an annotated bibliography of quality materials by and about African Americans in the areas of poetry, music, folklore, women, picture books, history/collective biography, authors, and professional materials. Activities are suggested in each area for Black History Month. (LRW)

  6. The SKINT1-like gene is inactivated in hominoids but not in all primate species: implications for the origin of dendritic epidermal T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Hassan Mohamed

    Full Text Available Dendritic epidermal T cells, which express an invariant Vγ5Vδ1 T-cell receptor and account for 95% of all resident T cells in the mouse epidermis, play a critical role in skin immune surveillance. These γδ T cells are generated by positive selection in the fetal thymus, after which they migrate to the skin. The development of dendritic epidermal T cells is critically dependent on the Skint1 gene expressed specifically in keratinocytes and thymic epithelial cells, suggesting an indispensable role for Skint1 in the selection machinery for specific intraepithelial lymphocytes. Phylogenetically, rodents have functional SKINT1 molecules, but humans and chimpanzees have a SKINT1-like (SKINT1L gene with multiple inactivating mutations. In the present study, we analyzed SKINT1L sequences in representative primate species and found that all hominoid species have a common inactivating mutation, but that Old World monkeys such as olive baboons, green monkeys, cynomolgus macaques and rhesus macaques have apparently functional SKINT1L sequences, indicating that SKINT1L was inactivated in a common ancestor of hominoids. Interestingly, the epidermis of cynomolgus macaques contained a population of dendritic-shaped γδ T cells expressing a semi-invariant Vγ10/Vδ1 T-cell receptor. However, this population of macaque T cells differed from rodent dendritic epidermal T cells in that their Vγ10/Vδ1 T-cell receptors displayed junctional diversity and expression of Vγ10 was not epidermis-specific. Therefore, macaques do not appear to have rodent-type dendritic epidermal T cells despite having apparently functional SKINT1L. Comprehensive bioinformatics analysis indicates that SKINT1L emerged in an ancestor of placental mammals but was inactivated or lost multiple times in mammalian evolution and that Skint1 arose by gene duplication in a rodent lineage, suggesting that authentic dendritic epidermal T cells are presumably unique to rodents.

  7. African-American Biography. (United States)

    Martin, Ron


    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  8. African Trypanosomiasis (United States)


    Histol. 1977;375:53- 70. 42. Poltera AA, Owor R, Cox JN. Pathological aspects of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) in Uganda. A post - mortem survey of...nodular lesions , including anthrax or tick bite associated with Rickettsia conorii infection. The chancre is followed by a hemolymphatic stage, dur- ing...electrocardiograph- ic changes and, at times, terminal cardiac insufficiency.41 Pulmonary lesions specifically related to trypanosomiasis are not

  9. Obesity and African Americans (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  10. Heart Disease and African Americans (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  11. SRY基因在人猿超科和旧大陆猴中具有不同的进化规律%Different Evolution Rule of SRY Gene Between Hominoid and Old World Monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓霞; 吕雪梅; 张亚平


    通过PCR扩增、测序,得到了白臀叶猴和红面猴的SRY基因全序列。结合现有的灵长类其他物种序列进行分析,验证了HMG盒的保守性。通过构建系统发育树,比较旧大陆猴和人猿超科两个类群内和类群间HMG盒侧翼序列Ka/Ks的比率。有趣的是,人猿超科两物种比较呈现较高的Ka/Ks比值,但在旧大陆猴中及旧大陆猴与狨猴间的Ka/Ks比值显著低于人猿超科的,呈现很不同的格局。同时,对于HMG盒序列,Ka/Ks比值在人猿超科中也有明显的上升趋势。结果表明,人猿超科中异义替换率高于同义替换率的现象(正选择)不是灵长类中近缘物种间的现象,也不是灵长类中的系统偏差,而可能与基因的功能变化有关。同时,正选择作用于SRY基因可能始于人猿超科分化的初期。%The complete SRY gene of P. nemaeus and M. arctiodes were amplified by using PCR and sequenced. Combined with the same regions of other primate animals, sequence analysis confirmed the conservation of HMGbox. In molecular phylogenetic tree constructed, we made the Ka/Ks value pairwise comparison of HMGbox flanking sequences both intra?and inter?Hominoid and the Old World monkey. To our interest, the pairwise comparison of species in Hominoid suggested a higher Ka/Ks ratio than that in the Old World monkey or between the Old World monkey and marmoset, which showed existent of different pattern of evolution. In addition, in Hominoid Ka/Ks ratio for HMGbox sequences was obviously on the increase. The rate of nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site is faster than that of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site in Hominoid (driven by positive directional selection). Our analysis suggested that it might be resulted from functional change of this gene and the system error or the close relationship among Hominoid species. It is also supposed that the positive selection was functioned at the

  12. The Functional Anatomy of the Carpometacarpal Complex in Anthropoids and Its Implications for the Evolution of the Hominoid Hand. (United States)

    Selby, Michael S; Simpson, Scott W; Lovejoy, C Owen


    Previously, we described several features of the carpometacarpal joints in extant large-bodied apes that are likely adaptations to the functional demands of vertical climbing and suspension. We observed that all hominids, including modern humans and the 4.4-million-year-old hominid Ardipithecus ramidus, lacked these features. Here, we assess the uniqueness of these features in a large sample of monkey, ape, and human hands. These new data provide additional insights into the functional adaptations and evolution of the anthropoid hand. Our survey highlights a series of anatomical adaptations that restrict motion between the second and third metacarpals (MC2 and MC3) and their associated carpals in extant apes, achieved via joint reorganization and novel energy dissipation mechanisms. Their hamate-MC4 and -MC5 joint surface morphologies suggest limited mobility, at least in Pan. Gibbons and spider monkeys have several characters (angled MC3, complex capitate-MC3 joint topography, variably present capitate-MC3 ligaments) that suggest functional convergence in response to suspensory locomotion. Baboons have carpometacarpal morphology suggesting flexion/extension at these joints beyond that observed in most other Old World monkeys, probably as an energy dissipating mechanism minimizing collision forces during terrestrial locomotion. All hominids lack these specializations of the extant great apes, suggesting that vertical climbing was never a central feature of our ancestral locomotor repertoire. Furthermore, the reinforced carpometacarpus of vertically climbing African apes was likely appropriated for knuckle-walking in concert with other novel potential energy dissipating mechanisms. The most parsimonious explanation of the structural similarity of these carpometacarpal specializations in great apes is that they evolved independently.

  13. Depression and African Americans (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Depression And African Americans Depression And African Americans Not “Just the Blues” Clinical ... or spiritual communities. Commonly Asked Questions about Clinical Depression How do I get help for clinical depression? ...

  14. Linguistic Imperialism: African Perspectives. (United States)

    Phillipson, Robert


    Responds to an article on aspects of African language policy and discusses the following issues: multilingualism and monolingualism, proposed changes in language policy from the Organization for African Unity and South African initiatives, the language of literature, bilingual education, and whose interests English-language teaching is serving.…

  15. 云南元谋小河盆地含古猿化石地层的沉积特点与对比%Sedimentary Feature and Correlation of Hominoid Fossil Stratigraphy of Xiaohe Basin, Yuanmou,Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云翔; 邱占祥; 郑良; 张家华; 姜础


    云南元谋小河盆地含古猿化石的主要层位有2个,时代相差约1 Ma。以黄色砂砾石层作为标志层,参考各含古猿化石剖面基底和现代海拔高度,盆内含化石层的晚第三纪地层可以很好的对比,小河盆地蝴蝶梁子剖面、房背梁子剖面相当于豹子洞箐剖面的的中下部。从哺乳动物化石和古地磁资料分析,小河组的地质时代为7.3~8.2Ma。%Hominoid evolution is an important research subject. Since 1986, a skull, lower jaws and a thousand teeth of hominoid have been found in Late Miocene in X iaohe basin, Yuanmou County, Yunnan. These significant discoveries arouse a grea t attentions of anthropologists, paleontologists, geologists and archaeologists , and multidisciplinary research have acquired a lot of advances.   Xiaohe basin, located about 30 km to the NNW of Yuanmou County, Yunnan, Southwe st China, is a small depression basin with 3.5 km in length and 1.5 km in wid th. The sediments in this basin is composed of brown-red silt clay, siltstone, yellow sandy conglomerates, which contain well-developed lenticuly bodies and ab u ndant Hominoid and other mammalian fossils, named as Xiaohe Formation. The thick ness is 77 m at the Baozidongqing. The depositional environments of the Xiaohe Formation have been regarded as fluvial facies. Actually, a lot of evidences sugg est that sediments are deposited by the density flow, while the fossiliferous bed is braided river facies, especially point bar. There were a lot of different views of correlation about Hudieliangzi, Fangbeiliangzi and Baozidongqing section s in Xiaohe basin based on altitude level of sections now. During the fieldwor k from 1998-1999, we used GPS and level to decide all localities of fossil and section at 1:5000 relief map in Xiaohe basin found before. Used yellow sandy cong lomerate beds as an index, the section of Hudieliangzi and Fangbeiliangzi are co rrelated with the middle and lower part of the

  16. New magnetic Polarity Stratigraphy of the Mae Moh Basin in northern Thailand, and Implications for the Age of the First Miocene Hominoids (United States)

    Benammi, M.; Coster, P.; Jaeger, J.; Chaimanee, Y.


    This magnetostratigraphic study has been conducted on the Miocene Mae Moh basin, in the Lampang province, Northern Thailand. 194 paleomagnetic samples were collected from 65 stratigraphics levels from Na Khaem and Huai Luang formations. The studied sections are mainly composed of clay, sandstone and lignite. Rock magnetic experiments revealed that titanomagnetite, magnetite and hematite are the mains carriers of magnetisation. Samples subjected to progressive thermal or alternating field demagnetization procedures exhibit a low stability and a high stability component, with either normal and reversed polarities. The reversal test is positive and indicates that the characteristic remnant magnetization directions correspond to the primary magnetization directions (McFadden and Mc Elhinny, 1990). The mean direction calculated for section 1 are: incl : 23.24 and decl. : 5.01 and incl. : 31.22 et decl. : 7.01 for section 2. These results don't document any rotation with respect to previous study (Benammi et al., 2002). In total, nine polarity zones (four normal and five reverse), that can be reliably be correlated the geomagnetic polarity time scale developed by Gradstein et al, 2004, are recognized from the studied sections. Based on the biochronological constraints, the magnetostartigraphic column of the Mae Moh formations correlates best with chron C5ACr-C5r.3r, between 14.1and 12 Ma. This correlaton revealed a mean sedimentation rate of approximately 21 cm/ky, and a age of 12.7 et 13.2 for for the fossilferous levels (J5, K1, K2) where the mammals remains were found. The analysis of the elements traces spectrum of two ash levels coming from the basins of Mae Moh and Chiang Muan made it possible to establish a new correlation of the Chiang Muan sequence with the GPTS. This correlation prove that the age of the Chiang Muan sequence would be between 13.1 and 12 Ma, and the fossiliferous levels with hominoid (Khoratpithecus Chiangmuanensis) would be dated between 12

  17. Reading the African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musonda Bwalya


    Full Text Available There is so much alienation, pain and suffering in our today�s world. In this vein, African Christianity, a voice amongst many voices, should seek to be a transformational religion for the whole of life, affecting all facets of human life towards a fuller life of all in Africa. This article sought to highlight and point to some of the major societal challenges in the African context which African Christianity, as a life-affirming religion, should continue to embrace, re-embrace and engage with, if it has to be relevant to the African context. In this vein, the article argued that a correct reading of the African context would lead to a more relevant theory and praxis of African Christianity for the benefit of all African peoples and their global neighbours. The contention of this article was that African Christianity has a significant role to play in the re-shaping of the African society and in the global community of humans, only that this role must be executed inclusively, responsibly and appropriately, together with all those who seek the holistic development of Africa towards one common destiny.

  18. Empowering African States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China helps bring lasting peace and stability to Africa African think tanks expressed a high opinion of China’s role in helping build African peace and security at the first meeting of the China-Africa Think Tanks Forum. The

  19. African Literature as Celebration. (United States)

    Achebe, Chinua


    Describes the Igbo tradition of "Mbari," a communal creative enterprise that celebrates the world and the life lived in it through art. Contrasts the cooperative, social dimension of pre-colonial African culture with the exclusion and denial of European colonialism, and sees new African literature again celebrating human presence and…

  20. African American Suicide (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...

  1. African Peacekeepers in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.


    behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...

  2. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron


    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...

  3. African American Diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Brown


    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. With regard to all historic migrations (forced and voluntary, the African Union defined the African diaspora as "[consisting] of people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union." Its constitutive act declares that it shall "invite and encourage the full participation of the African diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union." Keywords: literature concepts, African American abstracts

  4. African Otter Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Reed-Smith


    Full Text Available All concerned thought this was an excellent workshop with important progress made towards creating a viable beginning of an African Otter Network. There is a long road ahead but the 2015 African Otter Workshop is a start on developing range country partners, activists and researchers as well as collaborating on issue identification and resolution which will assist in preserving at least some refugia for Africa’s otters. A list of actions was agreed on, including the creation of an African Otter Network website and social media network, apublic Otter Awareness facebook page, encouraging online reporting of otter sightings, conducting otter awareness surveys, and emphasising the need for communication with the public, other members of the network and other professionals. information not shared or documented is information LOST. A Second African Otter Workshop should be held in 2017 elsewhere in Africa to encourage attendance from a wider range of countries.

  5. African Americans and Glaucoma (United States)

    ... Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by ... and eventually, in developing more effective treatments. Does glaucoma treatment differ? Although treatment varies for all individuals, ...

  6. Geoconservation - a southern African and African perspective (United States)

    Reimold, Wolf Uwe


    In contrast to Europe, where geoconservation is actively pursued in most countries and where two international symposia on this subject have been staged in 1991 and 1996, geoconservation in Africa has indeed a very poor record. Considering the wealth of outstanding geological sites and the importance African stratigraphy has within the global geological record, pro-active geoconservation on this continent has not featured very prominently to date. In the interest of science, education and tourism, unique and typical geosites need to be identified, catalogued, and prioritised with the aim being their protection. Most African countries do not have vibrant non-governmental organisations such as a strong geological society, which could drive projects like geoconservation, or strong support from the private sector for environmental work. Here, a case is made for the role that established National Geological Surveys, some of which are already involved with retroactive environmental geological work, could play in the forefront of pro-active geoconservation and site protection.

  7. African literature to-day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sulzer


    Full Text Available Being interested in African literature one seems to swim from the very beginning in a terminological maelstrom. What is African literature? Is it literature written by any African author in any language? That would mean approaching the question from a purely racial basis. It would imply the art of demonstrating that any piece of such literature could infallibly be recognised as African, a thing which, as far as I know has never been done. Or is African literature strictly bound to traditional African culture?

  8. African-Americans and Alzheimer's (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  9. Mental Health and African Americans (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  10. African Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Jarita C; Medupe, R. Thebe; Current Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy research in Africa


    Astronomy is the science of studying the sky using telescopes and light collectors such as photographic plates or CCD detectors. However, people have always studied the sky and continue to study the sky without the aid of instruments this is the realm of cultural astronomy. This is the first scholarly collection of articles focused on the cultural astronomy of Africans. It weaves together astronomy, anthropology, and Africa. The volume includes African myths and legends about the sky, alignments to celestial bodies found at archaeological sites and at places of worship, rock art with celestial imagery, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions including ethnomathematics and the creation of calendars. Authors include astronomers Kim Malville, Johnson Urama, and Thebe Medupe; archaeologist Felix Chami, and geographer Michael Bonine, and many new authors. As an emerging subfield of cultural astronomy, African cultural astronomy researchers are focused on training students specifically for do...

  11. English as an African Language. (United States)

    Desai, Gaurav


    Discusses the role of the English language in postcolonial African literature, focusing on the politics of language, "Africanized" English, and the social languages used in Chinua Achebe's novels and concludes that English today is as much an African language as a British or American one. (Contains 37 references.) (MDM)

  12. African names for American plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.


    African slaves brought plant knowledge to the New World, sometimes applying it to related plants they found there and sometimes bringing Old World plants with them. By tracing the linguistic parallels between names for plants in African languages and in communities descended from African slaves, pie

  13. The Struggles over African Languages (United States)

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter


    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  14. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron


    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... outside of tariffs. Impressive results were forecast by simulating both a 50% reduction in what can be considered traditional non-tariff barriers and a modest 20% reduction in the costs associated with transit time delays at customs, terminals and internal land transportation. Gains from tariff...

  15. East African institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja

    For the past decade security in East Africa has gained focus internationally. However there is a growing ambition among African states to handle such issues by themselves, sometimes through regional institutions. This has been supported by many Western states but potential risks are often forgotten....

  16. African Oral Tradition Literacy. (United States)

    Green, Doris


    Presents the basic principles of two systems for notating African music and dance: Labanotation (created to record and analyze movements) and Greenotation (created to notate musical instruments of Africa and to parallel Labanotation whereby both music and dance are incorporated into one integrated score). (KH)

  17. African Women Writing Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Browdy de Hernandez; Pauline Dongala; Omotayo; Jolaosho; Anne Serafin


    AFRICAN Women Writing Resistance is the first transnational anthology to focus on women's strategies of resistance to the challenges they face in Africa today.The anthology brings together personal narratives,testimony,interviews,short stories,poetry,performance scripts,folktales and lyrics.

  18. African tick bite fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jakob Aaquist; Thybo, Søren


    The incident of spotted fever imported to Denmark is unknown. We present a classic case of African Tick Bite Fever (ATBF) to highlight a disease, which frequently infects wildlife enthusiasts and hunters on vacation in South Africa. ATBF has a good prognosis and is easily treated with doxycyclin...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The material which forms the basis of this study was collected from two hominoid localities,Shihuiba of Lufeng and Leilao of Yuanmou, in Yunnan Province in the last twenty years. Five forms of eomyid rodents, Plesieomys mirabilis gen. et sp. nov. , Heteroeomys yunnanensis gen. et sp. nov. , Leptodontomys pusillus sp. nov., Leptodontomys sp. and Eomyidae gen. et sp. indet, are now recognized in the two late Miocene faunas. Morphologically, Plesieomys n. gen. shows some similarities to Pseudadjidaumo Lindsay, 1972 of North America, but the phylogenetic relationship of the new genus to the American genus is uncertain. Heteroeomys exhibits a mixture of primitive and advanced dental features of bunodont eomyids and might be descended from an early Eomys species. Leptodontomys pusillus is characterized by its smaller size, weaker developed lingual anteroloph on M1/2, narrow anterolophid and poor mesolophid and hypolophid on m1/2. The eomyid record in Yunnan indicates that eomyid rodents are a wideranging family in Asia, and that forested habitats are preferred more by eomyids with bunodont cheekteeth than by eomyids with lophodont cheek-teeth.

  20. Female genital mutilation in African and African American women's literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Marinšek


    Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.

  1. The African Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas; Mandrup, Bjørn


    . Moreover, the ‘African Security Architecture’, of which it is the central component, also includes sub-regional organisations to which responsibility is to be devolved for dealing with armed confl ict and other matters. These so-called Regional Economic Communities (RECs) are, likewise, constantly changing......The African Union (AU) is a young international organisation, founded in 2002, which is still in the process of setting up its various institutions, while constantly having to face up to new challenges, such as civil wars breaking out and military coups being undertaken in its member states......, just as they have very different strengths. Hence, any account of the AU and the RECs can only provide a ‘snapshot’ of the organisation at any given time, one which may soon become outdated. In contrast with regional and sub-regional organisations in the North, those in Africa are facing an additional...

  2. Steps to African Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The development of Africa is vital to the world’s sustainable development.However,African countries still face key challenges in achieving the meaningful expansion of their economies.At the High-Level Symposium on China-Africa Investment Cooperation in Xiamen,southeast China’s Fujian Province,held from September 8 to 10,Chen Deming,Minister of Commerce of China,elaborates on these challenges and sees

  3. Human African trypanosomiasis. (United States)

    Lejon, Veerle; Bentivoglio, Marina; Franco, José Ramon


    Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is a neglected tropical disease that affects populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by infection with the gambiense and rhodesiense subspecies of the extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, and is transmitted to humans by bites of infected tsetse flies. The disease evolves in two stages, the hemolymphatic and meningoencephalitic stages, the latter being defined by central nervous system infection after trypanosomal traversal of the blood-brain barrier. African trypanosomiasis, which leads to severe neuroinflammation, is fatal without treatment, but the available drugs are toxic and complicated to administer. The choice of medication is determined by the infecting parasite subspecies and disease stage. Clinical features include a constellation of nonspecific symptoms and signs with evolving neurological and psychiatric alterations and characteristic sleep-wake disturbances. Because of the clinical profile variability and insidiously progressive central nervous system involvement, disease staging is currently based on cerebrospinal fluid examination, which is usually performed after the finding of trypanosomes in blood or other body fluids. No vaccine being available, control of human African trypanosomiasis relies on diagnosis and treatment of infected patients, assisted by vector control. Better diagnostic tools and safer, easy to use drugs are needed to facilitate elimination of the disease.

  4. Diversity among African pygmies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando V Ramírez Rozzi

    Full Text Available Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies.

  5. Institution Building for African Regionalism


    Khadiagala, Gilbert M.


    Since the 1960s, African states have embraced regional integration as a vital mechanism for political cooperation and for pooling resources to overcome problems of small and fragmented economies. In building meaningful institutions for regionalism, however, Africans have faced the challenges of reconciling the diversities of culture, geography, and politics. As a result, African regional institutions are characterized by multiple and competing mandates and weak institutionalization. This stud...

  6. African Diaspora Associations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vammen, Ida Marie; Trans, Lars Ove


    Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically on their tr......Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically...

  7. The African Diaspora, Civil Society and African Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opoku-Mensah, Paul Yaw

    This paper, a work-in-progress, makes a contribution to the discussions on the appropriate modalities for incorporating the African diaspora in the African integration project.  It argues that the most appropriate entry points for incorporating the African diaspora into the integration project...... might not, necessarily, be in the formal political structures, although this is important. To the contrary, the most effective and sustainable might be within civil society---that is the links between the peoples and organizations of Africa and the diaspora. Using the case of the African academy......-- as an institution of civil society--- the paper outlines a conceptual framework for incorporating the diaspora into the African integration project....

  8. A Call to African Unity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    This month's paper, written by Professor Mammo Muchie, examines the necessity for a pan-African monetary union.  Professor Muchie argues for the "the creation of a unified African strategy and unified approach to dealing with the outside donor world by neutralising the poison of money as honey...

  9. African Conservation Tillage Network Website


    African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT)


    Metadata only record Maintained by the African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT), this website provides information on Conservation Agriculture in an African context and gathered by stakeholders (NGOs) native to the continent. Resources on projects, practices, reports, and training courses are provided.

  10. Central African Republic. (United States)


    Focus in this discussion of the Central African Republic is on: geography; the people; history and political conditions; government; the economy; foreign relations; and relations with the US. The population of the Central African Republic totaled 2.7 million in 1985 with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate is 134/1000 with life expectancy at 49 years. The Central African Republic is at almost the precise center of Africa, about 640 km from the nearest ocean. More than 70% of the population live in rural areas. There are more than 80 ethnic groups, each with its own language. The precolonial history of the area was marked by successive waves of migration, of which little is known. These migrations are responsible for the complex ethnic and linguistic patterns today. United with Chad in 1906, it formed the Oubangui-Chari-Chad colony. In 1910, it became 1 of the 4 territories of the Federation of French Equatorial Africa, along with Chad, Congo, and Gabon. After World War II, the French Constitution of 1946 inaugurated the first of a series of reforms that led eventually to complete independence for all French territories in western and equatorial Africa. The nation became an autonomous republic within the newly established French Community on December 1, 1958, and acceded to complete independence as the Central Africa Republic on August 13, 1960. The government is made up of the executive and the judicial branches. The constitution and legislature remain suspended. All executive and legislative powers, as well as judicial oversight, are vested in the chief of state. The Central African Republic is 1 of the world's least developed countries, with an annual per capita income of $310. 85% of the population is engaged in subsistence farming. Diamonds account for nearly 1/3 of export earnings; the industrial sector is limited. The US terminated bilateral assistance programs in 1979, due to the human rights violations of the Bokassa regime, but modest

  11. Booster for African Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China’s investment is fueling African growth SINCE 2000,driven by the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation,China’s foreign direct investment(FDI) in Africa has been growing rapidly.In the face of the global financial crisis,which led to global FDI flows falling,China’s investment in Africa has been on a steady, upbeat rise without any interruption.In 2009,China’s direct investment in Africa reached $1.44 billion,of which nonfinancial direct investment soared by 55.4 percent from the previous year.Africa

  12. Understanding the Rise of African Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorem, Kaja Tvedten; Jeppesen, Søren; Hansen, Michael W.

    In light of recent enthusiasm over the African private sector, this paper reviews the existing empirical literature on successful African enterprises and proposes an analytical framework for understanding African firm success. Overall, it is argued that we need to develop an understanding...... of African firm strategy and performance that takes into account the specificities of the African business environment and African firm capabilities. The paper starts by juxtaposing the widespread pessimistic view of African business with more recent, optimistic studies on African firms’ performance....... The latter suggests that profound improvements in African business performance are indeed under way: with the private sector playing a more important role as an engine of growth, with the rise of a capable African entrepreneurial class, and with the emergence of dynamic and competitive African enterprises...

  13. The history of African trypanosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steverding Dietmar


    Full Text Available Abstract The prehistory of African trypanosomiasis indicates that the disease may have been an important selective factor in the evolution of hominids. Ancient history and medieval history reveal that African trypanosomiasis affected the lives of people living in sub-Saharan African at all times. Modern history of African trypanosomiasis revolves around the identification of the causative agents and the mode of transmission of the infection, and the development of drugs for treatment and methods for control of the disease. From the recent history of sleeping sickness we can learn that the disease can be controlled but probably not be eradicated. Current history of human African trypanosomiasis has shown that the production of anti-sleeping sickness drugs is not always guaranteed, and therefore, new, better and cheaper drugs are urgently required.

  14. East African ROAD (United States)

    Tekle, Kelali


    In the developing world astronomy had been treated as the science of elites. As a result of this overwhelming perception, astronomy compared with other applied sciences has got less attention and its role in development has been insignificant. However, the IAU General Assembly decision in 2009 opened new opportunity for countries and professionals to deeply look into Astronomy and its role in development. Then, the subsequent establishment of regional offices in the developing world is helping countries to integrate astronomy with other earth and space based sciences so as to progressively promote its scientific and development importance. Gradually nations have come to know that space is the frontier of tomorrow and the urgency of preeminence on space frontier starts at primary school and ascends to tertiary education. For this to happen, member nations in east African region have placed STEM education at the center of their education system. For instance, Ethiopian has changed University enrollment strategy to be in favor of science and engineering subjects, i.e. every year seventy percent of new University entrants join science and engineering fields while thirty percent social science and humanities. Such bold actions truly promote astronomy to be conceived as gateway to science and technology. To promote the concept of astronomy for development the East African regional office has actually aligned it activities to be in line with the focus areas identified by the IAU strategy (2010 to 2020).

  15. Bioenergy and African transformation. (United States)

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H


    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures.

  16. 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop was held from 10 May to 18 June 2002 at Hangzhou Regional Center for Small Hydro Power(HRC). Attended altogether 9 participants from 5 African countries, i.e. Burundi, Nigeria, South African, Tanzania and Tunisia. This is the second training workshop on SHP that HRC conducted for African countries.

  17. Les hominoïdes fossiles : une aide pour l’éducation en Afrique Fossil hominoids: an educational help in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Senut


    des formations faites sur le terrain ou au laboratoire et à la création de musées locaux ou d’expositions, qui sont des lieux de transmission des savoir qui touchent directement les populations, car elles sont un  plus pour l’éducation. Le savoir a été transféré à l’extérieur du continent pendant plusieurs décennies, mais aujourd’hui il y a une réelle appropriation locale de ces patrimoines qui ne peut être que bénéfique pour la préservation et la transmission de ces derniers. En outre, dans certains cas, la création de ces musées a engendré des visites de touristes et on peut penser qu’à long terme la culture scientifique aura sa place dans le développement durable.Africa is a key continent for unravelling hominid history shared with that of apes and to understand the emergence of our family in relation to the environment. Today numerous international field expeditions carry out researches on the continent and especially in East Africa. The rich fossil heritage discovered in often isolated places is transported to national museums (created mostly by expatriates during colonial period and located in the capitals where access is easy for international researchers but difficult for the people who are living close to the fossil sites. What happens at the local level? Generally, the local populations have been marginalized; feelings of frustration appear, in particular because of the mediatic impact of the discoveries from which they are often excluded. But, these local populations are the guardians of the heritage. Things are changing gradually and today, more and more field researchers get involved with the local needs. Our commitment of scientist as responsible citizen is fundamental: education is a right for all as expressed in the universal declaration of human rights. During the expeditions of our team to Africa, fossil apes and hominids were discovered in three African countries on which this article is focused: Uganda, Kenya and

  18. Surfaces on African sculpture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Mack


    Full Text Available Review of: Leonard Kahan, Donna Page, and Pascal James Imperato (eds in collaboration with Charles Bordogna and Bolaji Campbell with an introduction by Patrick McNaughton, Surfaces: Color, Substances, and Ritual Applications on African Sculpture, Indiana University Press, 2009.The book reviewed here has potential interest to a wide range of readers, whether researchers and academics, museum, curators, conservators or connoisseurs. It examines the perception of surface as an aspect of the indigenous understanding of sculpted objects in sub-Saharan Africa, treating of questions of materials, patination, colouration and use. It includes both survey essays and case studies (on the Bamana of Mali and the Yoriuba of Nigeria in a compendium which has suggestive implications beyond the immediate field of the Africanists to whom it is principally addressed.

  19. Pan-Africanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Diaz Guevara


    Full Text Available This essaic-article goes against established conventions that there is anything ethno-cultural (and hence national about the so-called African tribes. Drawing largely from the culture history of precolonial/prepolitical Africans—that is, the Bantu/Cushitic-Ethiopians (Azanians—the author has demonstrated vividly that far from being distinct ethno-culture national communities, the so-called tribes of African states are better considered subculture groups, whose regional culture practices erstwhile paid tribute to their nation’s main culture center in Karnak. For example, using the culture symbols and practices of some local groups and linking them to the predynastic and dynastic Pharaonic periods, I argued that there is compelling evidence against qualifying Africa’s tribes as distinct ethno-culture national entities. In genuine culture context, I stressed that the Ritual of Resurrection and its twin culture process of the mummification of deceased indigenous Pharaohs tend to suggest that the object of the Bantu/Cushitic-Ethiopians national culture was life (in its eternal manifestation and then resurrection later, and that there are recurring (culturally sanctioned ethical examples among the culture custodians of these subculture groups that generally pay tribute to the overarching culture norm. Furthermore, the fact that the Ritual of Resurrection began in the Delta region and ended at the Sources of the Nile, where the spirit of the deceased indigenous Pharaohs was introduced into the spiritual world of their ancestors, contradicts conventional perceptions that ancient Egypt was a distinct national community isolated from precolonial/prepolitical Africa/Azania.

  20. Central African Republic. (United States)


    The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices.

  1. African Ethnobotany in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egleé L. Zent


    Full Text Available Review of African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Edited by Robert Voeks and John Rashford. 2013. Springer. Pp. 429, 105 illustrations, 69 color illustrations. $49.95 (paperback. ISBN 978‐1461408352.

  2. The New African Civil-Military Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on the African continent to embark upon the New African Civil Military Relations (ACMR). In the last decade and half, the implosion of African states exposed to forces of democratization has escalated, manifest in Algeria, Egypt, Mali, Madagascar, Somalia, South Sudan, Central African Republic and Lesotho...... accorded the responsibility of organizing a Session on ACMR. From amongst some of the exciting Abstracts presented, authors submitted these as full chapters for this book which captures International African Studies Perspectives, managed by the African Public Policy & Research Institute (APPRI...

  3. An African ethic for nursing? (United States)

    Haegert, S


    This article derives from a doctoral thesis in which a particular discourse was used as a 'paradigm case'. From this discourse an ethic set within a South African culture arose. Using many cultural 'voices' to aid the understanding of this narrative, the ethic shows that one can build on both a 'justice' and a 'care' ethic. With further development based on African culture one can take the ethic of care deeper and reveal 'layers of understanding'. Care, together with compassion, forms the foundation of morality. Nursing ethics has followed particular western moral philosophers. Often nursing ethics has been taught along the lines of Kohlberg's theory of morality, with its emphasis on rules, rights, duties and general obligations. These principles were universalistic, masculine and noncontextual. However, there is a new ethical movement among Thomist philosophers along the lines to be expounded in this article. Nurses such as Benner, Bevis, Dunlop, Fry and Gadow--to name but a few--have welcomed the concept of an 'ethic of care'. Gilligan's work gave a feminist view and situated ethics in the everyday aspects of responsiveness, responsibility, context and concern. Shutte's search for a 'philosophy for Africa' has resulted in finding similarities in Setiloane and in Senghor with those of Thomist philosophers. Using this African philosophy and a research participant's narrative, an African ethic evolves out of the African proverb: 'A person is a person through other persons', or its alternative rendering: 'I am because we are: we are because I am.' This hermeneutic narrative reveals 'the way affect imbues activity with ethical meaning' within the context of a black nursing sister in a rural South African hospital. It expands upon the above proverb and incorporates the South African constitutional idea of 'Ubuntu' (compassion and justice or humanness).

  4. African horse sickness. (United States)

    Mellor, Philip Scott; Hamblin, Christopher


    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a non-contagious, infectious insect-borne disease of equids and is endemic in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa and possibly Yemen in the Arabian Peninsula. However, periodically the virus makes excursions beyond its endemic areas and has at times extended as far as India and Pakistan in the east and Spain and Portugal in the west. The vectors are certain species of Culicoides biting midge the most important of which is the Afro-Asiatic species C. imicola. This paper describes the effects that AHSV has on its equid hosts, aspects of its epidemiology, and present and future prospects for control. The distribution of AHSV seems to be governed by a number of factors including the efficiency of control measures, the presence or absence of a long term vertebrate reservoir and, most importantly, the prevalence and seasonal incidence of the major vector which is controlled by climate. However, with the advent of climate-change the major vector, C. imicola, has now significantly extended its range northwards to include much of Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece and has even been recorded from southern Switzerland. Furthermore, in many of these new locations the insect is present and active throughout the entire year. With the related bluetongue virus, which utilises the same vector species of Culicoides this has, since 1998, precipitated the worst outbreaks of bluetongue disease ever recorded with the virus extending further north in Europe than ever before and apparently becoming endemic in that continent. The prospects for similar changes in the epidemiology and distribution of AHSV are discussed.

  5. Increasing Reading Engagement in African American Boys (United States)

    Husband, Terry


    Much has been written concerning the challenges many teachers face in engaging African American males in reading practices. While much of this extant scholarship focuses on African American males at the pre-adolescent stage of development and beyond, little has been written regarding increasing reading engagement in African American boys in P-5…

  6. African Centered Knowledge: A British Perspective. (United States)

    Christian, Mark


    Considers the impact of African centered knowledge within the United Kingdom. Recent development of African Diaspora studies has forged links between various black Atlantic communities. The United Kingdom has experienced positive grassroots community response to the work of noted African centered scholars, yet within the British academy,…

  7. Empowering African genomics for infectious disease control. (United States)

    Folarin, Onikepe A; Happi, Anise N; Happi, Christian T


    At present, African scientists can only participate minimally in the genomics revolution that is transforming the understanding, surveillance and clinical treatment of infectious diseases. We discuss new initiatives to equip African scientists with knowledge of cutting-edge genomics tools, and build a sustainable critical mass of well-trained African infectious diseases genomics scientists.

  8. African American Teaching and the Matriarchal Performance. (United States)

    Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes

    This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…

  9. Developing programs for african families, by african families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halliday, Jennifer A; Green, Julie; Mellor, David


    Obesity is an emerging problem for African migrants in Australia, but few prevention programs incorporate their cultural beliefs and values. This study reports on the application of community capacity-building and empowerment principles in 4 workshops with Sudanese families in Australia. Workshop...

  10. How student teachers understand African philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsephe M. Letseka


    Full Text Available The question ‘What constitutes African philosophy?’ was first raised with the publication of Placide Tempels’s seminal work Bantu philosophy in 1959. Tempels’s book inevitably elicited considerable critical response from African philosophers, which culminated in a wide range of publications such as Wiredu’s (1980 Philosophy and an African culture, Hountondji’s (1983 African philosophy: Myth and reality, Oruka’s (1990 Sage philosophy: Indigenous thinkers and modern debate on African philosophy, Shutte’s (1993 Philosophy for Africa, Masolo’s (1994 African philosophy in search of identity and Gyekye’s (1995 An essay of African philosophical thought: The Akan conceptual scheme. It has been over 60 years since the publication of Temples’s book and there continues to be serious debate about African philosophy. This article sought to contribute to the debate on the various conceptions of African philosophy, but with a focus on the challenges of teaching African philosophy to Philosophy of Education students at an open distance learning institution in South Africa. This article discussed the tendency amongst undergraduate Philosophy of Education students to conflate and reduce African philosophy to African cultures and traditions, and to the notion of ubuntu, and sought to understand the reasons for students’ inclination to treat African philosophy in this way. It examined students’ background knowledge of African philosophy, their critical thinking skills and whether their official study materials are selected and packaged in a manner that, in fact, adds to the challenges they face. Finally, the article explored the ways in which Philosophy of Education lecturers can adapt their pedagogy to provide students with a better understanding of African philosophy.

  11. East African odontopygid millipedes 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Sara B.; Enghoff, Henrik


    Five new species of the endemic East African genus Xystopyge are described: X. pelecys, X. frontieri, X. proplicatus, X. biacanthus, and X. zanzibarensis. Three are from the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania, two are from the Usambara Mtns. and one is from the Uluguru Mtns. One further species is f...

  12. Classic African American Children's Literature (United States)

    McNair, Jonda C.


    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  13. The UCAR Africa Initiative: Enabling African Solutions to African Needs (United States)

    Pandya, R.; Bruintjes, R.; Foote, B.; Heck, S.; Hermann, S.; Hoswell, L.; Konate, M.; Kucera, P.; Laing, A.; Lamptey, B.; Moncrieff, M.; Ramamurthy, M.; Roberts, R.; Spangler, T.; Traoré, A.; Yoksas, T.; Warner, T.


    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Africa Initiative (AI) is a coordinated effort aimed at building sustainable partnerships between UCAR and African institutions in order to pursue research and applications for the benefit of the African people. The initiative is based on four fundamental operating principles, concisely summarized by the overall philosophy of enabling African solutions to African needs. The four principles are: • Collaborate with African institutions • Focus on institutional capacity building and research support • Explore science research themes critical to Africa and important for the world • Leverage the research infrastructure in UCAR to add value These principles are realized in a set of pilot activities, chosen for their high probability of short-term results and ability to set the stage for longer-term collaboration. The three pilot activities are listed below. 1. A modest radar network and data-distribution system in Mali and Burkina Faso, including a data-sharing MOU between the Mail and Burkina Faso Weather Services. 2. A partnership among UCAR, the Ghana Meteorological Agency, and the Ghana university community to develop an operational Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for West Africa. The output is used by researchers and operational forecasters in Africa. Model output is also part of a demonstration project that aims to allow humanitarian agencies to share geo-referenced information in Africa via a web portal. 3. A workshop in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from April 2-6, 2007, with the theme Improving Lives by Understanding Weather. The workshop, co-organized with Programme SAAGA and the Commité Permanent Inter-Etats de Lutte Contre la Sécheresse dans le Sahel (CILSS), included over 80 participants from 18 countries, and produced a set of recommendations for continued collaboration. Our presentation will provide an update of these pilot activities and point to future directions. Recognizing

  14. Schistosomes in South African penguins. (United States)

    Aldhoun, Jitka A; Horne, Elizabeth C


    During the years 2009-2012, faeces of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus L.) from South African rehabilitation centres were examined for helminths. In total, 46 out 555 samples (8.29 %), mostly belonging to adult birds, were found to contain oval schistosome eggs with a spine on one pole. Their dimensions were 153.21 ± 9.07 × 87.14 ± 8.67 μm. Selected DNA fragments (18S, 28S and ITS rDNA) were sequenced and compared to other schistosome isolates deposited in GenBank. The shape of the eggs suggests that they belong to the genus Gigantobilharzia; however, due to the insufficient stage of knowledge of the genus and limited number of species available for comparison, we were not able to assign the isolate unambiguously to this genus based on either the egg morphology or the results of molecular analysis.

  15. Afri-Can Forum 2


    Sartorius, Benn; Coetzee, Jenny; Mokgatswana, Kgaugelo; Jewkes, Rachel; Gray, Glenda E.; Dugas, Marylène; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Rutakumwa, Rwamahe; Mbonye, Martin; Kiwanuka, Thadeus; Nakamanya, Sarah; Muhumuza, Richard; Nalukenge, Winfred; Seeley, Janet; Atujuna, Millicent


    Table of contents A1 Introduction to the 2nd synchronicity forum of GHRI/CHVI-funded Canadian and African HIV prevention and vaccine teams O1 Voluntary medical male circumcision for prevention of heterosexual transmission of HIV in adult males in Soweto: What do indicators and incidence rate show? Hillary Mukudu, Neil Martinson, Benn Sartorius O2 Developing a peer-led community mobilization program for sex workers in Soweto: HIV risk and demographics Jenny Coetzee, Janan Dietrich, Kgaugelo Mo...

  16. African financial systems: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Allen


    Full Text Available We start by providing an overview of financial systems in the African continent. We then consider the regions of Arab North Africa, West Africa, East and Central Africa, and Southern Africa in more detail. The paper covers, among other things, central banks, deposit-taking banks, non-bank institutions, such as the stock markets, fixed income markets, insurance markets, and microfinance institutions.

  17. African management : concept, content and usability.


    Seny Kan, K. A.; Apitsa, S.M.; Adegbite, E.


    Purpose While management research in African context is all but invisible in management literature, the notion of "African management" emerges through a piecemeal corpus of literature that has arisen in response to the exclusion and marginalisation of Africa in the broad field of management literature. The idea underlying this reasoning is that the Western management model prevailing so far in Africa is inadequate because of cultural considerations. However, what is meant by “African manag...

  18. Aspects of the phytogeography of African Pteridophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. C. L. E. Schelpe


    Full Text Available A diversity of distribution patterns exhibited by African pteridophytes on intercontinental and continental scales are presented. Occasional random dispersal among the Pteridophyta over long distances is accepted. The ecological importance of the gametophyte phase is inferred. Future progress in the elucidation of African fern phytogeography will require a broader alpha-taxonomic pan-African base and the plotting of many more distribution maps.

  19. Gentle Africanized bees on an oceanic island. (United States)

    Rivera-Marchand, Bert; Oskay, Devrim; Giray, Tugrul


    Oceanic islands have reduced resources and natural enemies and potentially affect life history traits of arriving organisms. Among the most spectacular invasions in the Western hemisphere is that of the Africanized honeybee. We hypothesized that in the oceanic island Puerto Rico, Africanized bees will exhibit differences from the mainland population such as for defensiveness and other linked traits. We evaluated the extent of Africanization through three typical Africanized traits: wing size, defensive behavior, and resistance to Varroa destructor mites. All sampled colonies were Africanized by maternal descent, with over 65% presence of European alleles at the S-3 nuclear locus. In two assays evaluating defense, Puerto Rican bees showed low defensiveness similar to European bees. In morphology and resistance to mites, Africanized bees from Puerto Rico are similar to other Africanized bees. In behavioral assays on mechanisms of resistance to Varroa, we directly observed that Puerto Rican Africanized bees groomed-off and bit the mites as been observed in other studies. In no other location, Africanized bees have reduced defensiveness while retaining typical traits such as wing size and mite resistance. This mosaic of traits that has resulted during the invasion of an oceanic island has implications for behavior, evolution, and agriculture.

  20. Cultural aspects of African American eating patterns. (United States)

    Airhihenbuwa, C O; Kumanyika, S; Agurs, T D; Lowe, A; Saunders, D; Morssink, C B


    The high mortality from diet-related diseases among African Americans strongly suggests a need to adopt diets lower in total fat, saturated fat and salt and higher in fiber. However, such changes would be contrary to some traditional African American cultural practices. Focus group interviews were used to explore cultural aspects of eating patterns among low- and middle-income African Americans recruited from an urban community in Pennsylvania. In total, 21 males and 32 females, aged 13-65+ years were recruited using a networking technique. Participants identified eating practices commonly attributed to African Americans and felt that these were largely independent of socioeconomic status. They were uncertain about links between African American eating patterns and African origins but clear about influences of slavery and economic disadvantage. The perception that African American food patterns were characteristically adaptive to external conditions, suggest that, for effective dietary change in African American communities, changes in the food availability will need to precede or take place in parallel with changes recommended to individuals. Cultural attitudes about where and with whom food is eaten emerged as being equivalent in importance to attitudes about specific foods. These findings emphasize the importance of continued efforts to identify ways to increase the relevance of cultural context and meanings in dietary counseling so that health and nutrition interventions are anchored in values as perceived, in this case, by African Americans.

  1. Race, health, and the African Diaspora. (United States)

    Spigner, Clarence

    Health inequalities exist throughout the African Diaspora and are viewed in this article as largely color-coded. In developed, developing, and undeveloped nations today, "racial" stratification is consistently reflected in an inability to provide adequate health regardless of national policy or ideology. For instance, African Americans experience less than adequate health care very similar to Blacks in Britain, in spite of each nations differing health systems. Latin America's Africana Negra communities experience poorer health similar to Blacks throughout the Caribbean. The African continent itself is arguably the poorest on earth. A common history of racism correlates with health disparities across the African Diaspora.

  2. The African diaspora: history, adaptation and health. (United States)

    Rotimi, Charles N; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Baker, Jennifer L; Shriner, Daniel


    The trans-Atlantic slave trade brought millions of Africans to the New World. Advances in genomics are providing novel insights into the history and health of Africans and the diasporan populations. Recent examples reviewed here include the unraveling of substantial hunter-gatherer and 'Eurasian' admixtures across sub-Saharan Africa, expanding our understanding of ancestral African genetics; the global ubiquity of mixed ancestry; the revealing of African ancestry in Latin Americans that likely derived from the slave trade; and understanding of the ancestral backgrounds of APOL1 and LPL found to influence kidney disease and lipid levels, respectively, providing specific insights into disease etiology and health disparities.

  3. African American girls and the challenges ahead. (United States)

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L


    The research on the psychosocial development of African American girls is limited. Information that is available focuses on teen pregnancy and health issues such as nutrition and physical activity. African American girls are facing challenges, including poverty, crime, poor self-esteem, and peer pressure. Despite some of the negative characteristics attributed to African American girls, many are achieving some success. Policy makers and service providers need to recognize the resiliency and unique needs of African American girls and develop services that ensure their needs are being fully met.

  4. African Agency and EU–African Economic Partnership Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Kohnert


    Full Text Available Review Article: European Parliament (EP (ed. (2014, African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP Countries’ Position on Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs, Brussels: European Parliament, Directorate-General for External Policies, Policy Department, April, ISBN 978-92-823- 5667-8, 84 pp. Contemporary Politics (2014, vol. 20, issue 1, Special Issue: Perspectives on the Trade–Development Nexus in the European Union, London: Routledge, ISSN: 1356-9775 (print, 1469-3631 (online, 126 pp. Trommer, Silke (2014, Transformations in Trade Politics: Participatory Trade Politics in West Africa, London: Routledge, ISBN: 978-0- 415-81973-2, 232 pp.

  5. Fragile states and protection under the 1969 African Refugee Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Wood


    Full Text Available Current practice in African states highlights both the potential andthe limitations of the 1969 African Refugee Convention in providingprotection to persons displaced from fragile states.

  6. Conflict and human African trypanosomiasis. (United States)

    Berrang-Ford, Lea; Lundine, Jamie; Breau, Sebastien


    Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) has reemerged in sub-Saharan Africa as a disease of major public health importance. The success of HAT elimination in sub-Saharan Africa is subject to the feasibility of controlling, eliminating, or mitigating the determinants of incidence in affected countries. Conflict has been widely recognized and cited as a contributing factor to the resurgence of HAT in many countries, as well as to continuing HAT incidence in politically unstable and resource-poor regions. Despite extensive anecdotal and qualitative recognition of the role of conflict, there has been no quantitative research of this topic at the population level in affected African countries. We characterize the qualitative and quantitative associations between HAT incidence and conflict-related processes in HAT-affected African countries over the past 30 years. HAT and conflict-related data were collected for 35 affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa for the years 1976-2004. Descriptive and univariate inferential statistics, as well as negative binomial regression modeling, are used to assess the associations between HAT and conflict. A space-time scan statistic is used to identify significant incidence clusters. Clusters of HAT incidence over the past 30 years have predominantly coincided with periods of conflict or socio-political instability. HAT cases occurred significantly more often in countries and during years with conflict, high political terror, and internationalized civil war. The results indicate a lag period between the start of conflict events and a peak in incidence of approximately 10 years. We recommend explicit consideration and quantification of socio-political measures such as conflict and terror indices in GIS (Geographic Information Systems)-based risk assessments for HAT policy and intervention.

  7. African American Teachers and Culturally Relevant Pedagogy. (United States)

    Foster, Michele

    An overview is presented of research on African American teachers, addressing the large body of literature written by policy analysts, first-person narratives, and the sociological and anthropological literature. Policy research has identified the small number of African American teachers and has studied some reasons for this shortage and some of…

  8. Prostate cancer in men of African origin. (United States)

    McGinley, Kathleen F; Tay, Kae Jack; Moul, Judd W


    Men of African origin are disproportionately affected by prostate cancer: prostate cancer incidence is highest among men of African origin in the USA, prostate cancer mortality is highest among men of African origin in the Caribbean, and tumour stage and grade at diagnosis are highest among men in sub-Saharan Africa. Socioeconomic, educational, cultural, and genetic factors, as well as variations in care delivery and treatment selection, contribute to this cancer disparity. Emerging data on single-nucleotide-polymorphism patterns, epigenetic changes, and variations in fusion-gene products among men of African origin add to the understanding of genetic differences underlying this disease. On the diagnosis of prostate cancer, when all treatment options are available, men of African origin are more likely to choose radiation therapy or to receive no definitive treatment than white men. Among men of African origin undergoing surgery, increased rates of biochemical recurrence have been identified. Understanding differences in the cancer-survivorship experience and quality-of-life outcomes among men of African origin are critical to appropriately counsel patients and improve cultural sensitivity. Efforts to curtail prostate cancer screening will likely affect men of African origin disproportionately and widen the racial disparity of disease.

  9. A Mirror Image African American Student Reflections (United States)

    Cannon Dawson, Candice


    This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…

  10. France: Africans and the French Revolution. (United States)

    Fatunde, Tunde


    The French Revolution had profound and long-term effects for Africans, both in Africa and throughout the Western hemisphere. Revolutionary leaders not only opposed the emancipation of slaves in French territories but supported an intensified slave trade, sparking numerous rebellions. French exploitation of Africans extended well into the twentieth…

  11. British African Caribbean Women and Depression (United States)

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney


    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  12. Precolonial African History. AHA Pamphlets, 501. (United States)

    Curtin, Philip D.

    This pamphlet surveys western historiography of precolonial Africa. Prior to World War II, African history emphasized the European role in Africa, relegating African history before European colonization to minor importance. Only after the increase in university enrollments and funding in the 1960's did opportunities for innovative research and new…

  13. Hidden Education among African Americans during Slavery (United States)

    Gundaker, Grey


    Background/Context: Historical studies examine aspects of African American education in and out of school in detail (Woodson 1915, 1933, Bullock 1970, Anderson 1988, Morris 1982, Rachal 1986, Rose 1964, Webber 1978, Williams 2005). Scholars of African American literacy have noted ways that education intersects other arenas such as religion and…

  14. A Reevaluation of African Education: Woodson Revisited. (United States)

    Okafor, Victor Oguejiofor


    Reviews the ideas of C. G. Woodson (1875-1950) about the inappropriate education received by African Americans. Although Woodson's book, "The Mis-Education of the Negro," was written in 1933, his diagnosis of the state of the African-American community appears to hold up well today. (SLD)

  15. Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women (United States)

    Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David


    The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

  16. South African cities and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Vacchiani-Marcuzzo


    Full Text Available Illustration 1 – Centre des affaires, Le CapAuteur : Céline Vacchiani-Marcuzzo.Born with colonial settlement patterns, the South-African urban system has experienced half a century of Apartheid. Under the effects of globalization, this urban system evolves as more developed urban systems and mature settlement patterns. This urbanization process (in the limits of functional urban agglomeration makes South Africa one of the most advanced countries in Africa in terms of urban growth. The world-...

  17. Population genetics of African ungulates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Eline

    Molecular genetic techniques were used to gain insights into the evolutionary forces that have shaped the present day diversity of African savannah ungu-lates, which constitute the most species-rich mega faunal assemblage on earth. The studies included in this thesis represent individual species......-specific data sets, which are used to elucidate evolutionary processes of importance to the savannah ungulate community. Patterns of DNA variation were analyzed to assess the genetic signatures of Pleistocene refugia and investigate aspects of speciation, intraspecific structuring, hybridization, and historic...

  18. African witchcraft in theological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.W.C. van Wyk


    Full Text Available This article is a theological contribution aimed at creating an understanding of the phenomenon of witchcraft in South Africa. Witchcraft still causes major social problems in this country. The article argues that the development of a culture of human rights and the improvement of the judicial process alone will not solve this problem. Witchcraft is a too deeply rooted religious phenomenon. The phenomenon is described in its religious complexity and diversity. Witchcraft is discussed within the framework of the African theodicy.

  19. African Americans and the medical establishment. (United States)

    Smith, C


    The African American community's response to the AIDS epidemic has reflected the profound mistrust of the medical establishment which many African Americans feel. Among African Americans, the belief that the epidemic originated in a genocidal plot is widespread. It is thought that organized medicine has been significantly involved in this plot. If we look at African Americans' historical relationship to the medical establishment from the era of slavery to the recent past, the suspicious attitudes which make such beliefs possible can be seen as an intelligible response to a new disease which disproportionately affects African Americans. Successful medical and public health responses to the epidemic have depended and will continue to depend upon overcoming the historical legacy of suspicion and gaining the trust of the community.

  20. An African VLBI network of radio telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Gaylard, M J; Combrinck, L; Booth, R S; Buchner, S J; Fanaroff, B L; MacLeod, G C; Nicolson, G D; Quick, J F H; Stronkhorst, P; Venkatasubramani, T L


    The advent of international wideband communication by optical fibre has produced a revolution in communications and the use of the internet. Many African countries are now connected to undersea fibre linking them to other African countries and to other continents. Previously international communication was by microwave links through geostationary satellites. These are becoming redundant in some countries as optical fibre takes over, as this provides 1000 times the bandwidth of the satellite links. In the 1970's and 1980's some two dozen large (30 m diameter class) antennas were built in various African countries to provide the satellite links. Twenty six are currently known in 19 countries. As these antennas become redundant, the possibility exists to convert them for radio astronomy at a cost of roughly one tenth that of a new antenna of similar size. HartRAO, SKA Africa and the South African Department of Science and Technology (DST) have started exploring this possibility with some of the African countries...

  1. Understanding the Rise of African Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorem, Kaja Tvedten; Hansen, Michael Wendelboe; Jeppesen, Søren


    enterprises, observing that while much research is focusing on the role of the African business environments for enterprise development, much less attention has been devoted to the role of firm-specific capabilities, strategies and management. The paper concludes by advocating a contingency approach......Purpose: In light of recent enthusiasm over African private sector development, the purpose of this paper is to review the business literature on African enterprise development with a view of identifying lacunas in the literature and of developing an analytical framework that may guide future...... research on this issue. Design/methodology/approach: The paper provides a review of the extant literature on African enterprise development by juxtaposing the traditional pessimistic view of African business performance with more recent, optimistic accounts. Based on the literature review, lacunas...

  2. Anatomy of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses in Aegyptopithecus and early Miocene African catarrhines. (United States)

    Rossie, James B


    Neontological comparisons suggest that paranasal sinus anatomy is diagnostic of several catarrhine clades such as Cercopithecoidea, Hominoidea, Homininae, and Ponginae. However, while the loss of sinuses in cercopithecoids is generally recognized as a derived condition, determining the polarity of character-state changes within noncercopithecoid catarrhines requires knowledge of the primitive catarrhine condition. To address this problem, the paranasal sinus anatomy of Aegyptopithecus and several early Miocene catarrhines was investigated. Two partial facial skeletons of Aegyptopithecus were subjected to computed tomography in order to reveal their internal anatomy. These data were compared with facial and palatal specimens of Proconsul, Limnopithecus, Dendropithecus, Rangwapithecus, and Kalepithecus in the National Museums of Kenya in Nairobi, and to wet and dry specimens of living taxa. Results confirm that cercopithecoid paranasal anatomy is derived, and reveal that the sinus anatomy of stem catarrhines included a hominoid-like maxillary sinus as well as an ethmofrontal system like that of hominines. Accordingly, these two features do not constitute evidence for the hominoid, hominid, or hominine status of any fossil species. Conversely, the absence of the ethmofrontal sinus system in Sivapithecus and Pongo is synapomorphic. In addition, features of the nasal cavity of Limnopithecus and Kalepithecus support previous suggestions that these taxa are stem catarrhines rather than hominoids.

  3. Social motility in african trypanosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Oberholzer


    Full Text Available African trypanosomes are devastating human and animal pathogens that cause significant human mortality and limit economic development in sub-Saharan Africa. Studies of trypanosome biology generally consider these protozoan parasites as individual cells in suspension cultures or in animal models of infection. Here we report that the procyclic form of the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei engages in social behavior when cultivated on semisolid agarose surfaces. This behavior is characterized by trypanosomes assembling into multicellular communities that engage in polarized migrations across the agarose surface and cooperate to divert their movements in response to external signals. These cooperative movements are flagellum-mediated, since they do not occur in trypanin knockdown parasites that lack normal flagellum motility. We term this behavior social motility based on features shared with social motility and other types of surface-induced social behavior in bacteria. Social motility represents a novel and unexpected aspect of trypanosome biology and offers new paradigms for considering host-parasite interactions.

  4. Towards an Africological Pedagogical Approach to African Civilization. (United States)

    Okafor, Victor Oguejiofor


    Presents a case study of controversies related to African studies and makes the case for an Africological pedagogical approach to African Civilization. The title "African Civilization" reflects the African place in the whole of world civilization even though that place is itself a multiple entity. (SLD)

  5. School Counseling for African American Adolescents: The Alfred Adler Approach (United States)

    Sapp, Marty


    This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…

  6. The African concept of caring for life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maake Masango


    Full Text Available This article analyses the village concept of caring among African people. The old pattern of caring was based on the concept of ubuntu (humanity which respects people, because they are created in the imago Dei. Then the article compares the western concept of caring, which is based on individualism and people's privacy. Finally, economy, globalisation and this western concept are analysed. The impact of the above concepts affects Africans in urban areas, who are caught up in the two worlds, namely the African and western worlds.

  7. African traditional fermented foods and probiotics. (United States)

    Anukam, Kingsley C; Reid, Gregor


    African traditional fermented foods remain the main source of nutrition for many rural communities in Africa. Although lactic acid bacteria are integral to many of these foods, little is known about the specific health benefits they confer or the properties of their strains. This mini-review explores the history of some African fermented foods and their microbial content and properties within the context of probiotic characteristics. Given the recent upsurge in probiotic research, recommendations are made on studies that could be performed with African fermented foods and their strains, with a view to improving the health of people in sub-Saharan Africa.

  8. 21st Century South African Science Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008 and Zoo City (2010 are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published in 2011 as this consolidates women's presence in the SF world.

  9. Salient Themes as Voices in African Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.B. Ogunyemi


    Full Text Available The paper examines the various voices in African poetry. African poets use their themes as echoes to salvage various inherences found in the decaying political, economic and social landscape. The paper argues textually the cultural ethos and the contemporary post-independence disillusionment on the African psyche as a result of colonilization. Using the meta-critical approach combined with realism, within sociological approach, the research calls for a concerted effort to stimulate originality and harness the benefits of globalization for the development of humanity in Africa.

  10. Palaearctic-African Bird Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwajomo, Soladoye Babatola

    investigated the relationship between the timing of autumn migration and climatic variations at local and spatial scale. The first three papers focused on speciesspecific analysis. In them I described the age-specific patterns in biometrics, phenology and migration strategies as well as trends...... of birds from Europe to Africa and opens up the possibility of studying intra-African migration. I have used long-term, standardized autumn ringing data from southeast Sweden to investigate patterns in biometrics, phenology and population trends as inferred from annual trapping totals. In addition, I...... also molt their flight feathers at this location and intraspecific interactions are non-aggressive. The second manuscript investigates whether variations in the timing of migration of wader species at a stopover site in southeast Sweden is influence by local or regional climatic variables...

  11. African Biochemists Plan More Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter N. Campbell


    Full Text Available The Federation of European Biochemical Societies (FEBS was the first regional organisation of biochemists, holding its first congress in London in 1964. There followed the creation of the Pan American Association of Biochemical Societies (PAABS and then the Federation of Asian and Oceanian Biochemists (FAOB. An obvious development was the formation of a similar organisation to take care of Africa, but this proved impossible so long as apartheid survived in South Africa. With the removal of the latter, the way was clear for the foundation of the Federation of African Societies of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (FASBMB. The first congress of the new federation was held in Nairobi in September 1996 under the Presidency of Prof. Dominic Makawiti of Nairobi University. Among the 300 participants were representatives from 19 countries in Africa. The second congress was held at Potchefstroom in South Africa in 1998 and the third was just held in Cairo.

  12. African swine fever : transboundary diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M-L. Penrith


    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is a devastating haemorrhagic fever of pigs that causes up to 100 % mortality, for which there is no vaccine. It is caused by a unique DNA virus that is maintained in an ancient cycle between warthogs and argasid ticks, making it the only known DNA arbovirus. ASF has a high potential for transboundary spread, and has twice been transported from Africa to other continents - Europe and subsequently the Caribbean and Brazil (1957, 1959 and the Caucasus (2007. It is also a devastating constraint for pig production in Africa. Research at Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute has made and is making important contributions to knowledge of this disease, focusing on the cycle in warthogs and tampans and transmission from that cycle to domestic pigs, resistance to its effects in domestic pigs, and the molecular genetic characterisation and epidemiology of the virus.

  13. Enhancing the African bioethics initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogundiran Temidayo O


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical ethics has existed since the time of Hippocrates. However, formal training in bioethics did not become established until a few decades ago. Bioethics has gained a strong foothold in health sciences in the developed world, especially in Europe and North America. The situation is quite different in many developing countries. In most African countries, bioethics – as established and practiced today in the west- is either non-existent or is rudimentary. Discussion Though bioethics has come of age in the developed and some developing countries, it is still largely "foreign" to most African countries. In some parts of Africa, some bioethics conferences have been held in the past decade to create research ethics awareness and ensure conformity to international guidelines for research with human participants. This idea has arisen in recognition of the genuine need to develop capacity for reviewing the ethics of research in Africa. It is also a condition required by external sponsors of collaborative research in Africa. The awareness and interest that these conferences have aroused need to be further strengthened and extended beyond research ethics to clinical practice. By and large, bioethics education in schools that train doctors and other health care providers is the hook that anchors both research ethics and clinical ethics. Summary This communication reviews the current situation of bioethics in Africa as it applies to research ethics workshops and proposes that in spite of the present efforts to integrate ethics into biomedical research in Africa, much still needs to be done to accomplish this. A more comprehensive approach to bioethics with an all-inclusive benefit is to incorporate formal ethics education into health training institutions in Africa.

  14. Enhancing the African bioethics initiative (United States)

    Ogundiran, Temidayo O


    Background Medical ethics has existed since the time of Hippocrates. However, formal training in bioethics did not become established until a few decades ago. Bioethics has gained a strong foothold in health sciences in the developed world, especially in Europe and North America. The situation is quite different in many developing countries. In most African countries, bioethics – as established and practiced today in the west- is either non-existent or is rudimentary. Discussion Though bioethics has come of age in the developed and some developing countries, it is still largely "foreign" to most African countries. In some parts of Africa, some bioethics conferences have been held in the past decade to create research ethics awareness and ensure conformity to international guidelines for research with human participants. This idea has arisen in recognition of the genuine need to develop capacity for reviewing the ethics of research in Africa. It is also a condition required by external sponsors of collaborative research in Africa. The awareness and interest that these conferences have aroused need to be further strengthened and extended beyond research ethics to clinical practice. By and large, bioethics education in schools that train doctors and other health care providers is the hook that anchors both research ethics and clinical ethics. Summary This communication reviews the current situation of bioethics in Africa as it applies to research ethics workshops and proposes that in spite of the present efforts to integrate ethics into biomedical research in Africa, much still needs to be done to accomplish this. A more comprehensive approach to bioethics with an all-inclusive benefit is to incorporate formal ethics education into health training institutions in Africa. PMID:15488145

  15. Development of 'Serunding' from African catfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhari, Nurul Hanisah Binti; MK, Zainol; MM, Masduki

    This research was conducted to develop serunding from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Proximate analysis, physical analysis, ascorbic acid analysis, mineral analysis and sensory evaluation were carried out to determine the nutrient compositions and consumer acceptance towards the products. ...

  16. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia in African Americans. (United States)

    Coombs, Catherine C; Falchi, Lorenzo; Weinberg, J Brice; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Lanasa, Mark C


    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent leukemia in the United States with almost 4390 attributable deaths per year. Epidemiologic data compiled by the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program identifies important differences in incidence and survival for African Americans with CLL. Although the incidence of CLL is lower among African Americans than among Caucasians (4.6 and 6.2 per 100 000 men, respectively), age-adjusted survival is inferior. African American patients with CLL are almost twice as likely to die from a CLL-related complication in the first 5 years after diagnosis as are Caucasian patients with CLL. The biologic basis for these observations is almost entirely unexplored, and a comprehensive clinical analysis of African American patients with CLL is lacking. This is the subject of the present review.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Lillie


    Full Text Available It has been said that 'Necessity is the mother of invention' and there can be few countries, if any, where this is more true than in South Africa.In the late 1930's, prior to World War II, the South African Artillery was severely restricted due to its lack of mobility. The inventiveness shown in tackling this probelm is surely not a thing of the past and the possiblity of adapting South African artillery to current South african needs in warfare should not be overlooked. The South African Defence Force is not able to purchase armament in a free and open market place and the costs of developing new artillery are prohibitive in a country of South Africa's size. it will be argued that it is necessary and possible, in the short term, to take what is currently available and adapt this to South Africa's needs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Beneoluchi Odili


    Full Text Available This is an introductory paper to the newly-designed African Buffalo Optimization (ABO algorithm for solving combinatorial and other optimization problems. The algorithm is inspired by the behavior of African buffalos, a species of wild cows known for their extensive migrant lifestyle. This paper presents an overview of major metaheuristic algorithms with the aim of providing a basis for the development of the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm which is a nature-inspired, population-based metaheuristic algorithm. Experimental results obtained from applying the novel ABO to solve a number of benchmark global optimization test functions as well as some symmetric and asymmetric Traveling Salesman’s Problems when compared to the results obtained from using other popular optimization methods show that the African Buffalo Optimization is a worthy addition to the growing number of swarm intelligence optimization techniques.

  19. Economic Key to Sino-African Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Following Chinese President Hu Jintao's visit to Africa's Morocco, Nigeria and Kenya in April, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao is currently visiting seven African countries-Egypt, Ghana, Republic of Congo, Angola, South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda. Haile-Kiros Gessesse, Ethiopia's Ambassador to China, discussed with Beijing Review reporter Ni Yanshuo the future of the Sino-African relationship. As special envoy for the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation, he also expressed his expectations of the forum summit t...

  20. South African coal statistics 2006. Marketing manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The report shows that South African thermal exports increased 5% from 66.6Mt to 69.9Mt in 2005 and that the country was the world's third largest seaborne exporter of thermal coal last year. Covering local coal consumption, South African coal imports, exports, prices and qualities, the report offers a complete statistical review of 2005. The report also includes details on labour, individual collieries, export and rail infrastructure and Black Empowerment (BEE) companies.

  1. African Self-Consciousness and Health-Promoting Behaviors among African American College Students. (United States)

    Thompson, Shawn N.; Chambers, John W., Jr.


    Investigated three models of relationships between African self-consciousness, health consciousness, and health-promoting behaviors among African American college students. The models included the mediator model, moderator model, and independent model. Surveys of 80 students supported the independent model, suggesting that African…

  2. Pan-African Genetic Structure in the African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer): Investigating Intraspecific Divergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smitz, N.; Berthouly, C.; Cornelis, D.; Heller, R.; Hooft, van W.F.; Chardonnet, P.; Caron, A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Jansen van Vuuren, B.; Iongh, de H.H.; Michaux, J.


    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) exhibits extreme morphological variability, which has led to controversies about the validity and taxonomic status of the various recognized subspecies. The present study aims to clarify these by inferring the pan-African spatial distribution of genetic diversit

  3. Changing Fatherhood: An Exploratory Qualitative Study with African and African Caribbean Men in England (United States)

    Williams, Robert; Hewison, Alistair; Wildman, Stuart; Roskell, Carolyn


    This paper presents findings from a qualitative study undertaken with 46 African and African Caribbean men exploring their experiences of fatherhood. Data analysis was informed by Connell's theoretical work on changing gender relations. Findings indicate that fathers' lives were mediated by masculinities, racism, gender, migration and generational…

  4. African Games of Strategy: A Teaching Manual. African Outreach Series, No. 2. (United States)

    Crane, Louise

    Appreciation of African games has increased in this country; especially board games which have been popularized through commercial versions. African games are invaluable resources for studying subjects requiring mathematical concepts, as well as social studies, history, geography, and languages. This manual presents some of the better known…

  5. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community (United States)

    Wells, Tesia Denis


    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest…

  6. Crossing Cultures in Marriage: Implications for Counseling African American/African Couples (United States)

    Durodoye, Beth A.; Coker, Angela D.


    A wealth of literature exists regarding intermarriage between White and ethnic minority couples. Noticeably lacking, however, is information considering within-group diversity amongst Black couples. This paper will focus on cultural dynamics that may operate with African American and African couples residing in the United States. Through an…

  7. African swine fever virus serotype-specific proteins are significant protective antigens for African swine fever (United States)

    African swine fever (ASF) is an emerging disease threat for the swine industry worldwide. No ASF vaccine is available and progress is hindered by lack of knowledge concerning the extent of African swine fever virus (ASFV) strain diversity and the viral antigens conferring type specific protective im...

  8. "Women ... Mourn and Men Carry on": African Women Storying Mourning Practices--A South African Example (United States)

    Kotze, Elmarie; Els, Lishje; Rajuili-Masilo, Ntsiki


    African mourning of loss of lives in South Africa has been shaped by discursive practices of both traditional African cultures and the sociopolitical developments under apartheid and in post-apartheid South Africa. This article reports on changes in mourning practices on the basis of a literature review and uses a collection of examples to…

  9. The South African nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walmsley, John


    The history of the South African nuclear industry is outlined and its present status described. Eskom, the state electric utility, generates 5% of its output from two 921MWe PWRs sited at Koeberg near Capetown. A pebble bed variant of the HTGR is being considered as an option for future nuclear power generation. The Atomic Energy Corporation (AEC) in the past developed a complete front-end fuel cycle capability, conversion of the mining output of ammonium diuranate to UF{sub 6}, enrichment and fuel fabrication facilities, post-irradiation facilities for Koeberg fuel and one of the best low level waste repositories in the world. It also designed a nuclear weapon, six of which were built and later dismantled. Recently, government policy has dictated drastic staff reductions at AEC. The enrichment plant has been dismantled and the PWR fuel fabrication is under threat of closure. Considerable effort is being put into Molecular Laser Isotope Separation, in cooperation with the French organisation COGEMA, as a project with good commercial prospects in the medium term. The Council for Nuclear Safety is the licensing authority for Koeberg, AEC activities and mining and minerals processing. Uranium production in the mines has dropped dramatically with South Africa now being eighth in the world ranking whereas at its peak in 1980 it ranked third. (UK).

  10. Afriphone Literature as a Prototypical Form of African Literature: Insights from Prototype Theory (United States)

    Bodomo, Adams


    What is the most prototypical form of African literature? Shouldn't we be using African languages to produce African literary texts, shouldn't we produce more Afriphone African literature compared to Europhone African literature or Afro-Europhone literature? This issue underlies the reality that the vast majority of African writers presumably…

  11. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure? (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...

  12. Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium (United States)

    The Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium collaborates on epidemiologic studies to address the high burden of prostate cancer and to understand the causes of etiology and outcomes among men of African ancestry.

  13. Lift every voice: voices of African-American lesbian elders. (United States)

    Woody, Imani


    Old lesbians of African descent have experienced racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and ageism. This article explores the topics of aging, ageism, heterosexism, and minority stress among older African-American lesbians. The narratives and subsequent analysis offer significant contributions to the dialogue regarding Black aging lesbians in the aging and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities generally and in the African-American and African-American lesbian communities specifically.

  14. Population Genomics of sub-saharan Drosophila melanogaster: African diversity and non-African admixture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Pool

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster has played a pivotal role in the development of modern population genetics. However, many basic questions regarding the demographic and adaptive history of this species remain unresolved. We report the genome sequencing of 139 wild-derived strains of D. melanogaster, representing 22 population samples from the sub-Saharan ancestral range of this species, along with one European population. Most genomes were sequenced above 25X depth from haploid embryos. Results indicated a pervasive influence of non-African admixture in many African populations, motivating the development and application of a novel admixture detection method. Admixture proportions varied among populations, with greater admixture in urban locations. Admixture levels also varied across the genome, with localized peaks and valleys suggestive of a non-neutral introgression process. Genomes from the same location differed starkly in ancestry, suggesting that isolation mechanisms may exist within African populations. After removing putatively admixed genomic segments, the greatest genetic diversity was observed in southern Africa (e.g. Zambia, while diversity in other populations was largely consistent with a geographic expansion from this potentially ancestral region. The European population showed different levels of diversity reduction on each chromosome arm, and some African populations displayed chromosome arm-specific diversity reductions. Inversions in the European sample were associated with strong elevations in diversity across chromosome arms. Genomic scans were conducted to identify loci that may represent targets of positive selection within an African population, between African populations, and between European and African populations. A disproportionate number of candidate selective sweep regions were located near genes with varied roles in gene regulation. Outliers for Europe-Africa F(ST were found to be enriched in genomic regions of locally

  15. South African Artillery in the Eighties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Lillie


    Full Text Available Emerging from the Second World War armed with the then completely adequate 25 pounder and BL 5.5" guns, the South African Field Artillery continued to use the same guns operationally over thirty years later.When the armed forces of South Africa were thrown into a conventional conflict during the Angolan Civil War in 1975, the gunners found their equipment to be woefully inadequate. Soviet made artillery systems in the hands of the Russian-backed forces possessed ranges far in excess of the Second World War vintage South African systems and brought home in a very real way the need for drastic modernisation of the artillery branch of the South African Army.

  16. What is Ubuntu? Different Interpretations among South Africans of African Descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Christian B.N.


    In this article, I describe and systematize the different answers to the question 'What is Ubuntu?' that I have been able to identify among South Africans of African descent (SAADs). I show that it is possible to distinguish between two clusters of answers. The answers of the first cluster all...... define ubuntu as a moral quality of a person, while the answers of the second cluster all define ubuntu as a phenomenon (for instance a philosophy, an ethic, African humanism, or, a wordview) according to which persons are interconnected. The concept of a person is of central importance to all...

  17. Seeing African Americans as Competent Parents: Implications for Family Counselors (United States)

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla


    One of the primary roles of parents is to guide and socialize children to make meaningful life choices. African American parents, in particular, have the additional tasks of preparing their children to thrive in an environment that has historically been hostile toward African Americans. Yet, many African American parents are often depicted as…

  18. Contrastive Studies - African Languages and English. Specialised Bibliography C9. (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This selective bibliography lists 8 books and 19 journal articles dealing with contrastive studies of African languages and English. The entries range in date from 1953 to 1972 with the majority published since 1965. The books cited are African and British publications and the articles appeared in well-known African, European or American…

  19. 77 FR 5375 - National African American History Month, 2012 (United States)


    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8776 of January 31, 2012 National African American History Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The story of African Americans is a story of... for the better. During National African American History Month, we celebrate the rich legacy...

  20. Representing African American Women in U.S. History Textbooks (United States)

    Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine


    This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…

  1. Barriers to Hospice Use among African Americans: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Washington, Karla T.; Bickel-Swenson, Denise; Stephens, Nathan


    The present review was undertaken to explore recent evidence in the professional literature pertaining to use of hospice services by African Americans. The article addresses the research methods that have been used to study African American hospice use, obstacles to African American participation in hospice that have been identified, and…

  2. The African Storybook and Language Teacher Identity in Digital Times (United States)

    Stranger--Johannessen, Espen; Norton, Bonny


    The African Storybook (ASb) is a digital initiative that promotes multilingual literacy for African children by providing openly licenced children's stories in multiple African languages, as well as English, French, and Portuguese. Based on Darvin and Norton's (2015) model of identity and investment, and drawing on the Douglas Fir Group's (2016)…

  3. Some Growth Points in African Child Development Research (United States)

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi


    We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots. Connecting…

  4. North African populations carry the signature of admixture with Neandertals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Botigué, Laura R; Civit, Sergi


    One of the main findings derived from the analysis of the Neandertal genome was the evidence for admixture between Neandertals and non-African modern humans. An alternative scenario is that the ancestral population of non-Africans was closer to Neandertals than to Africans because of ancient popu...

  5. Engaging Youth through African-Derived Dance and Culture (United States)

    Franklin, Kikora


    This article provides a brief history of African and African-derived dance and culture and highlights the physical health, dance education, historical, and cultural benefits of a school-based program that incorporates African dance as its core component. The article also includes the phases of the programming and brings attention to potential…

  6. Registers in the Academic Writing of African American College Students (United States)

    Syrquin, Anna F.


    The study examines the development of the registers of academic writing by African American college-level students through style and grammar: indirection inherent in the oral culture of the African American community and the paratactic functions of "because." Discourse analysis of 74 samples of academic writing by 20 African American undergraduate…

  7. Some Growth Points in African Child Development Research (United States)

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi


    We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots.…

  8. Student-Centered Designs of Pan-African Literature Courses (United States)

    M'Baye, Babacar


    A student-centered teaching methodology is an essential ingredient of a successful Pan-African literary course. In this article, the author defines Pan-Africanism and how to go about designing a Pan-African literature course. The author combines reading assignments with journals, film presentations, and lectures in a productive learning…

  9. 'Great power' intervention in African armed conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye


    to contribute to understanding the changing geopolitical environment and the current conditions for conflict management in Africa. The focus is not on trade and aid. The paper launches the hypothesis that the explanations why the US, China and the EU have intervened are basically identical. In spite......This paper asks why the United States (US), China and the European Union (EU) have intervened in a number of armed conflicts in Africa in the twenty-first century. Scrutiny and comparison of the motivations and interests of the three non-African actors in intervening in African crises are assumed...

  10. The African VLBI network project (United States)

    Loots, Anita


    larger teams in science, engineering and technology issues and collaborate with the broader global science community to develop new African radio astronomy science communities.

  11. Predicting Non-African American Lesbian and Heterosexual Preadoptive Couples' Openness to Adopting an African American Child (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.


    Despite increases in transracial adoption, African American children remain the least likely to be adopted. No research has examined the factors that predict prospective adopters' willingness to adopt an African American child. This study used multilevel modeling to examine predictors of willingness to adopt an African American child in a sample…

  12. Effects of Mediated Learning Experience on Raven's Matrices Scores of African and Non-African University Students in South Africa. (United States)

    Skuy, Mervyn; Gewer, Anthony; Osrin, Yael; Khunou, David; Fridjhon, Peter; Rushton, J. Philippe


    Studied whether mediated learning experience would improve the scores of African students on Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices. Seventy African and 28 non-African college students in South Africa were given the Raven's Progressive Matrices on 2 occasions, and some subjects were exposed to the mediated learning experience. Both groups improved…

  13. "Now the African reigns supreme": the rise of African boxing on the Witwatersrand, 1924-1959. (United States)

    Fleming, Tyler


    This essay explores the growth of boxing among the African populations on the Witwatersrand region of South Africa between 1924 and 1959. It details how the sport's jump in popularity with Africans paralleled migration to Johannesburg. Africans increasingly saw boxing as an activity and skill conducive with survival in this new environment, and thus the sport grew in popularity, stature, and skill-level amongst this emergent urban population. The essay further explores the various ways that the sport was disseminated and popularized during the era, thus detailing how the sport reached both the African masses and petit-bourgeois educated elite. As their presence in Johannesburg became more and more permanent, boxing came to encompass various meanings and ideals, such as notions of discipline, independence and civility, to these urban populations.

  14. African-American women and abortion: a neglected history. (United States)

    Ross, L J


    The history of African-American women's efforts to control their fertility is largely unknown. From slavery to the present, the growth rate of the African-American population has been cut in half. Demographers and historians frequently attribute this change to external factors such as poverty, disease, and coerced birth control, rather than the deliberate agency of African-American women. This essay assembles a brief historical record of the ways African-American women have sought to control their fertility through the use of abortion and birth control. It also examines the activism of African-American women in the establishment of family planning clinics and in defense of abortion rights.

  15. Family Support and Colorectal Cancer Screening among Urban African Americans. (United States)

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Northouse, Laurel; Caldwell, Cleopatra H


    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death among African Americans. Less than 50% of African Americans have had CRC screening. This study examined the relationships between family support and influence, cultural identity, CRC beliefs, and a screening informed decision among 129 urban African Americans. Family support (p < .01) significantly predicted CRC beliefs and CRC beliefs significantly predicted informed decision (p < .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely assess family support and CRC beliefs with African Americans patients. This may improve patient-provider shared decision-making satisfaction and CRC screening adherence among African American patients.

  16. Prevalence of Stuttering in African American Preschoolers (United States)

    Proctor, Adele; Yairi, Ehud; Duff, Melissa C.; Zhang, Jie


    Purpose: In this study, the authors sought to determine the prevalence of stuttering in African American (AA) 2- to 5-year-olds as compared with same-age European Americans (EAs). Method: A total of 3,164 children participated: 2,223 AAs and 941 EAs. Data were collected using a 3-pronged approach that included investigators' individual…

  17. The landscape of recombination in African Americans. (United States)

    Hinch, Anjali G; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D; Chen, Gary K; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Akylbekova, Ermeg L; Aldrich, Melinda C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L; Diver, W Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue A; Isaacs, William; John, Esther M; Kao, W H Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A; Kolonel, Laurence N; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H; Millikan, Robert C; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J; Press, Michael F; Psaty, Bruce M; Reiner, Alex P; Rich, Stephen S; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rotter, Jerome I; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Schwartz, Ann G; Signorello, Lisa B; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S; Thun, Michael J; Tucker, Margaret A; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K; Witte, John S; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Henderson, Brian E; Taylor, Herman A; Price, Alkes L; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J; Haiman, Christopher A; Wilson, James G; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R


    Recombination, together with mutation, gives rise to genetic variation in populations. Here we leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P value < 10(-245)). We identify a 17-base-pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of PRDM9 alleles common in West Africans and rare in Europeans. Sites of this motif are predicted to be risk loci for disease-causing genomic rearrangements in individuals carrying these alleles. More generally, this map provides a resource for research in human genetic variation and evolution.

  18. African American Homeschooling Practices: Empirical Evidence (United States)

    Mazama, Ama


    Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…

  19. African American Women Counselors, Wellness, and Spirituality (United States)

    Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.


    Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…

  20. Researching Africa : Explorations of everyday African encounters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de M.E.; Merolla, D.


    The studies in this volume are the result of research carried out by students of the Research Masters in African Studies (RMAS) at Leiden University who graduated in 2008. The studies cover such areas as conflict, democracy, migration, urban and rural studies, language, communication and youth. An i

  1. Assessing sanitary mixtures in East African cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.


    The urbanisation of poverty and informality in East African cities poses a threat to environmental
    health, perpetuates social exclusion and inequalities, and creates service gaps (UN-Habitat, 2008).
    This makes conventional sanitation provision untenable citywide, giving rise to the emerg

  2. HIV/AIDS among African Americans (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among African Americans Format: Select One File [163K] ...

  3. Some remarks on the African wild ass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmel, van A.C.V.


    INTRODUCTION Without any doubt the African Wild Ass should be considered a species threatened with extinction. Therefore, it seems worth-while to collect as many data on this species as possible and to do this quickly. Data and material, however, are scarce. Many sportsmen and zoologists observed th

  4. Beijing Summit Promotes Sino-African Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Weizhong


    @@ Since the establishment of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation in 2000, China-Africa relations have entered a new period of cooperation. 2006 not only consolidated friendship between China and Africa, but also laid a sound foundation for more prosperous Sino-African relations.

  5. Breeding for trypanotolerance in African cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaij, van der E.H.


    Trypanosomosis, or sleeping sickness, is one of the most important livestock diseases in Africa. Some West African cattle breeds show a degree of resistance to a trypanosome infection: they are trypanotolerant. At the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) in Nairobi, Kenya, an F2 experim

  6. The South African Species of Myrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. B. Killick


    Full Text Available The South African species of Myrica are revised, the 19 species previously recognized being reduced to 9. One variety is elevated to specific rank, viz. M. conifera Burm.f. var.  Integra A. Chev. becomes M. Integra (A. Chev. Killick.

  7. African and Pacific Literature: A Comparative Study. (United States)

    Martin, Kristine L.

    Literary writing in Africa and the Pacific addresses themes that reflect colonial experience and the struggles of newly independent nations to cope with change and conflicts between traditional and modern existence. The novels of Chinua Achebe of Nigeria and Ngugi Wa Thiong'o of Kenya illustrate many dominant themes of African literature. Achebe…

  8. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon (United States)


    Mack McKinney (left), chief, Programs Resources Management, and Delores Abraham (right), with the Astronaut office, flank one of the posters decorating the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. McKinney is chairperson for the event.

  9. The Politics of African Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Therkildsen, Ole; Buur, Lars;

    in the early stages of capitalist transformation that also experience the pressures of elections due to democratization, this book provides four in-depth African country studies that illustrate the challenges to economic transformation and the politics of implementing industrial policies....

  10. Examining School Engagement of African American Adolescents. (United States)

    Sirin, Selcuk; Jackson, Lisa R.

    This study investigated the impact of behavioral and affective factors on 688 African American high school students' academic performance, examining the relationship between school engagement, educational expectations, self-esteem, and school achievement; noting differences between males and females; and discussing whether behavioral and affective…

  11. African Women in the Visual Arts. (United States)

    Aronson, Lisa


    Explores recent studies in anthropology, art history, and archeology on African women's art from a feminist theoretical perspective. Relates women's arts to several sociological and economic factors and suggests new avenues of exploration, especially in the face of urbanization and modernization. (CJS)

  12. Coronavirus antibodies in African bat species. (United States)

    Müller, Marcel A; Paweska, Janusz T; Leman, Patricia A; Drosten, Christian; Grywna, Klaus; Kemp, Alan; Braack, Leo; Sonnenberg, Karen; Niedrig, Matthias; Swanepoel, Robert


    Asian bats have been identified as potential reservoir hosts of coronaviruses associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV). We detected antibody reactive with SARS-CoV antigen in 47 (6.7%) of 705 bat serum specimens comprising 26 species collected in Africa; thus, African bats may harbor agents related to putative group 4 CoV.

  13. An Exploration of African Students in Malaysia (United States)

    Lian, Irene Tan Ai


    The exploratory study is an attempt to understand the reasons that prompted African students to study in Malaysia, the challenges encountered and the coping strategies used. The research on such topics among international students is well documented, but studies on international students in Malaysia are scarce. The sample included 155 African…

  14. The African American Public Policy Update. (United States)

    McAlpine, Robert; And Others


    Reviews actions of the 102nd Congress of particular interest to African Americans, including the (1) Domestic Marshall Plan House Resolution; (2) Unemployment Benefits extension; (3) Job Training Partnership Act; (4) Workplace Fairness Act; (5) Family and Medical Leave Act; and (6) Civil Rights Act of 1991. (SLD)

  15. African swine fever: an epidemiological update. (United States)

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; Mur, L; Martínez-López, B


    African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most important swine diseases, mainly because of its significant sanitary and socioeconomic consequences. This review gives an update on the epidemiology of the disease and reviews key issues and strategies to improve control of the disease and promote its eradication. Several characteristics of ASF virus (ASFV) make its control and eradication difficult, including the absence of available vaccines, marked virus resistance in infected material and contaminated animal products, and a complex epidemiology and transmission involving tick reservoir virus interactions. The incidence of ASF has not only increased on the African continent over the last 15 years, so that it now affects West African countries, Mauritius and Madagascar, but it has also reached new areas, such as the Caucasus region in 2007. In fact, the rapid spread of the disease on the European continent and the uncontrolled situation in the Russian Federation places all countries at great risk as a result of intense global trade. The proximity of some affected areas to the European Union (EU) borders (African swine fever -free countries should be aware of the potential risk of ASF incursion and implement risk reduction measures such as trade controls and other sanitary measures. This review will discuss lessons learnt so far about ASF control, current challenges to its control and future studies needed to support global efforts at prevention and control.

  16. African-American Women in History. (United States)

    Martin, Ron


    Describes two reference books suitable for middle/junior high school library media centers that present information about African-American women and suggests activities for Afro-American History Month. Library media skills objectives, social studies and art objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, activities and procedures,…

  17. Violent Behaviors among African-American Adolescents. (United States)

    Garrett, Darhyl


    Explores the development of behaviors by using Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, with emphasis on adolescents. Examines factors, such as identity versus identity diffusion, that may be contributing to increasing acts of violence by African American adolescents. Other factors are examined that may contribute to increased violence.…

  18. African American Vernacular English and Rap Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    African American Vernacular English (AAVE) is the language spoken by almost 20 milion speakers al over the world. It is also used frequently in rap lyrics. Studying the origin and grammar rules of AAVE is a very important topic in today's English Language and English Teaching Studies.

  19. African Universities Tackle the Continent's Agricultural Crisis (United States)

    Lindow, Megan


    Pests, population growth, and depleted soil have wreaked havoc on agriculture in Africa, so universities across the continent are rethinking how they teach the topic. Some African universities have been building their own networks and pooling their limited resources to train more agricultural scientists and improve their responsiveness to the…

  20. Dictionaries of African Sign Languages: An Overview (United States)

    Schmaling, Constanze H.


    This article gives an overview of dictionaries of African sign languages that have been published to date most of which have not been widely distributed. After an introduction into the field of sign language lexicography and a discussion of some of the obstacles that authors of sign language dictionaries face in general, I will show problems…

  1. Assessing vulnerability of urban African communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Herslund, Lise Byskov


    East African cities are in the process of assessing their vulnerabilities to climate change, but face difficulties in capturing the complexity of the various facets of vulnerability. This holistic approach, captures four different dimensions of vulnerability to flooding - Assets, Institutions...... to flooding across the city, at the finest administrative level....

  2. Tuberculosis Detection by Giant African Pouched Rats (United States)

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Durgin, Amy; Mahoney, Amanda


    In recent years, operant discrimination training procedures have been used to teach giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum samples. This article summarizes how the rats are trained and used operationally, as well as their performance in studies published to date. Available data suggest that pouched rats, which can…




  4. Heart Truth for African American Women (United States)

    THE HEART TRUTH ® FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN: AN ACTION PLAN When you hear the term “heart disease,” what’s your first reaction? ... That’s a man’s disease.” But here’s The Heart Truth ® : Heart disease is the #1 killer of women ...

  5. Gravimetric maps of the Central African Republic (United States)

    Albouy, J.; Godivier, R. (Principal Investigator)


    Gravimetric maps of the Central African Republic are described including a map of Bouguer anomalies at 1/1,000,000 in two sections (eastern sheet, western sheet) and a map, in color, of Bouguer anomalies at 1/2,000,000. Instrumentation, data acquisition, calibration, and data correction procedures are discussed.

  6. The nomenclature of the African wild ass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, C.P.; Smeenk, C.


    The 19th-century reports on the occurrence and identity of wild asses in North-East Africa are reviewed, as well as the names applied in various publications by Fitzinger and von Heuglin, respectively. The first published name for the African wild ass, Asinus africanus Fitzinger, 1858, is a nomen nu

  7. Contemporary Sexism in the South African Navy (United States)

    Van Wijk, Charles H.


    The military traditionally embraces highly sexist attitudes. Over the past decade, the South African Navy (SAN) has been exposed to an increasingly progressive political environment. This study investigated contemporary expressions of sexism in the SAN. A representative sample of 476 sailors completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, Modern Sexism…

  8. Towards a critique of indigenous African religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Strijdom


    Full Text Available In this article, it is argued that a postcolonial critique of the colonial study of religion should not preclude a critique of indigenous African religion itself. The latter may be developed from a human rights perspective and a critique of exclusionary views of indigeneity. The argument is illustrated by means of specific case studies.

  9. The African Heritage in Spanish Caribbean Literature. (United States)

    Smart, Ian I.


    Uses Fanon's concept of the Manichean colonial situation and his Dialectical Theory of Identification to explore images of African heritage in the works of two mulatto Cuban poets, Gabriel de la Concepcion Valdez (1809-1844) and Nicolas Guillen (born 1902). (GC)

  10. African-American Axioms and Maxims. (United States)

    Zulu, Itibari M.


    Examines and describes 30 African-American centered quotation and motivational books, all but one of which were published between 1993 and 1997. The books articulate a diversity of genres and themes. Annotations are divided into: (1) general quotation; (2) daily words and meditation/motivation sources; (3) religion and theology; and (4)…

  11. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers (United States)

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay


    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  12. Logic in African Philosophy: Examples from two Niger Delta Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones M. Jaja


    Full Text Available There have been questions as to whether African Philosophy exists or not. European scholars and some African scholars are at the opposite end of this scholarly debate. The result is the production of various works by Odera Oruka, Omoregbe, Bordunrin, Wright, Maurier and others espousing their views for or against the existence of African Philosophy. This paper attempts to show the existence of a unique Philosophy that deserves to be recognized and rightly known as African Philosophy. It shows the existence of African Logic using examples from two Niger-Delta societies. The paper begins with the concept of Logic in African thought system, the natural nature of it and it’s applicability to these communities especially as it permeates every aspect of the African way of life. The Ibani and Ogoni societies in the Niger-Delta were used as case studies.

  13. Managing the hair and skin of African American pediatric patients. (United States)

    Smith, W; Burns, C


    In Africa, the ancestral home of most African Americans, hair is viewed as the epitome of beauty. However, when Africans were brought to America as slaves, they were unable to care for their hair and skin adequately and were exposed to the predominant white culture, which valued straight hair and light skin. As a result, many African Americans lost self-esteem because of the characteristics of their hair and skin. In this article we examine the anatomic and physiologic features of African American hair and skin and typical African American hair and skin care practices. Common African American hair and skin disorders and their management are discussed. The goal of this article is to help primary care providers understand the special hair and skin care required for African American children (as well as other dark-skinned patients). With good patient education, understanding one's own hair and skin characteristics can also support positive self-esteem.

  14. The evolution of African plant diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Peter Linder


    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa includes some 45,000 plant species. The spatial patterns of this diversity have been well explored. We can group the species into a set of biogeographical regions (largely co-incident with regions defined for terrestrial vertebrate groups. Furthermore, we know that the diversity is unevenly distributed, with southern Africa (especially the south-western tip disproportionally species rich, while the West African interior is disproportionally species poor. However, the origins of this diversity have only been explored for two anomalous African Floras (the Tropic-alpine Flora and the Cape Flora, whereas the origins of the diversity of the other floras are still unknown. Here I argue that six floras, with distinct geographical centres, different extra-African affinities, ages of radiation and radiation rates, can be delimited: the Austro-temperate, Tropic-alpine, Lowland forest, Tropic-montane, Savanna and Arid Floras. The oldest flora may be the Lowland forest Flora, and the most recent is the Tropic-alpine, which probably evolved during the Plio-Pleistocene on the summits of the East Africa volcanoes. My results suggest that the most rapidly radiating flora is the Austro-temperate Flora, while the other floras are all diversifying at more or less the same rate, this is also consistent with the current massive species richness in this flora (about half of the African species richness. The Austro-temperate Flora appears to be related to the floras of the other southern continents, the Tropic-alpine Flora to that of the Northern Hemisphere, and the four tropical floras to the tropical regions of the other continents, consistent with the theory of phylogenetic niche conservatism. Current African diversity may be the result of the sequential adding of new floras to the continent. Possibly the species poverty especially of the Lowland forest Flora may be the result of the spread of C4 grasslands and associated regular fires.

  15. SADCC: challenging the "South African connection.". (United States)

    Liebenow, J G


    The Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) which unites 9 states with a combined population of 60 million, has as its objective the task of promoting economic development and realizing economic independence. In many respects the strain of neocolonialism that Southern Africa faces at this time is even more virulent than that facing West, Central, and East Africa. In the latter regions the surrender of political authority by colonial administrators frequently left the commercial, agricultural, and industrial interests of the European powers in continued control of the economies of the former colonies. The fate of economic development plans was determined by situations and decisions made in places distant from the African continent. In the case of Southern Africa, the withdrawal or expulsion of European colonialists has found whites in neighboring South Africa most eager to step into the economic breech. For most of the Southern African states this variant strain of the neocolonial virus creates a dual problem: the independent states acting separately have been no match for South Africa; and the acquiescence of independent African states in forging economic links with South Africa has impeded the liberation efforts of Africans in Namibia and the Republic of South Africa. Discussion focus turns to the challenges that confront SADCC; transport as the most significant factor accounting for the dependency of SADCC states upon South Africa; the role of minerals in dependency; other aspects of dependency; South Africa's proposed Constellation of States; the origins and objectives of SADCC; and dollars and donors. SADCC planning for economic liberation has been conducted against the background of a counterproposal advanced by South Africa's government, which put the Republic at the center of an expanded network of economic linkages within the entire southern African region. While being formally rejected, the Constellation of States scheme does have

  16. A plea to better feed African soils (United States)

    Stroosnijder, Leo


    Most African cropping system are rainfed. Rain is distributed at the soil surface over infiltration and runoff. The infiltrated water is stored in the rootable soil layer and the excess drains below that layer into the groundwater. The stored water is partly lost as evaporation to the atmosphere and partly used as transpiration for plant growth. In African cropping system the green water use efficiency (GWUE: fraction transpiration over rainfall) is as low as 15%. This low value is due to the often poor soil quality (physical, chemical and biological) of African soils. The poor physical state causes a weak soil structure resulting in crust formation with low infiltration and high runoff as consequences. The water holding capacity of the rootable soil layer is also poor, causing quite some water lost into deeper layers. African soils are poor due to long time soil mining. Soil life depends on soil organic matter (SOM) which is decreasing everywhere at an average rate of 2% per year. It is common sense that an improved soil quality is essential for improved food security. The key that triggers a sustainable improvement in soil quality is a system's approach that focus on the management of organic resources. Soil is a living organism, and it feeds on SOM. This feed is continuously consumed but a living soil makes new SOM out of fresh organic matter. In order to keep our soils alive we need cropping systems that feed our soils with fresh organic matter in the form of crop residues in the right mix of quality and quantity. The tendency to breed crops with a high harvest index (hence low straw) and the many other uses of crop residues (competing claims) with it recent use for bio-ethanol fabrication is disastrous for our living soils. If we continue to allow SOM to decrease, soil crusting and hard setting will increase with less end less water available for the production of green biomass. Lower available water will trigger a negative spiral with lower food security and

  17. African Voices and Activists at the WSF in Nairobi: The Uncertain Ways of Transnational African Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Emmanuelle Pommerolle


    Full Text Available Transnational social movement studies have long neglected the way activists from the South, and particularly from Africa, have participated in World Social Forum processes. Alterglobal activists have also been accused of neglecting or dominating southern voices. The organization of the WSF in Nairobi was seen as an opportunity to make African voices be heard. This examines how Africans activists participated in Nairobi, and the complex relationship they have to northern and other southern (such as Asia and Latin America activists. The African alterglobal movement is seen as a space of tensions (i.e. between South Africans and the rest of the continent, between French and English speaking Africa, or between NGOs and more radical organizations reflected in national mobilizations. Our team of 23 French and 12 Kenyan scholars made collective ethnographic observations in more than a hundred workshops and conducted 150 biographical interviews of African activists in order to examine how: Africa was referred to in the WSF; activists financed their trip to Nairobi; and Afrocentric, anti-imperialist, and anticolonial arguments have been used.

  18. Glucose intolerance in the West African Diaspora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie; Christensen, Dirk Lund


    muscle fibre type I. Skeletal muscle fibre type II is less oxidative and more glycolytic than skeletal muscle fibre type I. Lower oxidative capacity is associated with lower fat oxidation and a higher disposal of lipids, which are stored as muscular adipose tissue in higher amounts in Black compared......In the United States, Black Americans are largely descendants of West African slaves; they have a higher relative proportion of obesity and experience a higher prevalence of diabetes than White Americans. However, obesity rates alone cannot explain the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Type 2...... diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. We hypothesize that the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes in African Americans (as compared to White Americans) is facilitated by an inherited higher percentage of skeletal muscle fibre type II and a lower percentage of skeletal...

  19. Cash flow forecast for South African firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li


    Full Text Available This paper applies models in the extant literature that have been used to forecast operating cash flows to predict the cash flows of South African firms listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange. Out-of-sample performance is examined for each model and compared between them. The reported results show that some accrual terms, i.e. depreciation and changes in inventory do not enhance cash flow prediction for the average South African firm in contrast to the reported results of studies in USA and Australia. Inclusion of more explanatory variables does not necessarily improve the models, according to the out-of-sample results. The paper proposes the application of moving average model in panel data, and vector regressive model for multi-period-ahead prediction of cash flows for South Africa firms.

  20. Collaboration with East African security organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja L.


    African Community) and IGAD (Intergovernmental Authority on Development) have broader perceptions of the concept. According to EAC, security also concerns matters such as policy reform, legislation, education and infrastructure. IGAD considers food security and environmental and economic issues as part......When it comes to understanding the concept of security and the way fragile security situations should be solved, the difference is big. While EASF – the East African Standby Force – is a regular military force with a rather traditional, military perception of the concept of security, EAC (East...... of the concept. At the same time the three organisations represent different constellations of member nations and thus different national interests, and locally they have different legitimacy and political strength. Thus, when choosing collaboration partners for a security project it is not simply a question...

  1. Young Africans Tackle Their Continent's Environmental Issues (United States)

    Olwoch, Jane Mukarugwiza


    Young African Scientists Session at the Fourth International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress; Cape Town, South Africa, 7 May 2008; Africa is often described as a unique and diverse continent. This is reflected in its biodiversity, economic and social circumstances, and diversity in culture and environment. The Young African Scientists (YAS) session at the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress was one of the congress's highlights. Global environmental change research in Africa was presented to an audience that included visiting international and national scientists, policy makers, and a group of schoolchildren. From the uniqueness of Africa's paleoclimate to the diversity and complexity of current and future impacts of environmental change on Africa, the session not only provided an overview of current projects but also highlighted the problems that are intertwined with poverty. This session was sponsored by the Global Change System for Analysis, Research, and Training (START).

  2. Do African Manufacturing Firms Learn from Exporting?


    Paul Collier; Marcel Fafchamps; Francis Teal; Stefan Dercon


    In this paper, we use firm-level panel data for the manufacturing sector in four African countries to estimate the effect of exporting on efficiency. Estimating simultaneously a production function and an export regression that control for unobserved firm effects, we find both significant efficiency gains from exporting, supporting the learning-byexporting hypothesis, and evidence for self-selection of more efficient firms into exporting. The evidence of learning-by-exporting suggests that Af...

  3. African primary care research: Participatory action research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Mash


    Full Text Available This article is part of the series on African primary care research and focuses on participatory action research. The article gives an overview of the emancipatory-critical research paradigm, the key characteristics and different types of participatory action research. Following this it describes in detail the methodological issues involved in professional participatory action research and running a cooperative inquiry group. The article is intended to help students with writing their research proposal.

  4. Does land abundance explain African institutions?



    The land abundance view of African history uses sparse population to explain pre-colonial land tenure and slavery. I document the geographic forcing variables that predict land rights, slavery, and population density in a cross section of global societies. I discuss whether these correlations support theories of land rights and slavery, including the land abundance view. I show that pre-colonial institutions predict institutional outcomes in Africa in the present, including land transactions,...

  5. Homosexuality: A challenge to African churches


    Maake Masango


    Globalization has brought numerous challenges to churches. Homosexuality is one of those challenges facing African churches. There has been a growing evidence of rejection, isolation, discrimination and  condemnation as sub-human of homosexuals. Some conservative churches have misused Scripture in order  to strengthen their case of condemnation. This article  seeks to correct the misinterpretation or misuse of Scriptural passages. For example, Sodom and Gomorrah is often referred to as a pass...

  6. Intraspinal tumours in the Kenya African. (United States)

    Ruberti, R F; Carmagnani, A L


    Thirty-one cases of intraspinal tumours in the African have been described, with age, sex incidence, frequency, site and histopathology shown. Intraspinal tumours in this series are compared with the larger series. Extradural and intramedullary tumours together with cervical spine tumours appear to be more frequent in this series. There is a high incidence of dumbell tumours in the neurinomas. Sarcomas are the most common type of tumours and mainly affect the thoracic spine.

  7. Aspidonepsis (Asclepiadaceae, a new southern African genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nicholas


    Full Text Available Aspidonepsis, an endemic southern African genus, is described and compared to the closely allied genus Aspidoglossum. This newly described genus is composed of two subgenera, Aspidonepsis and Unguilobium. consisting of three and two species respectively.  Asclepias diploglossa, A. flava, A. cognata and A. reneensis are transferred to Aspidonepsis. and A. shebae is newly described. All species are discussed, illustrated and a key is given to aid in their identification.

  8. African perspectives on the clean development mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The papers, which are all written from an African perspective, are an important contribution to the debate surrounding the relevance and applicability of the Clean Development Mechanism in Africa. In addition to sector-specific discussions on the prospects for CDM in the energy, transport, industry and forestry sectors, various authors have attempted to tackle complex issues related to the instituional design of CDM, its mode of operation, participatory implementation and methodological questions such as baselines and additionality. (au)

  9. The evolution of African plant diversity


    Hans Peter Linder


    Sub-Saharan Africa includes some 45,000 plant species. The spatial patterns of this diversity have been well explored. We can group the species into a set of biogeographical regions (largely co-incident with regions defined for terrestrial vertebrate groups). Furthermore, we know that the diversity is unevenly distributed, with southern Africa (especially the south-western tip) disproportionally species rich, while the West African interior is disproportionally species poor. However, the ...

  10. African Woman Gets No.2 UN Post

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    With a pledge to work for an inte-grated UN, former Tanzanian Foreign Minister Asha-Rose Migiro was sworn in as UN deputy secretary gen-eral on February 5, making her the first woman from the African conti-nent to hold such a powerful posi-tion in the world body.Migiro’s appointment early last month was widely seen as a signal of new UN Secretary General Ban Ki Moon’s reform initia-

  11. African return migration: past, present, and future. (United States)

    Gregory, J W; Piche, V


    The various forms of return migration in Africa in the twentieth century are first examined, and the factors affecting them are discussed. The authors then consider the value of the household, rather than the individual, as the unit of analysis. Return migration is also analyzed in terms of the linking role it plays between Africa's capitalist and non-capitalist countries. Finally, alternative future trends in the circulatory flow of African labor are considered.

  12. ACLED Country Report: Central African Republic (United States)


    Rights Watch, 2014). This has led to reprisal attacks on the part of the Séléka, and targeting by both groups now frequent- ly focuses on the religion ... religion . The distribution of Figure 8: Conflict Events Involving the Anti-Balaka, Central African Republic, August 2013 - September 2014. The...of the country where Islam is the majority religion . Most of its members are Muslim, including leader Michel Djotodia, who served as president from

  13. The topology of African exports: Emerging patterns on spanning trees (United States)

    Araújo, Tanya; Ferreira, Manuel Ennes


    This paper is a contribution to interweaving two lines of research that have progressed in separate ways: network analysis of international trade and the literature on African trade and development. Gathering empirical data on African countries has important limitations and so does the space occupied by African countries in the analysis of trade networks. Here, these limitations are dealt with by the definition of two independent bipartite networks: a destination share network and a commodity share network. These networks-together with their corresponding minimal spanning trees-allow to uncover some ordering emerging from African exports in the broader context of international trade. The emerging patterns help to understand important characteristics of African exports and its binding relations to other economic, geographic and organizational concerns as the recent literature on African trade, development and growth has shown.

  14. African American teen mothers' perceptions of parenting. (United States)

    Wayland, J; Rawlins, R


    The purpose of this study was to describe the childbearing African American teens' perceptions of parenting based on their own experiences. Focus group discussions were held with 17 teens in their school setting for 50 minutes each week. Group discussions were audiotaped, tapes were transcribed, and then analyzed for common themes. The unmarried teens ranged in age from 15 to 18 years. Findings indicated that the teens depended on grandmothers to provide child care and for information about parenting. The teens identified parenting problems including crying, discipline, and conflicts dealing with grandmothers and the child's father. Teens wanted more information about breastfeeding and minor childhood diseases. The researchers identified that teens lacked information about their children's growth and development and safety issues. Findings have implications for nurses who care for childbearing teens and their children; and those involved in planning and implementing parent education programs for African American teen mothers and their families. Further research is indicated with larger samples of African American teens; and to explore the context of family relationships in which teen mothers and grandmothers share parenting for the teens' children.

  15. Nutritional consequences of the African diaspora. (United States)

    Luke, A; Cooper, R S; Prewitt, T E; Adeyemo, A A; Forrester, T E


    Along with their foods and dietary customs, Africans were carried into diaspora throughout the Americas as a result of the European slave trade. Their descendants represent populations at varying stages of the nutrition transition. West Africans are in the early stage, where undernutrition and nutrient deficiencies are prevalent. Many Caribbean populations represent the middle stages, with undernutrition and obesity coexisting. African-Americans and black populations in the United Kingdom suffer from the consequences of caloric excess and diets high in fat and animal products. Obesity, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and certain cancers all follow an east-to-west gradient of increasing prevalence. Public health efforts must focus not only on eradicating undernutrition in West Africa and the Caribbean but also on preventing obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and their consequences. Fortunately, a coherent and well-supported set of recommendations exists to promote better nutrition. Implementation of it founders primarily as a result of the influence of commercial and political interests.

  16. Rethinking "relevance": South African psychology in context. (United States)

    Long, Wahbie


    This article examines the phenomenon known as the "relevance debate" in South African psychology. It begins with a historical overview of the contours of the discipline in that country before describing the controversy's international dimensions, namely, the revolutionary politics of 1960s higher education and the subsequent emergence of cognate versions of the debate in American, European, and "Third World" psychology. The article then details how South Africa's "relevance" project enjoyed a special affinity with an assortment of ethnic-cultural, national, and continental myths and metaphors, all of which served the interests of the political formations of the day. It discusses how, in present-day South Africa, the intelligentsia has become an important catalyst for the so-called African Renaissance, which seeks to provide "relevant" solutions for the regeneration of African society. However, the global hegemony of what began in the 1970s as a "second academic revolution," aided by the lifting of the academic boycott of South Africa, has blunted the once critical edge of "relevance" discourse. A new mode of knowledge production now holds sway, the outcome of a dramatic reformulation of the capitalist manifesto in which the values of the "May 68" generation have been hijacked by a managerialist rationality. In light of the capitalization of the knowledge-production enterprise, it is concluded that the idiom of "relevance" has outlived its usefulness.

  17. Epidemiology of African swine fever virus. (United States)

    Costard, S; Mur, L; Lubroth, J; Sanchez-Vizcaino, J M; Pfeiffer, D U


    African swine fever virus used to occur primarily in Africa. There had been occasional incursions into Europe or America which apart from the endemic situation on the island of Sardinia always had been successfully controlled. But following an introduction of the virus in 2007, it now has expanded its geographical distribution into Caucasus and Eastern Europe where it has not been controlled, to date. African swine fever affects domestic and wild pig species, and can involve tick vectors. The ability of the virus to survive within a particular ecosystem is defined by the ecology of its wild host populations and the characteristics of livestock production systems, which influence host and vector species densities and interrelationships. African swine fever has high morbidity in naïve pig populations and can result in very high mortality. There is no vaccine or treatment available. Apart from stamping out and movement control, there are no control measures, thereby potentially resulting in extreme losses for producers. Prevention and control of the infection requires good understanding of its epidemiology, so that targeted measures can be instigated.

  18. Intracranial aneurysms in an African country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogeng'o Julius


    Full Text Available Background : Characteristics of intracranial aneurysms display ethnic variations. Data on this disease from the African continent is scarce and often conflicting. Aim : To describe site, age and gender distribution of intracranial aneurysms among Kenyans. Study Design and Setting : Retrospective study at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. Materials and Methods: All records of black African patients with a diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, the largest referral hospital in the Eastern and Central African region, over the period from January 1998 to December 2007 were examined for site, age and gender distribution. The data gathered were coded, analyzed with SPSS 11.50. Results : Fifty-six cases of intracranial aneurysms were analyzed. The posterior communicating artery was the most affected (35.7%, followed by the anterior communicating artery (26.8%, while the posterior cerebral artery was the least affected (2%. Multiple aneurysms were present in 2%. The mean age at presentation was 50.9 years (range 21-80 years and the gender distribution was equal. Conclusions : Intracranial aneurysms among Kenyans occur most commonly on the posterior communicating artery, in young individuals, and without gender bias. The distribution differs from that described in the literature and this requires search for risk factors.

  19. Micropropagation of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.). (United States)

    Shukla, Mukund; Sullivan, J Alan; Jain, Shri Mohan; Murch, Susan J; Saxena, Praveen K


    Micropropagation is an important tool for rapid multiplication and the creation of genetic variability in African violets (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.). Successful in vitro propagation depends on the specific requirements and precise manipulation of various factors such as the type of explants used, physiological state of the mother plant, plant growth regulators in the culture medium, and growth conditions. Development of cost-effective protocols with a high rate of multiplication is a crucial requirement for commercial application of micropropagation. The current chapter describes an optimized protocol for micropropagation of African violets using leaf explants obtained from in vitro grown plants. In this process, plant regeneration occurs via both somatic embryogenesis and shoot organogenesis simultaneously in the explants induced with the growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ; N-phenyl-N'-1,2,3-thidiazol-5-ylurea). The protocol is simple, rapid, and efficient for large-scale propagation of African violet and the dual routes of regeneration allow for multiple applications of the technology from simple clonal propagation to induction or selection of variants to the production of synthetic seeds.

  20. The Lived Experience of African American Caregivers Caring for Adult African American Patients With Heart Failure. (United States)

    Hamilton, Heather


    Assistance from informal caregivers such as family members, friends, or neighbors is crucial to adequately managing the complex care of heart failure (HF) patients. This study examined the lived experience of African American caregivers caring for African American patients with HF. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 10 participants who were formally interviewed. The interviews, analyzed using Colaizzi's steps, revealed six themes: layers of support, realization of self-neglect, experiencing the "blues," connecting with healthcare providers, unmet financial needs, and perception of nonadherence. The information regarding the experience of African American caregivers of HF patients obtained through this research will inform the delivery of culturally competent support to caregivers, thereby improving quality of life for both the HF patients and their caregivers.

  1. Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies: WMS-R norms for African American elders. (United States)

    Lucas, John A; Ivnik, Robert J; Smith, Glenn E; Ferman, Tanis J; Willis, Floyd B; Petersen, Ronald C; Graff-Radford, Neill R


    Norms for African American elders on the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) were derived from a sample of 309 community-dwelling individuals participating in Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies (MOAANS). Normative estimates are provided for traditional WMS-R subtest scores and for supplemental procedures to evaluate forgetting rates and recognition memory. Tables are provided to convert raw WMS-R subtest and supplemental scores to age-corrected scaled scores. These may be further adjusted for years of education, if desired, by applying regression-based corrections. We anticipate that these data will enhance the diagnostic utility and clinical interpretation of WMS-R performance in older African Americans.

  2. The Reflection of Race and Law in African American Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schneck


    Full Text Available Since the law has been crucial in defining and delineating the dimensions of African American experience both in slavery and in freedom, the encounter with the American legal system and its representatives has left a strong imprint on African American cultural and literary memory and expression. The article sketches out a few aspects and features which characterize the reflection of law and race in African American culture and literature.

  3. Transgenerational Consequences of Racial Discrimination for African American Health


    Goosby, Bridget J.; Heidbrink, Chelsea


    Disparities in African American health remain pervasive and persist transgenerationally. There is a growing consensus that both structural and interpersonal racial discrimination are key mechanisms affecting African American health. The Biopsychosocial Model of Racism as a Stressor posits that the persistent stress of experiencing discrimination take a physical toll on the health of African Americans and is ultimately manifested in the onset of illness. However, the degree to which the health...

  4. Mandela’s Favourite African Folktales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Concilio


    Full Text Available In this essay I would like to examine the selection of African tales that Nelson Mandela took care to leave as heritage to the future generations, not only to children, and not only to African children. The fact that a political leader, ex freedom fighter and political prisoner dedicated his time to the collection and editing of stories from all over the African continent to be addressed to new readers as simple entertainment or as educational tools clearly testifies to the great humanity, culture, and open mindedness of one of the most important men of our times. In his most recent autobiographical writing Conversations With Myself, Mandela claimed his double affiliation to both his own indigenous culture as well as to western culture. Moreover, he recalled with affection a dear pastime of his childhood:After supper we would listen enthralled to my mother and sometimes my aunt telling us stories, legends, myths and fables which have come down from countless generations, and all of which tended to stimulate the imagination and contained some valuable moral lesson. (p. 10Thus, it is not surprising that such a charismatic public figure, as Mandela has been, was also interested in- and worried about- the future survival of a cluster of traditional folktales with their lively, specific and “valuable moral lesson”. It is my intention to verify if there might be a dialogue between the western tradition of folktales where animals are protagonists and speak as anthropomorphic figures and the facets of the African traditions and cultures from which Mandela draws inspiration. Among the critical tools on this topic, Tess Cosslett’s Talking Animals in British Children’s Fiction (2006 seems to provide a useful starting point, together with the latest studies in the volume Dall’ABC a Harry Potter (2011, among others. Moreover, aspects of “orature” will be discussed with reference to the stories chosen by Nelson Mandela. Finally, an attempt will

  5. As below, so above: A perspective on African Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Meiring


    Full Text Available African theology can be understood as a theology from below – or rather, “as below, so above”. This phrase not only reflects the concept of ubuntu and the African partiality towards horizontal relationships, but may help explain African perspectives on shame and guilt, sin and reconciliation, liberation, the ancestors and eschatology. Subsequently, there seems to be some concurrence between African theology and Western postmodern theology. Although these theologies challenge traditional theology, and should in turn be scrutinized, they may offer useful and valid ways of thinking and speaking about God.

  6. North African populations carry the signature of admixture with Neandertals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sánchez-Quinto

    Full Text Available One of the main findings derived from the analysis of the Neandertal genome was the evidence for admixture between Neandertals and non-African modern humans. An alternative scenario is that the ancestral population of non-Africans was closer to Neandertals than to Africans because of ancient population substructure. Thus, the study of North African populations is crucial for testing both hypotheses. We analyzed a total of 780,000 SNPs in 125 individuals representing seven different North African locations and searched for their ancestral/derived state in comparison to different human populations and Neandertals. We found that North African populations have a significant excess of derived alleles shared with Neandertals, when compared to sub-Saharan Africans. This excess is similar to that found in non-African humans, a fact that can be interpreted as a sign of Neandertal admixture. Furthermore, the Neandertal's genetic signal is higher in populations with a local, pre-Neolithic North African ancestry. Therefore, the detected ancient admixture is not due to recent Near Eastern or European migrations. Sub-Saharan populations are the only ones not affected by the admixture event with Neandertals.

  7. Critical social theory and the domination of African American Women. (United States)

    Davis, S P


    This historical reconstruction of the experiences of African American women in America from slavery to the present exposes the prevailing and enduring system of White male domination. From White men having control of their reproductive choices, to conspiracy to withhold the right to vote, African American women were victims of both sexism and racism. Later, as a result of the myth conceived by White sociologists of the super African American woman, further divisiveness became apparent in the African American home. As African American women took advantage of educational opportunities only to find that there was a dearth of similarly educated African American males to marry, increasing numbers of African American men were reported as parties to violent acts, drugs or illness. All of these variables are conjectured as impacting on the African American woman's experience. Lastly, data were presented depicting the increasing trend of African American women marrying White men, and the emergence of a more diverse workforce. It was concluded that economics serve as a catalyst for this change in human relations.

  8. In vitro permeation of platinum through African and Caucasian skin. (United States)

    Franken, A; Eloff, F C; du Plessis, J; Badenhorst, C J; Du Plessis, J L


    The majority of the South African workforce are Africans, therefore potential racial differences should be considered in risk and exposure assessments in the workplace. Literature suggests African skin to be a superior barrier against permeation and irritants. Previous in vitro studies on metals only included skin from Caucasian donors, whereas this study compared the permeation of platinum through African and Caucasian skin. A donor solution of 0.3 mg/ml of potassium tetrachloroplatinate (K₂PtCl₄) dissolved in synthetic sweat was applied to the vertical Franz diffusion cells with full thickness abdominal skin. Skin from three female African and three female Caucasian donors were included (n=21). The receptor solution was removed at various intervals during the 24 h experiment, and analysed with high resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Skin was digested and analysed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Significantly higher permeation of platinum through intact African skin (p=0.044), as well as a significantly higher mass of platinum retention in African skin in comparison with Caucasian skin (p=0.002) occurred. Significant inter-donor variation was found in both racial groups (pplatinum salts. These results are contradictory to limited literature suggesting a superior barrier in African skin and further investigation is necessary to explain the higher permeation through African skin.

  9. Africanized honeybees in urban areas: a public health concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Zaluski


    Full Text Available Introduction This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of Africanized honeybees in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, and to implement a program to remove such swarms. Methods The occurrences of Africanized honeybee swarms between 2010 and 2012 were studied and strategies to prevent accidents were developed. Results We noted 1,164 cases of Africanized honeybee occurrences in the city, and 422 swarms were collected. The developed strategies to prevent accidents were disseminated to the population. Conclusions We contributed to reducing the risks represented by Africanized honeybee swarms in urban areas, by collecting swarms and disseminating strategic information for preventing accidents.

  10. Stress and ethical behaviour among South African managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebben van Zyl


    Full Text Available Stress and ethical behaviour among South African managersThe South African business world is increasingly characterised by unethical behaviour and commercial crimes. Involvement of managers is contributing up to 80% of the total costs of white collar crime. In order to try to understand the situation, the current South African managerial climate is analysed.This analysis clearly indicates that South African managers function in stressful circumstances which can give rise to unethical behaviour. A theoretical model for ethical behaviour is therefore discussed and used as a basis for practical suggestions in order to improve the situation.

  11. Black and Blue: Depression and African American Men. (United States)

    Plowden, Keith O; Thompson Adams, Linda; Wiley, Dana


    Depression is a common mental disorder affecting individuals. Although many strides have been made in the area of depression, little is known about depression in special populations, especially African American men. African American men often differ in their presentation of depression and are often misdiagnosed. African American men are at greater risk for depression, but they are less likely to participate in mental health care. This article explores depression in African American by looking at environmental factors, sigma, role, and other unique to this populations, such as John Henryism. Interventions to encourage early screening and participation in care are also discussed.

  12. African American women and breastfeeding: an integrative literature review. (United States)

    Spencer, Becky S; Grassley, Jane S


    The purpose of this article is to present a review of literature regarding factors that influence breastfeeding intentions, initiation, and duration in the African American population. Research related to health disparities experienced by African Americans in the United States, as well as research regarding the protective benefits of breastfeeding for those specific health disparities, are also presented. Community and institutional interventions and promotional campaigns aimed at increasing initiation and duration of breastfeeding in the African American population are discussed. Future research regarding African American women's breastfeeding experiences using Black feminist thought as a theoretical foundation is recommended.

  13. Seasonal Changes in Sleep Duration in African American and African College Students Living In Washington, D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Volkov


    Full Text Available Duration of nocturnal melatonin secretion, a marker of “biological night” that relates to sleep duration, is longer in winter than in summer in patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD, but not in healthy controls. In this study of African and African American college students, we hypothesized that students who met criteria for winter SAD or subsyndromal SAD (S-SAD would report sleeping longer in winter than in summer. In addition, based on our previous observation that Africans report more “problems” with change in seasons than African Americans, we expected that the seasonal changes in sleep duration would be greater in African students than in African American students. Based on Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ responses, African American and African college students in Washington, D.C. (N = 575 were grouped into a winter SAD/S-SAD group or a no winter diagnosis group, and winter and summer sleep length were determined. We conducted a 2 (season × 2 (sex × 2 (ethnicity × 2 (winter diagnosis group ANCOVA on reported sleep duration, controlling for age. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that African and African American students with winter SAD/S-SAD report sleeping longer in the summer than in the winter. No differences in seasonality of sleep were found between African and African American students. Students with winter SAD or S-SAD may need to sacrifice sleep duration in the winter, when their academic functioning/efficiency may be impaired by syndromal or subsyndromal depression, in order to meet seasonally increased academic demands.

  14. Cortical structure of hallucal metatarsals and locomotor adaptations in hominoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Jashashvili

    Full Text Available Diaphyseal morphology of long bones, in part, reflects in vivo loads experienced during the lifetime of an individual. The first metatarsal, as a cornerstone structure of the foot, presumably expresses diaphyseal morphology that reflects loading history of the foot during stance phase of gait. Human feet differ substantially from those of other apes in terms of loading histories when comparing the path of the center of pressure during stance phase, which reflects different weight transfer mechanisms. Here we use a novel approach for quantifying continuous thickness and cross-sectional geometric properties of long bones in order to test explicit hypotheses about loading histories and diaphyseal structure of adult chimpanzee, gorilla, and human first metatarsals. For each hallucal metatarsal, 17 cross sections were extracted at regularly-spaced intervals (2.5% length between 25% and 65% length. Cortical thickness in cross sections was measured in one degree radially-arranged increments, while second moments of area were measured about neutral axes also in one degree radially-arranged increments. Standardized thicknesses and second moments of area were visualized using false color maps, while penalized discriminant analyses were used to evaluate quantitative species differences. Humans systematically exhibit the thinnest diaphyseal cortices, yet the greatest diaphyseal rigidities, particularly in dorsoplantar regions. Shifts in orientation of maximum second moments of area along the diaphysis also distinguish human hallucal metatarsals from those of chimpanzees and gorillas. Diaphyseal structure reflects different loading regimes, often in predictable ways, with human versus non-human differences probably resulting both from the use of arboreal substrates by non-human apes and by differing spatial relationships between hallux position and orientation of the substrate reaction resultant during stance. The novel morphological approach employed in this study offers the potential for transformative insights into form-function relationships in additional long bones, including those of extinct organisms (e.g., fossils.

  15. Cystic Fibrosis in the African Diaspora. (United States)

    Stewart, Cheryl; Pepper, Michael S


    Identifying mutations that cause cystic fibrosis (CF) is important for making an early, unambiguous diagnosis, which, in turn, is linked to better health and a greater life expectancy. In patients of African descent, a molecular diagnosis is often confounded by the fact that the majority of investigations undertaken to identify causative mutations have been conducted on European populations, and CF-causing mutations tend to be population specific. We undertook a survey of published data with the aim of identifying causative CF mutations in patients of African descent in the Americas. We found that 1,584 chromosomes had been tested in only 6 countries, of which 876 alleles (55.3%) still remained unidentified. There were 59 mutations identified. Of those, 41 have been shown to cause CF, 17 have no associated functional studies, and one (R117H) is of varying clinical consequence. The most common mutations identified in the patients of African descent were: ΔF508 (29.4% identified in the United States, Colombia, Brazil, and Venezuela); 3120 + 1G>A (8.4% identified in Brazil, the United States, and Colombia); G85E (3.8% identified in Brazil); 1811 + 1.6kbA>G (3.7% identified in Colombia); and 1342 - 1G>C (3.1% identified in the United States). The majority of the mutations identified (81.4%) have been described in just one country. Our findings indicate that there is a need to fully characterize the spectrum of CF mutations in the diaspora to improve diagnostic accuracy for these patients and facilitate treatment.

  16. Vocal communication in African elephants (Loxodonta africana). (United States)

    Soltis, Joseph


    Research on vocal communication in African elephants has increased in recent years, both in the wild and in captivity, providing an opportunity to present a comprehensive review of research related to their vocal behavior. Current data indicate that the vocal repertoire consists of perhaps nine acoustically distinct call types, "rumbles" being the most common and acoustically variable. Large vocal production anatomy is responsible for the low-frequency nature of rumbles, with fundamental frequencies in the infrasonic range. Additionally, resonant frequencies of rumbles implicate the trunk in addition to the oral cavity in shaping the acoustic structure of rumbles. Long-distance communication is thought possible because low-frequency sounds propagate more faithfully than high-frequency sounds, and elephants respond to rumbles at distances of up to 2.5 km. Elephant ear anatomy appears designed for detecting low frequencies, and experiments demonstrate that elephants can detect infrasonic tones and discriminate small frequency differences. Two vocal communication functions in the African elephant now have reasonable empirical support. First, closely bonded but spatially separated females engage in rumble exchanges, or "contact calls," that function to coordinate movement or reunite animals. Second, both males and females produce "mate attraction" rumbles that may advertise reproductive states to the opposite sex. Additionally, there is evidence that the structural variation in rumbles reflects the individual identity, reproductive state, and emotional state of callers. Growth in knowledge about the communication system of the African elephant has occurred from a rich combination of research on wild elephants in national parks and captive elephants in zoological parks.

  17. Their Own Story: Literature for African-American Children. (United States)

    McGlinn, Jeanne


    Notes that too few books reflect the contemporary experiences of African American children. Suggests that African American literature that is available is school libraries is often limited to folktales or focused on problems of poverty and racism. Appends a 39-item annotated bibliography. (RS)

  18. Academic Achievement and the Third Grade African American Male (United States)

    Shropshire, Delia F. B.


    The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent teaching style relates to third grade African American male academic achievement. The problem in this study addressed the factors affecting the academic achievement of the African American third grade male. This problem led the researcher to investigate the teaching styles of the…

  19. Perceived Racism as a Predictor of Paranoia among African Americans (United States)

    Combs, Dennis R.; Penn, David L.; Cassisi, Jeffrey; Michael, Chris; Wood, Terry; Wanner, Jill; Adams, Scott


    Recent theoretical models suggest that perceived racism acts as a stressor for African Americans and may be associated with a variety of negative psychological consequences, notably paranoia. Paranoia among African Americans is believed to reflect the lower end of the paranoia continuum based on experiences with racism. Thus, it may be beneficial…

  20. Spacing and crowding among African and Caucasian children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugonzibwa, E.A.; Eskeli, R.; Laine-Alava, M.T.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Katsaros, C.


    OBJECTIVE: To determine spacing and crowding according to ethnic group, gender and dental emergence stage among Tanzanian African and Caucasian children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional epidemiological clinical study. SETTING: A total of 869 African (428 boys, 441 girls) and 706 Caucasian (319 boys, 387 gir

  1. Sleeping Beauty Redefined: African American Girls in Transition. (United States)

    Kusimo, Patricia S.

    This paper examines the interests, perceptions, and participation of 16 African American girls in a program designed to improve girls' persistence in science, mathematics, and technology (SMT). The girls are among 33 African American and 73 total original participants in "Rural and Urban Images: Voices of Girls in Science, Mathematics, and…

  2. African American English: Implications for School Counseling Professionals (United States)

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Barto, Heather H.; Booker, Beverly L.; Smith, Kim V.; Barna, Jennifer; Maiden, Brian S.; Zegley, Linda; Felder, Monique T.


    African American English (AAE) refers to the systematic, rule-governed linguistic patterns of found among African Americans. This article provides an overview of AAE. More specifically, the article enumerates the historical underpinnings associated with AAE, identifies a representative set of AAE characteristics, reviews relevant research, and…

  3. Poverty, safety net programs, and African Americans' mental health. (United States)

    Snowden, Lonnie R


    African Americans' poverty and deep-poverty rates are higher than those of Whites, and African Americans' poverty spells last longer. Furthermore, nonpoor African Americans are especially likely to slip into poverty, and over the course of a lifetime, very many African Americans will experience poverty. Accordingly, African Americans are disproportionately likely to be assisted by safety net programs providing income support and health and social assistance. When mental health-related outcomes are assessed, U.S.-focused and international studies of safety net programs sometimes find that adults and children show a decline in symptoms of mental illness after participating. All things being equal, these improvements can disproportionately benefit African Americans' mental health. Safety net programs' mental health-related impact should be routinely assessed when evaluating the programs' economic and social outcomes and the impact they have on African Americans' mental health. Policy research of this kind can help us to understand whether these very large interventions show society-wide mental health-related improvement in the disproportionately large number of African Americans who participate in them.

  4. Dolphins and African apes: comparisons of sympatric socio-ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bearzi, M.; Stanford, C.B.


    Dolphins and African apes are distantly related mammalian taxa that exhibit striking convergences in their socioecology. In both cetaceans and African apes, two or more closely related species sometimes occur in sympatry. However, detailed reviews of the ways in which sympatric associations of dolph

  5. Parenting African American Children in the Context of Racism (United States)

    Keyes, Angela W.; Smyke, Anna T.; Middleton, Melissa; Black, Corey L.


    The legacy of slavery in the United States has impacted generations of African Americans, especially parents who must prepare their children to face the challenges associated with being a person of color in this country. The authors explore aspects of racism, White privilege, racial socialization, and African American parents' fears as they equip…

  6. African American Homeschooling and the Question of Curricular Cultural Relevance (United States)

    Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey


    Homeschooling, and academic interest in this phenomenon, have increased tremendously over the last decade. The surge of African American involvement in the homeschool movement has also become noticeable. However, there continues to be a general paucity of research on the motivations of African American parents that choose homeschooling. In order…

  7. Stalling Out: The Relative Progress of African Americans. (United States)

    Tidwell, Billy J.

    The socioeconomic progress of African Americans appears to be in a stalled state. This study analyzes the progress of African Americans toward parity with Whites over a 15- to 20-year period in the following areas: (1) employment; (2) economic development; (3) education; (4) health; (5) housing; and (6) political empowerment. For individual…

  8. 77 FR 33595 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2012 (United States)


    ... piece of American culture, music offers a vibrant soundtrack to the story of our people and our Union... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8832 of June 1, 2012 African-American Music... universal truths of our shared humanity. African-American musicians have left an indelible mark on...

  9. Phonological Awareness Skills in Young African American English Speakers (United States)

    Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton


    The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…

  10. 76 FR 32851 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2011 (United States)


    ...-American Music Appreciation Month, we honor the rich musical traditions of African-American musicians and their gifts to our country and our world. From the cadenced hums of spirituals to the melodies of rhythm... and equality for all. Today, African-American musicians continue to create new musical genres...

  11. Indigenous Systems within the African-American Community (United States)

    Marbley, Aretha Faye; Rouson, Leon


    For the African-American family, life ain't been no crystal stair. The African-American family has trotted for over 400 years through a wilderness of racism, poverty, discrimination of all kinds, crossing seas of monsters and forests of demons. Yet, despite the numerous obstacles and attacks that society has mounted against it since slavery, the…

  12. Enriching Inclusive Learning: African Americans in Historic Costume (United States)

    Ratute, Ashley; Marcketti, Sara B.


    Educating students to embrace diversity and value all people is a core value of educators in family and consumer sciences (FCS). For instructors in FCS, integrating the contributions of African Americans--particularly in textiles and clothing--can be an inclusive learning opportunity. The authors compiled resources on African Americans and…

  13. Teaching African-American History in the Age of Obama (United States)

    Millward, Jessica


    When the author proposed a spring course on major topics in African-American history, drawing a large enrollment was her chief concern. She had previously taught the course under a different title at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, a campus with a sizable African-American presence among students and faculty members. She now teaches…

  14. The Struggle of African American Students in the Public Schools (United States)

    Mubenga, Pascal


    The long road of slavery from generation to generation has left a legacy in the mind of African American students that has impacted their achievements in schools. In this project, the struggle of African American students in the public school education will be analyzed from the historical standpoint of view and its impact on their achievements.…

  15. Higher Education and the Early Education of African American Ministers (United States)

    Cooks, Michael


    The education of African American ministers in the United States has been little researched. Numerous books address the profession of ministry and the education of Blacks in general, but most do not specifically address issues pertaining to the professional education of Black ministers. The majority of the hurdles African Americans faced were…

  16. Human African trypanosomiasis in a traveler: diagnostic pitfalls. (United States)

    Meltzer, Eyal; Leshem, Eyal; Steinlauf, Shmuel; Michaeli, Shulamit; Sidi, Yechezkel; Schwartz, Eli


    Abstract. An Israeli traveler returning from Tanzania presented with a relapsing febrile illness. A diagnosis of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infection was established by blood smear after nearly a month. Blood polymerase chain reaction failed to provide an early diagnosis of human African trypanososmiasis. Recognition of suggestive signs should prompt physicians to perform repeated tests before ruling out human African trypanososmiasis.

  17. Compatibility between Internationalizing and Africanizing Higher Education in South Africa (United States)

    Botha, Maria Magdalena


    Internationalisation of the higher education sector across the world has become the norm and this is also true for South African universities. Another dimension has with increasing intension moved into the foreground, namely the need to Africanise South African higher education. The imperatives of these two dimensions are often portrayed as…

  18. Combating African Questions about the Legitimacy of AFRICOM (United States)


    the colonial and neocolonial legacy and current African sensitivities about outsiders or they will always be baffled by African interpretations of... neocolonial legacies demystified some of the sensitivities surrounding the role of outsiders in Africa. The complex and dynamic nature of conflict and its

  19. Toward an Afrocological Pedagogical Approach to African Civilization. (United States)

    Okafor, Victor Oguejiofor


    The study of controversies about the legitimacy and historical groundedness of assertions about African civilization is used to support an Afrocological teaching approach to African civilization, exploring the content of the American college curriculum. There is a historically factual basis for a holistic pedagogical approach to African…

  20. Peace parks in Southern Africa: bringers of an African Renaissance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.C. Buscher


    textabstractThe pursuit of an African Renaissance has become an important aspect of regional cooperation between South Africa and its neighbours. Transfrontier conservation areas, or ‘Peace Parks’ as they are popularly called, have been identified as key instruments to promote the African Renaissanc

  1. Self-Esteem and Anger among African-American Students. (United States)

    Ryujin, Donald H.; Abitia, Fred B.

    Self-esteem may be an issue for certain minority groups more than others. In particular, given their long and difficult history, this issue may be of more relevance to minorities of African-American descent. To assess whether renewed signs of racism at a college were negatively affecting the self-esteem of African-American students the Race…

  2. Support Needs of Overweight African American Women for Weight Loss (United States)

    Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.


    Objectives: To examine social support needs of obese and overweight African American women for weight loss. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with overweight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results: Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD = 12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in…

  3. Components of School Engagement among African American Adolescents (United States)

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Rogers-Sirin, Lauren


    This study examined how various components of school engagement contribute to the academic performance of African American adolescents. The sample consisted of 499 African American adolescents in Grades 9 to 11. We investigated how adolescents' gender, grade, cognitive functioning, and parental education affect their school engagement and whether…

  4. Beyond Statistics: African American Male Persistence in Community College (United States)

    Dickens, Manuel Dewayne


    The purpose of this qualitative case study that consists of six African American male participants is to examine, describe, and analyze African American male persistence factors at a community college in the midwest of the United States. The study uses qualitative content analysis as a research method that provides a systematic and objective means…

  5. Asthma Management Disparities: A Photovoice Investigation with African American Youth (United States)

    Evans-Agnew, Robin


    Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice…

  6. Educational Needs and Barriers for African Refugee Students in Manitoba (United States)

    Kanu, Yatta


    This study investigated the educational needs and barriers for diverse African refugee students in two inner-city high schools in Manitoba. Forty African refugee students, two principals, eight teachers, four parents, and four community leaders participated in the study. Five focus groups, individual interviews, and school and classroom…

  7. Heritage, blackness and Afro-cool: styling Africanness in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Witte


    This article focuses on the recent emergence of an "Afro-Dutch" category of self-identification among young people in Amsterdam. Dutch-born youth of different Afro-Caribbean and African backgrounds show a new sense of (and search for) a shared African heritage, and a growing desire for public exposu

  8. Interaction of African American Learners Online: An Adult Education Perspective (United States)

    Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang


    This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…

  9. Emergence of African swine fever virus, northwestern Iran. (United States)

    Rahimi, Pooneh; Sohrabi, Amir; Ashrafihelan, Javad; Edalat, Rosita; Alamdari, Mehran; Masoudi, Mohammadhossein; Mostofi, Saied; Azadmanesh, Kayhan


    In 2008, African swine fever was introduced into Georgia, after which it spread to neighboring Armenia, Azerbaijan, and the Russian Federation. That same year, PCR and sequence analysis identified African swine fever virus in samples from 3 dead female wild boars in northwestern Iran. Wild boars may serve as a reservoir.

  10. Towards an improved understanding of African swine fever virus transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso de Carvalho Ferreira, H.


    African swine fever is a haemorrhagic disease of swine caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV). Estimates of virus transmission (direct or indirect) parameters for ASFV are necessary in order to model the spread of the virus, and to design more efficient control measures. Results presented on thi

  11. [Blood proteins in African trypanosomiasis: variations and statistical interpretations]. (United States)

    Cailliez, M; Poupin, F; Pages, J P; Savel, J


    The estimation of blood orosomucoid, haptoglobin, C-reactive protein and immunoglobulins levels, has enable us to prove a specific proteic profile in the human african trypanosomiasis, as compared with other that of parasitic diseases, and with an healthy african reference group. Data processing informatique by principal components analysis, provide a valuable pool for epidemiological surveys.

  12. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Baharian


    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance.

  13. Decline of African American Enlistment in the United States Army (United States)


    be considered equal men. Racially motivated slander, bigotry, and condemnation of African Americans’ wartime service plagued the Army at the... workplace . The Vietnam Era Veterans’ Readjustment Assistance Act of 1974 was another program that assisted Vietnam Veterans in education and job placement...programs, which are now nearly extinct , gave priority to hiring of minorities and offering government contracts to African American businesses. Many

  14. Culturally Competent Counseling for Religious and Spiritual African American Adolescents (United States)

    Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Day-Vines, Norma L.


    Religion and spirituality are deeply rooted in traditional African American culture. Data suggest that African American adolescents maintain higher baseline rates of religious activities and beliefs than their peers (Bachman, Johnston, & O'Malley, 2005; Smith, Faris, Denton, & Regnerus, 2003). Recognizing these data, this article examines…

  15. Understanding growth options and challenges in African economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John


    This paper provides an overview of theories relating to economic growth processes in developing countries and relates these theories to the economic growth process in Sub-Sahara African countries......This paper provides an overview of theories relating to economic growth processes in developing countries and relates these theories to the economic growth process in Sub-Sahara African countries...

  16. EPEC-O - Plenary AA - Cancer & the African American Experience (United States)

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the many factors that lead to inequalities in cancer care outcomes for African Americans.

  17. EPEC-O for African Americans - Module 16 AA - Spirituality (United States)

    The sixteenth module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the importance of spirituality in the lived experience of most African Americans, and how they utilize spirituality and religion to cope with serious stressors such as life-threatening illness.

  18. Perceived Racism and Encouragement among African American Adults (United States)

    Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming


    Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…

  19. Social Achievement Goals: Validation among Rural African American Adolescents (United States)

    Jones, Martin H.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Shim, Sungok Serena; Hart, Caroline O.


    Little extant research attempts to understand why rural African Americans engage in social relationships with peers in school. This is somewhat surprising as rural students' peer interactions often affect their scholastic desires, and peers can alter African Americans' academic performance. Hence, the current study examined both the presence and…

  20. Restorative Justice and the South African Truth and Reconciliation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Christian B.N.


    It has frequently been argued that the post-apartheid Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was committed to restorative justice (RJ), and that RJ has deep historical roots in African indigenous cultures by virtue of its congruence both with ubuntu and with African indigenous justice systems...

  1. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane


    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  2. The African Self-Consciousness Scale: An Africentric Personality Questionnaire. (United States)

    Baldwin, Joseph A.; Bell, Yvonne R.


    Discusses the lack of reliable instruments for studying African American behavior and psychological functioning as a technical and philosophical flaw in Western psychology. Surveys the development of Africentric theory-based assessment instruments and presents the African Self-Consciousness Scale, a 42-item personalilty questionnaire designed to…

  3. 76 FR 6519 - National African American History Month, 2011 (United States)


    ..., 2011 National African American History Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... February 4, 2011 Part II The President Proclamation 8627--National African American History Month, 2011 #0..., there is no progress.'' Progress in America has not come easily, but has resulted from the...

  4. 78 FR 8347 - National African American History Month, 2013 (United States)


    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8930 of January 31, 2013 National African American History Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In America, we share a dream that lies at the heart... Nation's history, that dream has gone unfulfilled. For African Americans, it was a dream denied until...

  5. Internationalization of Higher Education: A South African Perspective (United States)

    Rensburg, Ihron; Motala, Shireen; David, Solomon Arulraj


    The evolution of South African universities continues to be shaped by both apartheid and more recent post-apartheid policies. Yet the South African university system is mainly an elite, low participation and high attrition system, offering a medium quality education. Moreover, there is uneven attention to the opportunities that…

  6. Black African Parents' Experiences of an Educational Psychology Service (United States)

    Lawrence, Zena


    The evidence base that explores Black African parents' experiences of an Educational Psychology Service (EPS) is limited. This article describes an exploratory mixed methods research study undertaken during 2009-2011, that explored Black African parents' engagement with a UK EPS. Quantitative data were gathered from the EPS preschool database and…

  7. Discrimination, Mastery, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Men (United States)

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.


    Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…

  8. African-American Press Coverage of Clarence Thomas Nomination. (United States)

    Fearn-Banks, Kathleen


    Examines pressures facing the African American press by focusing on its coverage of the 1991 nomination of Clarence Thomas to the United States Supreme Court. Discusses the dilemma these newspapers faced in choosing between supporting African Americans and supporting civil rights, with their mixed coverage of the story reflecting this dilemma. (SR)

  9. Lactase persistence alleles reveal partial East African ancestry of southern African Khoe pastoralists. (United States)

    Breton, Gwenna; Schlebusch, Carina M; Lombard, Marlize; Sjödin, Per; Soodyall, Himla; Jakobsson, Mattias


    The ability to digest milk into adulthood, lactase persistence (LP), as well as specific genetic variants associated with LP, is heterogeneously distributed in global populations. These variants were most likely targets of selection when some populations converted from hunter-gatherer to pastoralist or farming lifestyles. Specific LP polymorphisms are associated with particular geographic regions and populations; however, they have not been extensively studied in southern Africa. We investigate the LP-regulatory region in 267 individuals from 13 southern African populations (including descendants of hunter-gatherers, pastoralists, and agropastoralists), providing the first comprehensive study of the LP-regulatory region in a large group of southern Africans. The "East African" LP single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (14010G>C) was found at high frequency (>20%) in a strict pastoralist Khoe population, the Nama of Namibia, suggesting a connection to East Africa, whereas the "European" LP SNP (13910C>T) was found in populations of mixed ancestry. Using genome-wide data from various African populations, we identify admixture (13%) in the Nama, from an Afro-Asiatic group dating to >1,300 years ago, with the remaining fraction of their genomes being from San hunter-gatherers. We also find evidence of selection around the LCT gene among Khoe-speaking groups, and the substantial frequency of the 14010C variant among the Nama is best explained by adaptation to digesting milk. These genome-local and genome-wide results support a model in which an East African group brought pastoralist practices to southern Africa and admixed with local hunter-gatherers to form the ancestors of Khoe people.

  10. African primary care research: reviewing the literature. (United States)

    Ross, Andrew; Mash, Bob


    This is the second article in the series on African primary care research. The article focuses on how to search for relevant evidence in the published literature that can be used in the development of a research proposal. The article addresses the style of writing required and the nature of the arguments for the social and scientific value of the proposed study, as well as the use of literature in conceptual frameworks and in the methods. Finally, the article looks at how to keep track of the literature used and to reference it appropriately.

  11. African primary care research: Reviewing the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ross


    Full Text Available This is the second article in the series on African primary care research. The article focuses on how to search for relevant evidence in the published literature that can be used in the development of a research proposal. The article addresses the style of writing required and the nature of the arguments for the social and scientific value of the proposed study, as well as the use of literature in conceptual frameworks and in the methods. Finally, the article looks athow to keep track of the literature used and to reference it appropriately.

  12. Therapy of Human African Trypanosomiasis: Current Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Atouguia


    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the current situation of the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis. The existing approved drugs are old, toxic and/or expensive. Therapeutic failures are common. Several factors may contribute to the problems of chemotherapy, including differences in the epidemiology of the disease, difficulties in the diagnosis and staging of the infection, availability, distribution and pharmacologic properties of drugs, standardization of treatment regimens, response to therapy, follow-up period, and relapses and clinical trials. The new therapeutic approaches include the development and approval of new drugs, the use of new therapeutic regimens, the study of drug combinations, and the development of new formulations.

  13. [Antigenic diversity of African swine fever viruses]. (United States)

    Sereda, A D; Balyshev, V M


    Data on the seroimmunotypic and hemadsorbing characteristics of African swine fever virus (ASF) are summarized. According to the results of immunological sampling in pigs and those of hemagglutination inhibition test, the known ASFV strains and isolates were divided into 11 groups, 8 were characterized as seroimmunogroups having their specific reference strains. A 110-140-kD ASFV serotype-specific nonstructural major glycoprotein was identified. It is suggested that it is the glycoprotein that corresponds to the genetic engineering detected virus-specific homolog of lymphocyte membrane protein CD2, gene deletion of which results in the loss of hemadsorbing properties by ASFV.

  14. Coal: a South African success story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boers, R.


    Describes the South African coal mining industry, including exports domestic use of coal, coal geology and mining methods, employment, labour relations, benefits and social amenities provided for workers, safety and environmental aspects including land reclamation. Also discusses the implications of sanctions on coal and the mining industry, and argues that sanctions have not achieved and cannot achieve the stated objective of the social and political emancipation of black South Africa. Concludes that in order to defeat apartheid, South Africa, needs economic growth and encouragement for those attempting reform.

  15. Sino-African Relations:A Chronology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Despite the geographical distance that separates them, China and Africa cherish a relationship lasting over 2,000 years. According to historical records, China had contacts with Africa as earty as the third century B.C. In the Han Dynasty (206 B.C.-A.D. 220). Exchanges became frequent In the Tang Dynasty (618-907) and Song Dynasty (960-1279). In the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), Chinese navigator Zheng He traveled to what Is now Somalia and Kenya on the east African

  16. Pseudoachondroplasia: Report on a South African family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahida Moosa


    Full Text Available Pseudoachondroplasia is an autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia that results in disproportionately short stature, severe brachydactyly with strikingly lax small joints, malalignments of the lower limbs, and characteristic radiological features. Although named ‘false achondroplasia’, the entity is a distinct condition, in which affected individuals are born with normal length and have a normal facies, but is often only recognised after the age of 2 years, when the disproportion and waddling gait become evident. We report on an affected South African father and daughter, and highlight their clinical and radiographic features.

  17. A Paradigm of Lamentation in Three African Poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikiru Adeyemi OGUNDOKUN


    Full Text Available The search, what constitutes the pure identity of African Literature, continues among historians and literary scholars. In this paper, we try to unmask a silent literary weapon which is at the disposal of many conscious African writers perhaps unconsciously anyway. The purpose is to make understanding of literature especially African literature easier. Our emphasis is on the common themes expressed in the selected poems. The new historicism, which upholds that writing history is a matter of interpretations, not entirely facts, is the theoretical approach on which this paper is premised. The paper ends with a conclusion that lamentation is a literary weapon through which many African writers create or enact the required consciousness on their readers because the device is a constant decimal in African literary creations across generations: from its inception (pre-colonial period through the colonial and the post-colonial era (till date.

  18. Africanized honeybees are slower learners than their European counterparts (United States)

    Couvillon, Margaret J.; Degrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Gronenberg, Wulfila


    Does cognitive ability always correlate with a positive fitness consequence? Previous research in both vertebrates and invertebrates provides mixed results. Here, we compare the learning and memory abilities of Africanized honeybees ( Apis mellifera scutellata hybrid) and European honeybees ( Apis mellifera ligustica). The range of the Africanized honeybee continues to expand, superseding the European honeybee, which led us to hypothesize that they might possess greater cognitive capabilities as revealed by a classical conditioning assay. Surprisingly, we found that fewer Africanized honeybees learn to associate an odor with a reward. Additionally, fewer Africanized honeybees remembered the association a day later. While Africanized honeybees are replacing European honeybees, our results show that they do so despite displaying a relatively poorer performance on an associative learning paradigm.

  19. African Americans,hypertension and the renin angiotensin system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandra; F; Williams; Susanne; B; Nicholas; Nosratola; D; Vaziri; Keith; C; Norris


    African Americans have exceptionally high rates of hypertension and hypertension related complications. It is commonly reported that the blood pressure lowering efficacy of renin angiotensin system(RAS) inhibitors is attenuated in African Americans due to a greater likelihood of having a low renin profile. Therefore these agents are often not recommended as initial therapy in African Americans with hypertension. However, the high prevalence of comorbid conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease makes treatment with RAS inhibitors more compelling. Despite lower circulating renin levels and a less significant fall in blood pressure in response to RAS inhibitors in African Americans, numerous clinical trials support the efficacy of RAS inhibitors to improve clinical outcomes in this population, especially in those with hypertension and risk factors for cardiovascular and related diseases. Here, we discuss the rationale of RAS blockade as part of a comprehensive approach to attenuate the high rates of premature morbidity and mortality associated with hypertension among African Americans.

  20. Reading the near-death experience from an African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock Agai


    Full Text Available The scientific study of near-death experience (NDE teaches that NDE does not entail evidence for life after death, but a study of NDE from an African perspective implies that NDE could serve as a yardstick which supports African traditional beliefs concerning death and resurrection. Using references from Ancient-Egyptian afterlife beliefs and those of the Yorubas of Nigeria, I argue that, for Africans, the percipients of NDE did not only come close to death but are regarded as having truly died. The purpose of this research is to initiate an African debate on the subject and to provide background-knowledge about NDE in Africa for counsellors who counsel NDE percipients that are Africans.

  1. 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism: Analysis in South African Autistic Individuals

    KAUST Repository

    Arieff, Zainunisha


    The serotonin transporter promoter length polymorphism (5-hydroxytryptamine transporter length polymorphism; 5-HTTLPR) has long been implicated in autism and other psychiatric disorders. The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has a positive effect on treating some symptoms of autism. The effects of these drugs vary in individuals because of the presence of the S or L allele of 5-HTTLPR. Studies performed on various autistic populations have found different allele frequencies for the L and S alleles. Allele frequencies and genotypes of the South African autistic populations (African, mixed, and Caucasian) were compared with matching South African ethnic control populations. The *S/*S genotype was found to be highly significantly associated with all the South African autistic ethnic populations. In the South African African population the *S/*S genotype was present in 7 (33%) of the autistic individuals but in none of the control subjects, yielding infinitely large odds of developing autism. The odds of developing autism with the *S/*S genotype compared to the *L/*L genotype increased 10.15-fold in the South African mixed group and 2.74-fold in the South African Caucasian population. The allele frequency of the South African autistic population was also compared with studies of other autistic populations around the world, and highly significant differences were found with the Japanese, Korean, and Indian population groups. The difference was not significant for the French, German, Israeli, Portuguese, and American groups. This is the first South African study of autistic individuals of different ethnic backgrounds that shows significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies of 5-HTTLPR. The results of this study open new avenues for investigating the role of transmission of the L and S alleles in families with autism in South Africa.

  2. Women and the social construction of gender in African development. (United States)

    Kalu, A C


    Because a footnote of Marxism teaches that capitalism must first destroy primitive cultures that lack a dynamic social change mechanism and then rejuvenate them as modern industrialized states, the economic and cultural bases of social relationships in developing countries have been deemed irrelevant. In a similar way, Western feminist paradigms fail to acknowledge epistemological differences from those of African women. This article explores these contradictions and analyzes social change mechanisms within the Igbo culture in Africa that were stunted by colonialism. The first topic considered is the relationship of African literature (using Toni Morrison's "Beloved" as a point of reference) with sustainable African development and African women. The remainder of the article is devoted to an examination of the role of women in light of precolonial and colonial literary traditions. It is noted that continued use of Western feudal and capitalist terms for self-identification alienates Africans from Africa's problems. Traditional African thought assigned women the power to feed the family and to serve as protectors of children and society, and ancestral wisdom directed how societies responded to threats, took charge of their world, and resolved conflict. Problems faced by contemporary African researchers are shown to center on the dilemma faced by those who wish to design a program that analyzes the content of African development and provides contemporary solutions without completely deriving the program completely from contemporary thought. It is, thus, concluded that redefinition of the African development agenda must involve recognition of the essential role of African women as a change agent and a rearticulation of the male role within traditional thought.

  3. Apparent variation in Neanderthal admixture among African populations is consistent with gene flow from Non-African populations. (United States)

    Wang, Shuoguo; Lachance, Joseph; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Hey, Jody; Xing, Jinchuan


    Recent studies have found evidence of introgression from Neanderthals into modern humans outside of sub-Saharan Africa. Given the geographic range of Neanderthals, the findings have been interpreted as evidence of gene exchange between Neanderthals and modern humans descended from the Out-of-Africa (OOA) migration. Here, we examine an alternative interpretation in which the introgression occurred earlier within Africa, between ancestors or relatives of Neanderthals and a subset of African modern humans who were the ancestors of those involved in the OOA migration. Under the alternative model, if the population structure among present-day Africans predates the OOA migration, we might find some African populations show a signal of Neanderthal introgression whereas others do not. To test this alternative model, we compiled a whole-genome data set including 38 sub-Saharan Africans from eight populations and 25 non-African individuals from five populations. We assessed differences in the amount of Neanderthal-like single-nucleotide polymorphism alleles among these populations and observed up to 1.5% difference in the number of Neanderthal-like alleles among African populations. Further analyses suggest that these differences are likely due to recent non-African admixture in these populations. After accounting for recent non-African admixture, our results do not support the alternative model of older (e.g., >100 kya) admixture between modern humans and Neanderthal-like hominids within Africa.

  4. West African colonial civil servants in the nineteenth century : African participation in British colonial expansion in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arhin, K.


    From the 1850's to mid 1890's Africans were employed in top positions in the embryonic West African colonial services. This book contains the biographies of three of them: Ferguson on the Gold Coast, Lawson in Sierra Leone and Payne in Nigeria. All three had in common that they believed in British r

  5. Family Factors Associated with Language Competence among Toddlers in French, North African, and African Families in France. (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Park, Kyung-Ja

    Language adequacy was coded for 403 toddlers 24 months of age who had received medical and psychological examinations in a Bilan de Sante clinic in Paris, France. The children were from three cultures: native French middle class, immigrant North African Moslem, and immigrant Black African. Demographic, socioeconomic, medical, biological,…

  6. Exploring Leadership through Spiritual Practices and African Moral Virtues: Portraits of African American Women Principals in Urban Settings (United States)

    Smith, Sharon Irene


    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the influences of spirituality on decisions made by African American women principals at the elementary school level in schools where children of color and poverty exist in significant numbers and to gain an understanding of how African moral virtues were evidenced in the day to day professional…

  7. African American College Women's Body Image: An Examination of Body Mass, African Self-Consciousness, and Skin Color Satisfaction. (United States)

    Falconer, Jameca Woody; Neville, Helen A.


    Investigated the general and cultural factors associated with body image perceptions of African American female college students. Data from surveys of 124 women at a historically black college indicated that African self-consciousness, skin color satisfaction, and body mass index collectively accounted for significant variance in dimensions of…

  8. African American Male Achievement: Using a Tenet of Critical Theory to Explain the African American Male Achievement Disparity (United States)

    Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.


    Although African Americans continue to demonstrate a desire for education, Black male enrollment and completion rates in higher education are dismal when compared to other ethnic groups. Researchers and scholars have noted various theories and philosophies responsible for the academic disengagement of African American men in higher education. This…

  9. Mark the Evangelist: His African memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Oliver


    Full Text Available Mark is the author of the oldest gospel in the Christian Bible. Not much is known about him or his family except for a few references in the Bible. The general assumption, originating in the West, is that Mark was born and bred in Palestine. One of the main proponents of the Western view is Walter Bauer, a German theologian of the first half of the 20th century. His views rely heavily on the argument from silence, as Africa had – and to a great extent still has – an oral culture. Contrary to the Western view, Thomas Oden, an American theologian, did research on the oral culture and investigated the African memory of Mark. This article presents a critical discussion and a review of the book written by Oden in 2011 titled The African memory of Mark. Oden seems to be very subjective in his remarks in favour of Africa, as is also clear from his book titled How Africa shaped the Christian mind, written in 2007, and the question is if he really has enough grounds for his postulations.

  10. Globalisation in African and Biblical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.O. Abioje


    Full Text Available The main focus of this article consists of unraveling the meaning of globalisation in terms of its purpose, and determining why many Africans appear to view its goals skeptically. The study is done from a Christian theological perspective, thus the conformity of globalisation to Biblical worldview is also examined. The data were gathered mainly through library consultation. Theoretically, the study is expository and critical. One discovers that globalisation conforms with Afro-Biblical worldviews, but only in so far as it embraces unstinting love of God and the neighbour, universal justice, mercy and compassion. The world itself seems to be realising how interdependent human life is. It is, however, suspected that the owners of the multinational corporations who are drumming up globalisation, have ulterior motives. It was noted that Western institutions, represented by multinationals, have always sought ways to exploit Africa and the Third World in general. At the same time, there is the realisation that no external enemy could succeed without the cooperation of some internal enemy, and there have always been African rulers who collaborate with foreigners to exploit the continent. It is explained that Africa can fare better with globalisation if the leaders are ethically and prudentially upright.

  11. Scriptural ethical principles and traditional African ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. van Rooy


    Full Text Available The traditional ethical code of Africa is dominated by two factors, to wit, interpersonal relationships, which include the ancestor spirits, and taboo, which is mainly concerned with respecting the hierarchy of forces. God is hardly a factor in everyday conduct. Biblical ethics, on the other hand, is totally dominated by the idea of and relationship with God. The origin of biblical ethics (creation and redemption, history (God's redemptive acts, content (being God’s image, holy as He is holy, motivation (do as I have done to you, responsibility (both individual and communal responsibility is directed towards God. Expectation (rewards and sanctions, universality (including all peoples, since God is the Creator of all, internal character (in that thoughts and motives are also judged by God, teaching about property, jurisprudence (placing kings and the lowliest on the same level before God and his law, and work ethic (which is strongly critical of using any magical means - all of these are God-centred, and therefore sharply distinguished from African ethics which is man-centred. In the New Testament, the distinguishing factor is the new being, who is in Christ, being born again by the Holy Spirit, by which man is conformed to the image of his Redeemer and King. The dominant theme in both Testaments is love, which in African ethics is reserved for one's nearest kin, but in Scripture demanded even for one's enemies.

  12. Cassava; African perspective on space agriculture (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Looking on African perspective in space agriculture may contribute to increase diversity, and enforce robustness for advanced life support capability. Cassava, Manihot esculentaand, is one of major crop in Africa, and could be a candidate of space food materials. Since resource is limited for space agriculture in many aspects, crop yield should be high in efficiency, and robust as well. The efficiency is measured by farming space and time. Harvest yield of cassava is about 41 MJ/ m2 (70 ton/ha) after 11 months of farming. Among rice, wheat, potato, and sweet potato, cassava is ranked to the first place (40 m2 ) in terms of farming area required to supply energy of 5 MJ/day, which is recommended for one person. Production of cassava could be made under poor condition, such as acidic soil, shortage of fertilizer, draught. Laterite, similar to Martian regolith. Propagation made by stem cutting is an advantage of cassava in space agriculture avoiding entomophilous or anemophilous process to pollinate. Feature of crop storage capability is additional factor that determines the efficiency in the whole process of agriculture. Cassava root tuber can be left in soil until its consumption. Cassava might be an African contribution to space agriculture.

  13. African Fish Biodiversity, Fishbase and Fishculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boden, G.


    Full Text Available At present, about 28 600 fish species are considered valid, whilst the total number is estimated at 30 000 to 35 000. For Africa, about 3 000 valid fresh- and brackish water species are currently recognized. Conserving the biodiversity of these fishes and at the same time managing their exploitation in a sustainable way is a difficult exercise. In sub-Saharan Africa, the importance of aquaculture is not very high. Nonetheless, 18 different species are used commercially, of which six have a non-African origin. Documenting and characterizing the ichthyodiversity is vital for conservation and sustainable development purposes. The presence of a large collection, a specialised library and a considerable know-how in the Africa Museum has led to various revisions, checklists, species (redescriptions and regional guides. All the information on African fishes is currently being entered in FishBase, a huge freely accessible database with information on the taxonomy, ecology and various other aspects of the biology of fishes, based on scientific publications and reviewed by specialists. FishBase also includes high quality tools for applied research on fishes, such as a disease wizard, biogeography tools, trophic pyramids, and the species invasiveness tool.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Ramphal


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Many South African companies are adopting the shared services methodology because this structure has led to lower operating costs, greater business efficiency, and improved internal service quality in international companies. Part of a doctoral study on shared services in South African companies shows that their business unit managers have not yet experienced positive rewards from their shared services. This article reports on this study, and suggests a larger-scale research project to validate these findings and to investigate the reasons for the poor performance.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Baie Suid-Afrikaanse maatskappye maak toenemend gebruik van die ‘shared services’- metodologie omdat die struktuur daarvan kan lei tot ʼn afname in operasionele koste, verbeterde besigheidseffektiwiteit, en verhoogde diensgehalte in internasionale maatskappye. ʼn Doktorale studie oor ‘shared services’ in Suid-Afrikaanse maatskappye wys daarop dat individuele besigheidseenheidsbestuurders nie ʼn positiewe belewenis het met ‘shared services’ nie. Hierdie artikel verwys na dié studie, en stel voor dat ʼn meer omvangryke navorsingsprojek onderneem word om die bevindinge te staaf, sowel as om die redes vir swak prestasie te ondersoek.

  15. An overview of South African psychology. (United States)

    Cooper, Saths; Nicholas, Lionel


    This overview of psychology in South Africa presents a concise and historical account of its science and practice, from its early origins in the late nineteenth century to the present, and traces seminal influences on the discipline. It is a review of how psychology in South Africa developed over more than a century to become one of the most popular subjects in universities and an established and recognized profession, whose members play a variety of roles in the South African polity and larger society. The impact that apartheid racism had on key aspects of psychology's development is traversed, and the influences that previous ruling party politics had on professional psychological organizations are delineated. The unification of psychology under the Psychological Society of South Africa, a few months before the advent of democracy in South Africa, is explicated. The protection of the title of psychologist in law and certain other changes in the legislative environment, enabling a greater role for psychologists, are reported. The primary research sites for psychology and its funding and the main university psychology programs are described, as are the requirements for registration and licensure. The genesis and the importance of the work of internationally acclaimed South African psychologists, such as J. Wolpe and A. A. Lazarus, are contextualized. With the increased participation of progressive black psychologists in leadership and research in the past two decades, a transformed psychology has the potential to play a significant role in addressing human issues confronting South Africa.

  16. Quiet time enhancements over African latitudes (United States)

    Orford, Nicola; Katamzi, Zama; Buresova, Dalia


    F2 layer disturbances not related to geomagnetic activity are known as quiet time enhancements (QTEs). The phenomenon of QTEs has not yet been studied over African latitudes. We therefore explore the occurrence of QTEs over Africa in order to expand our knowledge on the behaviour of the ionosphere over this region. Several GPS stations in the middle to equatorial latitudes, during the solar minimum (2009) and near solar maximum (2013), are used. This data was examined for possible trends in variation with solar cycle, season and latitude as well as time of commencement of enhancements. Over the southern mid-latitude region of Africa we have observed that the QTEs are more likely to commence during the night in both solar minimum and maximum, however a slightly larger portion of daytime commencements during solar minimum than during solar maximum were observed. The total number of enhancements for the solar minimum period appears greater than during solar maximum. A seasonal trend is seen with the maximum number of enhancements occurring in summer during solar minimum and in winter during solar maximum. We explore further whether these trends are mirrored or different at low latitude/equatorial African regions.

  17. AIDS -- why African successes are scoffed. (United States)

    Ankomah, B


    Pressures to create a profitable Third World market for Western drugs may have led to the suppression of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) treatments developed in Africa. Six years before four Western pharmaceutical companies announced the discovery of a three-drug regimen that appears to produce remission in some patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Ugandan physician Dr. Charles Ssali had developed a similar formulation. Beginning in 1989, Dr. Ssali gave HIV-infected patients at his Kampala clinic a preparation, Miriandina, containing 27 naturally occurring anti-oxidants and micronutrients that stimulate the immune system and prevent progression to AIDS. To date, he has treated over 12,000 patients, with an 80% success rate. His first patient, who presented in 1989 with full-blown AIDS, is alive and symptom-free. Miriandina is taken for 12-18 months, at a cost of only US $0.50 per tablet ($600 for six months of treatment). Another herbal formulation, Pearl Omega, developed by scientist Arthur Obel with funds provided by the Kenyan government, has produced a similar reversal of AIDS symptoms. However, international donor organizations and the AIDS establishment have refused to fund these African-based efforts or to publicize their success. It is suggested that this reflects a plan to force African countries to take out World Bank loans to finance the more expensive ($8300 a course) Western-based protease inhibitors.

  18. Training African-American residents in the 20th century. (United States)

    Green-McKenzie, Judith


    Bellevue Hospital, the oldest public hospital in the United States and a lineal descendant of an infirmary for slaves, accepted its first African-American resident, Dr. Ubert Conrad Vincent, in 1918. This occurred at a time when many medical centers were not accepting African-American residents. At the end of WWII, one-third of the accredited medical schools still barred African Americans. However, Bellevue Hospital continued to train African-American residents. Between the 1920s and 1940s four African Americans matriculated at Bellevue Hospital. There were six in the 1950s, four in the 1960s, and 25 in the 1970s. By the 1980s, 40 African Americans matriculated, and between 1990 and 1995, 61 matriculated. Despite its historic first, Bellevue lagged slightly behind the national average. While the number of African-American residents occupying U.S. residency slots increased from 2.8% in 1978 to 6.5% in 1996, African Americans comprised 3.6% of residency slots at Bellevue between 1985-1995. Currently, only 7% of practicing physicians and 5% in faculty positions are latino, African-American, and Native American. Increasing the number of under-represented minority (URM) physicians is important to the United States, as URM physicians are more likely to serve the poor and uninsured, therefore improving the overall healthcare of the underprivileged. A study by the Association of American Medical Colleges indicated that minority medical school graduates were five times more likely to report that they planned to serve minority populations than other graduates. In their position paper, the American College of Physicians expressed the belief that increasing the number of URM physicians will help reduce healthcare disparities that can hurt minority populations and lead to poor health outcomes. The Supreme Court acknowledged the importance of racial diversity by upholding the University of Michigan affirmative action admissions policy in its June 2003 ruling. URM physicians are

  19. Slaves No More: The Caring Power of African-American Female Leaders (United States)

    Sernak, Kathleen S.


    In this article the author examines the historical significance of the cultural aspect of race on African American females' leadership values and styles that encourage caring in schools. The author focuses her study by asking: What aspects of their (African American female leaders) cultural backgrounds as Africans and as African Americans…

  20. China's Recruitment of African University Students: Policy Efficacy and Unintended Outcomes (United States)

    Haugen, Heidi Østbø


    This article explores how Sino-African relations are affected by the growing number of Africans who pursue higher education in China. China actively recruits African university students in order to increase soft power and generate income from the export of education services. Semi-structured interviews with African university students suggest that…

  1. African Mask-Making Workshop: Professional Development Experiences of Diverse Participants (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.; Montgomery, Sarah E.; Kirkland-Holmes, Gloria; Watson, Dwight C.; Ayesiga, Yvonne


    Diverse education professionals learned about African cultures in a workshop experience by making African masks using authentic symbolism. Analysis of reflections to evaluate the workshop for applicability to participants with and without African heritage showed that both groups expanded their cultural knowledge of traditional African ethnic…

  2. China's Recruitment of African University Students: Policy Efficacy and Unintended Outcomes (United States)

    Haugen, Heidi Østbø


    This article explores how Sino-African relations are affected by the growing number of Africans who pursue higher education in China. China actively recruits African university students in order to increase soft power and generate income from the export of education services. Semi-structured interviews with African university students suggest that…

  3. Toward a Caribbean psychology: an African-centered approach. (United States)

    Sutherland, Marcia Elizabeth


    Although the Americas and Caribbean region are purported to comprise different ethnic groups, this article’s focus is on people of African descent, who represent the largest ethnic group in many countries. The emphasis on people of African descent is related to their family structure, ethnic identity, cultural, psychohistorical, and contemporary psychosocial realities. This article discusses the limitations of Western psychology for theory, research, and applied work on people of African descent in the Americas and Caribbean region. In view of the adaptations that some people of African descent have made to slavery, colonialism, and more contemporary forms of cultural intrusions, it is argued that when necessary, notwithstanding Western psychology’s limitations, Caribbean psychologists should reconstruct mainstream psychology to address the psychological needs of these Caribbean people. The relationship between theory and psychological interventions for the optimal development of people of African descent is emphasized throughout this article. In this regard, the African-centered and constructionist viewpoint is argued to be of utility in addressing the psychological growth and development of people of African descent living in the Americas and Caribbean region.

  4. Transcutaneous bilirubin nomograms in African neonates (United States)

    Mabogunje, Cecilia A.; Imosemi, Donald O.; Emokpae, Abieyuwa A.


    Background The use of transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) as a screening tool, based on relevant population-specific nomogram, or proxy for total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels in assessing the risk of subsequent hyperbilirubinemia is supported by several clinical guidelines on the management of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. However, while TcB has been found to significantly over-estimate TSB in neonates of African-American ancestry, with variations across TcB devices, no nomogram has been specifically reported for this racial group. This study therefore set out to develop TcB nomograms for healthy late pre-term and term black African neonates derived from two widely used bilirubinometers. Methods A retrospective analysis of 12,377 TcB measurements obtained from 6,373 neonates in the first postnatal week, over a period of 48 months using Bilichek and JM-103 bilirubinometers. TcB percentiles were computed from hour-specific TcB values and nomograms developed for each of the screening devices. Predictive ability of the 75th and 95th percentiles to detect significant hyperbilirubinemia was evaluated between 24–96 hours of age. The 95th percentile curve was compared with those from other populations. Results The velocity of TcB rise at 75th and 95th percentiles was generally higher with JM-103 than Bilichek. Both percentiles also peaked at higher TcB levels with JM-103. The 95th percentile for both instruments showed a downward trend as from approximately 114 hours. Both instruments had high negative predictive values across the selected time-epochs and lower discriminatory ability than reported in non-black populations. Conclusions The predictive utility of TcB as a potential screening tool varies across devices in black African neonates with or without risk of significant hyperbilirubinemia, and lower than levels reported in non-black populations. Equipment-specific nomograms should be considered for TcB monitoring in this racial population where TSB is not routinely

  5. Active surveillance of prostate cancer in African American men. (United States)

    Silberstein, Jonathan L; Feibus, Allison H; Maddox, Michael M; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Moparty, Krishnarao; Thomas, Raju; Sartor, Oliver


    Active surveillance (AS) is a treatment strategy for prostate cancer (PCa) whereby patients diagnosed with PCa undergo ongoing characterization of their disease with the intent of avoiding radical treatment. Previously, AS has been demonstrated to be a reasonable option for men with low-risk PCa, but existing cohorts largely consist of Caucasian Americans. Because African Americans have a greater incidence, more aggressive, and potentially more lethal PCa than Caucasian Americans, it is unclear if AS is appropriate for African Americans. We performed a review of the available literature on AS with a focus on African Americans.

  6. From Christianity to African Religion and back again

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M Meiring


    Full Text Available This article passes from Christianity to African Religion and back again, in order to gain new insight on reconciliation. Traditional Christian reconciliation models are valuable but also contextual and limited; thus new models should be sought. African myths of community, acceptance and rebellion offer alternative ways of understanding reconciliation. When evaluated according to the principles of integration and transcendence, these myths meet the criteria of better religion and emphasise Christian notions that are often ignored in tradition Christianity. These new African-inspired insights can be used in Christian liturgy as a number of examples prove.

  7. African Oral Traditions: Riddles Among The Haya of Northwestern Tanzania (United States)

    Ishengoma, Johnson M.


    This study argues for the integration of African oral traditions and other elements of traditional learning into the modern school curriculum. It thus contributes to supporting the increased relevance of education to local communities. In particular, using the example of riddles collected from one of the main ethnic groups in Northwestern Tanzania, the Haya people, the present study challenges the views of those social and cultural anthropologists who hold that African riddles have no substantially meaningful educational value. Instead, it is maintained that riddles make an important contribution to children's full participation in the social, cultural, political, and economic life of African communities, especially by fostering critical thinking and transmitting indigenous knowledge.

  8. African American teens and the neo-juvenile justice system. (United States)

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L


    African American youth continue to be overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. As a result of the current political environment and the perceived increase in crime among young people, the nation has moved away from rehabilitation and toward harsher treatment of delinquents. The African American community must encourage policy makers and community leaders to continue to address the disproportionate representation of African American youth in the system. Current policing and prosecutorial policies must also be examined and challenged to end the perception of an unjust system.

  9. African Sandalwood or Nepalese Sandalwood: a Brief Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available African sandalwood or East African sandalwood (Osyris lanceolata Hochst. & Steud.; Santalaceae, also known as Nepalese sandalwood (Osyris wightiana var. rotundifolia P.C. Tam, is a hemi-parasitic tree known for its fragrant wood. The essential oil is extracted from the root bark for the perfume industry and different parts of the tree have various medicinal uses. African sandalwood contains an array of phytochemicals such as dihydro-β-agarofuran polyesters, agarofuranases, polyesters, other sesquiterpenes and bisabolanes. This mini-review focuses on the general biology, traditional uses, phytochemical properties, propagation for conservation, and hemiparasitism of O. lanceolata.

  10. Homosexuality: A challenge to African churches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maake Masango


    Full Text Available Globalization has brought numerous challenges to churches. Homosexuality is one of those challenges facing African churches. There has been a growing evidence of rejection, isolation, discrimination and  condemnation as sub-human of homosexuals. Some conservative churches have misused Scripture in order  to strengthen their case of condemnation. This article  seeks to correct the misinterpretation or misuse of Scriptural passages. For example, Sodom and Gomorrah is often referred to as a passage of Scripture to justify condemnation, while this  passage actually deals with judgment. Finally, the article  challenges churches to use a pastoral approach which should lead to a healing ministering, especially to all of those who are isolated and rejected.

  11. Mathematical models of human african trypanosomiasis epidemiology. (United States)

    Rock, Kat S; Stone, Chris M; Hastings, Ian M; Keeling, Matt J; Torr, Steve J; Chitnis, Nakul


    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), commonly called sleeping sickness, is caused by Trypanosoma spp. and transmitted by tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). HAT is usually fatal if untreated and transmission occurs in foci across sub-Saharan Africa. Mathematical modelling of HAT began in the 1980s with extensions of the Ross-Macdonald malaria model and has since consisted, with a few exceptions, of similar deterministic compartmental models. These models have captured the main features of HAT epidemiology and provided insight on the effectiveness of the two main control interventions (treatment of humans and tsetse fly control) in eliminating transmission. However, most existing models have overestimated prevalence of infection and ignored transient dynamics. There is a need for properly validated models, evolving with improved data collection, that can provide quantitative predictions to help guide control and elimination strategies for HAT.

  12. Future treatment options for human African trypanosomiasis. (United States)

    Jones, Amy J; Avery, Vicky M


    Over the past 17 years, the number of reported cases of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) has declined by over 90%, a significant result since the disease was highlighted as a public health problem by the WHO in 1995. However, if the goal of eliminating HAT by 2020 is to be achieved, then new treatments need to be identified and developed. A plethora of compound collections has been screened against Trypanosoma brucei spp, the etiological agents of HAT, resulting in three compounds progressing to clinical development. However, due to the high attrition rates in drug discovery, it is essential that research continues to identify novel molecules. Failure to do so, will result in the absence of molecules in the pipeline to fall back on should the current clinical trials be unsuccessful. This could seriously compromise control efforts to date, resulting in a resurgence in the number of HAT cases.

  13. Disability and masculinity in South African autosomatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken J. Lipenga


    Full Text Available This article examines the representation of disability by disabled black South African men as portrayed in two texts from the autosomatography genre, which encompasses first-person narratives of illness and disability. Drawing on extracts from Musa E. Zulu’s The language of me and William Zulu’s Spring will come, the article argues that physical disability affects heteronormative concepts of masculinity by altering the body, which is the primary referent for the construction and performance of hegemonic masculinity. In ableist contexts, the male disabled body may be accorded labels of asexuality. This article therefore reveals how male characters with disabilities reconstruct the male self by both reintegrating themselves within the dominant grid of masculinity and reformulating some of the tenets of hegemonic masculinity.

  14. Getting African climate change research recognised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, Fatima; Anderson, Simon; Ayers, Jessica


    Across Africa, programmes such as the Climate Change Adaptation in Africa initiative are investigating what it means for countries and communities to effectively adapt to climate change, and how this can be achieved in practice. But research results are not always recognised by policymakers or the global research community — in part because they are not visible within the traditional hallmark of scientific scholarship and credibility, peer-reviewed literature. Greater efforts are required to encourage African scientists to engage in the peer-review process and give their research the credibility it needs to convince decision makers that robust scientific findings support the solutions offered. At the same time, decision makers themselves must find ways of assessing and making use of robust research outside the peer-review arena.

  15. African perspective on cellulosic ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Kemausuor, Francis; Miezah, Kodwo;


    to ethanol, among others. While the industrialized and some emerging countries are gradually breaking grounds in cellulosic ethanol, most African countries have made little effort in research and development even though the continent is rich in lignocellulosic biomass. The paper estimates residues from......A major challenge to commercial production of cellulosic ethanol pertains to the cost-effective breakdown of the complex and recalcitrant structure of lignocellulose into its components via pretreatment, the cost of enzymes for hydrolysis and fermentation, and the conversion rate of C5 sugars...... widely available crops and municipal waste and determines their respective theoretical ethanol potential (around 22 billion litres annually). It further reviews stages involved in the production of cellulosic ethanol, focussing on processing methods that can be adapted to current situation in most...

  16. Intestinal microsporidiosis in African skink Mabuya perrotetii. (United States)

    Koudela, B; Didier, E S; Rogers, L B; Modrý, D; Kucerová, S


    Intestinal microsporidiosis was documented by detecting abundant slightly curved spores (2.9 x 1.2 microns) in the faeces of five of twelve skinks Mabuya perrotetii Duméril et Bibron, 1839 that originated from Ghana. Clinically, the microsporidiosis was characterized by decreased appetite, diarrhea, and weight loss. Histopathological changes consisted of villous atrophy, blunting of mucosa and flattening of individual epithelial cells in the large intestine. The ultrastructure of microsporidian spores was consistent with an Encephalitozoon species. The PCR-RFLP assay and the heteroduplex mobility shift analyses were used to verify that the skink microsporidian is a species of the genus Encephalitozoon Levaditi, Nicolau et Schoen, 1923 and indicate that this microsporidian is not E. hellem, E. intestinalis or a strain of E. cuniculi. The microsporidia in African skink represent an Encephalitozoon species morphologically identical to Encephalitozoon lacertae Canning, 1981.

  17. The first African School of Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Carolyn Lee


    The first African School of Physics (ASP2010), a new physics school that will combine scientific learning and technology transfer, is to be organized in South Africa with the support of various institutes and laboratories from Europe and the US. Christine Darve, the head organizer and an accelerator engineer from Fermilab currently working in CERN's Technology Department, provides some insight into the programme's mission.   Christine Darve was previously the secretary of a ‘Physics Without Borders’ meeting in Sarajevo, an experience that fuelled her passion to help the less fortunate to benefit from developments in science. After meeting Steve Muanza, a physicist of Congolese descent who visited Fermilab in 2004, she initiated steps to organize a physics school that would bring scientific learning and technology transfer from European and American institutes to Africa. A physicist at IN2P3, the Centre de Physique des Particules in Marseilles, Muanza is the director of this fi...

  18. Ethical Dilemmas In Management: An African Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolaji Joachim Abiodun


    Full Text Available The modern workplace is composed of people with diverse backgrounds in terms of nationality, culture, religion, age, education and socioeconomic status. Each of these people enters the work with different values, goals, and perceptions of acceptable behaviours. The diverse background creates ethical challenges for individuals as well as managers. There are issues and decisions that are to be made by workers in the organization that have implications for their job security and salary, and success of the organization. Pressure may be on the workers to protect their own interests, sometimes at the risk of losing personal and corporate integrity. This paper attempts to evaluate ethical dilemmas and conflicts from an Africa perspective, bearing in mind different value systems between western and African nations.

  19. Astronomy for teachers: A South African Perspective (United States)

    de Witt, Aletha; West, Marion; Leeuw, Lerothodi; Gouws, Eldrie


    South Africa has nominated Astronomy as a “flagship science” and aims to be an international Astronomy hub through projects such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and the South African Large Telescope (SALT). These projects open up career opportunities in maths, science and engineering and therefore offers a very real door for learners to enter into careers in science and technology through Astronomy. However, the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Survey (TIMSS), the Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) and Annual National Assessment (ANA) have highlighted that South Africa’s Science and Mathematics education is in a critical condition and that South African learners score amongst the worst in the world in both these subjects. In South Africa Astronomy is generally regarded as the worst taught and most avoided Natural Science knowledge strand, and most teachers that specialised in Natural Sciences, never covered Astronomy in their training.In order to address these issues a collaborative project between the University of South Africa (UNISA) and the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO) was initiated, which aims to assist teachers to gain more knowledge and skills so that they can teach Astronomy with confidence. By collaborating we aim to ensure that the level of astronomy development will be raised in both South Africa and the rest of Africa.With the focus on Teaching and Learning, the research was conducted within a quantitative paradigm and 600 structured questionnaires were administered to Natural Science teachers in Public primary schools in Gauteng, South Africa. This paper reports the findings of this research and makes recommendations on how to assist teachers to teach Astronomy with confidence.

  20. South African food allergy consensus document 2014. (United States)

    Levin, M E; Gray, C L; Goddard, E; Karabus, S; Kriel, M; Lang, A C; Manjra, A I; Risenga, S M; Terblanche, A J; van der Spuy, D A


    The prevalence of food allergy is increasing worldwide and is an important cause of anaphylaxis. There are no local South African food allergy guidelines. This document was devised by the Allergy Society of South Africa (ALLSA), the South African Gastroenterology Society (SAGES) and the Association for Dietetics in South Africa (ADSA). Subjects may have reactions to more than one food, and different types and severity of reactions to different foods may coexist in one individual. A detailed history directed at identifying the type and severity of possible reactions is essential for every food allergen under consideration. Skin-prick tests and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) (ImmunoCAP) tests prove IgE sensitisation rather than clinical reactivity. The magnitude of sensitisation combined with the history may be sufficient to ascribe causality, but where this is not possible an incremental oral food challenge may be required to assess tolerance or clinical allergy. For milder non-IgE-mediated conditions a diagnostic elimination diet may be followed with food re-introduction at home to assess causality. The primary therapy for food allergy is strict avoidance of the offending food/s, taking into account nutritional status and provision of alternative sources of nutrients. Acute management of severe reactions requires prompt intramuscular administration of adrenaline 0.01 mg/kg and basic resuscitation. Adjunctive therapy includes antihistamines, bronchodilators and corticosteroids. Subjects with food allergy require risk assessment and those at increased risk for future severe reactions require the implementation of risk-reduction strategies, including education of the patient, families and all caregivers (including teachers), the provision of a written emergency action plan, a MedicAlert necklace or bracelet and injectable adrenaline (preferably via auto-injector) where necessary.

  1. Altertative trophy measuring techniques for African buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Gandy


    Full Text Available The African buffalo is considered the classic African trophy. It is the choice of many hunters who will never go on to hunt any of the other dangerous game animals on the continent. A good trophy is perceived as that of a mature bull with a hardened boss and horn tips that lengthen into sharply pointed hooks. However, indications are that these are the bulls in their breeding prime and there is concern that the continued targeting of these individuals will negatively impact on the population dynamics of the herds, ultimately affecting the sustainability of buffalo hunting. As they age and become postreproductive, the horns broom down, reducing the trophy score under the current measurement systems. A new measuring system is needed that encourages hunters to target the older post-reproductive bulls, instead of those that are still breeding. A random sample of trophies was divided into broomed and non-broomed sub-samples. All key parameters that can be measured in the trophy were measured with a view to identifying the parameters that would allow broomed-down individuals to compete favourably with the non-broomed “classic trophy” in the primary measurement systems, those of Safari Club International and Rowland Ward. An index, created through dividing tip space by the mean of the two individual horn lengths proved to serve the purpose. This factor was then applied to the mean of the SCI and Rowland Ward measurements in the samples. These methods allowed broomed horns to score more points in the record books than non-broomed horns. Boss width and boss space are other possible measurement inclusions that could be considered.

  2. Differences in HIV natural history among African and non-African seroconverters in Europe and seroconverters in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantazis, Nikos; Morrison, Charles; Amornkul, Pauli N


    It is unknown whether HIV treatment guidelines, based on resource-rich country cohorts, are applicable to African populations.......It is unknown whether HIV treatment guidelines, based on resource-rich country cohorts, are applicable to African populations....

  3. 75 FR 32075 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2010 (United States)


    ... celebrate the extraordinary legacy of African-American singers, composers, and musicians, as well as their... dance floor, but also in our churches, in our public spaces, and in our homes. This month, we honor...

  4. Assessing Stigma among African Americans Living with HIV (United States)

    Rao, Deepa; Molina, Yamile; Lambert, Nina; Cohn, Susan E.


    Purpose In the present study, we validated a culturally adapted stigma scale designed to assess stigma among African Americans living with HIV. Methods We collected data on the scale using an audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) format. We validated the scale with a sample of 62 African American participants living with HIV. Results Findings demonstrated that stigma can be measured succinctly and effectively in a 14-item scale with two subscales measuring enacted and internalized stigma. Discussion We identified many advantages to using the scale, which demonstrated good psychometric properties when used with an audio computer assisted self-interview format and with an African American sample. We recommend this scale’s use in both clinical practice and research study of HIV-stigma reduction interventions with African American populations.

  5. South African Association of Veterinary Technologists : congress abstracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office


    Full Text Available The following are abstracts of papers and posters presented at the 'Back to Basics Congress' of the South African Association of Veterinary Technologists (SAAVT, 15-16 September 2009, Batter Boys, Pretoria, South Africa.

  6. Singapore Airlines and South African Airways Sign Codeshare Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ From 15 September 2006, Singapore Airlines' customers will be able to travel to more destinations in South Africa thanks to a new codeshare agreement signed by Singapore Airlines and South African Airways (SAA).

  7. KSC kicks off African-American History Month (United States)


    Mack McKinney, chief, program resources management at NASA and chairperson for African-American History Month, presents a plaque to Bhetty Waldron at the kick-off ceremony of African-American History Month on Feb. 3 at the NASA Training Auditorium. The award was given in thanks for Waldron's portrayal of Dr. Mary McLeod Bethune and Zora Neal Hurston during the ceremony. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  8. Disaster management and humanitarian logistics – A South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilna L. Bean


    Full Text Available Disasters are becoming an unavoidable part of everyday life throughout the world, including South Africa. Even though South Africa is not a country affected by large-scale disasters such as earthquakes, the impact of disasters in South Africa is aggravated significantly by the vulnerability of people living in informal settlements. Humanitarian logistics, as a ‘new’ sub-field in the supply chain management context, has developed significantly recently to assist in disaster situations. This paper provides an overview of the South African humanitarian logistics context. Even though humanitarian logistics plays a critical role in the aftermath of disasters, it extends far beyond events that can typically be classified as ‘disasters’. Therefore the implication of the South African humanitarian logistics context on future research and collaboration opportunities in South African humanitarian logistics is also discussed. Finally, two recent case studies in the South African humanitarian logistics environment are discussed.

  9. East African runners: their genetics, lifestyle and athletic prowess. (United States)

    Onywera, Vincent O


    East African runners have dominated distance running events for over 5 decades. Some explanations have been advanced to explain why such a small population has dominated distance running events over time. Suggested reasons include, among others, a genetic predisposition, diet, living at high altitude as well as sociocultural background. This chapter gives possible insight into the past, present and hopefully future success of East African runners; it mainly explores the foundations of running excellence, talent identification, diet and injury management methods used by East African runners. The chapter also explores means and ways by which East African runners can sustain their running excellence by using their past experiences, to perfect the present and predict the future.

  10. Directory of Scholarships for African-American Students. (United States)

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 1994


    This database lists scholarships specifically available to African American students and some available to minority students in general. Scholarships for undergraduates in general and specific fields and awards for graduate and professional students are listed. (SLD)

  11. African American marriage in the 20th century. (United States)

    Pinderhughes, Elaine B


    It is not possible to understand African American marriages fully without attention to the social, economic, racial, and historical factors that have stressed male-female relationships beyond those stresses experienced by majority couples. I propose that the societal projection process (Bowen, 1978) has entrapped African Americans in ways that have continually and severely strained their marital and couple relationships. These experiences, and the ways in which African Americans have responded to them, have created a vulnerability that is compounded by societal shifts and changes, and is manifest in the precipitous decline of marriages at a rate higher than that found in all other racial groups in the U.S. I will examine the state of African American marriages in this cultural context, with specific attention to the effects of the unequal sex ratio, socioeconomic conditions, and overstressed male-female relationships. I will then discuss implications and offer suggestions for therapists who work with this population.

  12. 21st Colloquium on African Geology——CAG21

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lopo Vasconcelos


    @@ Under the auspices of the Geological Society of Africa (GSAf), the Geological Mining Association of Mozambique (AGMM) organized the 21st Colloquium on African Geology under the theme "Geoscience for Poverty Relief.

  13. Modelling the South African fruit export infrastructure: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG Ortmann


    Full Text Available A description is provided of work performed as part of the fruit logistics infrastructure project commissioned by the South African Deciduous Fruit Producers’ Trust and coordinated by the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, as described in [Van Dyk FE & Maspero E, 2004, An analysis of the South African fruit logistics infrastructure, ORiON, 20(1, pp. 55–72]. After a brief introduction to the problem, two models (a single-commodity graph theoretic model and a multi-commodity mathematical programming model are derived for determining the maximal weekly flow or throughput of fresh fruit through the South African national export infrastructure. These models are solved for two extreme seasonal export scenarios and the solutions show that no export infrastructure expansion is required in the near future - observed bottlenecks are not fundamental to the infrastructure and its capacities, but are rather due to sub-optimal management and utilisation of the existing infrastructure.

  14. Telephone surveys underestimate cigarette smoking among African-Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope eLandrine


    Full Text Available Background. This study tested the hypothesis that data from random digit-dial telephone surveys underestimate the prevalence of cigarette smoking among African-American adults. Method. A novel, community-sampling method was used to obtain a statewide, random sample of N= 2118 California (CA African-American/Black adults, surveyed door-to-door. This Black community sample was compared to the Blacks in the CA Health Interview Survey (N = 2315, a statewide, random digit-dial telephone-survey conducted simultaneously. Results. Smoking prevalence was significantly higher among community (33% than among telephone-survey (19% Blacks, even after controlling for sample-differences in demographics.Conclusions. Telephone surveys underestimate smoking among African-Americans and probably underestimate other health risk behaviors as well. Alternative methods are needed to obtain accurate data on African-American health behaviors and on the magnitude of racial disparities in them.

  15. 78 FR 34241 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013 (United States)


    ... music they made-- songs of hurt and hardship, yearning and hope, and struggle for a better day. Those feelings speak to something common in all of us. With passion and creativity, African-American...

  16. African Trypanosomiasis Detection using Dempster-Shafer Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Maseleno, Andino


    World Health Organization reports that African Trypanosomiasis affects mostly poor populations living in remote rural areas of Africa that can be fatal if properly not treated. This paper presents Dempster-Shafer Theory for the detection of African trypanosomiasis. Sustainable elimination of African trypanosomiasis as a public-health problem is feasible and requires continuous efforts and innovative approaches. In this research, we implement Dempster-Shafer theory for detecting African trypanosomiasis and displaying the result of detection process. We describe eleven symptoms as major symptoms which include fever, red urine, skin rash, paralysis, headache, bleeding around the bite, joint the paint, swollen lymph nodes, sleep disturbances, meningitis and arthritis. Dempster-Shafer theory to quantify the degree of belief, our approach uses Dempster-Shafer theory to combine beliefs under conditions of uncertainty and ignorance, and allows quantitative measurement of the belief and plausibility in our identificat...

  17. Afriphone Literature as a Prototypical form of African Literature: Insights from Prototype Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Bodomo


    Full Text Available What is the most prototypical form of African literature? Shouldn’t we be using African languages to produce African literary texts, shouldn’t we produce more Afriphone African literature compared to Europhone African literature or Afro-Europhone literature? This issue underlies the reality that the vast majority of African writers presumably think in one language and express themselves (speak, enchant, or write in another. This problematic, crystalized in major debates between Ngugi wa Thiongo and others, on the one hand, and Chinua Achebe and others, on the other hand, has resulted in great challenges as to how we can define or even conceptualize the discipline of African literature. Is it literature written by Africans in African languages for Africans or is it literature written by anybody including non-Africans in non-African languages? Or is it somewhere in-between these two extremes? The paper discusses several positions on this major question in African literature before advancing a novel proposal based on insights and evidence from proto-type theory within Linguistics and the Cognitive Sciences. This proposal leads to a somewhat provocative conclusion about the gradation of African literatures, where African language literatures or Afrophone literatures, comprise the core, proto-typical category in a 21st Century African literature constellation, whereas foreign language and diasporic literatures such as Afro-European literatures, Afro-American literatures, and Afro-Chinese literatures are the hybrid and thus more recessive, peripheral types of African literature. Keywords: Afriphone literature, African language literature, African literature, proto-type theory, linguistics, cognitive Science

  18. African Science Leaders Focus on Key Challenges and Opportunities (United States)

    Showstack, Randy


    While dozens of African presidents were in Washington, D. C., in early August to meet with U.S. president Barack Obama during the first U.S.-Africa Leaders Summit, African science ministers and science academy officials held their own gathering at the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to focus on challenges and opportunities related to environmental protection, climate change, development, health, poverty, technology, and other issues.

  19. South African Formula One Grand Prix: a dream or nightmare.



    In 2004 a group of South African based companies submitted a bid to the Formula One Management to host a South African Formula One Grand Prix, from 2009 in Cape Town. The group approached the government to establish a public-private partnership, due to the: • escalating hosting and infrastruture development cost, resulting in very few Formula One Grand Prix host countries undertaking hosting without government involvement; and • believe that the economic benefits of hosting the event would st...

  20. The Influence of the African American Father on Level of Self-Efficacy, Career Achievement, and Aspirations of His African American Daughter (United States)

    Stewart, April E.


    The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate the influence of perceived and desired paternal involvement of the African American father on his African American daughter. The research problem is how father involvement may influence self-efficacy, career achievements, and aspirations of African American females. This study sought to…

  1. Developing culturally sensitive cancer genetics communication aids for African Americans. (United States)

    Baty, Bonnie Jeanne; Kinney, Anita Yeomans; Ellis, Sara Marie


    The goal of this project was to develop educational materials to communicate genetic health information in a culturally sensitive manner. These materials were designed to communicate information about cancer risk, genetic testing options, and health management options in an African American kindred with a known BRCA1 mutation. Educational materials were pilot-tested in four African American focus groups varying in socioeconomic status and gender. The audiotaped focus groups consisted of presentation of the educational materials, followed by a feedback session led by an African American facilitator. Qualitative analysis of the focus group transcripts identified important themes and the educational materials were revised in response to the participants' suggestions. The products included a booklet and a flip chart for use in educational sessions. Focus group participants recommended a substantial reduction in technical detail, and recommended that information be personalized and made relevant to the lives of the target population. Other critical themes included the importance of building trust in the medical system and avoiding words and images that have strong negative associations in the African American community. Strategies that were successful included nontechnical images to explain genetic concepts, clip art images to energize and personalize word slides, vibrant color, identifiably African American figures, and the development of themes relevant to many African Americans. The use of these materials in an ongoing study offering BRCA1 counseling and testing to a large, rural Louisiana-based kindred will provide additional feedback about the effectiveness of the culturally tailored genetic education and counseling materials.

  2. Solving the Traveling Salesman's Problem Using the African Buffalo Optimization (United States)

    Odili, Julius Beneoluchi; Mohmad Kahar, Mohd Nizam


    This paper proposes the African Buffalo Optimization (ABO) which is a new metaheuristic algorithm that is derived from careful observation of the African buffalos, a species of wild cows, in the African forests and savannahs. This animal displays uncommon intelligence, strategic organizational skills, and exceptional navigational ingenuity in its traversal of the African landscape in search for food. The African Buffalo Optimization builds a mathematical model from the behavior of this animal and uses the model to solve 33 benchmark symmetric Traveling Salesman's Problem and six difficult asymmetric instances from the TSPLIB. This study shows that buffalos are able to ensure excellent exploration and exploitation of the search space through regular communication, cooperation, and good memory of its previous personal exploits as well as tapping from the herd's collective exploits. The results obtained by using the ABO to solve these TSP cases were benchmarked against the results obtained by using other popular algorithms. The results obtained using the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm are very competitive. PMID:26880872

  3. Aspects of size and geography of an African cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Nwagwu


    Full Text Available In this study, data on web links collected from 15 African countries, three with the highest Internet penetration in each of North, West, Central, East, and South regions were used to study the number and origins of links to Africa. The sample has a ratio of one Internet user per 12 persons. Altogether, all African countries generated a total of 124,047,702 Web pages and 30,546,967 inlinks to the pages, an average of about 0.25 links per page. But the sample constituted which 28% of all the countries in the region generated 98,629,700 pages and 21,272,500 inlinks, an average of about 0.21 inlinks per page. South Africa ranked highest in web pages and web links per population and also received the highest number of inlinks from other African countries and the G8. However, Kenya linked other African countries more than the others did. Population size does not relate to number of web pages, self-inlinks, and inlinks or penetration, but relates positively with number of Internet users. Among others, a major step in boosting use of Internet resources in Africa will be in developing policies that will encourage African countries to use information developed by other African countries.

  4. Cultural barriers to African American participation in anxiety disorders research. (United States)

    Williams, Monnica T; Beckmann-Mendez, Diana A; Turkheimer, Eric


    Anxiety disorders are understudied, underdiagnosed, and undertreated in African Americans. Research focused on the phenomenology, etiology, and treatment of anxiety in African Americans has been hampered by lack of inclusion of this population in clinical research studies. The reason for exclusion is not well understood, although cultural mistrust has been hypothesized as a major barrier to research participation. This article reviews the relevant literature to date and examines the experience of 6 African American adults who participated in a larger clinical assessment study about anxiety. Drawing upon in-depth semistructured interviews about their subjective experiences, we examined participant perspectives about the assessment process, opinions about African American perception of anxiety studies, and participant-generated ideas about how to improve African American participation. Based on a qualitative analysis of responses, feelings of mistrust emerged as a dominant theme. Concerns fell under 6 categories, including not wanting to speak for others, confidentiality, self and group presentation concerns, repercussions of disclosure, potential covert purposes of the study, and the desire to confide only in close others. Suggestions for increasing African American participation are discussed, including assurances of confidentiality, adequate compensation, and a comfortable study environment.

  5. Solving the Traveling Salesman's Problem Using the African Buffalo Optimization. (United States)

    Odili, Julius Beneoluchi; Mohmad Kahar, Mohd Nizam


    This paper proposes the African Buffalo Optimization (ABO) which is a new metaheuristic algorithm that is derived from careful observation of the African buffalos, a species of wild cows, in the African forests and savannahs. This animal displays uncommon intelligence, strategic organizational skills, and exceptional navigational ingenuity in its traversal of the African landscape in search for food. The African Buffalo Optimization builds a mathematical model from the behavior of this animal and uses the model to solve 33 benchmark symmetric Traveling Salesman's Problem and six difficult asymmetric instances from the TSPLIB. This study shows that buffalos are able to ensure excellent exploration and exploitation of the search space through regular communication, cooperation, and good memory of its previous personal exploits as well as tapping from the herd's collective exploits. The results obtained by using the ABO to solve these TSP cases were benchmarked against the results obtained by using other popular algorithms. The results obtained using the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm are very competitive.

  6. A critical analysis on African Traditional Religion and the Trinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jele S. Manganyi


    Full Text Available To what extent do the resources of African Traditional Religion (ATR contribute towards Christian theological discourse and benefit the African church? ATR is accommodated in the African Initiated Churches (AICs. The members of these churches aim to be Christian without losing their African identity. ATR is a religion that was practised throughout Africa before the arrival of the Western missionaries. The core premise of ATR is the maintenance of African culture and its main feature is loyalty to the ancestors and the accompanying rituals that express this loyalty. This study addresses the appropriateness of ATR’s resources in terms of their contribution to the doctrine of the Trinity. When the early church worshipped God the Father and God the Son (Jesus in the presence of the Holy Spirit, a tension developed. The questions of monotheism versus polytheism and the nature and position of Jesus within the Trinity were put forward and addressed. The doctrine of the Trinity is uniquely Christian and includes the belief in Jesus Christ as the Son of God who alone mediates between God and men. There is, on the other hand, an understanding that Africans worship one Supreme Being and venerate ancestors as intermediaries to the one Supreme Being, without clear roles being ascribed to Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit. This article enquires whether the process of Africanisation and contextualisation consciously or unconsciously downgraded Jesus Christ as Mediator who came to reveal who God is and to reconcile humankind to him.

  7. Clozapine underutilization and discontinuation in African Americans due to leucopenia. (United States)

    Kelly, Deanna L; Kreyenbuhl, Julie; Dixon, Lisa; Love, Raymond C; Medoff, Deborah; Conley, Robert R


    Clozapine use has been notably lower in African American patients than in Caucasians. It has been suggested that lower normal ranges for white blood cell (WBC) counts in African Americans, known as benign ethnic neutropenia, may account partially for the disparity. We examined the rates of leucopenia and agranulocytosis as reasons for discontinuation of clozapine in a sample of 1875 patients with schizophrenia treated in the State of Maryland. Between 1989 and 1999, 5.3% (31/588) of African Americans and 2.4% (31/1287) of Caucasians discontinued clozapine treatment due to leucopenia (chi square = 10.35, df = 1, P = 0.001). No African American patients developed agranulocytosis while 8 Caucasian patients (0.62%) developed this blood dyscrasia. Discontinuations due to leucopenia occurred throughout treatment. Discontinuations due to agranulocytosis occurred primarily in the first 18 weeks (7/8; 87.5% patients with agranulocytosis). It is likely that African Americans had clozapine discontinued unnecessarily due to benign ethnic neutropenia. We concur with recent recommendations to acknowledge differences in WBC values in African Americans and to modify prescribing guidelines or formally acknowledge benign ethnic leucopenia like in other countries in order to facilitate greater use of clozapine in these patients.

  8. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt (United States)


    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac#x2122;) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere. Un vaccin conjugué contenant un polysaccharide du sérogroupe A méningococcique et une anatoxine du tétanos (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac™) est en cours de déploiement dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite. L’ expérience avec d’ autres vaccins conjugués polysaccharide/protéine a montré qu’ une partie importante de leur succès a été leur capacité à empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé et donc à arrêter la transmission et à induire une immunité de group. Si PsA-TT doit d’ atteindre l’ objectif de prévenir les épidémies, il devrait être en mesure d’ empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé ainsi que la méningococcie invasive et le fait que PsA-TT puisse emp

  9. 'We are doing our best': African and African-Caribbean fatherhood, health and preventive primary care services, in England. (United States)

    Williams, Robert; Hewison, Alistair; Stewart, Mel; Liles, Clive; Wildman, Stuart


    Recent policy pronouncements emphasise the importance of engaging fathers with preventive primary care services. However, in England, there is a paucity of literature which examines African and African-Caribbean fathers' experiences of service provision. This paper reports a study that investigated African and African-Caribbean fathers' beliefs about fatherhood, health and preventive primary care services, with the aim of addressing the deficit in the literature. Nine focus groups involving 46 African and African-Caribbean fathers, recruited using purposive sampling, were undertaken between October 2008-January 2009. Fatherhood was seen as a core aspect of the participants' identities. The fathers enacted these identities in a number of ways, such as caring for and protecting children, which were influenced by spirituality, relationships with women, paid work and racism. The fathers had concerns about their bodies, medical conditions, physical activity and forms of consumption. However, their primary focus was on maintaining and improving the well-being of their children. This resulted in them neglecting their own health needs as they had to meet the obligations of family life and paid work. The fathers reported limited contact with preventive primary care services and were unaware of their purpose, function and availability. They identified ethnicity as a positive asset, and felt their families and communities had particular strengths. However they acknowledged that structural constraints, including racism, influenced their perceptions of and access to local health services. The engagement of African and African-Caribbean fathers needs to be addressed more specifically in policy as part of a broader programme of action to tackle health inequalities. In addition, child health services could build on fathers' commitment to children's well-being through practice that addresses fathers' as well as mothers' needs in families.

  10. Towards the Atlas of human African trypanosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattioli Raffaele C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Updated, accurate and comprehensive information on the distribution of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, also known as sleeping sickness, is critically important to plan and monitor control activities. We describe input data, methodology, preliminary results and future prospects of the HAT Atlas initiative, which will allow major improvements in the understanding of the spatial distribution of the disease. Methods Up-to-date as well as historical data collected by national sleeping sickness control programmes, non-governmental organizations and research institutes have been collated over many years by the HAT Control and Surveillance Programme of the World Health Organization. This body of information, unpublished for the most part, is now being screened, harmonized, and analysed by means of database management systems and geographical information systems (GIS. The number of new HAT cases and the number of people screened within a defined geographical entity were chosen as the key variables to map disease distribution in sub-Saharan Africa. Results At the time of writing, over 600 epidemiological reports and files from seventeen countries were collated and included in the data repository. The reports contain information on approximately 20,000 HAT cases, associated to over 7,000 different geographical entities. The oldest epidemiological records considered so far date back to 1985, the most recent having been gathered in 2008. Data from Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon from the year 2000 onwards were fully processed and the preliminary regional map of HAT distribution is presented. Conclusion The use of GIS tools and geo-referenced, village-level epidemiological data allow the production of maps that substantially improve on the spatial quality of previous cartographic products of similar scope. The significant differences between our preliminary outputs and earlier maps of HAT

  11. South African Student Constructed Indlebe Radio Telescope (United States)

    McGruder, Charles H.; MacPherson, Stuart; Janse Van Vuuren, Gary Peter


    The Indlebe Radio Telescope (IRT) is a small transit telescope with a 5 m diameter parabolic reflector working at 21 cm. It was completely constructed by South African (SA) students from the Durban University of Technology (DUT), where it is located. First light occurred on 28 July 2008, when the galactic center, Sagittarius A, was detected. As a contribution to the International Year of Astronomy in 2009, staff members in the Department of Electronic Engineering at DUT in 2006 decided to have their students create a fully functional radio telescope by 2009. The specific project aims are to provide a visible project that could generate interest in science and technology in high school students and to provide a real world system for research in radio astronomy in general and an optimization of low noise radio frequency receiver systems in particular. These aims must be understood in terms of the SA’s government interests in radio astronomy. SA is a partner in the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project, has constructed the Karoo Array Telescope (KAT) and MeerKat, which is the largest and most sensitive radio telescope in the southern hemisphere. SA and its partners in Africa are investing in the construction of the African Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (AVN), an array of radio telescopes throughout Africa as an extension of the existing global Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (VLBI). These projects will allow SA to make significant contributions to astronomy and enable astronomy to contribute to the scientific education and development goals of the country. The IRT sees on a daily basis the transit of Sag A. The transit time is influenced by precession, nutation, polar motion, aberration, celestial pole offset, proper motion, length of the terrestrial day and variable ionospheric refraction. Of these eight factors six are either predictable or measureable. To date neither celestial pole offset nor variable ionospheric refraction are predicable


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sooryamoorthy


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The production of scientific publications in engineering in South Africa has expanded over the last three decades. Because engineering is an important science, this expansion has implications for the growth and development of the economy. Drawing on a sample range of years of the publications stored in the ISI Web of Knowledge, the engineering publications of South Africans for a 30-year period from 1975-2005 are analysed. This analysis shows that the production of scientific publications in engineering by South African researchers has increased during the analysed period; that the number of researchers per publication has grown; that the number of countries collaborating with South Africa has increased; and that the number of sole-authored papers has decreased. Domestic collaboration (between researchers within South Africa has decreased, while international collaboration has grown considerably. The key objective of the paper is to find out whether the production of publications is related to the level of collaboration, and to see how collaboration can be regressed from other known variables. It is clear from the study that collaboration is a decisive factor in the production of scientific publications in engineering in South Africa.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING Die produksie van wetenskaplike publikasies in ingenieurswese in Suid-Afrika het oor die afgelope drie dekades toegeneem. Aangesien ingenieurswese ‘n belangrike wetenskap is, beïnvloed dié toename die groei en ontwikkeling van die ekonomie. Deur na ‘n monster van voormalige publikasies op die “ISI Web of Science” te kyk, is die publikasies in ingenieurswese deur Suid-Afrikaners oor ‘n 30 jaar periode van 1975-2005 geanaliseer. Die analise toon dat die produksie van wetenskaplike publikasies in ingenieurswese deur Suid-Afrikaanse navorsers toegeneem het oor dié tydperk; dat die aantal navorsers per publikasie gegroei het; dat daar ‘n toename was in die

  13. Interactions between Oceanic Saharan Air Layer and African Easterly Jet- African Easterly Waves System (United States)

    Hosseinpour, F.; Wilcox, E. M.


    Aerosols have robust influences on multi-scale climatic systems and variability. Non-linear aerosol-cloud-climate interactions depend on many parameters such as aerosol features, regional atmospheric dynamics and variability. Although there are remarkable modeling studies indicating that aerosols induce robust modifications in cloud properties, circulations and the hydrological cycle, many of the physical and dynamical processes involving in these complex interactions between aerosols and Earth's system are still poorly understood. Better understanding the contribution of aerosols with atmospheric phenomena and their transient changes are crucial for efforts to evaluate climate predictions by next generation climate models. This study provides strong evidence of mechanistic relationships between perturbations of the oceanic Saharan air layer (OSAL) and anomalies of atmospheric circulations over the eastern tropical Atlantic/Africa. These relationships are characterized using an ensemble of daily datasets including the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS), and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWIFS) for the boreal summer season. The study is motivated by previous results suggesting that oceanic dust-induced large-scale to meso-scale climatic adjustments. Our hypothesis is that perturbations in OSAL significantly interact with regional climate variability through African Easterly Jet- African Easterly Waves (AEJ-AEW) system. Passive/ active phases of AEWs in the northern and southern-track wave packets are associated with dipole patterns of thermal/dynamical anomalies correlated with perturbations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) in OSAL. Enhanced (suppressed) dust AOD in OSAL are significantly correlated with convective re-circulation within subsidence region of Hadley cell as well as robust mid-level dipole vorticity disturbances downstream of the AEJ core

  14. Towards a holistic review of Pan-Africanism: linking the idea and the movement. (United States)

    Young, Kurt B


    This article explores two general approaches to defining Pan-Africanism. Traditional Pan-Africanism reflects definitions of Pan-Africanism that begin with the assumption that distinctions must be made between early "ideas" of group identification with Africa versus modern organizational activities. However, holistic approaches emphasize the interconnectivity of Pan-African ideas and concrete activities. This discussion explores these approaches and their implications for contemporary analyses of Pan-Africanism. The essay concludes that the holistic line is best suited for developing a new model in Pan-Africanism.

  15. African ethnobotany and healthcare: emphasis on mozambique. (United States)

    Bandeira, S O; Gaspar, F; Pagula, F P


    The relationship between common medicinal plants and major health problems in Africa, specifically Mozambique, is presented here. Emphasis is given to plant species largely used to solve or slow down diarrhoea, malaria, respiratory, and sexual complaints. These diseases, together with malnutrition/ anaemia, mental diseases, and rheumatism/arthritis are the main concern of healthcare countrywide. Diarrhoea is divided into common diarrhoea, bloody-diarrhoea, and cholera; plant species are normally used to slow down diarrhoea recurrence. Tannin is the main chemical compound with both anti-diarrhoeal and antiseptic properties. Traditional medicine seems to be rather helpful in alleviating malaria symptoms such as fever, vomiting, and diarrhoea. Special reference is made to Momordica balsamina, which is highly used to cure vomiting apparently associated with bilis and fever. Rauvolfia caffra contains reserpine, a compound used as anti-hypertension agent. This species is also used as an anti-malarial agent. Traditional medicine seems to have a role in slowing opportunistic infections related to the AIDS virus such as diarrhoea, pneumonia, and skin infections. Prostate hypertrophy is traditionally medicated using mostly Prunus africana and Hypoxis hemerocallidea, species known to contain phytosterol. Research for bioactive compounds in African plants is still in its infancy.

  16. Hysteresis in the Central African Rainforest (United States)

    Pietsch, Stephan Alexander; Elias Bednar, Johannes; Gautam, Sishir; Petritsch, Richard; Schier, Franziska; Stanzl, Patrick


    Past climate change caused severe disturbances of the Central African rainforest belt, with forest fragmentation and re-expansion due to drier and wetter climate conditions. Besides climate, human induced forest degradation affected biodiversity, structure and carbon storage of Congo basin rainforests. Information on climatically stable, mature rainforest, unaffected by human induced disturbances, provides means of assessing the impact of forest degradation and may serve as benchmarks of carbon carrying capacity over regions with similar site and climate conditions. BioGeoChemical (BGC) ecosystem models explicitly consider the impacts of site and climate conditions and may assess benchmark levels over regions devoid of undisturbed conditions. We will present a BGC-model validation for the Western Congolian Lowland Rainforest (WCLRF) using field data from a recently confirmed forest refuge, show model - data comparisons for disturbed und undisturbed forests under different site and climate conditions as well as for sites with repeated assessment of biodiversity and standing biomass during recovery from intensive exploitation. We will present climatic thresholds for WCLRF stability, analyse the relationship between resilience, standing C-stocks and change in climate and finally provide evidence of hysteresis.

  17. [Lingualized occlusion in the South African context]. (United States)

    Oberholzer, T G; Geerts, G A V M


    The search for the ideal artificial tooth arrangement that maximizes denture stability, comfort, aesthetics, and function has occupied the dental literature for many years and still continues to do so. Of the many occlusal schemes that have been presented to the dental profession, that of lingualized occlusion has emerged as one of the more popular. The popularity of lingualized occlusion stems from the simplicity and flexibility of the concept and from its wide application to clinical practice (Parr & Ivanhoe, 1996). The registration of a repeatable correct centric jaw relation is not always possible. We don't know whether the patient will use centric relation during normal function. It is therefore useful to provide the patient with some freedom of movement around centric. lingualized occlusion provides freedom in centric. For many dentists the arrangement of artificial denture teeth into balanced occlusion is difficult and time consuming. As a result this task is most often performed by the dental technician. In the South African countryside dental laboratories are often far away. If dentists perform the arrangement of the denture teeth, time and costs can be saved. The mounting of denture teeth in lingualized occlusion is simple and fast. This will motivate dentists to arrange denture teeth themselves, with obvious benefits for both the patient and the dentist. The School of Oral Health Sciences of the University of Stellenbosch teaches this concept to its undergraduate students in order to improve the prosthetic service to the large edentulous population of South Africa.

  18. Immunophenotypic lymphocyte profiles in human african trypanosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Boda

    Full Text Available Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT is a deadly vector-born disease caused by an extracellular parasite, the trypanosome. Little is known about the cellular immune responses elicited by this parasite in humans. We used multiparameter flow cytometry to characterize leukocyte immunophenotypes in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 33 HAT patients and 27 healthy controls identified during a screening campaign in Angola and Gabon. We evaluated the subsets and activation markers of B and T lymphocytes. Patients had a higher percentage of CD19+ B lymphocytes and activated B lymphocytes in the blood than did controls, but lacked activated CD4+ T lymphocytes (CD25+. Patients displayed no increase in the percentage of activated CD8+ T cells (HLA-DR+, CD69+ or CD25+, but memory CD8 T-cell levels (CD8+CD45RA2 were significantly lower in patients than in controls, as were effector CD8 T-cell levels (CD8+CD45RA+CD62L2. No relationship was found between these blood immunophenotypes and disease severity (stage 1 vs 2. However, CD19+ B-cell levels in the CSF increased with disease severity. The patterns of T and B cell activation in HAT patients suggest that immunomodulatory mechanisms may operate during infection. Determinations of CD19+ B-cell levels in the CSF could improve disease staging.

  19. Illness beliefs in African Americans with hypertension. (United States)

    Pickett, Stephanie; Allen, Wilfred; Franklin, Mary; Peters, Rosalind M


    Guided by Leventhal's common sense model of illness representations, this study examined the relationship between hypertension beliefs and self-care behaviors necessary for blood pressure (BP) control in a sample of 111 community-dwelling African Americans with hypertension. Participants completed the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire, BP Self-Care Scale, and a demographic data sheet, and had BP measured. Analyses revealed that beliefs about the causes of hypertension differed by gender and educational level. Stress-related causal attributions accounted for 34.7% of the variance in hypertension beliefs. Participants who believed stress or external factors caused hypertension were less likely to engage in healthy self-care behaviors (e.g., keeping doctor visits, eating low-salt, low-fat diets). Results suggest that patients who are nonadherent with hypertension self-care recommendations may hold hypertension beliefs that are not consistent with the medically endorsed views of this disease. To more effectively treat and control BP, providers should assess patients' hypertension beliefs.

  20. Southern African NGOs seize the initiative. (United States)

    Morna, C L


    The Southern African Network of AIDS Service Organizations (SANASO) was begun at a conference in Harare, Zimbabwe in May 1990, marking the 1st local unification of Non-Governmental agencies in AIDS prevention and care. This region has about 20% of Africa's reported AIDS cases, but has seen an 8-fold increase in 2 years. The goals of the organization are to facilitate sharing of information, ideas and experiences, to promote cooperation among the NGOs, to move toward common positions on AIDS and to articulate to the rest of the world the needs of the region as regards AIDS. While the incidence ranges from 6/million in Lesotho, to 906/million in Malawi, the countries represented have varied but pressing political and economic situations making HIV infection a serious threat. Examples are economic contraction with reduced funding of health and education; rapid urbanization; wars in Angola and Mozambique, with associated sexual abuse, refugees and displaced people; and in South Africa Apartheid, unemployment, forced relocation, violence and even suspicion of the government's AIDS program. Discussions on how the NGOs in particular can help change peoples' behavior resulted in the suggestion that they involve People With AIDS (PWA), to give the disease "a face" and lessen fear and alienation. The best example of such a successful approach is the home-based care instituted by Zambia's Chikankata Salvation Army Mission Hospital.

  1. Clinical photography among African cleft caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Babatunde Olaitan


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this paper is to document the practice of photography among clinicians whose daily work depends and is influenced so much by medical photography. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires documenting the bio data, place of practice, and experience of cleft caregivers with clinical photography were distributed. Knowledge of rules guiding clinical photography and adherence to them were also asked. Types of camera used were documented and knowledge of the value of clinical photographs were also inquired. Results: Plastic surgeons constitute the highest proportion of 27 (38.6%, followed by Oral and Maxillofacial surgeons with 14 (20.0%. Twenty one (30.0% of the respondents always, 21 (30.0% often, 12 (17.1% frequently, while 9 respondents sometimes took photographs of their patients. Suggested uses of clinical photographs included training, 52 (74.3%, education, 51 (72.9%, medicolegal, 44 (62.9% and advertisement, 44 (62.9% among others. Twenty two (31.4% did not know that there were standard guidelines for taking clinical photographs. Twenty three (32.9% of them did not seek the consent of the patients before taking clinical photographs. Conclusion: While the practice of clinical photography is high among African cleft caregivers, there is a need for further education on the issues of standard rules and obtaining consent from patients.

  2. Clinical photography among African cleft caregivers (United States)

    Olaitan, Peter Babatunde; Oseni, Ganiyu Oladiran


    Objective: The aim of this paper is to document the practice of photography among clinicians whose daily work depends and is influenced so much by medical photography. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires documenting the bio data, place of practice, and experience of cleft caregivers with clinical photography were distributed. Knowledge of rules guiding clinical photography and adherence to them were also asked. Types of camera used were documented and knowledge of the value of clinical photographs were also inquired. Results: Plastic surgeons constitute the highest proportion of 27 (38.6%), followed by Oral and Maxillofacial surgeons with 14 (20.0%). Twenty one (30.0%) of the respondents always, 21 (30.0%) often, 12 (17.1%) frequently, while 9 respondents sometimes took photographs of their patients. Suggested uses of clinical photographs included training, 52 (74.3%), education, 51 (72.9%), medicolegal, 44 (62.9%) and advertisement, 44 (62.9%) among others. Twenty two (31.4%) did not know that there were standard guidelines for taking clinical photographs. Twenty three (32.9%) of them did not seek the consent of the patients before taking clinical photographs. Conclusion: While the practice of clinical photography is high among African cleft caregivers, there is a need for further education on the issues of standard rules and obtaining consent from patients. PMID:22279284

  3. South African court rejects country's new constitution. (United States)


    Fundamental principles designed to ensure that South Africa's new constitution upholds a wide range of individual rights and freedoms and establishes a responsive government with a balanced separation of powers, including recognition of the role of traditional tribal leadership, were adopted into the current interim constitution shortly before the 1994 free elections which brought Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress to power. In a judgement issued on September 6, 1996, South Africa's Constitutional Court rejected the country's new draft constitution, arguing that it failed to meet the standards of nine of the 34 principles established at the Kempton Park negotiations. The Constitutional Assembly is comprised of a joint meeting of the National Assembly and Senate. One of the court's major objections to the constitution concerned the proposed structure of rule, which was seen to give inadequate power to South Africa's nine provinces as compared with the national government. However, the bill of rights was almost entirely upheld. The bill would create a favorable environment for legalized abortion and guarantee a universal right of access to health care, including reproductive health services

  4. Relationship of Pain and Ancestry in African American Women (United States)

    Robbins, John A.; Qi, Lihong; Garcia, Lorena; Younger, Jarred W.; Seldin, Michael F.


    Background African Americans are reported to be more sensitive to pain than European Americans. Pain sensitivity has been shown to be genetically linked in animal models and is likely to be in humans. Methods 11,239 self-identified African American post menopausal women enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative had percentage African ancestry determined by ancestry informative markers, “Pain Construct” measurements and covariate information. They answered 5 questions about specific types and location of pain, such as joint, neck, low back, headache, and urinary. They also answered 2 questions which were used to derive a “Pain Construct”, a measure of general pain scored on a scale of 1 to 100. Associations were tested in linear regression models adjusting for age, self-reported medical conditions, neighborhood socio-economic status, education, and depression. Results In the unadjusted model of the 5 specific types of pain measures, greater pain perception was associated with a higher proportion of African ancestry. However, some of the specific types of pain measures were no longer associated with African ancestry after adjustment for other study covariates. The Pain Construct was statistically significantly associated with African ancestry in both the unadjusted [Beta = −0.132, 95% confidence interval (C I) = −099 – −0.164; r = −0.075, 95% CI −0.056 – −0.093] and the adjusted models (Beta = −0.069 95% CI = −0.04 – 0.10). Conclusions Greater African ancestry was associated with higher levels of self-reported pain although this accounted for only a minor fraction of the overall variation in the Pain Construct. PMID:25752262

  5. Alterations in Some Haematological Parameters of The African Snakehead: Parachanna africans Exposed to Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The haematological alterations produced on exposure of the African snakehead, Parachanna africans to the sublethal concentration (0.0, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 mg/L of cadmium (Cd2+ for 21 days have been studied. Red blood cell (RBC count, haemoglobin (Hb concentration, haematocrit (Hct, the mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH and the mean corpuscular volume (MCV levels were decreased with an increase in exposure concentration, but the level of the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC was increased. These alterations could be attributed to haemolysis and impairment of haemoglobin synthesis, resulting in a hypochromic microcytic anaemia, induced by exposure to cadmium. Cadmium exposure also caused significant decreases in white blood cell (WBC count. The primary consequence of the observed changes in total and differential leucocyte counts in stressed fish was attributed to suppression of the immune system and increased susceptibility to disease. Plasma glucose and total plasma protein concentrations were significantly decreased; showing that cadmium affects the fish energy metabolism. The present study thus confirmed that haematological parameters are very sensitive indicators of fish organism response to chemicals in this case cadmium.

  6. The genetics of East African populations: a Nilo-Saharan component in the African genetic landscape. (United States)

    Dobon, Begoña; Hassan, Hisham Y; Laayouni, Hafid; Luisi, Pierre; Ricaño-Ponce, Isis; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Wijmenga, Cisca; Tahir, Hanan; Comas, David; Netea, Mihai G; Bertranpetit, Jaume


    East Africa is a strategic region to study human genetic diversity due to the presence of ethnically, linguistically, and geographically diverse populations. Here, we provide new insight into the genetic history of populations living in the Sudanese region of East Africa by analysing nine ethnic groups belonging to three African linguistic families: Niger-Kordofanian, Nilo-Saharan and Afro-Asiatic. A total of 500 individuals were genotyped for 200,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Principal component analysis, clustering analysis using ADMIXTURE, FST statistics, and the three-population test were used to investigate the underlying genetic structure and ancestry of the different ethno-linguistic groups. Our analyses revealed a genetic component for Sudanese Nilo-Saharan speaking groups (Darfurians and part of Nuba populations) related to Nilotes of South Sudan, but not to other Sudanese populations or other sub-Saharan populations. Populations inhabiting the North of the region showed close genetic affinities with North Africa, with a component that could be remnant of North Africans before the migrations of Arabs from Arabia. In addition, we found very low genetic distances between populations in genes important for anti-malarial and anti-bacterial host defence, suggesting similar selective pressures on these genes and stressing the importance of considering functional pathways to understand the evolutionary history of populations.

  7. Sample views of African post-graduate students regarding English and the African languages as media of education in African schools in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abram L. Mawasha


    Full Text Available Although African post-graduates recognise the importance of African languages in the education of African children in South Africa, most of them are of the opinion that English should not only be taught as a language from grade 1, but should also be preferred as the main language of instruction for African children from the outset of schooling. In the ensuing pilot study which involved 50 post-graduates, 68% expressed this opinion as against the rest who preferred a variety of other options. The study comments on the implications of these findings for the new democratic language in education policy. Hoewel die belangrikheid van Afrikatale in die onderwys van leerlinge wie se huistale dit is, deur nagraadse studente wat ook Afrikatale praat, er ken word, me en die meeste van hulle dat Engels nie slegs as 'n taal onderrig moet word van graad 1 af nie, maar ook verkies behoort te word as die hooftaa/ van onderrig vir sulke leerlinge van die begin van hul skoolloopbaan af In die /oodsstudie wat onderneem is onder 50 nagraadse studente, het 68% hierdie mening uitgespreek Hierdie studie behandel die implikasies van hierdie bevindinge vir die nuwe demokratiese taal-in-onderwysbeleid

  8. Hypertension and hypertensive heart disease in African women. (United States)

    Sliwa, Karen; Ojji, Dike; Bachelier, Katrin; Böhm, Michael; Damasceno, Albertino; Stewart, Simon


    Hypertension and hypertensive heart disease is one of the main contributors to a growing burden of non-communicable forms of cardiovascular disease around the globe. The recently published global burden of disease series showed a 33 % increase of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy in the past two decades with long-term consequences. Africans, particularly younger African women, appear to be bearing the brunt of this increasing public health problem. Hypertensive heart disease is particularly problematic in pregnancy and is an important contributor to maternal case-fatality. European physicians increasingly need to attend to patients from African decent and need to know about unique aspects of disease presentation and pharmacological as well as non-pharmacological care. Reductions in salt consumption, as well as timely detection and treatment of hypertension and hypertensive heart disease remain a priority for effective primary and secondary prevention of CVD (particularly stroke and CHF) in African women. This article reviews the pattern, potential causes and consequences and treatment of hypertension and hypertensive heart disease in African women, identifying the key challenges for effective primary and secondary prevention in this regard.

  9. Genetic epidemiology of hypertension: an update on the African diaspora. (United States)

    Daniel, Harold I; Rotimi, Charles N


    Hypertension is a serious global public health problem, affecting approximately 600 million people worldwide. The lifetime risk of developing the condition exceeds 50% in most populations. Despite considerable success in the pharmacological treatment of hypertension in all-human populations, the health-care community still lacks understanding of how and why individuals develop chronically elevated blood pressure. This gap in knowledge, and the high prevalence of hypertension and associated complications in some populations of African descent, have led some to conclude that hypertension is a "different disease" in people of African descent. Despite considerable evidence from epidemiologic studies showing that blood pressure distribution in populations of the African diaspora spans the known spectrum for all human populations, theories in support of unique "defects" among populations of African descent continue to gain wide acceptance. To date, no known environmental factors or genetic variants relevant to the pathophysiology of human hypertension have been found to be unique to Black populations. However, available genetic epidemiologic data demonstrate differential distributions of risk factors that are consistent with current environmental and geographic origins. This review summarizes the available evidence and demonstrates that as the exposure to known risk factors for hypertension (eg, excess consumption of salt and calories, stress, sedentary lifestyle, and degree of urbanization) increases among genetically susceptible individuals, the prevalence of hypertension and associated complications also increases across populations of the African diaspora. This observation is true for all human populations.

  10. Impact of Globalization on Traditional African Religion and Cultural Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphonse Kasongo


    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the impact of the paradigm of global culture on African tradition particularly on the role of African traditional women in conflict prevention and resolution. Global culture, a part of globalization, has not only transported the good side of the economic and social development across the globe but has also changed in the culture of host communities. Some changes include the mode of production and the way things are done, whileothers include the symbolic interaction or the appreciation ofhow social facts are to be seen and appreciated. For example, the change from collectivism social structure that characterizes African society to individualism structure that characterizes the market-oriented culture of western society. This change is without doubt that “Globalization is one of the most important and developed theories of the twentieth century” (Ritzer, 2008: 230. However, one aspect that justifies the importance of this development is the culture (termed civilization in other areas that the application of this concept transports from one location to another. This cultural aspect may be economic, marketing oriented, or just a change in rationale behavior of consumption and production. Nevertheless, this change questions the static existence of rapport, the role that traditional culture plays in the life of African communities, and the impact traditional religions still have on the essence of African culture.

  11. Human genome and the african personality: implications for social work. (United States)

    Mickel, Elijah; Miller, Sheila D


    The integration of the human genome with the African personality should be viewed as an interdependent whole. The African personality, for purposes of this article, comprises Black experiences, Negritude, and an Africa-centered axiology and epistemology. The outcome results in a spiritual focused collective consciousness. Anthropologically, historically (and with the Human Genome Project), genetically Africa has proven to be the source of all human life. Human kind wherever they exist on the planet using the African personality must be viewed as interconnected. Although racism and its progeny discrimination preexist the human genome project (HGP), the human genome provides an evidence-based rationale for the end to all policy and subsequent practice based on race and racism. Policy must be based on evidence to be competent practice. It would be remiss if not irresponsible of social work and the other behavioral scientist concerned with intervention and prevention behaviors to not infuse the findings of the HCPs. The African personality is a concept that provides a wholistic way to evaluate human behavior from an African worldview.

  12. Informal learning in SME majors for African American female undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezella McPherson


    Full Text Available This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as the framework to better understand their opportunities to engage in free-choice science learning. The article demonstrates that African American women have access to cultural capital and informal science learning inside and outside of home and school environments in P-16 settings. In primary and secondary schools, African American girls acquire cultural capital and access to free-choice science learning in the home environment, museums, science fairs, student organizations and clubs. However, in high school African American female teenagers have fewer informal science learning opportunities like those such as those provided in primary school settings. In college, cultural capital is transmitted through informal science learning that consisted of involvement in student organizations, research projects, seminars, and conferences. These experiences contributed to their engagement and persistence in SME fields in K-16 settings. This research adds to cultural capital and informal science learning research by allowing scholars to better understand how African American women have opportunities to learn about the hidden curriculum of science through informal science settings throughout the educational pipeline.

  13. Psychodynamics of Coping and Survival of the African-American Female in a Changing World. (United States)

    Young, Carlene


    Analyzes the sociopsychological factors that account for increased stressors and dysfunctionality in contemporary African American women. Discusses the importance of African American family life values in combating dehumanization. (FMW)

  14. 76 FR 44976 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Heroic Africans... (United States)


    ... Exhibition Determinations: ``Heroic Africans: Legendary Leaders, Iconic Sculptures'' SUMMARY: Notice is... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Heroic Africans: Legendary Leaders, Iconic Sculptures,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural significance....

  15. Pan-africanism and its impact on the sierra leonean elite up to 1945


    faiza, meberbeche


    Pan-africanism is a protest movement besed of the belief that all the blacks of african descent inside africa and throughout the diaspora must unite under a major and effective global force tp achieve the lost dignity.

  16. Control and surveillance of human African trypanosomiasis. (United States)


    In the 1960s, it appeared that human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) could be effectively controlled, but by the beginning of the twenty-first century several decades of neglect had led to alarming numbers of reported new cases, with an estimated 300 000 people infected. The World Health Organization (WHO) responded with a series of initiatives aimed at bringing HAT under control again. Since 2001, the pharmaceutical companies that produce drugs for HAT have committed themselves to providing them free of charge to WHO for distribution for the treatment of patients. In addition, funds have been provided to WHO to support national sleeping sickness control programmes to boost control and surveillance of the disease. That, coupled with bilateral cooperation and the work of nongovernmental organizations, helped reverse the upward trend in HAT prevalence. By 2012, the number of reported cases was fewer than 8000. This success in bringing HAT under control led to its inclusion in the WHO Roadmap for eradication, elimination and control of neglected tropical diseases, with a target set to eliminate the disease as a public health problem by 2020. A further target has been set, by countries in which HAT is endemic, to eliminate gambiense HAT by reducing the incidence of infection to zero in a defined geographical area. This report provides information about new diagnostic approaches, new therapeutic regimens and better understanding of the distribution of the disease with high-quality mapping. The roles of human and animal reservoirs and the tsetse fly vectors that transmit the parasites are emphasized. The new information has formed the basis for an integrated strategy with which it is hoped that elimination of gambiense HAT will be achieved. The report also contains recommendations on the approaches that will lead to elimination of the disease.

  17. Bessie Coleman, First African American Pilot (United States)


    Born on January 26, 1892 in Atlanta, Texas to a family of sharecroppers, Bessie Coleman grew up in poverty. Her father abandoned the family when she was nine, and her elder brothers soon left as well, leaving her mother with the four youngest of her thirteen children. While taking care of her younger sisters, Bessie completed all eight available years of primary education, excelling in math. She enrolled at the Colored Agricultural and Normal University in Langston, Oklahoma in 1910, but lack of funds forced her to leave after only one term. Five years later, she left the South and moved to Chicago to join two of her brothers, Walter and John, where she worked as a beautician for several years. An avid reader, she learned about World War I pilots in the newspaper and became intrigued by the prospect of flying. As a black woman, she had no chance of acceptance at any American pilot school, so she moved to France in 1919 and enrolled at the Ecole d'Aviation des Freres Caudon at Le Crotoy. After returning briefly to the United States, she spent one more term in France practicing more advanced flying before finally settling back in her birth country. She did exhibition flying and gave lectures across the country from 1922 to 1926. While flying, she refused to perform unless the audiences were desegregated. She was test flying a new plane on April 30, 1926 when it malfunctioned, killing both her and the mechanic who was piloting it. Her career as the world's first African American pilot inspired many who followed.

  18. Abortion laws in African Commonwealth countries. (United States)

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M


    This paper provides an overview of the range of current (1981) abortion laws in the African Commonwealth countries, traces the origins of the laws to their colonial predecessors, and discusses legal reform that would positively provide for legal termination of pregnancy. The authors claim that the range of these laws demonstrates an evolution that leads from customary/common law (Lesotho and Swaziland) to basic law (Botswana, The Gambia, Malawi, Mauritius, Nigeria's Northern States and Seychelles) to developed law (Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria's Southern States, Sierra Leone, and Uganda), and, finally, to advanced law (Zambia and Zimbabwe). The authors call for treating abortion as an issue of health and welfare as opposed to one of crime and punishment. Since most of the basic law de jure is treated and administered as developed law de facto, the authors suggest decriminalizing abortion and propose ways in which to reform the law: clarifying existing law; liberalizing existing law to allow abortion based upon certain indications; limiting/removing women's criminal liability for seeking an abortion; allowing hindsight contraception; protecting providers treating women in good faith; publishing recommended fees for services to protect poor women; protecting providers who treat women with incomplete abortion; and punishing providers who fail to provide care to women in need, with the exception of those seeking protection under a conscience clause. The authors also suggest clarifying the means by which health services involving pregnancy termination may be delivered, including: clarification of the qualifications of practitioners who may treat women; specification of the facilities that may treat women, perhaps broken down by gestational duration of the pregnancy; specifying gestational limits during which the procedure can be performed; clarifying approval procedures and consents; and allowing for conscientious objections to performing the procedure.

  19. Transvalued species in an African forest. (United States)

    Remis, Melissa J; Hardin, Rebecca


    We combined ethnographic investigations with repeated ecological transect surveys in the Dzanga-Sangha Dense Forest Reserve (RDS), Central African Republic, to elucidate consequences of intensifying mixed use of forests. We devised a framework for transvaluation of wildlife species, which means the valuing of species on the basis of their ecological, economic, and symbolic roles in human lives. We measured responses to hunting, tourism, and conservation of two transvalued species in RDS: elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla). Our methods included collecting data on encounter rates and habitat use on line transects. We recorded cross-cultural variation in ideas about and interactions with these species during participant observation of hunting and tourism encounters and ethnographic interviews with hunters, conservation staff, researchers, and tourists. Ecologically, gorillas used human-modified landscapes successfully, and elephants were more vulnerable than gorillas to hunting. Economically, tourism and encounters with elephants and gorillas generated revenues and other benefits for local participants. Symbolically, transvaluation of species seemed to undergird competing institutions of forest management that could prove unsustainable. Nevertheless, transvaluation may also offer alternatives to existing social hierarchies, thereby integrating local and transnational support for conservation measures. The study of transvaluation requires attention to transnational flows of ideas and resources because they influence transspecies interactions. Cross-disciplinary in nature, transvalution of species addresses the political and economic challenges to conservation because it recognizes the varied human communities that shape the survival of wildlife in a given site. Transvaluation of species could foster more socially inclusive management and monitoring approaches attuned to competing economic demands, specific species behaviors, and human

  20. African Easterly Jet: Structure and Maintenance (United States)

    Wu, Man-Li C.; Reale, Oreste; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Suarez, Max J.; Koster, Randy D.; Pegion, Philip J.


    This article investigates the African Easterly Jet (AEJ), its structure and the forcings contributing to its maintenance, critically revisiting previous work which attributed the maintenance of the jet to soil moisture gradients over tropical Africa. A state-of-the-art global model in a high-end computer framework is used to produce a 3-member 73-year ensemble run forced by observed SST to represent the Control run. The AEJ as produced by the Control is compared with the representation of the AEJ in the European Center for Medium Range Forecast Reanalyses (ERA-40) and other observational data sets and found very realistic. Five Experiments are then performed, each represented by sets of 3-member 22 year long (1980-2001) ensemble runs. The goal of the Experiments is to investigate the role of meridional soil moisture gradients, different land surface properties and orography. Unlike previous studies, which have suppressed soil moisture gradients within a highly idealized framework (i.e., the so-called bucket model), terrestrial evaporation control is here achieved with a highly sophisticated landsurface treatment and with an extensively tested and complex methodology. The results show that the AEJ is suppressed by a combination of absence of meridional evaporation gradients over Africa and constant vegetation, even if the individual forcings taken separately do not lead to the AEJ disappearance, but only its modification. Moreover, the suppression of orography also leads to a different circulation in which there is no AEJ. This work suggests that it is not just soil moisture gradients, but a unique combination of geographical features present only in northern tropical Africa, which causes and maintains the jet.

  1. Two Distinct mtDNA Lineages among Captive African Penguins in Japan


    Murata, Michiko; Murakami, Masaru


    ABSTRACT The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is one of the world’s most endangered seabirds. In Japan, although the number of African penguins in captivity continues to increase, genetic data have not been collected for either wild or captive populations. To reveal genetic diversity and characterization in captive African penguins, we analyzed the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a sample of 236 African penguins. Analysis of 433 bp of the control region and 1,140 b...

  2. Cross-cultural Differences in Preferred Forms of Address: Implications for Work with African American Adults


    Wanda Lott Collins; Moore, Sharon E.


    Using an individual’s last name indicates respect and contributes to positive interaction with African American clients and adults of African descent. This paper discusses the importance of using social titles as a proper form of address during, and sometimes after, the initial professional relationship. Two case vignettes will highlight potential difficulties that non-African American practitioners may experience when using first names with African Americans within the profess...

  3. African traditional widowhood rites and their benefits and/or detrimental effects on widows in a context of African Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsobane Manala


    Full Text Available Traditional Africans teach ubuntu principles of communality, mutual respect, caring and so forth, but they do not walk the talk with regard to the treatment of widows. In the footsteps of Jesus of Nazareth, Christian communities preach unconditional love, especially for the poor, marginalised and vulnerable. Implementation is, however, grossly lacking in respect of the treatment of widows. There is thus an apparent deliberate uncaring, disrespectful, discriminatory, impolite and unjust treatment of widows in African communities in spite of the ubuntu values and Christian teaching that emphasise love and caring, especially towards the grieving and thus vulnerable widows. Widows seem to be neglected and even oppressed in our time. The aim of this research is to critically examine African traditional widowhood rites and practices with special reference to the comfort or pain to which they subject African widows. The research further aims to examine the behaviour of some African Christians belonging to three congregations of one mainline church to determine whether their treatment of widows resonates with Jesus’ teaching regarding the requisite care of widows. The issue of widowhood in Africa, in terms of the apparent plight of these bereaved and grieving women, needs to be urgently addressed for change in the 21st century. A critical literature study of relevant sources and a newspaper article will be used for this research. My personal experiences and continuing observation as an insider will also inform the research in useful ways.

  4. Ocular melanoma and mammary mucinous carcinoma in an African lion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagnini Didier Q


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports of neoplasms in Panthera species are increasing, but they are still an uncommon cause of disease and death in captive wild felids. The presence of two or more primary tumor in large felids is rarely reported, and there are no documented cases of ocular melanoma and mammary mucinous carcinoma in African lions. Case presentation An ocular melanoma and a mammary mucinous carcinoma are described in an African lion (Panthera leo. The first tumour was histologically characterized by the presence of epithelioid and fusiform melanocytes, while the latter was composed of mucus-producing cells with an epithelial phenotype that contained periodic acid-Schiff (PAS and Alcian blue staining mucins. Metastases of both tumor were identified in various organs and indirect immunohistochemistry was used to characterize them. Peribiliary cysts were observed in the liver. Conclusions This is the first description of these tumor in African lions.

  5. Family therapy with unmarried African American mothers and their adolescents. (United States)

    Becker, D; Liddle, H A


    Almost two-thirds of African American births are to unmarried mothers, and these single parents are among the most economically vulnerable in the United States. The effects of chronic stressors such as poverty can compromise the ability of these mothers to parent effectively, particularly during the developmental period of adolescence, typically a stressful phase of parenting. This article describes a multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) approach to working with African American adolescents who have drug and/or behavior problems. It is maintained that addressing the intrapersonal functioning of African American single mothers is vital if they are to re-establish the attachment bonds necessary for the maintenance of essential parental influence in the lives of their adolescents. Through systematic attention to the parent as an individual, leading to a balance between self-care and care for others, parental supervision is more easily achieved and relational impasses between parent and adolescent more equitably resolved.

  6. The frequency of an IL-18-associated haplotype in Africans. (United States)

    Thompson, Simon R; Humphries, Steve E; Thomas, Mark G; Ekong, Rosemary; Tarekegn, Ayele; Bekele, Endeshaw; Creemer, Olivia; Bradman, Neil; Veeramah, Krishna R


    Variation within the gene for the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-18 has been associated with inter-individual differences in levels of free protein and disease risk. We investigated the frequency of function-associated IL18 gene haplotypes in an extensive sample (n=2357) of African populations from across the continent. A previously identified five tagging SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) haplotype (here designated hGTATA), known to be associated with lower levels of IL-18, was observed at a frequency of 27% in a British population of recent European ancestry, but was found at low frequency (African populations. Potentially protective variants may, as a consequence, be found at low frequency in African individuals and may confer a difference in disease risk.

  7. Evaluating paratransgenesis as a potential control strategy for African trypanosomiasis. (United States)

    Medlock, Jan; Atkins, Katherine E; Thomas, David N; Aksoy, Serap; Galvani, Alison P


    Genetic-modification strategies are currently being developed to reduce the transmission of vector-borne diseases, including African trypanosomiasis. For tsetse, the vector of African trypanosomiasis, a paratransgenic strategy is being considered: this approach involves modification of the commensal symbiotic bacteria Sodalis to express trypanosome-resistance-conferring products. Modified Sodalis can then be driven into the tsetse population by cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) from Wolbachia bacteria. To evaluate the effectiveness of this paratransgenic strategy in controlling African trypanosomiasis, we developed a three-species mathematical model of trypanosomiasis transmission among tsetse, humans, and animal reservoir hosts. Using empirical estimates of CI parameters, we found that paratransgenic tsetse have the potential to eliminate trypanosomiasis, provided that any extra mortality caused by Wolbachia colonization is low, that the paratransgene is effective at protecting against trypanosome transmission, and that the target tsetse species comprises a large majority of the tsetse population in the release location.

  8. Sexual health communication within religious African-American families. (United States)

    Williams, Terrinieka T; Pichon, Latrice C; Campbell, Bettina


    While research suggests youth prefer parents and family members to serve as the primary sources of sexual health information, fear and discomfort around discussing sex with their parents may leave youth misinformed and underinformed. This study explored sexual heath communication within religious African-American families. Thirty adolescents participated in four focus groups, and 19 adults and 30 adolescents participated in six focus groups, at two predominantly African-American Christian churches in Flint, MI. All data were analyzed inductively using a constant comparison approach. Nearly all participants reported attending church weekly. Three themes emerged and are described: initiating sex talks, using mistakes as teaching tools, and clarifying prevention messages. Participants highlighted the need for religious parents to offer both religious and practical guidance to adolescents about sexual health. Findings from this study may be used to inform future sexual health promotion interventions for religious African-American families.

  9. African American parents' HPV vaccination intent and concerns. (United States)

    Sanders Thompson, Vetta L; Arnold, Lauren D; Notaro, Sheri R


    This study describes attitudes and social and environmental factors that affect African American parents' intent to vaccinate their daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV). Thirty African American parents of daughters aged nine to 17 years and no history of HPV infection completed semi-structured interviews. Interviews addressed factors that influenced intent to vaccinate, perception of community norms related to vaccination, vaccination scenarios involving place of vaccination, and vaccination prior to or after the child's initiation of sexual activity. A recurring theme was the influence of physician recommendation on African American parents' intent to obtain HPV vaccination for their daughters. Most parents reported that they could overcome barriers to vaccination, except vaccine costs and lack of insurance. While religious beliefs were important to parents, they reported that they would not interfere with vaccination decisions; fears of early sexuality due to vaccination were limited. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. A review of phytoplankton dynamics in tropical African lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F. Musil


    Full Text Available This paper provides a synthesis of current knowledge on phytoplankton production, seasonality, and stratification in tropical African lakes and considers the effects of nutrient enrichment and the potential impacts of climate warming on phytoplankton production and composition. Tropical African lakes are especially sensitive to climate warming as they experience wide fluctuations in the thermocline over a narrow range of high water temperatures. Recent climate warming has reduced phytoplankton biomass and production in the lakes. A decline in the production of palatable chlorophytes and an increase in cyanobacteria has led to reduced zooplankton production and a consequent decline in fish stocks, all of which can be associated with the elevated water temperatures. This indicates that even moderate climate warming may destabilise phytoplankton dynamics in tropical African lakes, thereby reducing water quality and food resources for planktivorous fish, with consequent negative impacts on human livelihoods.

  11. Assessment of religious and spiritual capital in African American communities. (United States)

    Holt, Cheryl L; Schulz, Emily; Williams, Beverly; Clark, Eddie M; Wang, Min Qi; Southward, Penny L


    African American faith communities are an important source of social capital. The present study adapted a theory-based social capital instrument to result in religious (e.g., from organized worship) and spiritual (e.g., from relationship with higher power) capital measures. Data from a national sample of 803 African Americans suggest the instruments have high internal reliability and are distinct from general religiosity. Measurement models confirmed factor structures. Religious capital was positively associated with self-rated health status. Religious and spiritual capital were negatively associated with depressive symptoms, but these associations largely became nonsignificant in multivariate models that controlled for demographic characteristics. An exception is for spiritual capital in the form of community participation, which retained a negative association with depressive symptoms. These instruments may have applied value for health promotion research and practice in African American communities.

  12. Culturally Conscientious Pain Measurement in Older African Americans. (United States)

    Booker, Staja Q; Herr, Keela A; Tripp-Reimer, Toni


    Despite considerable pain disparities across the care continuum, pain is an understudied health problem in older ethnic minority groups, such as African Americans. Quality pain measurement is a core task in pain management and a mechanism by which pain disparities may be reduced. Pain measurement includes the methods (e.g., assessment approaches, tools) and metrics that researchers and clinicians use to understand the characteristics of pain. However, there are significant issues and gaps that negatively affect pain measurement in older African Americans. Of concern is insufficient representation in pain research, which impedes the testing and refinement of many standardized self-report, behavioral and surrogate report, physiological, and composite measures of pain. The purposes for this article are to discuss the status of pain measurement and factors that affect our knowledge on pain measurement in older African Americans, and to provide guidance for culturally conscientious pain measurement using the available literature.

  13. Environment, Health and Climate: Impact of African aerosols (United States)

    Liousse, C.; Doumbia, T.; Assamoi, E.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Baeza, A.; Penner, J. E.; Val, S.; Cachier, H.; Xu, L.; Criqui, P.


    Fossil fuel and biofuel emissions of particles in Africa are expected to significantly increase in the near future, particularly due to rapid growth of African cities. In addition to biomass burning emissions prevailing in these areas, air quality degradation is then expected with important consequences on population health and climatic/radiative impact. In our group, we are constructing a new integrated methodology to study the relations between emissions, air quality and their impacts. This approach includes: (1) African combustion emission characterizations; (2) joint experimental determination of aerosol chemistry from ultrafine to coarse fractions and health issues (toxicology and epidemiology). (3) integrated environmental, health and radiative modeling. In this work, we show some results illustrating our first estimates of African anthropogenic emission impacts: - a new African anthropogenic emission inventory adapted to regional specificities on traffic, biofuel and industrial emissions has been constructed for the years 2005 and 2030. Biomass burning inventories were also improved in the frame of AMMA (African Monsoon) program. - carbonaceous aerosol radiative impact in Africa has been modeled with TM5 model and Penner et al. (2011) radiative code for these inventories for 2005 and 2030 and for two scenarios of emissions : a reference scenario, with no further emission controls beyond those achieved in 2003 and a ccc* scenario including planned policies in Kyoto protocol and regulations as applied to African emission specificities. In this study we will show that enhanced heating is expected with the ccc* scenarios emissions in which the OC fraction is relatively lower than in the reference scenario. - results of short term POLCA intensive campaigns in Bamako and Dakar in terms of aerosol chemical characterization linked to specific emissions sources and their inflammatory impacts on the respiratory tract through in vitro studies. In this study, organic

  14. Orienting African American Male Adolescents toward Meaningful Literacy Exchanges with Texts (United States)

    Tatum, Alfred W.


    Drawing from a sociohistorical understanding of the roles of texts for African American males and data from a recent survey of teens' meaningful experiences with texts, the author provides a general understanding of the roles of texts among African American males and African American male adolescents' meaningful relationships with texts. These…

  15. Away with Good Bantus: De-Linking African Language Literature from Culture, "Tribe" and Propriety (United States)

    Mkhize, Nomalanga


    This paper argues that the "institutionalisation" model used by universities to spearhead the intellectualisation of African languages is a non-starter for taking African languages in new creative directions. The major constraint for African language literary culture is that written output has historically been heavily bent towards…

  16. Fractal Simulations of African Design in Pre-College Computing Education (United States)

    Eglash, Ron; Krishnamoorthy, Mukkai; Sanchez, Jason; Woodbridge, Andrew


    This article describes the use of fractal simulations of African design in a high school computing class. Fractal patterns--repetitions of shape at multiple scales--are a common feature in many aspects of African design. In African architecture we often see circular houses grouped in circular complexes, or rectangular houses in rectangular…

  17. African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline


    Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

  18. Pragmatic Features in Original Narratives Written by African American Students at Three Grade Levels (United States)

    Kersting, Jessica M.; Anderson, Michele A.; Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Nelson, Nickola W.


    African American English has a rich oral tradition, with identifiable features across all 5 systems of language--phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. This is an investigation of the extent to which pragmatic features of African American oral storytelling traditions are apparent in the written stories of African American…

  19. Beginning Science Curriculum for English Speaking Tropical Africa (African Primary Science Program). Final Report. (United States)

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    The African Primary Science Program, which was established in 1960 as part of the African Education Program, has operated widely in English-speaking African countries. Science centers have been established with program assistance in seven of these: Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, and Uganda. Its goals have been centered on…

  20. "Eyes in the back of Your Head": Moral Themes in African American Narratives of Racial Conflict. (United States)

    Ward, Janie Victoria


    Analyzes African-Americans narratives of interracial conflict. Concludes that issues of power and authority are imbedded in interracial interpersonal relationships. Explores themes of justice and care in the psychological development of African Americans and in the transmission of race-related morals and values in African-American culture. (DK)

  1. Using ICTs (Educationally) for Development in an African Context: Possibilities and Limitations (United States)

    Carrim, Nazir; Taruvinga, Mandi


    This article examines the possibilities and limitations of using ICTs for development in an African context from an education perspective. Although we provide an account of the Pan-African Agenda on integrating ICTs, which covers many countries on the African continent, our focus is specifically on using ICTs for development in a South African…

  2. Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women (United States)

    Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar


    The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

  3. Aspects of the Student Engagement of African American Men in Community College (United States)

    Romney, Paulette B.


    High attrition rates of African American college students' is a continuing concern of higher education administrators. This is particularly true of African American men attending community college. African American men consistently experience low levels of scholastic achievement as a result of entering college underprepared, with academic deficits…

  4. A Case Study of the Development of African American Women Executives (United States)

    Brooks Greaux, Lisa


    Even in an era when the country elected an African American man as President of the United States, there is still a paucity of African American women executives within Fortune 500 companies. Although more African American women have joined the ranks of corporate management over the last two decades, the numbers, when compared to those of White…

  5. Untapped Talent and Unlimited Potential: African American Students and the Science Pipeline (United States)

    Russell, Melody L.


    Historically, lack of access to educational opportunities has been a constant and unfortunate reality for many African Americans. As a result of tracking and ability grouping many African American students lack the necessary accoutrement for persistence in the sciences. Some critical factors for the persistence and success of African American…

  6. African Dance Aesthetics in a K-12 Dance Setting: From History to Social Justice (United States)

    Ward, Sheila A.


    This article invites the reader to gain a deeper understanding of the aesthetics of African-based dance through the elements of tradition, transformation, and social justice. A discussion of the aesthetics of African dances within Africa and throughout the African diaspora opens the doors to present these dances in a K-12 setting, to explore a…

  7. W.E.B. Du Bois: Role Model and Mentor for African American Undergraduate Men. (United States)

    Rowley, Larry L.


    With the dearth of African American men in academe, African American college men have few opportunities to be mentored by those who can best help them make sense of their experience. Du Bois' writings give voice to much of the African American college experience and provide concrete examples of how to think, act, and persevere in the U.S.…

  8. 3 CFR 8345 - Proclamation 8345 of February 2, 2009. National African American History Month, 2009 (United States)


    ... African American History Month, 2009 8345 Proclamation 8345 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8345 of February 2, 2009 Proc. 8345 National African American History Month, 2009By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The history of African Americans is unique and...

  9. What's So "Powerful" about African American Children's Literature?: Let's Ask the Students. (United States)

    Hefflin, Bena R.


    Outlines what educators and academics describe as the "power" of children's literature and multicultural children's literature, which includes African American children's literature. Explores what four African American third-graders have to say about the "power" of six African American children's books. Concludes with the patterns and implications…

  10. African-American Literature and "Post-Racial" America. Or, You Know, Not. (United States)

    Blackwell, Jacqueline A.


    In 1983, when the author began graduate school at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville as the only black student in the Graduate English School, it offered no graduate-level African-American Literature course. Today an undergraduate student at the University of Virginia can major in African-American and African Studies and take courses…

  11. The African School of Fundamental Physics and its Applications 2012 - English subtitles

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Video Productions


    Forty-nine students from 15 African countries plus one student from Iran are currently attending the African School of Physics (ASP) 2012. The school, which is in its second year, is a unique opportunity for young African students to receive training in cutting-edge physics research. Listen to their voices…

  12. Morphological Characterization of African Bush Mango trees (Irvingia species) in the Dahomey Gap (West Africa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vihotogbe, R.; Berg, van den R.G.; Sosef, M.S.M.


    The variation of the morphological characters of bitter and sweet African bush mango trees (Irvingia species) was investigated in the Dahomey Gap which is the West African savannah woodland area separating the Upper and the Lower Guinean rain forest blocks. African bush mangoes have been rated as th

  13. The Diversity of African Musics: Zulu Kings, Xhosa Clicks, and Gumboot Dancing in South Africa (United States)

    Mason, Nicola F.


    Multicultural curricula that explore African musics often focus on the commonalities among its musical traditions. Exploring the diversity of individual African musical traditions provides a pathway to the multiplicity of sounds, cultures, beliefs, and uses inherent within African and all multicultural musics. Deeper insights into the diversity of…

  14. Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Offspring of African American Mothers with Depression (United States)

    Boyd, Rhonda C.; Diamond, Guy S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.


    Extensive research demonstrates the negative impact of maternal depression on their offspring. Unfortunately, few studies have been explored in African American families. This study examined emotional and behavioral functioning among children of African American mothers with depression. African American mothers (n = 63), with a past year diagnosis…

  15. Estimating bioenergy potentials of common African agricultural residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Kádár, Zsófia; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    peelings, cassava stalks, plantain peelings, plantain trunks, plantain leaves, cocoa husks, cocoa pods, maize cobs, maize stalks, rice straw, groundnut straw and oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB). This was done to establish detailed compositional mass balances, enabling estimations of accurate bioenergy......, North America or Brazil. For that reason, it is difficult to estimate bioenergy potentials in the African region. As a part of an on‐going research collaboration investigating production of 2g biofuels in Ghana, this study have analysed 13 common African agricultural residues: yam peelings, cassava...

  16. African American families' expectations and intentions for mental health services. (United States)

    Thompson, Richard; Dancy, Barbara L; Wiley, Tisha R A; Najdowski, Cynthia J; Perry, Sylvia P; Wallis, Jason; Mekawi, Yara; Knafl, Kathleen A


    A cross-sectional qualitative descriptive design was used to examine the links among expectations about, experiences with, and intentions toward mental health services. Individual face-to-face interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 32 African American youth/mothers dyads. Content analysis revealed that positive expectations were linked to positive experiences and intentions, that negative expectations were not consistently linked to negative experiences or intentions, nor were ambivalent expectations linked to ambivalent experiences or intentions. Youth were concerned about privacy breeches and mothers about the harmfulness of psychotropic medication. Addressing these concerns may promote African Americans' engagement in mental health services.

  17. Models of “happiness” – A South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Naudé


    Full Text Available This article explains the complex notion of “happiness” and the variety of theological approaches to happiness. It then sketches three models of happiness in the South African context: the segregation model deriving from a specific understanding of neo-Calvinism, the traditional African model based on a communitarian notion of ubuntu, and the model stemming from modernity with its emphasis on individuality and rationality. The last section is not fully developed and only outlines a Christian and Biblical understanding of happiness with emphasis on joy in the Lord that stems from both the wisdom traditions and the New Testament letters.

  18. The African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Carey F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than thirty-five sub-Saharan African countries have severe health workforce shortages. Many also struggle with a mismatch between the knowledge and competencies of health professionals and the needs of the populations they serve. Addressing these workforce challenges requires collaboration among health and education stakeholders and reform of health worker regulations. Health professional regulatory bodies, such as nursing and midwifery councils, have the mandate to reform regulations yet often do not have the resources or expertise to do so. In 2011, the United States of America Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began a four-year initiative to increase the collaboration among national stakeholders and help strengthen the capacity of health professional regulatory bodies to reform national regulatory frameworks. The initiative is called the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives. This article describes the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives and discusses its importance in implementing and sustaining national, regional, and global workforce initiatives. Discussion The African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives convenes leaders responsible for regulation from 14 countries in East, Central and Southern Africa. It provides a high profile, south-to-south collaboration to assist countries in implementing joint approaches to problems affecting the health workforce. Implemented in partnership with Emory University, the Commonwealth Secretariat, and the East, Central and Southern African College of Nursing, this initiative also supports four to five countries per year in implementing locally-designed regulation improvement projects. Over time, the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives will help to increase the regulatory capacity of health professional organizations and ultimately improve regulation and

  19. First evidence of microplastics in the African Great Lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biginagwa, Fares John; Mayoma, Bahati Sosthenes; Shashoua, Yvonne


    Microplastic contamination in the African Great Lakes is currently unreported, and compared to other regions of the world little is known about the occurrence of microplastics in African waters and their fauna. The present study was conducted in the Mwanza region of Tanzania, located......-FTIR) spectroscopy. A variety of polymer types were identified with likely sources being urban waste and consumer use. Although further research is required to fully assess the impact of plastic pollution in this region, our study is the first to report the presence of microplastics in Africa's Great Lakes...

  20. Proceedings: Onderstepoort Centenary Pan-African Veterinary Conference : foreword

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office


    Full Text Available In 1908 a Pan-African Veterinary Conference formed part of the inauguration ceremony of the Onderstepoort Veterinary Laboratory. Attended by 18 delegates from 12 countries in southern Africa, including the four colonies and three protectorates forming British South Africa, Rhodesia, German South West Africa, Portuguese East Africa, Madagascar and the Belgian Congo, discussions focussed on the animal diseases of the region with the emphasis on trypanosomosis (nagana and East Coast fever. The successful meeting was followed by a series of similar conferences held in different African countries during the first half of the 20th Century.

  1. Tribe and Village in African Organizations and Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Simon Ulrik


    -exchange to create and strengthen social bonds. Design/methodology/approach – Two books on African management are interpreted using anthropological and sociological theory as the analytical perspective. Findings – The analysis of the two works suggests that the preindustrial patterns described in the anthropological...... literature play a central role in African management and business. Practical implications – The paper concludes that manager should recognize the negative effects that may follow from a rejection of these socio-cultural patterns of behaviour. Originality/value – It introduces Marshall Sahlins’ theory...

  2. African Countries and WTO´s Dispute Settlement Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The WTO Dispute Settlement Mechanism was designed, inter alia, to secure the 'rule of law' within international trade and provide all members with opportunities to exercise their rights under multilateral trade agreements. But, after ten years, no sub-Saharan African country has yet used the option...... to initiate a dispute. This article examines what prevents the WTO Africa Group from using the system and critically reviews the solutions they have proposed to remedy this. It concludes by discussing how this reflects broader problems concerning African participation in WTO, and puts forward some alternative...

  3. Control of African swine fever epidemics in industrialized swine populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten


    African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease with a high impact on swine health. The disease is endemic in certain regions in the Baltic countries and has spread to Poland constituting a risk of ASF spread toward Western Europe. Therefore, as part of contingency planning, it is im......African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease with a high impact on swine health. The disease is endemic in certain regions in the Baltic countries and has spread to Poland constituting a risk of ASF spread toward Western Europe. Therefore, as part of contingency planning...

  4. Tribe and Village in African Organizations and Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Simon Ulrik

    The paper argues that African organization sand business relations reflect pre-industrial social norms found by anthropologists in kinship based, rural communities. African society is a hybrid mixture of an emerging industrial economy and a set of norms and behaviours which have been carried over...... from tribal and peasant communities. In modern, urban organizations the presence of pre-industrial norms is seen in the continued importance of in-group/out-group differention, gift exchange and kinship obligations. The paper suggests an explanation of the continued permanence of pre...

  5. Measures for diffusion of solar PV in selected African countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Mackenzie, Gordon A.;


    This paper investigates how African governments are considering supporting and promoting the diffusion of solar PV. This issue is explored by examining so-called ‘technology action plans (TAPs)’, which were main outputs of the Technology Needs Assessment project implemented in 10 African countries...... that governments’ strategies to promoting solar PV are moving from isolated projects towards frameworks for market development and that there are high expectations to upgrading in the PV value chain through local assembly of panels and local production of other system elements. Commonly identified measures include...... support to: local production; financing schemes; tax exemptions; establishment and reinforcement of standards; technical training; and research and development....

  6. Distribution of composite CYP1A1 genotypes in Africans, African-Americans and Caucasians. (United States)

    Garte, S J; Trachman, J; Crofts, F; Toniolo, P; Buxbaum, J; Bayo, S; Taioli, E


    We present the genotype distribution of the CYP1A1 gene in a sample of over 300 subjects of various ethnic origins. Genotypes are presented as composites of eight possible alleles, taking into account the three major polymorphisms, including a recently described African-American-specific MspI RFLP. A new nomenclature system is presented for clarifying the various haplotypes. Interesting interracial differences in allelic frequencies and admixture rates were observed for the three polymorphisms. Because of the importance of the CYP1A1 gene (which encodes the aromatic hydrocarbon hydroxylase) as a biomarker of genetic susceptibility to environmental carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, these data may provide a useful reference for future studies of relationships between CYP1A1 genotype and disease susceptibility.

  7. [African swine fever in Russian Federation]. (United States)

    Zaberezhnyĭ, A D; Aliper, T I; Grebennikova, T A; Verkhovskiĭ, O A; Sanchez-Vizcaino, J M; Mur, Lina; Nepoklonov, E A; L'vov, D K


    African swine fever (ASF) is an infectious viral disease that causes high economic losses due to the necessity of depopulation of pigs in affected areas, sanitary measures, trade restrictions, etc. The virus (ASFV) is relatively stable in the unprocessed meat products and environment. Thus, large areas are at risk due to free movement of people and products. The ASFV does not affect people and animals, except the wild and domestic pigs. Some ticks can become infected and carry the virus for years. Adaptation of the virus by changing into the less virulent form would mean the threat of an endemic situation to the area. The disease is endemic in domestic and wild pigs in most of sub-Saharan Africa and Sardinia, Italy. There is no treatment for ASF, and no vaccine has been developed. In case of infection with less virulent ASFV strains, the recovered pigs could spread the virus as long as their live. In terms of clinical symptoms, ASF is very similar to Classical Swine Fever. The methods of laboratory diagnostics are well developed and efficient for identification of ASFV and virus-specific antibodies. Experience of eradication of ASF in Spain suggests the importance of serological monitoring of pigs. In the spring of 2007, the ASF was detected in the Caucasus region. Same virus was detected in Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Russia. The ASFV circulating in the Caucasus and the Russian Federation is a highly virulent virus. No reduction of the virulence was observed since the first outbreak in Georgia. In the last years, the ASF remained in the Caucasus, southern parts of Russia and appeared occasionally as far as St. Petersburg and St. Petersburg region, and in the area of Nizhny Novgorod. Domestic pigs play an important role in the ASFV spread; they transfer the virus to the wild boars. The virus circulates in the population of wild boars depending on their density in the area. Occasionally, the disease is spread from wild to domestic pigs. There is no evidence of

  8. Persuasion - South African language in action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Ridge


    Full Text Available The issue of which English should be privileged in South Africa has been hotly debated This article argues against the binary thinking that has fuelled this debate. It contends that standard English should be taught since it is the proper or appropriate choice in particular contexts. Competence in standard English would extend and enhance learners' repertoires. However, unless the richly textured variety of "other" Englishes is accommodated in the classroom, there is a strong danger of what Phillipson (1992 terms linguicism. The article argues that a possible means of exploring the richly textured varieties in use in South Africa would be to focus on the choice of accent in radio advertisements. Some suggestions are outlined as to how a critical awareness of the persuasive effict of particular accents in particular contexts can be developed Finally, a plea is made for stylistic experimentation to be honoured in South African classrooms as a further means of exploring the language resources in South Africa. Die debat random die soort Engels wat in Suid-Afrika bevoordeel behoort te word is nog steeds aan die gang. In hierdie artikel word daar aangevoer dat dit die gevolg is van die binere denke oor hierdie saak Daar word beweer dat Standaard-Engels onderrig behoort te word aangesien dit die maak van 'n korrekte of geskikte keuse in bepaalde kontekste behels. Vaardigheid in Standaard-Engels salleerders se repertoire uitbrei en versterk Dit beteken egter nie dat die ryk tekstuurverskeidenheid van die "ander" soorte Engels in die k/askamer buite rekening gelaat mag word nie. Indien dit sou gebeur, bestaan die gevaar van wat Phil/ipson (1992 "linguisisme" noem. Volgens die artikel is die bestudering van radioadvertensies, met die fokus op die keuse van k/em, 'n moontlike manier om die ryk tekstuurverskeidenheid van Engels wat in Suid-Afrika gebruik word te ondersoek Bepaalde voorstelle word aan die hand gedoen oor hoe 'n kritiese bewustheid ontwikkel

  9. African-Americans and Clinical Trials Research: Recommendations for Client Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon E. Moore


    Full Text Available African-Americans have, without their knowledge and consent, been used as human guinea pigs in scientific and medical experiments by private and governmental organizations. As a result many African-Americans approach the health care industry with caution and apprehension. African-Americans are admonished to remember the atrocities they once experienced and to approach participation in clinical studies with skepticism. This paper presents an historical overview of conspiracy theories, discusses various health issues that affect African-Americans, identifies for whom participation in clinical trials could prove beneficial, and recommends methods that can be used to attract African-American clients as active participants in clinical studies.

  10. Current Situation of Introduction and Use of African Crop Germplasm Resources and Recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zili; DING; Minghua; YAO; Chunhai; JIAO


    Africa is the origin center of many crops. It is rich in original ecological resources,especially special resources which are excellent materials for breeding research. With acceleration of commercial seeds in agriculture of African countries,some original ecological resources are disappearing. Through experience of introduction of African varieties in recent years,it analyzed current situation of introduction and use of African crop germplasm resources. Finally,it came up with recommendations for rescuing and taking full advantage of excellent African resources,solving difficult problem restricting crop breeding,enriching China’s crop germplasm bank,and improving China’s and African crop breeding level and innovation ability.

  11. Differences in HIV natural history among African and non-African seroconverters in Europe and seroconverters in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Pantazis

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It is unknown whether HIV treatment guidelines, based on resource-rich country cohorts, are applicable to African populations. METHODS: We estimated CD4 cell loss in ART-naïve, AIDS-free individuals using mixed models allowing for random intercept and slope, and time from seroconversion to clinical AIDS, death and antiretroviral therapy (ART initiation by survival methods. Using CASCADE data from 20 European and 3 sub-Saharan African (SSA cohorts of heterosexually-infected individuals, aged ≥15 years, infected ≥2000, we compared estimates between non-African Europeans, Africans in Europe, and Africans in SSA. RESULTS: Of 1,959 (913 non-Africans, 302 Europeans-African origin, 744 SSA, two-thirds were female; median age at seroconversion was 31 years. Individuals in SSA progressed faster to clinical AIDS but not to death or non-TB AIDS. They also initiated ART later than Europeans and at lower CD4 cell counts. In adjusted models, Africans (especially from Europe had lower CD4 counts at seroconversion and slower CD4 decline than non-African Europeans. Median (95% CI CD4 count at seroconversion for a 15-29 year old woman was 607 (588-627 (non-African European, 469 (442-497 (European-African origin and 570 (551-589 (SSA cells/µL with respective CD4 decline during the first 4 years of 259 (228-289, 155 (110-200, and 199 (174-224 cells/µL (p<0.01. DISCUSSION: Despite differences in CD4 cell count evolution, death and non-TB AIDS rates were similar across study groups. It is therefore prudent to apply current ART guidelines from resource-rich countries to African populations.

  12. Environmental Attitudes and Information Sources among African American College Students (United States)

    Lee, E. Bun


    The author examined the environmental attitudes of African American college students by using the 15-item New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) Scale. The author also attempted to determine their everyday environmental behaviors such as recycling and conservation and investigated major information sources for local, national, and international…

  13. Substance Abuse: Implications for Counseling African American Men. (United States)

    Wade, Jay C.


    Examines factors--such as unemployment, economic deprivation, racism, issues pertaining to gender roles--and their contribution to substance abuse in African American men. Specifically reviews the use of alcohol, opiates, crack, and cocaine. Argues that a biopsychosocial model offers the best framework in conceptualizing substance abuse and…

  14. Physical Education and Academic Performance in Urban African American Girls (United States)

    Shen, Bo


    This study was designed to examine urban African American girls' participation in physical education and its association with academic performance. One hundred eighty four participants completed questionnaires assessing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and learning engagement in physical education while their academic performance was based…

  15. Childhood Maltreatment, PTSD, and Suicidal Behavior among African American Females. (United States)

    Thompson, Martie P.; Kaslow, Nadine J.; Lane, Danielle Bradshaw; Kingree, J. B.


    Investigates how childhood maltreatment and current post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) predict nonfatal suicide attempts among 335 African American women. PTSD in combination with any of the maltreatments of childhood increased the risk of suicide attempts. Suggests that interventions designed to reduce suicidal behavior should focus on women…

  16. Exploratory Factor Analysis of African Self-Consciousness Scale Scores (United States)

    Bhagwat, Ranjit; Kelly, Shalonda; Lambert, Michael C.


    This study replicates and extends prior studies of the dimensionality, convergent, and external validity of African Self-Consciousness Scale scores with appropriate exploratory factor analysis methods and a large gender balanced sample (N = 348). Viable one- and two-factor solutions were cross-validated. Both first factors overlapped significantly…

  17. Dress Codes in Post-Apartheid South African Workplaces (United States)

    Grant, Terri; Nodoba, Gaontebale


    There are many factors that influence dress code decision making in formal and informal business arenas. In South Africa, with its colonial and apartheid history followed by an exuberant resurgence of Africanism, factors such as diversity of race, ethnicity, religion, and culture play a critical role in lifestyle and worldview. These many and…

  18. Childhood lead exposure in an enslaved African community in Barbados

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Hannes; Shuler, Kristrina; Chenery, Simon


    a clear association between low (i.e., below 1 ppm) enamel lead concentrations and higher enamel 87Sr/86Sr ratios which have previously been interpreted as being indicative of African birth, suggesting that individuals with low enamel lead levels were indeed born in Africa as opposed to the New World...... the colonial period....

  19. Alternatives to Suspending African American High School Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The research site was one high school in the southern United States where African American males were suspended at greater rates than their counterparts. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the perspectives of high school administrators and teachers regarding alternatives to suspending African American males in one southern high school within a public school district. Guided by the social learning theory, the research question focused on the suspensions of these students. Data were collected through in-depth, semi structured, face-to-face interviews with a purposive sample of 6 high school teachers and 2 administrators, and coded and analyzed for emergent themes. The findings revealed that African American high school males might benefit from education programs such as character education programs to develop social, academic, and discipline skills. The findings of this study may be used for professional development for teachers and administrators regarding strategies to reduce suspensions of African American high school males, which might facilitate their graduation from high school and subsequent entry into higher education or the workforce.lications to display the level of psychological strain and workplace stressors among nurses as part of the postmodern organizational problems. Classification-JEL: A23

  20. First Steps in Teaching Argumentation: A South African Study (United States)

    Braund, Martin; Scholtz, Zena; Sadeck, Melanie; Koopman, Robert


    South African student teachers were studied to see how they coped with requirements to teach science using argumentation. Lesson observations, plans, reflective logs, post-teaching interviews and assessment of pupils' argumentation were used to compare student teachers' preparedness and interactions with pupils. Two clusters of students were…