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Sample records for african high-level regional

  1. African high-level regional meeting on energy and sustainable development. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wamukonya, N. (ed.) [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) jointly with the Government of Kenya and the UN Department for Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) organised the 'African High-Level Regional Meeting on Energy and Sustainable Development' in Januar 2001 at UNEP headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose was to support the preparations for CSD 9 and enable African countries to discuss key issues related to energy for sustainable development in their regional context. This report presents the technical statements and papers prepared for the technical workshop. As the reader will quickly notice, the papers reflect the views of the range of experts who participated. Speakers and participants came from ministries or agencies dealing with energy issues, rural development and finance institutions, utilities, private enterprises, NGOs, and research institutions. The papers follow the thermes identified for the CSD 9 session but provide an Africa-specific perspective. In the region, increased access to energy is clearly still a major development issue and has strong links to another key theme - rural energy. A number of papers address these issues from the woodfuel or biomass side, as the majority of the rural population in African countries relies on this energy source and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. At the same time, improved access to commercial energy forms, particularly through rural electrification programmes, received much attention and several papers present new approaches and experience gained in this area. On the commercial energy supply side the major challenge facing most African countries is the need to reform institutional structures, especially in the power sector. These reforms are generally part of larger economic reform packages promoted by the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and other financial institutions. In the energy sector the reform process offers an opportunity to introduce more efficiency and competition

  2. Communication dated 10 September 2008 received from the Permanent Mission of Egypt to the Agency concerning the High Level Policy Review Seminar of African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Secretariat has received a communication dated 10 September 2008 from the Permanent Mission of Egypt enclosing the documents of the High Level Policy Review Seminar of the African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) held in Aswan, Egypt on 28-29 November 2007. The communication, and as requested therein, the enclosures containing the Declaration of Aswan, the Aswan Action Plan and the Profile of the Regional Strategic Cooperative Framework (2008-2013) are circulated herewith for information

  3. Institution Building for African Regionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Khadiagala, Gilbert M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1960s, African states have embraced regional integration as a vital mechanism for political cooperation and for pooling resources to overcome problems of small and fragmented economies. In building meaningful institutions for regionalism, however, Africans have faced the challenges of reconciling the diversities of culture, geography, and politics. As a result, African regional institutions are characterized by multiple and competing mandates and weak institutionalization. This stud...

  4. Visual high-level regions respond to high-level stimulus content in the absence of low-level confounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Andreas; Bartels, Andreas

    2016-05-15

    High-level regions of the ventral stream exhibit strong category selectivity to stimuli such as faces, houses, or objects. However, recent studies suggest that at least part of this selectivity stems from low-level differences inherent to images of the different categories. For example, visual outdoor and indoor scenes as well as houses differ in spatial frequency, rectilinearity and obliqueness when compared to face or object images. Correspondingly, scene responsive para-hippocampal place area (PPA) showed strong preference to low-level properties of visual scenes also in the absence of high-level scene content. This raises the question whether all high-level responses in PPA, the fusiform face area (FFA), or the object-responsive lateral occipital compex (LOC) may actually be explained by systematic differences in low-level features. In the present study we contrasted two classes of simple stimuli consisting of ten rectangles each. While both were matched in visual low-level features only one class of rectangle arrangements gave rise to a percept compatible with a high-level 3D layout such as a scene or an object. We found that areas PPA, transverse occipital sulcus (TOS, also referred to as occipital place area, OPA), as well as FFA and LOC showed robust responses to the visual scene class compared to the low-level matched control. Our results suggest that visual category responsive regions are not purely driven by low-level visual features but also by the high-level perceptual stimulus interpretation. PMID:26975552

  5. AFRA. African Regional Co-operative Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication provides an outline of the African Regional Co-operation Agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology (AFRA). The agreement stems from an initiative of several African member states of the IAEA to get the agency to help establish an African regional arrangement which would be similar to arrangements which were already in place in the Asian and Latin American regions. Through this regional approach to development, AFRA seeks to accelerate moves toward self-sufficiency in scientific disciplines and appropriate technologies by coordinating intellectual and physical resources and disseminating innovative methods and practices in a cost-effective manner

  6. REGIONAL BINNING FOR CONTINUED STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND HIGH-LEVEL WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Lee Poe, Jr

    1998-10-01

    In the Continued Storage Analysis Report (CSAR) (Reference 1), DOE decided to analyze the environmental consequences of continuing to store the commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at 72 commercial nuclear power sites and DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste at five Department of Energy sites by region rather than by individual site. This analysis assumes that three commercial facilities pairs--Salem and Hope Creek, Fitzpatrick and Nine-Mile Point, and Dresden and Moms--share common storage due to their proximity to each other. The five regions selected for this analysis are shown on Figure 1. Regions 1, 2, and 3 are the same as those used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in their regulatory oversight of commercial power reactors. NRC Region 4 was subdivided into two regions to more appropriately define the two different climates that exist in NRC Region 4. A single hypothetical site in each region was assumed to store all the SNF and HLW in that region. Such a site does not exist and has no geographic location but is a mathematical construct for analytical purposes. To ensure that the calculated results for the regional analyses reflect appropriate inventory, facility and material degradation, and radionuclide transport, the waste inventories, engineered barriers, and environmental conditions for the hypothetical sites were developed from data for each of the existing sites within the given region. Weighting criteria to account for the amount and types of SNF and HLW at each site were used in the development of the environmental data for the regional site, such that the results of the analyses for the hypothetical site were representative of the sum of the results of each actual site if they had been modeled independently. This report defines the actual site data used in development of this hypothetical site, shows how the individual site data was weighted to develop the regional site, and provides the weighted data used in the CSAR analysis. It is

  7. REGIONAL BINNING FOR CONTINUED STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND HIGH-LEVEL WASTES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Continued Storage Analysis Report (CSAR) (Reference 1), DOE decided to analyze the environmental consequences of continuing to store the commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at 72 commercial nuclear power sites and DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste at five Department of Energy sites by region rather than by individual site. This analysis assumes that three commercial facilities pairs--Salem and Hope Creek, Fitzpatrick and Nine-Mile Point, and Dresden and Moms--share common storage due to their proximity to each other. The five regions selected for this analysis are shown on Figure 1. Regions 1, 2, and 3 are the same as those used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in their regulatory oversight of commercial power reactors. NRC Region 4 was subdivided into two regions to more appropriately define the two different climates that exist in NRC Region 4. A single hypothetical site in each region was assumed to store all the SNF and HLW in that region. Such a site does not exist and has no geographic location but is a mathematical construct for analytical purposes. To ensure that the calculated results for the regional analyses reflect appropriate inventory, facility and material degradation, and radionuclide transport, the waste inventories, engineered barriers, and environmental conditions for the hypothetical sites were developed from data for each of the existing sites within the given region. Weighting criteria to account for the amount and types of SNF and HLW at each site were used in the development of the environmental data for the regional site, such that the results of the analyses for the hypothetical site were representative of the sum of the results of each actual site if they had been modeled independently. This report defines the actual site data used in development of this hypothetical site, shows how the individual site data was weighted to develop the regional site, and provides the weighted data used in the CSAR analysis. It is

  8. Online Determination of the LHC Luminous Region with the ATLAS High-Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Bartoldus, R

    2012-01-01

    During stable-beams operations of the LHC, the ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) offers the fastest and most precise online measurement available of the position, size and orientation of the luminous region at the interaction point. Taking advantage of the high rate of triggered events, a dedicated algorithm is executed on the HLT processor farm of several hundred nodes that uses tracks registered in the silicon detectors to reconstruct event vertices. The distribution of these vertices is aggregated across the farm and its shape is extracted through fits every 60 seconds. A correction is applied online to adjust for the intrinsic vertex resolution by examining the apparent separation of split vertices. The location, widths and tilts of the luminosity distribution are fed back to the LHC operators in real time. The transverse luminous centroid mirrors variations in the IP orbit, while its position along the beam axis is sensitive to the relative RF phase of the two beams. The time evolution of the luminous width...

  9. Online Determination of the LHC Luminous Region with the ATLAS High-Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Bartoldus, R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    During stable-beams operations of the LHC, the ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) offers the fastest and most precise online measurement available of the position, size and orientation of the luminous region at the interaction point. Taking advantage of the high rate of triggered events, a dedicated algorithm is executed on the HLT processor farm of several hundred nodes that uses tracks registered in the silicon detectors to reconstruct event vertices. The distribution of these vertices is aggregated across the farm and its shape is extracted through fits every 60 seconds. A correction is applied online to adjust for the intrinsic vertex resolution by examining the displacement of split vertices. The location, widths and tilts of the luminosity distribution are fed back to the LHC operators in real time. The transverse luminous centroid mirrors variations in the IP orbit, while its position along the beam axis is sensitive to the relative RF phase of the two beams. The time evolution of the luminous width tracks...

  10. Region-scale groundwater flow modelling of generic high level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional-scale groundwater flow modelling analyses are performed on generic high level waste (HLW) disposal sites to assess the extent to which a large crystalline rock mass such as a pluton or batholith can be expected to contain and isolate HLW in terms of hydraulic considerations, for a variety of geologic and hydrogeologic conditions. The two-dimensional cross-sectional conceptual models of generic HLW disposal sites are evaluated using SWIFT III, which is a finite-difference flow and transport code. All steps leading to the final results and conclusions are incorporated in this report. The available data and information on geological and hydrogeologic conditions in plutons and batholiths are summarized. The generic conceptual models developed from this information are defined in terms of the finite difference grid, the geologic and hydrogeologic properties and the hydrologic boundary conditions used. The modelled results are described with contour maps showing the modelled head fields, groundwater flow paths and travel times and groundwater flux rates within the modelled systems. The results of the modelling analyses are used to develop general conclusions on the scales and patterns of groundwater flow in granitic plutons and batholiths. The conclusions focus on geologic and hydrogeologic characteristics that can result in favourable conditions, in terms of hydraulic considerations, for a HLW repository. (author) 43 refs., 9 tabs., 40 figs

  11. Comprehensive comparison of preselected regions for a high level radioactive waste repository: a subjective quantitative evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the comprehensive features of the 6 preselected regions (Northwest China, Southwest China East China, South China, Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang regions) for China's high level radioactive waste repository, this paper uses the subjective quantitative method to evaluate the weight of each site selection criterion and provides the scores of each region. The results shows that the future natural changes and the hydrogeological conditions are considered as the most important natural siting criteria, while the social impact and human activities are the most important social siting criteria. According to the scores, the priority order of the regions are Northwest China, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, South China, East China, Southwest China. On the whole, the scores of' the regions in western China (Northwest China, Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia) are higher than those in eastern China (South China, East China Southwest China), which obviously shows that the participated experts considers that the disposal of high level waste in west China is more favorable than in east China. (authors)

  12. Disposal of high-level nuclear waste above the water table in arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseboom, Eugene H.

    1983-01-01

    Locating a repository in the unsaturated zone of arid regions eliminates or simplifies many of the technological problems involved in designing a repository for operation below the water table and predicting its performance. It also offers possible accessibility and ease of monitoring throughout the operational period and possible retrieval of waste long after. The risks inherent in such a repository appear to be no greater than in one located in the saturated zone; in fact, many aspects of such a repository's performance will be much easier to predict and the uncertainties will be reduced correspondingly. A major new concern would be whether future climatic changes could produce significant consequences due to possible rise of the water table or increased flux of water through the repository. If spent fuel were used as a waste form, a second new concern would be the rates of escape of gaseous iodine-129 and carbon-14 to the atmosphere.

  13. Disposal of high-level nuclear waste above the water table in arid regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roseboom, E.H. Jr.

    1983-12-31

    Locating a repository in the unsaturated zone of arid regions eliminates or simplifies many of the technological problems involved in designing a repository for operation below the water table and predicting its performance. It also offers possible accessibility and ease of monitoring throughout the operational period and possible retrieval of waste long after. The risks inherent in such a repository appear to be no greater than in one located in the saturated zone; in fact, many aspects of such a repository`s performance will be much easier to predict and the uncertainties will be reduced correspondingly. A major new concern would be whether future climatic changes could produce significant consequences due to possible rise of the water table or increased flux of water through the repository. If spent fuel were used as a waste form, a second new concern would be the rates of escape of gaseous {sup 129}I and {sup 14}C to the atmosphere.

  14. The African Standby Force and Regional Security Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    , is illustrative of the African Union’s (AU) ambition when in 2002 it included in its formation an African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA). This was supposed to include both non-violent and robust control regimes mechanisms, providing the continent with an effective conflict management structure. The East...... challenges, been transformed from a grand idea into a real peace operations tool. This chapter starts with an apparent conundrum: Is it possible for weak and fragility-prone states to form and create effective regional security institutions? The logical answer would be no, since combining two weak units does....... Will it therefore ever be able to transform itself into an effective security management regime, with the ability to handle the challenges facing the region? The regional enmities between the states seem to be widespread, deep-rooted and nearly chronic in nature. In June 2015 the African Union and its member states...

  15. The Effects of High Level Magnesium Dialysis/Substitution Fluid on Magnesium Homeostasis under Regional Citrate Anticoagulation in Critically Ill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mychajlo Zakharchenko

    Full Text Available The requirements for magnesium (Mg supplementation increase under regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA because citrate acts by chelation of bivalent cations within the blood circuit. The level of magnesium in commercially available fluids for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT may not be sufficient to prevent hypomagnesemia.Patients (n = 45 on CRRT (2,000 ml/h, blood flow (Qb 100 ml/min with RCA modality (4% trisodium citrate using calcium free fluid with 0.75 mmol/l of Mg with additional magnesium substitution were observed after switch to the calcium-free fluid with magnesium concentration of 1.50 mmol/l (n = 42 and no extra magnesium replenishment. All patients had renal indications for CRRT, were treated with the same devices, filters and the same postfilter ionized calcium endpoint (<0.4 mmol/l of prefilter citrate dosage. Under the high level Mg fluid the Qb, dosages of citrate and CRRT were consequently escalated in 9h steps to test various settings.Median balance of Mg was -0.91 (-1.18 to -0.53 mmol/h with Mg 0.75 mmol/l and 0.2 (0.06-0.35 mmol/h when fluid with Mg 1.50 mmol/l was used. It was close to zero (0.02 (-0.12-0.18 mmol/h with higher blood flow and dosage of citrate, increased again to 0.15 (-0.11-0.25 mmol/h with 3,000 ml/h of high magnesium containing fluid (p<0.001. The arterial levels of Mg were mildly increased after the change for high level magnesium containing fluid (p<0.01.Compared to ordinary dialysis fluid the mildly hypermagnesemic fluid provided even balances and adequate levels within ordinary configurations of CRRT with RCA and without a need for extra magnesium replenishment.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01361581.

  16. Regional view of a Trans-African Drainage System

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Abdelkareem; Farouk El-Baz

    2014-01-01

    Despite the arid to hyperarid climate of the Great Sahara of North Africa, pluvial climates dominated the region. Radar data shed some light on the postulated Trans-African Drainage System and its relationship to active and inactive tributaries of the Nile basin. Interpretations of recent elevation data confirm a source of the river water from the Red Sea highlands did not connect the Atlantic Ocean across Tushka basin, highlands of Uwinate and Darfur, and Chad basin, but northward to the anc...

  17. High-level consumer services in polycentric urban regions - hospital care and higher education between duplication and complementarity

    OpenAIRE

    Meijers, Evert

    2005-01-01

    In many European countries, territorial development strategies identify the development potential of so-called polycentric urban regions: regions in which a multitude of more or less similar-sized, formerly independent and distinct cities are located close to each other and among which functional relationships seem to be on the increase. Often, such polycentric urban regions are referred to using metaphors as city networks or urban networks. Well-known examples are the Randstad and Brabantsta...

  18. Pre-selection of geological disposal reservoir sites of high-level waste in northern Sichuan-southern Shaanxi regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper states the petrography, the features of structure and neo-tectonics in northern Sichuan and southern Shaanxi regions. Four stable regions are divided within the region on the basis of this characteristic and the distributions of earthquake risk zoning. Then according to contents of wall rocks, hydrogeology, engineering geology and physical and economic geography of the stable regions, four candidates regions of disposal reservoir sites are determined. Some feasible studies have been done on the sites. The paper also proved that granite is the advantageous wall-rock of the disposal reservoir, and the pre-selection principle of the reservoir is stated in terms of the working experience of several years

  19. Regional modeling of the southern African secular variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Over the Southern African continent the geomagnetic field is weaker and changes more rapidly compared to other regions of the Earth. For this area series of geomagnetic field measurements exist since the 1950s. This unique data set allows us to obtain a detailed view of the geomagnetic field behavior in space and time by building a regional model. The data set consisting of repeat station surveys and observatory annual means is thoroughly cleaned by eliminating jumps and estimating external contributions in the original time series. Following the method proposed by Shure et. al. (1982) we use a system of representation similar to the harmonic splines. The technique has systematically been tested on synthetic data. The model derived from the available data covers the time span from 1960 to 2002 and gives a detailed view of the dramatical changes of the geomagnetic field in this region, including several geomagnetic jerks.

  20. High-level cross-resistance to didanosine observed in South African children failing an abacavir- or stavudine-based 1st-line regimen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Steegen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The knowledge-base of emerging drug resistance profiles in children exposed to abacavir-based antiretroviral regimens in South Africa is very limited. This study investigated the suitability of didanosine-based 2nd-line regimens for children in the context of antiretroviral drug resistance patterns emerging after 1st-line virologic failure. METHODS: A retrospective dataset of 354 antiretroviral drug resistant genotypes from children failing either abacavir (n = 81 or stavudine (n = 273 based 1st-line regimens, was analysed. Samples were sent to the HIV genotyping laboratory at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, for routine testing. Pol sequences were submitted to the Stanford HIV drug resistance database for genotypic predictions. RESULTS: Children were exposed to abacavir or stavudine-based 1st-line regimens for an average of 21 and 36 months, respectively. The frequency of reduced susceptibility to didanosine was substantial in the abacavir-exposed group (69.1%.This reduced susceptibility was commonly attributed to L74V/I (n = 44 and to a lesser extent K65R (n = 10 mutations. Didanosine resistance was observed in 43.2% of patients exposed to stavudine-based regimens. In contrast, most children remained susceptible to stavudine regardless of exposure to abacavir (77.8% or stavudine (74.7%. At least 80% of children remained susceptible to zidovudine irrespective of stavudine or abacavir-exposure. The presence of the K65R mutation was more common after abacavir pressure (12.3% vs 1.8%. CONCLUSION: Analysis revealed that didanosine-based 2nd-line regimens have limitations for South African children, given the high frequency of mutations that confer cross-resistance to didanosine; especially after abacavir-exposure. This data has influenced South African paediatric treatment guidelines, which now recommend zidovudine-based 2nd-line regimens.

  1. A new watershed assessment framework for Nova Scotia: A high-level, integrated approach for regions without a dense network of monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Shannon M.; Garroway, Kevin; Guan, Yue; Ambrose, Sarah M.; Horne, Peter; Kennedy, Gavin W.

    2014-11-01

    High-level, integrated watershed assessments are a basic requirement for freshwater planning, as they create regional summaries of multiple environmental stressors for the prioritization of watershed conservation, restoration, monitoring, and mitigation. There is a heightened need for a high-level, integrated watershed assessment in Nova Scotia as it faces pressing watershed issues relating to acidification, soil erosion, acid rock drainage, eutrophication, and water withdrawals related to potential shale gas development. But because of the relative sparseness of the on-the-ground effects-based data, for example on water quality or fish assemblages, previously created approaches for integrated watershed assessment cannot be used. In a government/university collaboration, we developed a new approach that relies solely on easier-to-collect and more available exposure-based variables to perform the first high-level watershed assessment in Nova Scotia. In this assessment, a total of 295 watershed units were studied. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to map and analyze 13 stressor variables that represent risks to aquatic environment (e.g., road/stream crossing density, acid rock drainage risk, surface water withdrawals, human land use, and dam density). We developed a model to link stressors with impacts to aquatic systems to serve as a basis for a watershed threat ranking system. Resource management activities performed by government and other stakeholders were also included in this analysis. Our assessment identifies the most threatened watersheds, enables informed comparisons among watersheds, and indicates where to focus resource management and monitoring efforts. Stakeholder communication tools produced by the NSWAP include a watershed atlas to communicate the assessment results to a broader audience, including policy makers and public stakeholders. This new framework for high-level watershed assessments provides a resource for other regions that also

  2. Genetic basis of olfactory cognition: extremely high level of DNA sequence polymorphism in promoter regions of the human olfactory receptor genes revealed using the 1000 Genomes Project dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ElenaV.Ignatieva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanism of olfactory cognition is very complicated. Olfactory cognition is initiated by olfactory receptor proteins (odorant receptors, which are activated by olfactory stimuli (ligands. Olfactory receptors are the initial player in the signal transduction cascade producing a nerve impulse, which is transmitted to the brain. The sensitivity to a particular ligand depends on the expression level of multiple proteins involved in the process of olfactory cognition: olfactory receptor proteins, proteins that participate in signal transduction cascade, etc. The expression level of each gene is controlled by its regulatory regions, and especially, by the promoter (a region of DNA about 100–1000 base pairs long located upstream of the transcription start site. We analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms using human whole-genome data from the 1000 Genomes Project and revealed an extremely high level of single nucleotide polymorphisms in promoter regions of olfactory receptor genes and HLA genes. We hypothesized that the high level of polymorphisms in olfactory receptor promoters was responsible for the diversity in regulatory mechanisms controlling the expression levels of olfactory receptor proteins. Such diversity of regulatory mechanisms may cause the great variability of olfactory cognition of numerous environmental olfactory stimuli perceived by human beings (air pollutants, human body odors, odors in culinary etc.. In turn, this variability may provide a wide range of emotional and behavioral reactions related to the vast variety of olfactory stimuli.

  3. Lassa fever in West African sub-region: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ogbu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lassa fever is an acute viral zoonotic illness caused by Lassa virus, an arenavirus known to beresponsible for a severe haemorrhagic fever characterised by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea,vomiting and, chest and abdominal pain. The virus exhibits persistent, asymptomatic infection withprofuse urinary virus excretion in the ubiquitous rodent vector, Mastomys natalensis. Lassa fever isendemic in West Africa and has been reported from Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and Nigeria. Somestudies indicate that 300,000 to 500,000 cases of Lassa fever and 5000 deaths occur yearly across WestAfrica. Studies reported in English, that investigated Lassa fever with reference to West Africa wereidentified using the Medline Entrez-PubMed search and were used for this review. The scarcity ofresources available for health care delivery system and the political instability that characterise theWest African countries would continue to impede efforts for the control of Lassa fever in the sub-region.There is need for adequate training of health care workers regarding diagnostics, intensive care ofpatients under isolation, contact tracing, adequate precautionary measures in handling infectiouslaboratory specimens, control of the vector as well as care and disposal of infectious waste.

  4. Lassa fever in West African sub-region: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbu, O; Ajuluchukwu, E; Uneke, C J

    2007-03-01

    Lassa fever is an acute viral zoonotic illness caused by Lassa virus, an arenavirus known to be responsible for a severe haemorrhagic fever characterised by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and, chest and abdominal pain. The virus exhibits persistent, asymptomatic infection with profuse urinary virus excretion in the ubiquitous rodent vector, Mastomys natalensis. Lassa fever is endemic in West Africa and has been reported from Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and Nigeria. Some studies indicate that 300,000 to 500,000 cases of Lassa fever and 5000 deaths occur yearly across West Africa. Studies reported in English, that investigated Lassa fever with reference to West Africa were identified using the Medline Entrez-PubMed search and were used for this review. The scarcity of resources available for health care delivery system and the political instability that characterise the West African countries would continue to impede efforts for the control of Lassa fever in the sub-region. There is need for adequate training of health care workers regarding diagnostics, intensive care of patients under isolation, contact tracing, adequate precautionary measures in handling infectious laboratory specimens, control of the vector as well as care and disposal of infectious waste. PMID:17378212

  5. Regional view of a Trans-African Drainage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdelkareem

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the arid to hyperarid climate of the Great Sahara of North Africa, pluvial climates dominated the region. Radar data shed some light on the postulated Trans-African Drainage System and its relationship to active and inactive tributaries of the Nile basin. Interpretations of recent elevation data confirm a source of the river water from the Red Sea highlands did not connect the Atlantic Ocean across Tushka basin, highlands of Uwinate and Darfur, and Chad basin, but northward to the ancestral Nile Delta. Elements of topography and climate were considered. They show that the former segments of the Nile closely mirror present-day tributaries of the Nile basin in drainage geometry, landscape, and climate. A rainfall data interpolation scenario revealed that this basin received concurrent runoff from both flanks such as Gabgaba-Allaqi to the east and Tushka basin to the west, similar to present-day Sobat and White Nile tributaries, respectively. Overall the western tributaries such as those of Tushka basin and Howar lead to the Nile, which was (and still is the biggest river system in Africa.

  6. Regional view of a Trans-African Drainage System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkareem, Mohamed; El-Baz, Farouk

    2015-05-01

    Despite the arid to hyperarid climate of the Great Sahara of North Africa, pluvial climates dominated the region. Radar data shed some light on the postulated Trans-African Drainage System and its relationship to active and inactive tributaries of the Nile basin. Interpretations of recent elevation data confirm a source of the river water from the Red Sea highlands did not connect the Atlantic Ocean across Tushka basin, highlands of Uwinate and Darfur, and Chad basin, but northward to the ancestral Nile Delta. Elements of topography and climate were considered. They show that the former segments of the Nile closely mirror present-day tributaries of the Nile basin in drainage geometry, landscape, and climate. A rainfall data interpolation scenario revealed that this basin received concurrent runoff from both flanks such as Gabgaba-Allaqi to the east and Tushka basin to the west, similar to present-day Sobat and White Nile tributaries, respectively. Overall the western tributaries such as those of Tushka basin and Howar lead to the Nile, which was (and still is) the biggest river system in Africa. PMID:26257941

  7. Highly polymorphic DNA markers in an Africanized honey bee population in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobo Segura Jorge Arturo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two genetic markers (the mtDNA COI-COII intergenic region and the microsatellite A7 with high levels of variability in South African and European honey bees were analyzed in wild swarms of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera from Costa Rica. Allelic or haplotypic frequencies revealed high levels of genetic variability at these loci in this population. Most of the alleles were African alleles, although some European-derived alleles were also present. Differences in the frequencies of African alleles between African and Africanized samples were minor, which could be explained by founder effects occurring during the introduction of African honey bee populations into South America.

  8. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range province, southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste: characterization of the Sonoran region, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sonoran region of California lies west of the Colorado River and adjoins the Mojave Desert on the west, Death Valley on the northwest, and the Salton trough on the south. The region is arid with annual precipitation ranging from less than 80 millimeters to as great as 250 millimeters in one mountain range; annual free-surface evaporation is as great as 2,500 millimeters. The characteristic basin and range topography of the region was caused by a mid-Tertiary period of intense crustal extension, accompanied by volcanic eruptions, clastic sedimentation, faulting, and tilting. Potential host media for isolation of high-level radioactive waste include granite and other coarsegrained plutonic rocks, ash-flow tuff, and basalt and basaltic andesite lava flows. Thick sections of the unsaturated zone in basin fill, intrusive, and volcanic rocks appear to have potential as host media. The region is bordered on the west by areas of relatively greater Quaternary faulting, vertical crustal uplift, and seismicity. The region has a few areas of Quaternary volcanic activity. Geothermal heat flows of 2.5 heat-flow units or greater and one earthquake of magnitude 6-7 have been recorded. The region includes topographically closed basins as well as basins that drain to the Colorado River. Dry lakes and playas occupy the closed basins. Ground-water recharge and surface runoff are small because of the small amount of precipitation and great potential evaporation. Natural ground-water discharge is by evaporation in the basin playas and by underflow to the Colorado River. Dissolved-solids concentration of ground water generally is less than 500 milligrams per liter, and much of it is of the sodium bicarbonate type. Ground water is saline in many of the playas, and chloride or sulfate is the predominant anion. Small tonnages of ore have been produced from numerous precious and fewer base-metal deposits. (author)

  9. Geology of the Yucca Mountain Region, Chapter in Stuckless, J.S., ED., Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.S. Stuckless; D. O' Leary

    2006-09-25

    Yucca Mountain has been proposed as the site for the Nation's first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This chapter provides the geologic framework for the Yucca Mountain region. The regional geologic units range in age from late Precambrian through Holocene, and these are described briefly. Yucca Mountain is composed dominantly of pyroclastic units that range in age from 11.4 to 15.2 Ma. The proposed repository would be constructed within the Topopah Spring Tuff, which is the lower of two major zoned and welded ash-flow tuffs within the Paintbrush Group. The two welded tuffs are separated by the partly to nonwelded Pah Canyon Tuff and Yucca Mountain Tuff, which together figure prominently in the hydrology of the unsaturated zone. The Quaternary deposits are primarily alluvial sediments with minor basaltic cinder cones and flows. Both have been studied extensively because of their importance in predicting the long-term performance of the proposed repository. Basaltic volcanism began about 10 Ma and continued as recently as about 80 ka with the eruption of cones and flows at Lathrop Wells, approximately 10 km south-southwest of Yucca Mountain. Geologic structure in the Yucca Mountain region is complex. During the latest Paleozoic and Mesozoic, strong compressional forces caused tight folding and thrust faulting. The present regional setting is one of extension, and normal faulting has been active from the Miocene through to the present. There are three major local tectonic domains: (1) Basin and Range, (2) Walker Lane, and (3) Inyo-Mono. Each domain has an effect on the stability of Yucca Mountain.

  10. Geology of the Yucca Mountain Region, Chapter in Stuckless, J.S., ED., Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yucca Mountain has been proposed as the site for the Nation's first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This chapter provides the geologic framework for the Yucca Mountain region. The regional geologic units range in age from late Precambrian through Holocene, and these are described briefly. Yucca Mountain is composed dominantly of pyroclastic units that range in age from 11.4 to 15.2 Ma. The proposed repository would be constructed within the Topopah Spring Tuff, which is the lower of two major zoned and welded ash-flow tuffs within the Paintbrush Group. The two welded tuffs are separated by the partly to nonwelded Pah Canyon Tuff and Yucca Mountain Tuff, which together figure prominently in the hydrology of the unsaturated zone. The Quaternary deposits are primarily alluvial sediments with minor basaltic cinder cones and flows. Both have been studied extensively because of their importance in predicting the long-term performance of the proposed repository. Basaltic volcanism began about 10 Ma and continued as recently as about 80 ka with the eruption of cones and flows at Lathrop Wells, approximately 10 km south-southwest of Yucca Mountain. Geologic structure in the Yucca Mountain region is complex. During the latest Paleozoic and Mesozoic, strong compressional forces caused tight folding and thrust faulting. The present regional setting is one of extension, and normal faulting has been active from the Miocene through to the present. There are three major local tectonic domains: (1) Basin and Range, (2) Walker Lane, and (3) Inyo-Mono. Each domain has an effect on the stability of Yucca Mountain

  11. Malaria control in the African Region: perceptions and viewspoints on proceedings of the Africa Leaders Malaria Alliance (ALMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambo Luis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2009 a total of 153,408 malaria deaths were reported in Africa. Eleven countries showed a reduction of more than 50% in either confirmed malaria cases or malaria admissions and deaths in recent years. However, many African countries are not on track to achieve the malaria component of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG 6. The African Leaders Malaria Alliance (ALMA working session at the 15th African Union Summit discussed the bottlenecks to achieving MDG 6 (specifically halting and beginning to reverse the incidence of malaria by 2015, success factors, and what countries needed to do to accelerate achievement of the MDG. The purpose of this article is to reflect on the proceedings of the ALMA working session. Methods Working methods of the session included speeches and statements by invited speakers and high-level panel discussions. Discussion The main bottlenecks identified related to the capacity of the health systems to deliver quality care and accessibility issues; need for strong, decentralized malaria-control programmes with linkages with other health and development sectors, the civil society and private sector entities; benefits of co-implementation of malaria control programmes with child survival or other public health interventions; systematic application of integrated promotive, preventive, diagnostic and case management interventions with full community participation; adapting approaches to local political, socio-cultural and administrative environments. The following prerequisites for success were identified: a clear vision and effective leadership of national malaria control programmes; high level political commitment to ensure adequate capacity in expertise, skill mix and number of managers, technicians and service providers; national ownership, intersectoral collaboration and accountability, as well as strong civil society and private sector involvement; functional epidemiological surveillance systems

  12. Measuring the inward FDI potential of South African regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Krugell

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to construct an index that captures the factors expected to affect a local economy's attractiveness to foreign investors. Problem statement: Following South Africa's reintegration into the world economy in 1994, foreign direct investment has been seen as a potential driver of growth and development. Concerns about the low investment rate in South Africa raise the possibility of augmenting domestic with foreign investment expenditure. The potential of technology spillovers and skills transfer from foreign direct investment have also been emphasised. As a result, Trade and Investment South Africa is involved in identifying, packaging and promoting investment opportunities. However, investments tend to be place-specific and this has lead to the decentralisation of foreign direct investment promotion. Currently the nine provincial development agencies are competing to attract investors and the larger local governments are also getting involved in the fray. This paper argues that some places have better potential to attract foreign investment than others. A first step to use scarce investment promotion resources more efficiently would be to measure the inward FDI potential of South African regions. Approach: This paper uses principal components analysis to construct an index that captures the factors expected to affect a local economy's attractiveness to foreign investors. This approach draws on UNCTAD's Inward FDI Potential Index and applies it to 354 magisterial districts in South Africa for the periods 1996, 2001 and 2006. The index creates a summary measure of FDI potential.Findings: The results show that different places present differential potential in urbanization and localization economies and market size. The high-potential locations are typically found in or around the major agglomerations, but there are a few smaller places on the periphery that offer FDI potential. Contribution: The index should aid

  13. High-level verification

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Sorin; Kundu, Sudipta

    2011-01-01

    Given the growing size and heterogeneity of Systems on Chip (SOC), the design process from initial specification to chip fabrication has become increasingly complex. This growing complexity provides incentive for designers to use high-level languages such as C, SystemC, and SystemVerilog for system-level design. While a major goal of these high-level languages is to enable verification at a higher level of abstraction, allowing early exploration of system-level designs, the focus so far for validation purposes has been on traditional testing techniques such as random testing and scenario-based

  14. Experiences on improving diagnostic accuracy of FDG PET by characterizing, reducing, and avoiding the high-level physiological uptakes at abdomen and pelvic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: FDG PET has been extensively used in oncology. However, the physiological uptakes, especially those at abdomen and pelvic region, sometimes produce misleading signals. We conducted series of studies on characterizing, reducing, and avoiding the most common pitfalls caused by physiological uptake of gastrointestinal system, female reproductive system, and urinary system. Methods and materials: 1. To improve detection of gastric malignancy, a modified PET protocol was studied. The patients were suggested to drink 300-500 ml of cow milk to distend the stomach right before the scanning (nearly 1 h after FDG injection). To investigate the influence of ingested milk to FDG distribution, forty-three patients underwent both empty- and distended-stomach PET studies (79 and 72 studies, respectively) in their serial follow-up of non-gastric malignancies (the intervals were 24±15 months). For identification of primary tumor of gastric cancer, twenty-four cases underwent distended-stomach PET studies were compared with other 17 cases with empty-stomach studies. In addition, 1500 patients who referred to our center for evaluation of diseases other than gastric malignancies also underwent distended-stomach PET studies. 2. To characterize high-level physiological uptakes of uterus and ovaries, we analyzed 247 female patients (288 studies) without documented uterine or ovarian diseases. The menstrual statuses and phases of the patients and related pelvic examinations with other modalities were inquired before each PET study. 3. Seventy patients with suspicious abdominal or pelvic lesions on routine whole-body studies underwent delayed imaging nearly 3 h after FDG injection. Before the delayed imaging, the patients were suggested to drink water, ingest food, urinate, and even empty the bowels to change the physiological status of gastrointestinal and urinary systems. Results: 1. There was no significant influence of milk ingestion on 18F-FDG distributions to the heart

  15. Regional Trade Agreements: An African perspective of Challanges for Customs Policies and Future Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Chiumya, Chiza

    2009-01-01

    The proliferation of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) has not spared the African Continent. The formation of RTAs in Africa is championed by the Regional Integration agenda under the auspices of the Regional Economic Communities. The challenges that Customs Administrations face when their countries become members of RTAs depend on whether the RTA is Trade Creating or Diverting. It is the trade-creating RTA that presents the Customs Administration with the greater challenges. This paper looks ...

  16. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  17. Precipitation sensitivity to regional SST in a regional climate simulation during the West African monsoon for two dry years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messager, C. [Laboratoire des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement - Unite Mixte de Recherche 5564 CNRS-UJF-INPG-IRD, BP53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Gallee, H. [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et de Geophysique de l' Environnement - Unite propre FRE2192 CNRS, 54, rue Moliere, 38042 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Brasseur, O. [Cellule Interregionale de l' Environnement, 10-11, Avenue des Arts, 1210 Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2004-03-01

    The influence on precipitation of regional sea surface temperature (SST) during a drought period of the West African monsoon is determined, using a regional climate model (RCM). The results from three simulations of two realistic dry years are compared. The first two experiments are initialised and nested respectively in 1983 and 1984 reanalysis data sets. The third experiment is a hybrid simulation of 1983 which is the same as the first experiment except that the SST field is the 1984 SST. Precipitation from the RCM is compared with several precipitation data sets and, as in observations, the RCM reasonably simulates the West African monsoon (seasonal cycle and monsoon sub-period) for the two different years. In particular, the model reproduces stage by stage the motion of the monsoon band well: installation phase, high rain period with abrupt northward shift of the rain band, and the retreat southward phase. Interannual variability and wet or dry tendencies are also represented. The most significant effect of SST is shown by the hybrid simulation, when the regional SST appears as a major factor in the seasonal and interannual monsoon precipitation regime over the African continent (up to 12 N) although this influence is modulated both by the surface conditions (soil and vegetation) and by the reanalysis flow introduced at the lateral boundaries. Dynamically, a warmer SST leads to a decrease in the magnitude of the African Easterly Jet and an increase in northward equivalent water content transport (from equator to 12 N). (orig.)

  18. The Role of Education in Peace-Building in the African Great Lakes Region: Educators' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndura-Ouedraogo, Elavie

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the findings from a qualitative study which examined educators' perceptions of their contributions to the quest for sustainable peace in Burundi and the African Great Lakes region. The study looked at how educators representing different ethnic backgrounds, academic preparation, and currently employed at different levels…

  19. High level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transformations involved in the nuclear fuels during the burn-up at the power nuclear reactors for burn-up levels of 33.000 MWd/th are considered. Graphs and data on the radioactivity variation with the cooling time and heat power of the irradiated fuel are presented. Likewise, the cycle of the fuel in light water reactors is presented and the alternatives for the nuclear waste management are discussed. A brief description of the management of the spent fuel as a high level nuclear waste is shown, explaining the reprocessing and giving data about the fission products and their radioactivities, which must be considered on the vitrification processes. On the final storage of the nuclear waste into depth geological burials, both alternatives are coincident. The countries supporting the reprocessing are indicated and the Spanish programm defined in the Plan Energetico Nacional (PEN) is shortly reviewed. (author) 8 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the seabed. Volume 5: Dispersal of radionuclides in the oceans: Models, data sets and regional descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the options suggested for disposal of high-level radioactive waste resulting from the generation of nuclear power is burial beneath the deep ocean floor in geologically stable sediment formations which have no economic value. The 8-volume series provides an assessment of the technical feasibility and radiological safety of this disposal concept based on the results obtained by ten years of co-operation and information exchange among the Member countries participating in the NEA Seabed Working Group. This report summarizes the development of a realistic and credible methodology to describe the oceanic dispersion of radionuclides for risk assessment calculations

  1. Cattle, identity and genocide in the African Great Lakes region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Reid

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological research into the origins of the cattle-keeping people of southwestern Uganda has overturned long-held beliefs about the separate origins of the pastoral and agricultural populations of the region. Study of indigenous political development and nineteenth-century colonialism shows that the present-day ethnic identities, which fuelled the genocide in Rwanda in 1994, are recent constructions.

  2. Impact of disaster-related mortality on gross domestic product in the WHO African Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldis William

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disaster-related mortality is a growing public health concern in the African Region. These deaths are hypothesized to have a significantly negative effect on per capita gross domestic product (GDP. The objective of this study was to estimate the loss in GDP attributable to natural and technological disaster-related mortality in the WHO African Region. Methods The impact of disaster-related mortality on GDP was estimated using double-log econometric model and cross-sectional data on various Member States in the WHO African Region. The analysis was based on 45 of the 46 countries in the Region. The data was obtained from various UNDP and World Bank publications. Results The coefficients for capital (K, educational enrolment (EN, life expectancy (LE and exports (X had a positive sign; while imports (M and disaster mortality (DS were found to impact negatively on GDP. The above-mentioned explanatory variables were found to have a statistically significant effect on GDP at 5% level in a t-distribution test. Disaster mortality of a single person was found to reduce GDP by US$0.01828. Conclusions We have demonstrated that disaster-related mortality has a significant negative effect on GDP. Thus, as policy-makers strive to increase GDP through capital investment, export promotion and increased educational enrolment, they should always keep in mind that investments made in the strengthening of national capacity to mitigate the effects of national disasters expeditiously and effectively will yield significant economic returns.

  3. Effects of maternal mortality on gross domestic product (GDP) in the WHO African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigia, Joses M; Oluwole, Doyin; Mwabu, Germano M; Gatwiri, Doris; Kainyu, Lenity H

    2006-01-01

    WHO African region has got the highest maternal mortality rate compared to the other five regions. Maternal mortality is hypothesized to have significantly negative effect on the gross domestic product (GDP). The objective of the current study was to estimate the loss in GDP attributable to maternal mortality in the WHO African Region. The burden of maternal mortality on GDP was estimated using a double-log econometric model. The analysis is based on cross-sectional data for 45 of the 46 Member States in the WHO African Region. Data were obtained from UNDP and the World Bank publications. All the explanatory variables included in the double-log model were found to have statistically significant effect on per capita gross domestic product (GDP) at 5 % level in a t-distribution test. The coefficients for land (D), capital (K), educational enrollment (EN) and exports (X) had a positive sign; while labor (L), imports (M) and maternal mortality rate (MMR) were found to impact negatively on GDP. Maternal mortality of a single person was found to reduce per capita GDP by US $ 0.36 per year. The study has demonstrated that maternal mortality has a statistically significant negative effect on GDP. Thus, as policy-makers strive to increase GDP through land reform programs, capital investments, export promotion and increase in educational enrollment, they should always remember that investment in maternal mortality-reducing interventions promises significant economic returns. PMID:17348747

  4. Impact of disaster-related mortality on gross domestic product in the WHO African Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigia, Joses M; Sambo, Luis G; Aldis, William; Mwabu, Germano M

    2004-03-15

    BACKGROUND: Disaster-related mortality is a growing public health concern in the African Region. These deaths are hypothesized to have a significantly negative effect on per capita gross domestic product (GDP). The objective of this study was to estimate the loss in GDP attributable to natural and technological disaster-related mortality in the WHO African Region. METHODS: The impact of disaster-related mortality on GDP was estimated using double-log econometric model and cross-sectional data on various Member States in the WHO African Region. The analysis was based on 45 of the 46 countries in the Region. The data was obtained from various UNDP and World Bank publications. RESULTS: The coefficients for capital (K), educational enrolment (EN), life expectancy (LE) and exports (X) had a positive sign; while imports (M) and disaster mortality (DS) were found to impact negatively on GDP. The above-mentioned explanatory variables were found to have a statistically significant effect on GDP at 5% level in a t-distribution test. Disaster mortality of a single person was found to reduce GDP by US$0.01828. CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated that disaster-related mortality has a significant negative effect on GDP. Thus, as policy-makers strive to increase GDP through capital investment, export promotion and increased educational enrolment, they should always keep in mind that investments made in the strengthening of national capacity to mitigate the effects of national disasters expeditiously and effectively will yield significant economic returns. PMID:15113453

  5. Gender Dimensions of Informal Cross Border Trade in West-African Sub-Region (ECOWAS) Borders

    OpenAIRE

    Olabisi Yusuff

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the dynamics of women in cross border trade along ECOWAS sub region. West African region is noted significantly for high volume of trade that goes on within its borders on daily basis, and it involves formal and informal trade. However, informal trade is an integral, but unrecognized component of ECOWAS economic activities. Over, sixty percent of women are into informal trading across ECOWAS sub region, yet, there is gap in literature on the dynamics of the...

  6. Investigation of TEC variations over the magnetic equatorial and equatorial anomaly regions of the African sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryema, B.; Jurua, E.; D'ujanga, F. M.; Ssebiyonga, N.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the annual, seasonal and diurnal variations in ionospheric TEC along the African equatorial region. The study also investigated the effects of a geomagnetic storm on ionospheric TEC values. Dual-frequency GPS derived TEC data obtained from four stations within the African equatorial region for the high solar activity year 2012 were used in this study. Annual variations showed TEC having two peaks in the equinoctial months, while minima values were observed in the summer and winter solstices. The diurnal pattern showed a pre-dawn minimum, a steady increase from about sunrise to an afternoon maximum and then a gradual fall after sunset to attain a minimum just before sunrise. Nighttime enhancements of TEC were observed mostly in the equinoctial months. There was comparably higher percentage TEC variability during nighttime than daytime and highest during equinoxes, moderate in winter and least during summer solstice. TEC was observed to exhibit a good correlation with geomagnetic storm indices.

  7. Genetic and morphological characterisation of the Ankole Longhorn cattle in the African Great Lakes region

    OpenAIRE

    Okeyo Mwai A; Wurzinger Maria; Hanotte Olivier; Baumung Roswitha; Ndumu Deo B; Jianlin Han; Kibogo Harrison; Sölkner Johann

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The study investigated the population structure, diversity and differentiation of almost all of the ecotypes representing the African Ankole Longhorn cattle breed on the basis of morphometric (shape and size), genotypic and spatial distance data. Twentyone morphometric measurements were used to describe the morphology of 439 individuals from 11 sub-populations located in five countries around the Great Lakes region of central and eastern Africa. Additionally, 472 individuals were gen...

  8. Readiness of ethics review systems for a changing public health landscape in the WHO African Region

    OpenAIRE

    Motari, Marion; Ota, Martin Okechukwu; Kirigia, Joses Muthuri

    2015-01-01

    Background The increasing emphasis on research, development and innovation for health in providing solutions to the high burden of diseases in the African Region has warranted a proliferation of studies including clinical trials. This changing public health landscape requires that countries develop adequate ethics review capacities to protect and minimize risks to study participants. Therefore, this study assessed the readiness of national ethics committees to respond to challenges posed by a...

  9. Increased Incidence of Loco-Regional Recurrences Among African American Women with Terminal Stage Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo Colón-Otero; Sherry King; Vandelyn Smith; Carolyn Bieber; Julia Crook; Solberg, Lawrence A.; Robert Shannon; Perez, Edith A.

    2008-01-01

    A prospective analysis of women with terminal breast cancer admitted to CHNE from November 2006-August 2007 evaluated anecdotal observations that African American (AA) women are likelier than Caucasian women to evidence loco-regional recurrences (LRR). Women with terminal breast cancer who were admitted to CHNE, a not-for-profit hospice serving over 90% of Northeast Florida hospice patients, were eligible for participation. 134 terminal breast cancer patients were assessed by hospice nurses f...

  10. Drivers of soil fertility in smallholder banana systems in the African Great Lakes Region

    OpenAIRE

    Delstanche, Séverine

    2011-01-01

    Banana is a crop of major importance in the African Great Lakes Region, because of the food and cash it provides to about 85% of the population. Despite the management efforts of smallholder farmers, on-farm banana yields are low. Low yields are mainly attributed to poor soil fertility and limited input use, drought or irregular rainfall, pests and diseases and inappropriate management practices. Relying on observations on banana plants, crop management, pests and soils in various agro-ecoreg...

  11. Social inequalities, regional disparities and health inequity in North African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Boutayeb Abdesslam; Helmert Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background During the last decades, North African countries have substantially improved economic, social and health conditions of their populations in average. In all countries, human development in general and life expectancy, literacy and per capita income in particular have increased. However, improvement was not equally shared between groups of different milieu, regions or level of income. Social inequalities and health inequity have persisted or even worsened. Data are generally...

  12. Post-War Economics. Micro-Level Evidence from the African Great Lakes Region

    OpenAIRE

    D'Aoust, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    This thesis starts by arguing that the civil conflicts that erupted in the African Great Lakes are rooted in a continuous pursuit of power, in which ethnic, regional and political identifiers are used by the contenders for power to rally community support. In an introductory chapter, I go back to the colonial era, drawing attention to Burundi and Rwanda, and then describe in more details Burundi's refugee crisis, ex-combatants' demobilization and the 2010 elections, all of which will be addre...

  13. African Aquaculture: A Regional Summary with Emphasis on Sub-Saharan Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Moehl, J.; Machena, C.

    2000-01-01

    The African Region consists of 48 countries and five island nations, most of which are practising some form of aquaculture, often at a very low level. Over half the countries report producing less than 100 mt annually. The largest producer is Nigeria (17 700 mt) followed by Madagascar (5 100 mt) and Zambia (4 700 mt). The 1997 combined aquaculture production of the region was 40 300 mt. Aquaculture is estimated to be 95 percent small scale, with fish ponds integrated into the m...

  14. Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs): Instruments of economic growth and development in a South African regional dispensation

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Hendrik

    2002-01-01

    The South African economy is currently characterised by high levels of unemployment, abject poverty, high illiteracy, low productivity and low international competitiveness. It is also struggling to attract and retain foreign direct investment and portfolio investments. Amidst this situation, the formal sector is also continuously shedding jobs. Furthermore, the formal sector absorption capacity is steadily declining as is apparent over the past three decades, where formal the absorption capa...

  15. Bias reduction in decadal predictions of West African monsoon rainfall using regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxian, A.; Sein, D.; Panitz, H.-J.; Warscher, M.; Breil, M.; Engel, T.; Tödter, J.; Krause, A.; Cabos Narvaez, W. D.; Fink, A. H.; Ahrens, B.; Kunstmann, H.; Jacob, D.; Paeth, H.

    2016-02-01

    The West African monsoon rainfall is essential for regional food production, and decadal predictions are necessary for policy makers and farmers. However, predictions with global climate models reveal precipitation biases. This study addresses the hypotheses that global prediction biases can be reduced by dynamical downscaling with a multimodel ensemble of three regional climate models (RCMs), a RCM coupled to a global ocean model and a RCM applying more realistic soil initialization and boundary conditions, i.e., aerosols, sea surface temperatures (SSTs), vegetation, and land cover. Numerous RCM predictions have been performed with REMO, COSMO-CLM (CCLM), and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) in various versions and for different decades. Global predictions reveal typical positive and negative biases over the Guinea Coast and the Sahel, respectively, related to a southward shifted Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and a positive tropical Atlantic SST bias. These rainfall biases are reduced by some regional predictions in the Sahel but aggravated by all RCMs over the Guinea Coast, resulting from the inherited SST bias, increased westerlies and evaporation over the tropical Atlantic and shifted African easterly waves. The coupled regional predictions simulate high-resolution atmosphere-ocean interactions strongly improving the SST bias, the ITCZ shift and the Guinea Coast and Central Sahel precipitation biases. Some added values in rainfall bias are found for more realistic SST and land cover boundary conditions over the Guinea Coast and improved vegetation in the Central Sahel. Thus, the ability of RCMs and improved boundary conditions to reduce rainfall biases for climate impact research depends on the considered West African region.

  16. High-level β-globin expression after retroviral transfer of locus activation region-containing human β-globin gene derivatives into murine erythroleukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The locus activation region (LAR) of the human β-globin-like gene cluster is characterized by a group of four DNase I hypersensitive sites, which arise specifically in erythroid tissues and are required for a normal pattern of β-globin-like expression. The hypersensitive sites are found at positions 6.1, 10.9, 14.7, and 18 kilobase pairs (kbp) 5' of the ε-globin gene. Recently functional assays of the LAR that tested determinants for all four hypersensitive sites showed that expression of the human β-globin gene was increased to normal or near-normal levels in both transgenic mice and erythroid cells. The authors constructed retroviral vectors with a human β-globin gene and the determinant for a single hypersensitive site and measured β-globin gene expression after retroviral infection of murine erythroleukemia cells. In the context of gene-transfer experiments ultimately aimed at gene therapy, the results show that LAR determinants lead to an increased level of human β-globin RNA expression after retroviral transfer into erythroid cells. But inclusion of LAR determinants in retroviral vectors also entails the potential risk of activating the expression of nonglobin genes in erythroid cells

  17. Ethnobotanical knowledge on botanical repellents employed in the African region against mosquito vectors - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, Roman; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-08-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a huge threat for millions of humans and animals worldwide, since they act as vectors for important parasites and pathogens, including malaria, filariasis and important arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile and Zika virus. No vaccines or other specific treatments are available against the arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes, and avoidance of mosquito bites remains the best strategy. African regions are usually hit most whose inhabitants are poor, and the use of repellent plants is the only efficient protection against vectors they have. Ethnobotanical knowledge of such plants and their use is usually passed on orally from one generation to another. However, it is also important to preserve this information in a written form, as well. Ethnobotanical research projects carried out in the regions of today's Ethiopia, South Africa, Nigeria, Kenya, and Tanzania indicate that the native inhabitants of the African study regions traditionally use 64 plant species, belonging to 30 families. Aromatic plants (i.e., Citrus spp., Eucalyptus spp., Lantana camara, Ocimum spp. and Lippia javanica) the most commonly used in all the study regions. Native people know three major methods of using repellent plants: (i) production of repellent smoke from burning plants, (ii) hanging plants inside the house or sprinkling leaves on the floor, (iii) the use of plant oils, juices from crushed fresh parts of the plants, or various prepared extracts applied on uncovered body parts. Overall, this review covers studies conducted only in a limited part of the African continent, highlighting the importance to undertake further research efforts to preserve the unique knowledge and traditions of the native tribes. PMID:27260568

  18. Association studies in QTL regions linked to bovine trypanotolerance in a West African crossbred population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayo, G K; Gautier, M; Berthier, D; Poivey, J P; Sidibe, I; Bengaly, Z; Eggen, A; Boichard, D; Thevenon, S

    2012-04-01

    African animal trypanosomosis is a parasitic blood disease transmitted by tsetse flies and is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa. West African taurine breeds have the ability, known as trypanotolerance, to limit parasitaemia and anaemia and remain productive in enzootic areas. Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying traits related to trypanotolerance have been identified in an experimentally infected F(2) population resulting from a cross between taurine and zebu cattle. Although this information is highly valuable, the QTL remain to be confirmed in populations subjected to natural conditions of infection, and the corresponding regions need to be refined. In our study, 360 West African cattle were phenotyped for the packed cell volume control under natural conditions of infection in south-western Burkina Faso. Phenotypes were assessed by analysing data from previous cattle monitored over 2 years in an area enzootic for trypanosomosis. We further genotyped for 64 microsatellite markers mapping within four previously reported QTL on BTA02, BTA04, BTA07 and BTA13. These data enabled us to estimate the heritability of the phenotype using the kinship matrix between individuals computed from genotyping data. Thus, depending on the estimators considered and the method used, the heritability of anaemia control ranged from 0.09 to 0.22. Finally, an analysis of association identified an allele of the MNB42 marker on BTA04 as being strongly associated with anaemia control, and a candidate gene, INHBA, as being close to that marker. PMID:22404348

  19. Social inequalities, regional disparities and health inequity in North African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutayeb Abdesslam

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last decades, North African countries have substantially improved economic, social and health conditions of their populations in average. In all countries, human development in general and life expectancy, literacy and per capita income in particular have increased. However, improvement was not equally shared between groups of different milieu, regions or level of income. Social inequalities and health inequity have persisted or even worsened. Data are generally scarce and few studies were devoted to this topic in North Africa as a region. In this paper, we carry out a comparative study on the achievements of these countries, not only in terms of human development and its components but also in terms of inequalities' reduction and health equity. Method This study is based on data available for comparison between North African countries. The main data sources are provided by reports released by the World Health Organisation (WHO, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF, the World Bank, surveys such as Demographic Health Surveys (DHS and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS and finally recent papers published on equity in different countries of the region. Results and discussion There is no doubt that education, health and human development in general have improved in North Africa during the last decades. Improvement was, however, uneven and unequally enjoyed by different socioeconomic groups. Indeed, each country included in this study shows large urban-rural disparities, discrepancies between advantaged and disadvantaged regions and cities; and unacceptable differences between rich and poor. Health inequity is particularly seen through access to health services and infant mortality. Conclusion During the last decades, North African decision makers have endeavoured to improve social and economic conditions of their populations. Globally, health, education and living

  20. Land surface coupling in regional climate simulations of the West African monsoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Allison L. [University of Michigan, Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Pal, Jeremy S. [Loyola Marymount University, Department of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Rauscher, Sara A.; Giorgi, Filippo [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Earth System Physics - Weather and Climate Group, Trieste (Italy); Bell, Jason L.; Sloan, Lisa C. [University of California, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Diffenbaugh, Noah S. [Purdue University, Purdue Climate Change Research Center and Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Boone, Aaron [CNRS/GAME, CNRM Meteo-France, Toulouse (France)

    2009-11-15

    Coupling of the Community Land Model (CLM3) to the ICTP Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) substantially improves the simulation of mean climate over West Africa relative to an older version of RegCM3 coupled to the Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS). Two 10-year simulations (1992-2001) show that the seasonal timing and magnitude of mean monsoon precipitation more closely match observations when the new land surface scheme is implemented. Specifically, RegCM3-CLM3 improves the timing of the monsoon advance and retreat across the Guinean Coast, and reduces a positive precipitation bias in the Sahel and Northern Africa. As a result, simulated temperatures are higher, thereby reducing the negative temperature bias found in the Guinean Coast and Sahel in RegCM3-BATS. In the RegCM3-BATS simulation, warmer temperatures in northern latitudes and wetter soils near the coast create excessively strong temperature and moist static energy gradients, which shifts the African Easterly Jet further north than observed. In the RegCM3-CLM3 simulation, the migration and position of the African Easterly Jet more closely match reanalysis winds. This improvement is triggered by drier soil conditions in the RegCM3-CLM3 simulation and an increase in evapotranspiration per unit precipitation. These results indicate that atmosphere-land surface coupling has the ability to impact regional-scale circulation and precipitation in regions exhibiting strong hydroclimatic gradients. (orig.)

  1. 9 CFR 94.17 - Dry-cured pork products from regions where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine fever, classical swine fever, or swine vesicular... RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER... § 94.17 Dry-cured pork products from regions where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African......

  2. Rainfall variability, climate change and regionalization in the African monsoon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This summary recalls some results at the end of the AMMA international experiment (2003-2010) in terms of variability of the African monsoon at the intra-seasonal to multi-decadal scales and of climate prospective. The results confirmed the weight of surface temperatures and marine tele-connections for inter-annual and decadal fluctuations and stressed the importance of atmospheric variability. They also described the dominant modes of intra-seasonal variability as their interactions with the surface. Several hypotheses involving memory effects related to soil water and vegetation, particularly in boreal spring and autumn have also been made. Prospective analysis from model output suggests rainfall surplus around 2050 over the Eastern-central Sahel and relative deficit to the West. Phase 2 of AMMA (2010-2020) will focus more on aspects that have a high social impact in direct collaboration with meteorological services predictability, prediction scores, operational indicators, evaluation of the part of anthropogenic forcing in the current and future variations. (authors)

  3. High-level-waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of risks, environmental effects, process feasibility, and costs for disposal of immobilized high-level wastes in geologic repositories indicates that the disposal system safety has a low sensitivity to the choice of the waste disposal form

  4. Wind Resource Variations Over Selected Sites in the West African Sub-Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of wind characteristics and wind resource potentials at 4 locations in the West African sub-region is presented, applying data obtained at the Ibadan central station of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA-Ibadan, Nigeria). The study has shown that the annual variations of wind speed have coefficient of variability between 10 and 15% but the available wind power at the studied locations is generally poor with values ranging between 2 and 10 Wm2 at the standard meteorological height of 10 m. Cotonou (Lat. 6.40N, Long. 2.30E) Benin Republic has however been distinguished from the other three locations in Nigeria, as the most promising site for wind resource development and utilization in the sub-region. With appropriate choice of wind turbine characteristics and design efficiency, establishing wind farms at the Cotonou location for electrical energy production could be feasible

  5. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range province, southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste: characterization of the Trans-Pecos region, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Trans-Pecos region of Texas, in the southeasternmost part of the Basin and Range province, is semiarid; precipitation ranges from less than 250 to 450 millimeters and potential evapotranspiration is as great as 2.5 meters annually. Structurally, the region is transitional with the Great Plains to the east; only the northern and western parts of the region have well-developed, northwest-trending basins and ranges. The area has experienced repeated deformation since the Precambrian with igneous activity and basin-and-range extension, and to a lesser extent Laramide structures, dominating the topography. Potential host media for isolation of high-level radioactive waste in the region include: (1) Intrusive rocks occurring as stocks, sills, and laccoliths of several rock types; (2) tuffaceous rocks, which include densely welded ash-flow tuff; (3) basaltic lava flows; and (4) argillaceous rocks. Quaternary tectonism of the region is characterized by: (1) Many small earthquakes and only one damaging earthquake; (2) heat flow that is transitional between that of the craton to the east and the greater heat flow of the Basin and Range; and (3) Quaternary fault scarps, which are more common in the western part of the region. Longterm (late Cenozoic to modern) vertical crustal movement is estimated to be 1 to 2 meters per 10,000 years. Surface and ground-water drainage in the region is to the Rio Grande and to topographically closed basins. Ground-water recharge in the upland areas and in channels of ephemeral streams probably averages about 10 millimeters or less annually. Relatively long travel paths and traveltimes exist from ground-water divides to natural discharge areas. Ground water generally contains less than 1,000 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids except in the Salt Basin where concentrations exceed 3,000 milligrams per liter. Mineral production from the Trans-Pecos region has been dominated by silver, fluorspar, and mercury. (author)

  6. Multiple origins and regional dispersal of resistant dhps in African Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Pearce

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the molecular basis of resistance to a number of common antimalarial drugs is well known, a geographic description of the emergence and dispersal of resistance mutations across Africa has not been attempted. To that end we have characterised the evolutionary origins of antifolate resistance mutations in the dihydropteroate synthase (dhps gene and mapped their contemporary distribution. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used microsatellite polymorphism flanking the dhps gene to determine which resistance alleles shared common ancestry and found five major lineages each of which had a unique geographical distribution. The extent to which allelic lineages were shared among 20 African Plasmodium falciparum populations revealed five major geographical groupings. Resistance lineages were common to all sites within these regions. The most marked differentiation was between east and west African P. falciparum, in which resistance alleles were not only of different ancestry but also carried different resistance mutations. CONCLUSIONS: Resistant dhps has emerged independently in multiple sites in Africa during the past 10-20 years. Our data show the molecular basis of resistance differs between east and west Africa, which is likely to translate into differing antifolate sensitivity. We have also demonstrated that the dispersal patterns of resistance lineages give unique insights into recent parasite migration patterns.

  7. Regional fat distribution changes with aging in Caucasian, African-American and Asian women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ai-jun; Dympna Gallagher; Richard N. Pierson Jr

    2007-01-01

    Background: A central pattern of fat distribution in postmenopausal women is regarded as a contributor to the increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.Both ethnicity and occurrence of menopause appear to influence regional fat distribution.However the influence of ethnicity has been under-investigated.Objective: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that centralized fat distribution is influenced by ethnic origin.Furthermore, we hypothesize that the menopause-related changes in central adiposity in Caucasian,African-American and Asian women occur at different rates.Method: Total and regional body fat ratios were measured by whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a cross-sectional study using a general linear regression model.After adjustment for age, weight, height,and total body fat, the android and gynoid fat compartments, and the ratio of trunk/leg fat, were analyzed.Results: Four hundred and forty-four women (227 Caucasian (Ca), 128 African-American (AA) and 89 Asian (As)) aged 18-94 y were recruited.Race was significantly (P<0.0001) related to the dependent variables: android and gynoid fat, and ratio of trunk/leg adiposity, in all subjects, adjusted by age, weight, height and total body fat.The interaction of race * menopause was also found to be significant (P=0.028).In each group, regional and total body fat levels, and especially android adiposity, were higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women.Interestingly, the postmenopausal difference in android fat in Ca was found significant (P<0.05), whereas such differences had no impact in AA and As subjects (NS).Conclusions: The differences in fat mass and its distribution were racially dependent.The impact of menopause was only significant in Ca group.

  8. Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera) have low infestation levels of the mite Varroa destructor in different ecological regions in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Flores, C A; Guzmán-Novoa, E; Hamiduzzaman, M M; Aréchiga-Flores, C F; López-Carlos, M A

    2014-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies of African and European descent were compared for levels of Varroa destructor infestation in 3 different ecological regions in Mexico. The 300 colonies that were studied were located in subtropical, temperate sub-humid, and temperate dry climates. The morphotype and mitotype of adult bees as well as their rates of infestation by varroa mites were determined. Additionally, the number of combs with brood and covered with bees was recorded for each colony. The highest frequency of colonies that were classified as African-derived was found in the subtropical environment, whereas the lowest occurred in the temperate dry region. Overall, the colonies of African genotype had significantly lower mite infestation rates (3.5±0.34%) than the colonies of European genotype (4.7±0.49%) regardless of the region sampled. Significant effects of genotype and region on Varroa infestation rates were evident, and there were no differences in bee population or capped brood between genotypes. Mite infestation levels were significantly lower in the colonies of the temperate dry region than in the colonies of the other 2 regions. These results are discussed within the context of results from studies that were previously conducted in Brazil. This is the first study that demonstrates the effects of Africanization and ecological environment on V. destructor infestation rates in honey bee colonies in North America. PMID:24634296

  9. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of low-level Petri nets - while, on the other hand, they still offer a wide range of analysis methods and tools. The step from low-level nets to high-level nets can be compared to the step from assembly languages to modern programming languages with an elaborated type concept. In low-level nets...... the book as useful as possible, the selected papers represent the current "state of the art" of high-level nets. This means that we have been forced to leave out a number of older papers which have had a profound influence on the development of high-level Petri nets - but by now have been superseded...

  10. Securing Security Governance in Post-conflict Situation : A Framework of Conflict Prevention through ECOWARN in West African Region

    OpenAIRE

    Yamane, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on an analytical approach of “security governance” in light of post-conflict situation and aims to examine a system of conflict prevention in the West African region from a viewpoint of the approach. The security governance initially developed security studies of International Relations especially for the regional governance in the field of European security. On that basis of making and developing the new perspective for the region, it currently goes to expand the subject...

  11. High Level Lomber Disc Hernias

    OpenAIRE

    Ateş, Özkan; Tarım, Özcan; Koçak, Ayhan; Önal, S. Çağatay; Çaylı, Süleyman R.; Şahinbeyoğlu, Baran; Tektaş, Şevket

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The scope of this study is to investigate the correlation between the clinical and radiological findings of high level lomber disc hernia (L1-2, L2-3, L3-4) and surgical outcome. Material and Method: 23 high level lomber disc hernia out of 262 lomber disc cases operated between January1996 and November 2001 at the department of Neurosurgery , Faculty of Medicine, İnönü Üniversity (Malatya Turkey) were retrospectively reviewed. Results: 39.1% of the cases were male and...

  12. Regional modelling of future African climate north of 15S including greenhouse warming and land degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paeth, H. [Geographical Institute, University of Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Thamm, H.P. [Geographical Institute, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Previous studies have highlighted the crucial role of land degradation in tropical African climate. This effect urgently has to be taken into account when predicting future African climate under enhanced greenhouse conditions. Here, we present time slice experiments of African climate until 2025, using a high-resolution regional climate model. A supposable scenario of future land use changes, involving vegetation loss and soil degradation, is prescribed simultaneously with increasing greenhouse-gas concentrations in order to detect, where the different forcings counterbalance or reinforce each other. This proceeding allows us to define the regions of highest vulnerability with respect to future freshwater availability and food security in tropical and subtropical Africa and may provide a decision basis for political measures. The model simulates a considerable reduction in precipitation amount until 2025 over most of tropical Africa, amounting to partly more than 500 mm (20-40% of the annual sum), particularly in the Congo Basin and the Sahel Zone. The change is strongest in boreal summer and basically reflects the pattern of maximum vegetation cover during the seasonal cycle. The related change in the surface energy fluxes induces a substantial near-surface warming by up to 7C. According to the modified temperature gradients over tropical Africa, the summer monsoon circulation intensifies and transports more humid air masses into the southern part of West Africa. This humidifying effect is overcompensated by a remarkable decrease in surface evaporation, leading to the overall drying tendency over most of Africa. Extreme daily rainfall events become stronger in autumn but less intense in spring. Summer and autumn appear to be characterized by more severe heat waves over Subsaharan West Africa. In addition, the Tropical Easterly Jet is weakening, leading to enhanced drought conditions in the Sahel Zone. All these results suggest that the local impact of land

  13. Metabolic syndrome according to different definitions in a rapidly developing country of the African region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paccaud Fred

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims We examined, in a country of the African region, i the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS according to three definitions (ATP, WHO and IDF; ii the distribution of the MetS criteria; iii the level of agreement between these three definitions and iv we also examined these issues upon exclusion of people with diabetes. Methods We conducted an examination survey on a sample representative of the general population aged 25–64 years in the Seychelles (Indian Ocean, African region, attended by 1255 participants (participation rate of 80.3%. Results The prevalence of MetS increased markedly with age. According to the ATP, WHO and IDF definitions, the prevalence of MetS was, respectively, 24.0%, 25.0%, 25.1% in men and 32.2%, 24.6%, 35.4% in women. Approximately 80% of participants with diabetes also had MetS and the prevalence of MetS was approximately 7% lower upon exclusion of diabetic individuals. High blood pressure and adiposity were the criteria found most frequently among MetS holders irrespective of the MetS definitions. Among people with MetS based on any of the three definitions, 78% met both ATP and IDF criteria, 67% both WHO and IDF criteria, 54% both WHO and ATP criteria and only 37% met all three definitions. Conclusion We identified a high prevalence of MetS in this population in epidemiological transition. The prevalence of MetS decreased by approximately 32% upon exclusion of persons with diabetes. Because of limited agreement between the MetS definitions, the fairly similar proportions of MetS based on any of the three MetS definitions classified, to a substantial extent, different subjects as having MetS.

  14. Assessing the Change in Rainfall Characteristics and Trends for the Southern African ITCZ Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumberg, Verena; Weber, Torsten; Helmschrot, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    Southern Africa is strongly influenced by the movement and intensity of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) thus determining the climate in this region with distinct seasonal and inter-annual rainfall dynamics. The amount and variability of rainfall affect the various ecosystems by controlling the hydrological system, regulating water availability and determining agricultural practices. Changes in rainfall characteristics potentially caused by climate change are of uppermost relevance for both ecosystem functioning and human well-being in this region and, thus, need to be investigated. To analyse the rainfall variability governed by the ITCZ in southern Africa, observational daily rainfall datasets with a high spatial resolution of 0.25° x 0.25° (about 28 km x 28 km) from satellite-based Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) are used. These datasets extend from 1998 to 2008 and 1948 to 2010, respectively, and allow for the assessment of rainfall characteristics over different spatial and temporal scales. Furthermore, a comparison of TRMM and GLDAS and, where available, with observed data will be made to determine the differences of both datasets. In order to quantify the intra- and inner-annual variability of rainfall, the amount of total rainfall, duration of rainy seasons and number of dry spells along with further indices are calculated from the observational datasets. Over the southern African ITCZ region, the rainfall characteristics change moving from wetter north to the drier south, but also from west to east, i.e. the coast to the interior. To address expected spatial and temporal variabilities, the assessment of changes in the rainfall parameters will be carried out for different transects in zonal and meridional directions over the region affected by the ITCZ. Revealing trends over more than 60 years, the results will help to identify and understand potential impacts of climate change on

  15. African regional co-operative agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document informs that the second extension of the 'African regional co-operative agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology' entered into force on 4 April 2000. In also includes the status list of the Agreement as of 29 April 2000

  16. Feedback of observed interannual vegetation change: a regional climate model analysis for the West African monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Cornelia; Bliefernicht, Jan; Heinzeller, Dominikus; Gessner, Ursula; Klein, Igor; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-06-01

    West Africa is a hot spot region for land-atmosphere coupling where atmospheric conditions and convective rainfall can strongly depend on surface characteristics. To investigate the effect of natural interannual vegetation changes on the West African monsoon precipitation, we implement satellite-derived dynamical datasets for vegetation fraction (VF), albedo and leaf area index into the Weather Research and Forecasting model. Two sets of 4-member ensembles with dynamic and static land surface description are used to extract vegetation-related changes in the interannual difference between August-September 2009 and 2010. The observed vegetation patterns retain a significant long-term memory of preceding rainfall patterns of at least 2 months. The interannual vegetation changes exhibit the strongest effect on latent heat fluxes and associated surface temperatures. We find a decrease (increase) of rainy hours over regions with higher (lower) VF during the day and the opposite during the night. The probability that maximum precipitation is shifted to nighttime (daytime) over higher (lower) VF is 12 % higher than by chance. We attribute this behaviour to horizontal circulations driven by differential heating. Over more vegetated regions, the divergence of moist air together with lower sensible heat fluxes hinders the initiation of deep convection during the day. During the night, mature convective systems cause an increase in the number of rainy hours over these regions. We identify this feedback in both water- and energy-limited regions of West Africa. The inclusion of observed dynamical surface information improved the spatial distribution of modelled rainfall in the Sahel with respect to observations, illustrating the potential of satellite data as a boundary constraint for atmospheric models.

  17. What does FDI inflow mean for emerging african economies? Measuring the regional effects of FDI in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Paul I. Ojeaga; Emmanuel O. George; Oluwatoyin Mathew; Adetunji Adekola

    2016-01-01

    Can foreign direct investment (FDI) promote growth in Africa? What does the inflow of investment hold for African emerging economies? Are the determinants of FDI different for different regional blocs in Africa? This study reviews the implication of FDI for different regional blocs in Africa. FDI was found to have a significant effect on growth in North Africa but had no significant effect in East, Southern and West Africa. FDI was also fo...

  18. Renewable energies in the Middle East and North African Region: can private-public partnerships address existing barriers and risks?

    OpenAIRE

    Komendantova, N.

    2016-01-01

    Despite ambitious energy policy targets and available resource potentials deployment of renewable energies in the Middle East and North African (MENA) region is mainly supported by public funding. Volumes of foreign direct investment (FDI) going into the renewable energy projects in the region are minimal. Evidence suggests that existing risks for investment and how these risks are perceived b investors is keeping back private investment or makes it more costly. This paper discusses which typ...

  19. Translating the potential of hydrological forecasts into improved decision making in African regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, J.; He, X.; Wanders, N.; Wood, E. F.; Ali, A.; Olang, L.; Estes, L. D.; Caylor, K. K.; Evans, T. P.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrological forecasts at local scale and seasonal time scales have the potential to inform decision-making by individuals and institutions to improve management of water resources and enhance food security. Much progress has been made in recent years in understanding climate variability and its predictability over African regions. However, there remain many challenges in translating large-scale evaluations and forecasts into locally relevant information. This is hampered by lack of on the ground data of hydrological and agricultural states, and the generally low skill of climate forecasts at time scales beyond one or two weeks. Additionally, the uptake of forecasts is not prevalent because of lack of capacity, and institutional and cultural barriers to using new and uncertain information. New technologies for monitoring and forecasting relevant hydrological variables, and novel approaches to understanding how this information may be used within decision making processes, have the potential to make substantial progress in addressing these challenges. We present a quasi-operational drought and flood monitoring and forecasting system and its use in understanding the potential of hydrological forecasts for improved decision-making. The system monitors in near real-time the terrestrial water cycle for the African continent based on remote sensing data and land surface hydrological modeling. The monitoring forms initial conditions for hydrological forecasts at short time scale, aimed at flood forecasting, and seasonal scale aimed at drought and crop yield forecasts. The flood forecasts are driven by precipitation and temperature forecasts from the Global Forecast System (GFS). The drought forecasts are driven by climate forecasts from the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME). The seasonal forecast skill is modest and seasonally/regionally dependent with part of the skill coming from persistence in initial land surface conditions. We discuss the use of the system

  20. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range province, southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste: characterization of the Rio Grande Region, New Mexico, and Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rio Grande region, New Mexico and Texas, includes most of the area east of the Rio Grande to the Sacramento Mountains. The region encompasses two large basins, the Jornada del Muerto and Tularosa basins, and the intervening San Andres Mountains. The valley surfaces generally have altitudes from 600 to 1,500 meters, and the mountain ranges generally have altitudes from 1,500 to 2,400 meters. About one-half the area is underlain by basin fill. Sedimentary rocks that crop out in the Rio Grande region range in age from Precambrian to Holocene. The oldest Precambrian rocks are metamorphosed and intruded by plutons. Paleozoic rocks are primarily carbonates, with argillaceous beds in the older Paleozoic units. Clastic and gypsum are in greater abundance in younger Paleozoic units of Pennsylvanian and Permian age. The Mesozoic rocks primarily are clastic rocks with some limestone. Cenozoic rocks consist of sequences of conglomerate, sandstone, mudstone, and siltstone, derived from adjacent mountain masses, interbedded with basalt and andesite flows and silicic tuffs. Early to middle Tertiary volcanic and tectonic processes resulted in the implacement of plutonic bodies; volcanic activity continued into the Quaternary. Media considered to have potential for isolation of high-level radioactive waste include intrusive rocks, ash-flow tuff, and basaltic lava flows. Laharic and mudflow breccia and argillaceous beds also may be potential host rocks. These and other rocks may be potential media in areas where the unsaturated zone is thick. Quaternary faults are more common in the southern one-half of the region than in the northern one-half. Range-bounding faults with evidence of Quaternary movement extend northward into the central part of the region. Volcanic activity in the northern part of the region includes basalt flows of Quaternary age. Historical crustal uplift and seismicity have occurred in the vicinity of Socorro, New Mexico. The region is bordered on the west by

  1. Genetic and morphological characterisation of the Ankole Longhorn cattle in the African Great Lakes region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeyo Mwai A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study investigated the population structure, diversity and differentiation of almost all of the ecotypes representing the African Ankole Longhorn cattle breed on the basis of morphometric (shape and size, genotypic and spatial distance data. Twentyone morphometric measurements were used to describe the morphology of 439 individuals from 11 sub-populations located in five countries around the Great Lakes region of central and eastern Africa. Additionally, 472 individuals were genotyped using 15 DNA microsatellites. Femoral length, horn length, horn circumference, rump height, body length and fore-limb circumference showed the largest differences between regions. An overall FST index indicated that 2.7% of the total genetic variation was present among sub-populations. The least differentiation was observed between the two sub-populations of Mbarara south and Luwero in Uganda, while the highest level of differentiation was observed between the Mugamba in Burundi and Malagarasi in Tanzania. An estimated membership of four for the inferred clusters from a model-based Bayesian approach was obtained. Both analyses on distance-based and model-based methods consistently isolated the Mugamba sub-population in Burundi from the others.

  2. The negative impacts of human activities in the eastern African region: an international waters perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payet, Rolph; Obura, David

    2004-02-01

    The complex interactions between human activities and the environment at the interface of land and water is analyzed with a focus on the Somali Current (East Africa), and Indian Ocean Island States, subregions of the Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA). These 2 subregions contain some of the world's richest ecosystems, including the high biodiversity forests of Madagascar and the diverse coastal habitats of the eastern African coast. These ecosystems support local communities and national and regional economies. Current and future degradation of these systems, from water basins to continental shelves, affects the livelihoods and sustainability of the countries in the region, and long-term efforts to reduce poverty. The assessments determined that pollution and climate change are the primary environmental and social concerns in the Islands of the Indian Ocean, while freshwater shortage and unsustainable exploitation of fisheries and other living resources are the primary environmental and social concerns in East Africa. The GIWA approach, through assessing root causes of environmental concerns, enables the development of policy approaches for mitigating environmental degradation. This paper explores policy frameworks for mitigating the impacts, and reducing the drivers, of 3 environmental concerns--freshwater shortage; solid waste pollution; and climate change--addressing social and institutional causes and effects, and linking the subregions to broad international frameworks. The common theme in all 3 case studies is the need to develop integrated ecosystem and international waters policies, and mechanisms to manage conflicting interests and to limit threats to natural processes. PMID:15083647

  3. The Arab Spring 2011: Retreating Secularization? The New Wave of Islamization in the North African Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kostrounová

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of revolutionary changes in the North African region in 2011 sparked the flame of hope for change and implementing reforms viewed through the lens of the West. The fall of the dictator and the process of democratic transition in Tunisia as a major commitment to a peaceful future for the whole region and coming closer to the Western-style concept of democracy. How unrealistic has this premise proved to be, it is illustrated by the recent development in Tunisia, Libya, as well as Syria. It is really important to ask, how the requirements and goals of the Arab revolution 2011 reflected into the actual change at the national political scene in various Islamic countries. Isn’t the call for democracy inspired by its western model, taking the form of the dictator’s subversion, revision of the constitution and observing human rights, particularly the freedom of speech and fighting for the abolition of the censorship, the reason for strengthening the effort of some political Islam groups (such as Salafiyya to obtain more influence in the society? Can the current sectarian violence in Libya be viewed as a new, slowly coming wave of violence in the name of fighting between different Islamic sects? Does the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood’s attitude restrain the real reform and transition to a new system in the country? And isn’t Tunisia becoming a victim of its own dream of better tomorrow after Ben Ali’s fall?

  4. Properties of transported African mineral dust aerosols in the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denjean, Cyrielle; Chevaillier, Servanne; Gaimoz, Cécile; Grand, Noel; Triquet, Sylvain; Zapf, Pascal; Loisil, Rodrigue; Bourrianne, Thierry; Freney, Evelyn; Dupuy, Regis; Sellegri, Karine; Schwarzenbock, Alfons; Torres, Benjamin; Mallet, Marc; Cassola, Federico; Prati, Paolo; Formenti, Paola

    2015-04-01

    The transport of mineral dust aerosols is a global phenomenon with strong climate implications. Depending on the travel distance over source regions, the atmospheric conditions and the residence time in the atmosphere, various transformation processes (size-selective sedimentation, mixing, condensation of gaseous species, and weathering) can modify the physical and chemical properties of mineral dust, which, in turn, can change the dust's optical properties. The model predictions of the radiative effect by mineral dust still suffer of the lack of certainty of these properties, and their temporal evolution with transport time. Within the frame of the ChArMex project (Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean experiment, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/), one intensive airborne campaign (ADRIMED, Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact in the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region, 06 June - 08 July 2013) has been performed over the Central and Western Mediterranean, one of the two major transport pathways of African mineral dust. In this study we have set up a systematic strategy to determine the optical, physical and optical properties of mineral dust to be compared to an equivalent dataset for dust close to source regions in Africa. This study is based on airborne observations onboard the SAFIRE ATR-42 aircraft, equipped with state of the art in situ instrumentation to measure the particle scattering and backscattering coefficients (nephelometer at 450, 550, and 700 nm), the absorption coefficient (PSAP at 467, 530, and 660 nm), the extinction coefficient (CAPS at 530 nm), the aerosol optical depth (PLASMA at 340 to 1640 nm), the size distribution in the extended range 40 nm - 30 µm by the combination of different particle counters (SMPS, USHAS, FSSP, GRIMM) and the chemical composition obtained by filter sampling. The chemistry and transport model CHIMERE-Dust have been used to classify the air masses according to the dust origin and transport. Case studies of dust transport

  5. Optical, physical and chemical properties of transported African mineral dust aerosols in the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denjean, Cyrielle; Di Biagio, Claudia; Chevaillier, Servanne; Gaimoz, Cécile; Grand, Noel; Loisil, Rodrigue; Triquet, Sylvain; Zapf, Pascal; Roberts, Greg; Bourrianne, Thierry; Torres, Benjamin; Blarel, Luc; Sellegri, Karine; Freney, Evelyn; Schwarzenbock, Alfons; Ravetta, François; Laurent, Benoit; Mallet, Marc; Formenti, Paola

    2014-05-01

    The transport of mineral dust aerosols is a global phenomenon with strong climate implications. Depending on the travel distance over source regions, the atmospheric conditions and the residence time in the atmosphere, various transformation processes (size-selective sedimentation, mixing, condensation of gaseous species, and weathering) can modify the physical and chemical properties of mineral dust, which, in turn, can change the dust's optical properties. The model predictions of the radiative effect by mineral dust still suffer of the lack of certainty of these properties, and their temporal evolution with transport time. Within the frame of the ChArMex project (Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean experiment, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/), two intensive airborne campaigns (TRAQA, TRansport and Air QuAlity, 18 June - 11 July 2012, and ADRIMED, Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact in the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region, 06 June - 08 July 2013) have been performed over the Central and Western Mediterranean, one of the two major transport pathways of African mineral dust. In this study we have set up a systematic strategy to determine the optical, physical and optical properties of mineral dust to be compared to an equivalent dataset for dust close to source regions in Africa. This study is based on airborne observations onboard the SAFIRE ATR-42 aircraft, equipped with state of the art in situ instrumentation to measure the particle scattering and backscattering coefficients (nephelometer at 450, 550, and 700 nm), the absorption coefficient (PSAP at 467, 530, and 660 nm), the extinction coefficient (CAPS at 530 nm), the aerosol optical depth (PLASMA at 340 to 1640 nm), the size distribution in the extended range 40 nm - 30 µm by the combination of different particle counters (SMPS, USHAS, FSSP, GRIMM) and the chemical composition obtained by filter sampling. The chemistry and transport model CHIMERE-Dust have been used to classify the air masses according to

  6. Interactions and Feedbacks Between Biomass Burning and Water Cycle Dynamics Across the Northern Sub-Saharan African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, bounded on the north and south by the Sahara and the Equator, respectively, and stretching from the West to the East African coastlines, has one of the highest biomass-burning rates per unit land area among all regions of the world. Because of the high concentration and frequency of fires in this region, with the associated abundance of heat release and gaseous and particulate smoke emissions, biomass-burning activity is believed to be one of the drivers of the regional carbon and energy cycles, with serious implications for the water cycle. A new interdisciplinary research effort sponsored by NASA is presently being focused on the NSSA region, to better understand the possible connection between the intense biomass burning observed from satellite year after year across the region and the rapid depletion of the regional water resources, as exemplified by the dramatic drying of Lake Chad. A combination of remote sensing and modeling approaches is being utilized in investigating multiple regional surface, atmospheric, and water-cycle processes, and inferring possible links between them. In this presentation, we will discuss preliminary results as well as the path toward improved understanding of the interrelationships and feedbacks between the biomass burning and the environmental change dynamics in the NSSA region.

  7. The CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Trocino, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system: the Level 1 Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running with the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. We present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simple single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We discuss the optimisation of the trigger and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  8. The CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Gori, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system: the Level 1 Trigger, implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running on the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. Here we will present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simpler single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We will discuss the optimisation of the triggers and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  9. Capacity Building and Financing Oral Health in the African and Middle East Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumghamba, E G; Joury, E; Fatusi, O; Ober-Oluoch, J; Onigbanjo, R J; Honkala, S

    2015-07-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries do not yet have policies to implement effective oral health programs. A reason is lack of human and financial resources. Gaps between resource needs and available health funding are widening. By building capacity, countries aim to improve oral health through actions by oral health care personnel and oral health care organizations and their communities. Capacity building involves achieving measurable and sustainable results in training, research, and provision of care. Actions include advancement of knowledge, attitudes and skills, expansion of support, and development of cohesiveness and partnerships. The aim of this critical review is to review existing knowledge and identify gaps and variations between and within different income levels in relation to the capacity building and financing oral health in the African and Middle East region (AMER). A second aim is to formulate research priorities and outline a research agenda for capacity building and financing to improve oral health and reduce oral health inequalities in the AMER. The article focuses on capacity building for oral health and oral health financing in the AMER of the IADR. In many communities in the AMER, there are clear and widening gaps between the dental needs and the existing capacity to meet these needs in terms of financial and human resources. Concerted efforts are required to improve access to oral health care through appropriate financing mechanisms, innovative health insurance schemes, and donor support and move toward universal oral health care coverage to reduce social inequality in the region. It is necessary to build capacity and incentivize the workforce to render evidence-based services as well as accessing funds to conduct research on equity and social determinants of oral health while promoting community engagement and a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:26101338

  10. Increased Incidence of Loco-Regional Recurrences Among African American Women with Terminal Stage Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Colón-Otero

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective analysis of women with terminal breast cancer admitted to CHNE from November 2006-August 2007 evaluated anecdotal observations that African American (AA women are likelier than Caucasian women to evidence loco-regional recurrences (LRR. Women with terminal breast cancer who were admitted to CHNE, a not-for-profit hospice serving over 90% of Northeast Florida hospice patients, were eligible for participation. 134 terminal breast cancer patients were assessed by hospice nurses for LRR presence via chest wall examination. 80% of them (107 were Caucasian, 17% (23 were AA and 3% (4 were of other ethnicities. Evidence of LRR were noted in 13% of the women (17/134. The pro- portion of patients with LRR was higher in AA women than Caucasian women (26% vs. 10%, 6/23 vs. 11/107, respectively, although this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.08. The majority of Caucasian women with LRR consented to a medical record review, but a minority of AA women consented (8/11 vs. 2/6, respectively, p = 0.16.Conclusion: Evaluating disparities in breast cancer care outcomes is possible by reviewing data from patients served by hospice programs that aid a majority of patients within a community. This pilot data suggests that AA women with breast cancer have a higher incidence of loco-regional failure as a component of their terminal breast cancer disease than Caucasian women. A smaller proportion of AA patients and families agreed to participate in a medical record review study than Caucasians. Larger studies are necessary to confirm these findings, to elucidate factors contributing to disparities and to develop potential solutions.

  11. Quality and safety of beef produced in Central African Sub-region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bawe M. Nfor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research is to provide a general situation of cattle slaughtered in Cameroon, as a representative example for the Central African Sub-region. The quality and safety of beef from the abattoir of Yaoundé, the largest in Cameroon, were considered. From January 2009 to March 2012, the pre-slaughter conditions and characteristics of 1953 cattle carcasses were recorded, as well as the pH of m. longissimus thoracis 24 h after slaughter. From these carcasses, 60 were selected to represent the bulls slaughtered. The quality parameters and composition of m. longissimus thoracis were carried out. The origin of most of the cattle was the Guinea High Savannah (74.6%, and transhumance was the common production system (75.5%. Gudali (45.6%, White Fulani (33.3% and Red Mbororo (20.3% breeds were predominant. Carcass weight was affected by rearing system and cattle category, and it markedly varied during year. Considering meat quality, the fat content was low (1.2% and similar between breeds, moreover Gudali showed the toughest meat. Of the cows slaughtered, 27% were pregnant and the most common abnormal conditions encountered were ectoparasites, fatigue, lameness, fungal-like skin lesions, enlarged lymph nodes, respiratory distress, nodular lesions. More than 20% of the carcasses had some organs condemned, mainly for liver flukes (5.17%, and 1.0% of them were completely condemned due to tuberculosis, that also affected 3.28% of lungs. These data could aid authorities draw up programmes with the aim to strengthen cattle production, improve beef supply, control and prevent the observed diseases, and promote the regional trade.

  12. E-health: Determinants, opportunities, challenges and the way forward for countries in the WHO African Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatwiri Doris

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The implementation of the 58th World Health Assembly resolution on e-health will pose a major challenge for the Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO African Region due to lack of information and communications technology (ICT and mass Internet connectivity, compounded by a paucity of ICT-related knowledge and skills. The key objectives of this article are to: (i explore the key determinants of personal computers (PCs, telephone mainline and cellular and Internet penetration/connectivity in the African Region; and (ii to propose actions needed to create an enabling environment for e-health services growth and utilization in the Region. Methods The effects of school enrolment, per capita income and governance variables on the number of PCs, telephone mainlines, cellular phone subscribers and Internet users were estimated using a double-log regression model and cross-sectional data on various Member States in the African Region. The analysis was based on 45 of the 46 countries that comprise the Region. The data were obtained from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, the World Bank and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU sources. Results There were a number of main findings: (i the adult literacy and total number of Internet users had a statistically significant (at 5% level in a t-distribution test positive effect on the number of PCs in a country; (ii the combined school enrolment rate and per capita income had a statistically significant direct effect on the number of telephone mainlines and cellular telephone subscribers; (iii the regulatory quality had statistically significant negative effect on the number of telephone mainlines; (iv similarly, the combined school enrolment ratio and the number of telephone mainlines had a statistically significant positive relationship with Internet usage; and (v there were major inequalities in ICT connectivity between upper-middle, lower-middle and

  13. Status of national research bioethics committees in the WHO African region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wambebe Charles

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Regional Committee for Africa of the World Health Organization (WHO in 2001 expressed concern that some health-related studies undertaken in the Region were not subjected to any form of ethics review. In 2003, the study reported in this paper was conducted to determine which Member country did not have a national research ethics committee (REC with a view to guiding the WHO Regional Office in developing practical strategies for supporting those countries. Methods This is a descriptive study. The questionnaire was prepared and sent by diplomatic pouch to all the 46 Member States in the WHO African Region, through the WHO country representatives, for facilitation and follow up. The data were entered in Excel spreadsheet and subsequently exported to STATA for analysis. A Chi-Squared test (χ2 for independence was undertaken to test the relationship between presence/absence of Research Ethics Committee (REC and selected individual socioeconomic and health variables. Results The main findings were as follows: the response rate was 61% (28/46; 64% (18/28 confirmed the existence of RECs; 36% (10/28 of the respondent countries did not have a REC (although 80% of them reported that they had in place an ad hoc ethical review mechanism; 85% (22/26 of the countries that responded to this question indicated that ethical approval of research proposals was, in principle, required; and although 59% of the countries that had a REC expected it to meet every month, only 44% of them reported that the REC actually met on a monthly basis. In the Chi-Squared test, only the average population in the group of countries with a REC was statistically different (at 5% level of significance from that of the group of countries without a REC. Conclusion In the current era of globalized biomedical research, good ethics stewardship demands that every country, irrespective of its level of economic development, should have in place a functional research

  14. How Telecommunication Development Aids Economic Growth: Evidence from Itu Ict Development Index (IDI) Top Five Countries for African Region

    OpenAIRE

    Ani Wilson; Ugwunta David; Okwo Mary; Eneje Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect of telecommunication development on economic growth in five leading ICT developed countries for African region. Following previous studies, teledensity (or the penetration rate) is defined as the number of fixed-lines and mobile phone subscribers per 100 persons as a proxy to measure the development of the telecommunications sector, while economic growth is proxied by Gross domestic product at current prices (US dollars). After ensuring data stationarity, the Gr...

  15. Curriculum development at the Regional African Wildlife Colleges, with special reference to the Ecole de Faune (Cameroon)

    OpenAIRE

    Scholte, P.

    2003-01-01

    Regional colleges in Tanzania, Cameroon and, recently, South Africa have trained some 4000 wildlife managers. Training need assessments called for major curriculum reforms, which were developed and implemented in the late 1990s. This is an analysis of the factors that influenced this curriculum reform in the colleges' endeavour to respond to new developments in African wildlife management. Since 1979, the curriculum of Garoua Wildlife College, Cameroon, has changed only gradually, whereas wor...

  16. Assessment of uncertainties in the response of the African monsoon precipitation to land use change simulated by a regional model

    OpenAIRE

    S. Hagos; Leung, LR; Y. Xue; Boone, A.; Sales, F.; Neupane, N.; Huang, M; Yoon, JH

    2014-01-01

    Land use and land cover (LULC) over Africa have changed substantially over the last 60 years and this change has been proposed to affect monsoon circulation and precipitation. This study examines the uncertainties of model simulated response in the African monsoon system and Sahel precipitation due to LULC change using a set of regional model simulations with different combinations of land surface and cumulus parameterization schemes. Although the magnitude of the response covers a broad rang...

  17. The CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Beauceron, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level 1 Trigger, implemented using FPGA and ASIC technology, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), running a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software on a cluster of commercial rack-mounted computers, comprising thousands of CPUs. The design of a software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running online, the output rate, and the selection efficiency. The complexity is limited by the available computing power, while the rate is constrained by the offline storage and processing capabilities. The main challenge faces during 2012 is the fine-tuning and optimisation of the algorithms, in order to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up without impacting the physics performance. We present a review of the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simple single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying an...

  18. The CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Brigljevic, V; Cano, E; Cittolin, Sergio; Erhan, S; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gómez-Reino Garrido, R; Gulmini, M; Gutleber, J; Jacobs, C; Kozlovszky, Miklos; Larsen, H; Magrans de Abril, Ildefons; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Murray, S; Oh, A; Orsini, L; Pollet, L; Rácz, A; Samyn, D; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schwick, C; Sphicas, Paris; Varela, J

    2003-01-01

    The High Level Trigger (HLT) system of the CMS experiment will consist of a series of reconstruction and selection algorithms designed to reduce the Level-1 trigger accept rate of 100 kHz to 100 Hz forwarded to permanent storage. The HLT operates on events assembled by an event builder collecting detector data from the CMS front-end system at full granularity and resolution. The HLT algorithms will run on a farm of commodity PCs, the filter farm, with a total expected computational power of 106 SpecInt95. The farm software, responsible for collecting, analyzing, and storing event data, consists of components from the data acquisition and the offline reconstruction domains, extended with the necessary glue components and implementation of interfaces between them. The farm is operated and monitored by the DAQ control system and must provide near-real-time feedback on the performance of the detector and the physics quality of data. In this paper, the architecture of the HLT farm is described, and the design of v...

  19. Climatology and dynamics of nocturnal low-level stratus over the southern West African monsoon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, A. H.; Schuster, R.; Knippertz, P.; van der Linden, R.

    2013-12-01

    The southern parts of West Africa, from the coast to about 10°N, are frequently covered by an extensive deck of shallow, low (200 - 400 m above ground) stratus or stratocumulus clouds during the summer monsoon season. These clouds usually form at night in association with a nocturnal low-level jet (NLLJ) and can persist into the early afternoon hours until they are dissipated or replaced by fair-weather cumuli. Recent work suggests that the stratus deck and its effect on the surface radiation balance are unsatisfactorily represented in standard satellite retrievals and simulations by state-of-the-art climate models. We will present the first ever climatology of the diurnal cycle of the low cloud deck based on surface observations and satellite products. In addition, we use high-resolution regional simulations with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model and observations from the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) 2006 campaign to investigate (a) the spatiotemporal distribution, (b) the influence on the radiation balance, and (c) the detailed formation and maintenance mechanisms of the stratiform clouds as simulated by the model. The model configuration used for this study has been determined following an extensive sensitivity study, which has shown that at least some configurations of WRF satisfactorily reproduce the diurnal cycle of the low cloud evolution. The main conclusions are: (a) The observed stratus deck forms after sunset along the coast, spreads inland in the course of the night, reaches maximum poleward extent at about 10°N around 09-10 local time and dissipates in the early afternoon. (b) The average surface net radiation balance in stratus-dominated regions is 35 W m-2 lower than in those with less clouds. (c) The cloud formation is related to a subtle balance between 'stratogenic' upward (downward) fluxes of latent (sensible) heat caused by shear-driven turbulence below the NLLJ, cold advection from the ocean, forced lifting at

  20. Modelling of ionospheric irregularities during geomagnetic storms over African low latitude region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungufeni, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    In this study, empirical models of occurrence of ionospheric irregularities over low latitude African region during geomagnetic storms have been developed. The geomagnetic storms considered consisted of Dst ≤ -50 nT. GNSS-derived ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) data over Libreville, Gabon (NKLG) (0.35° N, 9.68° E, geographic, 8.05° S, magnetic) and Malindi, Kenya (MAL2) (2.99° S, 40.19° E, geographic, 12.42° S, magnetic) during 2000 - 2014 were used. Ionospheric irregularities at scale- lengths of a few kilometers and ˜400 m were represented with the rate of change of TEC index (ROTI). The inputs for the models are the local time, solar flux index, Auroral Electrojet index, day of the year, and the Dst index, while the output is the median ROTI during these given conditions. To develop the models, the ROTI index values were binned based on the input parameters and cubic B splines were then fitted to the binned data. Developed models using data over NKLG and MAL2 were validated with independent data over stations within 510 km and 680 km radius, respectively. The models captured the enhancements and inhibitions of the occurrence of the ionospheric irregularities during the storm period. The models even emulated these patterns in the various seasons, during medium and high solar activity conditions. The correlation coefficients for the validations were statistically significant and ranged from 0.58 - 0.73, while the percentage of the variance in the observed data explained by the modelled data ranged from 34 - 53.

  1. Oral Health Inequalities between Rural and Urban Populations of the African and Middle East Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunbodede, E O; Kida, I A; Madjapa, H S; Amedari, M; Ehizele, A; Mutave, R; Sodipo, B; Temilola, S; Okoye, L

    2015-07-01

    Although there have been major improvements in oral health, with remarkable advances in the prevention and management of oral diseases, globally, inequalities persist between urban and rural communities. These inequalities exist in the distribution of oral health services, accessibility, utilization, treatment outcomes, oral health knowledge and practices, health insurance coverage, oral health-related quality of life, and prevalence of oral diseases, among others. People living in rural areas are likely to be poorer, be less health literate, have more caries, have fewer teeth, have no health insurance coverage, and have less money to spend on dental care than persons living in urban areas. Rural areas are often associated with lower education levels, which in turn have been found to be related to lower levels of health literacy and poor use of health care services. These factors have an impact on oral health care, service delivery, and research. Hence, unmet dental care remains one of the most urgent health care needs in these communities. We highlight some of the conceptual issues relating to urban-rural inequalities in oral health, especially in the African and Middle East Region (AMER). Actions to reduce oral health inequalities and ameliorate rural-urban disparity are necessary both within the health sector and the wider policy environment. Recommended actions include population-specific oral health promotion programs, measures aimed at increasing access to oral health services in rural areas, integration of oral health into existing primary health care services, and support for research aimed at informing policy on the social determinants of health. Concerted efforts must be made by all stakeholders (governments, health care workforce, organizations, and communities) to reduce disparities and improve oral health outcomes in underserved populations. PMID:26101336

  2. What Does FDI Inflow Mean For Emerging African Economies? Measuring the Regional Effects of FDI in Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    George, Emmanuel; Ojeaga, Paul; Adekola, Adetunji; Matthews, Oluwatoyin

    2015-01-01

    Can foreign direct investment (FDI) promote growth in Africa? What does the inflow of investment hold for African emerging economies? Are the determinants of FDI different for different regional blocs in Africa? This study reviews the implication of FDI for different regional blocs in Africa. FDI was found to have a significant effect on growth in North Africa but had no significant effect in East, Southern and West Africa. FDI was also found not to be driving growth in the whole of Africa in...

  3. Regional Climate Model Sensitivity to Domain Size for the Simulation of the West African Summer Monsoon Rainfall

    OpenAIRE

    Browne, Nana A. K.; Sylla, Mouhamadou B.

    2012-01-01

    We use the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) to study the impact of different domain sizes on the simulation of the West African summer monsoon rainfall and circulation features. RegCM3 simulates drier conditions over the default domain (RegCM-D1) and its westward extension (RegCM-D2), much less dryness over the eastward extended domain (RegCM-D3) and excessive wetness in the domain extended northward into the extratropical regions (RegCM-D4)....

  4. Estimating Investment Needs for the Power Sector in the African Region

    OpenAIRE

    Hagberg, Anna-Klara; Davidsson, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    This master thesis is based on collaboration between the division of Energy System Analysis at the Swedish Royal Institute of Technology, KTH-dESA, and the African Development Bank, AfDB. The work has been carried out both at KTH (Stockholm, Sweden) and at AfDB (Tunis, Tunisia). The KTH-dESA – AfDB collaboration is related to previous projects, for example AIKP, the African Infrastructure Knowledge Program, which in turn is the result of a previous collaboration with the World Bank that led t...

  5. Early Holocenic and Historic mtDNA African Signatures in the Iberian Peninsula: The Andalusian Region as a Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Candela L.; Soares, Pedro; Dugoujon, Jean M.; Novelletto, Andrea; Rodríguez, Juan N.; Rito, Teresa; Oliveira, Marisa; Melhaoui, Mohammed; Baali, Abdellatif; Pereira, Luisa; Calderón, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Determining the timing, identity and direction of migrations in the Mediterranean Basin, the role of “migratory routes” in and among regions of Africa, Europe and Asia, and the effects of sex-specific behaviors of population movements have important implications for our understanding of the present human genetic diversity. A crucial component of the Mediterranean world is its westernmost region. Clear features of transcontinental ancient contacts between North African and Iberian populations surrounding the maritime region of Gibraltar Strait have been identified from archeological data. The attempt to discern origin and dates of migration between close geographically related regions has been a challenge in the field of uniparental-based population genetics. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) studies have been focused on surveying the H1, H3 and V lineages when trying to ascertain north-south migrations, and U6 and L in the opposite direction, assuming that those lineages are good proxies for the ancestry of each side of the Mediterranean. To this end, in the present work we have screened entire mtDNA sequences belonging to U6, M1 and L haplogroups in Andalusians—from Huelva and Granada provinces—and Moroccan Berbers. We present here pioneer data and interpretations on the role of NW Africa and the Iberian Peninsula regarding the time of origin, number of founders and expansion directions of these specific markers. The estimated entrance of the North African U6 lineages into Iberia at 10 ky correlates well with other L African clades, indicating that U6 and some L lineages moved together from Africa to Iberia in the Early Holocene. Still, founder analysis highlights that the high sharing of lineages between North Africa and Iberia results from a complex process continued through time, impairing simplistic interpretations. In particular, our work supports the existence of an ancient, frequently denied, bridge connecting the Maghreb and Andalusia. PMID:26509580

  6. Early Holocenic and Historic mtDNA African Signatures in the Iberian Peninsula: The Andalusian Region as a Paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candela L Hernández

    Full Text Available Determining the timing, identity and direction of migrations in the Mediterranean Basin, the role of "migratory routes" in and among regions of Africa, Europe and Asia, and the effects of sex-specific behaviors of population movements have important implications for our understanding of the present human genetic diversity. A crucial component of the Mediterranean world is its westernmost region. Clear features of transcontinental ancient contacts between North African and Iberian populations surrounding the maritime region of Gibraltar Strait have been identified from archeological data. The attempt to discern origin and dates of migration between close geographically related regions has been a challenge in the field of uniparental-based population genetics. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA studies have been focused on surveying the H1, H3 and V lineages when trying to ascertain north-south migrations, and U6 and L in the opposite direction, assuming that those lineages are good proxies for the ancestry of each side of the Mediterranean. To this end, in the present work we have screened entire mtDNA sequences belonging to U6, M1 and L haplogroups in Andalusians--from Huelva and Granada provinces--and Moroccan Berbers. We present here pioneer data and interpretations on the role of NW Africa and the Iberian Peninsula regarding the time of origin, number of founders and expansion directions of these specific markers. The estimated entrance of the North African U6 lineages into Iberia at 10 ky correlates well with other L African clades, indicating that U6 and some L lineages moved together from Africa to Iberia in the Early Holocene. Still, founder analysis highlights that the high sharing of lineages between North Africa and Iberia results from a complex process continued through time, impairing simplistic interpretations. In particular, our work supports the existence of an ancient, frequently denied, bridge connecting the Maghreb and Andalusia.

  7. The burden of natural and technological disaster-related mortality on gross domestic product (GDP) in the WHO African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigia, Joses M; Sambo, Luis G; Aldis, W; Mwabu, Germano M

    2002-01-01

    The WHO Africa region has the highest disaster mortality rate compared to the other five regions of the organization. Those deaths are hypothesized to have significantly negative effect on per capita gross domestic product (GDP). The objective of this study was to estimate the loss in GDP attributable to natural and technological disaster-related mortality in the WHO African Region. We estimated the impact of disaster-related mortality on GDP using double-log econometric model and cross-sectional data (from the UNDP and the World Bank publications) on 45 out of 46 countries in the WHO African Region. The coefficients for capital (K), educational enrolment (EN), life expectancy (LE) and exports (X) had a positive sign; while imports (M) and disaster mortality (DS) were found to impact negatively on GDP. The abovementioned explanatory variables were found to have statistically significant effect on GDP at 5% level in a t-distribution test. Disaster mortality of a single person was found to reduce GDP by US$0.018. We have demonstrated that disaster mortality has a significant negative effect on GDP. Thus, as policy-makers strive to increase GDP through capital investment, export promotion and increase in educational enrolment, they should always recall that investments in strengthening national capacity to mitigate the effects of national disasters expeditiously and effectively shall yield significant economic returns. PMID:17298162

  8. Seismicity Patterns and Magmatic Processes in the Rwenzori Region, East-African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenfeld, M.; Rumpker, G.; Schmeling, H.; Wallner, H.

    2010-12-01

    The 5000m high Rwenzori Mountains are situated within the western branch of the East African Rift System (EARS), at the border between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo. They represent a basement block located within the rift valley whose origin and relation to the evolution of the EARS are highly puzzling. During a recent seismological campaign we located more than 800 earthquakes per month with magnitudes ranging from 0.5 to 5.1. Vertical sections across the northern parts of the Rwenzoris show, that west of the mountains (towards the rift valley) the focal depths range from 10 to 20 km, whereas the hypocentres go as deep as 30 km on the eastern side. This is in good agreement with Moho-depths derived from receiver functions and implies that all of these events are located within the crust. However, about 30 km east of the northern mountain ridge we located a cluster of 7 events that exhibit an anomalous depth of about 60 km. We can confidently locate these earthquakes within the mantle lithosphere beneath the rift. The existence of earthquakes at this depth is enigmatic, especially within a rifting regime were one expects hot and weak material relatively close to the surface. We think that these events are possibly related to the evolution of the Rwenzori Mountains. A recent hypothesis to explain the extreme uplift of the Rwenzori Mountains is rift induced delamination (RID) of mantle lithosphere. Here we show that the RID-process is indeed capable of explaining the seismic energy release in the mantle. However, in view of the specific hypocentral location of the event cluster, magmatic impregnation processes associated with dyke propagation into the mantle lithosphere may be a more realistic cause for seismic radiation at the observed depth. Crustal earthquakes northeast of the Rwenzori area are relocated with a double-difference algorithm to improve the spatial resolution of seismicity pattern. Several event clusters in the vicinity of the Fort

  9. Steering the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Comune, G; Morettini, P; Stamen, R; Tapprogge, S; George, S; Schiavi, C; Computing In High Energy and Nuclear Physics

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the Steering mechanism of the ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT). The Steering software is responsible for the implementation of the seeded and stepwise execution of algorithms in a portion of the full event called Region of Interest (RoI). The Steering is responsible for the global event accept/reject decision based on a static configuration matched against the dynamic event outcome in terms of Trigger Conditions validated by the Trigger algorithms. In the case of an event being accepted the Steering is in charge of the creation of the Detailed Event Result and in order to enable this it provides tools for reconstructed objects serialization and a fast data navigation mechanism that allows to organize the objects in memory with logical relations and all objects in an RoI back to the initial RoI seed.

  10. Text of an African regional co-operative agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As of 1 September 1994, notifications of acceptance of the African Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (see INFCIRC/377), in accordance with Article XIII thereof, had been received by the Director General from the Governments of: Tunisia, Egypt, Algeria, Nigeria, Madagascar, Libya, Morocco, Kenya, Sudan, Ghana, Tanzania, Mauritius, Cameroon, South Africa, Zaire, Ethiopia, Zambia, Niger. The Agreement entered into force on 4 April 1990, the date of receipt of the third notification of acceptance

  11. On the late northward propagation of the West African monsoon in summer 2006 in the region of Niger/Mali

    OpenAIRE

    P. Drobinski; Bastin, S.; Janicot, S.; Bock, O.; Dabas, A.; Delville, P.; O. Reitebuch; B. Sultan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the fine-scale dynamical processes at the origin of the late northward migration of the monsoon flow in summer 2006 in the region of Niger and Mali (onset on 3 July 2006 compared to the climatological onset date, 24 June). Compared to a 28-year climatology, 2006 NCEP-2 reanalyses show evidence of an anomalous pattern during 10 days between 25 June and 3 July 2006, characterized by the African Easterly Jet (AEJ) blowing from the northeast along a narrow northeast/southw...

  12. Impact of GCM boundary forcing on regional climate modeling of West African summer monsoon precipitation and circulation features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebe, Ibourahima; Sylla, Mouhamadou Bamba; Omotosho, Jerome Adebayo; Nikiema, Pinghouinde Michel; Gibba, Peter; Giorgi, Filippo

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the latest version of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model (RegCM4) driven by three CMIP5 Global Climate Models (GCMs) is used at 25 km grid spacing over West Africa to investigate the impact of lateral boundary forcings on the simulation of monsoon precipitation and its relationship with regional circulation features. We find that the RegCM4 experiments along with their multimodel ensemble generally reproduce the location of the main precipitation characteristics over the region and improve upon the corresponding driving GCMs. However, the provision of different forcing boundary conditions leads to substantially different precipitation magnitudes and spatial patterns. For instance, while RegCM4 nested within GFDL-ESM-2M and HadGEM2-ES exhibits some underestimations of precipitation and an excessively narrow Intertropical Convergence Zone, the MPI-ESM-MR driven run produces precipitation spatial distribution and magnitudes more similar to observations. Such a superior performance originates from a much better simulation of the interactions between baroclinicity, temperature gradient and African Easterly Jet along with an improved connection between the Isentropic Potential Vorticity, its gradient and the African Easterly Waves dynamics. We conclude that a good performing GCM in terms of monsoon dynamical features (in this case MPI-ESM-MR) is needed to drive RCMs in order to achieve a better representation of the West Africa summer monsoon precipitation.

  13. Promoting Nuclear Safety and Security through Self-Assessment and Networking: The Case of the African Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of ionizing radiation and radioactive sources is on the increase in the African region. All the African countries are involved in one or more medical applications of ionizing radiation, either for diagnosis or therapy. Industrial applications are equally well spread, either in the form nuclear gauging, industrial radiography or nuclear well logging, especially in the oil producing states. Furthermore, the ravaging energy poverty in the region against the continuing rise in population, and the rising global demand for low carbon emitting energy supplies to fuel sustainable development have resulted in demand for nuclear electricity in the region and the global demand for uranium, with which Africa is well endowed. This widening scope and intensity of applications call for greater concerns for safety and security. Maximum benefits of these applications can only be delivered if they are supported by a well developed regulatory infrastructure, which will enable Member States to control and minimize the associated risks through a functional, effective and efficient regulatory regime. There is therefore the need for adequate attention to the development of regulatory infrastructures commensurate with the magnitude and nature of the associated risks to be controlled and enhancement of the performance of regulatory bodies. It is against this background that the IAEA in 1994 launched an Interregional Model Project, Strengthening Radiation Protection Infrastructure, whose main objective was to eliminate the shortcomings in the safety infrastructure and control of radiation sources of Member States, including African countries. With the completion of the Model Project in 2004, the IAEA had continued over the past five years to strengthen regulatory infrastructure through the ongoing five thematic regional projects. In an effort to consolidate the achievements of the Model Project and to optimize the assistance of the IAEA and from other partners, regulatory bodies in

  14. Phylogenetic relations of humans and African apes from DNA sequences in the Psi eta-globin region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, M.M.; Slightom, J.L.; Goodman, M.

    1987-10-16

    Sequences from the upstream and downstream flanking DNA regions of the Psi eta-globin locus in Pan troglodytes (common chimpanzee), Gorilla gorilla (gorilla), and Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan, the closest living relative to Homo, Pan, and Gorilla) provided further data for evaluating the phylogenetic relations of humans and African apes. These newly sequenced orthologs (an additional 4.9 kilobase pairs (kbp) for each species) were combined with published Psi eta-gene sequences and then compared to the same orthologous stretch (a continuous 7.1-kbp region) available for humans. Phylogenetic analysis of these nucleotide sequences by the parsimony method indicated (i) that human and chimpanzee are more closely related to each other than either is to gorilla and (ii) that the slowdown in the rate of sequence evolution evident in higher primates is especially pronounced in humans. These results indicate that features unique to African apes (but not to humans) are primitive and that even local molecular clocks should be applied with caution.

  15. Intercomparison 2013 on measurements of the personal dose equivalent Hp(10) in photon fields in the African region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An intercomparison exercise on the measurement of personal dose equivalent Hp(10) was jointly organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers through its Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory in the African region. This intercomparison exercise was aimed at verifying the performance of the individual monitoring services of the participants in order to assess their capabilities to measure the quantity Hp(10) in photon (gamma and X ray) fields helping them to comply with dose limitation requirements. The scope of this intercomparison was aimed at passive dosemeters, which determine the personal dose equivalent in photon radiation fields, mainly for thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence dosemeters. Twenty-seven countries from the Africa region and from outside Africa participated in this exercise. The intercomparison protocol, including the preparation of the dosemeters and the irradiation procedures, is described and the results are presented, analysed and discussed. (authors)

  16. Ocean Pollution as a Result of Onshore Offshore Petroleum Activities in the African Gulf of Guinea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, B.

    2007-05-01

    increasing cases of pollution of farmlands, rivers, wells and the environment in general. Apart from all these, what is even becoming more worrisome is that none of all these oil firms operating in the region is able to account on how it disposes its industrial toxic waste generated as a result of its industrial activities within the region. Finally Geological strata are adversely destroyed by seismographic activities, Sea creatures are destroyed by oil pollution and Means of livelihood of revering dwellers are often threatened by pollution. RECOMMENDATIONS After identifying how the pollution in the Gulf of Guinea region is increasing in relation to the increasing petroleum activities, I have come up with the following suggestions/recommendations. 1. AFRICAN UNION RESOLUTION The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in conjunction with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) should use their capacity to be able to influence the African Union (AU) to pass a resolution banning the illegal dumping of radioactive waste, Gas flaring and Costal bunkering in this part of the world. 2. RESEARCH AND INVESTIGATION The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, in conjunction with the United Nations Environmental Agency, the International Atomic Energy Agency and with the corporation of the African Union should send team of researchers to come and investigate this trend on petroleum pollution in the Gulf of Guinea region and proffer possible solutions in checking the menace.

  17. Vertical Specialisation and Regional Trade Integration. A Study on Italy and Northern African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Giancarlo Cor�; Marco Giansoldati; Mario Volpe

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses a multistage approach to investigate the role of Italy in the Northern African countries, both in terms of trade and investment. In particular, we show that Italian import flows for two typically Made in Italy industries, namely textile and clothing on one hand, and leather and footwear on the other hand, are strongly related not only to export flows of the same sector, but also to a set of variables capturing features of the Italian and the foreign country. In this way, we su...

  18. Solar quiet day ionospheric source current in the West African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiekezie, Theresa N; Okeke, Francisca N

    2013-05-01

    The Solar Quiet (Sq) day source current were calculated using the magnetic data obtained from a chain of 10 magnetotelluric stations installed in the African sector during the French participation in the International Equatorial Electrojet Year (IEEY) experiment in Africa. The components of geomagnetic field recorded at the stations from January-December in 1993 during the experiment were separated into the source and (induced) components of Sq using Spherical Harmonics Analysis (SHA) method. The range of the source current was calculated and this enabled the viewing of a full year's change in the source current system of Sq. PMID:25685434

  19. Managed European-Derived Honey Bee, Apis mellifera sspp, Colonies Reduce African-Matriline Honey Bee, A. m. scutellata, Drones at Regional Mating Congregations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Ashley N; Ellis, James D

    2016-01-01

    African honey bees (Apis mellifera scutellata) dramatically changed the South American beekeeping industry as they rapidly spread through the Americas following their introduction into Brazil. In the present study, we aimed to determine if the management of European-derived honey bees (A. mellifera sspp.) could reduce the relative abundance of African-matriline drones at regional mating sites known as drone congregation areas (DCAs). We collected 2,400 drones at six DCAs either 0.25 km or >2.8 km from managed European-derived honey bee apiaries. The maternal ancestry of each drone was determined by Bgl II enzyme digestion of an amplified portion of the mitochondrial Cytochrome b gene. Furthermore, sibship reconstruction via nuclear microsatellites was conducted for a subset of 1,200 drones to estimate the number of colonies contributing drones to each DCA. Results indicate that DCAs distant to managed European apiaries (>2.8 km) had significantly more African-matriline drones (34.33% of the collected drones had African mitochondrial DNA) than did DCAs close (0.25 km) to managed European apiaries (1.83% of the collected drones had African mitochondrial DNA). Furthermore, nuclear sibship reconstruction demonstrated that the reduction in the proportion of African matriline drones at DCAs near apiaries was not simply an increase in the number of European matriline drones at the DCAs but also the result of fewer African matriline colonies contributing drones to the DCAs. Our data demonstrate that the management of European honey bee colonies can dramatically influence the proportion of drones with African matrilines at nearby drone congregation areas, and would likely decreasing the probability that virgin European queens will mate with African drones at those drone congregation areas. PMID:27518068

  20. Population structure of the African savannah elephant inferred from mitochondrial control region sequences and nuclear microsatellite loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyakaana, S; Arctander, P; Siegismund, H R

    2002-01-01

    , western and southern Africa. In the total sample, 43 haplotypes were identified and an overall nucleotide diversity of 2.0% was observed. High levels of polymorphism were also observed at the microsatellite loci both at the level of number of alleles and gene diversity. Nine to 14 alleles per locus across...... populations at the mtDNA control region was approximately twice as high as shown by the microsatellite loci (mtDNA F(ST) = 0.59; microsatellite R(ST) = 0.31). We discuss our results in the light of Pleistocene refugia and attribute the observed pattern to population divergence in allopatry accompanied by a...

  1. High-level language computer architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Yaohan

    1975-01-01

    High-Level Language Computer Architecture offers a tutorial on high-level language computer architecture, including von Neumann architecture and syntax-oriented architecture as well as direct and indirect execution architecture. Design concepts of Japanese-language data processing systems are discussed, along with the architecture of stack machines and the SYMBOL computer system. The conceptual design of a direct high-level language processor is also described.Comprised of seven chapters, this book first presents a classification of high-level language computer architecture according to the pr

  2. Patterns of sequence divergence and evolution of the S orthologous regions between Asian and African cultivated rice species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Romain; Garavito, Andrea; Gavory, Frédérick; Samain, Sylvie; Tohme, Joe; Ghesquière, Alain; Lorieux, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    A strong postzygotic reproductive barrier separates the recently diverged Asian and African cultivated rice species, Oryza sativa and O. glaberrima. Recently a model of genetic incompatibilities between three adjacent loci: S(1)A, S(1) and S(1)B (called together the S(1) regions) interacting epistatically, was postulated to cause the allelic elimination of female gametes in interspecific hybrids. Two candidate factors for the S(1) locus (including a putative F-box gene) were proposed, but candidates for S(1)A and S(1)B remained undetermined. Here, to better understand the basis of the evolution of regions involved in reproductive isolation, we studied the genic and structural changes accumulated in the S(1) regions between orthologous sequences. First, we established an 813 kb genomic sequence in O. glaberrima, covering completely the S(1)A, S(1) and the majority of the S(1)B regions, and compared it with the orthologous regions of O. sativa. An overall strong structural conservation was observed, with the exception of three isolated regions of disturbed collinearity: (1) a local invasion of transposable elements around a putative F-box gene within S(1), (2) the multiple duplication and subsequent divergence of the same F-box gene within S(1)A, (3) an interspecific chromosomal inversion in S(1)B, which restricts recombination in our O. sativa×O. glaberrima crosses. Beside these few structural variations, a uniform conservative pattern of coding sequence divergence was found all along the S(1) regions. Hence, the S(1) regions have undergone no drastic variation in their recent divergence and evolution between O. sativa and O. glaberrima, suggesting that a small accumulation of genic changes, following a Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller (BDM) model, might be involved in the establishment of the sterility barrier. In this context, genetic incompatibilities involving the duplicated F-box genes as putative candidates, and a possible strengthening step involving the

  3. Patterns of Sequence Divergence and Evolution of the S1 Orthologous Regions between Asian and African Cultivated Rice Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavory, Frédérick; Samain, Sylvie; Tohme, Joe; Ghesquière, Alain; Lorieux, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    A strong postzygotic reproductive barrier separates the recently diverged Asian and African cultivated rice species, Oryza sativa and O. glaberrima. Recently a model of genetic incompatibilities between three adjacent loci: S1A, S1 and S1B (called together the S1 regions) interacting epistatically, was postulated to cause the allelic elimination of female gametes in interspecific hybrids. Two candidate factors for the S1 locus (including a putative F-box gene) were proposed, but candidates for S1A and S1B remained undetermined. Here, to better understand the basis of the evolution of regions involved in reproductive isolation, we studied the genic and structural changes accumulated in the S1 regions between orthologous sequences. First, we established an 813 kb genomic sequence in O. glaberrima, covering completely the S1A, S1 and the majority of the S1B regions, and compared it with the orthologous regions of O. sativa. An overall strong structural conservation was observed, with the exception of three isolated regions of disturbed collinearity: (1) a local invasion of transposable elements around a putative F-box gene within S1, (2) the multiple duplication and subsequent divergence of the same F-box gene within S1A, (3) an interspecific chromosomal inversion in S1B, which restricts recombination in our O. sativa×O. glaberrima crosses. Beside these few structural variations, a uniform conservative pattern of coding sequence divergence was found all along the S1 regions. Hence, the S1 regions have undergone no drastic variation in their recent divergence and evolution between O. sativa and O. glaberrima, suggesting that a small accumulation of genic changes, following a Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller (BDM) model, might be involved in the establishment of the sterility barrier. In this context, genetic incompatibilities involving the duplicated F-box genes as putative candidates, and a possible strengthening step involving the chromosomal inversion might participate to

  4. Patterns of sequence divergence and evolution of the S orthologous regions between Asian and African cultivated rice species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Guyot

    Full Text Available A strong postzygotic reproductive barrier separates the recently diverged Asian and African cultivated rice species, Oryza sativa and O. glaberrima. Recently a model of genetic incompatibilities between three adjacent loci: S(1A, S(1 and S(1B (called together the S(1 regions interacting epistatically, was postulated to cause the allelic elimination of female gametes in interspecific hybrids. Two candidate factors for the S(1 locus (including a putative F-box gene were proposed, but candidates for S(1A and S(1B remained undetermined. Here, to better understand the basis of the evolution of regions involved in reproductive isolation, we studied the genic and structural changes accumulated in the S(1 regions between orthologous sequences. First, we established an 813 kb genomic sequence in O. glaberrima, covering completely the S(1A, S(1 and the majority of the S(1B regions, and compared it with the orthologous regions of O. sativa. An overall strong structural conservation was observed, with the exception of three isolated regions of disturbed collinearity: (1 a local invasion of transposable elements around a putative F-box gene within S(1, (2 the multiple duplication and subsequent divergence of the same F-box gene within S(1A, (3 an interspecific chromosomal inversion in S(1B, which restricts recombination in our O. sativa×O. glaberrima crosses. Beside these few structural variations, a uniform conservative pattern of coding sequence divergence was found all along the S(1 regions. Hence, the S(1 regions have undergone no drastic variation in their recent divergence and evolution between O. sativa and O. glaberrima, suggesting that a small accumulation of genic changes, following a Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller (BDM model, might be involved in the establishment of the sterility barrier. In this context, genetic incompatibilities involving the duplicated F-box genes as putative candidates, and a possible strengthening step involving the chromosomal

  5. Regional trade and the nutrition transition: opportunities to strengthen NCD prevention policy in the Southern African Development Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Thow

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Addressing diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs will require a multisectoral policy approach that includes the food supply and trade, but implementing effective policies has proved challenging. The Southern African Development Community (SADC has experienced significant trade and economic liberalization over the past decade; at the same time, the nutrition transition has progressed rapidly in the region. This analysis considers the relationship between regional trade liberalization and changes in the food environment associated with poor diets and NCDs, with the aim of identifying feasible and proactive policy responses to support healthy diets. Design: Changes in trade and investment policy for the SADC were documented and compared with time-series graphs of import data for soft drinks and snack foods to assess changes in imports and source country in relation to trade and investment liberalization. Our analysis focuses on regional trade flows. Results: Diets and the burden of disease in the SADC have changed since the 1990s in parallel with trade and investment liberalization. Imports of soft drinks increased by 76% into SADC countries between 1995 and 2010, and processed snack foods by 83%. South Africa acts as a regional trade and investment hub; it is the major source of imports and investment related to these products into other SADC countries. At the same time, imports of processed foods and soft drinks from outside the region – largely from Asia and the Middle East – are increasing at a dramatic rate with soft drink imports growing by almost 1,200% and processed snack foods by 750%. Conclusions: There is significant intra-regional trade in products associated with the nutrition transition; however, growing extra-regional trade means that countries face new pressures in implementing strong policies to prevent the increasing burden of diet-related NCDs. Implementation of a regional nutrition policy framework could

  6. Comparison of visceral leishmaniasis diagnostic antigens in African and Asian Leishmania donovani reveals extensive diversity and region-specific polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Bhattacharyya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, caused by infection with Leishmania donovani complex, remains a major public health problem in endemic regions of South Asia, East Africa, and Brazil. If untreated, symptomatic VL is usually fatal. Rapid field diagnosis relies principally on demonstration of anti-Leishmania antibodies in clinically suspect cases. The rK39 immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic test (RDT is based on rK39, encoded by a fragment of a kinesin-related gene derived from a Brazilian L. chagasi, now recognised as L. infantum, originating from Europe. Despite its reliability in South Asia, the rK39 test is reported to have lower sensitivity in East Africa. A reason for this differential response may reside in the molecular diversity of the rK39 homologous sequences among East African L. donovani strains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Coding sequences of rK39 homologues from East African L. donovani strains were amplified from genomic DNA, analysed for diversity from the rK39 sequence, and compared to South Asian sequences. East African sequences were revealed to display significant diversity from rK39. Most coding changes in the 5' half of repeats were non-conservative, with multiple substitutions involving charge changes, whereas amino acid substitutions in the 3' half of repeats were conservative. Specific polymorphisms were found between South Asian and East African strains. Diversity of HASPB1 and HASPB2 gene repeat sequences, used to flank sequences of a kinesin homologue in the synthetic antigen rK28 designed to reduce variable RDT performance, was also investigated. Non-canonical combination repeat arrangements were revealed for HASPB1 and HASPB2 gene products in strains producing unpredicted size amplicons. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that there is extensive kinesin genetic diversity among strains in East Africa and between East Africa and South Asia, with ample scope for influencing performance of rK39

  7. West African monsoon intraseasonal activity and its daily precipitation indices in regional climate models: diagnostics and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poan, E. D.; Gachon, P.; Dueymes, G.; Diaconescu, E.; Laprise, R.; Seidou Sanda, I.

    2016-02-01

    The West African monsoon intraseasonal variability has huge socio-economic impacts on local populations but understanding and predicting it still remains a challenge for the weather prediction and climate scientific community. This paper analyses an ensemble of simulations from six regional climate models (RCMs) taking part in the coordinated regional downscaling experiment, the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis (ERAI) and three satellite-based and observationally-constrained daily precipitation datasets, to assess the performance of the RCMs with regard to the intraseasonal variability. A joint analysis of seasonal-mean precipitation and the total column water vapor (also called precipitable water—PW) suggests the existence of important links at different timescales between these two variables over the Sahel and highlights the relevance of using PW to follow the monsoon seasonal cycle. RCMs that fail to represent the seasonal-mean position and amplitude of the meridional gradient of PW show the largest discrepancies with respect to seasonal-mean observed precipitation. For both ERAI and RCMs, spectral decompositions of daily PW as well as rainfall show an overestimation of low-frequency activity (at timescales longer than 10 days) at the expense of the synoptic (timescales shorter than 10 days) activity. Consequently, the effects of the African Easterly Waves and the associated mesoscale convective systems are substantially underestimated, especially over continental regions. Finally, the study investigates the skill of the models with respect to hydro-climatic indices related to the occurrence, intensity and frequency of precipitation events at the intraseasonal scale. Although most of these indices are generally better reproduced with RCMs than reanalysis products, this study indicates that RCMs still need to be improved (especially with respect to their subgrid-scale parameterization schemes) to be able to reproduce the intraseasonal variance spectrum adequately.

  8. Assessment of the Vulnerability of Water Resources to Seasonal Fires Across the Northern Sub-Saharan African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles M.

    2010-01-01

    The northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, extending from the southern fringes of the Sahara to the Equator, and stretching west to east from the Atlantic to the Indian ocean coasts, plays a prominent role in the distribution of Saharan dust and other airborne matter around the region and to other parts of the world, the genesis of global atmospheric circulation, and the birth of such major (and often catastrophic) events as hurricanes. Therefore, this NSSA region represents a critical variable in the global climate change equation. Recent satellite-based studies have revealed that the NSSA region has one of the highest biomass-burning rates per unit land area among all regions of the world. Because of the high concentration and frequency of fires in this region, with the associated abundance of heat release and gaseous and particulate smoke emissions, biomass-burning activity is believed to be a major driver of the regional carbon, energy, and water cycles. We acknowledge that the rainy season in the NSSA region is from April to September while biomass burning occurs mainly during the dry season (October to March). Nevertheless, these two phenomena are indirectly coupled to each other through a chain of complex processes and conditions, including land-cover and surface-albedo changes, the carbon cycle, evapotranspiration, drought, desertification, surface water runoff, ground water recharge, and variability in atmospheric composition, heating rates, and circulation. In this presentation, we will examine the theoretical linkages between these processes, discuss the preliminary results based on satellite data analysis, and provide an overview of plans for more integrated research to be conducted over the next few years.

  9. A review of groundwater recharge estimation in humid and semi-arid African regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Il-Moon; Kim, Nam Won

    2016-04-01

    For the review of African recharge estimation, the distinct methods such as the geochemical approach, a method using groundwater level data, the streamflow method, and the water balance methods were first outlined. The major challenge of an African recharge study is the lack of basic data. Thus, this work suggests how to deal with this limitation and from future perspective using recently developed technologies such as RS, GIS, etc. With the rapid growth of information technology, more and more data, in terms of both volume and variety, are expected to be made available on the internet in the near future. RS technology has a great potential to revolutionize the groundwater development and management in the future by providing unique and completely new hydrological and hydrogeological data. However, at present, the RS data should be considered along with the conventional field data. In spite of the weaknesses of water balance methods in semi-arid areas, recently developed water balance methods combined with GIS technology are powerful tools for estimating groundwater re-charge, when spatial-temporal variability of components in water balance is taken into account (Lerner et al., 1990; De Vries and Simmers, 2002; Eilers et al., 2007).When enough data sets are available, integrated surface-groundwater modeling is recommended for more accurate estimation of groundwater recharge and discharge. Acknowledgements This work was supported by a grant(14RDRP-B076275-01-000000) from Infrastructure and transportation technology promotion research Program funded by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  10. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range province, southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste-characterization of the Death Valley region, Nevada and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Death Valley region, Nevada and California, in the Basin and Range province, is an area of about 80,200 sq km located in southern Nevada and southeastern California. Precambrian metamorphic and intrusive basement rocks are overlain by a thick section of Paleozoic clastic and evaporitic sedimentary rocks. Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks include extrusive and intrusive rocks and clastic sedimentary rocks. Structural features within the Death Valley indicate a long and complex tectonic evolution from late Precambrian to the present. Potential repository host media in the region include granite and other coarse-grained plutonic rocks, ashflow tuff, basaltic and andesitic lava flows, and basin fill. The Death Valley region is composed largely of closed topographic basins that are apparently coincident with closed groundwater flow systems. In these systems, recharge occurs sparingly at higher altitudes by infiltration of precipitation or by infiltration of ephemeral runoff. Discharge occurs largely by spring flow and by evaporation and transpiration in the playas. Death Valley proper, for which the region was named, is the ultimate discharge area for a large, complex system of groundwater aquifers that occupy the northeastern part of the region. The deepest part of the system consists of carbonate aquifers that connect closed topographic basins at depth. The discharge from the system occurs in several intermediate areas that are geomorphically, stratigraphically, and structurally controlled. Ultimately, most groundwater flow terminates by discharge to Death Valley; groundwater is discharged to the Colorado River from a small part of the region

  11. EAP high-level product architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Sarban, Rahimullah

    2013-01-01

    EAP technology products while keeping complexity under control. High level product architecture has been developed for the mechanical part of EAP transducers, as the foundation for platform development. A generic description of an EAP transducer forms the core of the high level product architecture...... organ allow the function of the EAP transducers to be changed, by basing the EAP transducers on a different combination of organ alternatives. A model providing an overview of the high level product architecture has been developed to support daily development and cooperation across development teams...

  12. Status of national research bioethics committees in the WHO African region

    OpenAIRE

    Wambebe Charles; Kirigia Joses M; Baba-Moussa Amido

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The Regional Committee for Africa of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2001 expressed concern that some health-related studies undertaken in the Region were not subjected to any form of ethics review. In 2003, the study reported in this paper was conducted to determine which Member country did not have a national research ethics committee (REC) with a view to guiding the WHO Regional Office in developing practical strategies for supporting those countries. Methods Thi...

  13. SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High level significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts are provided for the en-route portion of international flights. NOAA's National Weather Service Aviation Center...

  14. Understanding and simulating the link between African easterly waves and Atlantic tropical cyclones using a regional climate model: the role of domain size and lateral boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caron, Louis-Philippe [MISU, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Universite du Quebec a Montreal, CRCMD Network, Montreal, QC (Canada); Jones, Colin G. [Swedish Meterological and Hydrological Institute, Rossby Center, Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2012-07-15

    Using a suite of lateral boundary conditions, we investigate the impact of domain size and boundary conditions on the Atlantic tropical cyclone and african easterly Wave activity simulated by a regional climate model. Irrespective of boundary conditions, simulations closest to observed climatology are obtained using a domain covering both the entire tropical Atlantic and northern African region. There is a clear degradation when the high-resolution model domain is diminished to cover only part of the African continent or only the tropical Atlantic. This is found to be the result of biases in the boundary data, which for the smaller domains, have a large impact on TC activity. In this series of simulations, the large-scale Atlantic atmospheric environment appears to be the primary control on simulated TC activity. Weaker wave activity is usually accompanied by a shift in cyclogenesis location, from the MDR to the subtropics. All ERA40-driven integrations manage to capture the observed interannual variability and to reproduce most of the upward trend in tropical cyclone activity observed during that period. When driven by low-resolution global climate model (GCM) integrations, the regional climate model captures interannual variability (albeit with lower correlation coefficients) only if tropical cyclones form in sufficient numbers in the main development region. However, all GCM-driven integrations fail to capture the upward trend in Atlantic tropical cyclone activity. In most integrations, variations in Atlantic tropical cyclone activity appear uncorrelated with variations in African easterly wave activity. (orig.)

  15. Multiyear simulation of the African climate using a regional climate model (RegCM3) with the high resolution ERA-interim reanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylla, Mouhamadou Bamba [Cheikh Anta Diop University, Laboratory for Atmospheric Physics, Simeon Fongang (LPASF), Polytechnic School, BP 5085, Dakar (Senegal); Coppola, E.; Giorgi, F.; Bi, X. [International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Physics of Weather and Climate Group, Earth System Physics Section, Trieste (Italy); Mariotti, L. [International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Physics of Weather and Climate Group, Earth System Physics Section, Trieste (Italy); University of L' Aquila, Department of Physics, Centre of Excellence CETEMPS, L' Aquila (Italy); Ruti, P.M.; Dell' Aquila, A. [Casaccia Center, Ente per le Nuove Technologie, l' Energia e l' Ambiente (ENEA), Climate Section, Rome (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    This study examines the ability of the latest version of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) regional climate model (RegCM3) to reproduce seasonal mean climatologies, annual cycle and interannual variability over the entire African continent and different climate subregions. The new European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) ERA-interim reanalysis is used to provide initial and lateral boundary conditions for the RegCM3 simulation. Seasonal mean values of zonal wind profile, temperature, precipitation and associated low level circulations are shown to be realistically simulated, although the regional model still shows some deficiencies. The West Africa monsoon flow is somewhat overestimated and the Africa Easterly Jet (AEJ) core intensity is underestimated. Despite these biases, there is a marked improvement in these simulated model variables compared to previous applications of this model over Africa. The mean annual cycle of precipitation, including single and multiple rainy seasons, is well captured over most African subregions, in some cases even improving the quality of the ERA-interim reanalysis. Similarly, the observed precipitation interannual variability is well reproduced by the regional model over most regions, mostly following, and sometimes improving, the quality of the ERA-interim reanalysis. It is assessed that the performance of this model over the entire African domain is of sufficient quality for application to the study of climate change and climate variability over the African continent. (orig.)

  16. Morphology of F-region vertical E×B drifts in the African sector using ionosonde measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Oluwafemi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available F-region vertical velocities are derived from the ground-based ionosonde data for Ibadan (7.4°N, 3.9°E; dip 6°S: an equatorial station in the African zone, to study the general characteristics of electrodynamics of equatorial ionosphere, such as their variation with season, solar cycle, and magnetic activity at different local time sectors. The results show profound seasonal and geomagnetic effects. Except for equinoctial period, there is an excellent consistency in the magnitudes (nearly 20 m/s and patterns of upward daytime F-region drifts at low and high solar activity periods. Evening F-region exhibits strong motion with absolute mean value for quiet-time (15 m/s greater than on disturbed-time (10 m/s. The average downward quiet midnight-early morning hours sector value is well below than 10 m/s. The evening reversal time is earliest and latest during solstitial periods. Prereversal peak is season dependent and varies strongly with magnetic activity. We show that prereversal peak, daytime, and nighttime maximum drifts saturate at particular values of F10.7 cm solar radio flux index, effects not noticed with corresponding sunspot number. Our observations confirm several previous results from other equatorial sites utilizing different experimental techniques.

  17. African horse sickness: The potential for an outbreak in disease-free regions and current disease control and elimination techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, M; Page, P; Archer, D; Baylis, M

    2016-09-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is an arboviral disease of equids transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. The virus is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and official AHS disease-free status can be obtained from the World Organization for Animal Health on fulfilment of a number of criteria. AHS is associated with case fatality rates of up to 95%, making an outbreak among naïve horses both a welfare and economic disaster. The worldwide distributions of similar vector-borne diseases (particularly bluetongue disease of ruminants) are changing rapidly, probably due to a combination of globalisation and climate change. There is extensive evidence that the requisite conditions for an AHS epizootic currently exist in disease-free countries. In particular, although the stringent regulations enforced upon competition horses make them extremely unlikely to redistribute the virus, there are great concerns over the effects of illegal equid movement. An outbreak of AHS in a disease free region would have catastrophic effects on equine welfare and industry, particularly for international events such as the Olympic Games. While many regions have contingency plans in place to manage an outbreak of AHS, further research is urgently required if the equine industry is to avoid or effectively contain an AHS epizootic in disease-free regions. This review describes the key aspects of AHS as a global issue and discusses the evidence supporting concerns that an epizootic may occur in AHS free countries, the planned government responses, and the roles and responsibilities of equine veterinarians. PMID:27292229

  18. Service-oriented high level architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wenguang; Yu, Wenguang; Li, Qun; Wang, Weiping; Liu, Xichun

    2009-01-01

    Service-oriented High Level Architecture (SOHLA) refers to the high level architecture (HLA) enabled by Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Web Services etc. techniques which supports distributed interoperating services. The detailed comparisons between HLA and SOA are made to illustrate the importance of their combination. Then several key enhancements and changes of HLA Evolved Web Service API are introduced in comparison with native APIs, such as Federation Development and Execution Pr...

  19. Overview of high level synthesis tools

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, J

    2011-01-01

    High Level Synthesis takes an abstract behavioural or algorithmic description of a digital system and creates a register transfer level structure that realises the described behaviour. Various methodologies have been developed to perform such synthesis tasks. This paper presents the different HLS concepts used in the current leading tools. It makes a comparison between the different approaches and highlights their advantages and limitations. We also present a high level synthesis example.

  20. Predisposal management of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this safety guide is to provide guidance on predisposal management of high-level radioactive waste to meet the safety requirements spelt out in the safety code on 'management of radioactive waste'. This safety guide provides recommendations to the waste generator/manager at various stages in the predisposal management of high level radioactive waste for ensuring safety of the occupational workers, public and the environment

  1. Scaling-up Regional Financial Integration in the East African Community

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report follows up on a 2007 World Bank study, Financial Sector Integration in Two Regions of Sub-Saharan Africa: How Creating Scale in Financial Markets Can Support Growth and Development (FSITR henceforth) which identified the opportunities associated with regionalization of financial markets in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), and also the many challenges associated with realizing the potential ...

  2. University as Regional Development Agent: A Counterfactual Analysis of an African University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongwa, Samuel N.; Wangenge-Ouma, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of universities to regional development has in the last few decades gained significant currency. Inter alia, this contribution has been through steered national, regional, and institutional policies aimed at enhancing national development, good governance, human capital creation and innovation in an increasing knowledge-dependent…

  3. Extension of the African Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As of 4 May 1998, notifications of acceptance of the extension of the African Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (INFCIRC/377), had been received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Governments of 22 African States. Zimbabwe is added to the list of 21 States reported in the previous edition (add. 9) to this document. Extension entered into force on 4 April 1995, upon expiration of the original Agreement, and will remain in force for an additional period of 5 years, i.e. through 3 April 2000

  4. Variable light environments induce plastic spectral tuning by regional opsin coexpression in the African cichlid fish, Metriaclima zebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Brian E; Lu, Jessica; Leips, Jeff; Cronin, Thomas W; Carleton, Karen L

    2015-08-01

    Critical behaviours such as predation and mate choice often depend on vision. Visual systems are sensitive to the spectrum of light in their environment, which can vary extensively both within and among habitats. Evolutionary changes in spectral sensitivity contribute to divergence and speciation. Spectral sensitivity of the retina is primarily determined by visual pigments, which are opsin proteins bound to a chromophore. We recently discovered that photoreceptors in different regions of the retina, which view objects against distinct environmental backgrounds, coexpress different pairs of opsins in an African cichlid fish, Metriaclima zebra. This coexpression tunes the sensitivity of the retinal regions to the corresponding backgrounds and may aid in detection of dark objects, such as predators. Although intraretinal regionalization of spectral sensitivity in many animals correlates with their light environments, it is unknown whether variation in the light environment induces developmentally plastic alterations of intraretinal sensitivity regions. Here, we demonstrate with fluorescent in situ hybridization and qPCR that the spectrum and angle of environmental light both influence the development of spectral sensitivity regions by altering the distribution and level of opsins across the retina. Normally, M. zebra coexpresses LWS opsin with RH2Aα opsin in double cones of the ventral but not the dorsal retina. However, when illuminated from below throughout development, adult M. zebra coexpressed LWS and RH2Aα in double cones both dorsally and ventrally. Thus, environmental background spectra alter the spectral sensitivity pattern that develops across the retina, potentially influencing behaviours and related evolutionary processes such as courtship and speciation. PMID:26175094

  5. The impact of the African Great Lakes on the regional climate in a dynamically downscaled CORDEX simulation (COSMO-CLM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, W.; Panitz, H.; van Lipzig, N.

    2013-12-01

    Owing to the strong contrast in albedo, roughness and heat capacity between land and water, lakes significantly influence the exchange of moisture, heat and momentum between the surface and the boundary layer. To investigate this two-way interaction, a correct representation of lakes within regional climate models is essential. To this end, the one-dimensional lake parameterisation scheme FLake was recently coupled to the regional climate model COSMO-CLM (CCLM). One region where lakes constitute a key component of the climate system is the African Great Lakes region. In this study, the CCLM CORDEX-Africa evaluation simulation is dynamically downscaled from 0.44° (50 km) to 0.0625° (7 km) over East-Africa. The performance of two lake modules within CCLM are compared for the period 1999-2008: the default FLake scheme and the alternative Community Land Model. Model results are evaluated in a three-step procedure. First, the atmospheric state variables near-surface temperature, precipitation, surface energy fluxes, fractional cloud cover and column precipitable water are evaluated using in-situ based and satellite-derived products. Second, a comprehensive set of in-situ water temperature profile observations serves to evaluate the temporal evolution of water temperatures at three sites: Lake Kivu (Ishungu), Lake Tanganyika's northern basin (Kigoma) and southern basin (Mpulungu). Finally, spatial variability of surface temperatures in Lake Kivu and Lake Tanganyika are evaluated on the basis of satellite-derived lake surface temperatures. Subsequently, the preferred model configuration is used to quantify and understand effects by lakes reported for other regions in the world, such as a dampened diurnal temperature range, enhanced evaporation, modified surface layer stability, increased downwind precipitation, stronger winds, and the formation of local circulation patterns. This is achieved through comparison to a model integration excluding lake effects.

  6. Assessment of the petroleum, coal, and geothermal resources of the economic community of West African states (ECOWAS) region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattick, R.E. (comp.)

    1982-01-01

    Approximately 85 percent of the land area of the ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African States) region is covered by basement rocks (igneous and highly metamorphosed rocks) or relatively thin layers of Paleozoic, Upper Precambrian, and Continental Intercalaire sedimentary rocks. These areas have little or no petroleum potential. The ECOWAS region can be divided into 13 sedimentary basins on the basis of analysis of the geologic framework of Africa. These 13 basins can be further grouped into 8 categories on the basis of similarities in stratigraphy, geologic history, and probable hydrocarbon potential. The author has attempted to summarize the petroleum potential within the geologic framework of the region. The coal discoveries can be summarized as follows: the Carboniferous section in the Niger Basin; the Paleocene-Maestrichtian, Maestrichtian, and Eocene sections in the Niger Delta and Benin; the Maestrichtian section in the Senegal Basin; and the Pleistocene section in Sierra Leone. The only proved commercial deposits are the Paleocene-Maestrichtian and Maestrichtian subbituminous coal beds of the Niger Delta. Some of the lignite deposits of the Niger Delta and Senegal Basin, however, may be exploitable in the future. Published literature contains limited data on heat-flow values in the ECOWAS region. It is inferred, however, from the few values available and the regional geology that the development of geothermal resources, in general, would be uneconomical. Exceptions may include a geopressured zone in the Niger Delta and areas of recent tectonic activity in the Benue Trough and Cameroon. Development of the latter areas under present economic conditions is not feasible.

  7. Assessment of Uncertainties in the Response of the African Monsoon Precipitation to Land Use Change in Regional Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagos, S. M.; Leung, L.; Xue, Y.; Boone, A. A.; Huang, M.; Yoon, J.

    2013-12-01

    Land use and land cover over Africa have changed substantially over the last sixty years and this change has been proposed to affect monsoon circulation and precipitation. This study examines the uncertainties on the effect of these changes on the African Monsoon system and Sahel precipitation using an ensemble of regional model simulations with different combinations of land surface and cumulus parameterization schemes. Although the magnitude of the response covers a broad range of values, most of the simulations show a decline in Sahel precipitation due to the expansion of pasture and croplands at the expense of trees and shrubs and an increase in surface air temperature. The relationship between the model responses to land use change and the climatologies of the control simulations is also examined. Simulations that are climatologically too dry or too wet compared to observations and reanalyses have weak response to land use change because they are in moisture or energy limited regimes respectively. The ones that lie in between and therefore land-atmosphere interactions play a more significant role have stronger response to the land use and land cover changes. Much of the change in precipitation is related to changes in circulation, particularly to the response of the intensity and latitudinal position of the African Easterly Jet, which varies with the changes in meridional surface temperature gradients. The study highlights the need for measurements of the surface fluxes across the meridional cross-section of the Sahel to evaluate models and thereby allowing human impacts such as land use change on the monsoon to be projected more realistically.

  8. Assessment of uncertainties in the response of the African monsoon precipitation to land use change simulated by a regional model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagos, Samson; Leung, L. Ruby; Xue, Yongkang; Boone, Aaron; de Sales, Fernando; Neupane, Naresh; Huang, Maoyi; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2014-11-01

    Land use and land cover (LULC) over Africa have changed substantially over the last 60 years and this change has been proposed to affect monsoon circulation and precipitation. This study examines the uncertainties of model simulated response in the African monsoon system and Sahel precipitation due to LULC change using a set of regional model simulations with different combinations of land surface and cumulus parameterization schemes. Although the magnitude of the response covers a broad range of values, most of the simulations show a decline in Sahel precipitation due to the expansion of pasture and croplands at the expense of trees and shrubs and an increase in surface air temperature. The relationship between the model responses to LULC change and the climatologists of the control simulations is also examined. Simulations that are climatologically too dry or too wet compared to observations and reanalyses have weak response to land use change because they are in moisture or energy limited regimes respectively. The ones that lie in between have stronger response to the LULC changes, showing a more significant role in land-atmosphere interactions. Much of the change in precipitation is related to changes in circulation, particularly to the response of the intensity and latitudinal position of the African Easterly Jet, which varies with the changes in meridional surface temperature gradients. The study highlights the need for measurements of the surface fluxes across the meridional cross-section of the Sahel to evaluate models and thereby allowing human impacts such as land use change on the monsoon to be projected more realistically.

  9. Bioenergy from agro-industrial residues in the East African region. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    Tanzania has recently developed a comprehensive environmental policy which has put high priority on several specific environmental issues. One of the issues is the quality of waste water. A special priority is given to the pollution from the sisal industry. The East-African agro-industries generate very large quantities of organic residues from production and processing of different crops. These residues form a major contribution to the pollution of air, soil and waterways, but, at the same time they constitute a large potential for production of bioenergy through anaerobic digestion as well as potential substrate for other biological fermentation processes. Generally, these residues are regarded as having no or very little value and the different disposal methods are mainly a matter of getting rid of the waste. The generation of residues are very often concentrated on few large units, which makes the exploitation of these resources feasible in large scale biogas systems. Typically the units will have a potential of a daily methane generation of 1,000-20,000 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}, equivalent to a potential electricity production of 0.2-3.2 MW. The future utilization of these resources for production of valuable products is described in this report. This report consists of 3 volumes. This summary report including the main objectives and findings from the different project report: Mapping and Quantification of Organic Agro-Industrial Residues in East Africa; Biogas - Bioenergy Potential in East Africa, Seminar Proceedings, Siler Sands, Dar es Salaam 22-23 September 1997; Bioenergy from Sisal residues - Experimental results and Capacity Building Activities. (EG)

  10. nalysis of the West African Monsoon onset mechanism: Regional dynamics or large scale forcing?

    OpenAIRE

    Flaounas, Emmanouil

    2010-01-01

    The rainy season in West Africa is crucial for local population. The onset of the monsoon (WAM) occurs in late June and corresponds to the weakening of convection over the entire region and to the sudden transition of rainfall from the Guinean coast to the Sahel. The mechanism which provokes this monsoon "jump" is investigated in this thesis through modeling experiments. The ability of the regional WRF model to reproduce the movement of MAO in 2006 was first evaluated. Different parameterizat...

  11. Extension of the African regional co-operative agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology (AFRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As of 31 January 1998, notifications of acceptance of the extension of the African Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology(INFCIRC/377), has been received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Governments of 21 African States. Uganda is added at the at the list of 20 African States reported in the previous addition to the document (INFCIRC/377/Add.8). Pursuant to Article XIV.2 of the original Agreement the extension entered into force on 4 April 1995, upon expiration of the original Agreement, and will remain in force for an additional period of 5 years, i.e. through 3 April 2000

  12. Simulation of the West African monsoon onset using the HadGEM3-RA regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Ismaïla; Bain, Caroline L.; Gaye, Amadou T.; Moufouma-Okia, Wilfran; Niang, Coumba; Dieng, Mame D. B.; Graham, Richard

    2014-08-01

    The performance of the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model version 3 regional climate model (HadGEM3-RA) in simulating the West African monsoon (WAM) is investigated. We focus on performance for monsoon onset timing and for rainfall totals over the June-July-August (JJA) season and on the model's representation of the underlying dynamical processes. Experiments are driven by the ERA-Interim reanalysis and follow the CORDEX experimental protocol. Simulations with the HadGEM3 global model, which shares a common physical formulation with HadGEM3-RA, are used to gain insight into the causes of HadGEM3-RA simulation errors. It is found that HadGEM3-RA simulations of monsoon onset timing are realistic, with an error in mean onset date of two pentads. However, the model has a dry bias over the Sahel during JJA of 15-20 %. Analysis suggests that this is related to errors in the positioning of the Saharan heat low, which is too far south in HadGEM3-RA and associated with an insufficient northward reach of the south-westerly low-level monsoon flow and weaker moisture convergence over the Sahel. Despite these biases HadGEM3-RA's representation of the general rainfall distribution during the WAM appears superior to that of ERA-Interim when using Global Precipitation Climatology Project or Tropical Rain Measurement Mission data as reference. This suggests that the associated dynamical features seen in HadGEM3-RA can complement the physical picture available from ERA-Interim. This approach is supported by the fact that the global HadGEM3 model generates realistic simulations of the WAM without the benefit of pseudo-observational forcing at the lateral boundaries; suggesting that the physical formulation shared with HadGEM3-RA, is able to represent the driving processes. HadGEM3-RA simulations confirm previous findings that the main rainfall peak near 10°N during June-August is maintained by a region of mid-tropospheric ascent located, latitudinally, between the cores of

  13. Possibility of high level waste underground disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility that the high level wastes disposed underground return to the biosphere again is the dissolution and transport of radioactive nuclides by underground water. As the strata suitable to underground disposal, rock salt strata without underground water, and granite or shale strata in which the movement of underground water is slight are enumerated as the candidates. Wastes are formed into solidified bodies like glass, moreover the technical measures such as canisters and overpacks are applied, therefore even if underground water intrudes into the places of disposal, radioactive nuclides can be contained for considerable time. At the time of selecting the most suitable stratum and designing and evaluating the place of disposal to construct the underground disposal system with high potential for high level wastes, it is necessary to predict the movement of radioactive nuclides from the dissolution into underground water to the return to the biosphere. The potential danger of high level wastes, the danger of high level wastes disposed underground, the effect of isolation distance (the thickness of strata), and the comparison of the danger due to uranium ore and slag and the places of underground disposal are explained. The danger due to uranium ore and slag occurs early and lasts long, and is 1000 times as dangerous as the high level wastes disposed underground. (Kako, I.)

  14. A study of preslaughter pig handling and stunning in selected South African Highveld Region abattoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T. Spencer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The study hypothesis was that pre-slaughter handling is not conducted in such a way that pigs can be considered humanely slaughtered, nor is it conducive to promoting those properties of fresh meat that could enhance pork quality. The 1st phase of the investigation was aimed at confirming the present compliance level within the prescribed norms. To this end the importance of stunning induction requirements for effective electrical stunning, the welfare implications relating to the pre-slaughter handling of pigs and the stunning and sticking techniques were investigated. Pre-slaughter welfare of the pigs at the abattoir was found to be influenced at the outset by the origin and type of pig slaughtered, the daily throughput range of pigs and the type of abattoir involved. A disappointing pre-arrival aspect was that deficiencies in road motor vehicles were observed while off-loading pigs. Through poor design or lack of maintenance, another factor that hampered free movement of pigs was the off-loading facilities. The nature of animal behaviour in the pens, in the passages and when going into the stunning area was directly related to the pig handling efficiency and to the nature and extent of design and maintenance problems with equipment. None of the abattoirs had a well designed in-feed to a well planned stunning area / facility, and a very high level of pig pre-slaughter stress prevailed. The optimum position of the electrodes is virtually impossible to attain under practical conditions and the practice of repeat application of electrical stunning is common. Of the total sample size (n = 1175, 34% were difficult to shackle, 90% of these being from the abattoirs tending to slaughter more routinely a wide range of different sized pigs. In this survey 149 pigs (13 % required more than a single sticking attempt to bleed out properly, considerably higher than in other published reports.

  15. A study of preslaughter pig handling and stunning in selected South African Highveld Region abattoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, B T; Veary, C M

    2010-06-01

    The study hypothesis was that pre-slaughter handling is not conducted in such a way that pigs can be considered humanely slaughtered, nor is it conducive to promoting those properties of fresh meat that could enhance pork quality. The 1st phase of the investigation was aimed at confirming the present compliance level within the prescribed norms. To this end the importance of stunning induction requirements for effective electrical stunning, the welfare implications relating to the pre-slaughter handling of pigs and the stunning and sticking techniques were investigated. Pre-slaughter welfare of the pigs at the abattoir was found to be influenced at the outset by the origin and type of pig slaughtered, the daily throughput range of pigs and the type of abattoir involved. A disappointing pre-arrival aspect was that deficiencies in road motor vehicles were observed while off-loading pigs. Through poor design or lack of maintenance, another factor that hampered free movement of pigs was the off-loading facilities. The nature of animal behaviour in the pens, in the passages and when going into the stunning area was directly related to the pig handling efficiency and to the nature and extent of design and maintenance problems with equipment. None of the abattoirs had a well designed in-feed to a well planned stunning area/facility, and a very high level of pig pre-slaughter stress prevailed. The optimum position of the electrodes is virtually impossible to attain under practical conditions and the practice of repeat application of electrical stunning is common. Of the total sample size (n = 1175), 34% were difficult to shackle, 90% of these being from the abattoirs tending to slaughter more routinely a wide range of different sized pigs. In this survey 149 pigs (13%) required more than a single sticking attempt to bleed out properly, considerably higher than in other published reports. PMID:21247016

  16. Mesoscale Modeling of Smoke Particles Distribution and Their Radiative Feedback over Northern Sub-Saharan African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Y.; Wang, J.; Ichoku, C. M.; Ellison, L.

    2015-12-01

    Stretching from southern boundary of Sahara to the equator and expanding west to east from Atlantic Ocean coasts to the India Ocean coasts, the northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region has been subject to intense biomass burning. Comprised of savanna, shrub, tropical forest and a number of agricultural crops, the extensive fires burn belt covers central and south of NSSA during dry season (from October to March) contributes to one of the highest biomass burning rate per km2 in the world. Due to smoke particles' absorption effects of solar radiation, they can modify the surface and atmosphere temperature and thus change atmospheric stability, height of the boundary layer, regional atmospheric circulation, evaporation rate, cloud formation, and precipitation. Hence, smoke particles emitted from biomass burning over NSSA region has a significant influence to the air quality, weather and climate variability. In this study, the first version of this Fire Energetics and Emissions Research (FEER.v1) emissions of several smoke constituents including light-absorbing organic carbon (OC) and black carbon (BC) are applied to a state-of-science meteorology-chemistry model as NOAA Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). We analyzed WRF-Chem simulations of surface and vertical distribution of various pollutants and their direct radiative effects in conjunction with satellite observation data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar data with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIPSO) to strengthen the importance of combining space measured emission products like FEER.v1 emission inventory with mesoscale model over intense biomass burning region, especially in area where ground-based air-quality and radiation-related observations are limited or absent.

  17. Polymorphism in the HASPB repeat region of East African Leishmania donovani strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Zackay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL caused by Leishmania donovani is a major health problem in Ethiopia. Parasites in disparate regions are transmitted by different vectors, and cluster in distinctive genotypes. Recently isolated strains from VL and HIV-VL co-infected patients in north and south Ethiopia were characterized as part of a longitudinal study on VL transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sixty-three L. donovani strains were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting three regions: internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1, cysteine protease B (cpb, and HASPB (k26. ITS1- and cpb--PCR identified these strains as L. donovani. Interestingly, the k26--PCR amplicon size varied depending on the patient's geographic origin. Most strains from northwestern Ethiopia (36/40 produced a 290 bp product with a minority (4/40 giving a 410 bp amplicon. All of the latter strains were isolated from patients with HIV-VL co-infections, while the former group contained both VL and HIV-VL co-infected patients. Almost all the strains (20/23 from southwestern Ethiopia produced a 450 bp amplicon with smaller products (290 or 360 bp only observed for three strains. Sudanese strains produced amplicons identical (290 bp to those found in northwestern Ethiopia; while Kenyan strains gave larger PCR products (500 and 650 bp. High-resolution melt (HRM analysis distinguished the different PCR products. Sequence analysis showed that the k26 repeat region in L. donovani is comprised of polymorphic 13 and 14 amino acid motifs. The 13 amino acid peptide motifs, prevalent in L. donovani, are rare in L. infantum. The number and order of the repeats in L. donovani varies between geographic regions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HASPB repeat region (k26 shows considerable polymorphism among L. donovani strains from different regions in East Africa. This should be taken into account when designing diagnostic assays and vaccines based on this antigen.

  18. EAP high-level product architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Sarban, Rahimullah

    2013-01-01

    EAP technology products while keeping complexity under control. High level product architecture has been developed for the mechanical part of EAP transducers, as the foundation for platform development. A generic description of an EAP transducer forms the core of the high level product architecture....... This description breaks down the EAP transducer into organs that perform the functions that may be present in an EAP transducer. A physical instance of an EAP transducer contains a combination of the organs needed to fulfill the task of actuator, sensor, and generation. Alternative principles for each...... organ allow the function of the EAP transducers to be changed, by basing the EAP transducers on a different combination of organ alternatives. A model providing an overview of the high level product architecture has been developed to support daily development and cooperation across development teams...

  19. A Software Architecture for High Level Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modular software platform for high level applications is under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source II project. This platform is based on client-server architecture, and the components of high level applications on this platform will be modular and distributed, and therefore reusable. An online model server is indispensable for model based control. Different accelerator facilities have different requirements for the online simulation. To supply various accelerator simulators, a set of narrow and general application programming interfaces is developed based on Tracy-3 and Elegant. This paper describes the system architecture for the modular high level applications, the design of narrow and general application programming interface for an online model server, and the prototype of online model server.

  20. Chill unit accumulation and necessity of rest breaking agents in South African table grape production regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avenant Eunice

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of table grapes in warm regions of South Africa is complicated by problems associated with delayed and uneven bud break. Rest breaking agents, mainly hydrogen cyanamide, are applied to overcome these problems. The chill unit accumulation of the five major table grape production regions in South Africa was compared with the minimum chilling required to obtain a high bud break percentage (>80% and even bud break, defined as 200 hours between 0 and 10 ∘C, or 400 hours at 3 ∘C. The effect of chilling accumulation (0, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 hours at 3 ∘C on bud break of dormant cuttings of three table grape cultivars was investigated in controlled studies in a glass house over a three year period. Cuttings used in the study were collected from commercial vineyards in Saron in the Berg River Valley (representing a warm region and the Hex River Valley (representing a cool region. Sultanina and Sugraone cuttings from Saron required at least 200 hours at 3 ∘C to obtain a final bud break % of 80%+. A final bud break % of 80%+ was obtained with all Sultanina cuttings from Hex River Valley. Treatments receiving 400 and 800 hours at 3 ∘C, showed the most rapid rate of bud break. Prime cuttings collected from Saron, receiving 0, 50, 100 and 400 hours at 3 ∘C, showed a more rapid bud break process, as well as a higher final bud break % compared to Sugraone and Sultanina. It seems as if Prime has a lower chilling requirement than the other two cultivars. The model of Dokoozlian for quantifying chilling status is applicable to Saron and the Hex River Valley. The necessity of using rest breaking chemicals in the Saron area, for obtaining a high bud break % and even bud break, was confirmed. The Hex River Valley receives sufficient chilling temperatures to obtain a high bud break %, but rest breaking chemicals can be used to obtain more even bud break. The use of hydrogen cyanamide for improved and even bud break is a general

  1. A Regional Stable Carbon Isotope Dendro-Climatology from the South African Summer Rainfall Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodborne, Stephan; Gandiwa, Patience; Hall, Grant; Patrut, Adrian; Finch, Jemma

    2016-01-01

    Carbon isotope analysis of four baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) trees from the Pafuri region of South Africa yielded a 1000-year proxy rainfall record. The Pafuri record age model was based on 17 radiocarbon dates, cross correlation of the climate record, and ring structures that were presumed to be annual for two of the trees. Here we present the analysis of five additional baobabs from the Mapungubwe region, approximately 200km west of Pafuri. The Mapungubwe chronology demonstrates that ring structures are not necessarily annually formed, and accordingly the Pafuri chronology is revised. Changes in intrinsic water-use efficiency indicate an active response by the trees to elevated atmospheric CO2, but this has little effect on the environmental signal. The revised Pafuri record, and the new Mapungubwe record correlate significantly with local rainfall. Both records confirm that the Medieval Warm Period was substantially wetter than present, and the Little Ice Age was the driest period in the last 1000 years. Although Mapungubwe is generally drier than Pafuri, both regions experience elevated rainfall peaking between AD 1570 and AD 1620 after which dry conditions persist in the Mapungubwe area until about AD 1840. Differences between the two records correlate with Agulhas Current sea-surface temperature variations suggesting east/west displacement of the temperate tropical trough system as an underlying mechanism. The Pafuri and Mapungubwe records are combined to provide a regional climate proxy record for the northern summer rainfall area of southern Africa. PMID:27427912

  2. Effects of global financial crisis on funding for health development in nineteen countries of the WHO African Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwikisa Chris N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is ample evidence in Asia and Latin America showing that past economic crises resulted in cuts in expenditures on health, lower utilization of health services, and deterioration of child and maternal nutrition and health outcomes. Evidence on the impact of past economic crises on health sector in Africa is lacking. The objectives of this article are to present the findings of a quick survey conducted among countries of the WHO African Region to monitor the effects of global financial crisis on funding for health development; and to discuss the way forward. Methods This is a descriptive study. A questionnaire was prepared and sent by email to all the 46 Member States in the WHO African Region through the WHO Country Office for facilitation and follow up. The questionnaires were completed by directors of policy and planning in ministries of health. The data were entered and analyzed in Excel spreadsheet. The main limitations of this study were that authors did not ask whether other relevant sectors were consulted in the process of completing the survey questionnaire; and that the overall response rate was low. Results The main findings were as follows: the response rate was 41.3% (19/46 countries; 36.8% (7/19 indicated they had been notified by the Ministry of Finance that the budget for health would be cut; 15.8% (3/19 had been notified by partners of their intention to cut health funding; 61.1% (11/18 indicated that the prices of medicines had increased recently; 83.3% (15/18 indicated that the prices of basic food stuffs had increased recently; 38.8% (7/18 indicated that their local currency had been devalued against the US dollar; 47.1% (8/17 affirmed that the levels of unemployment had increased since the onset of global financial crisis; and 64.7% (11/17 indicated that the ministry of health had taken some measures already, either in reaction to the global financing crisis, or in anticipation. Conclusion A rapid

  3. Linking biochemical perturbations in tissues of the African catfish to the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Ovia River, Niger Delta region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroleum hydrocarbons including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a pollution issue in the Niger Delta region due to oil industry activities. PAHs were measured in the water column of the Ovia River with concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1055.6 ng L−1. Attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy detected alterations in tissues of the African catfish (Heterobranchus bidorsalis) from the region showed varying degrees of statistically significant (P < 0.0001, P < 0.001, P < 0.05) changes to absorption band areas and shifts in centroid positions of peaks. Alteration patterns were similar to those induced by benzo[a]pyrene in MCF-7 cells. These findings have potential health implications for resident local communities as H. bidorsalis constitutes a key nutritional source. The study provides supporting evidence for the sensitivity of infrared spectroscopy in environmental studies and supports their potential application in biomonitoring. - Highlights: • PAHs measured in the water column of the Ovia River (Nigeria). • ATR-FTIR spectroscopy detects alterations in tissues of the African catfish (Heterobranchus bidorsalis). • Spectral alteration similar to those induced by benzo[a]pyrene in MCF-7 cells. • Alterations in tissues of African catfish (H. bidorsalis) a function of exposure to waterborne PAHs. • Vibrational spectroscopy techniques detect minimal changes induced by environmental exposures. - Spatial and temporal analyses by biospectroscopy techniques of African catfish (Heterobranchus bidorsalis) tissues suggest that detected alterations can reflect fluctuating exposures to PAHs

  4. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations

  5. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending

  6. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-02-22

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

  7. The impact of the African Great Lakes on the regional climate in a dynamically downscaled CORDEX simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, Wim; Panitz, Hans-Jürgen; Davin, Edouard; van Lipzig, Nicole

    2014-05-01

    Owing to the strong contrast in albedo, roughness and heat capacity between land and water, lakes significantly influence the exchange of moisture, heat and momentum between the surface and the boundary layer. To investigate this two-way interaction, a correct representation of lakes within regional climate models is essential. To this end, the one-dimensional lake parameterisation scheme FLake was recently coupled to the regional climate model COSMO-CLM (CCLM). One region where lakes constitute a key component of the climate system is the African Great Lakes region. In this study, the CCLM CORDEX-Africa evaluation simulation is dynamically downscaled from 0.44° (50 km) to 0.0625° (7 km) over East-Africa, an unprecedented resolution for this region. The performance of different CCLM configurations are compared for the period 1999-2008: in particular, CCLM is tested for its sensitivity to the choice of the lake surface temperature description (SST, FLake, an improved version of FLake and Hostetler) and the land surface model (Terra and Community Land Model). Model results are evaluated in a three-step procedure. First, the atmospheric state variables near-surface temperature, precipitation, surface energy fluxes, fractional cloud cover and column precipitable water are evaluated using in-situ based and satellite-derived products. Second, a comprehensive set of in-situ water temperature profile observations serves to evaluate the temporal evolution of water temperatures at three sites: Lake Kivu (Ishungu), Lake Tanganyika's northern basin (Kigoma) and southern basin (Mpulungu). Finally, spatial variability of surface temperatures in Lake Kivu and Lake Tanganyika are evaluated on the basis of satellite-derived lake surface temperatures. Subsequently, the preferred model configuration is used to quantify and understand effects by lakes reported for other regions in the world, such as a dampened diurnal temperature range, enhanced evaporation, modified surface layer

  8. High Level Radioactive Waste Management: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Individual papers are processed separately for the databases. The theme of the 1993 International High Level Radioactive Waste Management (IHLRWM) Conference, ''Sharing Technologies for a Common Need'' characterizes the objective of the entire conference series. The common need for all who are involved in high-level radioactive waste management is to find a technically and institutionally acceptable solution for the disposition of spent fuel and high-level waste that protects the public and the environment. High-level radioactive waste management is a multinational concern where every country can benefit from sharing its technology. Each year, the international community becomes more involved in this conference. This year, the fourth IHLRWM conference has 42 participating organizations and 50 papers approved for presentation. Of these, 16 of the organizations and 70 of the papers are from outside of the United States. As more and more of the world's electricity is generated by nuclear power plants, there is a greater need for information exchange and cooperative among countries and various international agencies. Through such cooperation, nations can share information, technology, and experience and a consensus to improve confidence in the safety of each nation's approach to solving its high-level waste management problems. Commenting the signing of two new international agreements in 1992, the former director of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Management (OCRWM), said, ''As nuclear waste issues continue to be addressed in numerous countries, international cooperative research and development becomes an increasingly important way to maximize limited resources, build consensus on issues in the radioactive waste management and broaden our technical and institutional knowledge base.''

  9. Activity patterns of African buffalo Syncerus caffer in the Lower Sabie Region, Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Ryan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The activity budgets of three herds of African buffalo in the Lower Sabie region of Kruger National Park, recorded between 1991 and 1992 were quantified to examine both nocturnal and seasonal effects on feeding activity and 24-hr movement in an area of dense bushveld. We found that the average 24-hr distance traveled by herds (3.35 km was shorter than that found in other studies and that there was no seasonal effect on this distance, which we attribute to ready availability of water in both seasons. We found that the buffalo spent a similar amount of time feeding (9.5 hrs as in other studies, but that the proportional feeding and resting time was influenced by the time of day and the season. These herds spent proportionally more time feeding at night (44.5 % vs 32.0 % and more time resting in the day (28.4 % vs 16.0 %. In addition, they appeared to rest more during the day and feed more at night during the wet season, when it was hotter.

  10. Characterisation of GPS-TEC in the African equatorial and low latitude region and the regional evaluation of the IRI model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebiyi, S. J.; Adimula, I. A.; Oladipo, O. A.

    2016-06-01

    With the increasing application of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) products and services, knowledge of the Total Electron Content (TEC) variation is vital, particularly in historically under-sampled regions. The ionospheric induced-error, which is the largest and most variable error source of GNSS applications, is proportional to TEC along the satellite-receiver path. Simultaneous Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from six African equatorial and low latitude stations in the southern hemisphere are used to investigate the latitudinal variation of TEC over the region during the year 2013, a year of moderate solar activity. The analysis reveals some detailed features of seasonal, month-to-month and solar activity dependence of TEC. The seasonal variation of TEC revealed that the daytime and the pre-midnight values of TEC for stations located close to the geographic equator is considerably higher in equinoxes and June solstice compared to stations farther from the equator, however, the difference is insignificant during the December solstice. The month-to-month variation of TEC shows semi-annual symmetry/asymmetry in TEC values for stations closer/farther from the equator. TEC sensitivity to solar activity shows significant seasonal and latitudinal characteristics. Generally, a relatively good correlation exists between TEC and F10.7 for stations around the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) region compared to those found at stations close to the equator. Beyond the EIA region, the correlation coefficients drop in all seasons. TEC predicted by the three topside options of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) 2012 model [i.e. the NeQuick (NeQ), IRI-2001 Corrected (IRI-01 Corr) and the IRI-2001 (IRI-01) options] exhibits latitudinal and seasonal characteristics. The NeQ option performed better than the other two options at stations located within the equatorial region in most of the months and seasons. Outside the EIA region, the IRI-01 Corr

  11. Small businesses performance in West African border regions: Do social networks pay off?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuepié, Mathias; Tenikué, Michel; Walther, Olivier

    networks are also the most successful in terms of monthly sales and profit. The paper shows that the overall economic performance of traders is affected by the socio-professional position of the actors with whom they are connected. While social ties with local religious leaders have no effect on their......This paper studies the link between economic performance and social networks in West Africa. Using first-hand data collected on 358 small-scale traders in five border markets between Niger, Nigeria and Benin, we are particularly interested in testing whether the most well-connected actors of trade...... business, support received from civil servants, politicians, and security authorities translates into economic performance. The paper also shows significant differences between countries, regions and marketplaces. Social connections developed with state representatives have a much greater effect on...

  12. Research on high level radioactive waste repository seismic design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Review seismic hazard analysis principle and method in site suitable assessment process of Yucca Mountain Project, and seismic design criteria and seismic design basis in primary design process. Demonstrated spatial character of seismic hazard by calculated regional seismic hazard map. Contrasted different level seismic design basis to show their differences and relation. Discussed seismic design criteria for preclosure phrase of high level waste repository and preference goal under beyond design basis ground motion. (author)

  13. Service-oriented high level architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wenguang; Li, Qun; Wang, Weiping; Liu, Xichun

    2009-01-01

    Service-oriented High Level Architecture (SOHLA) refers to the high level architecture (HLA) enabled by Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Web Services etc. techniques which supports distributed interoperating services. The detailed comparisons between HLA and SOA are made to illustrate the importance of their combination. Then several key enhancements and changes of HLA Evolved Web Service API are introduced in comparison with native APIs, such as Federation Development and Execution Process, communication mechanisms, data encoding, session handling, testing environment and performance analysis. Some approaches are summarized including Web-Enabling HLA at the communication layer, HLA interface specification layer, federate interface layer and application layer. Finally the problems of current research are discussed, and the future directions are pointed out.

  14. Timing of High-level Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study identifies key factors influencing the timing of high-level waste (HLW) disposal and examines how social acceptability, technical soundness, environmental responsibility and economic feasibility impact on national strategies for HLW management and disposal. Based on case study analyses, it also presents the strategic approaches adopted in a number of national policies to address public concerns and civil society requirements regarding long-term stewardship of high-level radioactive waste. The findings and conclusions of the study confirm the importance of informing all stakeholders and involving them in the decision-making process in order to implement HLW disposal strategies successfully. This study will be of considerable interest to nuclear energy policy makers and analysts as well as to experts in the area of radioactive waste management and disposal. (author)

  15. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Joseph M.; Bickford, Dennis F.; Day, Delbert E.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L.; Marra, Sharon L.; Peeler, David K.; Strachan, Denis M.; Triplett, Mark B.; Vienna, John D.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  16. High-level programming languages translator

    OpenAIRE

    Tonchev, Ognyan; Salih, Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses a high level language translator. If we divide translators of programming languages in two types: those working for two specific languages and universal translators that can be used for translation between different programming languages, the solution that will be presented in this work can be classified as both, specific language oriented and an universal translator. For the purpose of the research it was limited to translate only from Java to C++, but it can easily be e...

  17. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, L.H. (ed.)

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  18. Regional initiatives to scale-up energy access for economic and human development: Lessons learned from the East African community and the economic community of West African States. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter presents the experience of two African Regional Economic Commissions (RECs) - East African Community (EAC), Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) - who, with assistance from the UNDP, have moved towards developing and implementing regional strategies to increase access to modern energy services (UNDP, 2006a). The Johannesburg consensus: access to energy underpins development and poverty reduction The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI) includes an emerging international consensus on the role of energy in sustainable development: 1) Energy services are an essential input to economic development and social progress, notably to achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Energy services are necessary for successful implementation of almost all sectoral development programmes, notably revenue generating activities, health, education, water, food security, agricultural development, etc. Increased access to energy fuels economic growth and poverty reduction. 'The lack of modern fuels and electricity in most developing countries entrenches poverty, constrains the delivery of social services, limits opportunities for women, and erodes environmental sustainability' (UN-Energy, 2005). 2) Under current economic conditions, provision of energy services to poor populations in many developing countries is not attractive to market actors. Experience in the decades before and after Johannesburg had amply demonstrated the positive and negative aspects of a purely market based approach to the provision of energy services. On the positive side, in the power sector for instance, privatization and deregulation had in many cases reduced expenditure of public funds in support of money losing public utilities. However, on the negative side, these attempts only rarely achieved improvement in the quality or reliability of service in urban areas (see Chapter 3). In almost no cases had they achieved improvement in the rates of access to electricity in rural

  19. The effects of high level infrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.

    1980-02-01

    This paper will attempt to survey the current knowledge on the effects of relative high levels of infrasound on humans. While this conference is concerned mainly about hearing, some discussion of other physiological effects is appropriate. Such discussion also serves to highlight a basic question, 'Is hearing the main concern of infrasound and low frequency exposure, or is there a more sensitive mechanism'. It would be comforting to know that the focal point of this conference is indeed the most important concern. Therefore, besides hearing loss and auditory threshold of infrasonic and low frequency exposure, four other effects will be provided. These are performance, respiration, annoyance, and vibration.

  20. Code Similarity on High Level Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Bernal, M Miron; Nazuno, J Figueroa

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for code similarity on High Level programs. Our technique is based on Fast Dynamic Time Warping, that builds a warp path or points relation with local restrictions. The source code is represented into Time Series using the operators inside programming languages that makes possible the comparison. This makes possible subsequence detection that represent similar code instructions. In contrast with other code similarity algorithms, we do not make features extraction. The experiments show that two source codes are similar when their respective Time Series are similar.

  1. Responsible disposal of high level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States today are approximately 100 million gallons of high-level radioactive waste [HLW] containing more than 1 billion curies of radioactivity. This waste has been generated primarily from reprocessing operations used in the production of plutonium and tritium for defense needs. The waste is most often handled and stored in a liquid or semi-liquid form and placed in large underground tanks. Many of these tanks are now over a quarter of a century old and materials problems and concerns have arisen. This paper reports on what is now needed, a more effective means for not only storing this waste, but for permanently disposing of it

  2. Service Oriented Architecture for High Level Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standalone high level applications often suffer from poor performance and reliability due to lengthy initialization, heavy computation and rapid graphical update. Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is trying to separate the initialization and computation from applications and to distribute such work to various service providers. Heavy computation such as beam tracking will be done periodically on a dedicated server and data will be available to client applications at all time. Industrial standard service architecture can help to improve the performance, reliability and maintainability of the service. Robustness will also be improved by reducing the complexity of individual client applications.

  3. High-level waste qualification: Managing uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vitrification facility is being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the West Valley Demonstration Plant (WVDP) near Buffalo, New York, where approximately 300 canisters of high-level nuclear waste glass will be produced. To assure that the produced waste form is acceptable, uncertainty must be managed. Statistical issues arise due to sampling, waste variations, processing uncertainties, and analytical variations. This paper presents elements of a strategy to characterize and manage the uncertainties associated with demonstrating that an acceptable waste form product is achieved. Specific examples are provided within the context of statistical work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)

  4. Immobilization of high level waste in synroc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synroc, a polyphase titanate ceramic, is being developed in Australia as a second generation waste form for the immoblilzation of high-level waste (HLW) from nuclear plants. The wasteform, produced by reactive hot-pressing, has excellent resistance to leaching and there is good evidence that the longterm release rate of elements from Synroc will be of the order of 10-4 - 10-5 g/m2 per day at 90 deg C. The durability of Synroc is not affected significantly by impurities normally present in liquid waste from reprocessing operations and is not sensitive to fluctuations in the composition of the waste-stream. Reducing conditions prevalent during Synroc fabrication ensure that the losses of volatiles such as Cs and Ru are restricted to levels of around 0.1% or better. The important physical properties of Synroc are also superior to those of current generation wasteforms, allowing greater flexibility of options in managing storage and eventual disposal of high-level waste. (author)

  5. Immobilization of high level waste in Synroc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synroc, a polyphase titanate ceramic, is being developed in Australia as a second generation waste from for the immobilization of high-level waste (HLW) from nuclear plants. The waste form, produced by reactive hot-pressing, has excellent resistance to leaching and there is good evidence that the long-term release rate of elements from Synroc will be of the order of 10/sup /minus/4/ - 10/sup /minus/5/ g/m2 per day at 90/degrees/C. The durability of Synroc is not affected significantly by impurities normally present in liquid waste from reprocessing operations and is not sensitive to fluctuations in the composition of waste-stream. Reducing conditions prevalent during Synroc fabrication ensure that the losses of volatiles such as Cs and Ru are restricted to levels of around 0.1% or better. The important physical properties of Synroc are also superior to those of current generation waste forms, allowing greater flexibility of options in managing storage and eventual disposal of high-level waste

  6. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostino, Lorenzo; et al.

    2009-08-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  7. High level intelligent control of telerobotics systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckee, James

    1988-01-01

    A high level robot command language is proposed for the autonomous mode of an advanced telerobotics system and a predictive display mechanism for the teleoperational model. It is believed that any such system will involve some mixture of these two modes, since, although artificial intelligence can facilitate significant autonomy, a system that can resort to teleoperation will always have the advantage. The high level command language will allow humans to give the robot instructions in a very natural manner. The robot will then analyze these instructions to infer meaning so that is can translate the task into lower level executable primitives. If, however, the robot is unable to perform the task autonomously, it will switch to the teleoperational mode. The time delay between control movement and actual robot movement has always been a problem in teleoperations. The remote operator may not actually see (via a monitor) the results of high actions for several seconds. A computer generated predictive display system is proposed whereby the operator can see a real-time model of the robot's environment and the delayed video picture on the monitor at the same time.

  8. Extension of the African regional co-operative agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology (AFRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As of 31 December 1996, notifications of acceptance of the extension of the African Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) (see INFCIRC/377), had been received by the Director General from the Governments of 20 African countries. Niger, Libya and Mali are added at the list of 17 countries reported in the previous addition of the document (INFCIRC/377/Add.7). Pursuant to Article XIV.2 of the original Agreement, the extension entered into force on 4 April 1995, upon expiration of the original Agreement, and will remain in force for an additional period of 5 years, i.e. through 3 April 2000

  9. High-level exposure: Progress in dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of people being accidentally exposed to unusually high levels of radiation, it becomes important to obtain as quickly as possible a reasonably accurate indication of the dose which each individual may have received. This serves in the first place to show which, if any, of the persons who may have been involved should receive medical treatment or be kept under observation. In the second place the information supplements clinical observation as a guide to treatment. A symposium in Vienna, held from 8 to 12 March 1965, discussed the assessment of doses received by persons who have been accidentally irradiated, by exposure to external radiation fields, by the intake of radioactive materials, or by radioactive contamination being deposited on the surface of the body. The symposium, organised jointly by IAEA and the World Health Organisation, was entitled Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation. There were 179 participants from 34 countries and five international organisations. This was a specialized conference, fairly narrow in scope, since it formed one in a succession of meetings on kindred subjects. For example, a symposium held in May 1964 dealt with general methods of assessing radioactive body burdens in man; a joint IAEA/WHO meeting in October 1960, and another in October 1962, dealt with medical aspects of radiation injury and of radioactive poisoning. About half the proceedings were devoted to discussion of measurement techniques for external radiation, with detailed discussion of various kinds of warning and recording devices, monitors and personal dosimeters. From these the meeting passed on to consider supplementary methods such as estimation of neutron dosage by analysis of blood or hair, and experiments conducted by means of polyethylene phantoms to establish the dose likely to be received under particular circumstances. Other sessions dealt with the determination of internal contamination, and

  10. 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop was held from 10 May to 18 June 2002 at Hangzhou Regional Center for Small Hydro Power(HRC). Attended altogether 9 participants from 5 African countries, i.e. Burundi, Nigeria, South African, Tanzania and Tunisia. This is the second training workshop on SHP that HRC conducted for African countries.

  11. Tracking at High Level Trigger in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2014-01-01

    A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with detector readout, offline storage and analysis capability. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger (L1T), implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. With the computing power available during the 2012 data taking the maximum reconstruction time at HLT was about 200 ms per event, at the nominal L1T rate of 100 kHz. Track reconstruction algorithms are widely used in the HLT, for the reconstruction of the physics objects as well as in the identification of b-jets and lepton iso...

  12. Reliability-Centric High-Level Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Tosun, S; Arvas, E; Kandemir, M; Xie, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Importance of addressing soft errors in both safety critical applications and commercial consumer products is increasing, mainly due to ever shrinking geometries, higher-density circuits, and employment of power-saving techniques such as voltage scaling and component shut-down. As a result, it is becoming necessary to treat reliability as a first-class citizen in system design. In particular, reliability decisions taken early in system design can have significant benefits in terms of design quality. Motivated by this observation, this paper presents a reliability-centric high-level synthesis approach that addresses the soft error problem. The proposed approach tries to maximize reliability of the design while observing the bounds on area and performance, and makes use of our reliability characterization of hardware components such as adders and multipliers. We implemented the proposed approach, performed experiments with several designs, and compared the results with those obtained by a prior proposal.

  13. Intergenerational ethics of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The validity of intergenerational ethics on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste originating from nuclear power plants was studied. The result of the study on geological disposal technology showed that the current method of disposal can be judged to be scientifically reliable for several hundred years and the radioactivity level will be less than one tenth of the tolerable amount after 1,000 years or more. This implies that the consideration of intergenerational ethics of geological disposal is meaningless. Ethics developed in western society states that the consent of people in the future is necessary if the disposal has influence on them. Moreover, the ethics depends on generally accepted ideas in western society and preconceptions based on racism and sexism. The irrationality becomes clearer by comparing the dangers of the exhaustion of natural resources and pollution from harmful substances in a recycling society. (author)

  14. Intergenerational ethics of high level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kunihiko [Nagoya Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Nasu, Akiko; Maruyama, Yoshihiro [Shibaura Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The validity of intergenerational ethics on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste originating from nuclear power plants was studied. The result of the study on geological disposal technology showed that the current method of disposal can be judged to be scientifically reliable for several hundred years and the radioactivity level will be less than one tenth of the tolerable amount after 1,000 years or more. This implies that the consideration of intergenerational ethics of geological disposal is meaningless. Ethics developed in western society states that the consent of people in the future is necessary if the disposal has influence on them. Moreover, the ethics depends on generally accepted ideas in western society and preconceptions based on racism and sexism. The irrationality becomes clearer by comparing the dangers of the exhaustion of natural resources and pollution from harmful substances in a recycling society. (author)

  15. The High Level Data Reduction Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, P.; Gabasch, A.; Jung, Y.; Modigliani, A.; Taylor, J.; Coccato, L.; Freudling, W.; Neeser, M.; Marchetti, E.

    2015-09-01

    The European Southern Observatory (ESO) provides pipelines to reduce data for most of the instruments at its Very Large telescope (VLT). These pipelines are written as part of the development of VLT instruments, and are used both in the ESO's operational environment and by science users who receive VLT data. All the pipelines are highly specific geared toward instruments. However, experience showed that the independently developed pipelines include significant overlap, duplication and slight variations of similar algorithms. In order to reduce the cost of development, verification and maintenance of ESO pipelines, and at the same time improve the scientific quality of pipelines data products, ESO decided to develop a limited set of versatile high-level scientific functions that are to be used in all future pipelines. The routines are provided by the High-level Data Reduction Library (HDRL). To reach this goal, we first compare several candidate algorithms and verify them during a prototype phase using data sets from several instruments. Once the best algorithm and error model have been chosen, we start a design and implementation phase. The coding of HDRL is done in plain C and using the Common Pipeline Library (CPL) functionality. HDRL adopts consistent function naming conventions and a well defined API to minimise future maintenance costs, implements error propagation, uses pixel quality information, employs OpenMP to take advantage of multi-core processors, and is verified with extensive unit and regression tests. This poster describes the status of the project and the lesson learned during the development of reusable code implementing algorithms of high scientific quality.

  16. Ramifications of defining high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering rule making to provide a concentration-based definition of high-level waste (HLW) under authority derived from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 and the Low Level Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. The Department of Energy (DOE), which has the responsibility to dispose of certain kinds of commercial waste, is supporting development of a risk-based classification system by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to assist in developing and implementing the NRC rule. The system is two dimensional, with the axes based on the phrases highly radioactive and requires permanent isolation in the definition of HLW in the NWPA. Defining HLW will reduce the ambiguity in the present source-based definition by providing concentration limits to establish which materials are to be called HLW. The system allows the possibility of greater-confinement disposal for some wastes which do not require the degree of isolation provided by a repository. The definition of HLW will provide a firm basis for waste processing options which involve partitioning of waste into a high-activity stream for repository disposal, and a low-activity stream for disposal elsewhere. Several possible classification systems have been derived and the characteristics of each are discussed. The Defense High Level Waste Technology Lead Office at DOE - Richland Operations Office, supported by Rockwell Hanford Operations, has coordinated reviews of the ORNL work by a technical peer review group and other DOE offices. The reviews produced several recommendations and identified several issues to be addressed in the NRC rule making. 10 references, 3 figures

  17. Romulea pilosa and R. quartzicola (Iridaceae: Crocoideae, two new species from the southern African winter rainfall region, with nomenclatural corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Romulea pilosa J.C.Manning & Goldblatt and R. quartzicola J.C.Manning & Goldblatt are two narrow endemics from the southern African winter rainfall region. An early, fragmentary collection of R. pilosa from Riviersonderend lacked the diagnostic corm and was thus mistakenly associated with R. tetragona (sect. Ciliatae as var. flavandra M.P.de Vos because of the highly distinctive pilose, H-shaped leaf. The rediscovery of the taxon in the wild shows it to be a previously unrecognized member of sect. Aggregatae, distinguished by its unusual foliage and bright orange flowers. R. quartzicola was grown to flowering from seeds collected from quartz patches in southern Namaqualand and proved to be a new species of sect. Ciliatae, distinguished by its early flowering, short, subclavate leaves with reduced sclerenchyma strands, and bright yellow flowers with short bracts. R. neglecta M.P.de Vos, a rare endemic from the Kamiesberg in Northern Cape, is a later homonym for the Mediterranean R. neglecta Jord. & Fourr., and the earliest name for this plant is shown to be R. speciosa (Ker Gawl. Baker, typified by an illustration in Andrews’ The botanist’s repository. An epitype is designated to fix the application of the name. We have also examined the type illustration of R. pudica (Sol. ex Ker Gawl. Baker, hitherto treated as an uncertain species, and are confident that it represents the species currently known as R. amoena Schltr. ex Bég., and takes priority over it as being the earlier name. The type of R. reflexa Eckl., a new name for the later homonym I. reflexa Thunb. and the basionym of R. rosea var. reflexa (Eckl. Bég., has been mistakenly identified as an Ecklon collection but is in fact the collection that formed the basis of Thunberg’s I. reflexa. This collection is actually a form of R. flava Lam., and the name R. rosea var. reflexa is thus moved to the synonomy of that species. The variety currently known under this name should now be

  18. Steps to African Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The development of Africa is vital to the world’s sustainable development.However,African countries still face key challenges in achieving the meaningful expansion of their economies.At the High-Level Symposium on China-Africa Investment Cooperation in Xiamen,southeast China’s Fujian Province,held from September 8 to 10,Chen Deming,Minister of Commerce of China,elaborates on these challenges and sees

  19. Market Designs for High Levels of Variable Generation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Orths, A.; Lynch, M.; Soder, L.

    2014-10-01

    Variable renewable generation is increasing in penetration in modern power systems, leading to higher variability in the supply and price of electricity as well as lower average spot prices. This raises new challenges, particularly in ensuring sufficient capacity and flexibility from conventional technologies. Because the fixed costs and lifetimes of electricity generation investments are significant, designing markets and regulations that ensure the efficient integration of renewable generation is a significant challenge. This papers reviews the state of play of market designs for high levels of variable generation in the United States and Europe and considers new developments in both regions.

  20. Characterization of high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A portable gamma spectroscopy system is employed to develop a method for quantitative analysis of high level samples containing a mixture of fission and activation products in various configurations. This technique models the source, the shielding, and the detector to identify and quantify the radionuclides present in the samples while minimizing personnel exposure. In addition, this technique can be applied to samples with nonuniform radionuclide distributions. The process involves estimating the intrinsic efficiency of the detector and the fluency rate at the detector face per unit activity for the sample geometry under consideration. For a complex geometry, a computer code written for shielding applications is utilized to determine the fluency rate per unit activity at the detector face. To determine the accuracy of the method, a calibration standard with shielding was modeled, and the activity of the calibration standard radionuclides was estimated. Lastly, the technique was applied to the characterization of the Sandia Experimental Reactor (SER) control elements requiring recent disposal. The results from the portable gamma spectroscopy system characterization are compared to calculations based on neutron activation analysis

  1. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved trac...

  2. Vitrification of high-level liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes produced in the fuel elements reprocessing require, for their disposal, a preliminary treatment by which, through a series of engineering barriers, the dispersion into the biosphere is delayed by 10 000 years. Four groups of compounds are distinguished among a great variety of final products and methods of elaboration. From these, the borosilicate glasses were chosen. Vitrification experiences were made at a laboratory scale with simulated radioactive wastes, employing different compositions of borosilicate glass. The installations are described. A series of tests were carried out on four basic formulae using always the same methodology, consisting of a dry mixture of the vitreous matrix's products and a dry simulated mixture. Several quality tests of the glasses were made 1: Behaviour in leaching following the DIN 12 111 standard; 2: Mechanical resistance; parameters related with the facility of the different glasses for increasing their surface were studied; 3: Degree of devitrification: it is shown that devitrification turns the glasses containing radioactive wastes easily leachable. From all the glasses tested, the composition SiO2, Al2O3, B2O3, Na2O, CaO shows the best retention characteristics. (M.E.L.)

  3. High-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The policy problem of waste management facing the U.S. Government is outlined in this article. The discussion is limited to the management of high-level radioactive waste or its equivalent. The lack of coordinated institutional mechanism for implementing the technology of waste disposal is cited as the heaviest indictment of the Government waste management program. The waste management policy problem is described as a series of issue clusters. Three driving forces, (1) demand for energy, (2) state of world tensions over possibility and consequences of war, and (3) pace of advance of scientific knowledge, are proported to be driving for solutions of these series of issue clusters. Six steps necessary to the Governmental development of a waste management policy are outlined and discussed. These steps are (1) access national efforts in the past, (2) estimate future national energy demand and evaluate that against existing plants to supply energy, (3) identify national goals relevant to the waste management policy problem, (4) evaluate proposed solutions, (5) decide on the course to follow, and (6) implement that decision

  4. Doing something about high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Located in the US are approximately 100 million gallons of high level radioactive waste (HLW) containing more than 1 billion curies of radioactivity. This waste has been generated primarily from reprocessing operations used in the production of plutonium and tritium for defense needs. The waste is most often handled and stored in a liquid or semi-liquid form and placed in large underground tanks. Many of these tanks are now over 25-years old. A more effective and permanent means for managing this material is needed. As a result of over 30 years of research, the technology to do better is now available. The strategy for long-term management of HLW will shift from a policy of temporarily storing waste in a relatively mobile liquid form to a more permanent solution of immobilizing HLW into borosilicate glass. The first vitrification facility in US is now over 99% complete. The waste glass produced will then be disposed of as part of a multibarrier isolation system in deep geologic burial at a federal repository

  5. Storage facility for high level radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A disk-like covering slab is supported on a pit by a numbers of elastic support members (earthquake proof device) disposed on the upper surface in the vicinity of an opening of a pit. Upper ends of containing tubes containing high level radioactive materials formed by vitrifying radioactive liquid wastes are buried at the lower side of the covering slab. Air ventilation tubes are vertically disposed on the outer side of the containing tubes at a portion situated in the pit at a space of circulation channels. A portion between the outer side of the air ventilation tubes and the inner circumference of the pit is entirely isolated all over by a lower plenum forming plate and an upper plenum forming plate. Pleats-like flexible portions are each formed at the circumference of the lower plenum forming plate and the upper plenum forming plate in the vicinity of the inner circumference of the pit. With such a constitution, failure of containing tubes due to earthquakes or the like can be prevented by a simple constitution. (I.N.)

  6. The ALICE electromagnetic calorimeter high level triggers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) detector yields a huge sample of data from different sub-detectors. On-line data processing is applied to select and reduce the volume of the stored data. ALICE applies a multi-level hardware trigger scheme where fast detectors are used to feed a three-level (L0, L1, and L2) deep chain. The High-Level Trigger (HLT) is a fourth filtering stage sitting logically between the L2 trigger and the data acquisition event building. The EMCal detector comprises a large area electromagnetic calorimeter that extends the momentum measurement of photons and neutral mesons up to pT = 250 GeV/c, which improves the ALICE capability to perform jet reconstruction with measurement of the neutral energy component of jets. An online reconstruction and trigger chain has been developed within the HLT framework to sharpen the EMCal hardware triggers, by combining the central barrel tracking information with the shower reconstruction (clusters) in the calorimeter. In the present report the status and the functionality of the software components developed for the EMCal HLT online reconstruction and trigger chain will be discussed, as well as preliminary results from their commissioning performed during the 2011 LHC running period.

  7. Photographic Detection of High-Level Exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods for the determination of accidental doses of ionizing radiations, based on a convenient chemical treatment of irradiated film dosimeters, were proposed and experimentally investigated. The first is based on the destruction of the latent image before normal development and uses the oxidizing influence on the latent image by means of chromic acid. In this way the development potential of silver halogenides decreases so that measurable optical densities result after development even for high-level exposures (150 r). The degree of destruction and the maximum attainable density depend on .the concentration of the oxidizing solution used. The principle of the second method assumes the inhibition of the chemical development by an admixture of stabilizers or ''anti-fogging'' agents to the developing solution. These substances show a desensitizing effect on the photographic layer and their inhibition of the developing process enables standard optical densities to be achieved with overexposed materials. The best results are obtained with benzotriazole and phenylmercaptotetrazole. The advantage of this method is the decrease of the basic fog of the sensitive layer even with considerable lengthening of the developing time. Both methods, though very different, achieve the same results. With highly sensitive X-ray films, used in standard dosimetry, doses up to 150 r can be measured. Experiments with less sensitive materials have shown that the range of application of the film method may be thus extended. (author)

  8. Ocean disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study confirms, subject to limitations of current knowledge, the engineering feasibility of free fall penetrators for High Level Radioactive Waste disposal in deep ocean seabed sediments. Restricted sediment property information is presently the principal bar to an unqualified statement of feasibility. A 10m minimum embedment and a 500 year engineered barrier waste containment life are identified as appropriate basic penetrator design criteria at this stage. A range of designs are considered in which the length, weight and cross section of the penetrator are varied. Penetrators from 3m to 20m long and 2t to 100t in weight constructed of material types and thicknesses to give a 500 year containment life are evaluated. The report concludes that the greatest degree of confidence is associated with performance predictions for 75 to 200 mm thick soft iron and welded joints. A range of lengths and capacities from a 3m long single waste canister penetrator to a 20m long 12 canister design are identified as meriting further study. Estimated embedment depths for this range of penetrator designs lie between 12m and 90m. Alternative manufacture, transport and launch operations are assessed and recommendations are made. (author)

  9. The VP2 variable region of African and German isolates of infectious bursal disease virus: comparison with very virulent, "classical" virulent, and attenuated tissue culture-adapted strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierenberg, K; Nieper, H; van den Berg, T P; Ezeokoli, C D; Voss, M; Müller, H

    2000-01-01

    11 African and two German IBDV strains isolated in the mid '80s from field outbreaks in vaccinated and unvaccinated chicken flocks displayed features of very virulent (vv) IBDV strains. The sequence data of the VP2 variable region and phylogenetic analysis confirm that these strains can be grouped within vv IBDV strains which appeared at the same time on the three continents Africa, Asia, and Europe. Strain Cu-1wt, responsible for severe IBD outbreaks in Germany 13 years earlier, showed some relatedness to these strains, but also significant differences at the genomic level, even though this strain has also features of the vv IBDV strains. PMID:10664410

  10. Climate Fluctuations and Record-High Levels of Lake Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changnon, Stanley A., Jr.

    1987-11-01

    Lake Michigan reached record-high levels during 1985 and 1986 just 10 years after attaining its previous record highs of this century. The climate of the basin has become cloudier and cooler over the past 40 years, loading to decreased evaporation and transpiration, but the principal factor for the increased water in the basin is extremely heavy precipitation in the most recent 15 years. Precipitation in this 15-year period averaged 107 percent above the 90-year average, and since 1970 only two years have been dry and 10 have been classified as wet, or much above normal. No other prior period has experienced comparably wet conditions since quality basin-wide records began in 1895. The current record-high levels on Lake Michigan and all other Great Lakes are producing a mixture of impacts including advantages to shipping and hydropower generation and disadvantages to shorelines. Most of the impacts on Lake Michigan have been disastrous with beaches destroyed, shorelines eroded, mid near-shore structures badly damaged. Illinois, with its high-valued 101-km shoreline, is involved in a myriad of vary costly adjustments being performed by individuals, lakeside communities, and state agencies. The federal government is reacting and attempting solutions, such as altered flows between the lakes and increased diversions. However, outlooks call for sustained high levels for at least the next six years and with no major means to sizably reduce levels in sight, damages and costly adjustments will continue into the foreseeable future. The situation illustrates how our complex society has become vulnerable to climate fluctuations. In such a regional case where any extreme has advantages and disadvantages to different economic interests, isolated solutions to ameliorate losses are difficult to achieve and often ineffectual, with resolution most likely needed at the regional policy level.

  11. Developments in high level waste transport technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuels, with the assistance of Nuclear Transport Limited as contractor, is developing and designing a new transport flask in order to be ready for the return of vitrified high level waste to customers when the Windscale Vitrification Plant and Vitrified Product Store come on stream early in the 1990s. The development and operation of the vitrification plant and store are described briefly. The nature of the vitrified residue is discussed, with particular reference to how it is affected by the different reactor types from which irradiated fuel is reprocessed at Sellafield, and the properties of the resulting residue packages or filled containers in relation to transport are described. The requirements and constraints for transport are discussed and the reasons given for designing a new flask rather than adapting an existing irradiated fuel flask. The design concept for a flask which maximizes the payload is described, paying special attention to the novel arrangement of the internal support structure, and the handling arrangements which will allow the flask to be transported using existing rail wagons and ships are outlined. The factors considered in the preparation of the concept design are listed and a simple test is described which has proved the basic design concept of the internal arrangements. Further test work with a more elaborate rig is previewed, which is aimed at developing and demonstrating the internal design, and other aspects of detail design requiring attention are mentioned. Finally, an indication is given of the time schedule for proving the impact resistance and leaktightness of the package, preparing the Design Safety Report and obtaining competent authority approval as a Type B(U) package design, and construction of the flasks ready for commissioning of the despatch facility at the Windscale Vitrified Product Store. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs

  12. The West African Health Organization’s experience in improving the health research environment in the ECOWAS region

    OpenAIRE

    Aidam, Jude; Sombié, Issiaka

    2016-01-01

    Background The West African Health Organization (WAHO) implemented a research development program in West Africa during 2009–2013 using the Knowledge for Better Health Research Capacity Development Framework, developed by Pang et al. (Bull World Health Organ 81(11):815–820, 2003), on strategies used to improve the research environment. The framework has the following components: stewardship, financing, sustainable resourcing and research utilization. This paper describes how WAHO implemented ...

  13. Regional Trade Integration in East Africa: Trade and Revenue Impacts of the Planned East African Community Customs Union

    OpenAIRE

    Lucio Castro

    2005-01-01

    The paper provides empirical estimates for import and revenue implications that would follow implementation of the planned customs union between the East African Community member states Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. We use 2002 trade and trade policy data for the three countries to simulate the effect of the common external tariff and other trade policy changes that will follow the customs union implementation on import flows and customs revenue. We also discuss customs exemptions and the effe...

  14. History and origin of the HIV-1 subtype C epidemic in South Africa and the greater southern African region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Eduan; Engelbrecht, Susan; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2015-01-01

    HIV has spread at an alarming rate in South Africa, making it the country with the highest number of HIV infections. Several studies have investigated the histories of HIV-1 subtype C epidemics but none have done so in the context of social and political transformation in southern Africa. There is a need to understand how these processes affects epidemics, as socio-political transformation is a common and on-going process in Africa. Here, we genotyped strains from the start of the epidemic and applied phylodynamic techniques to determine the history of the southern Africa and South African epidemic from longitudinal sampled data. The southern African epidemic’s estimated dates of origin was placed around 1960 (95% HPD 1956–64), while dynamic reconstruction revealed strong growth during the 1970s and 80s. The South African epidemic has a similar origin, caused by multiple introductions from neighbouring countries, and grew exponentially during the 1980s and 90s, coinciding with socio-political changes in South Africa. These findings provide an indication as to when the epidemic started and how it has grown, while the inclusion of sequence data from the start of the epidemic provided better estimates. The epidemic have stabilized in recent years with the expansion of antiretroviral therapy. PMID:26574165

  15. Sexual dysfunction in climacteric women of African descent from the Colombian Caribbean region = Disfunción sexual en mujeres climatéricas afrodescendientes del Caribe Colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monterrosa Castro, Alvaro De Jesus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: After the United States and Brazil, Colombia is the third American country with the greatest population of African descent. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction (SD in climacteric women of African descent. Methods: Cross sectional study carried out with the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI, in healthy women, whose mother and father were of black race, living in municipalities from the Colombian Caribbean region, who volunteered to anonymously participate in the study, and were recruited in their communities. Higher scores correlated with better sexuality. Results: 461 women were studied; 305 (66.2% with sexual activity; 70.8% were premenopausal and 29.2%, postmenopausal. Average scores of the domains were: Sexual desire (4.1 ± 1.1, sexual arousal (4.4 ± 1.0, lubrication (4.9 ± 1.0, orgasm (4.7 ± 1.0, satisfaction (5.3 ± 1.0 and pain (4.3 ± 1.5. Average total score was 27.7 ± 4.7. Prevalence of SD was 38.4%. Smoking (OR: 3.3 [IC95%: 1.0-10.6; p = 0.041] and arterial hypertension (OR: 2.2 [IC95%:1.1-4.4; p = 0.026] increased the risk of SD, while schooling higher than ten years (OR: 0.4 [IC95%: 0.2-0.8; p = 0.003] decreased it. Prevalence of SD increased with the change in the menopausal status (p <0,001. All domains deteriorated, except pain, with the transition to the postmenopausal status (p <0.001. Conclusion: In females of African descent from the Colombian Caribbean region, one third of the premenopausal and half of the postmenopausal have SD.

  16. African Peacekeepers in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    peacekeeping operations in the region. It is important to add that the international community has frequently tried to facilitate the deployment of African armed forces with aid and training. From this reality, the following study goes beyond the current literature by focusing on the international factors...... behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...

  17. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September.This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,a leading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  18. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September. This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,aleading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  19. The West African monsoon: Contribution of the AMMA multidisciplinary programme to the study of a regional climate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, T.; Janicot, S.; Redelsperger, J. L.; Parker, D. J.; Thorncroft, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    The AMMA international project aims at improving our knowledge and understanding of the West African monsoon and its variability with an emphasis on daily-to-interannual timescales. AMMA is motivated by an interest in fundamental scientific issues and by the societal need for improved prediction of the WAM and its impacts on water resources, health and food security for West African nations. The West African monsoon (WAM) has a distinctive annual cycle in rainfall that remains a challenge to understand and predict. The location of peak rainfall, which resides in the Northern Hemisphere throughout the year, moves from the ocean to the land in boreal spring. Around the end of June there is a rapid shift in the location of peak rainfall between the coast and around 10°N where it remains until about the end of August. In September the peak rainfall returns equatorward at a relatively steady pace and is located over the ocean again by November. The fact that the peak rainfall migrates irregularly compared to the peak solar heating is due to the interactions that occur between the land, the atmosphere and the ocean. To gain a better understanding of this complex climate system, a large international research programme was launched in 2002, the biggest of its kind into environment and climate ever attempted in Africa. AMMA has involved a comprehensive field experiment bringing together ocean, land and atmospheric measurements, on timescales ranging from hourly and daily variability up to the changes in seasonal activity over a number of years. This presentation will focus on the description of the field programme and its accomplishments, and address some key questions that have been recently identified to form the core of AMMA-Phase 2.

  20. Haplotype variation and genotype imputation in African populations

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Lucy; Jakobsson, Mattias; Pemberton, Trevor J.; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Nyambo, Thomas; Omar, Sabah; Pritchard, Jonathan K.; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Rosenberg, Noah A.

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has been identified as the part of the world with the greatest human genetic diversity. This high level of diversity causes difficulties for genome-wide association (GWA) studies in African populations—for example, by reducing the accuracy of genotype imputation in African populations compared to non-African populations. Here, we investigate haplotype variation and imputation in Africa, using 253 unrelated individuals from 15 Sub-Saharan African populations. We identify the...

  1. The Role of Regional Economic and Political Groups in the Globalization Process: A Case Study of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS (1982-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azalahu F. Akwara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A regional integration by its very nature integrates its members into an economic union and acts as a bloc on matters affecting its members vis-a-vis other regional blocs and non members. Its hegemonic nature of hedging its members against all forms of exploitation and intimidation by other regional blocs and non-members and its desire to stem the tide of trade diversion, and to create and foster intra-union flow of trade, factors and investment at the exclusion of non-members and other regional blocs run contradictory to the aims and objectives of the globalization process which is the integration of the world economy through the breaking down of trade and investment barriers worldwide. Given these contradictory objectives of the regional blocs and the globalization process, this study examines the roles of the ECOWAS as an agent in the globalization process in the West African sub-region, its constraints, and solutions to the problems.

  2. Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Midwestern High-level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer was prepared for the purpose of identifying and analyzing regional issues pertaining to the transportation of high-level radioactive waste and to inform Midwestern state officials with respect to technical issues and regulatory concerns related to waste transportation. The report contains an introduction which presents historical information and a discussion of public opinion regarding nuclear power and its economic competitiveness. Section 1 discusses the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program including the need for a waste disposal program, requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) as amended, and obstacles to implementing the NWPA. Section 2 presents the technical program with discussions of waste generators, the monitored retrievable storage facility, the geologic repository, and the transportation system. Section 3 discusses the institutional program with respect to the federal government; states, tribes, and other interested parties; and transportation issues including modal mix, highway routing, rail routing, safeguarding shipments, accident reporting, transporting defense wastes, emergency preparedness and response, training, liability, inspection and enforcement, and state, tribal, and local regulation of transportation. 165 refs., 20 figs., 29 tabs. (MB)

  3. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ''comprehensive overview of the issues.'' This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list

  4. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ''comprehensive overview of the issues.'' This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages sew be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list

  5. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  6. Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by SSEB in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste Issues. In addition. this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  7. High level radioactive waste glass production and product description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines borosilicate glass as a means of immobilizing high-level radioactive wastes. Borosilicate glass will encapsulate most of the defense and some of the commercial HLW in the US. The resulting waste forms must meet the requirements of the WA-SRD and the WAPS, which include a short term PCT durability test. The waste form producer must report the composition(s) of the borosilicate waste glass(es) produced but can choose the composition(s) to meet site-specific requirements. Although the waste form composition is the primary determinant of durability, the redox state of the glass; the existence, content, and composition of crystals; and the presence of glass-in-glass phase separation can affect durability. The waste glass should be formulated to avoid phase separation regions. The ultimate result of this effort will be a waste form which is much more stable and potentially less mobile than the liquid high level radioactive waste is currently

  8. Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by SSEB in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ''comprehensive overview of the issues.'' This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste Issues. In addition. this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list

  9. The role of conflict minerals, artisanal mining, and informal trading networks in African intrastate and regional conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between natural resources and armed conflict gained public and political attention in the 1990s, when it became evident that the mining and trading of diamonds were connected with brutal rebellions in several African nations. Easily extracted resources such as alluvial diamonds and gold have been and continue to be exploited by rebel groups to fund their activities. Artisanal and small-scale miners operating under a quasi-legal status often mine these mineral deposits. While many African countries have legalized artisanal mining and established flow chains through which production is intended to travel, informal trading networks frequently emerge in which miners seek to evade taxes and fees by selling to unauthorized buyers. These networks have the potential to become international in scope, with actors operating in multiple countries. The lack of government control over the artisanal mining sector and the prominence of informal trade networks can have severe social, political, and economic consequences. In the past, mineral extraction fuelled violent civil wars in Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Angola, and it continues to do so today in several other countries. The significant influence of the informal network that surrounds artisanal mining is therefore an important security concern that can extend across borders and have far-reaching impacts.

  10. Students' knowledge on the African giant mollusk Achatina fulica in a public school in the Recife metropolitan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Souto Alves

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The African giant mollusk Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 was introduced into Brazil in 1988 as a substitute for the European escargot Helix sp. This action did not induce the expected results and the gastropod has become an invasive species according to records in 23 Brazilian states. The presence of A. fulica has been reported to many towns in the state of Pernambuco. This work was carried out in order to evaluate, from an ethnoscientific approach, student knowledge about this giant African mollusk in a public school of Cabo de Santo Agostinho (Pernambuco. The Collective Subject Discourse (CSD technique was applied to the data obtained. The pupils' discourse revealed the existence of previous knowledge about A. fulica, especially on the following issues: disease transmission, taxonomy, environmental impacts brought about by the introduction of exotic species, and the process of ingress and growth of the mollusk in the human body. The authors emphasize the need of considering students' previous knowledge in order to plan and implement educational strategies related to wildlife conservation and exotic species management.

  11. Discovery of high-level tasks in the operating room

    OpenAIRE

    Bouarfa, L.; Jonker, P.P.; Dankelman, J.

    2010-01-01

    Recognizing and understanding surgical high-level tasks from sensor readings is important for surgical workflow analysis. Surgical high-level task recognition is also a challenging task in ubiquitous computing because of the inherent uncertainty of sensor data and the complexity of the operating room environment. In this paper, we present a framework for recognizing high-level tasks from low-level noisy sensor data. Specifically, we present a Markov-based approach for inferring high-level tas...

  12. The African Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas; Mandrup, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    . Moreover, the ‘African Security Architecture’, of which it is the central component, also includes sub-regional organisations to which responsibility is to be devolved for dealing with armed confl ict and other matters. These so-called Regional Economic Communities (RECs) are, likewise, constantly changing...

  13. Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than half a century, the Council of State Governments has served as a common ground for the states of the nation. The Council is a nonprofit, state-supported and -directed service organization that provides research and resources, identifies trends, supplies answers and creates a network for legislative, executive and judicial branch representatives. This List of Available Resources was prepared with the support of the US Department of Energy, Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC02-89CH10402. However, any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of DOE. The purpose of the agreement, and reports issued pursuant to it, is to identify and analyze regional issues pertaining to the transportation of high-level radioactive waste and to inform Midwestern state officials with respect to technical issues and regulatory concerns related to waste transportation

  14. Algorithms, performance, development of the ATLAS High-Level trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATLAS trigger system has been used for the online event selection for three years of LHC data-taking and is preparing for the next run. The trigger system consists of a hardware level-1 and a software high-level trigger (HLT) which is implemented in a region-of-interest based level-2 stage and a event filter operating after event building with offline-like software. During the past three years, the luminosity and pile-up (number of collisions per beam crossing) has increased significantly placing escalating demands on the rejection and timing performance. The HLT algorithms advanced during this period to maintain and even improve performance. Also discussed is the work towards the merging of the two HLT levels in to a single level HLT.

  15. Heat transfer in high-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat transfer in the storage of high-level liquid wastes, calcining of radioactive wastes, and storage of solidified wastes are discussed. Processing and storage experience at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are summarized for defense high-level wastes; heat transfer in power reactor high-level waste processing and storage is also discussed

  16. WASCAL - West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use Regional Climate Simulations and Land-Atmosphere Simulations for West Africa at DKRZ and elsewhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Ilse; Arnault, Joel; Bliefernicht, Jan; Klein, Cornelia; Heinzeller, Dominikus; Kunstmann, Harald

    2014-05-01

    Changing climate and hydro-meteorological boundary conditions are among the most severe challenges to Africa in the 21st century. In particular West Africa faces an urgent need to develop effective adaptation and mitigation strategies to cope with negative impacts on humans and environment due to climate change, increased hydro-meteorological variability and land use changes. To help meet these challenges, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) started an initiative with institutions in Germany and West African countries to establish together a West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use (WASCAL). This activity is accompanied by an establishment of trans-boundary observation networks, an interdisciplinary core research program and graduate research programs on climate change and related issues for strengthening the analytical capabilities of the Science Service Center. A key research activity of the WASCAL Competence Center is the provision of regional climate simulations in a fine spatio-temporal resolution for the core research sites of WASCAL for the present and the near future. The climate information is needed for subsequent local climate impact studies in agriculture, water resources and further socio-economic sectors. The simulation experiments are performed using regional climate models such as COSMO-CLM, RegCM and WRF and statistical techniques for a further refinement of the projections. The core research sites of WASCAL are located in the Sudanian Savannah belt in Northern Ghana, Southern Burkina Faso and Northern Benin. The climate in this region is semi-arid with six rainy months. Due to the strong population growth in West Africa, many areas of the Sudanian Savannah have been already converted to farmland since the majority of the people are living directly or indirectly from the income produced in agriculture. The simulation experiments of the Competence Center and the Core Research Program are

  17. A South African Perspective on a Possible Benefit-Sharing Approach for Transboundary Waters in the SADC Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Turton

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of benefit-sharing is emerging in the international discourse on transboundary water resource management with greater intensity than a decade ago. While it sounds simple, the concept is complex and benefits are difficult to quantify and thus the concept remains unconvincing to potentially sceptical negotiating partners. Any discourse on water resource management is based on a core logic. This paper tries to distil some elements of a proposed benefit-sharing approach, presenting an alternative core logic, showing how these differ from what can be thought of as the traditional paradigm. This work is linked to ongoing research at the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR, into benefit-sharing and processes of policy harmonisation, within the context of developing countries.

  18. High-resolution regional modeling of summertime transport and impact of African dust over the Red Sea and Arabian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenderski, Stoitchko; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2016-06-01

    Severe dust outbreaks and high dust loading over Eastern Africa and the Red Sea are frequently detected in the summer season. Observations suggest that small-scale dynamic and orographic effects, from both the Arabian and African sides, strongly contribute to dust plume formation. To better understand these processes, we present here the first high-resolution modeling study of a dust outbreak in June 2012 developed over East Africa, the Red Sea, and the Arabian Peninsula. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) component, we identified several dust generating dynamical processes that range from convective to synoptic scales, including synoptic cyclones, nocturnal low-level jets, and cold pools of mesoscale convective systems. The simulations reveal an eastward transport of African dust across the Red Sea. Over the northern part of the Red Sea, most of the dust transport occurs above 2 km height, whereas across the central and southern parts of the sea; dust is mostly transported below 2 km height. Dust is the dominant contributor (87%) to the aerosol optical depth, producing a domain average cooling effect of -12.1 W m-2 at the surface, a warming of 7.1 W m-2 in the atmosphere, and a residual cooling of -4.9 W m-2 at the top of the atmosphere. Both dry and wet deposition processes contribute significantly to dust removal from the atmosphere. Model results compare well with available ground-based and satellite observations but generally underestimate the observed maximum values of aerosol optical depth. The satellite-retrieved mean optical depth at some locations is underestimated by a factor of 2. A sensitive experiment suggests that these large local differences may result from poor characterization of dust emissions in some areas of the modeled domain. In this case study we successfully simulate the major fine-scale dust generating dynamical processes, explicitly resolving convection and haboob formation. The future

  19. High-resolution regional modeling of summertime transport and impact of African dust over the Red Sea and Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Kalenderski, Stoitchko

    2016-05-23

    Severe dust outbreaks and high dust loading over Eastern Africa and the Red Sea are frequently detected in the summer season. Observations suggest that small-scale dynamic and orographic effects, from both the Arabian and African sides, strongly contribute to dust plume formation. To better understand these processes, we present here the first high resolution modeling study of a dust outbreak in June 2012 developed over East Africa, the Red Sea, and the Arabian Peninsula. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry component (WRF-Chem), we identified several dust generating dynamical processes that range from convective to synoptic scales, including synoptic cyclones, nocturnal low-level jets, and cold pools of mesoscale convective systems. The simulations reveal an eastward transport of African dust across the Red Sea. Over the northern part of the Red Sea, most of the dust transport occurs above 2 km height, whereas across the central and southern parts of the sea, dust is mostly transported below 2 km height. Dust is the dominant contributor (87%) to the aerosol optical depth, producing a domain average cooling effect of -12.1 W m-2 at the surface, a warming of 7.1 W m-2 in the atmosphere, and a residual cooling of -4.9 W m-2 at the top of the atmosphere. Both dry and wet deposition processes contribute significantly to dust removal from the atmosphere. Model results compare well with available ground-based and satellite observations, but generally underestimate the observed maximum values of aerosol optical depth. The satellite-retrieved mean optical depth at some locations are underestimated by a factor of two. A sensitive experiment suggests that these large local differences may result from poor characterization of dust emissions in some areas of the modeled domain. In this case study we successfully simulate the major fine-scale dust generating dynamical processes, explicitly resolving convection and haboob

  20. Sensitivity of mesoscale modeling of smoke direct radiative effect to the emission inventory: a case study in northern sub-Saharan African region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ensemble approach is used to examine the sensitivity of smoke loading and smoke direct radiative effect in the atmosphere to uncertainties in smoke emission estimates. Seven different fire emission inventories are applied independently to WRF-Chem model (v3.5) with the same model configuration (excluding dust and other emission sources) over the northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) biomass-burning region. Results for November and February 2010 are analyzed, respectively representing the start and end of the biomass burning season in the study region. For February 2010, estimates of total smoke emission vary by a factor of 12, but only differences by factors of 7 or less are found in the simulated regional (15°W–42°E, 13°S–17°N) and monthly averages of column PM2.5 loading, surface PM2.5 concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD), smoke radiative forcing at the top-of-atmosphere and at the surface, and air temperature at 2 m and at 700 hPa. The smaller differences in these simulated variables may reflect the atmospheric diffusion and deposition effects to dampen the large difference in smoke emissions that are highly concentrated in areas much smaller than the regional domain of the study. Indeed, at the local scale, large differences (up to a factor of 33) persist in simulated smoke-related variables and radiative effects including semi-direct effect. Similar results are also found for November 2010, despite differences in meteorology and fire activity. Hence, biomass burning emission uncertainties have a large influence on the reliability of model simulations of atmospheric aerosol loading, transport, and radiative impacts, and this influence is largest at local and hourly-to-daily scales. Accurate quantification of smoke effects on regional climate and air quality requires further reduction of emission uncertainties, particularly for regions of high fire concentrations such as NSSA. (paper)

  1. Sensitivity of Mesoscale Modeling of Smoke Direct Radiative Effect to the Emission Inventory: a Case Study in Northern Sub-Saharan African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Wang, Jun; Ichoku, Charles; Hyer, Edward J.; Yang, Zhifeng; Ge, Cui; Su, Shenjian; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Kondragunta, Shobha; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Wiedinmyer, Christine; da Silva, Arlindo

    2014-01-01

    An ensemble approach is used to examine the sensitivity of smoke loading and smoke direct radiative effect in the atmosphere to uncertainties in smoke emission estimates. Seven different fire emission inventories are applied independently to WRF-Chem model (v3.5) with the same model configuration (excluding dust and other emission sources) over the northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) biomass-burning region. Results for November and February 2010 are analyzed, respectively representing the start and end of the biomass burning season in the study region. For February 2010, estimates of total smoke emission vary by a factor of 12, but only differences by factors of 7 or less are found in the simulated regional (15degW-42degE, 13degS-17degN) and monthly averages of column PM(sub 2.5) loading, surface PM(sub 2.5) concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD), smoke radiative forcing at the top-of-atmosphere and at the surface, and air temperature at 2 m and at 700 hPa. The smaller differences in these simulated variables may reflect the atmospheric diffusion and deposition effects to dampen the large difference in smoke emissions that are highly concentrated in areas much smaller than the regional domain of the study. Indeed, at the local scale, large differences (up to a factor of 33) persist in simulated smoke-related variables and radiative effects including semi-direct effect. Similar results are also found for November 2010, despite differences in meteorology and fire activity. Hence, biomass burning emission uncertainties have a large influence on the reliability of model simulations of atmospheric aerosol loading, transport, and radiative impacts, and this influence is largest at local and hourly-to-daily scales. Accurate quantification of smoke effects on regional climate and air quality requires further reduction of emission uncertainties, particularly for regions of high fire concentrations such as NSSA.

  2. The family planning movement within the African Region of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Le mouvement pour la planification familiale dans la Region Afrique de la Federation Internationale pour la Planification Familiale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozi, M K

    1984-09-01

    The African Region of International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) was established in 1971 to: encourage and sustain voluntary groups, provide information about family planning as a basic right, provide limited family planning services where acceptable and needed, and eventually influence change in public opinion so that governments could accept some responsibility for family planning programs. Today almost all of Anglophone Africa is covered by IPPF-funded activities, progress is being made in Francophone Africa, and Lusophone Africa is a target for the 1980s. National family planning associations and the IPPF have laid a firm foundation for family planning and raised its credibility to acceptable levels. However, both inadequate logistic infrastructures for the smooth flow of services and overcaution in adopting innovative methods such as community-based delivery systems to those not easily reached by coventional delivery systems have led service to lag behind demand. Leaders at all levels must join efforts to solve this dilemma. Family planning associations are the best suited channels for family planning work in the African Region, but they lack the capacity to cover all needs. As a result, these associations are shiftingg their efforts toward supplementing government work in this area. Although the government response has been far from uniform, governments have shown an ability to accommodate the operations of family planning organizations and have integrated family planning into national health services. Although 19 governments in the Region consider the fertility levels in their countries to be satisfactory and a few consider fertility too low, family planning is accepted as an instrument for the promotion of family welfare. The importance of national leadership in promoting and implementing family planning programs is increasingly recognized. Parliamentarians can formulate national policies favorable to family planning, promote awareness among their

  3. Molecular phylogenetics reveal multiple tertiary vicariance origins of the African rain forest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosef Marc SM

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tropical rain forests are the most diverse terrestrial ecosystems on the planet. How this diversity evolved remains largely unexplained. In Africa, rain forests are situated in two geographically isolated regions: the West-Central Guineo-Congolian region and the coastal and montane regions of East Africa. These regions have strong floristic affinities with each other, suggesting a former connection via an Eocene pan-African rain forest. High levels of endemism observed in both regions have been hypothesized to be the result of either 1 a single break-up followed by a long isolation or 2 multiple fragmentation and reconnection since the Oligocene. To test these hypotheses the evolutionary history of endemic taxa within a rain forest restricted African lineage of the plant family Annonaceae was studied. Molecular phylogenies and divergence dates were estimated using a Bayesian relaxed uncorrelated molecular clock assumption accounting for both calibration and phylogenetic uncertainties. Results Our results provide strong evidence that East African endemic lineages of Annonaceae have multiple origins dated to significantly different times spanning the Oligocene and Miocene epochs. Moreover, these successive origins (c. 33, 16 and 8 million years – Myr coincide with known periods of aridification and geological activity in Africa that would have recurrently isolated the Guineo-Congolian rain forest from the East African one. All East African taxa were found to have diversified prior to Pleistocene times. Conclusion Molecular phylogenetic dating analyses of this large pan-African clade of Annonaceae unravels an interesting pattern of diversification for rain forest restricted trees co-occurring in West/Central and East African rain forests. Our results suggest that repeated reconnections between the West/Central and East African rain forest blocks allowed for biotic exchange while the break-ups induced speciation via vicariance

  4. Assessment of the potential of state-of-the-art biomass technologies in contributing to a sustainable SADC regional mitigation energy scenario[Southern African Development Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamba, F.D.; Matsika, E. [Centre for Energy, Environment and Engineering Zambia, Lusaka (Zambia)

    2003-09-01

    Southern Africa's energy supply is based on power sector collaboration - the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP). SAPP was created in 1995 through an inter-utility memorandum of understanding among 12 of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) utilities including Congo DR. The aims of SAPP are: To increase regional security of supply; To smoothen load curves; To engender economies of scale in the supply base; To increase revenue for exporting countries by opening up a ready market; To share power to meet national shortfalls and to off set temporary deficits in the medium term, and in the long term to adopt and implement power sharing as an operational strategy aimed at maximising financial and environmental benefits. Currently, SAPP has an operational installed capacity of 45.000 MW, of which 84% is thermal, predominantly coal based, which represents 79% of the total supply. 16% of the total SAPP interconnected supply is hydro, while the contribution from biomass is currently non-existent. The sugar industry in Southern Africa can significantly alter this picture. Increased competitive pressures serve as economic incentives for the sugar industry to diversify their product portfolio by investing in renewable energy applications. Of the new state-of-the-art biomass based technologies available Condensing Extraction Steam Turbine (CEST) is the most promising. Application of CEST technologies in Southern Africa will modestly contribute towards a sustainable energy supply mitigation scenario. If implemented, the contribution of bioenergy will increase from 0.5% for the baseline situation, to 2.5% in 2030 and 3.0% in 2050. This scenario will also yield global environmental benefits potential through saving of GHG reductions to 14 million tonnes CO{sub 2} in 2030 and 20 million tonnes CO{sub 2} in 2050. Furthermore, this paper produces a monogram which will assist investors in making decisions whether to invest in the Kyoto Protocols Clean Development

  5. Assessing the Capabilities of Three Regional Climate Models over CORDEX Africa in Simulating West African Summer Monsoon Precipitation

    OpenAIRE

    Akinsanola, A. A.; K. O. Ogunjobi; Gbode, I. E.; Ajayi, V. O.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the ability of three Regional Climate Models (RCMs) used in Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) to simulate the characteristics of rainfall pattern during the West Africa Summer Monsoon from 1998 to 2008. The seasonal climatology, annual rainfall cycles, and wind fields of the RCMs output were assessed over three homogenous subregions and validated using precipitation data from eighty-one (81) ground observation stations and TRMM satellite data. F...

  6. Supranational courts as engines for regional integration? A comparative study of the Southern African Development Community Tribunal, the European Union Court of Justice, and the Andean Court of Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Fanenbruck, Christina; Meißner, Lenya

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of regional supranational courts in advancing integration within regional organizations by analyzing three courts. Over the course of the last decades the design of the European Court of Justice has been emulated by several other supranational courts, two of which are studied in this paper. The court of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the SADC Tribunal (SADCT), as well as the court of the Andean Community (CAN), the Andean Court of Justice (...

  7. Study on Freshwater Macroinvertebrates of Some Tanzanian Rivers as a Basis for Developing Biomonitoring Index for Assessing Pollution in Tropical African Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius D. Elias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroinvertebrates and physicochemical parameters were assessed at 15 sites along five rivers in Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania, with the aim of understanding their ecological status and setting a base to the development of a biological index for tropical regions. Investigated rivers that occur within Pangani basin include Karanga, Rau, Lumbanga, Sere, and Umbwe. Sampling sites were categorized according to the level of water and habitat quality as follows: reference or least impacted (4 sites, moderately impacted (5 sites, and highly impacted (6 sites sites. A total of 12,527 macroinvertebrates belonging to 13 orders and 48 families were recorded. The highest total abundance of 4,110 individuals per m2 was found in Karanga river, while Umbwe river had the lowest with 1,203 individuals per m2. Chironomidae was the most abundant family (2,588 individuals per m2 and the least were Hydridae and Thiaridae, each having 5 individuals per m2. High numbers of taxa were noted among the orders: Ephemeroptera (8, Odonata (8, Diptera (7, and Trichoptera (6. In conclusion, orders with greater diversity of macroinvertebrate families offer a wide range of tolerance to pollution and, thus can potentially be used to develop a biomonitoring index for evaluating pollution in tropical African rivers.

  8. East African institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja

    For the past decade security in East Africa has gained focus internationally. However there is a growing ambition among African states to handle such issues by themselves, sometimes through regional institutions. This has been supported by many Western states but potential risks are often forgotten....

  9. Characteristics of solidified high-level waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of the report is to contribute to the establishment of a data bank for future preparation of codes of practice and standards for the management of high-level wastes. The work currently in progress on measuring the properties of solidified high-level wastes is being studied

  10. Dopaminergic control of the striatum for high-level cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cools, R.

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine has long been implicated in a wide variety of high-level cognitive processes, ranging from working memory to rule learning and attention switching. Notable progress has been made in the past decades, but the mechanisms underlying effects of dopamine on high-level cognition remain unclear. T

  11. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste...

  12. Analysis on the feasibility of high level radioactive waste disposal repository establishment in Kuluketage area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the research results of Kuluketage area natural environment, granite rock mass, regional crust stability and groundwater circle in Xinjiang. It shows that this region has some advantages for the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, for its arid climate, little precipitation and human activity; wide distribution and large area of granite; stability of geological structure and feebleness of earthquake movement; and because groundwater drainage is far away human inhabitation place. Establishing high-level radioactive waste disposal repository in Kuluketage area is little influence to human and economy and environment. (authors)

  13. High level radioactive waste isolation by incorporation in silicate rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of technical possibilities for isolating high level radioactive materials have been theoretically investigated at various times and places. Isolating such wastes deep underground to insure long-term removal from the biosphere is one such possibility which has been investigated. The present concept involves as a first step creating the necessary void space at considerable depth, say 2 to 5 km, in a very low permeability silicate medium such as shale. Waste in dry, calcined or vitrified form is then lowered into the void space, and the access hole or shaft sealed. Energy released by the radioactive decay raises the temperature to a point where the surrounding rock begins to melt. The waste is then dissolved in it. The extent of this melt region grows until the heat generated is balanced by conduction away from the molten zone. Resolidification then begins, and ends when the radioactive decay has progressed to the point that the temperature falls below the melting point of the rock-waste solution. Calculations are presented showing the growth and resolidification process. The use of a nuclear explosion presents one alternative way of creating the void space

  14. The Muon High Level Trigger of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ventura, A

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been designed and built for new discoveries in High Energy Physics as well as for precision measurements of Standard Model parameters. To satisfy the limited data acquisition and recording capability, at the LHC project luminosity, the ATLAS trigger system must select a very small rate of physically interesting events (~200 Hz) among about 40 million events per second. In the case of events containing muons, as described in this work, the first hardware-based level (Level-1) starts from coincidence of hits in the Muon Spectrometer trigger chambers to select Regions of Interest (RoI) where muons produce significant activity. Such RoIs are used as seeds for the two subsequent trigger levels (Level-2 and Event Filter), running on dedicated online farms, which constitute the High Level Trigger (HLT). This seeding strategy is crucial to drastically reduce the total processing time. Within the Muon HLT, few algorithms are implemented in different steps ...

  15. Strategic lessons in high-level waste management planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation discusses some issues in the planning and execution of high-level waste (HLW) disposal. The topics are (1) Initial considerations, (2) Issues in structuring a programme, (3) Disposal concepts, (4) Geological environments, (5) Site selection and characterisation, (6) Waste transport, (7) Performance assessment methodology and application, (8) Some key issues. The options for spent fuel management can give rise to a variety of different wastes. The quantity of waste arising will affect the volume of rock required for deposition, both with respect to rock integrity and requirements for heat dissipation. A repository must not be considered in isolation from the rest of the waste management programme. The repository development plan should be supported by a schedule of activities and related funding mechanisms, implying a long-term commitment in policy terms, and should include a corresponding legal and regulatory framework. The idea that disposed waste might be retrieved by future generations for processing under new technology is discussed. Safeguards requirements on fissile material within spent fuel or any other wastes imply indefinite control. Disposal concepts include the geological environment and the engineered barrier system within it. Site selection involves several steps: regional-scale characterisation, local characterisation, hydrological studies, etc. Key issues are retrieval vs. safeguards, optimisation of repository design, reducing long programme timescales, international collaboration

  16. Expressions of GABARB2 in brain regions of rats with high-level and low-level aggressive behavior%高低攻击行为大鼠不同脑区γ-氨基丁酸B2受体表达的差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高杰; 魏盛; 乔明琦

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过检测和比较高、低攻击行为大鼠多个脑区内γ-氨基丁酸B2受体(γ-aminobutyric acid receptor B2,GABABR2)的表达情况,为探索GABA及其受体在大鼠攻击行为中的作用机制提供线索.方法应用社会隔离加居住入侵法制备高、低攻击行为大鼠模型,分别取正常、高攻击行为、低攻击行为大鼠(n=10/组)的顶区皮质、前额区皮质、下丘脑和海马,运用RT-PCR和Western blot分别检测3组大鼠各脑区GABABR2 mRNA和蛋白表达情况.结果 高攻击行为组大鼠顶区、前额区、下丘脑和海马GABABR2RT-PCR/Westem blot电泳条带相对积分光密度值[分别为(0.507±0.049/0.626±0.038)、(0.609±0.049/0.652±0.010)、(0.359±0.030/0.731±0.044)、(0.296±0.054/0.452±0.079)]低于正常组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);低攻击行为组大鼠顶区和海马内GABABR2 RT-PCR/Western blot电泳条带相对积分光密度值均高于正常组,均差异有统计学意义(均P<0.05),而前额区和下丘脑却低于正常组,差异有统计学意义(均P<0.05).结论 大鼠顶区、前额区、下丘脑和海马内GABABR2差异表达与高、低攻击行为密切相关,可能是GABA参与调节攻击行为的机制之一.%Objective To compare the mRNA and protein expression levels ofγ-aminobutyric acid receptor B2 ( GABABR2 ) in brain regions of male rats with high level aggressive behaviors and low level aggressive behaviors respectively,and provide clues for exploring mechanism of GABA in aggressive behaviors.Methods Wistar male rats were randomly divided into two groups:the normal group and the aggressive behavior group.Then social isolation and resident intruder stresses were used to establish high level and low level aggressive behavior in the aggressive behavior group.The mRNA and protein level of GABABR2 in parietal cortex,prefrontal cortex,hypothalamus and hippocampus of the three groups rats ( n=10 in each group) were detected using RT-PCR and

  17. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... elimination, non-tariff barrier reductions and time in transit cost reductions are likely to be cumulative and would generate very large gains to Africa. The policy implications are clear: while cooperation will enhance the gains, much of the benefits will result from unilateral actions and regional...

  18. PLUTONIUM/HIGH-LEVEL VITRIFIED WASTE BDBE DOSE CALCULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Richardson

    2003-03-19

    In accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, Yucca Mountain was designated as the site to be investigated as a potential repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Yucca Mountain site is an undeveloped area located on the southwestern edge of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), about 100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. The site currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way. If the Yucca Mountain site is found suitable for the repository, rail service is desirable to the Office of Civilian Waste Management (OCRWM) Program because of the potential of rail transportation to reduce costs and to reduce the number of shipments relative to highway transportation. A Preliminary Rail Access Study evaluated 13 potential rail spur options. Alternative routes within the major options were also developed. Each of these options was then evaluated for potential land use conflicts and access to regional rail carriers. Three potential routes having few land use conflicts and having access to regional carriers were recommended for further investigation. Figure 1-1 shows these three routes. The Jean route is estimated to be about 120 miles long, the Carlin route to be about 365 miles long, and Caliente route to be about 365 miles long. The remaining ten routes continue to be monitored and should any of the present conflicts change, a re-evaluation of that route will be made. Complete details of the evaluation of the 13 routes can be found in the previous study. The DOE has not identified any preferred route and recognizes that the transportation issues need a full and open treatment under the National Environmental Policy Act. The issue of transportation will be included in public hearings to support development of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) proceedings for either the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility or the Yucca Mountain Project or both.

  19. PLUTONIUM/HIGH-LEVEL VITRIFIED WASTE BDBE DOSE CALCULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, Yucca Mountain was designated as the site to be investigated as a potential repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Yucca Mountain site is an undeveloped area located on the southwestern edge of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), about 100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. The site currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way. If the Yucca Mountain site is found suitable for the repository, rail service is desirable to the Office of Civilian Waste Management (OCRWM) Program because of the potential of rail transportation to reduce costs and to reduce the number of shipments relative to highway transportation. A Preliminary Rail Access Study evaluated 13 potential rail spur options. Alternative routes within the major options were also developed. Each of these options was then evaluated for potential land use conflicts and access to regional rail carriers. Three potential routes having few land use conflicts and having access to regional carriers were recommended for further investigation. Figure 1-1 shows these three routes. The Jean route is estimated to be about 120 miles long, the Carlin route to be about 365 miles long, and Caliente route to be about 365 miles long. The remaining ten routes continue to be monitored and should any of the present conflicts change, a re-evaluation of that route will be made. Complete details of the evaluation of the 13 routes can be found in the previous study. The DOE has not identified any preferred route and recognizes that the transportation issues need a full and open treatment under the National Environmental Policy Act. The issue of transportation will be included in public hearings to support development of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) proceedings for either the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility or the Yucca Mountain Project or both

  20. Low prevalence of liver disease but regional differences in HBV treatment characteristics mark HIV/HBV co-infection in a South African HIV clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence Ive

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is endemic in South Africa however, there is limited data on the degree of liver disease and geographic variation in HIV/HBV coinfected individuals. In this study, we analysed data from the CIPRA-SA 'Safeguard the household study' in order to assess baseline HBV characteristics in HIV/HBV co-infection participants prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART initiation. METHODS: 812 participants from two South African townships Soweto and Masiphumelele were enrolled in a randomized trial of ART (CIPRA-SA. Participants were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg, and HBV DNA. FIB-4 scores were calculated at baseline. RESULTS: Forty-eight (5.9% were HBsAg positive, of whom 28 (58.3% were HBeAg positive. Of those with HBV, 29.8% had an HBV DNA<2000 IU/ml and ALT<40 IU/ml ; 83.0% had a FIB-4 score <1.45, consistent with absent or minimal liver disease. HBV prevalence was 8.5% in Masiphumelele compared to 3.8% in Soweto (relative risk 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3-4.0. More participants in Masiphumelele had HBeAg-negative disease (58% vs. 12%, p = 0.002 and HBV DNA levels ≤2000 IU/ml, (43% vs. 6% p<0.007. CONCLUSION: One third of HIV/HBV co-infected subjects had low HBV DNA levels and ALT while the majority had indicators of only mild liver disease. There were substantial regional differences in HBsAg and HbeAg prevalence in HIV/HBV co-infection between two regions in South Africa. This study highlights the absence of severe liver disease and the marked regional differences in HIV/HBV co-infection in South Africa and will inform treatment decisions in these populations.

  1. El-Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Phase Based Mapping of Regions at Risk of Drought and Flood Related Disasters over the Eastern and Southern African Subregions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mapping of regions at high risk of drought and flood related disasters were based on analysed rainfall data for a thirty-year period (1961-90). The data consisting of about 650 rainfall stations were grouped into 127 homogeneous zones delineated by principal component analysis and zonally averaged monthly rainfall series worked out by taking a simple average based on the number of stations within each zone. Using the derived zonally averaged monthly rainfall series; thirty-year monthly percentile levels were worked out. Percentiles levels represent a kind of uniform spatial weighting of the impact levels corresponding to the external anomalous physical driving forces. Consequently, using percentile levels is a powerful tool in revealing the special and temporal extent, duration as well as the intensity of the anomalous external forcing. To map the regions at risk of ENSO phase based drought and flood related disasters percentile composites, averaged for the major El Nino and Lanina episodes between 1961-90, were extracted and analysed. The resulting maps indicate significant and persistent rainfall suppression and or enhancement over broad areas of the Eastern and Southern African sub- region during the two main phases of the ENSO cycle, that is the El Nino and Lanina phases. These are the areas to be watched for potential ENSO based-development and or occurrence of droughts and or floods. Thus these mappings coupled with the fact that the main tropical system with the highest inter-annual predictability potential is the ENSO forcing are becoming indispensable tools in planned and effective drought and flood related Disaster Management strategies.(Author)

  2. Nonlinear responses of southern African rainfall to forcing from Atlantic SST in a high-resolution regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.; Kniveton, D.; Layberry, R.

    2009-04-01

    It is increasingly accepted that any possible climate change will not only have an influence on mean climate but may also significantly alter climatic variability. A change in the distribution and magnitude of extreme rainfall events (associated with changing variability), such as droughts or flooding, may have a far greater impact on human and natural systems than a changing mean. This issue is of particular importance for environmentally vulnerable regions such as southern Africa. The subcontinent is considered especially vulnerable to and ill-equipped (in terms of adaptation) for extreme events, due to a number of factors including extensive poverty, famine, disease and political instability. Rainfall variability is a function of scale, so high spatial and temporal resolution data are preferred to identify extreme events and accurately predict future variability. In this research, high resolution satellite derived rainfall data from the Microwave Infra-Red Algorithm (MIRA) are used as a basis for undertaking model experiments using a state-of-the-art regional climate model. The MIRA dataset covers the period from 1993-2002 and the whole of southern Africa at a spatial resolution of 0.1 degree longitude/latitude. Once the model's ability to reproduce extremes has been assessed, idealised regions of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies are used to force the model, with the overall aim of investigating the ways in which SST anomalies influence rainfall extremes over southern Africa. In this paper, results from sensitivity testing of the regional climate model's domain size are briefly presented, before a comparison of simulated daily rainfall from the model with the satellite-derived dataset. Secondly, simulations of current climate and rainfall extremes from the model are compared to the MIRA dataset at daily timescales. Finally, the results from the idealised SST experiments are presented, suggesting highly nonlinear associations between rainfall extremes

  3. [Hand injuries caused by snake bites. Apropos of 9 cases treated in a West African regional hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribault, L

    1990-01-01

    The author reports 9 cases of snake bite hand injuries in a regional hospital in the ivory coast. This study presents a number of particular points: patients often consult quite late; the precarious hygiene induces microbia contamination; patients often have a very poor conception of their body schema, which sometimes creates problems of understanding during reeducation. Treatment consists of emergency debridement under antibiotic cover of Iselin's "emergency with delayed surgery". The good blood supply of the hand allows satisfactory functional results. PMID:1712571

  4. Reference commercial high-level waste glass and canister definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents technical data and performance characteristics of a high-level waste glass and canister intended for use in the design of a complete waste encapsulation package suitable for disposal in a geologic repository. The borosilicate glass contained in the stainless steel canister represents the probable type of high-level waste product that will be produced in a commercial nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant. Development history is summarized for high-level liquid waste compositions, waste glass composition and characteristics, and canister design. The decay histories of the fission products and actinides (plus daughters) calculated by the ORIGEN-II code are presented

  5. Low-Level and High-Level Microarray Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Microarray data analysis involves low-level and high-level analysis.The low-level analysis focuses on how to get accurate and precisegene expression data. The analysis built on gene expression data isthe high-level analysis such as differential gene expressionanalysis, SFP detection, eQTL analysis and so on. This thesisfocuses on applications in both low-level and high-level analysis.In the low-level analysis, the proposed L-GCRMA method combines theadvantage of the GCRMA model and the Langmu...

  6. High-level waste immobilization program: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High-Level Waste Immobilization Program is providing technology to allow safe, affordable immobilization and disposal of nuclear waste. Waste forms and processes are being developed on a schedule consistent with national needs for immobilization of high-level wastes stored at Savannah River, Hanford, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and West Valley, New York. This technology is directly applicable to high-level wastes from potential reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The program is removing one more obstacle previously seen as a potential restriction on the use and further development of nuclear power, and is thus meeting a critical technological need within the national objective of energy independence

  7. Regional assessment of lake ecological states using Landsat: A classification scheme for alkaline-saline, flamingo lakes in the East African Rift Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbs, E. J.; Remedios, J. J.; Avery, S. T.; Rowland, C. S.; Harper, D. M.

    2015-08-01

    In situ reflectance measurements and Landsat satellite imagery were combined to develop an optical classification scheme for alkaline-saline lakes in the Eastern Rift Valley. The classification allows the ecological state and consequent value, in this case to Lesser Flamingos, to be determined using Landsat satellite imagery. Lesser Flamingos depend on a network of 15 alkaline-saline lakes in East African Rift Valley, where they feed by filtering cyanobacteria and benthic diatoms from the lakes' waters. The classification developed here was based on a decision tree which used the reflectance in Landsat ETM+ bands 2-4 to assign one of six classes: low phytoplankton biomass; suspended sediment-dominated; microphytobenthos; high cyanobacterial biomass; cyanobacterial scum and bleached cyanobacterial scum. The classification accuracy was 77% when verified against in situ measurements. Classified imagery and timeseries were produced for selected lakes, which show the different ecological behaviours of these complex systems. The results have highlighted the importance to flamingos of the food resources offered by the extremely remote Lake Logipi. This study has demonstrated the potential of high spatial resolution, low spectral resolution sensors for providing ecologically valuable information at a regional scale, for alkaline-saline lakes and similar hypereutrophic inland waters.

  8. Handling and storage of conditioned high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with certain aspects of the management of one of the most important wastes, i.e. the handling and storage of conditioned (immobilized and packaged) high-level waste from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and, although much of the material presented here is based on information concerning high-level waste from reprocessing LWR fuel, the principles, as well as many of the details involved, are applicable to all fuel types. The report provides illustrative background material on the arising and characteristics of high-level wastes and, qualitatively, their requirements for conditioning. The report introduces the principles important in conditioned high-level waste storage and describes the types of equipment and facilities, used or studied, for handling and storage of such waste. Finally, it discusses the safety and economic aspects that are considered in the design and operation of handling and storage facilities

  9. Technical career opportunities in high-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical career opportunities in high-level radioactive waste management are briefly described in the areas of: Hydrology; geology; biological sciences; mathematics; engineering; heavy equipment operation; and skilled labor and crafts

  10. Trend analysis of carbon monoxide distributions for changes in fire vs. anthropogenic sources in diverse African regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, H. M.; Worden, J. R.; Bloom, A. A.; Bowman, K. W.

    2015-12-01

    Satellite measurements of atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) provide a signature for biomass burning and anthropogenic combustion-related pollution emissions. CO plays an important role in both air quality and climate as a precursor for tropospheric ozone and as a major sink of OH, the atmospheric "detergent" that affects the lifetime of methane and other pollutants. Worden et al., [2013] showed decreasing global CO values in time series of satellite total column CO measurements over the past decade. All of the satellite instruments that measure CO in the thermal infrared showed consistent inter-annual variability due to fires and possibly the global recession in late 2008. Observed decreases in CO over N. America and Europe were consistent with expected decreases in CO emissions inventories [Granier et al., 2011], however, the decrease is not uniform globally. In particular, Africa shows regions with smaller negative trends and potentially increasing trends in CO concentration. Here we examine trends for surface and total column CO concentrations in Africa over 2002-2014 using MOPITT V5J data. Our hypothesis is that temporal changes in CO will have different signatures related to anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions. We use singular value decomposition (SVD) with time series from different regions based on vegetation type and population density to diagnose the dominant trends and their potential drivers.

  11. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d' Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-14

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment.

  12. High-level Approaches to Confidence Estimation in Speech Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    S. J. Cox; Dasmahapatra, S.

    2002-01-01

    We describe some high-level approaches to es-timating confidence scores for the words output by a speech recognizer. By "high-level" we mean that the proposed measuresdo not rely on decoder specific "side information" and so should find more general applicability than measures that have beendeveloped for specific recognizers. Our main approach is to attempt to decouple the language modeling and acoustic modelingin the recognizer in order to generate independent information from these two sour...

  13. Development of melt compositions for sulphate bearing high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report deals with the development and characterization of vitreous matrices for sulphate bearing high level waste. Studies were conducted in sodium borosilicate and lead borosilicate systems with the introduction of CaO, BaO, MgO etc. Lead borosilicate system was found to be compatible with sulphate bearing high level wastes. Detailed product evaluation carried on selected formulations is also described. (author)

  14. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment

  15. LIQUIDUS TEMPERATURE OF HIGH-LEVEL WASTE BOROSILICATE GLASSES WITH SPINEL PRIMARY PHASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liquidus temperatures (TL) were measured for high-level waste (HLW) borosilicate glasses covering a Savannah River composition region. The primary crystallization phase for most glasses was spinel, a solid solution of trevorite (NiFe2O4) with other oxides (FeO, MnO, and Cr2O3). T...

  16. Geochronology of the Birim Supergroup of the West African craton in the Wa-Bolé region of west-central Ghana: Implications for the stratigraphic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kock, G. S.; Armstrong, R. A.; Siegfried, H. P.; Thomas, E.

    2011-01-01

    The Birim rocks of the West African craton comprise belts of greenschist- to amphibolite-grade gneiss and schist, and subparallel basins of greenschist-grade phyllite of volcaniclastic and epiclastic origin, which were intruded by igneous rocks. The granitoids intruded between 2213 and 2060 Ma and overlap with the volcaniclastic units dated between 2211 and 2064 Ma. The simultaneous occurrence of the magmatic events and irregular distribution of the rock ages hamper the formulation of a stratigraphic succession. SHRIMP spot analyses were done on older cores, crystals and rims from 23 rocks from the Bolé-Wa region in west-central Ghana. The crystallization ages range from 2195 to 2118 Ma, the inherited ages from 2876 to 2130 Ma, and metamorphic ages from 2114 to 2090 Ma. Aided by metamorphic, structural and chemical studies an older geotectonic cycle (2195-2150 Ma), containing the Dole and Guropie Suite and Bolé Group, was established. These units were subjected to several orthogonal and shear deformation events. These events were followed by the contemporaneous Sawla calc-alkaline monzonitic plutonism (2132-2126 Ma) and deposition of the epiclastic Maluwe Group (2137-2125 Ma) of calc-alkaline felsic to tholeiitic volcanic origin. Deformation of the basin beds was succeeded by the intrusion of the Tanina Suite granitoids of 2122-2120 Ma, which, themselves, were deformed prior to 2119 Ma. At 2118 Ma syenite and gabbro intruded along conjugate extension fractures. The gabbro and syenite of the Wakawaka Suite were only affected by three events of brittle strike-slip faulting. The first had significant displacement along NNE- to NE-directed shear zones, while the latter only formed conjugate joint systems with limited transport. Palaeo- to Neoarchaean cores, the oldest yet reported in the Baoulé Mossi domain, are restricted to the gneissic Dole Suite biotite granites. The presence of Dole-, Guropie-, Sawla-, and Tanina-aged older cores and grains in younger rocks

  17. Stability of High-Level Radioactive Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.

    2001-06-22

    High-level waste (HLW) glass compositions, processing schemes, limits on waste content, and corrosion/dissolution release models are dependent on an accurate knowledge of melting temperatures and thermochemical values. Unfortunately, existing models for predicting these temperatures are empirically-based, depending on extrapolations of experimental information. In addition, present models of leaching behavior of glass waste forms use simplistic assumptions or experimentally measured values obtained under non-realistic conditions. There is thus a critical need for both more accurate and more widely applicable models for HLW glass behavior, which this project addressed. Significant progress was made in this project on modeling HLW glass. Borosilicate glass was accurately represented along with the additional important components that contain iron, lithium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium. The formation of crystalline inclusions in the glass, an issue in Hanford HLW formulations, was modeled and shown to be predictive. Thus the results of this work have already demonstrated practical benefits with the ability to map compositional regions where crystalline material forms, and therefore avoid that detrimental effect. With regard to a fundamental understanding, added insights on the behavior of the components of glass have been obtained, including the potential formation of molecular clusters. The EMSP project had very significant effects beyond the confines of Environmental Management. The models developed for glass have been used to solve a very costly problem in the corrosion of refractories for glass production. The effort resulted in another laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories-Livermore, to become conversant in the techniques and to apply those through a DOE Office of Industrial Technologies project joint with PPG Industries. The glass industry as a whole is now cognizant of these capabilities, and there is a Glass Manufacturer's Research Institute

  18. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  19. A One-Year Study of the Diurnal Cycle of Meteorology, Clouds, and Radiation in the West African Sahel Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquardt-Collow, Allison; Ghate, Virendra P.; Miller, Mark A.; Trabachino, Lynne

    2016-01-09

    The diurnal cycles of meteorological and radiation variables are analyzed during the wet and dry seasons over the Sahel region of West Africa during 2006 using surface data collected by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program’s Mobile Facility, satellite radiation measurements from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument aboard Meteosat 8, and reanalysis products from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The meteorological analysis builds upon past studies of the diurnal cycle in the region by incorporating diurnal cycles of lower tropospheric wind profiles, thermodynamic profiles, integrated water vapor and liquid water measurements, and cloud radar measurements of frequency and location. These meteorological measurements are complemented by 3-hour measurements of the diurnal cycles of the TOA and surface shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiative fluxes and cloud radiative effects (CREs), and the atmospheric radiative flux divergence (RFD) and atmospheric CREs. Cirrus cloudiness during the dry season is shown to peak in coverage in the afternoon, while convective clouds during the wet season are shown to peak near dawn and have an afternoon minimum related to the rise of the Lifting Condensation Level into the Saharan Air Layer. The LW and SW RFDs and CREs exhibit diurnal cycles during both seasons, but there is a relatively small difference in the LW cycles during the two seasons (10-30 Wm^(-2) depending on the variable and time of day). Small differences in the TOA CREs during the two seasons are overwhelmed by large differences in the surface SW CREs, which exceed 100 Wm^(-2). A significant surface SW CRE during the wet season combined with a negligible TOA SW CRE produces a diurnal cycle in the atmospheric CRE that is modulated primarily by the SW surface CRE, peaks at midday at ~150 Wm^(-2), and varies widely from day to day.

  20. Tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism in Southern African blacks: P gene-associated haplotypes suggest a major mutation in the 5{prime} region of the gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsay, M.; Stevens, G.; Beukering, J. van [Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism (ty-pos OCA) occurs with a prevalence of 1 in 3900 among Southern African (SA) blacks. The major contributors to morbidity and mortality are skin cancer and decreased visual acuity. Two distinct phenotypes occur, namely individuals with ephelides (darkly pigmented patches) and those without. There is complete concordance with regard to ephelus status among siblings. The disorder is linked to markers on chromosome 15q11.2-q12, and no obligatory cross-overs were observed with polymophic markers at the human homolog, P, of the mouse pink eyed dilute gene, p. Contrary to what has been shown for Caucasoid ty-pos OCA, this condition shows locus homogeneity among SA blacks. The P gene is an excellent candidate for ty-pos OCA and mutations in this gene will confirm its role in causing the common form of albinism in SA. Numerous P gene mutations have been described in other populations. In an attempt to detect mutations, the P gene cDNA was used to search for structural rearrangements or polymorphisms. Six polymorphisms (plR10/Scal, 912/Xbal, 912/HincII, 912/TaqI, 1412/TaqI [two systems] and 1412/HindIII) were detected with subclones of the P cDNA and haplotypes were determined in each family. None were clearly associated with an albinism-related rearrangement. However, strong linkage disequilibrium was observed with alleles at loci toward the 5{prime} region of the gene ({triangle}=0.65, 0.57 and 0.80 for the three polymorphisms detected with the 912 subclone), suggesting a major ty-pos OCA mutation in this region. Haplotype analysis provides evidence for a major mutation associated with the same haplotype in individuals with ephelides (8/12 OCA chromosomes) and those without ephelides (24:30). The presence of other ty-pos OCA associated haplotypes indicates several other less common mutations.

  1. Aerosol modelling for regional climate studies: application to anthropogenic particles and evaluation over a European/African domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simplified anthropogenic aerosol model for use in climate studies is developed and implemented within the regional climate model RegCM. The model includes sulphur dioxide, sulphate, hydrophobic and hydrophilic black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) and is run for the winter and summer seasons of 2000 over a large domain extending from northern Europe to south tropical Africa. An evaluation of the model performance is carried out in terms of surface concentrations and aerosol optical depths (AODs). For sulphur dioxide and sulphate concentration, comparison of simulated fields and experimental data collected over the EMEP European network shows that the model generally reproduces the observed spatial patterns of near-surface sulphate. Sulphate concentrations are within a factor of 2 of observations in 34% (JJA) to 57% (DJF) of cases. For OC and BC, simulated concentrations are compared to different datasets. The simulated and observed values agree within a factor of 2 in 56% (DJF) to 62% (JJA) of cases for BC and 33% (JJA) to 64% (DJF) for OC. Simulated AODs are compared with ground-based (AERONET) and satellite (MODIS, MISR, TOMS) AOD datasets. Simulated AODs are in the range of AERONET and MISR data over northern Europe, and AOD spatial patterns show consistency with MODIS and TOMS retrievals both over Europe and Africa. The main model deficiencies we find are: (i) an underestimation of surface concentrations of sulphate and OC during the summer and especially over the Mediterranean region and (ii) a general underestimation of AOD, most pronounced over the Mediterranean basin. The primary factors we identify as contributing to these biases are the lack of natural aerosols (in particular, desert dust, secondary biogenic aerosols and nitrates), uncertainties in the emission inventories and aerosol cycling by moist convection. Also, in view of the availability of better observing datasets (e.g. as part of the AMMA project), we are currently working on improving

  2. African-American Student Achievement Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Mark; Melton, Jerry; Lawless, Brenda; Combs, Linda

    Data from the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) reveal that gains in performance for the African American student population of Region VII of the state's educational system were not keeping pace with the performance of African Americans in the rest of Texas. This study investigated practices in school districts in the region in which…

  3. Genetically Distinct Glossina fuscipes fuscipes Populations in the Lake Kyoga Region of Uganda and Its Relevance for Human African Trypanosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Echodu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies (Glossina spp. are the sole vectors of Trypanosoma brucei—the agent of human (HAT and animal (AAT trypanosomiasis. Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Gff is the main vector species in Uganda—the only country where the two forms of HAT disease (rhodesiense and gambiense occur, with gambiense limited to the northwest. Gff populations cluster in three genetically distinct groups in northern, southern, and western Uganda, respectively, with a contact zone present in central Uganda. Understanding the dynamics of this contact zone is epidemiologically important as the merger of the two diseases is a major health concern. We used mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA data from Gff samples in the contact zone to understand its spatial extent and temporal stability. We show that this zone is relatively narrow, extending through central Uganda along major rivers with south to north introgression but displaying no sex-biased dispersal. Lack of obvious vicariant barriers suggests that either environmental conditions or reciprocal competitive exclusion could explain the patterns of genetic differentiation observed. Lack of admixture between northern and southern populations may prevent the sympatry of the two forms of HAT disease, although continued control efforts are needed to prevent the recolonization of tsetse-free regions by neighboring populations.

  4. Impact testing of simulated high-level waste glass canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M.E.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Slate, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    Three Savannah River Laboratory reference high-level waste canisters were subjected to impact tests at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in Richland, Washington, in June 1983. The purpose of the test was to determine the integrity of the canister, nozzle, and final closure weld and to assess the effects of impacts on the glass. Two of the canisters were fabricated from 304L stainless steel and the third canister from titanium. The titanium canister was subjected to two drops. The first drop was vertical from 9.14 m onto an unyielding surface with the bottom corner of the canister receiving the impact. No failure occurred during this drop. The second drop was vertical from 9.14 m onto an unyielding surface with the corner of the fill nozzle receiving the impact. A large breach in the canister occurred in the region where the fill nozzle joins the dished head. The first stainless steel canister was dropped with the corner of the fill nozzle receiving the impact. The canister showed significant strain with no rupturing in the region where the fill nozzle joins the dished head. The second canister was dropped with the bottom corner receiving the impact and also, dropped horizontally onto an unyielding vertical solid steel cylinder in a puncture test. The bottom drop did not damage the weld and the puncture test did not rupture the canister body. The glass particles in the damaged zone of these canisters were sampled and analyzed for particle size. A comparison was made with control canister in which no impact had occurred. The particle size distribution for the control canisters and the zones of damaged glass were determined down to 1.5 ..mu..m. The quantity of glass fines, smaller than 10 ..mu..m, which must be determined for transportation safety studies, was found to be the largest in the bottom-damaged zone. The total amount of fines smaller than 10 ..mu..m after impact was less than 0.01 wt % of the total amount of glass in the canister.

  5. Mitigation of Disasters Due to Severe Climate Events: from Policy to Practice,the West African Coastal Region Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediang, Okuku

    2016-07-01

    The distributive pattern of disaster due to severe climate events over the coast of West Africa especially Nigeria was examined using yearly mean disaster due to severe climatic events for the period of 30 years (1981-2010) from the marine stations in the coastal region of Nigeria. Graphical and isohyetal analyses were used to look into the patter of severe weather events over the area considered and to see if the severe weather events is increasing or not in the coast of West Africa especially the Nigerian coast and how to mitigate ,were policy relating to severe weather events are discussed. The paper conclude that due to the nature of coast of West Africa and Nigeria in particular, it enjoys longer severe weather events season than dry during the wet season, it is common to observe periods of enhanced or suppressed convective activity to persist over the wide areas for somedays. This paper also contributes to the wealth of knowledge already existing on Indigenous people play major roles in preserving the ecosystem especially during severe weather events . This has resulted in the recent calls for the integration of indigenous knowledge systems into global knowledge system strategies. Until now, integrating local knowledge systems into severe weather events and climate change concerns is not a completely new idea. A comprehensive review of literature using electronic and non-electronic databases formed the methodology. The paper conclude also by drawing the attention that by targeting Promoting indigenous people's participation in severe weather events and climate change issues is an important initiative towards adaptation and sustainable development in Africa and around the world. It is increasingly realized that the global knowledge system has dominated research, policies and programmes that address current severe weather events and climate change's challenges,mitigation and adaptation strategies.

  6. Cross-Reactivity of Filariais ICT Cards in Areas of Contrasting Endemicity of Loa loa and Mansonella perstans in Cameroon: Implications for Shrinking of the Lymphatic Filariasis Map in the Central African Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Wanji

    2015-11-01

    ICT results was found only in areas with an L. loa Mf prevalence above 15%. In contrast, there was no association between ICT positivity and M. perstans prevalence (Spearman's rho = - 0.200; p = 0.747 and Mf density (Odds ratio = 1.8; 95%CI: 0.8-4.2; p = 0.192.This study has confirmed the strong association between the ICT positivity and L. loa intensity (Mf/ml of blood at the individual level. Furthermore, the study has demonstrated that ICT positivity is strongly associated with high L. loa prevalence. These results suggest that the main confounding factor for positive ICT test card results are high levels of L. loa. The findings may indicate that W. bancrofti is much less prevalent in the Central African region where L. loa is highly endemic than previously assumed and accurate re-mapping of the region would be very useful for shrinking of the map of LF distribution.

  7. Overview: Defense high-level waste technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defense high-level waste generated by atomic energy defense activities is stored on an interim basis at three U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) operating locations; the Savannah River Plant in South Carolina, the Hanford Site in Washington, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in Idaho. Responsibility for the permanent disposal of this waste resides with DOE's Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management. The objective of the Defense High-Level Wast Technology Program is to develop the technology for ending interim storage and achieving permanent disposal of all U.S. defense high-level waste. New and readily retrievable high-level waste are immobilized for disposal in a geologic repository. Other high-level waste will be stabilized in-place if, after completion of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, it is determined, on a site-specific basis, that this option is safe, cost effective and environmentally sound. The immediate program focus is on implementing the waste disposal strategy selected in compliance with the NEPA process at Savannah River, while continuing progress toward development of final waste disposal strategies at Hanford and Idaho. This paper presents an overview of the technology development program which supports these waste management activities and an assessment of the impact that recent and anticipated legal and institutional developments are expected to have on the program

  8. Method of processing high level radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High level radioactive liquid wastes formed from re-processing plants are cleaned being frozen in a freezing step. Frozen products of high level radioactive liquid wastes are put to a heated, pressurized and evacuated state in a sublimation step and nitric acid, water, subliming nuclides, etc. are sublimated from the frozen products. They are condensated in a condenser into liquid condensates. Then, a solution of sodium hydroxide is added to the residues and they are separated in a solid-liquid separation step into solutions such as of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide and residues mainly comprising nuclear fission products, actinoide elements and corrosion products in the re-processing step. Then, the residues are dried and calcined to form nitrates, drying and calcinating products, etc. of such shape and volume as easy to be stored. Accordingly, as compared with the case of directly processing high level radioactive liquid wastes, the amount of solidification products can be reduced remarkably. (I.N.)

  9. An overview of very high level software design methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asdjodi, Maryam; Hooper, James W.

    1988-01-01

    Very High Level design methods emphasize automatic transfer of requirements to formal design specifications, and/or may concentrate on automatic transformation of formal design specifications that include some semantic information of the system into machine executable form. Very high level design methods range from general domain independent methods to approaches implementable for specific applications or domains. Applying AI techniques, abstract programming methods, domain heuristics, software engineering tools, library-based programming and other methods different approaches for higher level software design are being developed. Though one finds that a given approach does not always fall exactly in any specific class, this paper provides a classification for very high level design methods including examples for each class. These methods are analyzed and compared based on their basic approaches, strengths and feasibility for future expansion toward automatic development of software systems.

  10. Managing the nation's commercial high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the findings and conclusions of OTA's analysis of Federal policy for the management of commercial high-level radioactive waste. It represents a major update and expansion of the Analysis presented to Congress in our summary report, Managing Commercial High-Level Radioactive Waste, published in April of 1982 (NWPA). This new report is intended to contribute to the implementation of NWPA, and in particular to Congressional review of three major documents that DOE will submit to the 99th Congress: a Mission Plan for the waste management program; a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) proposal; and a report on mechanisms for financing and managing the waste program. The assessment was originally focused on the ocean disposal of nuclear waste. OTA later broadened the study to include all aspects of high-level waste disposal. The major findings of the original analysis were published in OTA's 1982 summary report

  11. Lessons learnt from Spanish experience in high level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main lessons are summarized that have been learnt from the ENRESA's existing experience in the disposal of high level waste, and the progress made over the last 10 years towards the development of a deep geological repository is described. The Spanish high level waste management policy is presented as well as major past achievements and future objectives in the high level waste management programme in Spain. Past interactions with regulatory authorities is briefly described, and key issues encountered in interpreting the regulations and preparing the safety case are discussed. The most important conclusion is the need for a gradual and systematic process of interaction between the regulators and the implementers in order to build a common understanding of repository performance, interpret the regulatory criteria and achieve the necessary convergence at the early stages of the licensing process. (author)

  12. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste storage, is bibliographically reviewed. The review shows that in the majority of the countries, spent fuels and high-level radioactive wastes are planned to be stored for tens of years. Sites for final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes have not yet been found. A first final disposal facility is expected to come into operation in the United States of America by the year 2010. Other final disposal facilities are expected to come into operation in Germany, Sweden, Switzerland and Japan by the year 2020. Meanwhile , stress is placed upon the 'dry storage' method which is carried out successfully in a number of countries (Britain and France). In the United States of America spent fuels are stored in water pools while the 'dry storage' method is still being investigated. (Author)

  13. Sterilization, high-level disinfection, and environmental cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2011-03-01

    Failure to perform proper disinfection and sterilization of medical devices may lead to introduction of pathogens, resulting in infection. New techniques have been developed for achieving high-level disinfection and adequate environmental cleanliness. This article examines new technologies for sterilization and high-level disinfection of critical and semicritical items, respectively, and because semicritical items carry the greatest risk of infection, the authors discuss reprocessing semicritical items such as endoscopes and automated endoscope reprocessors, endocavitary probes, prostate biopsy probes, tonometers, laryngoscopes, and infrared coagulation devices. In addition, current issues and practices associated with environmental cleaning are reviewed. PMID:21315994

  14. Architecture of the ATLAS High Level Trigger Event Selection Software

    CERN Document Server

    Grothe, M; Baines, J T M; Bee, C P; Biglietti, M; Bogaerts, A; Boisvert, V; Bosman, M; Brandt, S; Caron, B; Casado, M P; Cataldi, G; Cavalli, D; Cervetto, M; Comune, G; Corso-Radu, A; Di Mattia, A; Díaz-Gómez, M; Dos Anjos, A; Drohan, J; Ellis, Nick; Elsing, M; Epp, B; Etienne, F; Falciano, S; Farilla, A; George, S; Ghete, V M; González, S; Kaczmarska, A; Karr, K M; Khomich, A; Konstantinidis, N P; Krasny, W; Li, W; Lowe, A; Luminari, L; Ma, H; Meessen, C; Mello, A G; Merino, G; Morettini, P; Moyse, E; Nairz, A; Negri, A; Nikitin, N V; Nisati, A; Padilla, C; Parodi, F; Pérez-Réale, V; Pinfold, J L; Pinto, P; Polesello, G; Qian, Z; Rajagopalan, S; Resconi, S; Rosati, S; Scannicchio, D A; Schiavi, C; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Segura, E; De Seixas, J M; Shears, T G; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Smizanska, M; Soluk, R A; Stanescu, C; Tapprogge, Stefan; Touchard, F; Vercesi, V; Watson, A; Wengler, T; Werner, P; Wheeler, S; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Zobernig, G; CHEP 2003 Computing in High Energy Physics; Grothe, Monika

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) consists of two selection steps: the second level trigger and the event filter. Both will be implemented in software, running on mostly commodity hardware. Both levels have a coherent approach to event selection, so a common core software framework has been designed to maximize this coherency, while allowing sufficient flexibility to meet the different interfaces and requirements of the two different levels. The approach is extended further to allow the software to run in an off-line simulation and reconstruction environment for the purposes of development. This paper describes the architecture and high level design of the software.

  15. Disposal of high-level nuclear waste in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, Jonathan

    1992-08-01

    A solution of launching high-level nuclear waste into space is suggested. Disposal in space includes solidifying the wastes, embedding them in an explosion-proof vehicle, and launching it into earth orbit, and then into a solar orbit. The benefits of such a system include not only the safe disposal of high-level waste but also the establishment of an infrastructure for large-scale space exploration and development. Particular attention is given to the wide range of technical choices along with the societal, economic, and political factors needed for success.

  16. High-Level Waste (HLW) Feed Process Control Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system

  17. Evaluation of solidified high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the objectives of the IAEA waste management programme is to coordinate and promote development of improved technology for the safe management of radioactive wastes. The Agency accomplished this objective specifically through sponsoring Coordinated Research Programmes on the ''Evaluation of Solidified High Level Waste Products'' in 1977. The primary objectives of this programme are to review and disseminate information on the properties of solidified high-level waste forms, to provide a mechanism for analysis and comparison of results from different institutes, and to help coordinate future plans and actions. This report is a summary compilation of the key information disseminated at the second meeting of this programme

  18. Final report on cermet high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cermets are being developed as an alternate method for the fixation of defense and commercial high level radioactive waste in a terminal disposal form. Following initial feasibility assessments of this waste form, consisting of ceramic particles dispersed in an iron-nickel base alloy, significantly improved processing methods were developed. The characterization of cermets has continued through property determinations on samples prepared by various methods from a variety of simulated and actual high-level wastes. This report describes the status of development of the cermet waste form as it has evolved since 1977. 6 tables, 18 figures

  19. Managing the high level waste nuclear regulatory commission licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the process for obtaining Nuclear Regulatory Commission permits for the high level waste storage facility is basically the same process commercial nuclear power plants followed to obtain construction permits and operating licenses for their facilities. Therefore, the experience from licensing commercial reactors can be applied to the high level waste facility. Proper management of the licensing process will be the key to the successful project. The management of the licensing process was categorized into four areas as follows: responsibility, organization, communication and documentation. Drawing on experience from nuclear power plant licensing and basic management principles, the management requirement for successfully accomplishing the project goals are discussed

  20. Building Efficient Query Engines in a High-Level Language

    OpenAIRE

    Klonatos, Yannis; Koch, Christoph; Rompf, Tiark; Chafi, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we advocate that it is time for a radical rethinking of database systems design. Developers should be able to leverage high-level programming languages without having to pay a price in efficiency. To realize our vision of abstraction without regret, we present LegoBase, a query engine written in the high-level programming language Scala. The key technique to regain efficiency is to apply generative programming: the Scala code that constitutes the query engine, despite its high-l...

  1. African dance

    OpenAIRE

    Mumberson, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The RE Open will be shown at the Mall Gallery London and the international section was judged by major practitioners and educators, print dealers and collectors, President of RE and Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum Dr Bren Unwin, John Purcell, Deborah Roslund, Colin Harrison, Dave Ferry, and Mark Hampson. Piece selected "African Dance" print.

  2. The high level waste business, transportation, storage and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on the management of high-level radioactive wastes. Topics considered at the conference included the views of the electric utilities, public policy, the implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the WIPP, the DOE transportation strategy, political aspects, monitored retrievable storage, fuel rod consolidation, inspection, safety, spent fuel management, and cask design

  3. The ATLAS Data Acquisition and High Level Trigger system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ATLAS TDAQ Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the data acquisition and high level trigger system of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, as deployed during Run 1. Data flow as well as control, configuration and monitoring aspects are addressed. An overview of the functionality of the system and of its performance is presented and design choices are discussed.

  4. High level waste canister emplacement and retrieval concepts study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several concepts are described for the interim (20 to 30 years) storage of canisters containing high level waste, cladding waste, and intermediate level-TRU wastes. It includes requirements, ground rules and assumptions for the entire storage pilot plant. Concepts are generally evaluated and the most promising are selected for additional work. Follow-on recommendations are made

  5. Vitrification of sulphate bearing high level waste (HLW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Indian strategy for the management of spent fuel is based on Reprocessing-Conditioning- Recycle (RCR) option. Reprocessing of spent fuel by the PUREX process leads to the generation of high-level radioactive liquid waste. Strategy for the management of high-level waste in India involves: a) Immobilization of HLW in borosilicate matrices b) Interim storage of vitrified HLW for a period of about 50 years c) Ultimate disposal of vitrified HLW in deep geological repository Borosilicate matrices have found wide acceptance for immobilization of high level wastes. Suitable glass compositions within the borosilicate family have been formulated and characterized for sulphate bearing high-level radioactive waste. Presence of sulphate in HLW, generated earlier, is on account of ferrous sulphamate as a reducing agent, added during partitioning stage of reprocessing. Solubility of sulphur in the form of sodium sulphate is very less (<1% wt) in normally deployed borosilicate melts for vitrification of HLW. The soluble alkali sulphate gets phase separated in the glass melt and its presence is not desirable since this phase is enriched with radio Cs and has high solubility in water. In addition, volatility of sulphates during glass formation is another area of concern. Attempts to address this problem were made and alternative glass forming systems based on lead and barium borosilicate systems were studied for immobilization of this sulphate bearing waste. (author)

  6. Solidification of high-level wastes from reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the solidification of high-level activity liquid wastes, glass has been selected as the best material because of the combination of chemical, radiation and thermal stability. Properties of glass as a barrier are given. The industrial application of the process in the AVM plant at Marcoule (France) is described

  7. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities devoted to development of regulations, criteria, and standards for storage of solidified high-level radioactive wastes are reported. The work is summarized in sections on site suitability regulations, risk calculations, geological models, aquifer models, human usage model, climatology model, and repository characteristics. Proposed additional analytical work is also summarized

  8. Murine erythrocytes contain high levels of lysophospholipase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, J.A.F. op den; Roelofsen, B.; Sanderink, G.; Middelkoop, E.; Hamer, R.

    1984-01-01

    Murine erythrocytes were found to be unique in the high levels of lysophospholipase activity in the cytosol of these cells. The specific activity of the enzyme in the cytosol of the murine cells is 10-times higher than in the cytosol of rabbit erythrocytes and approximately three orders of magnitude

  9. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.; Towse, D.F.

    1979-03-07

    Activities devoted to development of regulations, criteria, and standards for storage of solidified high-level radioactive wastes are reported. The work is summarized in sections on site suitability regulations, risk calculations, geological models, aquifer models, human usage model, climatology model, and repository characteristics. Proposed additional analytical work is also summarized. (JRD)

  10. Gas isotopic signatures (He, C, and Ar) in the Lake Kivu region (western branch of the East African rift system): Geodynamic and volcanological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, D.; Tassi, F.; Vaselli, O.; Poreda, R. J.; Darrah, T.; Cuoco, E.; Yalire, M. M.

    2010-01-01

    On 17 January 2002, the city of Goma was partly destroyed by two of the several lava flows erupted from a roughly N-S oriented fracture system opened along the southern flank of Mount Nyiragongo (Democratic Republic of Congo), in the western branch of the East African rift system. A humanitarian and scientific response was promptly organized by international, governmental, and nongovernmental agencies coordinated by the United Nations and the European Union. Among the different scientific projects undertaken to study the mechanisms triggering this and possible future eruptions, we focused on the isotopic (He, C, and Ar) analysis of the magmatic-hydrothermal and cold gas discharges related to the Nyiragongo volcanic system, the Kivu and Virunga region. The studied area includes the Nyiragongo volcano, its surroundings, and peripheral areas inside and outside the rift. They have been subdivided into seven regions characterized by distinct 3He/4He (expressed as R/Rair) ratios and/or δ13C-CO2 values. The Nyiragongo summit crater fumaroles, whose R/Rair and δ13C-CO2 values are up to 8.73 and from -3.5‰ to -4.0‰ VPDB, respectively, show a clear mantle, mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-like contribution. Similar mantle-like He isotopic values (6.5-8.3 R/Rair) are also found in CO2-rich gas emanations (mazukus) along the northern shoreline of Lake Kivu main basin, whereas the 13δC-CO2 values range from -5.3‰ to -6.8‰ VPDB. The mantle influence progressively decreases in (1) dissolved gases of Lake Kivu (2.6-5.5 R/Rair) and (2) the distal gas discharges within and outside the two sides of the rift (from 0.1 to 1.7 R/Rair). Similarly, δ13C-CO2 ratios of the peripheral gas emissions are lighter (from -5.9‰ to -11.6‰ VPDB) than those of the crater fumaroles. Therefore, the spatial distribution of He and C signatures in the Lake Kivu region is mainly produced by mixing of mantle-related (e.g., Nyiragongo crater fumaroles and/or mazukus gases) and crustal-related (e

  11. Effects of the intense geomagnetic storm of September-October 2012 on the equatorial, low- and mid-latitude F region in the American and African sector during the unusual 24th solar cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, R.; Fagundes, P. R.; Coster, A.; Bolaji, O. S.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Batista, I. S.; de Abreu, A. J.; Venkatesh, K.; Gende, M.; Abalde, J. R.; Sumod, S. G.

    2016-02-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the response of the ionospheric F layer in the American and African sectors during the intense geomagnetic storm which occurred on 30 September-01 October 2012. In this work, we used observations from a chain of 20 GPS stations in the equatorial, low- and mid-latitude regions in the American and African sectors. Also, in this study ionospheric sounding data obtained during 29th September to 2nd October, 2012 at Jicamarca (JIC), Peru, São Luis (SL), Fortaleza (FZ), Brazil, and Port Stanley (PST), are presented. On the night of 30 September-01 October, in the main and recovery phase, the h´F variations showed an unusual uplifting of the F region at equatorial (JIC, SL and FZ) and mid- (PST) latitude stations related with the propagations of traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) generated by Joule heating at auroral regions. On 30 September, the VTEC variations and foF2 observations at mid-latitude stations (American sector) showed a long-duration positive ionospheric storm (over 6 h of enhancement) associated with large-scale wind circulations and equatorward neutral winds. Also, on 01 October, a long-duration positive ionospheric storm was observed at equatorial, low- and mid- latitude stations in the African sector, related with the large-scale wind circulations and equatorward neutral winds. On 01 and 02 October, positive ionospheric storms were observed at equatorial, low- and mid-latitude stations in the American sector, possibly associated with the TIDs and an equatorward neutral wind. Also, on 01 October negative ionospheric storms were observed at equatorial, low- and mid-latitude regions in the American sector, probably associated with the changes in the O/N2 ratio. On the night of 30 September-01 October, ionospheric plasma bubbles were observed at equatorial, low- and mid- latitude stations in the South American sector, possibly associated with the occurrence of geomagnetic storm.

  12. Development of high-level waste solidification technology 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joon Hyung; Kim, Hwan Young; Kim, In Tae [and others

    1999-02-01

    Spent nuclear fuel contains useful nuclides as valuable resource materials for energy, heat and catalyst. High-level wastes (HLW) are expected to be generated from the R and D activities and reuse processes. It is necessary to develop vitrification or advanced solidification technologies for the safe long-term management of high level wastes. As a first step to establish HLW vitrification technology, characterization of HLWs that would arise at KAERI site, glass melting experiments with a lab-scale high frequency induction melter, and fabrication and property evaluation of base-glass made of used HEPA filter media and additives were performed. Basic study on the fabrication and characterization of candidate ceramic waste form (Synroc) was also carried out. These HLW solidification technologies would be directly useful for carrying out the R and Ds on the nuclear fuel cycle and waste management. (author). 70 refs., 29 tabs., 35 figs.

  13. VHDL Specification Methodology from High-level Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benmohammed

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Design complexity has been increasing exponentially this last decade. In order to cope with such an increase and to keep up designers' productivity, higher level specifications were required. Moreover new synthesis systems, starting with a high level specification, have been developed in order to automate and speed up processor design. This study presents a VHDL specification methodology aimed to extend structured design methodologies to the behavioral level. The goal is to develop VHDL modeling strategies in order to master the design and analysis of large and complex systems. Structured design methodologies are combined with a high-level synthesis system, a VHDL based behavioral synthesis tool, in order to allow hierarchical design and component re-use.

  14. Nondestructive examination of DOE high-level waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of DOE sites have buried tanks containing high-level waste. Tanks of particular interest am double-shell inside concrete cylinders. A program has been developed for the inservice inspection of the primary tank containing high-level waste (HLW), for testing of transfer lines and for the inspection of the concrete containment where possible. Emphasis is placed on the ultrasonic examination of selected areas of the primary tank, coupled with a leak-detection system capable of detecting small leaks through the wall of the primary tank. The NDE program is modelled after ASME Section XI in many respects, particularly with respects to the sampling protocol. Selected testing of concrete is planned to determine if there has been any significant degradation. The most probable failure mechanisms are corrosion-related so that the examination program gives major emphasis to possible locations for corrosion attack

  15. FPGA based compute nodes for high level triggering in PANDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PANDA is a new universal detector for antiproton physics at the HESR facility at FAIR/GSI. The PANDA data acquisition system has to handle interaction rates of the order of 107/s and data rates of several 100 Gb/s. FPGA based compute nodes with multi-Gb/s bandwidth capability using the ATCA architecture are designed to handle tasks such as event building, feature extraction and high level trigger processing. Data connectivity is provided via optical links as well as multiple Gb Ethernet ports. The boards will support trigger algorithms such us pattern recognition for RICH detectors, EM shower analysis, fast tracking algorithms and global event characterization. Besides VHDL, high level C-like hardware description languages will be considered to implement the firmware

  16. Extending Java for High-Level Web Service Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Aske Simon; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2003-01-01

    We incorporate innovations from the project into the Java language to provide high-level features for Web service programming. The resulting language, JWIG, contains an advanced session model and a flexible mechanism for dynamic construction of XML documents, in particular XHTML. To support progr...... with Servlets and JSP which are widely used Web service development platforms. Our implementation and evaluation of JWIG indicate that the language extensions can simplify the program structure and that the analyses are sufficiently fast and precise to be practically useful.......We incorporate innovations from the project into the Java language to provide high-level features for Web service programming. The resulting language, JWIG, contains an advanced session model and a flexible mechanism for dynamic construction of XML documents, in particular XHTML. To support program...

  17. Evaluation and selection of candidate high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven candidate waste forms being developed under the direction of the Department of Energy's National High-Level Waste (HLW) Technology Program, were evaluated as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. The evaluation combined preliminary waste form evaluations conducted at DOE defense waste-sites and independent laboratories, peer review assessments, a product performance evaluation, and a processability analysis. Based on the combined results of these four inputs, two of the seven forms, borosilicate glass and a titanate based ceramic, SYNROC, were selected as the reference and alternative forms for continued development and evaluation in the National HLW Program. Both the glass and ceramic forms are viable candidates for use at each of the DOE defense waste-sites; they are also potential candidates for immobilization of commercial reprocessing wastes. This report describes the waste form screening process, and discusses each of the four major inputs considered in the selection of the two forms

  18. Development of high-level waste solidification technology 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spent nuclear fuel contains useful nuclides as valuable resource materials for energy, heat and catalyst. High-level wastes (HLW) are expected to be generated from the R and D activities and reuse processes. It is necessary to develop vitrification or advanced solidification technologies for the safe long-term management of high level wastes. As a first step to establish HLW vitrification technology, characterization of HLWs that would arise at KAERI site, glass melting experiments with a lab-scale high frequency induction melter, and fabrication and property evaluation of base-glass made of used HEPA filter media and additives were performed. Basic study on the fabrication and characterization of candidate ceramic waste form (Synroc) was also carried out. These HLW solidification technologies would be directly useful for carrying out the R and Ds on the nuclear fuel cycle and waste management. (author). 70 refs., 29 tabs., 35 figs

  19. RETENTION OF SULFATE IN HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE GLASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.

    2010-09-07

    High level radioactive wastes are being vitrified at the Savannah River Site for long term disposal. Many of the wastes contain sulfate at concentrations that can be difficult to retain in borosilicate glass. This study involves efforts to optimize the composition of a glass frit for combination with the waste to improve sulfate retention while meeting other process and product performance constraints. The fabrication and characterization of several series of simulated waste glasses are described. The experiments are detailed chronologically, to provide insight into part of the engineering studies used in developing frit compositions for an operating high level waste vitrification facility. The results lead to the recommendation of a specific frit composition and a concentration limit for sulfate in the glass for the next batch of sludge to be processed at Savannah River.

  20. High-level neutron coincidence counter (HLNCC): users' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual describes the portable High-Level Neutron Coincidence Counter (HLNCC) developed at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) for the assay of plutonium, particularly by inspectors of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The counter is designed for the measurement of the effective 240Pu mass in plutonium samples which may have a high plutonium content. The following topics are discussed: principle of operation, description of the system, operating procedures, and applications

  1. High-level Component Interfaces for Collaborative Development: A Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Marlowe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Software development has rapidly moved toward collaborative development models where multiple partners collaborate in creating and evolving software intensive systems or components of sophisticated ubiquitous socio-technical-ecosystems. In this paper we extend the concept of software interface to a flexible high-level interface as means for accommodating change and localizing, controlling and managing the exchange of knowledge and functional, behavioral, quality, project and business related information between the partners and between the developed components.

  2. Seeking Explanations for High Levels of Infant Mortality in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Zeba A. Sathar

    1987-01-01

    Here we seek explanations for the relatively high levels of infant mortality in Pakistan compared with those in other countries having middle-level per capita incomes. Data are mainly drawn from the birth histories of 9810 ever-married women interviewed in the Population Labour Force and Migration Survey of 1979. The empirical evidence points to childbearing and childrearing practices, such as spacing, to be more important determinants of mortality than economic factors. Availability of healt...

  3. Determination of free acid in high level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Flow-dilution spectrophotometric method is developed for rapid determination of free acid in High Level Liquid Waste. Orange IV is used as developer in this method. The results show that the precision of the analysis is less than 3% (n=3) and the quantity of sample is small, the procedure is simple and fast (completed within 3 min). Moreover, the method is much less hazardous for the operator in the analysis of radioactive samples. (authors)

  4. Soil-structure interaction effects on high level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High Level Waste Tanks consist of steel tanks located in concrete vaults which are usually completely embedded in the soil. Many of these tanks are old and were designed to seismic standards which are not compatible with current requirements. The objective if this paper is to develop simple methods of modeling SSI effects for such structures and to obtain solutions for a range of parameters that can be used to identify significant aspects of the problem

  5. The tracking of high level waste shipments - TRANSCOM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TRANSCOM (transportation tracking and communication) system is the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) real-time system for tracking shipments of spent fuel, high-level wastes, and other high-visibility shipments of radioactive material. The TRANSCOM system has been operational since 1988. The system was used during FY 1993 to track almost 100 shipments within the US DOE complex, and it is accessed weekly by 10 to 20 users

  6. A High Level Model of a Conscious Embodied Agent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiedermann, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2010), s. 62-78. ISSN 1942-9045 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1333 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : embodied agent * internal world models * higher cognitive function Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.igi-global.com/article/high-level-model-conscious-embodied/46147

  7. The tracking of high level waste shipments-TRANSCOM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TRANSCOM (transportation tracking and communication) system is the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) real-time system for tracking shipments of spent fuel, high-level wastes, and other high-visibility shipments of radioactive material. The TRANSCOM system has been operational since 1988. The system was used during FY1993 to track almost 100 shipments within the US.DOE complex, and it is accessed weekly by 10 to 20 users

  8. Coordinated parallelizing compiler optimizations and high-level synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    S Gupta; Gupta, R. K.; Dutt, N D; Nicolau, A.

    2004-01-01

    We present a high-level synthesis methodology that applies a coordinated set of coarse-grain and fine-grain parallelizing transformations. The transformations are applied both during a presynthesis phase and during scheduling, with the objective of optimizing the results of synthesis and reducing the impact of control flow constructs on the quality of results. We first apply a set of source level presynthesis transformations that include common sub-expression elimination (CSE), copy propagati...

  9. Case for retrievable high-level nuclear waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseboom, Eugene H., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Plans for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository have called for permanently closing and sealing the repository soon after it is filled. However, the hydrologic environment of the proposed site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, should allow the repository to be kept open and the waste retrievable indefinitely. This would allow direct monitoring of the repository and maintain the options for future generations to improve upon the disposal methods or use the uranium in the spent fuel as an energy resource.

  10. Mixing Processes in High-Level Waste Tanks - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mixing processes in large, complex enclosures using one-dimensional differential equations, with transport in free and wall jets is modeled using standard integral techniques. With this goal in mind, we have constructed a simple, computationally efficient numerical tool, the Berkeley Mechanistic Mixing Model, which can be used to predict the transient evolution of fuel and oxygen concentrations in DOE high-level waste tanks following loss of ventilation, and validate the model against a series of experiments

  11. High-level disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscope reprocessing

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, King-Wah; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Chiou, Shue-Shian

    2015-01-01

    High level disinfection (HLD) of the gastrointestinal (GI) endoscope is not simply a slogan, but rather is a form of experimental monitoring-based medicine. By definition, GI endoscopy is a semicritical medical device. Hence, such medical devices require major quality assurance for disinfection. And because many of these items are temperature sensitive, low-temperature chemical methods, such as liquid chemical germicide, must be used rather than steam sterilization. In summarizing guidelines ...

  12. High-Level Development of Multiserver Online Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Glinka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiplayer online games with support for high user numbers must provide mechanisms to support an increasing amount of players by using additional resources. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the practically proven multiserver distribution mechanisms, zoning, instancing, and replication, and the tasks for the game developer implied by them. We propose a novel, high-level development approach which integrates the three distribution mechanisms seamlessly in today's online games. As a possible base for this high-level approach, we describe the real-time framework (RTF middleware system which liberates the developer from low-level tasks and allows him to stay at high level of design abstraction. We explain how RTF supports the implementation of single-server online games and how RTF allows to incorporate the three multiserver distribution mechanisms during the development process. Finally, we describe briefly how RTF provides manageability and maintenance functionality for online games in a grid context with dynamic resource allocation scenarios.

  13. Final disposal of high levels waste and spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreign and international activities on the final disposal of high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel have been reviewed. A considerable research effort is devoted to development of acceptable disposal options. The different technical concepts presently under study are described in the report. Numerous studies have been made in many countries of the potential risks to future generations from radioactive wastes in underground disposal repositories. In the report the safety assessment studies and existing performance criteria for geological disposal are briefly discussed. The studies that are being made in Canada, the United States, France and Switzerland are the most interesting for Sweden as these countries also are considering disposal into crystalline rocks. The overall time-tables in different countries for realisation of the final disposal are rather similar. Normally actual large-scale disposal operations for high-level wastes are not foreseen until after year 2000. In the United States the Congress recently passed the important Nuclear Waste Policy Act. It gives a rather firm timetable for site-selection and construction of nuclear waste disposal facilities. According to this act the first repository for disposal of commercial high-level waste must be in operation not later than in January 1998. (Author)

  14. High level radioactive wastes: Considerations on final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When at the beginnings of the decade of the 80 the National Commission on Atomic Energy (CNEA) in Argentina decided to study the destination of the high level radioactive wastes, was began many investigations, analysis and multidisciplinary evaluations that be origin to a study of characteristics never before carried out in Argentina. For the first time in the country was faced the study of an environmental eventual problem, several decades before that the problem was presented. The elimination of the high level radioactive wastes in the technological aspects was taken in advance, avoiding to transfer the problems to the future generations. The decision was based, not only in technical evaluations but also in ethical premises, since it was considered that the future generations may enjoy the benefits of the nuclear energy and not should be solve the problem. The CNEA in Argentina in 1980 decided to begin a feasibility study and preliminary engineering project for the construction of the final disposal of high level radioactive wastes

  15. Doing something about high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to a growing stockpile of spent fuel rods from commercial reactors, the United States must contend with about 100 million gallons of liquid high-level waste. Almost all of this liquid waste comes from Department of Energy plants that reclaim radioactive elements from the spent fuel rods of defense reactors to manufacture materials for nuclear weapons. The waste contains more than a billion curies of radioactivity. That's a lot less than the radioactivity in the inventory of spent fuel rods, but liquid waste is more dispersible and hence more dangerous. For now, the waste is being stored in large tanks below ground level. A permanent disposal method for high-level waste is urgently needed. A technological solution is well in hand. Over the last 30 years, a way of safely and permanently disposing of high-level waste has been developed, refined, and demonstrated. It is called vitrification, or glassification. This method, and its current applications, are outlined in this article. A discussion of radioactive waste is also presented

  16. Overview of high-level waste management accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storage of power reactor spent fuel is necessary at present because of the lack of reprocessing operations particularly in the U.S. By considering the above solidification and storage scenario, there is more than reasonable assurance that acceptable, stable, low heat generation rate, solidified waste can be produced, and safely disposed. The public perception of no waste disposal solutions is being exploited by detractors of nuclear power application. The inability to even point to one overall system demonstration lends credibility to the negative assertions. By delaying the gathering of on-line information to qualify repository sites, and to implement a demonstration, the actions of the nuclear power detractors are self serving in that they can continue to point out there is no demonstration of satisfactory high-level waste disposal. By maintaining the liquid and solidified high-level waste in secure above ground storage until acceptable decay heat generation rates are achieved, by producing a compatible, high integrity, solid waste form, by providing a second or even third barrier as a compound container and by inserting the enclosed waste form in a qualified repository with spacing to assure moderately low temperature disposal conditions, there appears to be no technical reason for not progressing further with the disposal of high-level wastes and needed implementation of the complete nuclear power fuel cycle

  17. Handbook of high-level radioactive waste transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Handbook serves as a reference to which state officials and members of the general public may turn for information on radioactive waste transportation and on the federal government's system for transporting this waste under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Handbook condenses and updates information contained in the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. It is intended primarily to assist legislators who, in the future, may be called upon to enact legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste through their jurisdictions. The Handbook is divided into two sections. The first section places the federal government's program for transporting radioactive waste in context. It provides background information on nuclear waste production in the United States and traces the emergence of federal policy for disposing of radioactive waste. The second section covers the history of radioactive waste transportation; summarizes major pieces of legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste; and provides an overview of the radioactive waste transportation program developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To supplement this information, a summary of pertinent federal and state legislation and a glossary of terms are included as appendices, as is a list of publications produced by the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments (CSG-MW) as part of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project

  18. Michigan high-level radioactive waste program. Technical progress report for 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1985, five crystalline rock formations located in Michigan's Upper Peninsula were under consideration in the regional phase of the Department of Energy's (DOE) search for the site of the nation's second high-level radioactive waste repository. The Michigan Department of Public Health has been designated by the Governor as lead state agency in matters related to high-level radioactive waste (HLRW). Mr. Lee E. Jager, Chief of the Department's Bureau of Environmental and Occupational Health, has been designated as the state contact person in this matter, and the Bureau's Division of Radiological Health, Office of Radioactive Waste Management (ORWM), has been designated to provide staff support. Recognizing that adequate state involvement in the various aspects of the Federal high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) programs would require a range of expertise beyond the scope of any single state agency, Governor Blanchard established the High-Level Radioactive Waste Task Force in 1983. In support of the Task Force efforts concerning the implementation of its change, the Department negotiated and concluded an agreement with the DOE, under which federal funds are provided to support state HLRW activities. This report outlines state activities for the calendar year 1985, funded under that agreement

  19. The State of African Stock Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Mahama, Adnan

    2013-01-01

    The paper looks at the state of African stock markets during and after the global economic crisis of 2008. The research focuses on the market performance of 15 African stock exchanges from 2007-2012. The size and liquidity of stock markets in the African region is discussed in this thesis. In addition, it compares the performances of a few indexes in the emerging and developed markets to that of African indexes. Data is gathered from individual stock markets as well as notable institutions su...

  20. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  1. Extension of the African regional co-operative agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology (AFRA). Status of acceptances as of 30 September 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As of 30 September 1995, notifications of acceptance of the extension of the African Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (see INFCIRC/377), has been received by the Director General from the Governments of: Tunisia, Egypt, Madagascar, South Africa, Ethiopia, Algeria, Mauritius, Sudan, Tanzania, Cameroon, Kenya, Zaire, Morocco, Sierra Leone, Namibia, Nigeria, Ghana. Pursuant to Article XIV.2, (of the original Agreement) the extension entered into force on 4 April 1995, upon expiration of the original Agreement, and will remain in force for an additional period of 5 years, i.e. through 3 April 2000

  2. High-level expression of the native barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micheelsen, Pernille Ollendorff; Ostergaard, Peter Rahbek; Lange, Lene;

    2008-01-01

    An expression system for high-level expression of the native Hordeum vulgare alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) has been developed in Pichia pastoris, using the methanol inducible alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter. To optimize expression, two codon-optimized coding regions have been designed...... and expressed alongside the wild-type coding region. To ensure secretion of the native mature protein, a truncated version of the alpha mating factor secretion signal from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used. In order to be able to compare expression levels from different clones, single insertion...

  3. Structural analysis of the 5' flanking region of the β-globin gene in African sickle cell anemia patients: Further evidence for three origins of the sickle cell mutation in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haplotype analysis of the β-globin gene cluster shows two regions of DNA characterized by nonrandom association of restriction site polymorphisms. These regions are separated by a variable segment containing the repeated sequences (ATTTT)n and (AT)xTy, which might be involved in recombinational events. Studies of haplotypes linked to the sickle cell gene in Africa provide strong argument for three origins of the mutation: Benin, Senegal, and the Central African Republic. The structure of the variable segment in the three African populations was studied by S1 nuclease mapping of genomic DNA, which allows a comparison of several samples. A 1080-base-pair DNA segment was sequenced for one sample from each population. S1 nuclease mapping confirmed the homogeneity of each population with regard to both (ATTTT)n and (AT)xTy repeats. The authors found three additional structures for (AT)xTy correlating with the geographic origin of the patients. Ten other nucleotide positions, 5' and 3' to the (AT)xTy copies, were found to be variable when compared to homologous sequences from human and monkey DNAs. These results allow us to propose an evolutionary scheme for the polymorphisms in the 5' flanking region of the β-globin gene. The results strongly support the hypothesis of three origins for the sickle mutation in Africa

  4. Structural analysis of the 5 prime flanking region of the. beta. -globin gene in African sickle cell anemia patients: Further evidence for three origins of the sickle cell mutation in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chebloune, Y.; Pagnier, J.; Trabuchet, G.; Faure, C.; Verdier, G.; Labie, D.; Nigon, V. (Universite Claude Bernard-Lyon, Villeurbane (France))

    1988-06-01

    Haplotype analysis of the {beta}-globin gene cluster shows two regions of DNA characterized by nonrandom association of restriction site polymorphisms. These regions are separated by a variable segment containing the repeated sequences (ATTTT){sub n} and (AT){sub x}T{sub y}, which might be involved in recombinational events. Studies of haplotypes linked to the sickle cell gene in Africa provide strong argument for three origins of the mutation: Benin, Senegal, and the Central African Republic. The structure of the variable segment in the three African populations was studied by S1 nuclease mapping of genomic DNA, which allows a comparison of several samples. A 1080-base-pair DNA segment was sequenced for one sample from each population. S1 nuclease mapping confirmed the homogeneity of each population with regard to both (ATTTT){sub n} and (AT){sub x}T{sub y} repeats. The authors found three additional structures for (AT){sub x}T{sub y} correlating with the geographic origin of the patients. Ten other nucleotide positions, 5{prime} and 3{prime} to the (AT){sub x}T{sub y} copies, were found to be variable when compared to homologous sequences from human and monkey DNAs. These results allow us to propose an evolutionary scheme for the polymorphisms in the 5{prime} flanking region of the {beta}-globin gene. The results strongly support the hypothesis of three origins for the sickle mutation in Africa.

  5. High-level waste management technology program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this plan is to document the integrated technology program plan for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Management System. The mission of the SRS HLW System is to receive and store SRS high-level wastes in a see and environmentally sound, and to convert these wastes into forms suitable for final disposal. These final disposal forms are borosilicate glass to be sent to the Federal Repository, Saltstone grout to be disposed of on site, and treated waste water to be released to the environment via a permitted outfall. Thus, the technology development activities described herein are those activities required to enable successful accomplishment of this mission. The technology program is based on specific needs of the SRS HLW System and organized following the systems engineering level 3 functions. Technology needs for each level 3 function are listed as reference, enhancements, and alternatives. Finally, FY-95 funding, deliverables, and schedules are s in Chapter IV with details on the specific tasks that are funded in FY-95 provided in Appendix A. The information in this report represents the vision of activities as defined at the beginning of the fiscal year. Depending on emergent issues, funding changes, and other factors, programs and milestones may be adjusted during the fiscal year. The FY-95 SRS HLW technology program strongly emphasizes startup support for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and In-Tank Precipitation. Closure of technical issues associated with these operations has been given highest priority. Consequently, efforts on longer term enhancements and alternatives are receiving minimal funding. However, High-Level Waste Management is committed to participation in the national Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area. 4 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs

  6. High-level waste management technology program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the integrated technology program plan for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Management System. The mission of the SRS HLW System is to receive and store SRS high-level wastes in a see and environmentally sound, and to convert these wastes into forms suitable for final disposal. These final disposal forms are borosilicate glass to be sent to the Federal Repository, Saltstone grout to be disposed of on site, and treated waste water to be released to the environment via a permitted outfall. Thus, the technology development activities described herein are those activities required to enable successful accomplishment of this mission. The technology program is based on specific needs of the SRS HLW System and organized following the systems engineering level 3 functions. Technology needs for each level 3 function are listed as reference, enhancements, and alternatives. Finally, FY-95 funding, deliverables, and schedules are s in Chapter IV with details on the specific tasks that are funded in FY-95 provided in Appendix A. The information in this report represents the vision of activities as defined at the beginning of the fiscal year. Depending on emergent issues, funding changes, and other factors, programs and milestones may be adjusted during the fiscal year. The FY-95 SRS HLW technology program strongly emphasizes startup support for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and In-Tank Precipitation. Closure of technical issues associated with these operations has been given highest priority. Consequently, efforts on longer term enhancements and alternatives are receiving minimal funding. However, High-Level Waste Management is committed to participation in the national Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area. 4 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. High-Level Synthesis: Productivity, Performance, and Software Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available FPGAs are an attractive platform for applications with high computation demand and low energy consumption requirements. However, design effort for FPGA implementations remains high—often an order of magnitude larger than design effort using high-level languages. Instead of this time-consuming process, high-level synthesis (HLS tools generate hardware implementations from algorithm descriptions in languages such as C/C++ and SystemC. Such tools reduce design effort: high-level descriptions are more compact and less error prone. HLS tools promise hardware development abstracted from software designer knowledge of the implementation platform. In this paper, we present an unbiased study of the performance, usability and productivity of HLS using AutoPilot (a state-of-the-art HLS tool. In particular, we first evaluate AutoPilot using the popular embedded benchmark kernels. Then, to evaluate the suitability of HLS on real-world applications, we perform a case study of stereo matching, an active area of computer vision research that uses techniques also common for image denoising, image retrieval, feature matching, and face recognition. Based on our study, we provide insights on current limitations of mapping general-purpose software to hardware using HLS and some future directions for HLS tool development. We also offer several guidelines for hardware-friendly software design. For popular embedded benchmark kernels, the designs produced by HLS achieve 4X to 126X speedup over the software version. The stereo matching algorithms achieve between 3.5X and 67.9X speedup over software (but still less than manual RTL design with a fivefold reduction in design effort versus manual RTL design.

  8. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. E. Pettit

    2001-07-13

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms [IPWF]) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as co-disposal. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister inserted in the center and/or one or more DOE SNF canisters displacing a HLW canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by

  9. EPA's environmental standards for high-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Protection Agency recently published proposed standards for disposal of high-level radioactive waste (40 CFR Part 191) for public review and comment. These standards include quantitative limits on projected releases to the environment for 10,000 years after disposal as well as qualitative requirements to assure that these long-term containment requirements are met. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 requires that these standards be promulgated by January 7, 1984. This paper summarizes the proposed standards, reports on the status of the Agency's rulemaking process, discusses the technical analyses considered in developing the numerical containment requirements, and reviews several key issues associated with the proposed rule

  10. Decay rates of resonance states at high level density

    OpenAIRE

    Rotter, Ingrid; Gorin, Thomas; Persson, E

    2010-01-01

    The time dependent Schrödinger equation of an open quantum mechanical system is solved by using the stationary bi-orthogonal eigenfunctions of the non-Hermitean time independent Hamilton operator. We calculate the decay rates at low and high level density in two different formalism. The rates are, generally, time dependent and oscillate around an average value due to the non-orthogonality of the wavefunctions. The decay law is studied disregarding the oscillations. In the one-channel case, it...

  11. The high level and long lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the main conclusions of 15 years of researches managed by the CEA. This report is the preliminary version of the 2005 final report. It presents the main conclusions of the actions on the axis 1 and 3 of the law of the 30 December 1991. The synthesis report on the axis 1 concerns results obtained on the long lived radionuclides separation and transmutation in high level and long lived radioactive wastes. the synthesis report on the axis 3 presents results obtained by the processes of conditioning and of ground and underground long term storage. (A.L.B.)

  12. High-level nuclear waste disposal: Ethical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popular skepticism about, and moral objections to, recent legislation providing for the management and permanent disposal of high-level radioactive wastes have derived their credibility from two major sources: government procrastination in enacting waste disposal program, reinforcing public perceptions of their unprecedented danger and the inflated rhetoric and pretensions to professional omnicompetence of influential scientists with nuclear expertise. Ethical considerations not only can but must provide a mediating framework for the resolution of such a polarized political controversy. Implicit in moral objections to proposals for permanent nuclear waste disposal are concerns about three ethical principles: fairness to individuals, equitable protection among diverse social groups, and informed consent through due process and participation

  13. ATLAS High Level Trigger Infrastructure, ROI Collection and Event Building

    CERN Document Server

    Kordas, K; Baines, J T M; Beck, H P; Bee, C; Bogaerts, A; Bold, T; Bosman, M; Comune, G; Cranfield, R; Crone, G; Di Mattia, A; Dos Anjos, A; Ellis, Nick; Ertorer, E; Falciano, S; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, M L; Gadomski, S; Gameiro, S; Garitaonandia, H; George, S; Gesualdi-Mello, A; Gorini, B; Green, B; Haeberli, C; Haller, J; Hauser, R; Joos, M; Kieft, G; Klous, S; Kugel, A; Lankford, A; Liu, W; Maeno, T; Masik, J; Meessen, C; Misiejuk, A; Morettini, P; Müller, M; Nagasaka, Y; Negri, A; Padilla, C; Pasqualucci, E; Pauly, T; Perera, V J O; Petersen, J; Portes de Albuquerque, M; Schiavi, C; Schlereth, J L; Segura, E; Seixas, M; Spiwoks, R; Stamen, R; Strong, J; Sushkov, S; Tapprogge, S; Teixeira-Dias, P; Torres, R; Touchard, F; Tremblet, L; Ünel, G; Vandelli, W; Van Wasen, J; Vermeulen, J; Werner, P; Wheeler, S; Wickens, F; Wiedenmann, W; Wu, X; Yasu, Y; Yu, M; Zobernig, H

    2006-01-01

    We describe the base-line design and implementation of the Data Flow and High Level Trigger (HLT) part of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system. We then discuss improvements and generalization of the system design to allow the handling of events in parallel data streams and we present the possibility for event duplication, partial Event Building and data stripping. We then present tests on the deployment and integration of the TDAQ infrastructure and algorithms at the TDAQ â€?pre-series” cluster (~10% of full ATLAS TDAQ). Finally, we tackle two HLT performance issues.

  14. Remote experimental facility to solidify SRP high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small-scale equipment has been developed and installed in a remotely operated experimental facility at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to study immobilization of radioactive waste in glass. The facility has been in operation for nine months. During this period, two 25-liter batches of high-level waste from different SRP waste storage tanks were processed. The waste was boiled in sodium hydroxide to dissolve alumina trihydrate, washed with water to remove soluble salts, dried in a fluid-bed dryer, and vitrified in a joule-heated melter. Off-gases from the melter were collected for characterization

  15. Modern Alchemy: Solidifying high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy is putting a modern version of alchemy to work to produce an answer to a decades-old problem. It is taking place at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina and at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) near Buffalo, New York. At both locations, contractor Westinghouse Electric Corporation is applying technology that is turning liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) into a stabilized, durable glass for safer and easier management. The process is called vitrification. SRS and WVDP are now operating the nation''s first full-scale HLW vitrification plants

  16. Vitrification processing method and device for high level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A freeze-drying device is assembled to the midway of a line which connects a liquid waste tank and a melter in order to remove water. A freezing facility and a vacuum facility are connected to a drying box. With such a constitution, water is removed before supplying the high level liquid wastes to the melter, and the solid material removed with water is charged into the melter, and a vitrification material is formed. Accordingly, scattering of nuclides generated upon removing water can be reduced, and there is no need to dispose complicated equipments in the melter, thereby simplifying installation. (T.M.)

  17. Spanish high level radioactive waste management system issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Empresa Nacional de Residuous Radiactivos, S.A. (ENRESA) was set up in 1984 as a state-owned limited liability company to be responsible for the management of all kinds of radioactive wastes in Spain. This paper provides an overview of the strategy and main lines of action stated in the third General Radioactive Waste Plan, currently in force, for the management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level wastes, as well as an outline of the main related projects, either being developed or foreseen. Aspects concerning the organizational structure, the economic and financing system and the international co-operational are also included

  18. High-level neutron coincidence counter maintenance manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swansen, J.; Collinsworth, P.

    1983-05-01

    High-level neutron coincidence counter operational (field) calibration and usage is well known. This manual makes explicit basic (shop) check-out, calibration, and testing of new units and is a guide for repair of failed in-service units. Operational criteria for the major electronic functions are detailed, as are adjustments and calibration procedures, and recurrent mechanical/electromechanical problems are addressed. Some system tests are included for quality assurance. Data on nonstandard large-scale integrated (circuit) components and a schematic set are also included.

  19. Corrosion and failure processes in high-level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large amount of radioactive waste has been stored safely at the Savannah River and Hanford sites over the past 46 years. The aim of this report is to review the experimental corrosion studies at Savannah River and Hanford with the intention of identifying the types and rates of corrosion encountered and indicate how these data contribute to tank failure predictions. The compositions of the High-Level Wastes, mild steels used in the construction of the waste tanks and degradation-modes particularly stress corrosion cracking and pitting are discussed. Current concerns at the Hanford Site are highlighted

  20. Deployment of the ATLAS High-Level Triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Anjos, A; Baines, J T M; Beck, H P; Bee, C P; Biglietti, M; Bogaerts, J A C; Bosman, M; Burckhart, Doris; Caprini, M; Caron, B; Casado, M P; Cataldi, G; Cavalli, D; Ciobotaru, M; Comune, G; Conde, P; Corso-Radu, A; Crone, G; Damazio, D; De Santo, A; Díaz-Gómez, M; Di Mattia, A; Dobson, M; Ellis, Nick; Emeliyanov, D; Epp, B; Falciano, S; Ferrari, R; Francis, D; Gadomski, S; Gameiro, S; Garitaonandia, H; George, S; Ghete, V; Goncalo, R; Gorini, B; Gruwé, M; Haeberli, C; Haller, J; Joos, M; Kabana, S; Kazarov, A; Khomich, A; Kilvington, G; Kirk, J; Kolos, S; Konstantinidis, N P; Kootz, A; Lankford, A; Lehmann, G; Lowe, A; Luminari, L; Maeno, T; Masik, J; Meirosu, C; Meessen, C; Mello, A G; Moore, R; Morettini, P; Negri, A; Nikitin, N; Nisati, A; Osuna, C; Padilla, C; Panikashvili, N; Parodi, F; Pasqualucci, E; Pérez-Réale, V; Petersen, J; Pinfold, J L; Pinto, P; Qian, Z; Resconi, S; Rosati, S; Sánchez, C; Santamarina-Rios, C; Scannicchio, D A; Schiavi, C; Segura, E; Seixas, J M; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Sloper, J; Sobreira, A; Soloviev, I; Soluk, R A; Stancu, S; Stefanidis, E; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Thomas, E; Touchard, F; Tremblet, L; Ünel, G; Usai, G; Vandelli, Wainer R; Venda-Pinto, B; Ventura, A; Vercesi, V; Wengler, T; Werner, P; Wheeler, S J; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wiesmann, M; Yasu, Y; Zobernig, G; 14th IEEE - NPSS Real Time Conference 2005 Nuclear Plasma Sciences Society

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS combined test beam in the second half of 2004 saw the first deployment of the ATLAS High-Level Triggers (HLT). The next steps are deployment on the pre-series farms in the experimental area during 2005, commissioning and cosmics tests in 2006 and collisions in 2007. This paper reviews the experience gained in the test beam, describes the current status and discusses the further enhancements to be made. We address issues related to the dataflow, selection algorithms, testing, software distribution, installation and improvements.

  1. A critically educated public explores high level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is vital to the citizens of Nevada that they and their children are given an opportunity to explore all sides of the characterization of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository site for spent nuclear fuel. The state-wide, national and international implications demand a reasoned and complete approach to this issue, which has become emotionally and irrationally charged and fueled by incomplete perception and information. The purpose of this paper is to provide curriculum suggestions and recommend concomitant policy developments that will lead to the implementation of a Critical Thinking (CT) approach to High Level Radioactive Waste Management

  2. High level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal a global challenge

    CERN Document Server

    PUSCH, R; NAKANO, M

    2011-01-01

    High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Disposal, A Global Challenge presents the most recent information on proposed methods of disposal for the most dangerous radioactive waste and for assessing their function from short- and long-term perspectives. It discusses new aspects of the disposal of such waste, especially HLW.The book is unique in the literature in making it clear that, due to tectonics and long-term changes in rock structure, rock can serve only as a ""mechanical support to the chemical apparatus"" and that effective containment of hazardous elements can only be managed by properly des

  3. Addressing Future Demand for High-Level ICT Skills

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study, undertaken by Forfás / EGFSN is to forecast the demand over the period 2013-2018, for high-level ICT skills arising both within the broad ICT sector and across other sectors of the economy. The study is included as an action within the Governments Action Plan for Jobs 2013. The plan highlights the ambition that Ireland will build up its ICT skills capacity to drive the further expansion and development of the ICT sector and to support innovation and growth across other ...

  4. Design and Prototyping of the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.A.C.Bogaerts

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines the desgn and prototyping of the ATLAS High Level Trigger(HLT)wihch is a combined effort of the Data Collection HLT and PESA(Physics and Event Selection Architecture)subgroups within the ATLAS TDAQ collaboration.Two important issues,alresdy outlined in the ATLAS HLT,DAQ and DCS Technical Proposal [1] will be highlighted:the treatment of the LVL2 Trigger and Event Filter as aspects of a general HLT with a view to easier migration of algorthms between the two levels;unification of the selective data collection for LVL2 and Event Building.

  5. Characterizing speed-independence of high-level designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kishinevsky, Michael; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    This paper characterizes the speed-independence of high-level designs. The characterization is a condition on the design description ensuring that the behavior of the design is independent of the speeds of its components. The behavior of a circuit is modeled as a transition system, that allows data...... types, and internal as well as external non-determinism. This makes it possible to verify the speed-independence of a design without providing an explicit realization of the environment. The verification can be done mechanically. A number of experimental designs have been verified including a speed...

  6. High-level neutron coincidence counter maintenance manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-level neutron coincidence counter operational (field) calibration and usage is well known. This manual makes explicit basic (shop) check-out, calibration, and testing of new units and is a guide for repair of failed in-service units. Operational criteria for the major electronic functions are detailed, as are adjustments and calibration procedures, and recurrent mechanical/electromechanical problems are addressed. Some system tests are included for quality assurance. Data on nonstandard large-scale integrated (circuit) components and a schematic set are also included

  7. Progress in defense high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is making good progress in its program to dispose of Defense High-Level Waste (DHLW) stored at the Savannah River Laboratory in South Carolina; Hanford Site in Washington; and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in Idaho. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at Savannah River is more than 65% complete, the Hanford Site has issued its Environmental Impact Statement on disposal alternatives, and Idaho is developing disposal strategy. A decision has been made to dispose of DHLW in the civilian geologic repositories being developed as part of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), and the waste acceptance process has been defined

  8. High-Level Information Fusion Management and Systems Design

    CERN Document Server

    Blasch, Erik; Lambert, Dale

    2012-01-01

    High-level information fusion is the ability of a fusion system to capture awareness and complex relations, reason over past and future events, utilize direct sensing exploitations and tacit reports, and discern the usefulness and intention of results to meet system-level goals. This authoritative book serves a practical reference for developers, designers, and users of data fusion services that must relate the most recent theory to real-world applications. This unique volume provides alternative methods to represent and model various situations and describes design component implementations o

  9. High level expression and purification of HhaI methyltransferase.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, J. C.; Santi, D V

    1988-01-01

    A cloning system for the DNA-(cytosine-5)-methyltransferase MHhaI and high level expression of the enzyme are described. A parent plasmid was constructed from fragments of the MHhaI gene and synthetic oligonucleotides. The construct permits introduction of various restriction sites for cloning at precise positions near the initiation codon, and beyond the termination codon. The entire MHhaI coding sequence was introduced as a 1042 b.p. NdeI-XbaI fragment into the vector pAR3040 which contains...

  10. Extension of the African regional co-operative agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology (AFRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document presents the status of acceptances as of 21 September 1998 of the extension of the African Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) which entered into force on 4 April 1995, upon expiration of the original Agreement, and will remain in force for an additional period of 5 years, i.e. through 3 April 2000

  11. Extension of the African Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document presents the status of acceptances as of 6 October 1999 of the extension of the African Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) which entered into force on 4 April 1995, upon expiration of the original Agreement, and will remain in force for an additional period of 5 years, i.e. through 3 April 2000. There are 26 States which notified the acceptance of the Agreement extension

  12. Extension of the African regional co-operative agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology (AFRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document presents the status of acceptances as of 16 March 1999 of the extension of the African Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) which entered into force on 4 April 1995, upon expiration of the original Agreement, and will remain in force for an additional period of 5 years, i.e. through 3 April 2000. There are 25 States which notified the acceptance of the Agreement extension

  13. Diversity among African pygmies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando V Ramírez Rozzi

    Full Text Available Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies.

  14. Permitting plan for the high-level waste interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document addresses the environmental permitting requirements for the transportation and interim storage of solidified high-level waste (HLW) produced during Phase 1 of the Hanford Site privatization effort. Solidified HLW consists of canisters containing vitrified HLW (glass) and containers that hold cesium separated during low-level waste pretreatment. The glass canisters and cesium containers will be transported to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-provided transportation cask via diesel-powered tractor trailer. Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Milestone M-90 establishes a new major milestone, and associated interim milestones and target dates, governing acquisition and/or modification of facilities necessary for: (1) interim storage of Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) immobilized HLW (IHLW) and other canistered high-level waste forms; and (2) interim storage and disposal of TWRS immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW). An environmental requirements checklist and narrative was developed to identify the permitting path forward for the HLW interim storage (HLWIS) project (See Appendix B). This permitting plan will follow the permitting logic developed in that checklist

  15. High level language-based robotic control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor); Kreutz, Kenneth K. (Inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

  16. Risk communication system for high level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to gain a better understanding and acceptance of the task of implementing high level radioactive waste disposal, a study on new communication system about social risk information has been initiated by noticing the rapid expansion of Internet in the society. First, text mining method was introduced to identify the core public interest, examining public comments on the technical report of high level radioactive waste disposal. Then we designed the dialog-mode contents based on the theory of norm activation by Schwartz. Finally, the discussion board was mounted on the web site. By constructing such web communication system which includes knowledge base contents, introspective contents, and interactive discussion board, we conducted the experiment for verifying the principles such as that the basic technical knowledge and trust, and social ethics are indispensable in this process to close the perception gap between nuclear specialists and the general public. The participants of the experiment increased their interest in the topics with which they were not familiar and actively posted their opinions on the BBS. The dialog-mode contents were significantly more effective than the knowledge-based contents in promoting introspection that brought people into a greater awareness of problems such as social dilemma. (author)

  17. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING ENABLING ORGANIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste streams planned for generation by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and existing radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) streams containing organic compounds such as the Tank 48H waste stream at Savannah River Site have completed simulant and radioactive testing, respectfully, by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). GNEP waste streams will include up to 53 wt% organic compounds and nitrates up to 56 wt%. Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. provided by organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce NOX in the off-gas to N2 to meet Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during the waste form stabilization process regardless of the GNEP processes utilized and exists in some of the high level radioactive waste tanks at Savannah River Site and Hanford Tank Farms, e.g. organics in the feed or organics used for nitrate destruction. Waste streams containing high organic concentrations cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by pretreatment. The alternative waste stabilization pretreatment process of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operates at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). The FBSR process has been demonstrated on GNEP simulated waste and radioactive waste containing high organics from Tank 48H to convert organics to CAA compliant gases, create no secondary liquid waste streams and create a stable mineral waste form

  18. Executive functions in kindergarteners with high levels of disruptive behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monette, Sébastien; Bigras, Marc; Guay, Marie-Claude

    2015-11-01

    Executive function (EF) deficits have yet to be demonstrated convincingly in children with disruptive behaviour disorders (DBD), as only a few studies have reported these. The presence of EF weaknesses in children with DBD has often been contested on account of the high comorbidity between DBD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and of methodological shortcomings regarding EF measures. Against this background, the link between EF and disruptive behaviours in kindergarteners was investigated using a carefully selected battery of EF measures. Three groups of kindergarteners were compared: (1) a group combining high levels of disruptive behaviours and ADHD symptoms (COMB); (2) a group presenting high levels of disruptive/aggressive behaviours and low levels of ADHD symptoms (AGG); and (3) a normative group (NOR). Children in the COMB and AGG groups presented weaker inhibition capacities compared with normative peers. Also, only the COMB group showed weaker working memory capacities compared with the NOR group. Results support the idea that preschool children with DBD have weaker inhibition capacities and that this weakness could be common to both ADHD and DBD. PMID:26198079

  19. Radiolytic gas formation in high-level liquid waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-level fission product waste solutions originating from the first-cycle raffinate stream of spent fast breeder reactor fuel reprocessing have been investigated gas chromatographically for their radiolytic and chemical gas production. The solutions showed considerable formation of hydrogen, carbon dioxide and dinitrogen oxide, whereas atmospheric oxygen was consumed completely within a short time. In particular, carbon dioxide resulted from the radiolytic degradation of entrained organic solvent. After nearly complete degradation of the organic solvent, the influence of hydrazine and nitrogen dioxide on hydrogen formation was investigated. Hydrazinium hydroxide led to the formation of dinitrogen oxide and nitrogen. After 60 d, the concentration of dinitrogen oxide had reduced to zero, whereas the amount of nitrogen formed had reached a maximum. This may be explained by simultaneous chemical and radiolytic reactions leading to the formation of dinitrogen oxide and nitrogen and photolytic fission of dinitrogen oxide. Addition of sodium nitrite resulted in the rapid formation of dinitrogen oxide. The rate of hydrogen production was not changed significantly after the addition of hydrazine or nitrite. The results indicate that under normal operating conditions no dangerous hydrogen radiolysis yields should develop in the course of reprocessing and high-level liquid waste tank storage. Organic entrainment may lead to enhanced radiolytic decomposition and thus to considerable hydrogen production rates and pressure build-up in closed systems. (author)

  20. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING ENABLING ORGANIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M

    2008-05-09

    Waste streams planned for generation by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and existing radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) streams containing organic compounds such as the Tank 48H waste stream at Savannah River Site have completed simulant and radioactive testing, respectfully, by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). GNEP waste streams will include up to 53 wt% organic compounds and nitrates up to 56 wt%. Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. provided by organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce NOX in the off-gas to N2 to meet Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during the waste form stabilization process regardless of the GNEP processes utilized and exists in some of the high level radioactive waste tanks at Savannah River Site and Hanford Tank Farms, e.g. organics in the feed or organics used for nitrate destruction. Waste streams containing high organic concentrations cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by pretreatment. The alternative waste stabilization pretreatment process of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operates at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). The FBSR process has been demonstrated on GNEP simulated waste and radioactive waste containing high organics from Tank 48H to convert organics to CAA compliant gases, create no secondary liquid waste streams and create a stable mineral waste form.

  1. High-level power analysis and optimization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunathan, Anand

    1997-12-01

    This thesis combines two ubiquitous trends in the VLSI design world--the move towards designing at higher levels of design abstraction, and the increasing importance of power consumption as a design metric. Power estimation and optimization tools are becoming an increasingly important part of design flows, driven by a variety of requirements such as prolonging battery life in portable computing and communication devices, thermal considerations and system cooling and packaging costs, reliability issues (e.g. electromigration, ground bounce, and I-R drops in the power network), and environmental concerns. This thesis presents a suite of techniques to automatically perform power analysis and optimization for designs at the architecture or register-transfer, and behavior or algorithm levels of the design hierarchy. High-level synthesis refers to the process of synthesizing, from an abstract behavioral description, a register-transfer implementation that satisfies the desired constraints. High-level synthesis tools typically perform one or more of the following tasks: transformations, module selection, clock selection, scheduling, and resource allocation and assignment (also called resource sharing or hardware sharing). High-level synthesis techniques for minimizing the area, maximizing the performance, and enhancing the testability of the synthesized designs have been investigated. This thesis presents high-level synthesis techniques that minimize power consumption in the synthesized data paths. This thesis investigates the effects of resource sharing on the power consumption in the data path, provides techniques to efficiently estimate power consumption during resource sharing, and resource sharing algorithms to minimize power consumption. The RTL circuit that is obtained from the high-level synthesis process can be further optimized for power by applying power-reducing RTL transformations. This thesis presents macro-modeling and estimation techniques for switching

  2. Second workshop of participants in the Joint FAO-IOC-WHO-IAEA-UNEP project on monitoring of pollution in the marine environment of the West and Central African Region (WACAF/2 - first phase)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Second Workshop of Participants in the Joint FAO-IOC-WHO-IAEA-UNEP Project on Monitoring of Pollution in the Marine Environment of the West and Central African Region (WACAF/2) was attended by 29 participants from 10 countries (Senegal, The Gambia, Sierra Leone, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroun, Congo and Gabon). Levels of metals, chlorinated hydrocarbons and petroleum components in marine biota were discussed in seven scientific reports which were presented by the participating scientists (Cote d'Ivoire, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, The Gambia, ghana and Cameroun). Three of the presented reports were on organochlorines and four dealt with trace metal levels in marine organisms. The Representative of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reviewed the results obtained during the data quality assurance intercalibration exercises carried out in the region during the first phase. The result received are still within acceptable range. However, there seems to be a trend for values to be higher than the range of finally certified concentrations. Considering that most results were clearly better in the second exercise, after equipment service, part of the earlier deviation might be attributed to instrument malfunctions. These results can be regarded as fairly encouraging for the future development in the West and Central African marine pollution monitoring programme. Refs, tabs

  3. Modeling and optimization of defense high level waste removal sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Pran Krishna

    A novel methodology has been developed which makes possible a very fast running computational tool, capable of performing 30 to 50 years of simulation of the entire Savannah River Site (SRS) high level waste complex in less than 2 minutes on a work station. The methodology has been implemented in the Production Planning Model (ProdMod) simulation code which uses Aspen Technology's dynamic simulation software development package SPEEDUP. ProdMod is a pseudo-dynamic simulation code solely based on algebraic equations, using no differential equations. The dynamic nature of the plant process is captured using linear constructs in which the time dependence is implicit. Another innovative approach implemented in ProdMod development is the mapping of event-space on to time-space and vice versa, which accelerates the computation without sacrificing the necessary details in the event-space. ProdMod uses this approach in coupling the time-space continuous simulation with the event-space batch simulation, avoiding the discontinuities inherent in dynamic simulation batch processing. In addition, a general purpose optimization scheme has been devised based on the pseudo-dynamic constructs and the event- and time-space algorithms of ProdMod. The optimization scheme couples a FORTRAN based stand-alone optimization driver with the SPEEDUP based ProdMod simulator to perform dynamic optimization. The scheme is capable of generating single or multiple optimal input conditions for different types of objective functions over single or multiple years of operations depending on the nature of the objective function and operating constraints. The resultant optimal inputs are then interfaced with ProdMod to simulate the dynamic behavior of the waste processing operations. At the conclusion on an optimized advancement step, the simulation parameters are then passed to the optimization driver to generate the next set of optimized parameters. An optimization algorithm using linear programming

  4. Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A necessary step in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed preparation for the immobilization of High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) is reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0), permitting steam stripping of the Hg. Denitrition and associated NOx evolution is a secondary effect of the use of formic acid as the mercury-reducing agent. Under certain conditions the presence of transition or noble metals can result in significant formic acid decomposition, with associated CO2 and H2 evolution. These processes can result in varying redox properties of melter feed, and varying sequential gaseous evolution of oxidants and hydrogen. Electrochemical methods for monitoring the competing processes are discussed. Laboratory scale techniques have been developed for simulating the large-scale reactions, investigating the relative effectiveness of the catalysts, and the effectiveness of catalytic poisons. The reversible nitrite poisoning of formic acid catalysts is discussed

  5. Prospective science teachers high level conceptions about electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the physics subjects that students have difficulties in understanding and applying during their education at school and daily lives is the electricity. The purpose of this study is to observe longitudinally the understandings of the prospective science teachers about electrostatic, Ohm's law, circuits in series and parallel and electrical potential. 32 students were given open-ended questions after they had Physics-2 course for identifying their high level conceptions during instructional year of 2003. Two years later, the same students were again given the same questions in order to clarify if there is a change in their conceptions. It was found that there is not any significant difference between stud conceptions in terms of the years

  6. High-level waste tank farm set point document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setpoints for nuclear safety-related instrumentation are required for actions determined by the design authorization basis. Minimum requirements need to be established for assuring that setpoints are established and held within specified limits. This document establishes the controlling methodology for changing setpoints of all classifications. The instrumentation under consideration involve the transfer, storage, and volume reduction of radioactive liquid waste in the F- and H-Area High-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Farms. The setpoint document will encompass the PROCESS AREA listed in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) (DPSTSA-200-10 Sup 18) which includes the diversion box HDB-8 facility. In addition to the PROCESS AREAS listed in the SAR, Building 299-H and the Effluent Transfer Facility (ETF) are also included in the scope

  7. Monitoring of geological repositories for high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geological repositories for disposal of high level radioactive waste are designed to provide isolation of the waste from human environment for many thousands of years. This report discusses the possible purposes for monitoring geological repositories at the different stages of a repository programme, the use that may be made of the information obtained and the techniques that might be applied. This report focuses on the different objectives that monitoring might have at various stages of a programme, from the initiation of work on a candidate site, to the period after repository closure. Each objective may require somewhat different types of information, or may use the same information in different ways. Having evaluated monitoring requirements, the report concludes with a brief evaluation of available monitoring techniques

  8. Immobilization of high-level wastes into sintered glass: 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to immobilize the high-level radioactive wastes from fuel elements reprocessing, borosilicate glass was adopted. Sintering experiments are described with the variety VG 98/12 (SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, B2O3, MgO, CaO and Na2O) (which does not present devitrification problems) mixed with simulated calcinated wastes. The hot pressing line (sintering under pressure) was explored in two variants 1: In can; 2: In graphite matrix with sintered pellet extraction. With scanning electron microscopy it is observed that the simulated wastes do not disolve in the vitreous matrix, but they remain dispersed in the same. The results obtained point out that the leaching velocities are independent from the density and from the matrix type employed, as well as from the fact that the wastes do no dissolve in the matrix. (M.E.L.)

  9. High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2006-04-20

    This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

  10. Tree-indexed processes: a high level crossing analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Kelbert

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Consider a branching diffusion process on R1 starting at the origin. Take a high level u>0 and count the number R(u,n of branches reaching u by generation n. Let Fk,n(u be the probability P(R(u,n

  11. The design of high level radioactive waste disposal container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilization of nuclear energy can produce radioactive wastes. The disposal of wastes is highly concerned, especially for the high level radioactive wastes (HLW) which are characterized by nuclides of very high initial radioactivity, large thermal emissivity and the long life-term. The deep geological disposal is regarded as the most reasonable and effective way to safely dispose HLW in the world. The conceptual model of HLW geological disposal in China is based on a multi-barrier system which combines an isolating geological environment with an engineering barrier system (EBS). The EBS include the HLW, HLW canister, disposal container, buffer materials and backfill materials. The disposal container is the most important barrier for isolating the HLW from the surroundings owing to the integrity and corrosion proof of the container. According to the character of the content, two types of container BV and BG are discussed in this paper, focusing on the material, structure and disposal method of these containers. (authors)

  12. High level integration of remote handling control systems at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reduce the timescale of the JET Enhanced Performance 2 (EP2) shutdown, two multi-jointed Booms instead of one will be used for maintenance and upgrades inside the JET vessel. To fully utilize this new configuration, the control systems of the Booms have been modified at a high level to allow quick and safe interactions between them. This paper will discuss how the control systems of the Booms have been integrated to exploit the increased mechanical functionality of the Octant 1 Boom, and will demonstrate how this has improved safety, utility and efficiency for the remote handling operators during the EP2 shutdown. Other operational streamlining functions will be mentioned, as well as a look to the future of Remote Handling at JET.

  13. FADO 2.0: A high level tagging language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FADO 2.0 is a high level language, developed in the context of the 4th level trigger of the DELPHI data acquisition project at CERN, that provides a simple and concise way to define physics criteria for event tagging. Its syntax is based on mathematical logic and set theory, as it was found the most appropriate framework to describe the properties of single HEP events. The language is one of the components of the FADO tagging system. The system also implements implicitly a mechanism to selectively reconstruct the event data that are needed to fulfil the physics criteria, following the speed requirements of the online data-acquisition system. A complete programming environment is now under development, which will include a syntax directed editor, and incremental compiler, a debugger and a configurer. This last tool can be used to transport the system into the context of other HEP applications, namely offline event selection and filtering. (orig.)

  14. High level radioactive waste vitrification process equipment component testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote operability and maintainability of vitrification equipment were assessed under shielded-cell conditions. The equipment tested will be applied to immobilize high-level and transuranic liquid waste slurries that resulted from plutonium production for defense weapons. Equipment tested included: a turntable for handling waste canisters under the melter; a removable discharge cone in the melter overflow section; a thermocouple jumper that extends into a shielded cell; remote instrument and electrical connectors; remote, mechanical, and heat transfer aspects of the melter glass overflow section; a reamer to clean out plugged nozzles in the melter top; a closed circuit camera to view the melter interior; and a device to retrieve samples of the glass product. A test was also conducted to evaluate liquid metals for use in a liquid metal sealing system

  15. Separation processes for high-level radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During World War II, production of nuclear materials in the United States for national defense, high-level waste (HLW) was generated as a byproduct. Since that time, further quantities of HLW radionuclides have been generated by continued nuclear materials production, research, and the commercial nuclear power program. In this paper HLW is defined as the highly radioactive material resulting from the processing of spent nuclear fuel. The HLW is the liquid waste generated during the recovery of uranium and plutonium in a fuel processing plant that generally contains more than 99% of the nonvolatile fission products produced during reactor operation. Since this paper deals with waste separation processes, spent reactor fuel elements that have not been dissolved and further processed are excluded

  16. High-Level Language Production in Parkinson's Disease: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori J. P. Altmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses impairments of high-level, complex language production in Parkinson's disease (PD, defined as sentence and discourse production, and situates these impairments within the framework of current psycholinguistic theories of language production. The paper comprises three major sections, an overview of the effects of PD on the brain and cognition, a review of the literature on language production in PD, and a discussion of the stages of the language production process that are impaired in PD. Overall, the literature converges on a few common characteristics of language production in PD: reduced information content, impaired grammaticality, disrupted fluency, and reduced syntactic complexity. Many studies also document the strong impact of differences in cognitive ability on language production. Based on the data, PD affects all stages of language production including conceptualization and functional and positional processing. Furthermore, impairments at all stages appear to be exacerbated by impairments in cognitive abilities.

  17. The ALICE High Level Trigger: status and plans

    CERN Document Server

    Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Gorbunov, Sergey; Breitner, Timo; Lehrbach, Johannes; Lindenstruth, Volker; Berzano, Dario

    2015-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is an online reconstruction, triggering and data compression system used in the ALICE experiment at CERN. Unique among the LHC experiments, it extensively uses modern coprocessor technologies like general purpose graphic processing units (GPGPU) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) in the data flow. Realtime data compression is performed using a cluster finder algorithm implemented on FPGA boards. These data, instead of raw clusters, are used in the subsequent processing and storage, resulting in a compression factor of around 4. Track finding is performed using a cellular automaton and a Kalman filter algorithm on GPGPU hardware, where both CUDA and OpenCL technologies can be used interchangeably. The ALICE upgrade requires further development of online concepts to include detector calibration and stronger data compression. The current HLT farm will be used as a test bed for online calibration and both synchronous and asynchronous processing frameworks already before t...

  18. High-level waste tank farm set point document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, J.A. III

    1995-01-15

    Setpoints for nuclear safety-related instrumentation are required for actions determined by the design authorization basis. Minimum requirements need to be established for assuring that setpoints are established and held within specified limits. This document establishes the controlling methodology for changing setpoints of all classifications. The instrumentation under consideration involve the transfer, storage, and volume reduction of radioactive liquid waste in the F- and H-Area High-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Farms. The setpoint document will encompass the PROCESS AREA listed in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) (DPSTSA-200-10 Sup 18) which includes the diversion box HDB-8 facility. In addition to the PROCESS AREAS listed in the SAR, Building 299-H and the Effluent Transfer Facility (ETF) are also included in the scope.

  19. Supervision of the ATLAS High Level Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Wheeler, S; Baines, J T M; Bee, C P; Biglietti, M; Bogaerts, A; Boisvert, V; Bosman, M; Brandt, S; Caron, B; Casado, M P; Cataldi, G; Cavalli, D; Cervetto, M; Comune, G; Corso-Radu, A; De Seixas, J M; Di Mattia, A; Dos Anjos, A; Drohan, J; Díaz-Gómez, M; Ellis, Nick; Elsing, M; Epp, B; Etienne, F; Falciano, S; Farilla, A; Flammer, J; George, S; Ghete, V M; González, S; Grothe, M; Kaczmarska, A; Karr, K M; Khomich, A; Konstantinidis, N P; Krasny, W; Li, W; Lowe, A; Luminari, L; Ma, H; Meessen, C; Mello, A G; Merino, G; Morettini, P; Moyse, E; Nairz, A; Negri, A; Negri, F A; Nikitin, N V; Nisati, A; Padilla, C; Parodi, F; Pinfold, J L; Pinto, P; Polesello, G; Pérez-Réale, V; Qian, Z; Rajagopalan, S; Resconi, S; Rosati, S; Scannicchio, D A; Schiavi, C; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Segura, E; Shears, T G; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Smizanska, M; Soluk, R A; Stanescu, C; Tapprogge, Stefan; Touchard, F; Vercesi, V; Watson, A; Wengler, T; Werner, P; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Zobernig, G; Zobernig, H; CHEP 2003 Computing in High Energy Physics; Negri, France A.

    2003-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) system provides software-based event selection after the initial LVL1 hardware trigger. It is composed of two stages, the LVL2 trigger and the Event Filter. The HLT is implemented as software tasks running on large processor farms. An essential part of the HLT is the supervision system, which is responsible for configuring, coordinating, controlling and monitoring the many hundreds of processes running in the HLT. A prototype implementation of the supervision system, using tools from the ATLAS Online Software system is presented. Results from scalability tests are also presented where the supervision system was shown to be capable of controlling over 1000 HLT processes running on 230 nodes.

  20. Disposal of high-level radioactive waste into crystalline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the European Community indirect action programme related to the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes to geological formations, the United Kingdom and France, without commitment, have conducted research on crystalline rocks. With other countries of the Community an inventory has been drawn up of various potential host-rocks, including crystalline massifs. From this inventory 24 areas in the UK and 11 in France were selected for examination using published information. Further studies led to a reduction to 8 in the UK and 2 in France for more detailed investigations. The methodology for area and research site selection is presented, together with details of the investigative techniques employed, by reference to the preliminary results of the fieldwork. Supporting research related to hydrology, water age determinations, hydrothermal reactivity, corrosion and nuclide migration are also described briefly. A number of future research requirements are identified

  1. Managing the nation's commercial high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the findings and conclusions of OTA's analysis of Federal policy for the management of commercial high-level radioactive waste. Broad in scope and balanced in approach, its coverage extends from technological and organizational questions to political ramifications...the environmental impact of building repositories...and even dealing with Indian tribes affected by repository site selection and development. Emphasis is on workable strategies for implementing the National Waste Policy Act of 1982, including a mission plan for the program...a monitored retrievable storage proposal...and a report on mechanisms for financing and managing the program. Nine appendicies are included. They furnish additional data on such topics as policymaking, history, and the system issues resolved in NWPA

  2. High level architecture evolved modular federation object model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wenguang; Chen, Xin; Li, Qun; Wang, Weiping

    2009-01-01

    To improve the agility, dynamics, composability, reusability, and development efficiency restricted by monolithic Federation Object Model (FOM), a modular FOM was proposed by High Level Architecture (HLA) Evolved product development group. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of HLA Evolved modular FOM. In particular, related concepts, the overall impact on HLA standards, extension principles, and merging processes are discussed. Also permitted and restricted combinations, and merging rules are provided, and the influence on HLA interface specification is given. The comparison between modular FOM and Base Object Model (BOM) is performed to illustrate the importance of their combination. The applications of modular FOM are summarized. Finally, the significance to facilitate composable simulation both in academia and practice is presented and future directions are pointed out.

  3. Using the CMS high level trigger as a cloud resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CMS High Level Trigger is a compute farm of more than 10,000 cores. During data taking this resource is heavily used and is an integral part of the experiment's triggering system. However, outside of data taking periods this resource is largely unused. We describe why CMS wants to use the HLT as a cloud resource (outside of data taking periods) and how this has been achieved. In doing this we have turned a single-use cluster into an agile resource for CMS production computing. While we are able to use the HLT as a production cloud resource, there is still considerable further work that CMS needs to carry out before this resource can be used with the desired agility. This report, therefore, represents a snapshot of this activity at the time of CHEP 2013.

  4. A high-level language for rule-based modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Michael; Phillips, Andrew; Plotkin, Gordon D

    2015-01-01

    Rule-based languages such as Kappa excel in their support for handling the combinatorial complexities prevalent in many biological systems, including signalling pathways. But Kappa provides little structure for organising rules, and large models can therefore be hard to read and maintain. This paper introduces a high-level, modular extension of Kappa called LBS-κ. We demonstrate the constructs of the language through examples and three case studies: a chemotaxis switch ring, a MAPK cascade, and an insulin signalling pathway. We then provide a formal definition of LBS-κ through an abstract syntax and a translation to plain Kappa. The translation is implemented in a compiler tool which is available as a web application. We finally demonstrate how to increase the expressivity of LBS-κ through embedded scripts in a general-purpose programming language, a technique which we view as generally applicable to other domain specific languages. PMID:26043208

  5. The development of a high level radioactive waste management strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of high level radioactive waste, from the removal of spent fuel from reactors to final disposal of vitrified waste, involves a complex choice of operational variables which interact one with another. If the various operations are designed and developed in isolation it will almost certainly lead to suboptimal choice. Management of highly active waste should therefore be viewed as a complete system and analysed in such a way that account is taken of the interactions between the various operations. This system must have clearly defined and agreed objectives as well as criteria against which performance can be judged. A thorough analysis of the system will provide a framework within which the necessary research and development can be carried out in a co-ordinated fashion and lead to an optimised strategy for managing highly active wastes. (author)

  6. A high-level language for rule-based modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pedersen

    Full Text Available Rule-based languages such as Kappa excel in their support for handling the combinatorial complexities prevalent in many biological systems, including signalling pathways. But Kappa provides little structure for organising rules, and large models can therefore be hard to read and maintain. This paper introduces a high-level, modular extension of Kappa called LBS-κ. We demonstrate the constructs of the language through examples and three case studies: a chemotaxis switch ring, a MAPK cascade, and an insulin signalling pathway. We then provide a formal definition of LBS-κ through an abstract syntax and a translation to plain Kappa. The translation is implemented in a compiler tool which is available as a web application. We finally demonstrate how to increase the expressivity of LBS-κ through embedded scripts in a general-purpose programming language, a technique which we view as generally applicable to other domain specific languages.

  7. Fluidized bed system for calcination of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the operation of nuclear facilities significant quantities of radiochemical liquid effluents of different concentrations and varying chemical compositions are generated. These effluents contain activated radionuclides, corrosion products and fission products. The advantage of feeding the waste in solid form into the vitrifying equipment are multifold. Efforts are therefore made in many countries to calcine the high level waste, and obtain waste in the oxide form before the same is mixed with glass forming additives and fed into the melter unit. An experimental rig for fluidized bed calcination is constructed for carrying out the detailed investigation of this process, in order to adopt the same for plant scale application. To achieve better gas-solid contact and avoid raining down of solids, a distributor of bubble cap type was designed. A review of existing experience at various laboratories and design of new experimental facility for development of calciners are given. (author)

  8. Transmutation of high-level radioactive waste - Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Junghans, Arnd; Grosse, Eckart; Hannaske, Roland; Kögler, Toni; Massarczyk, Ralf; Schwengner, Ronald; Wagner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In a fast neutron spectrum essentially all long-lived actinides (e.g. Plutonium) undergo fission and thus can be transmuted into generally short lived fission products. Innovative nuclear reactor concepts e.g. accelerator driven systems (ADS) are currently in development that foresee a closed fuel cycle. The majority of the fissile nuclides (uranium, plutonium) shall be used for power generation and only fission products will be put into final disposal that needs to last for a historical time scale of only 1000 years. For the transmutation of high-level radioactive waste a lot of research and development is still required. One aspect is the precise knowledge of nuclear data for reactions with fast neutrons. Nuclear reactions relevant for transmutation are being investigated in the framework of the european project ERINDA. First results from the new neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf will be presented.

  9. Engineering-scale vitrification of commercial high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date, technology for immobilizing commercial high-level waste (HLW) has been extensively developed, and two major demonstration projects have been completed, the Waste Solidification Engineering Prototypes (WSEP) Program and the Nuclear Waste Vitrification Project (NWVP). The feasibility of radioactive waste solidification was demonstrated in the WSEP program between 1966 and 1970 (McElroy et al. 1972) using simulated power-reactor waste composed of nonradioactive chemicals and HLW from spent, Hanford reactor fuel. Thirty-three engineering-scale canisters of solidified HLW were produced during the operations. In early 79, the NWVP demonstrated the vitrification of HLW from the processing of actual commercial nuclear fuel. This program consisted of two parts, (1) waste preparation and (2) vitrification by spray calcination and in-can melting. This report presents results from the NWVP

  10. Characterization of composite ceramic high level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a composite ceramic waste form for the disposition of high level radioactive waste produced during electrometallurgical conditioning of spent nuclear fuel. The electrorefiner LiCl/KCl eutectic salt, containing fission products and transuranics in the chloride form, is contacted with a zeolite material which removes the fission products from the salt. After salt contact, the zeolite is mixed with a glass binder. The zeolite/glass mixture is then hot isostatic pressed (HIPed) to produce the composite ceramic waste form. The ceramic waste form provides a durable medium that is well suited to incorporate fission products and transuranics in the chloride form. Presented are preliminary results of the process qualification and characterization studies, which include chemical and physical measurements and product durability testing, of the ceramic waste form

  11. Risk assessment methodology for Hanford high-level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology is presented for applying Probabilistic Safety Assessment techniques to quantification of the health risks posed by the high-level waste (HLW) underground tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford reservation. This methodology includes hazard screening development of a list of potential accident initiators, systems fault trees development and quantification, definition of source terms for various release categories, and estimation of health consequences from the releases. Both airborne and liquid pathway releases to the environment, arising from aerosol and spill/leak releases from the tanks, are included in the release categories. The proposed methodology is intended to be applied to a representative subset of the total of 177 tanks, thereby providing a baseline risk profile for the HLW tank farm that can be used for setting clean-up/remediation priorities. Some preliminary results are presented for Tank 101-SY

  12. The High Level Trigger of the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Xuyang

    2016-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system the Level 1 Trigger, implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger, a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. In this poster we will present the performance with the specific algorithms developed to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up and bunch crossing rate using 13 TeV data during 2015, and prospects for improvements brought to both L1T and HLT strategies to meet the new challenges for 2016 scenarios with a peak instantaneous luminosity of $1.2 \\times 10^{34} $cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ and 30 pileup events.

  13. High-level waste program integration within the DOE complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleven major Department of Energy (DOE) site contractors were chartered by the Assistant Secretary to use a systems engineering approach to develop and evaluate technically defensible cost savings opportunities across the complex. Known as the complex-wide Environmental Management Integration (EMI), this process evaluated all the major DOE waste streams including high level waste (HLW). Across the DOE complex, this waste stream has the highest life cycle cost and is scheduled to take until at least 2035 before all HLW is processed for disposal. Technical contract experts from the four DOE sites that manage high level waste participated in the integration analysis: Hanford, Savannah River Site (SRS), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). In addition, subject matter experts from the Yucca Mountain Project and the Tanks Focus Area participated in the analysis. Also, departmental representatives from the US Department of Energy Headquarters (DOE-HQ) monitored the analysis and results. Workouts were held throughout the year to develop recommendations to achieve a complex-wide integrated program. From this effort, the HLW Environmental Management (EM) Team identified a set of programmatic and technical opportunities that could result in potential cost savings and avoidance in excess of $18 billion and an accelerated completion of the HLW mission by seven years. The cost savings, schedule improvements, and volume reduction are attributed to a multifaceted HLW treatment disposal strategy which involves waste pretreatment, standardized waste matrices, risk-based retrieval, early development and deployment of a shipping system for glass canisters, and reasonable, low cost tank closure

  14. High-level radioactive waste in Canada. Background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disposal of radioactive waste is one of the most challenging environmental problems facing Canada today. Since the Second World War, when Canadian scientists first started to investigate nuclear reactions, there has been a steady accumulation of such waste. Research reactors built in the early postwar years produced small amounts of radioactive material but the volume grew steadily as the nuclear power reactors constructed during the 1960s and 1970s began to spawn used fuel bundles. Although this radioactive refuse has been safely stored for the short term, no permanent disposal system has yet been fully developed and implemented. Canada is not alone in this regard. A large number of countries use nuclear power reactors but none has yet put in place a method for the long-term disposal of the radioactive waste. Scientists and engineers throughout the world are investigating different possibilities; however, enormous difficulties remain. In Canada, used fuel bundles from nuclear reactors are defined as high-level waste; all other waste created at different stages in the nuclear fuel cycle is classified as low-level. Although disposal of low-level waste is an important issue, it is a more tractable problem than the disposal of high-level waste, on which this paper will concentrate. The paper discusses the nuclear fuel waste management program in Canada, where a long-term disposal plan has been under development by scientists and engineers over the past 15 years, but will not be completed for some time. Also discussed are responses to the program by parliamentary committees and aboriginal and environmental groups, and the work in the area being conducted in other countries. (author). 1 tab

  15. High-level waste melter alternatives assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Program's (hereafter referred to as HLW Program) Melter Candidate Assessment Activity performed in fiscal year (FY) 1994. The mission of the TWRS Program is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The goal of the HLW Program is to immobilize the HLW fraction of pretreated tank waste into a vitrified product suitable for interim onsite storage and eventual offsite disposal at a geologic repository. Preparation of the encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources for final disposal is also included in the HLW Program. As a result of trade studies performed in 1992 and 1993, processes planned for pretreatment of tank wastes were modified substantially because of increasing estimates of the quantity of high-level and transuranic tank waste remaining after pretreatment. This resulted in substantial increases in needed vitrification plant capacity compared to the capacity of original Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The required capacity has not been finalized, but is expected to be four to eight times that of the HWVP design. The increased capacity requirements for the HLW vitrification plant's melter prompted the assessment of candidate high-capacity HLW melter technologies to determine the most viable candidates and the required development and testing (D and T) focus required to select the Hanford Site HLW vitrification plant melter system. An assessment process was developed in early 1994. This document describes the assessment team, roles of team members, the phased assessment process and results, resulting recommendations, and the implementation strategy

  16. Managing commercial high-level radioactive waste: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This summary presents the findings and conclusions of OTA's analysis of Federal policy for the management of commercial high-level radioactive waste - an issue that has been debated over the last decade and that now appears to be moving toward major congressional action. After more than 20 years of commercial nuclear power, the Federal Government has yet to develop a broadly supported policy for fulfilling its legal responsibility for the final isolation of high-level radioactive waste. OTA's study concludes that until such a policy is adopted in law, there is a substantial risk that the false starts, shifts of policy, and fluctuating support that have plagued the final isolation program in the past will continue. The continued lack of final isolation facilities has raised two key problems that underlie debates about radioactive waste policy. First, some question the continued use of nuclear power until it is shown that safe final isolation for the resulting wastes can and will be accomplished, and argue that the failure to develop final isolation facilities is evidence that it may be an insoluble problem. Second, because there are no reprocessing facilities or federal waste isolation facilities to accept spent fuel, existing reactors are running out of spent fuel storage space, and by 1986 some may face a risk of shutting down for some period. Most of the 72,000 metric tons of spent fuel expected to be generated by the year 2000 will still be in temporary storage at that time. While it is possible that utilities could provide all necessary additional storage at reactor sites before existing basins are filled, some supplemental storage may be needed if there are delays in their efforts

  17. Techno-economical Analysis of High Level Waste Storage and Disposal Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global warming and instability of gas and oil prices are redefining the role of nuclear energy in electrical energy production. A production of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), during the nuclear power plant operation and a danger of high level waste mitigation to the environment are considered by the public as a main obstacle of accepting the nuclear option. As economical and technical aspects of the back end of fuel cycle will affect the nuclear energy acceptance the techno-economical analysis of different methods for high level waste storage and disposal has to be performed. The aim of this paper is to present technical and economical characteristics of different HLW storage and disposal technologies. The final choice of a particular HLW management method is closely connected to the selection of a fuel cycle type: open or closed. Wet and dry temporary storage has been analyzed including different types of spent fuel pool capacity increase methods, different pool location (at reactor site and away from reactor site) as well as casks and vault system of dry storage. Since deep geological deposition is the only disposal method with a realistic potential, we focused our attention on that disposal technology. Special attention has been given to the new idea of international and regional disposal location. The analysis showed that a coexistence of different storage methods and deep geological deposition is expected in the future, regardless of the fuel cycle type. (author)

  18. Project Guarantee 1985. Repository for high-level radioactive waste: construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An engineering project study aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of constructing a deep repository for high-level waste (Type C repository) has been carried out; the study is based on a model data-set representing typical geological and rock mechanical conditions as found outside the so-called Permocarboniferous basin in the regions under investigation by Nagra in Cantons Aargau, Schaffhausen, Solothurn and Zuerich. The repository is intended for disposal of high-level waste and any intermediate-level waste from re-processing in which the concentration of long-lived alpha-emitters exceeds the permissible limits set for a Type B repository. Final disposal of high-level waste is in subterranean, horizontally mined tunnels and of intermediate-level waste in underground vertical silos. The repository is intended to accomodate a total of around 6'000 HWL-cylinders (gross volume of around 1'200 m3) and around 10'000 m3 of intermediate-level waste. The total excavated volume is around 1'100'000 m3 and a construction time for the whole repository (up to the beginning of emplacement) of around 15 years is expected. For the estimated 50-year emplacement operations, a working team of around 60 people will be needed and a team of around 160 for the simultaneous tunnelling operations and auxiliary work. The project described in the present report permits the conclusion that construction of a repository for high-level radioactive waste and, if necessary, spent fuel-rods is feasible with present-day technology

  19. The Swiss site-selection program for high-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swiss National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste, Nagra, started a site selection program for a high-level radioactive waste repository in 1980. The host rock of first priority is the crystalline basement in northern Switzerland which is covered by a few hundred meters of sediments. Phase 1 of the program, regional investigation of an area of about 1,000 km/sup 2/ and selection of one to three sites for further investigations is planned to be finished in 1989. At the moment, six deep boreholes of a total length of more than 10 km have been drilled and investigated. A regional geophysical program, a regional hydrogeological program and a neotectonic program are under way. A complete safety analysis was finished at the beginning of 1985. The present paper contains a summary of these programs and some results

  20. Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste (Volume 1) Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Levich; J.S. Stuckless

    2006-09-25

    Yucca Mountain in Nevada represents the proposed solution to what has been a lengthy national effort to dispose of high-level radioactive waste, waste which must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. This chapter reviews the background of that national effort and includes some discussion of international work in order to provide a more complete framework for the problem of waste disposal. Other chapters provide the regional geologic setting, the geology of the Yucca Mountain site, the tectonics, and climate (past, present, and future). These last two chapters are integral to prediction of long-term waste isolation.

  1. A New High-Level Gentamicin Resistance Gene, aph(2")-Id, in Enterococcus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Shane F.; Zervos, Marcus J.; Clewell, Don B.; Donabedian, Susan M.; Sahm, Daniel F.; Chow, Joseph W.

    1998-01-01

    Enterococcus casseliflavus UC73 is a clinical blood isolate with high-level resistance to gentamicin. DNA preparations from UC73 failed to hybridize with intragenic probes for aac(6′)-Ie-aph(2")-Ia and aph(2")-Ic. A 4-kb fragment from UC73 was cloned and found to confer resistance to gentamicin in Escherichia coli DH5α transformants. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed the presence of a 906-bp open reading frame whose deduced amino acid sequence had a region with homology to the aminoglycos...

  2. Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste (Volume 1) Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yucca Mountain in Nevada represents the proposed solution to what has been a lengthy national effort to dispose of high-level radioactive waste, waste which must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. This chapter reviews the background of that national effort and includes some discussion of international work in order to provide a more complete framework for the problem of waste disposal. Other chapters provide the regional geologic setting, the geology of the Yucca Mountain site, the tectonics, and climate (past, present, and future). These last two chapters are integral to prediction of long-term waste isolation

  3. Status of siting a high level waste repository in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste generated by industrial activities have been managed in France for many years, and industrial solutions have been implemented for low-level and short-lived waste. This waste is stabilized in solid matrices and sent to near-surface disposal facilities, first the Manche center and, since 1992, the Aube center. High-level long-lived radioactive waste is the subject of research to lay the groundwork for decisions on a waste management system which guarantees safety for man and his environment. These investigations have been conducted since 1991 under a law which set three research directions: separation and transmutation; reversible or irreversible disposal in a deep geological repository; waste conditioning mid long-term storage. The first alternative as well as waste conditioning are accordingly concerned with the waste of the future. Long-term storage is basically only considered for a timescale much shorter than the lifetime of the radionuclides present in the waste. Among the 3 waste management system which guarantees safety for man and his environment. These investigations have been conducted since 1991 under a law which set three research directions: separation and transmutation; reversible or irreversible disposal in a deep geological repository; waste conditioning mid long-term storage. The first alternative as well as waste conditioning are accordingly concerned with the waste of the future. Long-term storage is basically only considered for a timescale much shorter than the lifetime of the radionuclides present in the waste. Among the 3 research directions, disposal in a geological repository appears today to be the possible choice for existing waste. Barring a satisfactory alternative, it will also be the solution for the waste of the future. Research into the reversible or irreversible disposal of high-level long-lived waste in deep geological formations is carried out in France by ANDRA, with the assistance of various partners

  4. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-12

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms (IPWF)) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as 'co-disposal'. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by which to identify the disposal container and its contents. Different

  5. Characteristics of African easterly waves associated with tropical cyclogenesis in the Cape Verde Islands region in July-August-September of 2004-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnault, Joël; Roux, Frank

    2011-04-01

    The most common synoptic-scale disturbances related to cyclogenesis over the tropical north Atlantic Ocean are African easterly waves (AEWs) that originated from the northern African continent. However, most of these waves do not evolve in tropical depressions, storms, or hurricanes. The reasons why only few AEWs develop and the necessary conditions for cyclogenetic evolution are still the subject of intense debate. Tropical cyclogenesis occurring near the Cape Verde Islands in the eastern tropical Atlantic is investigated here with five seasons (July-August-September of 2004-2008) of European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analyses, Meteosat-9 images, and National Hurricane Center (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Centers for Environmental Prediction) "best track" archives. The nine named storms that first reached tropical depression intensity east of 30°W, and two among six which developed between 30 and 40°W, during these five years evolved from intense AEW troughs, associated with low-level cyclonic circulation, weak mid-level anticyclonic Saharan flow to the east, and deep convection near the center of cyclonic vorticity. The cyclogenetic evolution of three AEW troughs, which verified these conditions but failed to develop into named storms, was probably inhibited by unusually dry environment and strong vertical wind shear. The fate of other AEW troughs, which did not satisfy the necessary conditions, is also discussed.

  6. Spent nuclear fuel project high-level information management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Main, G.C.

    1996-09-13

    This document presents the results of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) Information Management Planning Project (IMPP), a short-term project that identified information management (IM) issues and opportunities within the SNFP and outlined a high-level plan to address them. This high-level plan for the SNMFP IM focuses on specific examples from within the SNFP. The plan`s recommendations can be characterized in several ways. Some recommendations address specific challenges that the SNFP faces. Others form the basis for making smooth transitions in several important IM areas. Still others identify areas where further study and planning are indicated. The team`s knowledge of developments in the IM industry and at the Hanford Site were crucial in deciding where to recommend that the SNFP act and where they should wait for Site plans to be made. Because of the fast pace of the SNFP and demands on SNFP staff, input and interaction were primarily between the IMPP team and members of the SNFP Information Management Steering Committee (IMSC). Key input to the IMPP came from a workshop where IMSC members and their delegates developed a set of draft IM principles. These principles, described in Section 2, became the foundation for the recommendations found in the transition plan outlined in Section 5. Availability of SNFP staff was limited, so project documents were used as a basis for much of the work. The team, realizing that the status of the project and the environment are continually changing, tried to keep abreast of major developments since those documents were generated. To the extent possible, the information contained in this document is current as of the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. Programs and organizations on the Hanford Site as a whole are trying to maximize their return on IM investments. They are coordinating IM activities and trying to leverage existing capabilities. However, the SNFP cannot just rely on Sitewide activities to meet its IM requirements

  7. Crystalline plutonium hosts derived from high-level waste formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy has selected immobilization for disposal in a repository as one approach for disposing of excess plutonium (1). Materials for immobilizing weapons-grade plutonium for repository disposal must meet the ''spent fuel standard'' by providing a radiation field similar to spent fuel (2). Such a radiation field can be provided by incorporating fission products from high-level waste into the waste form. Experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of incorporating high-level waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) into plutonium dispositioning materials to meet the spent fuel standard. A variety of materials and preparation techniques were evaluated based on prior experience developing waste forms for immobilizing HLW. These included crystalline ceramic compositions prepared by conventional sintering and hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and glass formulations prepared by conventional melting. Because plutonium solubility in silicate melts is limited, glass formulations were intentionally devitrified to partition plutonium into crystalline host phases, thereby allowing increased overall plutonium loading. Samarium, added as a representative rare earth neutron absorber, also tended to partition into the plutonium host phases. Because the crystalline plutonium host phases are chemically more inert, the plutonium is more effectively isolated from the environment, and its attractiveness for proliferation is reduced. In the initial phase of evaluating each material and preparation method, cerium was used as a surrogate for plutonium. For promising materials, additional preparation experiments were performed using plutonium to verify the behavior of cerium as a surrogate. These experiments demonstrated that cerium performed well as a surrogate for plutonium. For the most part, cerium and plutonium partitioned onto the same crystalline phases, and no anomalous changes in oxidation state were observed. The only observed

  8. CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

    2012-01-10

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. The closure will also fill, physically stabilize and isolate ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and chemically reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400 to stabilize selected potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted, respectively, to support the mass placement strategy developed by

  9. High Level Waste Feed Certification in Hanford Double Shell Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to effectively mix, sample, certify, and deliver consistent batches of High Level Waste (HLW) feed from the Hanford Double Shell Tanks (DST) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) presents a significant mission risk with potential to impact mission length and the quantity of HLW glass produced. DOE's River Protection Project (RPP) mission modeling and WTP facility modeling assume that individual 3785 cubic meter (1 million gallon) HLW feed tanks are homogenously mixed, representatively sampled, and consistently delivered to the WTP. It has been demonstrated that homogenous mixing of HLW sludge in Hanford DSTs is not likely achievable with the baseline design thereby causing representative sampling and consistent feed delivery to be more difficult. Inconsistent feed to the WTP could cause additional batch to batch operational adjustments that reduces operating efficiency and has the potential to increase the overall mission length. The Hanford mixing and sampling demonstration program will identify DST mixing performance capability, will evaluate representative sampling techniques, and will estimate feed batch consistency. An evaluation of demonstration program results will identify potential mission improvement considerations that will help ensure successful mission completion. This paper will discuss the history, progress, and future activities that will define and mitigate the mission risk.

  10. High Level Waste Feed Certification in Hanford Double Shell Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thien, Micheal G.; Wells, Beric E.; Adamson, Duane J.

    2010-03-01

    The ability to effectively mix, sample, certify, and deliver consistent batches of High Level Waste (HLW) feed from the Hanford Double Shell Tanks (DST) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) presents a significant mission risk with potential to impact mission length and the quantity of HLW glass produced. DOE’s River Protection Project (RPP) mission modeling and WTP facility modeling assume that individual 3785 cubic meter (1 million gallon) HLW feed tanks are homogenously mixed, representatively sampled, and consistently delivered to the WTP. It has been demonstrated that homogenous mixing of HLW sludge in Hanford DSTs is not likely achievable with the baseline design thereby causing representative sampling and consistent feed delivery to be more difficult. Inconsistent feed to the WTP could cause additional batch to batch operational adjustments that reduces operating efficiency and has the potential to increase the overall mission length. The Hanford mixing and sampling demonstration program will identify DST mixing performance capability, will evaluate representative sampling techniques, and will estimate feed batch consistency. An evaluation of demonstration program results will identify potential mission improvement considerations that will help ensure successful mission completion. This paper will discuss the history, progress, and future activities that will define and mitigate the mission risk.

  11. Why consider subseabed disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large areas of the deep seabed warrant assessment as potential disposal sites for high-level radioactive waste because: (1) they are far from seismically and tectonically active lithospheric plate boundaries; (2) they are far from active or young volcanos; (3) they contain thick layers of very uniform fine-grained clays; (4) they are devoid of natural resources likely to be exploited in the forseeable future; (5) the geologic and oceanographic processes governing the deposition of sediments in such areas are well understood, and are remarkably insensitive to past oceanographic and climatic changes; and (6) sedmentary records of tens of millions of years of slow, uninterrupted deposition of fine grained clay support predictions of the future stability of such sites. Data accumulated to date on the permeability, ion-retardation properties, and mechanical strength of pelagic clay sediments indicate that they can act as a primary barrier to the escape of buried nuclides. Work in progress should determine within the current decade whether subseabed disposal is environmentally acceptable and technically feasible, as well as address the legal, political and social issues raised by this new concept

  12. Application of SYNROC to high-level defense wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SYNROC method for immobilization of high-level nuclear reactor wastes is currently being applied to US defense wastes in tank storage at Savannah River, South Carolina. The minerals zirconolite, perovskite, and hollandite are used in SYNROC D formulations to immobilize fission products and actinides that comprise up to 10% of defense waste sludges and coexisting solutions. Additional phases in SYNROC D are nepheline, the host phase for sodium; and spinel, the host for excess aluminum and iron. Up to 70 wt % of calcined sludge can be incorporated with 30 wt % of SYNROC additives to produce a waste form consisting of 10% nepheline, 30% spinel, and approximately 20% each of the radioactive waste-bearing phases. Urea coprecipitation and spray drying/calcining methods have been used in the laboratory to produce homogeneous, reactive ceramic powders. Hot pressing and sintering at temperatures from 1000 to 11000C result in waste form products with greater than 97% of theoretical density. Hot isostatic pressing has recently been implemented as a processing alternative. Characterization of waste-form mineralogy has been done by means of XRD, SEM, and electron microprobe. Leaching of SYNROC D samples is currently being carried out. Assessment of radiation damage effects and physical properties of SYNROC D will commence in FY 81

  13. Application of SYNROC to high-level defense wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SYNROC method for immobilization of high-level nuclear reactor wastes is currently being applied to US defense wastes in tank storage at Savannah River, South Carolina. The minerals zirconolite, perovskite, and hollandite are used in SYNROC D formulations to immobilize fission products and actinides that comprise up to 10% of defense waste sludges and coexisting solutions. Additional phase in SYNROC D are nepheline, the host phase for sodium; and spinel, the host for excess aluminum and iron. Up to 70 wt % of calcined sludge can be incorporated with 30 wt % of SYNROC additives to produce a waste form consisting of 10% nepheline, 30% spinel, and approximately 20% each of the radioactive waste-bearing phases. Urea coprecipitation and spray drying/calcining methods have been used in the laboratory to produce homogeneous, reactive ceramic powders. Hot pressing and sintering at temperatures from 1000 to 11000C result in waste form products with greater than 97% of theoretical density. Hot isostatic pressing has recently been implemented as a processing alternative. Characterization of waste-form mineralogy has been done by means of XRD, SEM, and electron microprobe. Leaching of SYNROC D samples is currently being carried out. Assessment of radiation damage effects and physical properties of SYNROC D will commence in FY81

  14. Hanford high-level waste melter system evaluation data packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tank Waste Remediation System is selecting a reference melter system for the Hanford High-Level Waste vitrification plant. A melter evaluation was conducted in FY 1994 to narrow down the long list of potential melter technologies to a few for testing. A formal evaluation was performed by a Melter Selection Working Group (MSWG), which met in June and August 1994. At the June meeting, MSWG evaluated 15 technologies and selected six for more thorough evaluation at the Aug. meeting. All 6 were variations of joule-heated or induction-heated melters. Between the June and August meetings, Hanford site staff and consultants compiled data packages for each of the six melter technologies as well as variants of the baseline technologies. Information was solicited from melter candidate vendors to supplement existing information. This document contains the data packages compiled to provide background information to MSWG in support of the evaluation of the six technologies. (A separate evaluation was performed by Fluor Daniel, Inc. to identify balance of plant impacts if a given melter system was selected.)

  15. Multiple Word-Length High-Level Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coussy Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Digital signal processing (DSP applications are nowadays widely used and their complexity is ever growing. The design of dedicated hardware accelerators is thus still needed in system-on-chip and embedded systems. Realistic hardware implementation requires first to convert the floating-point data of the initial specification into arbitrary length data (finite-precision while keeping an acceptable computation accuracy. Next, an optimized hardware architecture has to be designed. Considering uniform bit-width specification allows to use traditional automated design flow. However, it leads to oversized design. On the other hand, considering non uniform bit-width specification allows to get a smaller circuit but requires complex design tasks. In this paper, we propose an approach that inputs a C/C++ specification. The design flow, based on high-level synthesis (HLS techniques, automatically generates a potentially pipeline RTL architecture described in VHDL. Both bitaccurate integer and fixed-point data types can be used in the input specification. The generated architecture uses components (operator, register, etc. that have different widths. The design constraints are the clock period and the throughput of the application. The proposed approach considers data word-length information in all the synthesis steps by using dedicated algorithms. We show in this paper the effectiveness of the proposed approach through several design experiments in the DSP domain.

  16. The LHCb Data Acquisition and High Level Trigger Processing Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, M.; Gaspar, C.; Jost, B.; Neufeld, N.

    2015-12-01

    The LHCb experiment at the LHC accelerator at CERN collects collisions of particle bunches at 40 MHz. After a first level of hardware trigger with an output rate of 1 MHz, the physically interesting collisions are selected by running dedicated trigger algorithms in the High Level Trigger (HLT) computing farm. This farm consists of up to roughly 25000 CPU cores in roughly 1750 physical nodes each equipped with up to 4 TB local storage space. This work describes the LHCb online system with an emphasis on the developments implemented during the current long shutdown (LS1). We will elaborate the architecture to treble the available CPU power of the HLT farm and the technicalities to determine and verify precise calibration and alignment constants which are fed to the HLT event selection procedure. We will describe how the constants are fed into a two stage HLT event selection facility using extensively the local disk buffering capabilities on the worker nodes. With the installed disk buffers, the CPU resources can be used during periods of up to ten days without beams. These periods in the past accounted to more than 70% of the total time.

  17. High-Level Performance Modeling of SAR Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Curtis

    2006-01-01

    SAUSAGE (Still Another Utility for SAR Analysis that s General and Extensible) is a computer program for modeling (see figure) the performance of synthetic- aperture radar (SAR) or interferometric synthetic-aperture radar (InSAR or IFSAR) systems. The user is assumed to be familiar with the basic principles of SAR imaging and interferometry. Given design parameters (e.g., altitude, power, and bandwidth) that characterize a radar system, the software predicts various performance metrics (e.g., signal-to-noise ratio and resolution). SAUSAGE is intended to be a general software tool for quick, high-level evaluation of radar designs; it is not meant to capture all the subtleties, nuances, and particulars of specific systems. SAUSAGE was written to facilitate the exploration of engineering tradeoffs within the multidimensional space of design parameters. Typically, this space is examined through an iterative process of adjusting the values of the design parameters and examining the effects of the adjustments on the overall performance of the system at each iteration. The software is designed to be modular and extensible to enable consideration of a variety of operating modes and antenna beam patterns, including, for example, strip-map and spotlight SAR acquisitions, polarimetry, burst modes, and squinted geometries.

  18. Automated generation of partial Markov chain from high level descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose an algorithm to generate partial Markov chains from high level implicit descriptions, namely AltaRica models. This algorithm relies on two components. First, a variation on Dijkstra's algorithm to compute shortest paths in a graph. Second, the definition of a notion of distance to select which states must be kept and which can be safely discarded. The proposed method solves two problems at once. First, it avoids a manual construction of Markov chains, which is both tedious and error prone. Second, up the price of acceptable approximations, it makes it possible to push back dramatically the exponential blow-up of the size of the resulting chains. We report experimental results that show the efficiency of the proposed approach. - Highlights: • We generate Markov chains from a higher level safety modeling language (AltaRica). • We use a variation on Dijkstra's algorithm to generate partial Markov chains. • Hence we solve two problems: the first problem is the tedious manual construction of Markov chains. • The second problem is the blow-up of the size of the chains, at the cost of decent approximations. • The experimental results highlight the efficiency of the method

  19. Control of high-level radioactive waste-glass melters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will immobilize Savannah River Site High Level Waste as a durable borosilicate glass for permanent disposal in a repository. The DWPF will be controlled based on glass composition. The following discussion is a preliminary analysis of the capability of the laboratory methods that can be used to control the glass composition, and the relationships between glass durability and glass properties important to glass melting. The glass durability and processing properties will be controlled by controlling the chemical composition of the glass. The glass composition will be controlled by control of the melter feed transferred from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT). During cold runs, tests will be conducted to demonstrate the chemical equivalence of glass sampled from the pour stream and glass removed from cooled canisters. In similar tests, the compositions of glass produced from slurries sampled from the SME and MFT will be compared to final product glass to determine the statistical relationships between melter feed and glass product. The total error is the combination of those associated with homogeneity in the SME or MFT, sampling, preparation of samples for analysis, instrument calibration, analysis, and the composition/property model. This study investigated the sensitivity of estimation of property data to the combination of variations from sampling through analysis. In this or a similar manner, the need for routine glass product sampling will be minimized, and glass product characteristics will be assured before the melter feed is committed to the melter

  20. Why consider subseabed disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, G. R.; Hollister, C. D.; Anderson, D. R.; Leinen, M.

    1980-01-01

    Large areas of the deep seabed warrant assessment as potential disposal sites for high-level radioactive waste because: (1) they are far from seismically and tectonically active lithospheric plate boundaries; (2) they are far from active or young volcanos; (3) they contain thick layers of very uniform fine-grained clays; (4) they are devoid of natural resources likely to be exploited in the forseeable future; (5) the geologic and oceanographic processes governing the deposition of sediments in such areas are well understood, and are remarkably insensitive to past oceanographic and climatic changes; and (6) sedmentary records of tens of millions of years of slow, uninterrupted deposition of fine grained clay support predictions of the future stability of such sites. Data accumulated to date on the permeability, ion-retardation properties, and mechanical strength of pelagic clay sediments indicate that they can act as a primary barrier to the escape of buried nuclides. Work in progress should determine within the current decade whether subseabed disposal is environmentally acceptable and technically feasible, as well as address the legal, political and social issues raised by this new concept.

  1. PLUTONIUM/HIGH-LEVEL VITRIFIED WASTE BDBE DOSE CALCULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this calculation is to provide a dose consequence analysis of high-level waste (HLW) consisting of plutonium immobilized in vitrified HLW to be handled at the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain for a beyond design basis event (BDBE) under expected conditions using best estimate values for each calculation parameter. In addition to the dose calculation, a plutonium respirable particle size for dose calculation use is derived. The current concept for this waste form is plutonium disks enclosed in cans immobilized in canisters of vitrified HLW (i.e., glass). The plutonium inventory at risk used for this calculation is selected from Plutonium Immobilization Project Input for Yucca Mountain Total Systems Performance Assessment (Shaw 1999). The BDBE examined in this calculation is a nonmechanistic initiating event and the sequence of events that follow to cause a radiological release. This analysis will provide the radiological releases and dose consequences for a postulated BDBE. Results may be considered in other analyses to determine or modify the safety classification and quality assurance level of repository structures, systems, and components. This calculation uses best available technical information because the BDBE frequency is very low (i.e., less than 1.0E-6 events/year) and is not required for License Application for the Monitored Geologic Repository. The results of this calculation will not be used as part of a licensing or design basis

  2. B-tagging at High Level Trigger in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Chabert, Eric Christian

    2014-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The Level 1 Trigger is implemented on custom-designed electronics. The High Level Trigger (HLT) is a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. Using b-tagging at trigger level will play a crucial role during the Run II data taking to ensure the Top quark, beyond the Standard Model and Higgs boson physics programme of the experiment. It will help to significantly reduce the trigger output rate which will increase due to the higher instantaneous luminosity and higher cross sections at 13 TeV. B-tagging algorithms based on the identification of tracks displaced from the primary proton-proton collision or on the reconstruction of secondary vertices have been successfully used during Run I. We will present their design and performance with an emphasis on the dedicated aspects of track and primary vertex reconstruction, as well as the improvements foreseen to meet the challenges of the Run II data ta...

  3. Commissioning and first experiences of the ALICE High Level Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the ALICE heavy-ion experiment a large computing cluster will be used to perform the last triggering stages in the High Level Trigger (HLT). For the first year of operation the cluster consisted of about 100 multi-processing nodes with 4 or 8 CPU cores each, to be increased to more than 1000 nodes for the coming years of operation. During the commissioning phases of the detector, the preparations for first LHC beam, as well as during the periods of first LHC beam, the HLT has been used extensively already to reconstruct, compress, and display data from the different detectors. For example the HLT has been used to compress Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) data by a factor of 15, lossless, on the fly at a rate of more than 800 Hz. For ALICE's Time Projection Chamber (TPC) detector the HLT has been used to reconstruct tracks online and show the reconstructed tracks in an online event display. The event display can also display online reconstructed data from the Dimuon and Photon Spectrometer (PHOS) detectors. For the latter detector a first selection mechanism has also been put into place to select only events for forwarding to the online display in which data has passed through the PHOS detector. In this contribution we will present experiences and results from these commissioning phases.

  4. Potential for erosion corrosion of SRS high level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SRS high-level radioactive waste tanks will not experience erosion corrosion to any significant degree during slurry pump operations. Erosion corrosion in carbon steel structures at reported pump discharge velocities is dominated by electrochemical (corrosion) processes. Interruption of those processes, as by the addition of corrosion inhibitors, sharply reduces the rate of metal loss from erosion corrosion. The well-inhibited SRS waste tanks have a near-zero general corrosion rate, and therefore will be essentially immune to erosion corrosion. The experimental data on carbon steel erosion corrosion most relevant to SRS operations was obtained at the Hanford Site on simulated Purex waste. A metal loss rate of 2.4 mils per year was measured at a temperature of 102 C and a slurry velocity comparable to calculated SRS slurry velocities on ground specimens of the same carbon steel used in SRS waste tanks. Based on these data and the much lower expected temperatures, the metal loss rate of SRS tanks under waste removal and processing conditions should be insignificant, i.e. less than 1 mil per year

  5. ATW system impact on high-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, E.D.

    1992-12-01

    This report discusses the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept which aims at destruction of key long-lived radionuclides in high-level nuclear waste (HLW), both fission products and actinides. This focus makes it different from most other transmutation concepts which concentrate primarily on actinide burning. The ATW system uses an accelerator-driven, sub-critical assembly to create an intense thermal neutron environment for radionuclide transmutation. This feature allows rapid transmutation under low-inventory system conditions, which in turn, has a direct impact on the size of chemical separations and materials handling components of the system. Inventories in ATW are factors of eight to thirty times smaller than reactor systems of equivalent thermal power. Chemical separations systems are relatively small in scale and can be optimized to achieve high decontamination factors and minimized waste streams. The low-inventory feature also directly impacts material amounts remaining in the system at its end of life. In addition to its low-inventory operation, the accelerator-driven neutron source features of ATW are key to providing a sufficient level of neutrons to allow transmutation of long-lived fission products.

  6. Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendel, J.E. (compiler)

    1984-08-01

    The Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program brought six major US laboratories together for three years of cooperative research. The participants reached a consensus that solubility of the leached glass species, particularly solubility in the altered surface layer, is the dominant factor controlling the leaching behavior of defense waste glass in a system in which the flow of leachant is constrained, as it will be in a deep geologic repository. Also, once the surface of waste glass is contacted by ground water, the kinetics of establishing solubility control are relatively rapid. The concentrations of leached species reach saturation, or steady-state concentrations, within a few months to a year at 70 to 90/sup 0/C. Thus, reaction kinetics, which were the main subject of earlier leaching mechanisms studies, are now shown to assume much less importance. The dominance of solubility means that the leach rate is, in fact, directly proportional to ground water flow rate. Doubling the flow rate doubles the effective leach rate. This relationship is expected to obtain in most, if not all, repository situations.

  7. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NRC is developing a framework of regulations, criteria, and standards. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory provides broad technical support to the NRC for developing this regulatory framework, part of which involves site suitability criteria for solidified high-level wastes (SHLW). Both the regulatory framework and the technical base on which it rests have evolved in time. This document is the second report of the technical support project. It was issued as a draft working paper for a programmatic review held at LLL from August 16 to 18, 1977. It was printed and distributed solely as a briefing document on preliminary methodology and initial findings for the purpose of critical review by those in attendance. These briefing documents are being reprinted now in their original formats as UCID-series reports for the sake of the historical record. Analysis results have evolved as both the models and data base have changed. As a result, the methodology, models, and data base in this document are severely outmoded

  8. ATW system impact on high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept which aims at destruction of key long-lived radionuclides in high-level nuclear waste (HLW), both fission products and actinides. This focus makes it different from most other transmutation concepts which concentrate primarily on actinide burning. The ATW system uses an accelerator-driven, sub-critical assembly to create an intense thermal neutron environment for radionuclide transmutation. This feature allows rapid transmutation under low-inventory system conditions, which in turn, has a direct impact on the size of chemical separations and materials handling components of the system. Inventories in ATW are factors of eight to thirty times smaller than reactor systems of equivalent thermal power. Chemical separations systems are relatively small in scale and can be optimized to achieve high decontamination factors and minimized waste streams. The low-inventory feature also directly impacts material amounts remaining in the system at its end of life. In addition to its low-inventory operation, the accelerator-driven neutron source features of ATW are key to providing a sufficient level of neutrons to allow transmutation of long-lived fission products

  9. High-level radioactive waste fixation in sintered vitreous matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safe storage of high-level wastes from fuel elements reprocessing includes, as a first step, the fixation of the same in materials having a good resistance to the leaching in aqueous medium, such as borosilicate glass. As an alternative to the usual method of the molten glasses, a procedure for the sintering of a powdered glass and waste mixture at lower temperatures (600-700 deg C) has been developed, which minimizes the volatilization of active compounds during the process. Two glasses matrices of different composition and characteristics were used, to which the simulated wastes were added in the ratio of a 10% in weight of oxides. Two sintering techniques were employed 1: cold pressing and further sintering; 2: hot pressing and sintering under pressure. The densities were measured, the microstructure of the samples was analyzed and leaching essays were made in distilled water. The pellet's microstructure was observed by means of optical microscopy, by reflection in polished samples and by transparency in thin slices. The presence of crystalline compounds was analyzed by means of x rays and electron microprobe. The results have shown the convenience to continue with hot pressing essays, because a denser product with a higher resistance to the leaching is thus obtained. (M.E.L.)

  10. Immobilization of high-level wastes into sintered glass: 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High level radioactive wastes are immobilized into borosilicate glasses. Experiences with the variety VG 98/12 (SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, B2O3, MgO, CaO, Na2O) are described. The pressing was performed in a matrix of 12.7 mm diameter, the walls of which were lubricated with sterotex dissolved in Cl4C. The sintering was made in an horizontal electric furnace in air atmosphere at temperatures between 500 and 600 deg C. It was observed that the maximum density occurs at 605 deg C. Comparing both the hot and the cold pressing process, it is concluded that: 1) In spite of requiring more complex equipment the hot pressing process has the advantage that lower pressures are applied, with the consequent obtainment of waste blocks with larger diameters, and 2) it is advisable that pressing process should be performed in the definitive can. (M.E.L.)

  11. The CMS High Level Trigger System: Experience and Future Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, G.; Behrens, U.; Bowen, M.; Branson, J.; Bukowiec, S.; Cittolin, S.; Coarasa, J. A.; Deldicque, C.; Dobson, M.; Dupont, A.; Erhan, S.; Flossdorf, A.; Gigi, D.; Glege, F.; Gomez-Reino, R.; Hartl, C.; Hegeman, J.; Holzner, A.; Hwong, Y. L.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Meschi, E.; Mommsen, R. K.; O'Dell, V.; Orsini, L.; Paus, C.; Petrucci, A.; Pieri, M.; Polese, G.; Racz, A.; Raginel, O.; Sakulin, H.; Sani, M.; Schwick, C.; Shpakov, D.; Simon, S.; Spataru, A. C.; Sumorok, K.

    2012-12-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC features a two-level trigger system. Events accepted by the first level trigger, at a maximum rate of 100 kHz, are read out by the Data Acquisition system (DAQ), and subsequently assembled in memory in a farm of computers running a software high-level trigger (HLT), which selects interesting events for offline storage and analysis at a rate of order few hundred Hz. The HLT algorithms consist of sequences of offline-style reconstruction and filtering modules, executed on a farm of 0(10000) CPU cores built from commodity hardware. Experience from the operation of the HLT system in the collider run 2010/2011 is reported. The current architecture of the CMS HLT, its integration with the CMS reconstruction framework and the CMS DAQ, are discussed in the light of future development. The possible short- and medium-term evolution of the HLT software infrastructure to support extensions of the HLT computing power, and to address remaining performance and maintenance issues, are discussed.

  12. The Software Architecture of the LHCb High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is a spectrometer dedicated to the study of heavy flavor at the LHC. The rate of proton-proton collisions at the LHC is 15 MHz, but disk space limitations mean that only 3 kHz can be written to tape for offline processing. For this reason the LHCb data acquisition system -- trigger -- plays a key role in selecting signal events and rejecting background. In contrast to previous experiments at hadron colliders like for example CDF or D0, the bulk of the LHCb trigger is implemented in software and deployed on a farm of 20k parallel processing nodes. This system, called the High Level Trigger (HLT) is responsible for reducing the rate from the maximum at which the detector can be read out, 1.1 MHz, to the 3 kHz which can be processed offline,and has 20 ms in which to process and accept/reject each event. In order to minimize systematic uncertainties, the HLT was designed from the outset to reuse the offline reconstruction and selection code, and is based around multiple independent and redunda...

  13. High-level fluorescence labeling of gram-positive pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Aymanns

    Full Text Available Fluorescence labeling of bacterial pathogens has a broad range of interesting applications including the observation of living bacteria within host cells. We constructed a novel vector based on the E. coli streptococcal shuttle plasmid pAT28 that can propagate in numerous bacterial species from different genera. The plasmid harbors a promoterless copy of the green fluorescent variant gene egfp under the control of the CAMP-factor gene (cfb promoter of Streptococcus agalactiae and was designated pBSU101. Upon transfer of the plasmid into streptococci, the bacteria show a distinct and easily detectable fluorescence using a standard fluorescence microscope and quantification by FACS-analysis demonstrated values that were 10-50 times increased over the respective controls. To assess the suitability of the construct for high efficiency fluorescence labeling in different gram-positive pathogens, numerous species were transformed. We successfully labeled Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus anginosus and Staphylococcus aureus strains utilizing the EGFP reporter plasmid pBSU101. In all of these species the presence of the cfb promoter construct resulted in high-level EGFP expression that could be further increased by growing the streptococcal and enterococcal cultures under high oxygen conditions through continuous aeration.

  14. Muons in the CMS High Level Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Verwilligen, Piet Omer J

    2014-01-01

    The trigger systems of LHC detectors play a fundamental role in defining the physics capabilities of the experiments. A reduction of several orders of magnitude in the rate of collected events, with respect to the proton-proton bunch crossing rate generated by the LHC, is mandatory to cope with the limits imposed by the readout and storage system. An accurate and efficient online selection mechanism is thus required to fulfill the task keeping maximal the acceptance to physics signals. The CMS experiment operates using a two-level trigger system. Firstly a Level-1 Trigger (L1T) system, implemented using custom-designed electronics, is designed to reduce the event rate to a limit compatible to the CMS Data Acquisition (DAQ) capabilities. A High Level Trigger System (HLT) follows, aimed at further reducing the rate of collected events finally stored for analysis purposes. The latter consists of a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software and operates on a computer farm. It runs algorithms o...

  15. Treatment of High Level Waste Arising from Pyrochemical Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the JSC «SSC RIAR» research experience on management high-level waste (HLW) arising from pyrochemical processes. The laboratory investigations including simulated and real waste forms generated as a result of the experimental reprocessings of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of fast reactors are summarized. Pyrochemical processes are characterized by a few types and a small volume of the waste, their high specific activity and, practically, absence of the liquid process HLW. The main types of solid process wastes are phosphate and oxide precipitates and spent electrolytes. The investigation included the chemical and radionuclide composition, gas release, chemical durability, thermal stability of the precipitates and spent electrolytes. The results of the analysis suggest that the main waste forms of the pyrochemical processes can be stored for a long time in shielded containers without any chemical conversion and immobilization. To increase the efficiency of the shielded barrier for the purposes of the long-term geological storage, the waste forms of the pyrochemical processes can be transferred into more stable chemical forms. (author)

  16. High level waste tank farm setpoint document. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revision 1 modifies Attachment I of this Technical Report as a result of a meeting which was held Friday, January 27, 1994 between Maintenance, Work Control, and Engineering to discuss report contents. Upon completion of the meeting, the Flow Chart was edited accordingly. Attachment 2 is modified for clerical reasons. Setpoints for nuclear safety-related instrumentation are required for actions determined by the design authorization basis. Minimum requirements need to be established for assuring that setpoints are established and held within specified limits. This document establishes the controlling methodology for changing setpoints of all classifications. The instrumentation under consideration involve the transfer, storage, and volume reduction of radioactive liquid waste in the F- and H-Area High-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Fanns. The setpoint document (Appendix 2) will encompass the PROCESS AREA listed in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) (DSTSA-200-10 Sup 18) which includes the diversion box HDB-8 facility. In addition to the PROCESS AREAS listed in the SAR, Building 299-H and the Effluent Transfer Facility (ETF) are also included in the scope

  17. Linear devices in combined high-level radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of precision analog integrated circuits for use in combined high-level radiation environments has traditionally been on a full-custom basis. The use of semicustom design methods has become prevalent in digital devices, with standard cell libraries and gate arrays readily available from multiple vendors. This paper addresses the application of semicustom design techniques to analog parts. In all cases the emphasis is on bipolar technology, since this provides an optimal combination of precision and radiation hardness. A mixed mode analog/digital (A/D) cell family for implementing semicustom designs is described, together with the fabrication process used. Specific processing and design methods are used to provide circuit hardness against neutron, total gamma dose, and transient gamma environments. Semicustom mixed analog/digital design is seen as an appropriate methodology for implementation of medium-performance mixed mode functions for radiation-hardened applications. This leads to trade-offs in process complexity and performance. Full custom design remains necessary for demanding applications such as high-speed A/D conversion and associated sample/hold functions. An A/D cell family optimized for hardness is described, together with the bipolar process used to implement it

  18. Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program brought six major US laboratories together for three years of cooperative research. The participants reached a consensus that solubility of the leached glass species, particularly solubility in the altered surface layer, is the dominant factor controlling the leaching behavior of defense waste glass in a system in which the flow of leachant is constrained, as it will be in a deep geologic repository. Also, once the surface of waste glass is contacted by ground water, the kinetics of establishing solubility control are relatively rapid. The concentrations of leached species reach saturation, or steady-state concentrations, within a few months to a year at 70 to 900C. Thus, reaction kinetics, which were the main subject of earlier leaching mechanisms studies, are now shown to assume much less importance. The dominance of solubility means that the leach rate is, in fact, directly proportional to ground water flow rate. Doubling the flow rate doubles the effective leach rate. This relationship is expected to obtain in most, if not all, repository situations

  19. Testing of high-level waste forms under repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The workshop on testing of high-level waste forms under repository conditions was held on 17 to 21 October 1988 in Cadarache, France, and sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), the Commissariat a l'energie atomique (CEA) and the Savannah River Laboratory (US DOE). Participants included representatives from Australia, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, The United Kingdom and the United States. The first part of the conference featured a workshop on in situ testing of simulated nuclear waste forms and proposed package components, with an emphasis on the materials interface interactions tests (MIIT). MIIT is a sevent-part programme that involves field testing of 15 glass and waste form systems supplied by seven countries, along with potential canister and overpack materials as well as geologic samples, in the salt geology at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico, USA. This effort is still in progress and these proceedings document studies and findings obtained thus far. The second part of the meeting emphasized multinational experimental studies and results derived from repository systems simulation tests (RSST), which were performed in granite, clay and salt environments

  20. THE HIGH LEVEL ACCESSION DIALOGUE FOR MACEDONIA: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Karadjoski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the strategic goals for the Republic of Macedonia is membership in the European Union. At the end of 2011, the Commission launched a so-called High Level Accession Dialogue for Macedonia, with a possibility to start the negotiations after the fulfillment of the Dialogue goals and benchmarks. For these reasons, the main goal of this paper will be to give an answer of the dilemma whether the Accession Dialogue for Macedonia is an accelerator of the entrance in the European Union, or is just a sophisticated tool for delay of the start of the negotiations for final accession. The expected results will correspond with the future EU plans for Macedonia, but also for the other Western Balkan countries, i.e. we will try to examine whether these countries have a realistic perspective for entrance in the European Union, or they are just a “declarative décor” for the vocabulary of the Brussels diplomats and member countries representatives. That will help to determine i.e. to try to predict the next steps of these countries, connected with the European integration, regardless of the actual constellation in the European Union concerning the Enlargement policy. The descriptive method, content analyses method, comparative method, but also the inductive and deductive methods will be used in this paper.

  1. Psychological stress in high level sailors during competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Segato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to investigate the psychological stress present in elite sailors in a competition. Based on a descriptive field research, 31 elite sailors volunteered to participate. They answered the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen & Williamson, 1988 and also specific questions on self-control, sources and strategies of coping. Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential (Student t test and Pearson's correlation statistics. These athletes revealed low and moderate scores (M = 20.00, DP = 6.83 of stress originated from both intrinsic (ship troubles, team disorders and extrinsic (study, working and training, family and financial problems sources. The group reported good stress control during competition through the use of cognitive (avoidance and somatic (listening music, resting/sleeping, talk to friends strategies. It is important that sailors are able to control and cope with high levels of psychological stress and to understand how to proceed when under unstable and unexpected situations that arise during competition.

  2. Psychological stress in high level sailors during competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Segato

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to investigate the psychological stress present in elite sailors in a competition. Based on a descriptive field research, 31 elite sailors volunteered to participate. They answered the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen & Williamson, 1988 and also specific questions on self-control, sources and strategies of coping. Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential (Student t test and Pearson's correlation statistics. These athletes revealed low and moderate scores (M = 20.00, DP = 6.83 of stress originated from both intrinsic (ship troubles, team disorders and extrinsic (study, working and training, family and financial problems sources. The group reported good stress control during competition through the use of cognitive (avoidance and somatic (listening music, resting/sleeping, talk to friends strategies. It is important that sailors are able to control and cope with high levels of psychological stress and to understand how to proceed when under unstable and unexpected situations that arise during competition.

  3. Canadian high-level radioactive waste management system issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Canada responsibility for the management of radioactive wastes rests with the producer of those wastes. This fundamental principle applies to such diverse wastes as uranium mine and mill tailings, low-level wastes from universities and hospitals, wastes produced at nuclear research establishments, and wastes produced at nuclear generating stations. The federal government has accepted responsibility for historical wastes for which the original producer can no longer be held accountable. Management of radioactive wastes is subject to the regulatory control of the Atomic Energy Control Board, the federal agency responsible for regulating the nuclear industry. In this paper the authors summarize the current situation concerning the management of high level (used nuclear fuel) wastes. In 1981 the two governments also announced that selection of a disposal site would not proceed, and responsibility for site selection and operation would not be assigned until the Concept for used fuel disposal had been reviewed and assessed. Thus the concept assessment is generic rather than site specific. The Concept that has been developed has been designed to conform with safety and performance criteria established by the Atomic Energy Control Board. It is based on burial deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield, using a multi-barrier approach with a series of engineered and natural barriers: these include the waste form, container, buffer and backfill, and the host rock

  4. NOx AND HETEROGENEITY EFFECTS IN HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We summarize contributions from our EMSP supported research to several field operations of the Office of Environmental Management (EM). In particular we emphasize its impact on safety programs at the Hanford and other EM sites where storage, maintenance and handling of HLW is a major mission. In recent years we were engaged in coordinated efforts to understand the chemistry initiated by radiation in HLW. Three projects of the EMSP (''The NOx System in Nuclear Waste,'' ''Mechanisms and Kinetics of Organic Aging in High Level Nuclear Wastes, D. Camaioni--PI'' and ''Interfacial Radiolysis Effects in Tanks Waste, T. Orlando--PI'') were involved in that effort, which included a team at Argonne, later moved to the University of Notre Dame, and two teams at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Much effort was invested in integrating the results of the scientific studies into the engineering operations via coordination meetings and participation in various stages of the resolution of some of the outstanding safety issues at the sites. However, in this Abstract we summarize the effort at Notre Dame

  5. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Infrastructure, Performance and Future Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Winklmeier, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) is a distributed real-time software system that performs the final online selection of events produced during proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is designed as a two-stage event filter running on a farm of commodity PC hardware. Currently the system consists of about 850 multi-core processing nodes that will be extended incrementally following the increasing luminosity of the LHC to about 2000 nodes depending on the evolution of the processor technology. Due to the complexity and similarity of the algorithms a large fraction of the software is shared between the online and offline event reconstruction. The HLT Infrastructure serves as the interface between the two domains and provides common services for the trigger algorithms. The consequences of this design choice will be discussed and experiences from the operation of the ATLAS HLT during cosmic ray data taking and first beam in 2008 will be presented. Since the event processing time at the HL...

  6. The disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Beijer Institute received request from the Swedish Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Naemnden for Anvaent Kaernbraensle - NAK) to undertake an international review of the major programmes which were currently making arrangements for the future disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and spent nuclear fuel. The request was accepted, a detailed proposal was worked out and agreed to by NAK, for a critical technical review which concentrated on the following three main tasks: 1. a 'state-of-the-art' review of selected ongoing disposal programmes, both national and international; 2. an assessment of the scientific and technical controversies involved, and 3. recommendations for further research in this field. This review work was to be built on a survey of the available technical literature which was to serve as a basis for a series of detailed interviews, consultations and discussions with scientific and technical experts in Japan, Canada, USA, Belgium, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. This first volume contains: disposal options; review of the state-of-the-art (international activities, national programs); analysis of waste disposal systems. (orig./HP)

  7. The ALICE High Level Trigger: status and plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Rohr, David; Gorbunov, Sergey; Breitner, Timo; Lehrbach, Johannes; Lindenstruth, Volker; Berzano, Dario

    2015-12-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is an online reconstruction, triggering and data compression system used in the ALICE experiment at CERN. Unique among the LHC experiments, it extensively uses modern coprocessor technologies like general purpose graphic processing units (GPGPU) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) in the data flow. Realtime data compression is performed using a cluster finder algorithm implemented on FPGA boards. These data, instead of raw clusters, are used in the subsequent processing and storage, resulting in a compression factor of around 4. Track finding is performed using a cellular automaton and a Kalman filter algorithm on GPGPU hardware, where both CUDA and OpenCL technologies can be used interchangeably. The ALICE upgrade requires further development of online concepts to include detector calibration and stronger data compression. The current HLT farm will be used as a test bed for online calibration and both synchronous and asynchronous processing frameworks already before the upgrade, during Run 2. For opportunistic use as a Grid computing site during periods of inactivity of the experiment a virtualisation based setup is deployed.

  8. Why consider subseabed disposal of high-level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There exist large areas of the deep seabed that warrant assessment as potential disposal sites for high-level radioactive wastes because (1) they are far from seismically and tectonically active lithospheric plate boundaries; (2) they are far from active or young volcanoes; (3) they contain thick layers of very uniform fine-grained clays; (4) they are devoid of natural resources likely to be exploited in the foreseeable future; (5) the geologic and oceanographic processes governing the deposition of sediments in such areas are well understood, and have been remarkably insensitive to past oceanic and climatic changes; and (6) sedimentary records of tens of millions of years of slow, uninterrupted deposition of fine-grained clay support predictions of the future stability of such sites. Data accumulated to date on the permeability, ion-retardation properties, and mechanical strength of pelagic clayey sediments indicate that they can act as a primary barrier to the escape of buried radionuclides. Work in progress should determine within the current decade whether subseabed disposal is environmentally acceptable and technically feasible, as well as address the legal, political, and social issues raised by this new concept

  9. The CMS High Level Trigger System: Experience and Future Development

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gerry; Bowen, Matthew; Branson, James G; Bukowiec, Sebastian; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, J A; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Flossdorf, Alexander; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, R; Hartl, Christian; Hegeman, Jeroen; Holzner, André; Y L Hwong; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, R K; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schwick, Christoph; Shpakov, Dennis; Simon, M; Spataru, A C; Sumorok, Konstanty

    2012-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC features a two-level trigger system. Events accepted by the first level trigger, at a maximum rate of 100 kHz, are read out by the Data Acquisition system (DAQ), and subsequently assembled in memory in a farm of computers running a software high-level trigger (HLT), which selects interesting events for offline storage and analysis at a rate of order few hundred Hz. The HLT algorithms consist of sequences of offline-style reconstruction and filtering modules, executed on a farm of 0(10000) CPU cores built from commodity hardware. Experience from the operation of the HLT system in the collider run 2010/2011 is reported. The current architecture of the CMS HLT, its integration with the CMS reconstruction framework and the CMS DAQ, are discussed in the light of future development. The possible short- and medium-term evolution of the HLT software infrastructure to support extensions of the HLT computing power, and to address remaining performance and maintenance issues, are discussed.

  10. Urbanisation and coronary heart disease mortality among African Americans in the US South.

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, E; Strogatz, D; Armstrong, D; Wing, S

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Despite significant declines since the late 1960s, coronary mortality remains the leading cause of death for African Americans. African Americans in the US South suffer higher rates of cardiovascular disease than African Americans in other regions; yet the mortality experiences of rural-dwelling African Americans, most of whom live in the South, have not been described in detail. This study examined urban-rural differentials in coronary mortality trends among African American...

  11. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  12. Infant Mortality and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... African American > Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.2 times the infant mortality rate ... birthweight as compared to non-Hispanic white infants. African Americans had almost twice the sudden infant death syndrome ...

  13. High level secretion of cellobiohydrolases by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlgren Simon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main technological impediment to widespread utilization of lignocellulose for the production of fuels and chemicals is the lack of low-cost technologies to overcome its recalcitrance. Organisms that hydrolyze lignocellulose and produce a valuable product such as ethanol at a high rate and titer could significantly reduce the costs of biomass conversion technologies, and will allow separate conversion steps to be combined in a consolidated bioprocess (CBP. Development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for CBP requires the high level secretion of cellulases, particularly cellobiohydrolases. Results We expressed various cellobiohydrolases to identify enzymes that were efficiently secreted by S. cerevisiae. For enhanced cellulose hydrolysis, we engineered bimodular derivatives of a well secreted enzyme that naturally lacks the carbohydrate-binding module, and constructed strains expressing combinations of cbh1 and cbh2 genes. Though there was significant variability in the enzyme levels produced, up to approximately 0.3 g/L CBH1 and approximately 1 g/L CBH2 could be produced in high cell density fermentations. Furthermore, we could show activation of the unfolded protein response as a result of cellobiohydrolase production. Finally, we report fermentation of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel™ to ethanol by CBH-producing S. cerevisiae strains with the addition of beta-glucosidase. Conclusions Gene or protein specific features and compatibility with the host are important for efficient cellobiohydrolase secretion in yeast. The present work demonstrated that production of both CBH1 and CBH2 could be improved to levels where the barrier to CBH sufficiency in the hydrolysis of cellulose was overcome.

  14. Solidification experiments of high-level liquid waste, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many processes to solidify into glass, ceramics, or metal composites can be expected to solidify high-level liquid wastes, and the calcination is considered to be one of the steps in each process. A laboratory scale fluidized-bed calciner has been constructed to study the feasibility of the calcination process. The calcined products carried with off gas are caught by cyclones and collected in hoppers. The calcined products are also taken out from overflow line by changing the operating conditions. Off-gas leaving the cyclones is washed and cooled in the spray quench tower, then cooled again in the condenser, and released through the demister, filter and blower. The main purpose of this off-gas treatment system is to remove acid fume from off-gas. The calciner is made of stainless steel tube of 4 in diameter, and is designed to treat waste solution at the rate of 1.0 l/hr. Heating is carried out by means of an electroresistance heater up to 500 deg. C, and in-bed combustion of kerosene is performed at the temperature above 500 deg. C. The calciner was operated by using 5 N nitric acid instead of synthetic wastes. Ignition and combustion of kerosene were stable in the fluidized bed heated up to 650 deg. C. The temperature was able to be controlled within +-5 deg. C of the target by controlling the feeding rate of kerosene. There was no substantial trouble about the equipment in this test operation. But in case of very low feeding rate, the time lag in ignition and subsequent after-burning phenomenon were observed. (Kobatake, H.)

  15. High-Level Waste Systems Plan. Revision 7 (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This revision of the High-Level Waste (HLW) System Plan aligns SRS HLW program planning with the DOE Savannah River (DOE-SR) Ten Year Plan (QC-96-0005, Draft 8/6), which was issued in July 1996. The objective of the Ten Year Plan is to complete cleanup at most nuclear sites within the next ten years. The two key principles of the Ten Year Plan are to accelerate the reduction of the most urgent risks to human health and the environment and to reduce mortgage costs. Accordingly, this System Plan describes the HLW program that will remove HLW from all 24 old-style tanks, and close 20 of those tanks, by 2006 with vitrification of all HLW by 2018. To achieve these goals, the DWPF canister production rate is projected to climb to 300 canisters per year starting in FY06, and remain at that rate through the end of the program in FY18, (Compare that to past System Plans, in which DWPF production peaked at 200 canisters per year, and the program did not complete until 2026.) An additional $247M (FY98 dollars) must be made available as requested over the ten year planning period, including a one-time $10M to enhance Late Wash attainment. If appropriate resources are made available, facility attainment issues are resolved and regulatory support is sufficient, then completion of the HLW program in 2018 would achieve a $3.3 billion cost savings to DOE, versus the cost of completing the program in 2026. Facility status information is current as of October 31, 1996

  16. Review of high-level waste form properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a review of waste form options for the immobilization of high-level-liquid wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle. This review covers the status of international research and development on waste forms as of May 1979. Although the emphasis in this report is on waste form properties, process parameters are discussed where they may affect final waste form properties. A summary table is provided listing properties of various nuclear waste form options. It is concluded that proposed waste forms have properties falling within a relatively narrow range. In regard to crystalline versus glass waste forms, the conclusion is that either glass of crystalline materials can be shown to have some advantage when a single property is considered; however, at this date no single waste form offers optimum properties over the entire range of characteristics investigated. A long-term effort has been applied to the development of glass and calcine waste forms. Several additional waste forms have enough promise to warrant continued research and development to bring their state of development up to that of glass and calcine. Synthetic minerals, the multibarrier approach with coated particles in a metal matrix, and high pressure-high temperature ceramics offer potential advantages and need further study. Although this report discusses waste form properties, the total waste management system should be considered in the final selection of a waste form option. Canister design, canister materials, overpacks, engineered barriers, and repository characteristics, as well as the waste form, affect the overall performance of a waste management system. These parameters were not considered in this comparison

  17. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory High-Level Waste Roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) High-Level Waste (HLW) Roadmap takes a strategic look at the entire HLW life-cycle starting with generation, through interim storage, treatment and processing, transportation, and on to final disposal. The roadmap is an issue-based planning approach that compares ''where we are now'' to ''where we want and need to be.'' The INEL has been effectively managing HLW for the last 30 years. Calcining operations are continuing to turn liquid HLW into a more manageable form. Although this document recognizes problems concerning HLW at the INEL, there is no imminent risk to the public or environment. By analyzing the INEL current business operations, pertinent laws and regulations, and committed milestones, the INEL HLW Roadmap has identified eight key issues existing at the INEL that must be resolved in order to reach long-term objectives. These issues are as follows: A. The US Department of Energy (DOE) needs a consistent policy for HLW generation, handling, treatment, storage, and disposal. B. The capability for final disposal of HLW does not exist. C. Adequate processes have not been developed or implemented for immobilization and disposal of INEL HLW. D. HLW storage at the INEL is not adequate in terms of capacity and regulatory requirements. E. Waste streams are generated with limited consideration for waste minimization. F. HLW is not adequately characterized for disposal nor, in some cases, for storage. G. Research and development of all process options for INEL HLW treatment and disposal are not being adequately pursued due to resource limitations. H. HLW transportation methods are not selected or implemented. A root-cause analysis uncovered the underlying causes of each of these issues

  18. Engineering neural systems for high-level problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Jared; Reggia, James

    2016-07-01

    There is a long-standing, sometimes contentious debate in AI concerning the relative merits of a symbolic, top-down approach vs. a neural, bottom-up approach to engineering intelligent machine behaviors. While neurocomputational methods excel at lower-level cognitive tasks (incremental learning for pattern classification, low-level sensorimotor control, fault tolerance and processing of noisy data, etc.), they are largely non-competitive with top-down symbolic methods for tasks involving high-level cognitive problem solving (goal-directed reasoning, metacognition, planning, etc.). Here we take a step towards addressing this limitation by developing a purely neural framework named galis. Our goal in this work is to integrate top-down (non-symbolic) control of a neural network system with more traditional bottom-up neural computations. galis is based on attractor networks that can be "programmed" with temporal sequences of hand-crafted instructions that control problem solving by gating the activity retention of, communication between, and learning done by other neural networks. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by showing that it can be applied successfully to solve sequential card matching problems, using both human performance and a top-down symbolic algorithm as experimental controls. Solving this kind of problem makes use of top-down attention control and the binding together of visual features in ways that are easy for symbolic AI systems but not for neural networks to achieve. Our model can not only be instructed on how to solve card matching problems successfully, but its performance also qualitatively (and sometimes quantitatively) matches the performance of both human subjects that we had perform the same task and the top-down symbolic algorithm that we used as an experimental control. We conclude that the core principles underlying the galis framework provide a promising approach to engineering purely neurocomputational systems for problem

  19. High-level waste issues and resolutions document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High-Level Waste (HLW) Issues and Resolutions Document recognizes US Department of Energy (DOE) complex-wide HLW issues and offers potential corrective actions for resolving these issues. Westinghouse Management and Operations (M ampersand O) Contractors are effectively managing HLW for the Department of Energy at four sites: Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Savannah River Site (SRS), West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), and Hanford Reservation. Each site is at varying stages of processing HLW into a more manageable form. This HLW Issues and Resolutions Document identifies five primary issues that must be resolved in order to reach the long-term objective of HLW repository disposal. As the current M ampersand O contractor at DOE's most difficult waste problem sites, Westinghouse recognizes that they have the responsibility to help solve some of the complexes' HLW problems in a cost effective manner by encouraging the M ampersand Os to work together by sharing expertise, eliminating duplicate efforts, and sharing best practices. Pending an action plan, Westinghouse M ampersand Os will take the initiative on those corrective actions identified as the responsibility of an M ampersand O. This document captures issues important to the management of HLW. The proposed resolutions contained within this document set the framework for the M ampersand Os and DOE work cooperatively to develop an action plan to solve some of the major complex-wide problems. Dialogue will continue between the M ampersand Os, DOE, and other regulatory agencies to work jointly toward the goal of storing, treating, and immobilizing HLW for disposal in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost effective manner

  20. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  1. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of ∼100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole ∼45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  2. Hydrogeology problems in high level radioactive waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of isolating high level radioactive waste in underground repositories presents the hydrogeologist with some of the most difficult problems that have been encountered in the field of earth sciences. This paper presents a brief review of the different rock types that are currently being investigated for their potential use in waste repositories. Granitic rocks have been studied more than any other rock type in many parts of the world, but the presence of discontinuities such as joints and fractures in this type of rock creates a formidable problem. There are two fundamental components to this problem: the factors that control the flow of fluids through a single fracture, and the factors that control the overall permeability of a fractured rock mass. Much work has been carried out in developing an understanding of fluid flow in a single fracture. The well known cubic law can only be used to describe this flow when the aperature is relatively large. As a fracture closes under stress, a complicated flow geometry develops, and the flux decreases much more rapidly than would be predicted by the cubic law. The flow is restricted to tortuous channels that apparently cannot be closed even at high stress levels. In evaluating the overall permeability of a fractured rock mass, the basic problem is that of determining the continuity of the fractures. Standard methods of fracture mapping to locate the system of discontinuities can be improved using seismic and radar tomography. A new procedure of determining the connectivity and permeability of a fractured rock mass is described that is based on an inverse technique involving a process of simulated annealing

  3. A mammalianized synthetic nitroreductase gene for high-level expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nitroreductase/5-(azaridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide (NTR/CB1954) enzyme/prodrug system is considered as a promising candidate for anti-cancer strategies by gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) and has recently entered clinical trials. It requires the genetic modification of tumor cells to express the E. coli enzyme nitroreductase that bioactivates the prodrug CB1954 to a powerful cytotoxin. This metabolite causes apoptotic cell death by DNA interstrand crosslinking. Enhancing the enzymatic NTR activity for CB1954 should improve the therapeutical potential of this enzyme-prodrug combination in cancer gene therapy. We performed de novo synthesis of the bacterial nitroreductase gene adapting codon usage to mammalian preferences. The synthetic gene was investigated for its expression efficacy and ability to sensitize mammalian cells to CB1954 using western blotting analysis and cytotoxicity assays. In our study, we detected cytoplasmic protein aggregates by expressing GFP-tagged NTR in COS-7 cells, suggesting an impaired translation by divergent codon usage between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Therefore, we generated a synthetic variant of the nitroreductase gene, called ntro, adapted for high-level expression in mammalian cells. A total of 144 silent base substitutions were made within the bacterial ntr gene to change its codon usage to mammalian preferences. The codon-optimized ntro either tagged to gfp or c-myc showed higher expression levels in mammalian cell lines. Furthermore, the ntro rendered several cell lines ten times more sensitive to the prodrug CB1954 and also resulted in an improved bystander effect. Our results show that codon optimization overcomes expression limitations of the bacterial ntr gene in mammalian cells, thereby improving the NTR/CB1954 system at translational level for cancer gene therapy in humans

  4. A mammalianized synthetic nitroreductase gene for high-level expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grohmann Maik

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nitroreductase/5-(azaridin-1-yl-2,4-dinitrobenzamide (NTR/CB1954 enzyme/prodrug system is considered as a promising candidate for anti-cancer strategies by gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT and has recently entered clinical trials. It requires the genetic modification of tumor cells to express the E. coli enzyme nitroreductase that bioactivates the prodrug CB1954 to a powerful cytotoxin. This metabolite causes apoptotic cell death by DNA interstrand crosslinking. Enhancing the enzymatic NTR activity for CB1954 should improve the therapeutical potential of this enzyme-prodrug combination in cancer gene therapy. Methods We performed de novo synthesis of the bacterial nitroreductase gene adapting codon usage to mammalian preferences. The synthetic gene was investigated for its expression efficacy and ability to sensitize mammalian cells to CB1954 using western blotting analysis and cytotoxicity assays. Results In our study, we detected cytoplasmic protein aggregates by expressing GFP-tagged NTR in COS-7 cells, suggesting an impaired translation by divergent codon usage between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Therefore, we generated a synthetic variant of the nitroreductase gene, called ntro, adapted for high-level expression in mammalian cells. A total of 144 silent base substitutions were made within the bacterial ntr gene to change its codon usage to mammalian preferences. The codon-optimized ntro either tagged to gfp or c-myc showed higher expression levels in mammalian cell lines. Furthermore, the ntro rendered several cell lines ten times more sensitive to the prodrug CB1954 and also resulted in an improved bystander effect. Conclusion Our results show that codon optimization overcomes expression limitations of the bacterial ntr gene in mammalian cells, thereby improving the NTR/CB1954 system at translational level for cancer gene therapy in humans.

  5. High-level Waste Long-term management technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is to develop a long-term management system(A-KRS) which deals with spent fuels from domestic nuclear power stations, HLW from advanced fuel cycle and other wastes that are not admitted to LILW disposal site. Also, this project demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of the key technologies applied in the A-KRS by evaluating them under in-situ condition such as underground research laboratory and provide important information to establish the safety assessment and long-term management plan. To develop the technologies for the high level radioactive wastes disposal, demonstrate their reliability under in-situ condition and establish safety assessment of disposal system, The major objects of this project are the following: Ο An advanced disposal system including waste containers for HLW from advanced fuel cycle and pyroprocess has been developed. Ο Quantitative assessment tools for long-term safety and performance assessment of a radwaste disposal system has been developed. Ο Hydrological and geochemical investigation and interpretation methods has been developed to evaluate deep geological environments. Ο The THMC characteristics of the engineered barrier system and near-field has been evaluated by in-situ experiments. Ο The migration and retardation of radionuclides and colloid materials in a deep geological environment has been investigated. The results from this project will provide important information to show HLW disposal plan safe and reliable. The knowledge from this project can also contribute to environmental conservation by applying them to the field of oil and gas industries to store their wastes safe

  6. Review of high-level waste form properties. [146 bibliographies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    This report is a review of waste form options for the immobilization of high-level-liquid wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle. This review covers the status of international research and development on waste forms as of May 1979. Although the emphasis in this report is on waste form properties, process parameters are discussed where they may affect final waste form properties. A summary table is provided listing properties of various nuclear waste form options. It is concluded that proposed waste forms have properties falling within a relatively narrow range. In regard to crystalline versus glass waste forms, the conclusion is that either glass of crystalline materials can be shown to have some advantage when a single property is considered; however, at this date no single waste form offers optimum properties over the entire range of characteristics investigated. A long-term effort has been applied to the development of glass and calcine waste forms. Several additional waste forms have enough promise to warrant continued research and development to bring their state of development up to that of glass and calcine. Synthetic minerals, the multibarrier approach with coated particles in a metal matrix, and high pressure-high temperature ceramics offer potential advantages and need further study. Although this report discusses waste form properties, the total waste management system should be considered in the final selection of a waste form option. Canister design, canister materials, overpacks, engineered barriers, and repository characteristics, as well as the waste form, affect the overall performance of a waste management system. These parameters were not considered in this comparison.

  7. Differentiation Mechanism and Evolution of High-level Magma Chamber at Xiangshan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    The calc-alkaline volcanic magmas,which formed the Mesozoic uraniferous volcanic complex of Xiangshan,resulted from partial melting of the mixture of lower crust and enriched mantle with a high mixing proportion in a specific tectonic setting such as active continental margin or ocean-continent collision zone.The preliminary concentrations of Uand Th occur in low-degree par-tial melts.Only small part of these melts was rapidly extracted and erupted and most intruded into the high-level magma chamber(depth:12-13 km) of the compressed upper lithosphere ,in which occurred a strong differentiation which would resulted in strong preconcentrations of the high-hygromagmaphile elements U and Th associated with strong depletion of the 3-d transition ele-ments Ti,Sc,Co,Zr,etc.At the final stage of subduction of the West-Pacific-Kula plate towards the Asian continental plate,the regional tectonic environment was transformed from a compressive in-to a tensional setting.The strongly differentiated,U(and Th) enriched silicic alkalic magmas in high level magma chamber extensively erupted,extruded and intruded.The hydrothermal fluids released as a result of late volcano-degassing and dewatering during crystallization-solidification of magmas,re-sulted in the remobilization,leaching,migration and reconcentration of uranium ,which had been preconcentrated in volcanic rocks.Therefore,specific regional petrogeochemical criteria are expected for the uraniferous volcanic series.

  8. A System for Monitoring and Tracking the LHC Beam Spot within the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Bartoldus, R; The ATLAS collaboration; Cogan, J; Salnikov, A; Strauss, E; Winklmeier, F

    2012-01-01

    The parameters of the beam spot produced by the LHC in the ATLAS interaction region are computed online using the ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) system. The high rate of triggered events is exploited to make precise measurements of the position, size and orientation of the luminous region in near real-time, as these parameters change significantly even during a single data-taking run. We present the challenges, solutions and results for the online determination, monitoring and beam spot feedback system in ATLAS. A specially designed algorithm, which uses tracks registered in the silicon detectors to reconstruct event vertices, is executed on the HLT processor farm of several thousand CPU cores. Monitoring histograms from all the cores are sampled and aggregated across the farm every 60 seconds. The reconstructed beam values are corrected for detector resolution effects, measured in situ from the separation of vertices whose tracks have been split into two collections. Furthermore, measurements for individual ...

  9. Monitoring and Tracking the LHC Beam Spot within the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Winklmeier, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The parameters of the beam spot produced by the LHC in the ATLAS interaction region are computed online using the ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) system. The high rate of triggered events is exploited to make precise measurements of the position, size and orientation of the luminous region in near real-time, as these parameters change significantly even during a single data-taking run. We present the challenges, solutions and results for the online determination, monitoring and beam spot feedback system in ATLAS. A specially designed algorithm, which uses tracks registered in the silicon detectors to reconstruct event vertices, is executed on the HLT processor farm of several thousand CPU cores. Monitoring histograms from all the cores are sampled and aggregated across the farm every 60 seconds. The reconstructed beam values are corrected for detector resolution effects, measured in situ from the separation of vertices whose tracks have been split into two collections. Furthermore, measurements for individual ...

  10. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't ...

  11. DOUBLE SHELL TANK INTEGRITY PROJECT HIGH LEVEL WASTE CHEMISTRY OPTIMIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office (DOE) of River Protection (ORP) has a continuing program for chemical optimization to better characterize corrosion behavior of High-Level Waste (HLW). The DOE controls the chemistry in its HLW to minimize the propensity of localized corrosion, such as pitting, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in nitrate-containing solutions. By improving the control of localized corrosion and SCC, the ORP can increase the life of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) carbon steel structural components and reduce overall mission costs. The carbon steel tanks at the Hanford Site are critical to the mission of safely managing stored HLW until it can be treated for disposal. The DOE has historically used additions of sodium hydroxide to retard corrosion processes in HLW tanks. This also increases the amount of waste to be treated. The reactions with carbon dioxide from the air and solid chemical species in the tank continually deplete the hydroxide ion concentration, which then requires continued additions. The DOE can reduce overall costs for caustic addition and treatment of waste, and more effectively utilize waste storage capacity by minimizing these chemical additions. Hydroxide addition is a means to control localized and stress corrosion cracking in carbon steel by providing a passive environment. The exact mechanism that causes nitrate to drive the corrosion process is not yet clear. The SCC is less of a concern in the newer stress relieved double shell tanks due to reduced residual stress. The optimization of waste chemistry will further reduce the propensity for SCC. The corrosion testing performed to optimize waste chemistry included cyclic potentiodynamic volarization studies. slow strain rate tests. and stress intensity factor/crack growth rate determinations. Laboratory experimental evidence suggests that nitrite is a highly effective:inhibitor for pitting and SCC in alkaline nitrate environments. Revision of the corrosion control

  12. Reusable, Extensible High-Level Data-Distribution Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark; Zima, Hans; Diaconescua, Roxana

    2007-01-01

    A framework for high-level specification of data distributions in data-parallel application programs has been conceived. [As used here, distributions signifies means to express locality (more specifically, locations of specified pieces of data) in a computing system composed of many processor and memory components connected by a network.] Inasmuch as distributions exert a great effect on the performances of application programs, it is important that a distribution strategy be flexible, so that distributions can be adapted to the requirements of those programs. At the same time, for the sake of productivity in programming and execution, it is desirable that users be shielded from such error-prone, tedious details as those of communication and synchronization. As desired, the present framework enables a user to refine a distribution type and adjust it to optimize the performance of an application program and conceals, from the user, the low-level details of communication and synchronization. The framework provides for a reusable, extensible, data-distribution design, denoted the design pattern, that is independent of a concrete implementation. The design pattern abstracts over coding patterns that have been found to be commonly encountered in both manually and automatically generated distributed parallel programs. The following description of the present framework is necessarily oversimplified to fit within the space available for this article. Distributions are among the elements of a conceptual data-distribution machinery, some of the other elements being denoted domains, index sets, and data collections (see figure). Associated with each domain is one index set and one distribution. A distribution class interface (where "class" is used in the object-oriented-programming sense) includes operations that enable specification of the mapping of an index to a unit of locality. Thus, "Map(Index)" specifies a unit, while "LocalLayout(Index)" specifies the local address

  13. Actinides and fission products partitioning from high level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of small amount of mixed actinides and long-lived heat generators fission products as 137Cs and 90Sr are the major problems for safety handling and disposal of high level nuclear wastes. In this work, actinides and fission products partitioning process, as an alternative process for waste treatment is proposed. First of all, ammonium phosphotungstate (PWA), a selective inorganic exchanger for cesium separation was chosen and a new procedure for synthesizing PWA into the organic resin was developed. An strong anionic resin loaded with tungstate or phosphotungstate anion enables the precipitation of PWA directly in the resinous structure by adding the ammonium nitrate in acid medium (R-PWA). Parameters as W/P ratio, pH, reactants, temperature and aging were studied. The R-PWA obtained by using phosphotungstate solution prepared with W/P=9.6, 9 hours digestion time at 94-106 deg C and 4 to 5 months aging time showed the best capacity for cesium retention. On the other hand, Sr separation was performed by technique of extraction chromatography, using DH18C6 impregnated on XAD7 resin as stationary phase. Sr is selectively extracted from acid solution and >99% was recovered from loaded column using distilled water as eluent. Concerning to actinides separations, two extraction chromatographic columns were used. In the first one, TBP(XAD7) column, U and Pu were extracted and its separations were carried-out using HNO3 and hydroxylamine nitrate + HNO3 as eluent. In the second one, CMP0-TBP(XAD7) column, the actinides were retained on the column and the separations were done by using (NH4)2C2O4 , DTPA, HNO3 and HCl as eluent. The behavior of some fission products were also verified in both columns. Based on the obtained data, actinides and fission products Cs and Sr partitioning process, using TBP(XAD7) and CMP0-TBP(XAD7) columns for actinides separation, R-PWA column for cesium retention and DH18C6(XAD7) column for Sr isolation was performed. (author)

  14. Diabetes in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, M.

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of t...

  15. Cementitious Grout for Closing SRS High Level Waste Tanks - 12315

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. Ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks will also be filled to the extent practical. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and to be chemically reducing with a reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400. Grouts with this chemistry stabilize potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted to support the mass placement strategy developed by

  16. The african protoproverbial in a multipolar world

    OpenAIRE

    Taiwo, Ọlọruntọba-Oju

    2014-01-01

    The proverb is a rhetorical universal and as such shares features across linguistic, ethnic and culture boundaries, thus making typological distinctions along ethnic or regional lines a daunting task. Further complicating this scenario within the African context is the relentless hybridization and subversion of the African proverb consequent on colonial contact and sundry postcolonial interventions. This twin trajectory, the conceptual universalism of the proverb and the relent...

  17. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, ... 46 per 100,000. • The suicide rate for African Americans ages 10-19 was 2.98 per ...

  18. High levels of DDT in breast milk: Intake, risk, lactation duration, and involvement of gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated presence and levels of DDT in 163 breast milk samples from four South African villages where, in three of them, malaria is controlled with DDT-sprayed indoors. Mean ΣDDT levels in breast milk were 18, 11, and 9.5 mg/kg mf (milk fat) from the three DDT-sprayed villages, respectively, including the highest ΣDDT level ever reported for breast milk from South Africa (140 mg/kg mf). Understanding the causes for these differences would be informative for exposure reduction intervention. The Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) for DDT by infants, and the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) were significantly exceeded. DDT had no effect on duration of lactation. There were indications (not significant) from DDT-sprayed villages that first-born female infants drink milk with more ΣDDT than first-born male infants, and vice versa for multipara male and female infants, suggesting gender involvement on levels of DDT in breast milk – requiring further investigation. - Highlights: ► The highest ΣDDT in breast milk ever found in South Africa is reported. ► Maximum Residue Limit is exceeded, up to 99 times. ► Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake is exceeded, up to 310 times. ► High ΣDDT did not affect duration of lactation. ► Infant gender may affect levels of ΣDDT in breast milk. - High levels of DDT in breast milk from a DDT-spayed area exceeded known limits in milk, but did not affect duration lactation. Infant gender may affect levels of ΣDDT in breast milk.

  19. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall

  20. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-10-01

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall