Miller Hesed, Christine D.; Paolisso, Michael
Policymakers need to know what factors are most important in determining local vulnerability to facilitate effective adaptation to climate change. Quantitative vulnerability indices are helpful in this endeavour but are limited in their ability to capture subtle yet important aspects of vulnerability such as social networks, knowledge and access to resources. Working with three African American communities on Maryland’s Eastern Shore, we systematically elicit local cultural knowledge on climate change and connect it with a scientific vulnerability framework. The results of this study show that: a given social-ecological factor can substantially differ in the way in which it affects local vulnerability, even among communities with similar demographics and climate-related risks; and social and political isolation inhibits access to sources of adaptive capacity, thereby exacerbating local vulnerability. These results show that employing methods for analysing cultural knowledge can yield new insights to complement those generated by quantitative vulnerability indices.
Throughout the history of the post-colonial era there has been an increasing call for utilizing and generating African solutions to meet the challenges and development in Africa, as opposed to blueprints of Western development solutions. A belief in African solutions implies a belief in ones own peoples’ knowledge and abilities, ultimately manifested in a strong identity. In this thesis I use Basil Bernstein's theories of educational knowledge and non-school everyday community knowledge, ...
Dorah U. Ramathuba
Full Text Available Objectives: The study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and breast cancer screening practices amongst women aged 30–65 years residing in a rural South African community.Method: A quantitative, descriptive cross-sectional design was used and a systematic sampling technique was employed to select 150 participants. The questionnaire was pretested for validity and consistency. Ethical considerations were adhered to in protecting the rights of participants. Thereafter, data were collected and analysed descriptively using the Predictive Analytics Software program.Results: Findings revealed that the level of knowledge about breast cancer of women in Makwarani Community was relatively low. The attitude toward breast cancer was negative whereas the majority of women had never performed breast cancer diagnostic methods.Conclusion: Health education on breast cancer screening practices is lacking and the knowledge deficit can contribute negatively to early detection of breast cancer and compound late detection. Based on the findings, community-based intervention was recommended in order to bridge the knowledge gap
Forsyth, Brian; Vandormael, Alain; Kershaw, Trace; Grobbelaar, Janis
The purpose of this study was to examine the presentation of AIDS-related stigma and knowledge within the political context of the South African government's response to the AIDS epidemic. It was during the 2000 - 2004 period that key government officials publicly challenged the orthodox views of HIV/AIDS, with the South African president, Thabo Mbeki, actively positing the primary role of poverty and other socio-economic stressors in the progression of the AIDS epidemic. This discursive position had real-time effects for AIDS policy-making and ultimately delayed the implementation of a national antiretroviral (ARV) rollout programme. Consequently this position was criticised by commentators in the media and elsewhere for contributing to an already widespread climate of AIDS stigmatization and misinformation. To shed more light on these claims we conducted a survey in 2005 in Atteridgeville, a South African township, and compared results with those of a similar survey conducted shortly after ARV medications became available in 2004. Results indicated a reduction in AIDS stigma levels across the 1-year period, and that those participants who endorsed contentious political views (such as those expressed by key government officials) were more likely to have a higher level of AIDS-related stigma than those who disagreed. Nevertheless, this study cautions against drawing a causal relationship between the South African government's position and IDS-stigmatizing attitudes, and suggests that further political and social factors be accounted for in an attempt to gain a fuller understanding of this seemingly complex relationship. PMID:18709210
Jennings, Larissa; Rompalo, Anne M.; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James; Adimora, Adaora A.; Hodder, Sally; Soto-Torres, Lydia E.; Frew, Paula M.; Haley, Danielle F.
Knowledge of sexual partners' HIV infection can reduce risky sexual behaviors. Yet, there are no published studies to-date examining prevalence and characteristics associated with knowledge among African-American women living in high poverty communities disproportionately affected by HIV. Using the HIV Prevention Trial Network's (HPTN) 064 Study data, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine individual, partner, and partnership-level determinants of women's knowledge (n=1,768 women). Results showed that women's demographic characteristics alone did not account for the variation in serostatus awareness. Rather, lower knowledge of partner serostatus was associated with having two or more sex partners (OR=0.49, 95%CI: 0.37-0.65), food insecurity (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), partner age>35 (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), and partner concurrency (OR=0.63, 95%CI: 0.49-0.83). Access to financial support (OR=1.42, 95%CI: 1.05-1.92) and coresidence (OR=1.43, 95%CI: 1.05-1.95) were associated with higher knowledge of partner serostatus. HIV prevention efforts addressing African-American women's vulnerabilities should employ integrated behavioral, economic, and empowerment approaches. PMID:25160901
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is a global health concern. Inadequate case finding and case holding has been cited as major barrier to the control of TB. The TB literature is written almost entirely from a biomedical perspective, while recent studies show that it is imperative to understand lay perception to determine why people seek treatment and may stop taking treatment. The Eastern Cape is known as a province with high TB incidence, prevalence and with one of the worst cure rates of South Africa. Its inhabitants can be considered lay experts when it comes to TB. Therefore, we investigated knowledge, perceptions of (access to TB treatment and adherence to treatment among an Eastern Cape population. Methods An area-stratified sampling design was applied. A total of 1020 households were selected randomly in proportion to the total number of households in each neighbourhood. Results TB knowledge can be considered fairly good among this community. Respondents' perceptions suggest that stigma may influence TB patients' decision in health seeking behavior and adherence to TB treatment. A full 95% of those interviewed believe people with TB tend to hide their TB status out of fear of what others may say. Regression analyses revealed that in this population young and old, men and women and the lower and higher educated share the same attitudes and perceptions. Our findings are therefore likely to reflect the actual situation of TB patients in this population. Conclusions The lay experts' perceptions suggests that stigma appears to effect case holding and case finding. Future interventions should be directed at improving attitudes and perceptions to potentially reduce stigma. This requires a patient-centered approach to empower TB patients and active involvement in the development and implementation of stigma reduction programs.
Peter L. Mkhize
Full Text Available In the knowledge economy, organisations are shifting their investment focus to intellectual capital in order to sustain a competitive advantage in the global marketplace. Organisational survival is increasingly dependent on the organisation’s ability to create and distribute knowledge that contributes to the improvement of performance. The purpose of this article is to evaluate individual knowledge-acquisition and sharing practices in the South African public sector. I applied the techniques of grounded theory analysis to extract themes from data that could provide insight into the knowledge sharing that takes place in the South African public sector. Findings revealed that the informal sharing of knowledge takes place in discussion forums within communities of practice through web-based, socially orientated platforms. These communities of practice are widespread throughout the public sector and are established with the purpose of soliciting expert knowledge from those who have been using open-source software successfully.
James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen
Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…
Since the early 1980s, development-oriented scientists have focused attention on improving methodological approaches for generating information from the village communities with whom they work. Farmer Participatory Research (FPR) and
Bertera, Elizabeth M.
This study combined the African American tradition of oral storytelling with the Hispanic medium of "Fotonovelas." A staggered pretest posttest control group design was used to evaluate four Storytelling Slide Shows on health that featured community members. A total of 212 participants were recruited for the intervention and 217 for the…
Since the process of globalization era, we can always lived in economics of knowledge. The cicle of economics founded on knowledge are compost by three components: the investment in knowledge; the production and the diffusion of information technology and communication (ITC) and the institutional mechanisms that favor the access to knowledge (Foray, 2004). By fact the economics are divided in Micro and Macroeconomics, this work has as objective to approach theme “Microeconomics of Knowle...
Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.
managers. We followed the system from its introduction in early 1997 until it was abandoned in the beginning of 2000. We focused on the way the system was introduced in the organization, how it changed, and how the intended group of users received (and eventually rejected) the system. Based on our...... interviews and observations we identify five reasons for the systems failure. We close the paper by some reflections on the use of the concept of “shared practice” in the development of IT-supported knowledge sharing systems....
Gaigher, Estelle; Lederman, Norman; Lederman, Judith
This paper reports a study on South African learners' knowledge about scientific inquiry using the Views About Scientific Inquiry (VASI) Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 105 grade 11 learners from 7 schools across the socio-economic spectrum in a South African city. A rubric for scoring the VASI Questionnaire was developed and refined…
Le Roux, Elizabeth
South Africa's academic publishing history has been profoundly influenced by its colonial heritage. This is reflected in the publication of Transactions of the South African Philosophical Society (later, the Royal Society of South Africa) from 1878. Although the Society and journal sought to promote original research about South Africa, it was modelled after the Royal Society in London and formed part of an imperial scientific community. As the local higher education institutions grew more independent and research-focused, local scholarly publishing developed as well, with university presses playing an increasingly important role. The University of South Africa (Unisa) Press started publishing departmental journals in the 1950s, with a focus on journals that 'speak to the student', and it is today the only South African university press with an active journals publishing programme. As external funding declined and the country became intellectually isolated in the high apartheid period, the Press managed to attract journals that could no longer be subsidized by learned societies and other universities. More recently, new co-publishing arrangements have brought South African journals back into an international intellectual community. Although some argue that this constitutes a re-colonization of South African knowledge production, it is also an innovative strategy for positioning local research in a global context. PMID:26495579
Ambar Murillo Montes de Oca
Full Text Available Knowledge building communities (KBCs are environments where learning is continually occurring as a social process, and the collective knowledge base is gradually being expanded upon. Knowledge accessible to all members is produced in collaborative discourse, along with the development and the use of conceptual artifacts. This theoretical contribution discusses the possibilities to foster and design KBCs in a “smart” manner so that they can be connected to formal learning. Firstly, the paper identifies the characteristics of “smartness” for the context of KBCs: participants (individuals and groups, collaboration and convergence, as well as technology that may provide enabling and monitoring tools. Secondly, tools are suggested to foster and monitor the development and the use of collaborative discourse and conceptual artifacts. Thirdly, recommendations for the design of smart KBCs are provided. Finally, a research agenda is proposed based on the previous discussions.
Shiriki K. Kumanyika, PhD, MPH
Full Text Available Obesity is more prevalent among African Americans and other racial and ethnic minority populations than among whites. The behaviors that determine weight status are embedded in the core social and cultural processes and environments of day-to-day life in these populations. Therefore, identifying effective, sustainable solutions to obesity requires an ecological model that is inclusive of relevant contextual variables. Race and ethnicity are potent stratification variables in U.S. society and strongly influence life contexts, including many aspects that relate to eating and physical activity behaviors. This article describes a synthesis initiated by the African American Collaborative Obesity Research Network (AACORN to build and broaden the obesity research paradigm. The focus is on African Americans, but the expanded paradigm has broader implications and may apply to other populations of color. The synthesis involves both community and researcher perspectives, drawing on and integrating insights from an expanded set of knowledge domains to promote a deeper understanding of relevant contexts. To augment the traditional, biomedical focus on energy balance, the expanded paradigm includes insights from family sociology, literature, philosophy, transcultural psychology, marketing, economics, and studies of the built environment. We also emphasize the need for more attention to tensions that may affect African American or other researchers who identify or are identified as members of the communities they study. This expanded paradigm, for which development is ongoing, poses new challenges for researchers who focus on obesity and obesity-related health disparities but also promises discovery of new directions that can lead to new solutions.
Manswell Butty, Jo-Anne; Richardson, Finie; Mouton, Charles P.; Royal, Charmaine D. M.; Green, Rodney D.; Munroe, Kerry-Ann
The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation and effectiveness of community education workshops to change genetics and health-related knowledge, intentions, and behavior of urban African Americans. Eight workshops were held and 183 participants consented to participate in the study. A majority of the participants were African American (97%) and female (84%) and just over half were 65 years and older (60%), and had some high school or were high school graduates (52%). The commun...
Asongu, Simplice A.
The goal of this paper is to assess how knowledge economy (KE) plays out in financial sector competition. It suggests a practicable way to disentangle the effects of different components of KE on various financial sectors. The variables identified under the World Bank’s four knowledge economy index (KEI) are employed. An endogeneity robust panel instrumental variable fixed-effects estimation strategy is employed on data from 53 African countries for the period 1996-2010. The following findin...
Subercaze, Julien; Maret, Pierre
International audience Virtual Knowledge Communities are a well suited paradigm for decentralized knowldege exchanges and they have been applied in several domains. In this paper we investigate the implementation of virtual knowledge communities with se- mantic agents. Using the SAM (Semantic Agent Modeling) approach, we show that agents can exchange community re- lated concepts (in OWL) and behavior (in SWRL). Agents can then learn and adapt new community-related behavior, which is useful...
Sebastian Ion CEPTUREANU
Full Text Available In the new economy, knowledge is an essential component of economic and social systems. The organizational focus has to be on building knowledge-based management, development of human resource and building intellectual capital capabilities. Knowledge-based management is defined, at company level, by economic processes that emphasize creation, selling, buying, learning, storing, developing, sharing and protection of knowledge as a decisive condition for profit and long-term sustainability of the company. Hence, knowledge is, concurently, according to a majoritiy of specialists, raw material, capital, product and an essential input. Knowledge-based communities are one of the main constituent elements of a framework for knowledge based management. These are peer networks consisting of practitioners within an organization, supporting each other to perform better through the exchange and sharing of knowledge. Some large companies have contributed or supported the establishment of numerous communities of practice, some of which may have several thousand members. They operate in different ways, are of different sizes, have different areas of interest and addresses knowledge at different levels of its maturity. This article examines the role of knowledge-based communities from the perspective of knowledge based management, given that the arrangements for organizational learning, creating, sharing, use of knowledge within organizations become more heterogeneous and take forms more difficult to predict by managers and specialists.
Wells, Tesia Denis
This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest…
T du Plessis
Full Text Available Global and national law firms alike operate in a challenging business environment and managing the firm's information and knowledge assets is increasingly viewed as a key factor in efficient legal service delivery. In legal practice, information management technologies, for example intranets, portals, workflow management systems, document and content management systems, case and project management systems and online dispute resolution systems are becoming important means of legal service delivery. The reason for applying information management technologies and implementing knowledge management strategies in law firms is not only to satisfy clients' growing need for a trusted online platform to interact with legal service providers, but for law firms to capitalise on their intellectual assets, to continuously modernise legal practice management, to empower lawyers, to increase productivity, to use time efficiently, to transfer skills and knowledge from senior to junior professionals, to improve service delivery and to gain competitive advantage. This article firstly reviews the role of information and knowledge management in providing an effective legal service to clients and compares foreign and South African law firms' information management related contexts, challenges and benefits. Secondly, it presents the findings of a survey conducted at South African law firms based on their knowledge management practices. The aim of the article is to provide insights into law firm knowledge management and its effect on providing legal services in an online business environment.
Tchamyou, Vanessa S.
This paper assesses the role knowledge economy (KE) in African business in 53 countries for the period 1996-2010. The four KE components of the World Bank are employed, notably: education, innovation, economic incentives & institutional regime and information & communication technology. The business indicators are classified into: starting, doing and ending business. Principal components analysis and panel instrumental variable fixed effects approaches are employed as empirical strategies. Th...
Nnamdi G. Iloka
Full Text Available Indigenous knowledge is valuable knowledge that has helped local communities all over the world survive for generations. This knowledge originates from the interaction between members of the community and the environment in which they live. Although much has been written about indigenous knowledge, its documentation in the area of disaster risk reduction and climate change in Africa has been very limited. The wealth of this knowledge has not been well-recognised in the disaster risk reduction field, as policy-makers still rely on mitigation strategies based on scientific knowledge. Colonialism and lack of proper documentation of indigenous knowledge are some of the contributing factors to this. Ignoring the importance of understanding adaptive strategies of the local people has led to failed projects. Understanding how local people in Africa have managed to survive and adapt for generations, before the arrival of Western education, may be the key to developing sustainable policies to mitigate future challenges. Literature used in this article, obtained from the books, papers and publications of various experts in the fields of disaster risk reduction, climate change, indigenous knowledge and adaptation, highlight the need for more interest to be shown in indigenous knowledge, especially in the developing country context. This would lead to better strategies which originate from the community level but would aim for overall sustainable development in Africa.
Lima, Junio Cesar de; Carvalho, Cedric Luiz de; Ambrosio, Ana Paula Laboissiere
Using an infinity of tools and the web's ease of communication, VCoPs gain space and are today an important domain of research and application, allowing the development of more complete and useful environments for the management of knowledge, i.e., the sharing of their best practices by the community members. For an effective knowledge transfer between community members it is necessary a high level of confidence between the members and a strong cooperation and collaboration culture. This conf...
Guizzardi-Silva Souza, R.; Wagner, G.; Aroyo, L.M.
Collaborative learning motivates active participation of individuals in their learning process, which often results in the attaining of creative and critical thinking skills. In this way, students and teachers are viewed as both providers and consumers of knowledge gathered in environments where eve
Maryam Amin; Pawan Nyachhyon; Maryam Elyasi; Muhammed Al-Nuaimi
Purpose. To evaluate the impact of an educational workshop on parental knowledge, attitude, and perceived behavioral control regarding their child’s oral health. Materials and Methods. A one-time oral health education workshop including audio/visual and hands-on components was conducted by a trained dentist and bilingual community workers in community locations. Participants were African parents of children who had lived in Canada for less than ten years. The impact of the workshop was evalua...
Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T; Tataw, David B
This article describes the use of survey research in collaboration with the African American urban community of Georgetown, Jackson, Mississippi to identify and understand prostate cancer knowledge, resource utilization, and health education strategies considered most effective in reaching the community with prostate cancer prevention messages. The study revealed profound needs in disease identification and resources awareness and utilization. Barriers to utilization were identified by participants to include lack of self-efficacy, low self-esteem, lack of trust in the health care system, limited knowledge of prostate pathology, and limited ability to pay. Participants' recommended strategies for reaching the community with prostate cancer education include traditional and nontraditional strategies. The list of recommendations exclude modern-day outlets such as handheld devices, Twitter, Facebook, blogs, wikis, and other Internet-based outlets. The findings provide a road map for program development and an intervention research agenda custom-tailored to the Georgetown community of Jackson, Mississippi. PMID:23805806
Hussaini, Khaleel S; Hamm, Eric; Means, Toni
The article discusses Arizona's strategic implementation and evaluation of the first time motherhood initiative grant (FTMI) to understand preconception health among African American men and women in Arizona. Longitudinal focus groups assessed whether African American men and women in the targeted areas comprehended and recalled the messages related to preconception health. Matched pre and posttests assessed community members' knowledge of preconception as well as physicians' perceptions on preconception health and care. Focus-group data were transcribed and coded by independent coders to conduct content analyses. Inter-rater reliability and agreement among coders, bivariate and multivariate statistics were conducted for quantitative matched pre and posttests data using SAS v9.2 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). The social marketing campaign had limited impact in recall and comprehension of the preconception health message among African American men and women. Data from focus groups revealed that African American men and women perceived preconception health to be vital. And results from the pretest and posttests of community-based presentations, further supported this finding. Evidence from Grand Round presentations indicated that practitioners and health care providers had diverging views on preconception health. Use of community-based participatory mixed methods research can facilitate better understanding of the efficacy of strategic interventions such as FTMI and can provide valuable information on preconception health. Cost limitations often prohibit extensive evaluation of social marketing campaigns, hence, evaluators and researchers should assess the feasibility of conducting an efficacy study versus an effectiveness study in evaluating social marketing campaigns. PMID:23229170
Perkins, Emory L; Stennis, Kesslyn Brade; Taylor Spriggs, Velva; Kwegyir-Afful, Emma Aya; Prather, Aaron
Background: This quantitative explanatory study was designed to explain the relationship between HIV/AIDS risk-taking behaviors among African American women and their knowledge surrounding HIV/AIDS. More specifically, the research considers whether knowledge alone was sufficient to alter African-American women’s risk-taking behaviors regarding HIV/AIDS. Objectives: This study was designed to investigate knowledge surrounding sexual risk-taking behaviors including 1) heterosexual transmission;...
Whitehead, Kevin A.; Kriel, Anita J.; Richter, Linda M.
In the face of extreme poverty and inequality in South Africa, community mobilization interventions represent an important way in which people can be empowered to improve their life. Successfully conducting community mobilization interventions in rural South African communities requires anticipating and addressing a number of potential barriers in…
Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Herslund, Lise Byskov
East African cities are in the process of assessing their vulnerabilities to climate change, but face difficulties in capturing the complexity of the various facets of vulnerability. This holistic approach, captures four different dimensions of vulnerability to flooding - Assets, Institutions......, Attitudes and the Physical environment, with Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, as a case city. The methodology is actively involving the expertise of the stakeholders, and uses GIS to analyze and compile the data. The final output is presented as a comprehensible map, delineating the varying vulnerability to...
Kamsu-Foguem, Bernard; Diallo, Gayo; Foguem, Clovis
Although African patients use both conventional or modern and traditional healthcare simultaneously, it has been proven that 80% of people rely on African traditional medicine (ATM). ATM includes medical activities stemming from practices, customs and traditions which were integral to the distinctive African cultures. It is based mainly on the oral transfer of knowledge, with the risk of losing critical knowledge. Moreover, practices differ according to the regions and the availability of med...
Sharps, Phyllis W; Phillips, Janice; Oguntimalide, Lola; Saling, Jessica; Yun, Stephanie
The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and health practices related to menopausal health among African-American women (N= 106) from diverse SES levels, between 40 to 65 years of age. The mean age was 49 years of age, 60.7% were college graduates, 45.8% were married, 85% employed full-time and 88% had medical insurance. Two-thirds rated their health as good, and half believed their health was better than other women. Most women (58%) use hormone replacement therapy (HRT) or would consider using HRT. In general women were knowledgeable about the process of menopause. Among this diverse group of women there were significant differences (pbeauty parlors, community centers. PMID:15011939
Kim, Sei-Hill; Tanner, Andrea; Friedman, Daniela B; Foster, Caroline; Bergeron, Caroline
Analyzing data from a survey of African American and White residents in South Carolina, this study attempts to understand how to better promote clinical trial participation specifically within the African American population. To explore why participation is lower in the African American population, the authors examined two sets of potential barriers: structural/procedural (limited accessibility, lack of awareness, doctors not discussing clinical trial options, lack of health insurance) and cognitive/psychological (lack of subjective and factual knowledge, misperceptions, distrust, fear, perceived risk). Findings revealed that African Americans were significantly less willing than Whites to participate in a clinical trial. African Americans also had lower subjective and factual knowledge about clinical trials and perceived greater risk involved in participating in a clinical trial. The authors found that lack of subjective knowledge and perceived risk were significant predictors of African Americans' willingness to participate in a clinical trial. Implications of the findings are discussed in detail. PMID:26042496
Jaworski, Alison; Brown, Tony; Norman, Catherine; Hata, Kiri; Toohey, Mark; Vasiljevic, Dubravka; Rowe, Rachel
Issue addressed Alcohol-related harm is an issue of concern for African migrant communities living in Australia. However, there has been little information available to guide workers in developing culturally sensitive health promotion strategies. Methods A three-step approach, comprising a literature review, community consultations and an external review, was undertaken to develop a guide to assist organisations and health promotion groups working with African migrant communities to address alcohol-related harms. Discussion There was a high level of agreement between the three steps. Addressing alcohol harms with African migrant communities requires approaches that are sensitive to the needs, structures and experiences of communities. The process should incorporate targeted approaches that enable communities to achieve their resettlement goals as well as strengthening mainstream health promotion efforts. Conclusions The resource produced guides alcohol harm prevention coalitions and workers from the first steps of understanding the influences of acculturation and resettlement on alcohol consumption, through to planning, developing and evaluating an intervention in partnership with communities. So what? This paper advances knowledge by providing a precise summary of Australian African migrant focused alcohol and other drug research to date. It also describes a three-step approach that aimed to incorporate a diversity of community views in the creation of a health promotion and community capacity-building resource. PMID:26726816
Andrasik, Michele Peake; Clad, Rachel; Bove, Joanna; Tsegaselassie, Solomon; Morris, Martina
We evaluate an innovative grassroots community-based campaign in Seattle, WA focused on educating African American and African-born communities about concurrent partnerships and HIV transmission. Respondents completed a short self-administered questionnaire on a handheld personal digital assistant to evaluate the reach, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of the campaign. Of those who remembered seeing the campaign materials (82 %), social networks were the most common source of exposure (80 %). Respondents rated campaign materials very visually attractive (86 %), very interesting (91 %), and very important for themselves (90 %) and their community (93 %). Respondents reported that the campaign increased their knowledge about concurrency (84 %), changed their attitudes about it (77 %), and 65 % said it was likely or very likely that they would change their behavior as a result. This inexpensive grassroots campaign demonstrated extensive reach in the local black community and was able to move beyond individual exposure and into social networks. PMID:25711296
Full Text Available The growth in online knowledge resources has transformed information securing practices and effects have been especially pronounced for scientific journals. It has therefore become increasingly necessary to understand researchers’ information search and securing preferences. Leading South African researchers were indentified and invited to participate in a web- based survey to this end. Results indicate that electronic resources are favoured for journal articles, but not for books, and researchers commonly employ chaining and browsing behaviour to locate relevant journal articles. Full-text journals are favoured by researchers to undertake searches. These are favoured over other bibliographic databases and other federated searches (Google, Google Scholar and MetaLib. Analyses of the coverage of top rated journals by the two top rated full- text databases EBSCOhost and ScienceDirect reveals significantly lower coverage when compared with the coverage of top journals by the citation databases Scopus and Web of Science. Researchers should therefore make greater use of these resources to effectively locate relevant material.
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to report on research into whether knowledge can be managed more effectively by taking into consideration the nature and complexity of information being received by members of an organisation; the cognitive abilities of those members; and finally the nature and composition of the hierarchical structure of the organisation within which those members operate. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research reported on in this paper was carried out using a case study approach, with the focus on a single organisation to which the authors had special access. Data was gathered using a combination of interviews and a focus group, with participants drawn from a cross-section of members of the case study organisation. Analysis was conducted within the framework associated with the primary theoretical model (Jaques & Clement, 1991 that underpins this research. Findings: This research helps to further an understanding of how individual and organisational performance may be influenced by issues such as cognitive processes and the relationship to information complexity. The research findings support the work of Jaques and Clement (1991. Implications: This research had important implications for the organisation in the case study investigation. Other organisations would need to evaluate the research findings in terms of their applicability to other organisations in the same industry, in the same country (South Africa or elsewhere in other industries or in other countries on the African continent. Originality/Value: This research is original in terms of the application of cognitive theory in conjunction with knowledge management principles in the context of the legal profession in South Africa. It has potential value in many other industries and countries.
Robert T. Hans; Pantaleo M.D. Rwelamila
The primary purpose of this research study is two-fold: Firstly, to establish the knowledge base of project managers in the South African ICT Sector. Secondly, to establish whether project management as a discipline is regarded as an important profession in the South African ICT Sector. The paper based on a questionnaire analyses and discusses the knowledge base of project managers of ICT organisations listed on the Johannesburg Securities Exchange (JSE) as well as the perceive...
Walpole, MaryBeth; Chambers, Crystal Renee; Goss, Kathryn
This inquiry is an exploration of the educational trajectories of African American women community college students. We compare the persistence of African American women to African American men and to all women college students using the 1996/2001 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Survey and the 1993/2003 Baccalaureate and Beyond…
The purpose of this study was to test the effects of community music projects (CMPs), such as after-school African drumming circles, on academic performance and generalised anxiety in adolescents. Adolescents from a Junior High (7th, 8th, and 9th graders, age range from 12-14) in the State of Utah (USA) participated in the study. A one-sample t-test found a significant difference in reading scores (df(4) p=.004). A paired samples t-test found a significant relationship between the maths trait...
Blanks, Starla Hairston; Treadwell, Henrie; Bazzell, Anya; Graves, Whitney; Osaji, Olivia; Dean, Juanita; McLawhorn, James T; Stroud, Jareese Lee
Purpose. The I Am Woman (IAW) Program is a community-based, culturally responsive, and gender-specific nutrition, obesity, and diabetes educational prevention program designed for African American women (AAW). Chronic nutrition-related health conditions such as excess body weight, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer are common among many African American women. Methods. IAW engaged AAW at risk for such deleterious health conditions by developing a health education intervention that aimed to support weight loss and management, improve knowledge about healthy lifestyle behavioral choices, and facilitate increased access to comprehensive healthcare. This Community Health Worker- (CHW-) led program enrolled 79 AAW aged 18 and older in a 7-week group health education intervention. Results. Following the intervention, results indicated that participants had greater knowledge about nutrition and health, strategies for prevention and management of obesity and diabetes, increased engagement in exercise and fitness activities, and decreased blood pressure, weight, body, and mass index. Cholesterol levels remained relatively unchanged. Additionally, AAW visited a primary care doctor more frequently and indicated greater interest in addressing their health concerns. Conclusion. This model of prevention appears to be a promising approach for increasing awareness about ways to improve the health and well-being of AAW. PMID:27493797
Bazzell, Anya; Dean, Juanita; McLawhorn, James T.; Stroud, Jareese Lee
Purpose. The I Am Woman (IAW) Program is a community-based, culturally responsive, and gender-specific nutrition, obesity, and diabetes educational prevention program designed for African American women (AAW). Chronic nutrition-related health conditions such as excess body weight, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer are common among many African American women. Methods. IAW engaged AAW at risk for such deleterious health conditions by developing a health education intervention that aimed to support weight loss and management, improve knowledge about healthy lifestyle behavioral choices, and facilitate increased access to comprehensive healthcare. This Community Health Worker- (CHW-) led program enrolled 79 AAW aged 18 and older in a 7-week group health education intervention. Results. Following the intervention, results indicated that participants had greater knowledge about nutrition and health, strategies for prevention and management of obesity and diabetes, increased engagement in exercise and fitness activities, and decreased blood pressure, weight, body, and mass index. Cholesterol levels remained relatively unchanged. Additionally, AAW visited a primary care doctor more frequently and indicated greater interest in addressing their health concerns. Conclusion. This model of prevention appears to be a promising approach for increasing awareness about ways to improve the health and well-being of AAW. PMID:27493797
Starla Hairston Blanks
Full Text Available Purpose. The I Am Woman (IAW Program is a community-based, culturally responsive, and gender-specific nutrition, obesity, and diabetes educational prevention program designed for African American women (AAW. Chronic nutrition-related health conditions such as excess body weight, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer are common among many African American women. Methods. IAW engaged AAW at risk for such deleterious health conditions by developing a health education intervention that aimed to support weight loss and management, improve knowledge about healthy lifestyle behavioral choices, and facilitate increased access to comprehensive healthcare. This Community Health Worker- (CHW- led program enrolled 79 AAW aged 18 and older in a 7-week group health education intervention. Results. Following the intervention, results indicated that participants had greater knowledge about nutrition and health, strategies for prevention and management of obesity and diabetes, increased engagement in exercise and fitness activities, and decreased blood pressure, weight, body, and mass index. Cholesterol levels remained relatively unchanged. Additionally, AAW visited a primary care doctor more frequently and indicated greater interest in addressing their health concerns. Conclusion. This model of prevention appears to be a promising approach for increasing awareness about ways to improve the health and well-being of AAW.
Howell, J. Christina; Soyinka, Oretunlewa; Parker, Monica; Jarrett, Thomas L.; Roberts, David L.; Dorbin, Cornelya D.; Hu, William T
African American participation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) research studies has been historically low. To determine if older African Americans and Caucasians had different knowledge or attitudes related to AD, we administered the Alzheimer’s Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS) to 67 older African Americans and 140 older Caucasians in the greater Atlanta area, as well as questions targeting locus of control over general health and AD risks. Older African Americans scored slightly lower on ADKS than...
Green, Kerry M.; Fothergill, Kate E.; Robertson, Judith A.; Zebrak, Katarzyna A.; Banda, Deliya R.; Ensminger, Margaret E.
Depression among African Americans residing in urban communities is a complex, major public health problem; however, few studies identify early life risk factors for depression among urban African American men and women. To better inform prevention programming, this study uses data from the Woodlawn Study, a well-defined community cohort of urban African Americans followed from age 6 to 42 years, to determine depression prevalence through midlife and identify childhood and adolescent risk fac...
Sebastian Ion CEPTUREANU; Eduard Gabriel CEPTUREANU
In the new economy, knowledge is an essential component of economic and social systems. The organizational focus has to be on building knowledge-based management, development of human resource and building intellectual capital capabilities. Knowledge-based management is defined, at company level, by economic processes that emphasize creation, selling, buying, learning, storing, developing, sharing and protection of knowledge as a decisive condition for profit and long-term sustainability of t...
Ong'ayo, A.O.O.; Oucho, J.O.; Oucho, L.A.
This study assesses the Kenyan policy and institutional framework concerning South–South labour migration with particular focus on the East African Community (EAC) countries. It focuses mainly on one particular policy instrument, the East African Community Common Market framework. The research furth
Howell, J Christina; Soyinka, Oretunlewa; Parker, Monica; Jarrett, Thomas L; Roberts, David L; Dorbin, Cornelya D; Hu, William T
African American participation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) research studies has been historically low. To determine whether older African Americans and Caucasians had different knowledge or attitudes related to AD, we administered the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS) to 67 older African Americans and 140 older caucasians in the greater Atlanta area as well as questions targeting locus of control over general health and AD risks. Older African Americans scored slightly lower on ADKS than older caucasians, with race only accounting for 1.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57-2.61, P < .001) points of difference in a multivariate model. Attitudes toward AD were also similar between the 2 groups but 1 (35.7%) in 3 adults reported control over general health but not AD risks. In addition to enhancing education content in outreach efforts, there is an urgent need to address the perception that future AD risks are beyond one's own internal control. PMID:26646115
While the African Development Bank Group strives to be the leading development financeinstitution in Africa, the link between research and development policy in an international financialintermediary is not always obvious. This paper expounds the logic of this crucial relationship andmakes the case for enhancing the role of the ADB as a knowledge and information center, providingsound intellectual leadership within the context of African development issues. The developmentprocess includes the...
Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the impact of an educational workshop on parental knowledge, attitude, and perceived behavioral control regarding their child’s oral health. Materials and Methods. A one-time oral health education workshop including audio/visual and hands-on components was conducted by a trained dentist and bilingual community workers in community locations. Participants were African parents of children who had lived in Canada for less than ten years. The impact of the workshop was evaluated by a questionnaire developed based on the theory of planned behavior. Results. A total of 105 parents participated in this study. Participants were mainly mothers (mean age 35.03±5.4 years who came to Canada as refugee (77.1% and had below high school education (70%. Paired t-test showed a significant difference in participants’ knowledge of caries, preventive measures, and benefits of regular dental visits after the workshop (P value<0.05. A significant improvement was also found in parental attitudes toward preventive measures and their perceived behavioral control (P<0.05. Parents’ intention to take their child to a dentist within six months significantly altered after the workshop (P value<0.05. Conclusions. A one-time hands-on training was effective in improving parental knowledge, attitude, perceived behavioral control, and intention with respect to their child’s oral health and preventive dental visits in African immigrants.
A professional virtual community provides an interactive platform for enterprise experts to create and share their empirical knowledge cooperatively, and the platform contains a tremendous amount of hidden empirical knowledge that knowledge experts have preserved in the discussion process. Therefore, enterprise knowledge management highly…
Robert T. Hans
Full Text Available The primary purpose of this research study is two-fold: Firstly, to establish the knowledge base of project managers in the South African ICT Sector. Secondly, to establish whether project management as a discipline is regarded as an important profession in the South African ICT Sector. The paper based on a questionnaire analyses and discusses the knowledge base of project managers of ICT organisations listed on the Johannesburg Securities Exchange (JSE as well as the perceived importance of project management in the South African ICT Sector. The project managers lack some project management knowledge base in some of the nine categories of competencies. This confirms some of the findings by Rwelamila (2007 that project management training programmes offered by institutions of higher learning in South Africa are skewed. This paper also established that the organisations in the South African ICT Sector recognise project management as an important profession. The lack of some project management fundamental knowledge base by project managers necessitate that the organisations concerned should implement some of the following: review project management training programmes and implement mentoring and coaching programmes. This article reveals the knowledge base gaps of project managers in the South African ICT Sector. It also reveals whether project management is regarded as an important profession by organisations in the South African ICT Sector. It complements another research study done by Rwelamila (2007 in South Africa. It is directed to the South African organisations in the ICT Sector as well as institutions of higher learning in South Africa that offer project management training programmes.
Online Knowledge Communities, also known as online forum, are popular web-based tools that allow members to seek and share knowledge. Documents to answer varieties of questions are associated with the process of knowledge exchange. The social network of members in an Online Knowledge Community is an important factor to improve search precision. However, prior ranking functions donâ t handle this kind of document with using this information. In this study, we try to resolve the problem of fin...
Full Text Available Diarrhoea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in rural communities in Africa, particularly in children under the age of five. This calls for the development of cost effective alternative strategies such as the use of herbal drugs in the treatment of diarrhoea in these communities. Expenses associated with the use of orthodox medicines have generated renewed interest and reliance on indigenous medicinal plants in the treatment and management of diarrhoeal infections in rural communities. The properties of many phenolic constituents of medicinal plants such as their ability to inhibit enteropooling and delay gastrointestinal transit are very useful in the control of diarrhoea, but problems such as scarcity of valuable medicinal plants, lack of standardization of methods of preparation, poor storage conditions and incertitude in some traditional health practitioners are issues that affect the efficacy and the practice of traditional medicine in rural African communities. This review appraises the current strategies used in the treatment of diarrhoea according to the Western orthodox and indigenous African health-care systems and points out major areas that could be targeted by health-promotion efforts as a means to improve management and alleviate suffering associated with diarrhoea in rural areas of the developing world. Community education and research with indigenous knowledge holders on ways to maximise the medicinal potentials in indigenous plants could improve diarrhoea management in African rural communities.
Full Text Available Abstract Background African American women have higher rates of breast cancer mortality than their white counterparts. Studies have suggested that this is partly caused by discovery of cancer at a later stage, highlighting the importance of encouraging early detection of breast cancer in this population. To guide the creation of a breast cancer education intervention and help focus other health educators' and clinicians' health promotion efforts, this study explored whether a cohort of African American women living in San Diego would demonstrate the possession of adequate baseline knowledge about breast cancer screening and adherence to widely recommended screening guidelines. Methods African American women (N = 1,055 from San Diego, California participated in a beauty salon-based survey about breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening practices. Women's ages ranged from 20 to 94 years, with average age of 42.20 (SD = 13.53 years. Thirty-four percent reported completing college and/or some graduate school training, and 52% reported having some college or post high school formal training. Seventy-five percent of the sample reported working outside their home. Participating cosmetologists and their salons were recruited to the study through word-of-mouth referral by highly respected African American community leaders. Results Salon clients reported low rates of adherence to recommended breast cancer screening guidelines. Of the 1,055 participants, 31% reporting performing breast self-exam every month. Of those participants 40 and older, 57% reported having had a clinical breast exam and 43% reported having had a mammogram in the past year. Knowledge of breast cancer was associated with adherence to screening guidelines. While women recognized the serious health threat that breast cancer poses and that early detection of breast cancer is important, only 30% of women reported feeling well informed about the disease. Many participants
Full Text Available Many online communities nowadays are emphasized more on peer interactions and information sharing among members; very few online communities are built with knowledge management in nature supported by knowledge management system (KMS. This study aims to present a community of practice on how to effectively adopt a knowledge management system (KMS to neutralize a cyber collaborative learning community for a research lab in a higher education setting. A longitudinal case for 7 years was used to analyze the retention and extension of participants‟ community of practice experiences. Interviews were conducted for the comparison between experiences and theories. It was found that the transformations of tacit and explicit knowledge are in accordance with the framework of Nonaka‟s model of knowledge management from which we elicit the strategies and suggestions to the adoption and implementation of virtual collaborative research community supported by KMS.
Andel, van T.R.
African slaves brought plant knowledge to the New World, sometimes applying it to related plants they found there and sometimes bringing Old World plants with them. By tracing the linguistic parallels between names for plants in African languages and in communities descended from African slaves, pie
Yang, Xianmin; Qiu, Qin; Yu, Shengquan; Tahir, Hasan
The openness of open-knowledge communities (OKCs) leads to concerns about the knowledge quality and reliability of such communities. This confidence crisis has become a major factor limiting the healthy development of OKCs. Earlier studies on trust evaluation for Wikipedia considered disadvantages such as inadequate influencing factors and…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test the effects of community music projects (CMPs, such as after-school African drumming circles, on academic performance and generalised anxiety in adolescents. Adolescents from a Junior High (7th, 8th, and 9th graders, age range from 12-14 in the State of Utah (USA participated in the study. A one-sample t-test found a significant difference in reading scores (df(4 p=.004. A paired samples t-test found a significant relationship between the maths trait anxiety score pre-intervention and the total state anxiety score pre-test (df(4 p=.033. A paired samples t-test found a significant relationship between the reading trait anxiety score post-intervention and the total state anxiety score post-test (df(4 p=.030. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of community music such as drumming for reducing anxiety and also for improving academic performance in adolescents. CMPs are recommended as a non-invasive intervention modality for adolescents.
O. A. Oduntan; A. Carelson; P. Clarke-Farr; R. Hansraj
Exposure to sunlight has been associated with several ocular conditions such as cataract, age-related macular degeneration, and conjunctival neoplasm. Knowledge of protective modalities and good behavioural practice involving eye protection is essential to prevent adverse effects of sunlight. The purpose of this study was to establish knowledge amongst randomly selected university students in South Africa, of prevention modalities against the adverse effects of sunlight. A questionnaire relat...
Buseh, Aaron G.; Stevens, Patricia E.; Millon-Underwood, Sandra; Townsend, Leolia; Sheryl T. Kelber
There is limited information about what African Americans think about biobanks and the ethical questions surrounding them. Likewise, there is a gap in capacity to successfully enroll African Americans as biobank donors. The purposes of this community-based participatory study were to: (a) explore African Americans’ perspectives on genetics/genomic research, (b) understand facilitators and barriers to participation in such studies, and (c) enlist their ideas about how to attract and sustain en...
Williams, JK; Wyatt, GE; Wingood, G
HIV/AIDS continues to be a devastating epidemic with African American communities carrying the brunt of the impact. Despite extensive biobehavioral research, current strategies have not resulted in significantly decreasing HIV/AIDS cases among African Americans. The next generation of HIV prevention and risk reduction interventions must move beyond basic sex education and condom use and availability. Successful interventions targeting African Americans must optimize strategies that integrate ...
Paavola, Sami; Lipponen, Lasse; Hakkarainen, Kai
The authors analyze and compare three models of innovative knowledge communities: Nonaka and Takeuchi's model of knowledge-creation, Engestrom's model of expansive learning, and Bereiter's model of knowledge building. Despite basic differences, these models have pertinent features in common: Most fundamentally, they emphasize dynamic processes for…
Steiner, Riley J; Swartzendruber, Andrea L; Rose, Eve; DiClemente, Ralph J
Among 284 African American girls aged 14 to 17 years, frequent family monitoring knowledge was associated with a reduced likelihood of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and having a casual sex partner but was not associated with other partnership characteristics. Family monitoring may offer an additional STI prevention opportunity for this vulnerable population. PMID:25211255
Blackburn, Judith F.
This study assessed whether instruction in African American English (AAE) phonological and grammatical rules improved speech-language pathology students' knowledge of AAE features. Students were also instructed in the American Speech-Language and Hearing Association's (ASHA's) position on nonstandard American English (non-SAE) dialects, which…
South African education system needs reformatting in order to produce employable graduates. By introducing educational gaming into the formal learning programmes, the nature and quality of learning can be enhanced to create the innovative professionals need for the new knowledge economy.
Karen Van der Merwe; Werner Nell
This study explored views of knowledge and learning held by a sample of 14 Black South African first year university students (age range = 18-24, 50% female). Data was collected by means of semi-structured interviews, group interviews and focus group interviews. The data was subjected to thematic qualitative content analysis. A majority of the participants evidenced a pre-reflective epistemological perspective characterized by the beliefs that knowledge is certain and absolute rather than rel...
This paper discusses the factors that influence inter-firm learning processes within an African context drawing on a set of empirical evidence from Ghana to provide illustrate of these processes. Three factors have been identified as having significant influence in the knowledge transfer process......: (1) cultural sensitivity, (2) transfer and learning capacity of partners, and (3) the strategic importance and uniqueness of the relationships. The evidence also highlights the importance of inter-cultural communication skills in the knowledge transfer process...
This study explores the language policy and practice of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), an African regional economic organisation made up of 14 member states (Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia…
Voisin, Dexter R.; Bird, Jason D. P.; Hardestry, Melissa; Shiu, Cheng Shi
This study explores community violence exposures among African American adolescents and whether coping strategies were gendered. In-depth interviews are conducted with a sample of 32 African American high school students. Data are analyzed using a thematic analysis. The primary forms of violence exposures are physical attacks, fighting, and…
Lewis, LaToya L.
The March of Dimes, Texas Chapter, partnered with the faith community to pilot Honey Child[SM], a prenatal education program for African American women. The program is designed to combat prematurity, which is the leading cause of death for African American infants. Honey Child uses a spiritual approach to promote prenatal health through…
Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Grant, Kathryn E.
Objective: The purpose of the current study was to demonstrate the replicable nature of statistical suppressor effects in coping research through 2 examples with African American adolescents from low-income communities. Method: Participants in the 1st example included 497 African American adolescents (mean age = 12.61 years, SD = 0.99; 57% female)…
Ellis, Kimberly Carlotta
This study aimed to learn what factors influenced the college choice decision-making process of African American male club basketball players in the community college. To understand how the participants determined their educational path, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 African American male students who were enrolled in at least six…
Cornell, C. E.; Littleton, M. A.; Greene, P. G.; Pulley, L.; Brownstein, J. N.; Sanderson, B. K.; Stalker, V. G.; Matson-Koffman, D.; Struempler, B.; Raczynski, J. M.
The Uniontown, Alabama Community Health Project trained and facilitated Community Health Advisors (CHAs) in conducting a theory-based intervention designed to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among rural African-American women. The multiphased project included formative evaluation and community organization, CHA recruitment and…
T. du Plessis
Global and national law firms alike operate in a challenging business environment and managing the firm's information and knowledge assets is increasingly viewed as a key factor in efficient legal service delivery. In legal practice, information management technologies, for example intranets, portals, workflow management systems, document and content management systems, case and project management systems and online dispute resolution systems are becoming important means of legal service deli...
An efficient air transport system is an important part of social and economic development of Southern African Development Community (SADC). Efficient intra-SADC air service connections enhance regional integration, access to the global economy, international tourism and contribute towards the vision to establish the African Economic Community by 2034. SADC, in July 1998, embarked on liberalisation of the regional civil aviation sector in order to enhance the efficiency of air transport ser...
Knowledge Sharing in Professions looks at professionalism as a form of systematic and institutionalized knowledge sharing. It analyses professionalism through the everyday practices in professional communities and the organizations where they work. Three empirical studies, of pharmaceutical clinical trials researchers, management consultants, and architects, are presented, serving to illustrate the relational nature of these and other professions, and how members of professional communities are constantly exchanging data, information, and know-how in their everyday work.
Buckley, Sheryl; du Toit, Adeline
The change from an industrial economy to a knowledge economy forced many organizations to change their modus operandi if they were going to survive in a sustainable way. The introduction of communities of practice (CoPs) by Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger shed new light on knowledge sharing and dissemination of information. Sharing, interacting,…
This article discusses the possibilities that tacit knowledge could provide for social constructivist pedagogies; in particular, pedagogies for online learning. Arguing that the tacit dimension of knowledge is critical for meaning making in situated learning practices and for a community of practice to function, the article considers whether…
Geller, S E; Derman, R
The purpose of this work was to develop and conduct a needs and risk instrument to assess knowledge of osteoporosis risk factors, identify beliefs and attitudes about this disease, and delineate the presence and/or absence of healthy behaviors associated with osteoporosis among African American and Hispanic women. The survey findings suggest that African-American and Hispanic women are not well-versed in behaviors that would promote and maintain optimal bone mass. Consequently, they are not practicing appropriate lifestyle and dietary habits to decrease their risk of osteoporosis. Such behaviors include inadequate physical activity, inadequate calcium intake, cigarette smoking, and long-term steroid use. Less than 10% of women in the study were getting adequate daily dietary calcium intake, with only 13% taking daily calcium supplements to augment this deficit and less than one-half of women exercising at a minimal level (20 minutes/3 times a week). Women in this study also had limited knowledge about osteoporosis, perceived this condition to be less of a health threat as compared to breast cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease, and very few had the perception that being Hispanic or African American was a factor to consider in assessing their risk of osteoporosis. Our findings suggest that osteoporosis education and prevention initiatives are needed, specifically for African-American and Hispanic women, to promote healthy behaviors, identify women at-risk, and encourage early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:12653376
Rikard, R V; Thompson, Maxine S; Head, Rachel; McNeil, Carlotta; White, Caressa
The rate of HIV infection among African Americans is disproportionately higher than for other racial groups in the United States. Previous research suggests that low level of health literacy (HL) is an underlying factor to explain racial disparities in the prevalence and incidence of HIV/AIDS. The present research describes a community and university project to develop a culturally tailored HIV/AIDS HL toolkit in the African American community. Paulo Freire's pedagogical philosophy and problem-posing methodology served as the guiding framework throughout the development process. Developing the HIV/AIDS HL toolkit occurred in a two-stage process. In Stage 1, a nonprofit organization and research team established a collaborative partnership to develop a culturally tailored HIV/AIDS HL toolkit. In Stage 2, African American community members participated in focus groups conducted as Freirian cultural circles to further refine the HIV/AIDS HL toolkit. In both stages, problem posing engaged participants' knowledge, experiences, and concerns to evaluate a working draft toolkit. The discussion and implications highlight how Freire's pedagogical philosophy and methodology enhances the development of culturally tailored health information. PMID:22102601
Palos, Guillermo A.
The Department of Defense has recently discovered the benefits of Communities of Practice as a Knowledge Management program in strategic, tactical, and staff environments. Such communities have grown in popularity - 185,000 users growing at 5,000 per month in over 6,000 registered Communities in the Air Force alone. However, their emergent manner and perspective is limited; an information-focused approach prevails, through which primary emphasis is placed on technology and document arch...
Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Waggie, Zainab; Hawkridge, Anthony; Schoub, Barry; Madhi, Shabir Ahmed; Rees, Helen; Hussey, Gregory
One means of improving healthcare workers' knowledge of and attitudes to vaccines is through running vaccine conferences which are accessible, affordable, and relevant to their everyday work. Various vaccinology conferences are held each year worldwide. These meetings focus heavily on basic science with much discussion about new developments in vaccines, and relatively little coverage of policy, advocacy, and communication issues. A negligible proportion of delegates at these conferences come from Africa, home to almost 40% of the global burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. To the best of our knowledge, no major vaccinology conference has ever been held on the African continent apart from World Health Organization (WHO) meetings. The content of the first International African Vaccinology Conference was planned to be different; to focus on the science, with a major part of discussions being on clinical, programmatic, policy, and advocacy issues. The conference was held in Cape Town, South Africa, from 8 to 11 November 2012. The theme of the conference was "Advocating for efforts to protect African children, families, and communities from the threat of infectious diseases". There were more than 550 registered participants from 55 countries (including 37 African countries). There were nine pre-conference workshops, ten plenary sessions, and 150 oral and poster presentations. The conference discussed the challenges to universal immunisation in Africa as well as the promotion of dialogue and communication on immunisation among all stakeholders. There was general acknowledgment that giant strides have been made in Africa since the global launch of the Expanded Programme on Immunisation in 1974. For example, there has been significant progress in introducing new and under-utilised vaccines; including hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenza type b, pneumococcal conjugate, rotavirus, meningococcal A conjugate, and human papillomavirus vaccines. In May 2012, African countries
Blanks, Starla Hairston; Treadwell, Henrie; Bazzell, Anya; Graves, Whitney; Osaji, Olivia; Dean, Juanita; James T. McLawhorn; Stroud, Jareese Lee
Purpose. The I Am Woman (IAW) Program is a community-based, culturally responsive, and gender-specific nutrition, obesity, and diabetes educational prevention program designed for African American women (AAW). Chronic nutrition-related health conditions such as excess body weight, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer are common among many African American women. Methods. IAW engaged AAW at risk for such deleterious health conditions by developing a health educat...
Barrentine, Tameka C.; Kennedy, Bryan C.; Saba, Anthony W.; Turgeon, Jennifer L.; Schneider, Julia Teresa; Stubblefield, William Anthony; Baldonado, Esther
In 2004, the Responsive Neutron Generator Product Deployment department embarked upon a partnership with the Systems Engineering and Analysis knowledge management (KM) team to develop knowledge management systems for the neutron generator (NG) community. This partnership continues today. The most recent challenge was to improve the current KM system (KMS) development approach by identifying a process that will allow staff members to capture knowledge as they learn it. This 'as-you-go' approach will lead to a sustainable KM process for the NG community. This paper presents a historical overview of NG KMSs, as well as research conducted to move toward sustainable KM.
Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Zaman, Tariq; Jensen, Kasper Løvborg;
In this paper we explore the opportunities of mobile technologies in three of our own development endeavors with rural communities, promoting the preservation of indigenous knowledge. We reflect upon and recognize the fact that the representation of indigenous knowledge will be transformed within...... the digitalization process under the limitations and capabilities of the tools. We believe that a continuation of local appropriation and co-design of tools will lead to an integrated, intuitive and non-intrusive indigenous knowledge preservation process within the local communities....
Full Text Available Purpose: The author tried to identify the knowledge sharing behaviors on the internet, using structural equation modeling methods, proposing a model based on social exchange theory in which share willingness, trust, reciprocity, altruism tended to have impact on people’s knowledge sharing behaviors in virtual communities. Design/methodology/approach: We presented an empirical research which integrated social exchange theory and structural equation modeling methods to analyze several important factors influencing members’ knowledge sharing behaviors in virtual communities. Findings: We analyzed the knowledge sharing behaviors in virtual communities. We found that members’ altruism can not predict knowledge sharing behaviors. We also found that members’ sharing willingness is the most important factor on virtual community knowledge sharing behaviors compared with trust, reciprocity and altruism. Originality/value: From the perspective of social exchange theory, we did empirical test and verified the proposed research model by using structural equation modeling methods. Our finding can help recognize people’s incentive about knowledge sharing.
Miller, Robin E.
Communities of practice offer reference librarians a conceptual model through which to develop and maintain general and subject specific knowledge. Reference librarians acquire general and subject-specific knowledge in many ways, sometimes independently and sometimes collaboratively. Applying the concept of the "community of practice" to reference…
Lambe, Susan; Cantwell, Nicole; Islam, Fareesa; Horvath, Kathy; Jefferson, Angela L.
Purpose: To learn about African American older adults' knowledge and perceptions of brain donation, factors that relate to participating or not participating in a brain donation research program, and methods to increase African American brain donation commitment rates in the context of an Alzheimer's disease (AD) research program. Design and…
Principal research question: What are the effective legislative and regulatory responses to mobile banking services in the East African Community (EAC)? Keywords: Convergence, legislation, regulation, Mobile banking services, East African Community. Hypothesis: There is a lack of effective and robust legislative and regulatory framework in the EAC that addresses the mobile banking services. Purpose – This paper addresses issues affecting mobile money in the East African Community (EA...
Schroeder, Hannes; Shuler, Kristrina; Chenery, Simon
Lead was ubiquitous on Caribbean sugar plantations, where it was used extensively in the production of sugar and rum. Previous studies suggest that skeletal lead contents can be used to identify African-born individuals (as opposed to Creoles) among slave burials found in the New World. To test....... Results show a clear association between low (i.e., below 1 ppm) enamel lead concentrations and higher enamel 87Sr/86Sr ratios which have previously been interpreted as being indicative of African birth, suggesting that individuals with low enamel lead levels were indeed born in Africa as opposed to the...... New World. Based on these results, we propose that enamel lead measurements provide an effective and inexpensive way to determine African birth from skeletal remains. Furthermore, the lead measurements can provide useful insights into the health status and childhood environment of enslaved Africans...
Hong, Huang-Yao; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung
This study investigates whether engaging college students (n = 42) in a knowledge building environment would help them work as a community to construct their collective knowledge of history of science and, accordingly, develop a more informed scientific view. The study adopted mixed-method analyses and data mainly came from surveys and student…
Kim, Brent F; Poulsen, Melissa N; Margulies, Jared D; Dix, Katie L; Palmer, Anne M; Nachman, Keeve E
Although urban community gardening can offer health, social, environmental, and economic benefits, these benefits must be weighed against the potential health risks stemming from exposure to contaminants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals that may be present in urban soils. Individuals who garden at or eat food grown in contaminated urban garden sites may be at risk of exposure to such contaminants. Gardeners may be unaware of these risks and how to manage them. We used a mixed quantitative/qualitative research approach to characterize urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of risks related to soil contaminant exposure. We conducted surveys with 70 gardeners from 15 community gardens in Baltimore, Maryland, and semi-structured interviews with 18 key informants knowledgeable about community gardening and soil contamination in Baltimore. We identified a range of factors, challenges, and needs related to Baltimore community gardeners' perceptions of risk related to soil contamination, including low levels of concern and inconsistent levels of knowledge about heavy metal and organic chemical contaminants, barriers to investigating a garden site's history and conducting soil tests, limited knowledge of best practices for reducing exposure, and a need for clear and concise information on how best to prevent and manage soil contamination. Key informants discussed various strategies for developing and disseminating educational materials to gardeners. For some challenges, such as barriers to conducting site history and soil tests, some informants recommended city-wide interventions that bypass the need for gardener knowledge altogether. PMID:24516570
Brent F Kim
Full Text Available Although urban community gardening can offer health, social, environmental, and economic benefits, these benefits must be weighed against the potential health risks stemming from exposure to contaminants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals that may be present in urban soils. Individuals who garden at or eat food grown in contaminated urban garden sites may be at risk of exposure to such contaminants. Gardeners may be unaware of these risks and how to manage them. We used a mixed quantitative/qualitative research approach to characterize urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of risks related to soil contaminant exposure. We conducted surveys with 70 gardeners from 15 community gardens in Baltimore, Maryland, and semi-structured interviews with 18 key informants knowledgeable about community gardening and soil contamination in Baltimore. We identified a range of factors, challenges, and needs related to Baltimore community gardeners' perceptions of risk related to soil contamination, including low levels of concern and inconsistent levels of knowledge about heavy metal and organic chemical contaminants, barriers to investigating a garden site's history and conducting soil tests, limited knowledge of best practices for reducing exposure, and a need for clear and concise information on how best to prevent and manage soil contamination. Key informants discussed various strategies for developing and disseminating educational materials to gardeners. For some challenges, such as barriers to conducting site history and soil tests, some informants recommended city-wide interventions that bypass the need for gardener knowledge altogether.
Gordon, Beverly M.
An emancipatory form of citizenship education is proposed, employing as its pedagogical base Afro-American cultural knowledge born out of the Black community's struggle against American capitalism and racism. The origins of this knowledge are examined and suggestions as to how it could be used in classroom activities are provided. (Author/RM)
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Abstract: During the last 15 years, the lexicographic scene in South Africa changed drastically as many new dictionaries for the African languages were compiled. The different dictionary types and publication modes discussed in this article are: general dictionaries, restricted dictionaries, printed dictionaries, electronic dictionaries, online and cell phone dictionaries. Although there are different dictionary types, they all have three major uses for the speech communities. Dictionaries are useful tools for language documentation and standardization, as they try to cover and document the general vocabulary (general dictionaries or the spe-cialized vocabulary (technical dictionaries. They empower the language users because they help to improve communication by providing users with the necessary vocabulary they need. In addition, dictionaries have a high symbolic value for a language. Having dictionaries, and especially technical, online or cell phone dic-tionaries, is the visible proof that a language is standardized and modern, and can be used in all domains of life.
Keywords: LEXICOGRAPHY, GENERAL DICTIONARIES, RESTRICTED DICTIONARIES, ONLINE DICTIONARIES, CELL PHONE DICTIONARIES, LANGUAGE DOCUMENTATION, LANGUAGE STANDARDIZATION, EMPOWERMENT, COMMUNICATION, PSYCHOLOGI-CAL FACTOR, SOCIOLINGUISTICS, LANGUAGE PLANNING
Opsomming: Suid-Afrika se nuwe Afrikataalwoordeboeke en hul gebruik vir die Afrikataalgemeenskappe. Gedurende die afgelope 15 jaar het die leksikografiese toneel in Suid-Afrika ingrypend verander deurdat baie nuwe woordeboeke vir die Afrikatale saamgestel is. Die verskillende woordeboeksoorte en publikasievorme wat in hierdie artikel bespreek word, is: algemene woordeboeke, beperkte woordeboeke, gedrukte woordeboeke, aan-lyn- en selfoonwoordeboeke. Alhoewel daar verskillende woordeboeksoorte is, het hulle almal drie hoofgebruike vir die taalgemeenskappe. Woordeboeke is nuttige werktuie vir taaldokumentasie en
How does music therapy engage diversity? My participation within three different South African communities offers possibilities, questions and thoughts to music therapists as we form our profession in this country and perhaps also globally. In a diverse, transient community, music is able to draw people together and may help to reconcile our many differences, but can also highlight the fragmentation of this community if all individuals and groups are not considered. As I introduce music thera...
Tveden-Nyborg, Svend; Misfeldt, Morten; Boelt, Birte
scientific knowledge communication. Theoretically, we consider these actors participants in different communities of practice relating to the production of seeds (Seed-CoP), and we conclude that strong network collaboration is present among Danish seed-CoP effectuated by the valuable work undertaken by the...... consultants. We discovered a divergence in knowledge dissemination among the growers – an innovative group of growers with a high demand for new scientific knowledge versus a majority of growers content with the level of knowledge provided by the consultants. ‘Time’ was recognized as an important parameter......, as only the innovative growers prioritized time allocation for additional knowledge search. To improve scientific knowledge dissemination and interdisciplinary collaboration among Danish seed-CoP we recommend a combination of face-to-face and online communication processes....
Purpose: The author tried to identify the knowledge sharing behaviors on the internet, using structural equation modeling methods, proposing a model based on social exchange theory in which share willingness, trust, reciprocity, altruism tended to have impact on people’s knowledge sharing behaviors in virtual communities. Design/methodology/approach: We presented an empirical research which integrated social exchange theory and structural equation modeling methods to analyze several important...
Rohleder, Paul; Swartz, Leslie; Bozalek, Vivienne; Carolissen, Ronelle; Leibowitz, Brenda
Fourth year students in psychology and social work from two South African universities worked together across boundaries of race and class in a course which required them to engage in a personal reflexive way with issues of community and identity. A combination of face-to-face workshops and online tutorial groups was used. The course was demanding…
Ellis, Auburn E.
In 2012 an African Centered single case study was conducted in the United States. The problem is as follows: K-12 practitioners in urban areas are faced with unique circumstances while serving marginalized students in urban areas. As a response to this issue, the purpose of this study was to identify and describe curricula used in three African…
Full Text Available Knowledge Management System was recognized as one of the key enablers in a Knowledge Management initiative. This is because KMS have been prove bring value for Knowledge Management initiatives such as eliminate distance and time barriers. Furthermore KMS also made KM more effective for the organization. As general KMS have two main functions, first managing people interaction and managing information/knowledge. Because knowledge creates from the interaction of the people, than KMS has a vital function in knowledge creation with managing people interaction. In KM on an organization, they conduct interaction by developing some activities such as: Communities of Practices, Communities of Interest, Peer Assist and Share Learning as a method to create and leverage the knowledge. The activities could be conducted manually or virtually. In support that activities done in virtual, using IT could bring potential value. In this study we would like to propose the framework for organizations on how to implement KMS as a powerful enabler for KM in virtual communities.
Tveden-Nyborg, Svend; Misfeldt, Morten; Boelt, Birte
Danish agriculture and seed science have a history of successful collaboration spanning more than a hundred years. In this study, we interviewed 26 growers, consultants, and scientists from the Danish seed community focusing on their current knowledge status and on their views on improving...
Roberts, Peter; Peters, Michael A.
This article explores different forms of openness and closure in two knowledge communities: the fictional world of Castalia in Hermann Hesse's great work "The Glass Bead Game", and the twenty-first-century cyberspatial universe of Wikipedia. These two worlds differ in some important respects, but they also share a number of educationally…
Full Text Available Background: The neglected tropical diseases are a group of 13 infections that affect more than one billion people worldwide, especially those who live in extreme poverty. Aim: This study was conducted to determine community knowledge of these neglected tropical diseases (NTD in Cameroon. Materials and Methods: A random sampling method was used to administer questionnaires to 3345 adults. Results: 2566 (76.7% of people approached responded to the questionnaire. This comprised 1313 (51.2% females and 1253 (48.8% males. There was a significant level of association between the opinion of the respondents and their region of residence (P<0.05. Globally the percentage of persons with good knowledge of one of the neglected tropical diseases was low (ranging from 23.1% to 80.9%. Diseases for which the population had the highest percentages of knowledge were leprosy (80.9%, soil-transmitted helminth infections (75.3%, lymphatic filariosis (70.3%, onchocerciasis (66.2% and human African trypanosomiasis (57.8%. Diseases for which people had the least percentages of knowledge were leishmaniosis (18.0%, dracunculiasis (23.1%, buruli ulcer (23.8%, trachoma (38.2%, endemic treponematosis (41.5% and schistosomiasis (49.1%. Populations living in urban areas had a greater knowledge of the neglected tropical diseases than those living in rural and peri-urban areas (P<0.05 and males exhibited a greater knowledge than females (P<0.05. Conclusion: There was low community knowledge pattern of neglected tropical diseases, mostly among the female populations and people living in rural areas. We advocate mass media health education to be adopted as one of the strategies for the national control policy of NTDs.
Chang, I-Chiu; Lin, Chih-Yu; Tseng, Hsiao-Ting; Ho, Wen-Yu
The Taiwanese government subsidizes healthcare providers offering preventive medicine to patients to help reduce the threats of chronic sickness and halt skyrocketing medical expenditures. Usually, nurses are the primary workers who perform community health promotion; however, because of the chronic shortage of working nurses, many Taiwan hospitals have closed wards and deferred the responsibility of promoting primary prevention. With a community health promotion platform integrating interactive response features and Web sites for community patients and hospital staff, a case hospital efficiently sustained the community health services. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of the integrated community health promotion platform for conducting education. Fifty-four patients/residents were invited to join a quasi-experiment of health education, and a follow-up survey was conducted to assess the acceptance of the community health promotion platform from both the experimental group of learners/users and the hospital staff. The results showed that the community health promotion platform was effective in improving participant health awareness. The experimental group outperformed the control group, with higher posttest scores and longer knowledge retention. Furthermore, users indicated a high acceptance of the community health promotion platform. PMID:26657621
Vanessa B. Sheppard
Conclusions: Average cancer knowledge in the sample was low as were non-conventional causes of cancer. Study results highlight the importance of improving cancer knowledge and reducing barriers related to language and insurance. Future studies are needed to consider nuances among diverse women of African origin.
The East African Whale Shark Trust (EAWST) in Kenya was established to increase awareness and conservation of the whale shark. This is to be achieved by various research and education campaigns, with the education initiatives being designed specifically to target different stakeholders. Programs aimed at fishermen will focus on alternative fishing techniques, ecotourism and socio-economic aspects, while school children, people recently completing high school and tourists will be exposed to re...
Bridgeman-Bunyoli, Arika; Mitchell, S Renee; Bin Abdullah, AbdulʼHafeedh M; Schwoeffermann, Ty; Phoenix, Toliver; Goughnour, Cat; Hines-Norwood, Richard; Wiggins, Noelle
The role racism and other social determinants of health play in the creation of health inequities in African American communities in the United States is increasingly understood. In this article, we explore the effectiveness of an Afrocentric, popular education-based community health worker (CHW) training program in creating positive change among CHW participants and their communities in Portland, Oregon. Findings suggest that CHW participants experienced 4 types of awakening, in addition to changes in their interaction with their family members and increased community involvement. The CHWs identified group bond, Afrocentrism, public health knowledge, popular education, facilitators, and time management as important elements of an effective training program for this community. Psychological empowerment, self-reported health status, and health behavior among participants generally increased over time, but changes were not statistically significant. PMID:26353023
Sheppard, Vanessa B.; Alejandra Hurtado-de-Mendoza; Minna Song; Fikru Hirpa; Ify Nwabukwu
Background: African women have lower use of cancer screening services compared to women born in the United States yet empirical data are limited about their cancer screening attitudes. Objective: To examine factors that are associated with higher endorsement of screening. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 200 women of African origin recruited via community-based outreach activities in Washington, DC. Endorsement of screening was assessed via self-report. The primary indepe...
Douglas, Ty-Ron Michael; Peck, Craig
This study examines how and why peoples of African descent access and utilize community-based pedagogical spaces that exist outside schools. Employing a theoretical framework that fuses historical methodology and border-crossing theory, the researchers review existing scholarship and primary documents to present an historical examination of how…
Jobe, LaWanda D.
African American women are enrolling and returning to college in large numbers across many community college campuses, especially those women who would be characterized as nontraditional students. This qualitative study examined and analyzed the experiences, stresses, and coping mechanisms of first generation, nontraditional, single parent,…
Schmidt, E.; Olomo, F.; Corcoran, N.
This study addresses the issue of the sexual needs of ethnic minority groups in the UK. Using focus group discussions with health service users and third-sector providers, it explores the perception of sex education by Black African communities living in a culturally diverse area in East London, focusing specifically on participants' understanding…
Summarizes a study that interviewed 14 female upper-level African American community college administrators to identify commonalities in their experience. Most participants showed early signs of leadership, had strong spiritual beliefs, were caring and self-reliant, had close relationships with their mothers, valued their aloneness and their…
Sapkota, Shree Newas
Sapkota, Shree Newas. ‘’International exchange: an aperture to community development and self discover’’: Students’ exchange experiences from African countries. 65 pages. 1 appendix. Language: English. Autumn 2015. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences. Degree Programme in Social Services. Degree: Bachelor of Social Services. International exchange is a platform where a student encounters various diversities in order to increase his/her understanding of other culture, religion, communiti...
Pavela, Roman; Benelli, Giovanni
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a huge threat for millions of humans and animals worldwide, since they act as vectors for important parasites and pathogens, including malaria, filariasis and important arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile and Zika virus. No vaccines or other specific treatments are available against the arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes, and avoidance of mosquito bites remains the best strategy. African regions are usually hit most whose inhabitants are poor, and the use of repellent plants is the only efficient protection against vectors they have. Ethnobotanical knowledge of such plants and their use is usually passed on orally from one generation to another. However, it is also important to preserve this information in a written form, as well. Ethnobotanical research projects carried out in the regions of today's Ethiopia, South Africa, Nigeria, Kenya, and Tanzania indicate that the native inhabitants of the African study regions traditionally use 64 plant species, belonging to 30 families. Aromatic plants (i.e., Citrus spp., Eucalyptus spp., Lantana camara, Ocimum spp. and Lippia javanica) the most commonly used in all the study regions. Native people know three major methods of using repellent plants: (i) production of repellent smoke from burning plants, (ii) hanging plants inside the house or sprinkling leaves on the floor, (iii) the use of plant oils, juices from crushed fresh parts of the plants, or various prepared extracts applied on uncovered body parts. Overall, this review covers studies conducted only in a limited part of the African continent, highlighting the importance to undertake further research efforts to preserve the unique knowledge and traditions of the native tribes. PMID:27260568
McLaughlin, Colleen; Schwartz, Sharlene; Cobbett, Mary; Kiragu, Susan
Education about sex, relationships and HIV and AIDS in African contexts is riddled with socio-cultural complexity. In this paper the authors argue that in extreme contexts education can lead change further by developing young people as significant actors in their own lives and in the lives of the community by bringing bring about change in attitudes in the community, as well as practices in schools. A qualitative study was undertaken in eight primary schools of the use of student knowledge an...
-spanning mechanisms. Since these investments are specific to the context in which they take place and to the transactions that they enable, they cannot easily be organized through arm's length contracts. Firms exist because they have a relative advantage over markets in the integration of diverse knowledge. However...... transaction cost logic....... different epistemic communities, whether desired or unintended, is often cumbersome and fraught with difficulties. In order to achieve effective integration and cooperation between its various professional communities and subcultures, firms must therefore undertake investments in boundary...
Seema Diwan; Vartika Saxena; Sushil Bansal; S D Kandpal; Nitin Gupta
Background: Good oral health is a key for ensuring overall well-being. Dental caries and periodontitis may also be linked to different systemic diseases. Good oral health practices are the clue for preventing the diseases of the oral cavity. Objectives: To assess the oral health knowledge and oral health practice of the people in a rural community. Materials and Methods: Study was conducted in Dehradun district of Uttarakhand state. Sample population has been selected based on systematic rand...
A Community Knowledge Worker (CKW) from the Kapchorwa region tests the pilot for the Muth Helgeson Survey Tool (MHST) in the Grameen Foundation AppLab in Kampala, Uganda. Over 130 CKWs were equipped with smart phones with the MHST application, which also incorporated small behavioural economics games (with dice and coins). These CKWs physically visited over 5000 Ugandan farms, measuring farmersâ€™ behaviours and attitudes regarding risk. The MHST is the largest study of Ugandan farms since...
Female Community Knowledge Workers (CKWs) test the pilot for the Muth Helgeson Survey Tool (MHST) in the Kapchorwa, Uganda region. Over 130 CKWs were equipped with smart phones with the MHST application, which also incorporated small behavioural economics games using dice and coins. These CKWs physically visited over 5000 Ugandan farms, measuring farmers behaviours and attitudes regarding risk. The MHST is the largest study of Ugandan farms since 1991 and the first to use this methodology ...
Full Text Available This paper uses nonlinear unit root testing procedures to examine the issue of inflation convergence for the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC member states including Cameron, Central African Republic, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and the Republic of Congo. The results from nonlinear STAR unit root tests suggest that inflation differentials for the sample countries are nonlinear and mean reverting processes. These results provide evidence of inflation convergence among countries within CEMAC. The finding of inflation convergence indicates the feasibility of a common monetary policy and/or inflation targeting regime within CEMAC.
Hong, Huang-Yao; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung
This study investigates whether engaging college students ( n = 42) in a knowledge building environment would help them work as a community to construct their collective knowledge of history of science and, accordingly, develop a more informed scientific view. The study adopted mixed-method analyses and data mainly came from surveys and student online discourse recorded in a database. Findings indicate that students' knowledge building activities were conducive to the development of their online collaboration as a learning process and the effective collective knowledge work concerning natural science history as a learning outcome. Moreover, students were able to attain a more constructivist-oriented epistemic view that sees scientific theories as invented, tentative, and improvable objects. Finally, based on course reflection, students also regarded their collective learning experiences in this course as meaningful and productive.
Pelto, Debra J; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Njoku, Ogo; Rodriguez, Maria Carina; Villagra, Cristina; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Riley, Natasha E; Behar, Alma I; Jandorf, Lina
The pilot study reported in this article culturally and linguistically adapted an educational intervention to promote cancer clinical trials (CCTs) participation among Latinas/os and African Americans. The single-session slide presentation with embedded videos, originally developed through a campus-community partnership in Southern California, was chosen for adaptation because it was perceived to fit the CORRECT model of innovation (credible, observable, relevant, relatively advantageous, easy to understand, compatible, and testable) and because of the potential to customize any components not identified as core, allowing them to be revised for cultural and linguistic alignment in New York City. Most of the 143 community participants (76.2%) were female; most (54.6%) were older than 59 years. More than half (78.3%) preferred to speak English or were bilingual in English and Spanish. A large proportion (41.3%) had not completed high school. Knowledge and perceived benefits and barriers regarding CCT showed small, though statistically significant, increases. There were no statistically significant group differences for changes in mean knowledge, perceived benefits, or perceived barriers when examined by ethnicity, education level, language, or other included sociodemographic variables. However, a small, but statistically significant difference in perceived barriers was observed when examined by country of origin, with the foreign born score worsening 0.08 points (SD = 0.47, p = .007) on the 5-point Likert-type scale administered posteducation compared to preeducation. Participants' open-ended comments demonstrated the acceptability of the topic and intervention. This adaptation resulted in an intervention with the potential to educate African American and Latina/o general community members in a new geographic region about the purpose, methods, and benefits of CCTs. PMID:26493870
Karcher, Rachel; Fitzpatrick, Dawn C; Leonard, Dawn J; Weber, Scott
Although African American women in the United States have a lower incidence of breast cancer compared with white women, those younger than 40 years actually have a higher incidence rate; additionally, African American women are more likely to die from breast cancer at every age compared with white women. Racial disparities in breast cancer mortality rates are especially significant in Maryland, which ranks fifth in the nation for breast cancer mortality, and in Baltimore City, which has the second highest annual death rate for African American women in Maryland. To address this disparity in care, Med-IQ, an accredited provider of CME, collaborated with Sisters Network Baltimore Metropolitan, Affiliate Chapter of Sisters Network® Inc., the only national African American breast cancer survivorship organization, to sponsor their community-based educational outreach initiative. The collaborative mission was to engage at-risk African American women, their families, local organizations, healthcare professionals, and clinics, with the goals of increasing awareness, addressing fears that affect timely care and diagnosis, and encouraging women to obtain regular mammograms. Intervention strategies included (1) a "Survivor Stories" video, (2) patient outreach consisting of neighborhood walks and an educational luncheon, and (3) a community outreach utilizing direct mailings to local businesses, community groups, and healthcare professionals. Trusted and well-known community resources were presented as mediums to promote the initiative, yielding achievement of broader and more effective outcomes. As a result of this patient-friendly initiative, two (2) of the women who sought screening were diagnosed with breast cancer and underwent treatment. PMID:24446167
Ronzio, Cynthia R.; Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Jichuan Wang
The prevalence of witnessed community violence (WCV) amongst urban populations in the USA is striking. WCV can be harmful to one's psychological health, and for mothers, the consequences may be more far-reaching as their mental health affects parenting and child development. This study used telephone interviews (n = 209) to explore the patterns and covariates of WCV amongst a sample of urban, African American mothers of infants. Mothers reported whether they had witnessed 11 different forms o...
Full Text Available While European countries have devoted considerable resources to efforts to block the flow of irregular migration, they have at the same time been vying with one another to attract the best minds and solve the problem of demographic ageing. How do African students navigate through such contradictory policies? This chapter discusses the plans for international migration as expressed by university students from three West African countries (Senegal, Côte d’Ivoire, and Niger. Based in particular on a questionnaire distributed to around 4,000 students, the study identifies a series of factors contributing to students’ intention to migrate: family networks abroad, level of educational attainment, lack of confidence in their country’s future, supportive attitude of family members, etc. Contrary to the widespread assumptions expressed in the media and in policy debates in industrialised countries, ‘migration intentions’ appear to be carefully pondered and proactive in nature, rather than impulsive headlong rushes. Students are relatively well informed, and their intentions to undertake what is mostly temporary migration are based on a weighing of their interests in terms of education and professional experience. This article therefore calls for improved coordination of mobility and development policies to unlock the potential of migration while satisfying the thirst for knowledge identified in the three countries concerned.
Busby, Danielle R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.
African American adolescents are exposed disproportionately to community violence, increasing their risk for emotional and behavioral symptoms that can detract from learning and undermine academic outcomes. The present study examined whether aggressive behavior and depressive and anxious symptoms mediated the association between exposure to community violence and academic functioning, and if the indirect effects of community violence on academic functioning differed for boys and girls, in a community sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 491; 46.6% female). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the indirect effect of exposure to community violence in grade 6 on grade 8 academic functioning. Results revealed that aggression in grade 7 mediated the association between grade 6 exposure to community violence and grade 8 academic functioning. There were no indirect effects through depressive and anxious symptoms, and gender did not moderate the indirect effect. Findings highlight the importance of targeting aggressive behavior for youth exposed to community violence to not only improve their behavioral adjustment but also their academic functioning. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:23277294
Gunnigan, Louis; Reismann, Wilhelm
In 2007, The International Construction Project Management Association (ICPMA) established a Knowledge Management Centre (KMC) the objective of which is to share experiences of construction project management amongst academics and practitioners across the globe. A strategy for the KMC was developed and a number of areas were identified as being relevant to the members of the international construction project management community. This paper examines the development of the KMC to date and est...
Oravecz, Linda M.; Koblinsky, Sally A.; Randolph, Suzanne M.
Adopting an ecological framework, this study examines the role of community violence exposure, interpartner conflict, positive parenting, and informal social support in predicting the social skills and behavior problems of low-income African American preschoolers. Participants were 184 African American mothers and female caregivers of Head Start…
Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Melvin, Cathy; Briggs, Vanessa; Delmoor, Ernestine; Rice, LaShanta J; Lynch, Cheryl; Jefferson, Melanie; Johnson, Jerry C
Social determinants are important to cancer screening among African Americans. To evaluate the association between social determinants (e.g., psychological characteristics, perceived social environment, cultural beliefs such as present temporal orientation) and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African Americans. African American adults (n = 262) ages 50-75 completed a telephone interview. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors having significant independent associations with CRC screening. Only 57% of respondents reported having CRC screening. The likelihood of screening increased with greater neighborhood satisfaction (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.90, p = 0.04), older age (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.24, 2.48, p = 0.002), greater self-efficacy (OR = 2.73, 95% CI = 1.40, 5.35, p = 0.003), and health care provider communication (OR = 10.78, 95% CI = 4.85, 29.94, p = 0.0001). Community resources are important precursors to CRC screening and outcomes among African Americans. In addition to addressing psychological factors and patient-provider communication, efforts to ensure the availability of quality health care facilities that provide CRC screening in the neighborhoods where African Americans live are needed. PMID:26184107
Full text: The South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (SAYNPS) was established in 2002 after the Second Biannual Conference of the International Youth Nuclear Congress (IYNC) in Daejong, South Korea. Its main objectives are to promote skill development and knowledge transfer from experienced nuclear professionals to the young generation, preservation of nuclear knowledge and public education. These objectives are very crucial since many nuclear experts are about to retire and could leave the industry with shortage of skill. A document is being developed to address strategies that can be used to close the gap between the young less experienced and experts in the field. SAYNPS holds a conference every year and this provides young professionals with a platform to share their experiences and knowledge. Workshops and information sessions in the work places are very much encouraged because young professionals can learn a lot and perfect their knowledge from positive criticism. Newsletter and website will be established as forums for young professionals and experts in nuclear industry. The major challenges will be willingness of experts to share and making sure that all knowledge is captured, stored and kept up to date. Furthermore, the mammoth task is to deal with is the negative sentiments about the safe usage of nuclear technology which won't be easy to achieve but SAYNPS is committed to seeing the process through. Government agencies in South Africa regularly organize campaigns that promote science and technology. SAYNPS encourages its membership to play a role in these campaigns through exhibitions and school outreach. These campaigns are done to educate the public in general, science teachers and school kids about the benefit of the safe usage of nuclear technology and also to encourage kids to follow careers in nuclear. (author)
Storbeck, Claudine, Ed.; Martin, David, Ed.
In a special section of the "American Annals of the Deaf", Deaf education and the Deaf community in South Africa are discussed. The special section is organized into 7 segments: a historical overview to establish context, the educational context, educators and learners, postgraduate education and employment, perspectives of Deaf children and their…
Chanal, Valérie; Kimble, Chris
This paper looks at what happens when Communities of Practice are used as a tool for Knowledge Management. The original concept of a Community of Practice appears to have very little in common with the knowledge sharing communities found in Knowledge Management, which are based on a revised view of 'cultivated' communities. We examine the risks and benefits of cultivating Communities of Practice rather than leaving them 'in the wild'. The paper presents the findings from two years of research...
... Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) amend the regulations to allow fresh tomatoes (Solanum..., titled ``Importation of Tomatoes, Solanum lycopersicum, from the Economic Community of West African... certain countries. * * * * * (h) Tomatoes (fruit) (Solanum lycopersicum) from member States of...
Harmon, Brook E; Chock, Marci; Brantley, Elizabeth; Wirth, Michael D; Hébert, James R
Using the right messaging strategies, churches can help promote behavior change. Frequencies of disease-specific messages in 21 African-American churches were compared to overall and cancer-specific mortality and morbidity rates as well as church-level variables. Disease messages were found in 1025 of 2166 items. Frequently referenced topics included cancer (n = 316), mental health conditions (n = 253), heart disease (n = 246), and infectious diseases (n = 220). Messages for lung and colorectal cancers appeared at low frequency despite high mortality rates in African-American communities. Season, church size, and denomination showed significant associations with health messages. Next steps include testing messaging strategies aimed at improving the health of churchgoing communities. PMID:26296703
Roberts, Lindsay S.; Sharma, Sushma; Hudes, Mark L.; Fleming, Sharon E.
Background: African-American and Latino children living in neighborhoods with a low-socioeconomic index are more at risk of obesity-associated metabolic disease than their higher socioeconomic index and/or white peers. Currently, consistent and reliable questionnaires to evaluate nutrition and physical activity knowledge in these children are…
This paper analyses the conflict triggered by the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA) proposing to re-open the Mining Complex of Sierra Pintada, in San Rafael, Province of Mendoza. Since 2004 when the Commission submitted the first report to the Ministry of Public Works and Environment of Mendoza to obtain the necessary permission to restart the works in the mine, several protests have taken place and many legal measures were taken in order to stop any resuming attempts. This study argues that, although CNEA has been an epistemic community capable of applying their policy proposals in the nuclear field, their technical knowledge is currently not sufficient to design a policy, and moreover, to hold that they are working for local and sustainable development. Only 'puzzling' 'with actors' paradigms and knowledge is possible to fit together their demands and achieve a public policy, or solution, for this problem. (author)
LA Juan-juan; JIANG Ge-fu; YIN Liang-kui
An assessment method for the quality of service (QoS) of virtual knowledge communities (VKC) is proposed based on fuzzy theory and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The QoS is evaluated in terms of Website design, reliability, responsiveness, trust,personalization, and information quality. The cognitive QoS and the QoS evaluated by assessors are compared to analyze which QoS of the VKC should be improved urgently and which indicators keep leading positions, and to assist administrators of the VKC on measuring and understanding current status and implementation effect of the QoS.
Mark Bussin; Wernardt C. Toerien
Purpose: The world of work is evolving and the nature of relationships between knowledge workers and their employers has changed distinctly, leading to a change in the type of rewards they prefer. The nature of these preferences in the South African, industry-specific context is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to deepen understanding of the reward preferences of Information technology (IT) knowledge workers in South Africa, specifically as these relate to the attraction, rete...
Motala, Ayesha A.; Esterhuizen, Tonya; Gouws, Eleanor; Pirie, Fraser J.; Omar, Mahomed A.K.
OBJECTIVE—The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glycemia (IFG), and associated risk factors in a rural South African black community. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—This was a cross-sectional survey conducted by random cluster sampling of adults aged >15 years. Participants had a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test using the 1998 World Health Organization criteria for disorders of glycemia. RESULTS—Of 1,300 subjects...
Muntingh, Johannes Andreas
Globally private companies and multi–nationals, including mining companies, have recently, in the current and post financial crises environment, seen their public image badly scarred, fermenting a negative image towards business in general, but also specifically towards the mining industry. This negative perception can also be seen in the South African mining industry, as reflected in various media reports on high profile, and often violent, community protests and labour dis...
The pursuit of sustainability of governance and development has become a major challenge in contemporary times because of increasing realization that: various ecological and social systems are interconnected; and the complexity of our natural and constructed environs requires holistic approaches to avoid catastrophic fissures in the systems on which humans depend. As regional governments such as the East African Community (EAC) become important in Africa (and other regions), they present oppo...
Stephenson, Rob; Elfstrom, K. Miriam; Winter, Amy
Despite efforts to increase HIV testing in the African region, the proportion of men who report ever having been tested for HIV remains low. Research has focused on individual level determinants of women's testing however little is known about factors associated with men's testing behavior. This analysis investigates community influences on HIV testing among men ages 15–54, using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from Chad, Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe...
Frew, Paula M; Archibald, Matthew; Martinez, Nina; del Rio, Carlos; Mulligan, Mark J.
The HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to challenge the African American community with disproportionate rates of infection, particularly among young women ages 25 to 34 years. Development of a preventive HIV vaccine may bring a substantial turning point in this health crisis. Engagement of the African American community is necessary to improve awareness of the effort and favorably influence attitudes and referent norms. The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) may be a useful framework for exploration o...
Full Text Available This paper describes the strategies for enhancing resilience of a coastal community to natural disasters by effective disaster preparedness and mitigation measures. It elaborates the importance of capacity building and improved infrastructure performance. Participatory Disaster Risk Assessment (PDRA is emphasised to understand the diverse vulnerabilities and resilience of the coastal communities. This paper presents a unique approach to integrate the existing capacities, capacities required and important social and economic activities with the key strategies of community disaster resilience. The study focuses on enhancement of community knowledge in disaster management, community social capital, integrated disaster management plan, preparedness and recovery and disaster mitigation measures implemented in the coastal villages for effectively managing the disaster situations. There is a greater emphasis on the need for involving multisectoral and multidisciplinary sections of the community in in disaster preparedness and capacities required for minimizing social and economic impact which will further help in developing mitigation strategies.
Full Text Available The discussion of Traditional Knowledge as a subject of intellectual property protection continues to take centre stage at different fora. It is particularly relevant for developing and least developing countries whose Traditional Knowledge mechanisms continue to be exploited without accruing any benefits. The situation in South Africa is not different. The South African Department of Trade and Industry (Dti is spearheading efforts to create a legal framework that seeks to protect and promote Traditional Knowledge using existing intellectual property law mechanisms. Through this Bill, South Africa is seeking to protect Traditional Knowledge beyond the area of patents. The challenge for the Bill is to cover all aspects of Traditional Knowledge. This has already proven to be difficult as indicated by the outcomes of one of the consultation workshops with various stakeholders (University professionals and indigenous communities. Furthermore the Bill will have to be mindful of the manifestations of intellectual property at regional (SADC, SACU and AU as well as the international position (WIPO, TRIPS and WTO. This paper seeks to measure the extent to which the Bill will protect Traditional Knowledge and the possibility of its use as a model for the region and the developing world.
Full Text Available This article describes the concept and development of a knowledge-based advisory system for the optimum utilisation of South African wool for the beneﬁt of present and potential investors and other interested parties. Wool is a natural animal ﬁbre produced in varying quantities around the world. The wool ﬁbre is far from homogenous; its type and quality, such as ﬁneness and length, depending on the breed of sheep and the environmental conditions prevailing during its growth. Wool is used in a variety of end uses, ranging from ﬁ ne worsted suiting, to hand knitting yarn, carpets, blankets and aircraft upholstery, its use depending largely on its ﬁbre ﬁneness and length. The wool industry is one of the oldest agricultural industries in South Africa, playing an important economic role as an earner of foreign exchange, and providing a living to many people. Wool is produced in many parts of South Africa under extensive, semi-extensive or intensive conditions, and is largely an export commodity. It is produced and traded in a sophisticated free market business environment into the international market place, where supply and demand forces determine price levels. More than 90% of locally produced wool is exported in an unprocessed or semi-processed form which detrimentally affects employment, foreign exchange and income-generating opportunities associated with value-addition prior to export. To reduce the amount of wool exported in unprocessed or semi-processed form, wool-processing enterprises need to be established to produce internationally marketable end products. Therefore, South Africa needs to attract investors into the wool sector, who will set up manufacturing mills in an economically sustainable manner. Potential and present investors in the South African (S.A. wool industry need easily accessible and up-to-date information on the production statistics, processing properties and end-use pplications of the wool they need for the
Full Text Available The purposes of this descriptive study were to (1 describe nutrition knowledge, attitudes, beliefs (KAB, and self-efficacy among low-income African American and Hispanic women; (2 identify the associations these variables have on diet quality and weight status; (3 identify barriers to healthy eating. Data from three separate studies were combined and analyzed. The total sample included African Americans ( and Hispanics (. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were used to identify associations between KAB and body mass index (BMI and diet quality. The majority of African Americans had good knowledge in nutrition while Hispanics had fair knowledge. Attitudes toward eating a healthy diet were significantly associated with high fiber intake among African Americans and low fat consumption among Hispanics. A computed KAB score showed no significant relation to individuals' weight status or diet quality. However, attitudes and beliefs about healthy foods strongly correlated with participants' weight or diet consumption among Hispanics. The most common barrier to consuming a healthy diet reported by both groups was the cost of healthy foods. It is therefore recommended to address these variables when addressing obesity and poor dietary intake among low-income minority groups.
Like the African American community in the US, the African Canadian community is underrepresented in the Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields. To serve these communities two outreach organizations emerged in Canadian cities where there is a critical mass of learners of African Descent - Toronto and Halifax. I will describe the Imhotep's Legacy Academy, which began in the Physics labs of Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia and has grown to a province-wide program serving three-quarters of the school boards in the province with an annual budget that has grown to 400,000 in 2011-12. It follows the learner from the time they enter grade 7 to the time they graduate from university, through three programs: (a) Weekly After-School science enrichment for junior high learners, (b) Virtual High school tutoring program and (c) Summer student internships and research scholarships for post-secondary students. This year, the program was the beneficiary of funding from TD Bank to establish scholarships for program participants to enter Dalhousie university. Modeled on the Meyerhoff scholarships the program participants are identified at an early stage and are promised a subset of funding as they meet selected criteria during participation in the program. The program enjoys support from the Department of Education and the highest levels of government. A tri-mentoring system exists where faculty of African descent train mentors, who are science students of African descent at associated universities, to deliver hands-on enrichment activities to learners of African Descent. Evidence supporting the success of the program will be highlighted. Project outcomes measured include (i) recruitment; (ii) attendance; (iii) stakeholder relationships; (iv) programming; (v) staff training; (vi) perception of ILASP's value; (vii) academic performance. The end results are new lessons and best practices that are incorporated into a strategic plan for the new project
Perkins, Daniel F.; Mincemoyer, Claudia C.; Lillehoj, Catherine J.
This investigation compared Extension educators' perceptions of community readiness, knowledge of prevention science, and experience with community collaborations with the perceptions of community human service professionals. First, Cooperative Extension System (CES) educators and human service professionals were found to hold similar perceptions of community readiness for prevention programs. Second, CES educators demonstrated less awareness of prevention programs in the community, but a gre...
Voisin, Dexter; Berringer, Kathryn; Takahashi, Lois; Burr, Sean; Kuhnen, Jessica
Africans American youth experience disproportionately high rates of exposure to community violence. Such exposures are associated with a myriad of physical and mental health challenges. However, few qualitative studies have examined the ways in which parental figures have attempted to manage youth exposure to violence. This study recruited 4 focus groups composed of the parents of African American youth (n = 54). Participants reported that (a) there were no safe places immune from community violence, (b) there were no populations or subgroups protected from community violence, and (c) strategies to manage exposure to violence were often defined by the gender of the child. Although common protective parental strategies included mixed benefits, they ranged from "sheltering" (keeping children off the streets), "chauffeuring" (transporting or accompanying children to and from places), "removal" (enrolling children in schools outside of the neighborhood), and attempting "to rebuild the village." However, several of these strategies had constraints including money, time, and child maturation. Based on these findings, we offer research, policy, and practice implications in response to community violence exposure among this population. PMID:27075420
Sheri A Lippman
Full Text Available Community mobilizing strategies are essential to health promotion and uptake of HIV prevention. However, there has been little conceptual work conducted to establish the core components of community mobilization, which are needed to guide HIV prevention programming and evaluation.We aimed to identify the key domains of community mobilization (CM essential to change health outcomes or behaviors, and to determine whether these hypothesized CM domains were relevant to a rural South African setting.We studied social movements and community capacity, empowerment and development literatures, assessing common elements needed to operationalize HIV programs at a community level. After synthesizing these elements into six essential CM domains, we explored the salience of these CM domains qualitatively, through analysis of 10 key informant in-depth-interviews and seven focus groups in three villages in Bushbuckridge.CM DOMAINS INCLUDE: 1 shared concerns, 2 critical consciousness, 3 organizational structures/networks, 4 leadership (individual and/or institutional, 5 collective activities/actions, and 6 social cohesion. Qualitative data indicated that the proposed domains tapped into theoretically consistent constructs comprising aspects of CM processes. Some domains, extracted from largely Western theory, required little adaptation for the South African context; others translated less effortlessly. For example, critical consciousness to collectively question and resolve community challenges functioned as expected. However, organizations/networks, while essential, operated differently than originally hypothesized - not through formal organizations, but through diffuse family networks.To date, few community mobilizing efforts in HIV prevention have clearly defined the meaning and domains of CM prior to intervention design. We distilled six CM domains from the literature; all were pertinent to mobilization in rural South Africa. While some adaptation of
Full Text Available Objective. To compare knowledge and attitudes of human papillomavirus (HPV and the vaccine between different cultures of African descent. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of 555 African-Americans and Afro-Caribbeans residing in the US and the Bahamas (BHM was conducted. Results. General knowledge about HPV and the HPV vaccine differed between the two countries significantly. Bahamian respondents were less likely to have higher numbers of correct knowledge answers when compared to Americans (Adjusted Odds Ratio [Adj. OR] 0.47, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.30–0.75. Older age, regardless of location, was also associated with answering fewer questions correctly (Adj. OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.40–0.92. Attitudes related to HPV vaccination were similar between the US and BHM, but nearly 80% of BHM respondents felt that children should not be able to receive the vaccine without parental consent compared to 57% of American respondents. Conclusions. Grave lack of knowledge, safety and cost concerns, and influence of parental restrictions may negatively impact vaccine uptake among African-American and Afro-Caribbean persons. Interventions to increase the vaccine uptake in the Caribbean must include medical provider and parental involvement. Effective strategies for education and increasing vaccine uptake in BHM are crucial for decreasing cervical cancer burden in the Caribbean.
Sheppard, Vanessa B.; Graves, Kristi D.; Christopher, Juleen; Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Talley, Costellia; Williams, Karen Patricia
Genetic counseling and testing for hereditary breast cancer have the potential benefit of early detection and early interventions in African American women. However, African American women have low use of these services compared to White women. We conducted two focus groups with African American women diagnosed with breast cancer (affected group, n=13) and women with at least one first-degree relative with breast/ovarian cancer (unaffected group, n= 8). A content analysis approach was employe...
Full Text Available How does music therapy engage diversity? My participation within three different South African communities offers possibilities, questions and thoughts to music therapists as we form our profession in this country and perhaps also globally. In a diverse, transient community, music is able to draw people together and may help to reconcile our many differences, but can also highlight the fragmentation of this community if all individuals and groups are not considered. As I introduce music therapy to an affluent school community, I find the cultural understandings I share with community members a helpful advantage, and yet I need to consider that by working only in wealthy, resourced communities similar to my own community, I may be highlighting the divide between wealth and poverty. In this way, I compound our countries' struggle with social inequality. As I initiate a short term music therapy group in a community very different to my own, I struggle with questions of whether music therapy has any relevance here, and find myself adapting my thinking, and working closely with the community to form a music therapy practice that has value in this context. These diverse work experiences challenge music therapists to increase our awareness of pertinent national and global issues and the possibilities our profession holds for addressing these issues. We need to explore new communities whilst continually reflecting and questioning all that we do and sharing our different work experiences with one another. Otherwise, whilst our work may hold much value within a particular community, we may find ourselves addressing or compounding national or global issues and may be growing or inhibiting our profession.
Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.; Zelencik, Brett
The purpose of the current study was to examine the linear and curvilinear associations of exposure to community violence to internalizing symptoms in 251 African American adolescents (mean age = 12.86, SD = 1.28). Participants reported on exposure to community violence, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms. Regression analyses were used to…
Belkin, Allen; And Others
In this brief study guide, the focus is on the "maroons," those Africans who bravely threw off the chains of slavery and established independent communities within colonial Latin America. The specific study is of the history and culture of Esmeraldas, a province in northwestern Ecuador and home to one of the most interesting maroon communities,…
Bitter-Rijpkema, M. (2009). USEM workshop: designing for knowledge collaboration in distributed communities of practice. 1st Presentation: Introduction. June, 3, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands. 2nd Presentation: From distance learning courses to knowledge collaboration in distributed communities. June, 3, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands. 3rd presentation: Distributed communities of practice: USEM workshop. June, 4, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands.
Moore, Erin W; Berkley-Patton, Jannette Y; Berman, Marcie; Burleson, Christine; Judah, Abigail
This study sought to identify characteristics, including religiosity, related to having received health screenings among persons who attend African-American churches or receive church-based community outreach services. A sample of 602 was recruited during two phases as part of a larger project. Blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood glucose screenings were the most frequently reported screenings ever and in the last 12 months. Although religiosity was significantly related to several of the health screenings in bivariate analysis, it is not a predictor of health screenings in multivariate analyses. Innovative strategies are needed to promote screenings such as church-based health fairs. PMID:27272330
Casale, Marisa; Cluver, Lucie; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Kuo, Caroline; Lachman, Jamie M.; Wild, Lauren G.
Caregiver social support has been shown to be protective for caregiver mental health, parenting and child psychosocial outcomes. This is the first known analysis to quantitatively investigate the relationship between caregiver social support and adolescent psychosocial outcomes in HIV-endemic, resource-scarce Southern African communities. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted over 2009-2010 with 2,477 South African adolescents aged 10-17 and their adult caregivers (18 years or olde...
Alder, Stephen C.; Simonsen, Sara Ellis; Duncan, Megan; Shaver, John; DeWitt, Jan; Crookston, Benjamin
Introduction The HIV/AIDS epidemic in America is rapidly progressing in certain subpopulations, including African-American and Hispanic communities. Churches may provide a means for reaching high-risk minority populations with effective HIV/AIDS prevention. We report on a series of focus group interviews conducted with Utah clergy who primarily serve African American and Hispanic congregations. Methods A total of three focus groups (two with Catholic clergy serving Hispanic congregations and ...
Butchart, A; Seedat, M
This paper critically analyses the historical embeddedness and ideological functions of the concept of community as it is used in South Africa by representatives of the state and its opponents. The analysis shows that 'community' is a key concept in the ideology of separatism through which an apartheid psychology and society is reproduced. This has implications for progressive psychologists who aim to empower oppressed ordinary people through interventions based upon theoretical models of community. Some of these are explored by examining the interplay between political and theoretical images of community and ordinary people's ideas about social ills. This suggests that whilst community psychology can revitalise a sense of community amongst the oppressed, it may also reinforce existing social inequalities by deflecting experts and ordinary people from the reconstruction of individual agency upon which liberating social transformation depends. It is concluded that a central task for South African psychologists is to engage in critical self-reflection with the aim of identifying and eliminating oppressive forms of social and psychological discourse, thereby empowering themselves and contributing to the construction of a coherent counterideology. PMID:2274799
Paula Diab; Penny Flack
Background: Community-based education (CBE) is utilised by health science facultiesworldwide to provide a relevant primary care experience for students and a service tounderserved communities and, hopefully, to affect student career choices. The benefits totraining institutions and students are well documented, but it may well be that communities,too, will be able to benefit from a more balanced partnership, where they are consulted in theplanning of such training programmes.Method: An explo...
Chunngam, Bunthida; Chanchalor, Sumalee; Murphy, Elizabeth
This paper reports on a study involving the design of a virtual community for informal learning about Thai herbs. The community relied on social networking tools and a database of expert knowledge as well as community coordinators. One group of coordinators (Community A) concentrated efforts in recruitment of members on those individuals most…
This paper seeks to theorize embodied knowledge. If knowledge is power, then questions of “embodied knowledge” should be central to this conference. How and when is knowledge embodied? Under what conditions can embodied practice constitute knowledge? And what kind of practice-based “research” expands this kind of knowledge? Today, as references to embodied knowledge continue to multiply, it is essential that scholars arrive at a useful and rigorously theorized understanding of this concept th...
Stanfield, John H. II
Investigated the social origins of black physicians from poor, rural, southern communities, examining contextual factors that helped explain their great academic and professional success as young adults. Argues that it was the community that identified and nurtured these gifted children, thus making it possible for them to attend college and…
Blocker, Deborah E; Romocki, LaHoma Smith; Thomas, Kamilah B; Jones, Belinda L; Jackson, Ethel Jean; Reid, LaVerne; Campbell, Marci K
African-American men have the highest prostate cancer rates worldwide, and innovative efforts are needed to increase cancer prevention and screening behaviors among this population. Formative research was conducted to assess attitudes and behaviors linked to prostate cancer prevention activities that could be used to develop a culturally relevant intervention for an African-American church-based population. Four gender-specific focus groups were conducted with 29 men and women at two African-American churches in central North Carolina. Three primary themes emerged from the focus group discussions: culturally and gender-influenced beliefs and barriers about cancer prevention and screening; barriers related to the healthcare system: and religious influences, including the importance of spiritual beliefs and church support. These discussions revealed the importance of the black family, the positive influence of spouses/partners on promoting cancer screening and healthy behaviors, the roles of faith and church leadership, and beliefs about God's will for good health. These findings also revealed that there are still major barriers and challenges to cancer prevention among African Americans, including continued mistrust of the medical community and negative attitudes toward specific screening tests. Findings provide important insights to consider in implementing successful prostate cancer prevention interventions designed for church-based audiences. PMID:16916126
Kampf, Constance; Kommers, Piet
Cultural and Rhetorical Bases for communicating knowledge in web based communities How can we extend learner-centred theories for educational technology to include, for instance, the cultural and rhetorical backgrounds which influence participants in online communities as they engage in knowledge...... communication processes? To begin to answer this question, we are looking for papers which engage concepts such as: communities of practice (Wenger 1998) the emerging field of knowledge communication the connections between communicating knowledge and discourse structures cultural situatedness of communication...... linguistics, media studies, educational technology, intercultural communication, cultural studies, linguistics, rhetoric, technical communication and knowledge communication....
Full Text Available Music therapy in South Africa is slowly negotiating a practice that takes into account our continent's musical vibrancy, as well as contextual understandings of "health" and "illness." Although music therapy in the (so-called developed world is situated within the paradigms of medicine, education, psychology and research - in the formal and often scientific sense - in South Africa, this practice needs to be re-defined to make it relevant to the contexts in which we work. The Music Therapy Community Clinic (MTCC is a non-profit organisation whose aim is to provide music therapy services to previously disadvantaged communities in Cape Town, South Africa. Socio-political problems such as poverty, unemployment, gang violence and HIV and Aids have lead to the fragmentation and disintegration of many of these communities. The MTCC's Music for Life project emerged out of a need to provide after-school music activities and to reach a wider group of children than those seen for clinical music therapy sessions. As the project has developed and expanded, the music therapists have drawn in community musicians to offer an increasing range of musical activities to children. The collaboration between music therapists and community musicians has led to many questions about the roles and identities of each. This article is based on a presentation given by the MTCC at a Symposium for South African Arts Therapists held in Cape Town in June 2007. The article discusses the merits and challenges of the Music for Life Project and offers reflections from both community musicians and music therapists pertaining to our negotiated and changing roles as we continue to develop the project together.
Full Text Available Background: Good oral health is a key for ensuring overall well-being. Dental caries and periodontitis may also be linked to different systemic diseases. Good oral health practices are the clue for preventing the diseases of the oral cavity. Objectives: To assess the oral health knowledge and oral health practice of the people in a rural community. Materials and Methods: Study was conducted in Dehradun district of Uttarakhand state. Sample population has been selected based on systematic random sampling. Study has included 798 participants above 3 years of age. Statistical Analysis Used: Percentage. Results: Study results have shown poorest oral health status amongst population below 19 years of age. Constant pain in teeth/ gums was also reported maximum in this age group. Habit of having sticky food was reported maximum in 3-10 years age group with poorest practice of brushing teeth (daily brushing was reported by only 67% population and twice a day was reported by only 2.4%.. Discussion: Study results have shown that perception of having good oral health is high in this population but oral health practices are not satisfactory. Conclusion: Study finding recommends that oral health awareness needs to be increased in the area especially focusing young children. Awareness programs should be supplemented with primary care services for better oral health and hygiene.
Myhill, William N; Cogburn, Derrick L; Samant, Deepti; Addom, Benjamin Kwasi; Blanck, Peter
Since publication of the Atkins Commission report in 2003, the national scientific community has placed significant emphasis on developing cyberinfrastructure-enabled knowledge communities, which are designed to facilitate enhanced efficiency and collaboration in geographically distributed networks of researchers. This article suggests that the new cyberinfrastructure movement may not fully benefit those participants with disabilities, unless closer attention is paid to legal mandates and universal design principles. Many technology-enhanced learning communities provide geographically distributed collaboration opportunities that expand the inclusion of diverse peoples and help close the digital divide. However, to date, most collaboratory efforts have not emphasized the need for access among people with disabilities nor meeting minimum standards for technological accessibility. To address these concerns, this article reports on two pilot collaboratory studies that explore the role advanced information, communication, and collaboration technologies play in enhancing geographically distributed collaboration among specific research and applied networks within the national disability community. Universal design principles inform the design of the collaboratory and its use and our efforts to ensure access for all. Data for this article come from Web-based surveys, interviews, observations, computer logs, and detailed, mixed-methods accessibility testing. Emerging results suggest that with deliberate and systematic efforts, cyberinfrastructure can be more accessible and generate benefits among persons with disabilities. The authors provide lessons learned and recommendations for future research, policy, law, and practice. PMID:18939656
Communities of practice - Design principle. Sponsor: Initiate community creation, provide “recognized” status to the community in organization, allocate resources to support activity of communities, provide feedback on key issues and etc. Moderator: Organize and plan community work, creates events, start discussions, assign and track execution of tasks and etc. Expert: Facilitate knowledge exchange, interpret information, answer questions, lead discussions, recommend useful material and publications and etc. Community Members: Participate in community work, collaboratively develop documents, perform tasks, can initiate and participate in discussions, ask questions and etc. Best practices: 1. Deploy and configure IT infrastructure; 2. Create collaborative environment; 3. Choose confident subject-matter experts as community moderators
Ford, Marvella E; Siminoff, Laura A; Pickelsimer, Elisabeth; Mainous, Arch G; Smith, Daniel W; Diaz, Vanessa A; Soderstrom, Lea H; Jefferson, Melanie S; Tilley, Barbara C
African Americans and Latinos are underrepresented in clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to elicit solutions to participation barriers from African Americans and Latinos. Fifty-seven adults (32 African Americans, 25 Latinos) ages 50 years and older participated. The Institute of Medicine's Unequal Treatment conceptual framework was used. Six racially/ ethnically homogenous focus groups were conducted at five sites in three counties. Themes within groups and cross-cutting themes were identified. The NVIVO program was used for data classification. The data were reviewed for final coding and consensus. Shared solutions included addressing costs, recruiting in community contexts, conducting community and individualized patient education, and sharing patient safety information. Participants were unanimously in favor of clinical trials navigation recruitment interventions. Solutions specific to African Americans included diversifying research teams, recognizing past research abuses, and increasing community trust. Solutions specific to Latinos included providing low-literacy materials, providing Spanish-speaking clinicians and advocates, and clarifying that immigration status would neither be documented nor prevent participation. Solutions from African Americans and Latinos reflect their cultural backgrounds and historical experiences. The results suggest the importance of developing a tailored, barriers-focused navigation intervention to improve participation among diverse racial and ethnic populations. PMID:23539894
Callaghan, G.; Wistow, G
The Labour government's stated commitment to shifting the balance of power to communities, citizens and users has been expressed in numerous initiatives to promote participatory governance in the local state. In this context achieving reliable ways of learning about participants' views becomes critical. A prime concern then becomes what constitutes `community knowledge' and how that knowledge can be developed. This article considers some issues that arise for communities and policy makers in ...
Duran, Claudia; Felisa CORDOVA
Ports working in a network-community that is composed of a group of associative enterprises and logistic chains require managing their strategic and operational knowledge for achieving the efficiency of their activities at both levels. A conceptual model is presented that allows the development of a strategy for a port community through a strategic planning approach using operational knowledge. The different actors that participate in the community, their roles, and the main processes in whic...
Marcos Souto Alves
Full Text Available The African giant mollusk Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 was introduced into Brazil in 1988 as a substitute for the European escargot Helix sp. This action did not induce the expected results and the gastropod has become an invasive species according to records in 23 Brazilian states. The presence of A. fulica has been reported to many towns in the state of Pernambuco. This work was carried out in order to evaluate, from an ethnoscientific approach, student knowledge about this giant African mollusk in a public school of Cabo de Santo Agostinho (Pernambuco. The Collective Subject Discourse (CSD technique was applied to the data obtained. The pupils' discourse revealed the existence of previous knowledge about A. fulica, especially on the following issues: disease transmission, taxonomy, environmental impacts brought about by the introduction of exotic species, and the process of ingress and growth of the mollusk in the human body. The authors emphasize the need of considering students' previous knowledge in order to plan and implement educational strategies related to wildlife conservation and exotic species management.
Gallard Martínez, Alejandro J.
This forum considers argumentation as a means of science teaching in South African schools, through the integration of indigenous knowledge (IK). It addresses issues raised in Mariana G. Hewson and Meshach B. Ogunniyi's paper entitled: Argumentation-teaching as a method to introduce indigenous knowledge into science classrooms: opportunities and challenges. As well as Peter Easton's: Hawks and baby chickens: cultivating the sources of indigenous science education; and, Femi S. Otulaja, Ann Cameron and Audrey Msimanga's: Rethinking argumentation-teaching strategies and indigenous knowledge in South African science classrooms. The first topic addressed is that implementation of argumentation in the science classroom becomes a complex endeavor when the tensions between students' IK, the educational infrastructure (allowance for teacher professional development, etc.) and local belief systems are made explicit. Secondly, western styles of debate become mitigating factors because they do not always adequately translate to South African culture. For example, in many instances it is more culturally acceptable in South Africa to build consensus than to be confrontational. Thirdly, the tension between what is "authentic science" and what is not becomes an influencing factor when a tension is created between IK and western science. Finally, I argue that the thrust of argumentation is to set students up as "scientist-students" who will be considered through a deficit model by judging their habitus and cultural capital. Explicitly, a "scientist-student" is a student who has "learned," modeled and thoroughly assimilated the habits of western scientists, evidently—and who will be judged by and held accountable for their demonstration of explicit related behaviors in the science classroom. I propose that science teaching, to include argumentation, should consist of "listening carefully" (radical listening) to students and valuing their language, culture, and learning as a model
Reid, Allecia E; Dovidio, John F; Ballester, Estrellita; Johnson, Blair T
Interventions to improve public health may benefit from consideration of how environmental contexts can facilitate or hinder their success. We examined the extent to which efficacy of interventions to improve African Americans' condom use practices was moderated by two indicators of structural stigma-Whites' attitudes toward African Americans and residential segregation in the communities where interventions occurred. A previously published meta-analytic database was re-analyzed to examine the interplay of community-level stigma with the psychological processes implied by intervention content in influencing intervention efficacy. All studies were conducted in the United States and included samples that were at least 50% African American. Whites' attitudes were drawn from the American National Election Studies, which collects data from nationally representative samples. Residential segregation was drawn from published reports. Results showed independent effects of Whites' attitudes and residential segregation on condom use effect sizes. Interventions were most successful when Whites' attitudes were more positive or when residential segregation was low. These two structural factors interacted: Interventions improved condom use only when communities had both relatively positive attitudes toward African Americans and lower levels of segregation. The effect of Whites' attitudes was more pronounced at longer follow-up intervals and for younger samples and those samples with more African Americans. Tailoring content to participants' values and needs, which may reduce African Americans' mistrust of intervention providers, buffered against the negative influence of Whites' attitudes on condom use. The structural factors uniquely accounted for variance in condom use effect sizes over and above intervention-level features and community-level education and poverty. Results highlight the interplay of social identity and environment in perpetuating intergroup disparities
Mosack, Katie E; Stevens, Patricia E; Brouwer, Amanda M; Wendorf, Angela R
A key source of resiliency within HIV-affected African American communities is informal social support. Data from dyadic conversations and focus groups were used to address the following research question: What are HIV-positive African Americans' social support experiences within their informal social networks in response to HIV-related problems? Circumstances that exacerbated HIV-related problems included others' fear of contagion, reticence to be involved, judgment and rejection, and disregard for privacy Support from HIV-negative others buffered the impact of problems when others communicate interest, take the initiative to help, or make a long-term investment in their success. Support from other HIV-positive persons was helpful given the shared connection because of HIV, the opportunity to commiserate about what is mutually understood, and the fight for mutual survival Based on these findings, we offer suggestions for future research and social network interventions aimed at bolstering connections between HIV-positive peers, reducing stigma, and improving family support. PMID:26515921
Al-Essawi, Mohammed H. K.; Ntuli, Elijah M.
The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is an international organization that has been in existence since 1980. Previously known as the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC), its primary aim was to coordinate development projects in order to lessen economic dependence on the then apartheid South Africa. Over the years, the coordination of such developmental projects has increasingly demanded a collective utilization of resources, such as energy, health and water sectors, among others. However, national boarders have also been pivotal in not only conflict management aspects, but also as protocolly agreed-upon component defining SADC`s contemporary international relations and legal regime. In the context of the accessibility and insufficiency of resources, our findings show that water as a resource has not only sparked inter-boarder issues, but also internal resistance from non-governmental organizations and major labor organizations in the SADC region. Policy formulation and implementation (under the international law umbrella) remain a greatest challenge in addressing the pressing issues of water privatization through political means.
Goldner, Jonathan; Peters, Tracy L.; Richards, Maryse H.; Pearce, Steven
This study examined protective and risky companionship and locations for exposure to community violence among African American young adolescents living in high crime, urban areas. The Experience Sampling Method (ESM), an in vivo data collection method, was employed to gather information from 233 students (62% female) over 3 years, beginning in the…
Pelto, Debra J.; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Njoku, Ogo; Rodriguez, Maria Carina; Villagra, Cristina; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Riley, Natasha E.; Behar, Alma I.; Jandorf, Lina
The pilot study reported in this article culturally and linguistically adapted an educational intervention to promote cancer clinical trials (CCTs) participation among Latinas/os and African Americans. The single-session slide presentation with embedded videos, originally developed through a campus-community partnership in Southern California, was…
Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Akers, Aletha; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara; Wynn, Mysha; Muhammad, Melvin; Stith, Doris
Southeastern states are among the hardest hit by the HIV epidemic in this country, and racial disparities in HIV rates are high in this region. This is particularly true in our communities of interest in rural eastern North Carolina. Although most recent efforts to prevent HIV attempt to address multiple contributing factors, we have found few multilevel HIV interventions that have been developed, tailored or tested in rural communities for African Americans. We describe how Project GRACE int...
Stephen Kingah; Giovanni Molano-Cruz
The article compares how the regional tribunals of the Andean Community (CAN) and the Southern African Development Community (SADC) have dealt with human rights issues in order to explore options for South-South judicial cooperation through adjudicative cross-fertilization, while taking into account specificities that characterize both regions. In doing so, focus is placed on four elements: a) the scope of human rights covered by each of the regional tribunals; b) the locus standi of individu...
Question What is the best way of transferring knowledge and know-how from the nuclear power community to the research reactor community, e.g. in the fields of quality assurance, safety culture, etc.? To answer the question on how to transfer knowledge and know-how from the nuclear power community to the research reactor community, one should first try to establish what are the differences and similarities between these types of nuclear facilities. Despite the big difference between the primary objectives of these two kinds of facilities, i.e. electricity production versus providing irradiation services, the underlying safety culture should be comparable. For historical reasons, nuclear power plant management took the lead in establishing fully accepted safety standards. However, research reactors can avail themselves of the wide body of nuclear safety experience accumulated at nuclear power plants. This should be applicable to all nuclear facilities. Nonetheless, in transferring their know-how, safety specialists should take into account the huge differences between critical assemblies, university reactors, small research reactors and multi-purpose high power research reactors. The goal to which a specific facility is dedicated bears heavily upon the outlook of its management Question: How can well run research reactors help problem research reactors? To answer this, a basic question should in turn be posed: Should one help a research reactor with operational difficulties? And, if so, to what extent? Who will benefit? Within the framework of this meeting, one should concentrate on nuclear safety, which is determined by: Safety culture (including quality assurance); The level of training of all staff; Ageing (installation, staff and documentation); The front/back end of the fuel cycle; A strong programme versus extended shutdown; Regulatory (nuclear regulatory) inspectorates; National (international) co-operation; The financial situation prevailing at the
Full Text Available Purpose: The world of work is evolving and the nature of relationships between knowledge workers and their employers has changed distinctly, leading to a change in the type of rewards they prefer. The nature of these preferences in the South African, industry-specific context is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to deepen understanding of the reward preferences of Information technology (IT knowledge workers in South Africa, specifically as these relate to the attraction, retention and motivation of knowledge workers.Design: The research design included a quantitative, empirical and descriptive study of reward preferences, measured with a self-administered survey and analysed using non-parametric tests for variance between dependent and independent groups and non-parametric analysis of variance.Findings: This study found that there are specific reward preferences in knowledge workers in the IT sector in South Africa and that these preferences apply differently when related to the attraction, retention and motivation of employees. It identified the most important reward components in the competition for knowledge workers and also demonstrated that demographic characteristics play a statistically significant role in determining reward preferences.Practical implications: The study’s findings show that a holistic approach to total rewards is required, failing which, companies will find themselves facing increased turnover and jobhopping. Importantly, the study also highlights that different rewards need to form part of knowledge workers’ relationship with their employer in three different scenarios: attraction, retention and motivation.
Broussard, Beth; Goulding, Sandra M; Talley, Colin L; Compton, Michael T
The public's causal attributions of schizophrenia have far-reaching effects on the community and affected individuals. This study investigated causal beliefs within a community of predominantly Protestant, low-income, urban, African Americans in the southeastern United States. Two hundred eighty-two patrons of an inner-city food court/farmers' market participated in a self-administered survey assessing causal beliefs through a 30-item survey and self-reported causal opinions. Associations were assessed between causal attributions of schizophrenia and sociodemographic characteristics and exposure/familiarity variables. Certain sociodemographic variables, as well as key exposure/familiarity variables, predicted the nature of one's causal beliefs. The most common causal opinions reported included substance abuse, negative life events, and "mental illness." Findings from a subsample administered an exploratory multiple-choice question investigating understanding of causation revealed that the public may not fully understand the nature of causation. Although this study suggests potential determinants of causal beliefs held by community members, further research examining the public's conception of causation would enhance interpretation of studies on such beliefs. PMID:20623254
Henrichs, Brian; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Troskie, Milana; Gorsich, Erin; Gondhalekar, Carmen; Beechler, Brianna R; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Jolles, Anna E
Experimental studies in laboratory settings have demonstrated a critical role of parasite interactions in shaping parasite communities. The sum of these interactions can produce diverse effects on individual hosts as well as influence disease emergence and persistence at the population level. A predictive framework for the effects of parasite interactions in the wild remains elusive, largely because of limited longitudinal or experimental data on parasite communities of free-ranging hosts. This 4-year study followed a community of haemoparasites in free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). We detected infection by 11 haemoparasite species using PCR-based diagnostic techniques, and analyzed drivers of infection patterns using generalized linear mixed models to understand the role of host characteristics and season on infection likelihood. We tested for (i) effects of co-infection by other haemoparasites (within guild) and (ii) effects of parasites infecting different tissue types (across guild). We found that within guild co-infections were the strongest predictors of haemoparasite infections in the buffalo; but that seasonal and host characteristics also had important effects. In contrast, the evidence for across-guild effects of parasites utilizing different tissue on haemoparasite infection was weak. These results provide a nuanced view of the role of co-infections in determining haemoparasite infection patterns in free living mammalian hosts. Our findings suggest a role for interactions among parasites infecting a single tissue type in determining infection patterns. PMID:27084785
Baffour, Tiffany D; Jones, Maurine A; Contreras, Linda K
The model of family health advocacy built firmly upon principles of empowerment theory seeks to help individuals, families, and communities to improve their circumstances by incorporating multiple levels of intervention. The goal of family health advocacy is to improve the well-being of pregnant women and mothers of children younger than 2 years by providing social support and health education about risk factors related to infant mortality and prematurity. This program primarily targets rural African American women, a group at high risk. Advocacy and referral for needed medical and social services are provided. This article presents a comprehensive model of health advocacy, including social marketing strategies, recruitment efforts, and curriculum development. PMID:16775472
Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Fan, Hsueh-Liang; Tsai, Chin-Chung
The knowledge sharing process within a virtual community of teacher professionals is viewed as a social exchange process in that the knowledge sharing intention and behavior of individuals are influenced by the exchange relationship among members. However, relatively little research has focused on this approach to exploring the factors that…
Kabisch, Sigrun; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie
Social vulnerability assessment remains central in discourses on global climatic change and takes a more pertinent meaning considering that natural disasters in African countries continue to deeply affect human settlements and destroys human livelihoods. In recent years, in particular large territories and growing cities have experienced severe weather events. Among them are river and flash floods, affecting the social and economic assets of local populations. The impact of the damage related to floods is not only perceptible during seasonal events but also during unexpected larger disasters which place a particular burden on local population and institutions to adapt effectively to increasing climatic pressures. Important features for social vulnerability assessment are the increasing severity of the physical damages, the shortcoming of social and technical infrastructure, the complexity of land management/market, the limited capacity of local institutions and last but not least the restricted capacities of local population to resist these events. Understanding vulnerability implies highlighting and interlinking relevant indicators and/or perceptions encompassed in four main dimensions: social, institutional, physical and attitudinal vulnerability. Case studies in Dar es Salaam, Ouagadougou and Addis Ababa were carried out to obtain insights into the context-related conditions, behavior routines and survival networks in urban areas in west and east Africa. Using a combination of tools (e.g. focus group discussions, transect walks, interviews) we investigated in close cooperation with African partners how households and communities are being prepared to cope with, as well as to recover from floods. A comprehensive process of dealing with floods can be described based on sequential attributes concerning i) Anticipation before a flood occurs, ii) Resistance and coping activities during a flood event and, iii) Recovery and reconstruction afterwards. A participatory
Phramaha Somdet Wongtham
Full Text Available This investigation, monk development experts: Using traditional knowledge to manage community development by monks in Isan, is a qualitative study with three primary aims:To study the background of community development by monks in Northeastern Thailand, to study the current state of community development by monks in Northeastern Thailand and to outline a set of guidelines for community development by monks in Northeastern Thailand. The research area for this investigation was purposively selected and was composed of nine communities in Northeastern Thailand. Results show that monks have been involved in community development since Buddhism first arrived in North-eastern Thailand and their role is now primarily separated into three areas: Faith, knowledge and practice. The results of this investigation can be considered by local temples, communities, government institutions and individual monks when deciding how to manage and administer community development by monks in Northeastern Thailand.
van der Hoeven, Marinka; Osei, Jennifer; Greeff, Minrie; Kruger, Annamarie; Faber, Mieke; Smuts, Cornelius M
Background: The dietary shift from indigenous and traditional plants (ITPs) to cash crops and exotic plant food sources increases the risk of malnutrition and other nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, especially in poor rural communities. Farm communities in South Africa have been associated with poor nutritional status and extreme poverty. ITPs have been found to be affordable sources of several micronutrients. However, knowledge of and the use of these plants are declin...
Ukoli, Flora A; Patel, Kushal; Hargreaves, Margaret; Beard, Katina; Moton, Pierre J; Bragg, Richard; Beech, Derrick; Davis, Rodney
African American men bear disproportionate burden of prostate cancer (PCa) that can be reduced by early detection. A 15-minute culturally appropriate PCa education intervention developed to communicate effective, relevant, and balanced PCa screening information to low-income African American men was evaluated in men 42 years and older who had not been screened in one year. Of 539 men enrolled, 392 (72.7%) completed the six-month follow-up. Mean age was 54.4±8.9, 34.7% had no high school diploma, and 65.3% earned less than $25,000 annually. Barriers to screening included health insurance (41.4%), discomfort of digital rectal exam (32.1%), and fear of cancer diagnosis (29.9%). Mean knowledge score of 21 points increased from 13.27±3.51 to 14.95±4.14 (pschool diploma recorded the lowest post-intervention PCa knowledge and screening rate (47.7%), suggestive of the need for more than a single education session. Annual physicals with free prostate examination can maintain the positive trend observed. PMID:23377736
Jacqueline CODRON; Kevin J DUFFY; Nico L AVENANT; Matt SPONHEIMER; Jennifer LEICHLITER; Oliver PAINE; Paul SANDBERG; Daryl CODRON
Species’ partitioning of resources remains one of the most integral components for understanding community assem-bly. Analysis of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in animal tissues has the potential to help resolve patterns of partitioning be-cause these proxies represent the individual’s diet and trophic niche, respectively. Using free-ranging rodents in a southern Afri-can savanna as a model community, we find that syntopic species within habitats occupy distinct isotope niches. Moreover, spe-cies with strongly overlapping isotope niches did not overlap in their spatial distribution patterns, suggesting an underlying effect of competitive exclusion. Niche conservatism appears to characterize the behaviour of most species in our sample – with little or no observed changes across habitats – with the exception of one species,Mastomys coucha. This species displayed a generalist distribution, being found in similar abundances across a variety of habitats. This spatial pattern was coupled with a generalist isotope niche that shifted across habitats, likely in response to changes in species composition over the same spatial gradient. The case forM. coucha supports contentions that past competition effects played a significant evolutionary role in shaping community structures of today, including the absence of strong interspecific niche overlaps within particular habitats. Our study highlights the value of stable isotope approaches to help resolve key questions in community ecology, and moreover introduces novel ana-lytical approaches to quantifying isotope niche breadths and niche overlaps that are easily comparable with traditional metrices [Current Zoology 61 (3): 397–441, 2015].
Sorensen, E. K.; Takle, E. S.; Moser, H. M.
This paper reports on a case-study on the implementation of “language games” as a pedagogical tool for analyzing, assessing and promoting the quality and the level of collaborative knowledge building in online learning dialogues. Part of the overall objective is to explore the use, strength...... benefits of other theoretical approaches. Applying an analytical perspective of language games, sequences of online dialogues are analyzed in order to understand their specific characteristics and to diagnose the quality of the collaborative knowledge building processes. To what extend do language games...... reveal true knowledge building in an online learning environment? Results of this study suggest that language games may function as a tool for diagnosing quality in online collaborative knowledge building processes. Furthermore, their possible use as an instructional tool for promoting more authentic...
Full Text Available This paper will provide critical analysis of Australia’ knowledge strategy, conducted from the perspective that driving a national knowledge strategy is the predominant responsibility of government for reasons of impartiality. As such critique will be focused upon the actionsundertaken by the Australian government to position the nation as a Knowledge-based Economy (KBE competitively within the global community. It will be argued that to qualify for the title of “knowledge nation” the country needs to perform well across a composite range of factors. Examination of composite strategies will be conducted within a model of Knowledge Development, categorising the government’s knowledge sourcing, abstraction, conversion, diffusion and refinement strategies. The paper will conclude with recommendations for improving Australia’s position within the global knowledge economy and consequently within the global information community.
Cynthia R. Ronzio
Full Text Available The prevalence of witnessed community violence (WCV amongst urban populations in the USA is striking. WCV can be harmful to one's psychological health, and for mothers, the consequences may be more far-reaching as their mental health affects parenting and child development. This study used telephone interviews (n = 209 to explore the patterns and covariates of WCV amongst a sample of urban, African American mothers of infants. Mothers reported whether they had witnessed 11 different forms of violence in their current neighborhoods. A latent class analysis revealed two distinct groups of mothers, those with higher versus lower-exposure to WCV. Mothers in the higher-exposure group were more likely to be low-income, to have a high school education or less, and to have higher anxiety scores than those in the lower-exposure group. Depression was not associated with higher exposure to WCV. Distinguishing between higher- and lower-exposure samples can inform the development of targeted prevention and intervention strategies for metropolitan areas.
The role of African languages in formal and nonformal learning is the subject of increasing local, national and international interests. Cognitive and pedagogical reasons abound for using the language best understood by the learner. However, many nonpedagogical factors related to politics, economics, language attitudes and colonial history are…
Nistor, Nicolae; Dascalu, Mihai; Trausan-Matu, Stefan
Using online knowledge communities (OKCs) as informal learning environments poses the question how likely these will integrate newcomers as peripheral participants. Previous research has identified surface characteristics of the OKC dialog as integrativity predictors. Yet, little is known about the
Full Text Available Ports working in a network-community that is composed of a group of associative enterprises and logistic chains require managing their strategic and operational knowledge for achieving the efficiency of their activities at both levels. A conceptual model is presented that allows the development of a strategy for a port community through a strategic planning approach using operational knowledge. The different actors that participate in the community, their roles, and the main processes in which they participate are characterized. Then the vision and the mission of the community, and the strategic objectives in the four perspectives of the Balanced Scorecard: financial, clients, processes, and learning and growth, are defined. Finally, a set of indicators oriented toward the knowledge management of the main actors participating in the community is designed.
This article draws on ethnographic research at iThemba Pharmaceuticals, a small South African startup pharmaceutical company with an elite international scientific board. The word 'iThemba' is Zulu for 'hope', and so far drug discovery at the company has been essentially aspirational rather than actual. Yet this particular place provides an entry point for exploring how the location of the scientific knowledge component of pharmaceuticals--rather than their production, licensing, or distribution--matters. The article explores why it matters for those interested in global health and postcolonial science, and why it matters for the scientists themselves. Consideration of this case illuminates limitations of global health frameworks that implicitly posit rich countries as the unique site of knowledge production, and thus as the source of unidirectional knowledge flows. It also provides a concrete example for consideration of the contexts and practices of postcolonial science, its constraints, and its promise. Although the world is not easily bifurcated, it still matters who makes knowledge and where. PMID:25608441
Paul Almeida; Anupama Phene; Sali Li
This paper investigates the influence of technological, geographic, and ethnic communities on the innovativeness of Indian inventors. We study Indian inventors in the semiconductor industry in the US and examine their patenting profiles between 1975 and 1999 to identify the influences on the quantity and quality of their innovations. We find that inventors who rely on knowledge from technological and geographic communities enhance their innovativeness. Knowledge from the ethnic Indian communi...
Wan Izatul Asma Wan Talaat; Norhayati Mohd Tahir; Mohd Lokman Husain
Traditional knowledge, generally defined as the long-standing traditions and practices of certain regional, indigenous, or local communities, constitutes a cumulative body of knowledge, know-how, practices, and representations maintained and developed by peoples with extended histories of interaction with the natural environment. Recognition, protection and enforcement of the rights of indigenous communities to have continued access to biological genetic resources is quite related to the prin...
Motala, Ayesha A.; Esterhuizen, Tonya; Gouws, Eleanor; Pirie, Fraser J.; Omar, Mahomed A.K.
OBJECTIVE—The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glycemia (IFG), and associated risk factors in a rural South African black community. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—This was a cross-sectional survey conducted by random cluster sampling of adults aged >15 years. Participants had a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test using the 1998 World Health Organization criteria for disorders of glycemia. RESULTS—Of 1,300 subjects selected, 1,025 subjects (815 women) participated (response rate 78.9%). The overall age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes was 3.9%, IGT 4.8%, and IFG 1.5%. The prevalence was similar in men and women for diabetes (men 3.5%; women 3.9%) and IGT (men 4.6%; women 4.7%) but higher in men for IFG (men 4.0%; women 0.8%). The prevalence of diabetes and IGT increased with age both in men and women, with peak prevalence in the 55- to 64-year age-group for diabetes and in the ≥65-year age-group for IGT. Of the cases of diabetes, 84.8% were discovered during the survey. In multivariate analysis, the significant independent risk factors associated with diabetes included family history (odds ratio 3.5), alcohol ingestion (2.8), waist circumference (1.1), systolic blood pressure (1.0), serum triglycerides (2.3), and total cholesterol (1.8); hip circumference was protective (0.9). CONCLUSIONS—There is a moderate prevalence of diabetes and a high prevalence of total disorders of glycemia, which suggests that this community, unlike other rural communities in Africa, is well into an epidemic of glucose intolerance. There is a low proportion of known diabetes and a significant association with potentially modifiable risk factors. PMID:18523142
Buxbaum, Joel; Alexander, Alice; Koziol, James; Tagoe, Clement; Fox, Ervin; Kitzman, Dalane
Many African-Americans carry an amyloidogenic transthyretin mutation (TTR V122I), with a high risk for cardiac TTR amyloid deposition after age 65. We wished to determine the allele frequency and its clinical penetrance in community-dwelling African-Americans.
Payne, Yasser Arafat; Hamdi, Hanaa A.
This Participatory Action Research (PAR) project worked with four active street life oriented U. S. born African men, to document how a community sample of street life oriented U. S. born African men between the ages of 16-65, frame and use "street life" as a Site of Resiliency (Payne, Dissertation, 2005; "Journal of Black Psychology" 34(1):3-31,…
textabstractMarketeers hebben steeds vaker te maken met consumenten die contact leggen met elkaar via het Internet. Elektronische discussieforums, mededelingenborden, nieuwsgroepen, emaillijsten, en chat rooms bieden consumenten, waar dan ook ter wereld, de mogelijkheid om hun kennis, ervaringen en meningen te delen. De populariteit van deze elektronische contacten tussen consumenten blijkt uit de grote hoeveelheid virtuele communities die georganiseerd zijn rondom consumptiegerelateerde inte...
INTERFACING INFANT MENTAL HEALTH KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS: REFLECTIONS ON THE NARRATIVES OF LAY HOME VISITORS' EXPERIENCES OF LEARNING AND APPLYING RELATIONAL CONCEPTS OF DEVELOPMENT IN A SOUTH AFRICAN INTERVENTION PROGRAM.
Baradon, Tessa; Bain, Katherine
The question of interfacing research and clinically generated knowledge in the field of infant mental health (IMH) with local cultural knowledge and belief systems has provoked extended discussion in recent years. This article explores convergences and divergences between current research-based, relational IMH mental health models and "community" knowledge held by a group of South African lay home visitors from a socioeconomically deprived township. These women were trained in a psychoanalytic and attachment-informed infant mental health program that promotes a relational model of infant development. They provide an intervention that supports high risk mother-infant relationships in the same locality. A two-tiered approach was taken to the analysis of the home visitor interviews and focused on the home visitors' constructed narratives of infant development posttraining as well as the personal impact of the training and work on the home visitors themselves. The study found that psychoanalytic and attachment-informed thinking about development makes sense to those operating within the local South African cultural context, but that the accommodation of this knowledge is a complex and challenging process. PMID:27186854
Ianni, Elena; Geneletti, Davide; Ciolli, Marco
This study aims to contribute to the debate on the value and the role of ecological knowledge in modern conservation strategies, with reference to the results of a case study conducted in the community of Montagne, located within a World Heritage site in the Italian Alps. This community is a paradigmatic example of the multiple transformations experienced by cultural landscapes in Alpine areas under the influence of global change. This study seeks to understand whether ecological knowledge is still in place in the community, and what the relationship is between the knowledge transmission and land use and social changes that have occurred in recent decades. To that end, the community is described by identifying the key variables (social, institutional, and ecological) that have historically shaped the landscape and the future priorities of the residents. Forest expansion, the most significant change in land use in the last 60 years, is analyzed using aerial photos; changes in biodiversity-related knowledge in the community are quantified by analyzing the inter-generational differences in plant species recognition. Results are discussed in the context of the current situation of the Montagne community, and the recommendation is made that policies and actions to promote traditional ecological knowledge protection or recovery in Europe be viewed as an important part of the recovery of community sovereignty and vitality. Lastly, concrete actions that can be implemented in our case study are proposed.
Reinau, Kristian Hegner
Currently there is growing focus on how cluster internal and cluster external relations affect the creation of knowledge in companies placed in clusters. However, the current theories on this topic are too simple and the interplay between internal and external relations is relatively unknown. Thi...
Central African Economic and Monetary Community; Staff Report on Common Policies of Member Countries; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Central African Economic and Monetary Community
International Monetary Fund
This paper discusses the common policies adopted by the members of the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC). The macroeconomic performance was good in 2011 with improved fiscal balances, public investment programs, and higher reserves. However, CEMAC is facing challenges from deep-seated structural problems, including uncoordinated fiscal policy, financial sector weaknesses, and obstacles to growth and competitiveness. The Executive Board recommends monetary policies for fi...
Huff, Tameka B.; Stubblefield, William Anthony; Cole, Benjamin Holland, II; Baldonado, Esther
This report documents the second phase of work under the Sustainable Knowledge Management (SKM) project for the Neutron Generator organization at Sandia National Laboratories. Previous work under this project is documented in SAND2008-1777, Sustaining Knowledge in the Neutron Generator Community and Benchmarking Study. Knowledge management (KM) systems are necessary to preserve critical knowledge within organizations. A successful KM program should focus on people and the process for sharing, capturing, and applying knowledge. The Neutron Generator organization is developing KM systems to ensure knowledge is not lost. A benchmarking study involving site visits to outside industry plus additional resource research was conducted during this phase of the SKM project. The findings presented in this report are recommendations for making an SKM program successful. The recommendations are activities that promote sharing, capturing, and applying knowledge. The benchmarking effort, including the site visits to Toyota and Halliburton, provided valuable information on how the SEA KM team could incorporate a KM solution for not just the neutron generators (NG) community but the entire laboratory. The laboratory needs a KM program that allows members of the workforce to access, share, analyze, manage, and apply knowledge. KM activities, such as communities of practice (COP) and sharing best practices, provide a solution towards creating an enabling environment for KM. As more and more people leave organizations through retirement and job transfer, the need to preserve knowledge is essential. Creating an environment for the effective use of knowledge is vital to achieving the laboratory's mission.
This report documents the second phase of work under the Sustainable Knowledge Management (SKM) project for the Neutron Generator organization at Sandia National Laboratories. Previous work under this project is documented in SAND2008-1777, Sustaining Knowledge in the Neutron Generator Community and Benchmarking Study. Knowledge management (KM) systems are necessary to preserve critical knowledge within organizations. A successful KM program should focus on people and the process for sharing, capturing, and applying knowledge. The Neutron Generator organization is developing KM systems to ensure knowledge is not lost. A benchmarking study involving site visits to outside industry plus additional resource research was conducted during this phase of the SKM project. The findings presented in this report are recommendations for making an SKM program successful. The recommendations are activities that promote sharing, capturing, and applying knowledge. The benchmarking effort, including the site visits to Toyota and Halliburton, provided valuable information on how the SEA KM team could incorporate a KM solution for not just the neutron generators (NG) community but the entire laboratory. The laboratory needs a KM program that allows members of the workforce to access, share, analyze, manage, and apply knowledge. KM activities, such as communities of practice (COP) and sharing best practices, provide a solution towards creating an enabling environment for KM. As more and more people leave organizations through retirement and job transfer, the need to preserve knowledge is essential. Creating an environment for the effective use of knowledge is vital to achieving the laboratory's mission.
This paper examines how local knowledge is employed in environmental adult education in a community-based ecotourism project in an island community in southern Thailand. The study is based on field research and analysis of project websites, media reports and documents. Situated at the intersection of global tourism and a local Thai-Malay Muslim…
Bielaczyc, Katerine; Ow, John
Teachers and students face many challenges in shifting from traditional classroom cultures to enacting the "Knowledge-Building Communities" model (KBC model) supported by the CSCL environment, "Knowledge Forum" (Bereiter, 2002; Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1993; Scardamalia, 2002; Scardamalia & Bereiter, 2006). Enacting the…
Lai, Kwok-Wing; Voogt, Joke; Knezek, Gerald; Gibson, David
The International Summit on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education (EDUsummIT) is a global knowledge building community of researchers, educational practitioners, and policy makers aiming to create and disseminate ideas and knowledge to promote the integration of ICT in education. Four EDUsummITs have been convened in The…
Nightingale, Andrea J
Environmentalist concerns over the state of Nepal’s ‘fragile forests’ resulted in the establishment of Community Forestry projects. These community-based projects are partnerships between the state and community user-groups that invest user-groups with a great deal of control over their forests. Project implementation, however begins with the assumption that users have little prior knowledge of forest management and need to be taught modern silviculture. This paper examines the...
Marianna EPICOCO (GREThA, CNRS, UMR 5113); Vanessa OLTRA (GREThA, CNRS, UMR 5113); Saint Jean, Maïder
This paper aims at investigating the dynamics of scientific knowledge underlying the development of Green Chemistry (GC), an emergent field that is expected to pave the way to a more sustainable chemical industry. By reviewing a broad range of secondary sources and interacting with the community of practitioners, we first show how an epistemic community around GC has emerged and materialized. We then build an original database of scientific publications generated by this community and analyze...
Full Text Available The introduction of new technologies into small remote communities can alter how individuals acquire knowledge about their surrounding environment. This is especially true when technologies that satisfy basic needs, such as freshwater use, create a distance (i.e., diminishing exposure between individuals and their environment. However, such distancing can potentially be countered by the transfer of local knowledge between community members and from one generation to the next. The objective of this study is to simulate by way of agent-based modeling the tensions between technology-induced distancing and local knowledge that are exerted on community vulnerability to climate change. A model is developed that simulates how a collection of individual perceptions about changes to climatic-related variables manifest into community perceptions, how perceptions are influenced by the movement away from traditional resource use, and how the transmission of knowledge mitigates the potentially adverse effects of technology-induced distancing. The model is implemented utilizing climate and social data for two remote communities located on the Seward Peninsula in western Alaska. The agent-based model simulates a set of scenarios that depict different ways in which these communities may potentially engage with their natural resources, utilize knowledge transfer, and develop perceptions of how the local climate is different from previous years. A loosely-coupled pan-arctic climate model simulates changes monthly changes to climatic variables. The discrepancy between the perceptions derived from the agent-based model and the projections simulated by the climate model represent community vulnerability. The results demonstrate how demographics, the communication of knowledge and the types of ‘knowledge-providers’ influence community perception about changes to their local climate.
Kim, Brent F.; Poulsen, Melissa N.; Margulies, Jared D.; Katie L Dix; Palmer, Anne M.; Nachman, Keeve E.
Although urban community gardening can offer health, social, environmental, and economic benefits, these benefits must be weighed against the potential health risks stemming from exposure to contaminants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals that may be present in urban soils. Individuals who garden at or eat food grown in contaminated urban garden sites may be at risk of exposure to such contaminants. Gardeners may be unaware of these risks and how to manage them. We used a mixed quanti...
Cui, Ting Ting
Knowledge creation means gaining a substantial momentum due to its direct relation to the company’s core competency and competitive advantage. The current thesis investigated a new phenomenon, which is the knowledge creation through knowledge sharing and learning by SMEs in Communities of Practice on Business to Business marketplace, Alibaba.com.cn. The objective was to research whether intangible assets were created for producing competitive advantage. This thesis suggests a bett...
Communities of practice (CoPs) have recently become key components in organizational knowledge management initiatives (Wenger, 2004). They have achieved prominence in the context of knowledge management and organizational learning both with scholars and practitioners. Many researches (Ardichvili et al., 2003; Davenport & Voelpel, 2001; Davenport & Probst, 2002) have investigated how some multinational companies integrated different kinds of CoPs into their knowledge management systems. But th...
Knowledge and information transfer have become important ingredients for an organisation's competitive advantage. Knowledge management has emerged as an overarching strategy to enhance knowledge creation, information transfer, utilisation, and reticulation in order to generate innovation and improve organisational performance. Part of this strategy involves the creation of Communities of Practice. These are networks of individuals with a common, shared purpose grouped together to facilitate k...
Okada, Alexandra; Tomadaki, Eleftheria; Buckingham Shum, Simon; Scott, Peter
In this paper, our aim is to investigate the role of Compendium maps for both learners and educators to share and debate interpretations in FlashMeetingTM (FM) videoconferences in the context of OpenLearn, an online environment for open learning. This work is based on a qualitative study of knowledge maps and web videoconferencing interactions, and quantitative data presented in diagnostic reports about both tools. Our theoretical approach is based on the sensemaking concept and an existing f...
Codjoe, Samuel N.A.; Owusu, George; Burkett, Virginia
Several recent international assessments have concluded that climate change has the potential to reverse the modest economic gains achieved in many developing countries over the past decade. The phenomenon of climate change threatens to worsen poverty or burden populations with additional hardships, especially in poor societies with weak infrastructure and economic well-being. The importance of the perceptions, experiences, and knowledge of indigenous peoples has gained prominence in discussions of climate change and adaptation in developing countries and among international development organizations. Efforts to evaluate the role of indigenous knowledge in adaptation planning, however, have largely focused on rural people and their agricultural livelihoods. This paper presents the results of a study that examines perceptions, experiences, and indigenous knowledge relating to climate change and variability in three communities of metropolitan Accra, which is the capital of Ghana. The study design is based on a three-part conceptual framework and interview process involving risk mapping, mental models, and individual stressor cognition. Most of the residents interviewed in the three communities of urban Accra attributed climate change to the combination of deforestation and the burning of firewood and rubbish. None of the residents associated climate change with fossil fuel emissions from developed countries. Numerous potential adaptation strategies were suggested by the residents, many of which have been used effectively during past drought and flood events. Results suggest that ethnic residential clustering as well as strong community bonds in metropolitan Accra have allowed various groups and long-settled communities to engage in the sharing and transmission of knowledge of weather patterns and trends. Understanding and building upon indigenous knowledge may enhance the design, acceptance, and implementation of climate change adaptation strategies in Accra and
Full Text Available Indigenous knowledge (IK regarding forests has existed for a long time and has defined community’s forests interaction in various areas. This interaction has resulted in knowledge developed by indigenous communities that has been used to manage their interaction with the forests. However, IK is often regarded as invalid and unreliable to use in forest management and its value has been eroded and replaced with western scientific knowledge for both production and conservation forest management objectives. However, despite the application of modern scientific knowledge, forest status continues to decline. This paper aims to explore IK held by communities in the Zigi catchment in Tanzania and assess the influence of this form of knowledge on forest management. The study used focus group discussions to explore IK related to forest management from communities living adjacent to forest reserves and a checklist questionnaire to assess the level of use of IK in forest management at different levels of decision-making. The results reveal several IK and practices related to forests in this region. However, there is minimal evidence of consideration of this IK in forest management decision- making. This paper recommends that a serious review of IK related to forests is undertaken in Tanzania and that mechanisms are developed to integrate this form of knowledge with western scientific forest management in order develop a more holistic approach to sustainable forest management.
Auger, Pierre Amaël; Machu, Eric; Gorgues, T.; Grima, N.; Waeles, M.
A Lagrangian approach based on a physical-biogeochemical modeling was used to compare the potential transfer of cadmium (Cd) from natural and anthropogenic sources to plankton communities (Cd-uptake) in the North-West African upwelling. In this region, coastal upwelling was estimated to be the main natural source of Cd while the most significant anthropogenic source for marine ecosystem is provided by phosphate industry. In our model experiment, Cd-uptake (natural or anthropogenic) in the Nor...
One of the objectives of the East African Community (EAC) is the promotion of a balanced economic development between its Partner States: Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda. And one of the ways to reach this economic development is the attraction of investment, especially Foreign Direct Investments (FDI). Paradoxically some theories submit that a regional integration between countries characterized by striking asymmetries, as is the case between EAC Partner States, leads to the aggl...
Motala, Ayesha A.; Esterhuizen, Tonya; Pirie, Fraser J.; Omar, Mahomed A.K.
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and to define optimal ethnic-specific waist-circumference cutoff points in a rural South African black community. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a cross-sectional survey conducted by random-cluster sampling of adults aged >15 years. Participants had demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical measurements taken, including a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the 2009 Joint Interim Statement ...
The paper provides empirical estimates for import and revenue implications that would follow implementation of the planned customs union between the East African Community member states Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. We use 2002 trade and trade policy data for the three countries to simulate the effect of the common external tariff and other trade policy changes that will follow the customs union implementation on import flows and customs revenue. We also discuss customs exemptions and the effe...
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the impact of training of dispensers on knowledge of dispensers working at community pharmacies in context to storage temperature, prescription terminologies and status of medicines in Islamabad, Pakistan.Method: A randomized, controlled, blinded intervention study was designed and implemented. Before the implementation of intervention, a baseline study was performed to assess the knowledge of dispensers working at community pharmacies. The study population included all community pharmacy outlets in Islamabad. Pharmacies of Islamabad which were visited in pre intervention phase (n=118 were divided into two geographical regions: A (intervention and B (control. Thirty pharmacies were randomly selected from each region. Keeping in view the results of the baseline study an educational intervention was designed to improve the knowledge of dispensers working at community pharmacies in Pakistan.Results: A significant difference in the overall knowledge of dispensers was observed between the pre-post intervention groups. Knowledge of dispensers regarding storage of drugs, prescription terminologies and status of drugs was improved after the training. On the other hand no significant difference was observed between the pre-post control groups.Conclusion: The study has highlighted that improvements in knowledge of dispensers working at community pharmacies are possible through suitable interventions. But, results of interventions can only be sustainable through continuous monitoring and reinforcement of the training.
Derrot, Sophie; Fauduet, Louise; Oury, Clément; Peyrard, Sébastien
In the beginning, SPAR, the National Library of France's repository, was designed as the OAIS softwarified. It was intended to be a "full OAIS", covering all preservation needs in one tidy system. Then as its potential revealed itself across the library, high hopes arose for a do-it-all digital curation tool. Yet in day to day preservation activities of the BnF, it turns out that SPAR's growth takes a practical approach to the essentials of preservation and the specific needs of communities. ...
Prince, Ruth J
This article explores the orientations of lay people in Kenya to science-specifically to biomedical knowledge about HIV--and their struggles to convert this knowledge into meaningful futures. In Kenya, the global response to the HIV-AIDS epidemic has resulted in a highly stratified landscape of intervention. Globally-funded treatment programs and clinical trials, focusing on HIV, channel transnational resources, expertise, and knowledge into specific sites--HIV clinics, NGOs, and research stations--inscribing these spaces as 'global' while leaving others decidedly 'local.' Rolled out in the form of 'projects,' these interventions offer resources and opportunities for a limited time only. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in the city of Kisumu, this article follows the circulation of biomedical knowledge through such projects and its conversion in ways beyond those imagined by policy-makers, as it meets the aspirations of city-dwellers and enters into local livelihoods. Mediated by nongovernmental organizations through workshops and certificates, this knowledge is both fragmentary and ephemeral. I explore the temporal and spatial implications of such knowledge for those who seek to attach themselves to it and shape their identities and futures in relation to it. PMID:24383753
Full Text Available The Health Belief model says for communities to take part in an activity, they need to perceive the risk of failing to take part and the benefits associated with taking part. A study was carried out in Luvuvhu catchment of South Africa to evaluate community knowledge, attitudes, practices and perceptions relating to water quality and safety. The study was divided into two parts. The first part involved a population of over 8000 people and participatory tools were used to speed up the data collection process. The participants were divided into “sessions” of 45 people each. Each session was divided into 3 groups of 15 people each and each group was then given an assignment to work on and write the findings on flipcharts. Each group then presented at a plenary and the research assistants recorded the findings. The second part was based on the findings from the first part of the study. One major finding was that the communities relied on the physical appearance of water to decide whether the water is safe or not for domestic use. Therefore, the second study aimed at determining the point at which the communities would stop using water for various domestic uses based on the turbidity of the water. Samples of the water with predetermined turbidity values were shown to 1000 participants and each of the participants was asked to indicate where he or she would use the water for various domestic uses such as drinking, cooking, bathing and washing utensils. Although the communities had a wealth of knowledge and practices relating to water quality and safety, their perception of safety using turbidity as an indicator did not tally with scientifically accepted guidelines. Some participants were willing to accept water with turbidity values as high as 39 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU for drinking which is above the recommended maximum turbidity levels in water for domestic use in South African National Standards (SANS 241 of 5 NTU. The communities in
Full Text Available The article compares how the regional tribunals of the Andean Community (CAN and the Southern African Development Community (SADC have dealt with human rights issues in order to explore options for South-South judicial cooperation through adjudicative cross-fertilization, while taking into account specificities that characterize both regions. In doing so, focus is placed on four elements: a the scope of human rights covered by each of the regional tribunals; b the locus standi of individuals before the tribunals; c the added value of the regional tribunals; and d the restrictive role of politics in the functioning of the tribunals.
Tripathi, Sushil; Vercruysse, Steven; Chawla, Konika; Christie, Karen R; Blake, Judith A; Huntley, Rachael P; Orchard, Sandra; Hermjakob, Henning; Thommesen, Liv; Lægreid, Astrid; Kuiper, Martin
A large gap remains between the amount of knowledge in scientific literature and the fraction that gets curated into standardized databases, despite many curation initiatives. Yet the availability of comprehensive knowledge in databases is crucial for exploiting existing background knowledge, both for designing follow-up experiments and for interpreting new experimental data. Structured resources also underpin the computational integration and modeling of regulatory pathways, which further aids our understanding of regulatory dynamics. We argue how cooperation between the scientific community and professional curators can increase the capacity of capturing precise knowledge from literature. We demonstrate this with a project in which we mobilize biological domain experts who curate large amounts of DNA binding transcription factors, and show that they, although new to the field of curation, can make valuable contributions by harvesting reported knowledge from scientific papers. Such community curation can enhance the scientific epistemic process.Database URL: http://www.tfcheckpoint.org. PMID:27270715
The purpose of this study was to assess type 2 diabetes knowledge, perceptions, risk factor awareness, and prevention practices among African-American and Hispanic families with a history of diabetes. Ninth and tenth grade Houston area students who had a parent who spoke English or Spanish and had a...
Full Text Available Government departments and agencies are faced with issues of increasing socio-ecological complexities around environmental sustainability and global change, which require them to make decisions that have the potential to impact greatly on society and economies. As a result, they are under increasing pressure to develop policies that consider a wide spectrum of scientific and indigenous knowledge. It is acknowledged that in South Africa, as elsewhere, a gap typically exists between the scientific or research community and the policymaking community, due to a number of underlying reasons at both ends. This gap often results in a unidirectional ‘push of evidence’ by researchers to policymakers, with a hope that policymakers will take up these findings and use them in policy identification, formulation or implementation. To support the uptake of evidence in policy, it is also important to stimulate an environment of ‘evidence pull’ by the policy community from the research community, as well as increasing the dialogue between these communities. A model of knowledge brokering is proposed in this paper as a means to bridge this gap between science and policy and, thereby, ensure the uptake of evidence in policy development and implementation. This model looks at the need for institutional mechanisms, such as knowledge-brokering offices, both within research organisations and government departments. It also highlights the importance of researchers involving policymakers from the onset of their research process, with a continuous dialogue between the two parties, both during and after the research, as a means of increasing the likelihood of research uptake.
Full Text Available Harnessing community intelligence in knowledge curation bears significant promise in dealing with communication and education in the flood of scientific knowledge. As knowledge is accumulated at ever-faster rates, scientific nomenclature, a particular kind of knowledge, is concurrently generated in all kinds of fields. Since nomenclature is a system of terms used to name things in a particular discipline, accurate translation of scientific nomenclature in different languages is of critical importance, not only for communications and collaborations with English-speaking people, but also for knowledge dissemination among people in the non-English-speaking world, particularly young students and researchers. However, it lacks of accuracy and standardization when translating scientific nomenclature from English to other languages, especially for those languages that do not belong to the same language family as English. To address this issue, here we propose for the first time the application of community intelligence in scientific nomenclature management, namely, harnessing collective intelligence for translation of scientific nomenclature from English to other languages. As community intelligence applied to knowledge curation is primarily aided by wiki and Chinese is the native language for about one-fifth of the world's population, we put the proposed application into practice, by developing a wiki-based English-to-Chinese Scientific Nomenclature Dictionary (ESND; http://esnd.big.ac.cn. ESND is a wiki-based, publicly editable and open-content platform, exploiting the whole power of the scientific community in collectively and collaboratively managing scientific nomenclature. Based on community curation, ESND is capable of achieving accurate, standard, and comprehensive scientific nomenclature, demonstrating a valuable application of community intelligence in knowledge curation.
Historically, religion and spirituality have been major influences in the social, cultural, and political lives of African Americans. Spirituality is deeply embedded into their rich cultural heritage, and it is intertwined into all aspects of their life, including beliefs about health and illness. For African Americans, health and illness are a…
Littlefield, Melissa B.; Edwards, Lorece; Akers, Timothy
The Internet is increasingly used to disseminate health information about diseases and prevention and to help in obtaining health services. Although technology can empower African Americans to adopt healthy lifestyles, the gap in usage between African Americans and Whites undermines the potential power of health Internet technology (IT) to…
Curtis, Leslie; Brown, Zaneta G; Gill, Jennifer E
Statistics indicate that African-American women have the highest rate of obesity among all racial groups. In response, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) developed "Sisters Together: Move More, Eat Better," a national program that encourages African-American women to maintain a healthy weight by becoming more physically active and by eating healthier foods. "Sisters Together" programs are run locally by individuals or community groups in locations such as churches and health departments. The NIDDK offers culturally relevant materials and technical assistance to program leaders, including a recently updated program guide. The guide walks leaders through program planning, promotion, implementation, and evaluation. It is based on obesity, nutrition, and physical activity research; evidence-based programs for African-American women; and proven health communication strategies. The guide is consumer friendly, using clear language and real-life examples. "Sisters Together" programs encourage African-American women and their families to improve their eating habits and their physical activity habits. PMID:19397055
Bakken, Jeremy P.; Brown, B. Bradford
Drawing upon the expectancy violation-realignment theory of autonomy development, this qualitative study examined African American and Hmong adolescent autonomy-seeking behaviors and parent-child communication about activities and relationships with peers. Twenty-two African American and 11 Hmong adolescents in grades 6-12 and 14 African American…
Bynum, Shalanda A.; Brandt, Heather M.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Annang, Lucy; Tanner, Andrea
Objective: Given recent approval for administration of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to men, it is important to assess the HPV-related perspectives of men and women. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in HPV knowledge, beliefs, and vaccine acceptance among college students attending 3 historically black…
Graham, Matthew; Djorgovski, S. G.; Drake, A. J.; Donalek, C.; Mahabal, A. A.; Stalzer, M.; Williams, R. D.
First-generation citizen science projects (such as Galaxy Zoo) have proven very successful at utilizing the efforts of volunteers (human computation) to attack specific problem areas, such as certain types of image analysis, where machines are not currently especially effective. However, there has been little or no attempt in these to capture or transfer the domain knowledge from carbon-based to silicon-based systems. AstroCollation is a next generation collaborative science venture that aims to foster a more synergistic relationship between humans and machines around transient astronomy. Data mining algorithms will be applied to transient event data to produce conceptual models describing them. These models will then be presented to citizen scientists for value judgments, deciding which of a set of models provides the best description, as well as providing contextual information to aid the classification process. Finally decisions and information are factored back into the system and consolidated to produce a consensus description of an event. The project is predicated upon semantic technologies - allowing the formal representation of conceptual relations within a particular domain - and will leverage data and infrastructure from the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey and SkyAlert system. It will address such issues as the formal treatment of uncertainty in data, how to map a multistage computational process to a simple and minimal interface or set of interfaces, and how to fold human computation into a workflow process where time criticality can be important.
Swart-Kruger, J; Richter, L M
Street children in South Africa are, in the main, between the ages of 11 and 17 years. Rape, prostitution, sexual bartering and exchange, casual sex and romantic sexual relationships all occur in the experiences of young people who live and work on inner-city streets. In this study, the AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of 141 street youth, living in seven large cities in South Africa, were elicited in focus group discussions. At the time of the study, 79 boys (56%) were living in shelters run by nongovernmental and welfare organisations, while 62 boys (44%) were sleeping "rough". The results, both qualitative and quantitative, indicated that the AIDS knowledge of South African street children was comparable to levels reported for groups of "hard-to-reach" youth in other parts of the world. Fear of HIV infection did not appear in a list of day-to-day priorities constructed by the children, a list dominated by survival concerns with food, money and clothes. However, more than half of the boys conceded that they engaged in sex for money, goods or protection, several boys indicated that they had been raped, and most reported being sexually active with "girlfriends", who themselves frequently engaged in transactional sex. The findings are interpreted in terms of the relationships between power dynamics surrounding race and age, and how they affect self-initiated controls over sexuality and sexual protection. PMID:9255928
Sindi Z. Mthembu
Full Text Available Background: Practices in higher education have been criticised for not developing and preparing students for the expertise required in real environments. Literature reports that educational programmes tend to favour knowledge conformation rather than knowledge construction; however, community service learning (CSL is a powerful pedagogical strategy that encourages students to make meaningful connections between the content in the classroom and real-life experiences as manifested by the communities. Through CSL, learning is achieved by the active construction of knowledge supported by multiple perspectives within meaningful real contexts, and the social interactions amongst students are seen to play a critical role in the processes of learning and cognition. This article reflects facilitators’ perspective of the knowledge construction process as used with students doing community service learning in basic nursing programmes. Objectives: The aim of this article was to conceptualise the phenomenon of knowledge construction and thereby provide educators with a shared meaning and common understanding, and to analyse the interaction strategies utilised by nurse educators in the process of knowledge construction in community service-learning programmes in basic nursing education. Method: A qualitative research approach based on a grounded theory research design was used in this article. Two nursing education institutions were purposively selected. Structured interviews were conducted with 16 participants. Results: The results revealed that the knowledge construction in community service-learning programmes is conceptualised as having specific determinants, including the use of authentic health-related problems, academic coaching through scaffolding, academic discourse-dialogue, interactive learning in communities of learners, active learning, continuous reflection as well as collaborative and inquiry-based learning. Upon completion of an experience
Sindi Z. Mthembu
Full Text Available Background: Practices in higher education have been criticised for not developing and preparing students for the expertise required in real environments. Literature reports that educational programmes tend to favour knowledge conformation rather than knowledge construction; however, community service learning (CSL is a powerful pedagogical strategy that encourages students to make meaningful connections between the content in the classroom and real-life experiences as manifested by the communities. Through CSL, learning is achieved by the active construction of knowledge supported by multiple perspectives within meaningful real contexts, and the social interactions amongst students are seen to play a critical role in the processes of learning and cognition. This article reflects facilitators’ perspective of the knowledge construction process as used with students doing community service learning in basic nursing programmes. Objectives: The aim of this article was to conceptualise the phenomenon of knowledge construction and thereby provide educators with a shared meaning and common understanding, and to analyse the interaction strategies utilised by nurse educators in the process of knowledge construction in community service-learning programmes in basic nursing education.Method: A qualitative research approach based on a grounded theory research design was used in this article. Two nursing education institutions were purposively selected. Structured interviews were conducted with 16 participants.Results: The results revealed that the knowledge construction in community service-learning programmes is conceptualised as having specific determinants, including the use of authentic health-related problems, academic coaching through scaffolding, academic discourse-dialogue, interactive learning in communities of learners, active learning, continuous reflection as well as collaborative and inquiry-based learning. Upon completion of an experience
Full Text Available Many aspects in the area of designing platforms for intra-organizational innovation communities are not well understood. In this article, we examine the impact of technologically induced psychological factors on knowledge exchange in such communities. Using two experimental pretest-posttest experiments, we find that the implementation of (i technologically induced self-efficacy (expressed by a ‘hurray’ message and (ii technologically induced positive affect (expressed by playing some 30 seconds of rock-‘n’-roll music in the design of the platform results in an influential increase of knowledge exchange. Importantly, the studies suggest that the integration of technologically induced self-efficacy leads to a higher extent of knowledge exchange than technologically induced positive affect. The implications of these results for future research and practice as well as for the design of a platform for such communities are discussed.
Sánchez Díaz de Rivera, Javier
[spa] La sociedad red requiere de una respuesta efectiva de las universidades para enfrentar la creciente complejidad de los problemas que enfrenta. Las nuevas tecnologías de la información han provocado una revisión de los modelos educativos y de los paradigmas epistemológicos. Esta tesis propone desarrollar comunidades de construcción de conocimiento sustentadas en los principios de construcción de conocimiento (Knowledge Building) de Carl Bereiter y Marlene Scardamalia y del soporte tecno...
Cotter, Elizabeth W; Hamilton, Natia S; Kelly, Nichole R; Harney, Megan B; Greene, LaShaun; White, Kelly A; Mazzeo, Suzanne E
Although African American families are at particular risk for obesity and its associated health comorbidities, few interventions have directly targeted low-income members of this group living in subsidized public housing. Using a consensual qualitative research approach, we conducted 11 interviews with African American mothers living in two public housing communities to enhance understanding of their perceived barriers and facilitators to health. Five primary domains emerged, including barriers (access, financial, personal, and neighborhood concerns), resources (personal and community), current behaviors (diet, physical activity, and program participation), definition of health (mental well-being, physical well-being, and health behaviors), and needs/interests in programming (health behavior-specific programs, non-health-related programs, child-focused programming, and qualities of programs and their leaders). Results demonstrate the complex interaction among social, environmental, and personal factors on health behaviors for this priority population, and highlight the need for community members' involvement in the development of community-based obesity prevention programming. PMID:27091605
Montesanti, Stephanie Rose; Abelson, Julia; Lavis, John N; Dunn, James R
The community participation literature has produced numerous frameworks to guide practice and evaluation of community participation strategies in the health sector. These frameworks are useful starting points for differentiating the approaches for involving people in planning and decision-making for health services, but have been critiqued for being too generic and ignoring that community participation is highly contextual and situational. Health service organizations across Canada and internationally have begun to respond to address this limitation by developing more context-specific community participation frameworks; however, such frameworks do not exist for Ontario Community Health Centres (CHCs)-local primary health care organizations with a mandate to engage marginalized groups in planning and decision-making for health services. We conducted a series of focus groups with staff members from four Ontario CHCs to: (1) examine the factors that would influence their use of a generic framework for community participation with marginalized populations; and (2) improve the "context-specificity" of this framework, to enhance its relevance to CHCs. Participants described the difficulty of organizing the contextual, multi-faceted and situational process of community participation that they experienced with marginalized populations into a single framework, which led them to question the value of using frameworks as a resource for guiding the design, implementation and evaluation of their community participation initiatives. Instead, participants revealed that tacit knowledge, in the form of professional and personal experience and local knowledge of a marginalized population, had a greater influence on guiding participation activities in Ontario CHCs. Our findings suggest that tacit knowledge is an essential feature of community participation practice and requires further exploration regarding its role in the community participation field. PMID:26318211
Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to ensure that legalized abortion in South Africa improves reproductive health, women must know that abortion is a legal option in the case of unwanted pregnancy. This study investigated knowledge of abortion legislation eight years after the introduction of legal abortion services in one province of South Africa. Methods In 2004/2005, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 831 sexually-active women attending 26 public health clinics in one urban and one rural health region of the Western Cape Province. Results Thirty-two percent of women did not know that abortion is currently legal. Among those who knew of legal abortion, few had knowledge of the time restrictions involved. Conclusion In South Africa there is an unmet need among women for information on abortion. Strategies should be developed to address this gap so that women are fully informed of their rights to a safe and legal termination of pregnancy.
Boakye, Maxwell Kwame; Pietersen, Darren William; Kotzé, Antoinette; Dalton, Desiré-Lee; Jansen, Raymond
Traditional medicine has been practised in Ghana for centuries with the majority of Ghanaians still patronising the services of traditional healers. Throughout Africa a large number of people use pangolins as a source of traditional medicine, however, there is a dearth of information on the use of animals in folk medicine in Ghana, in particular the use of pangolins. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalent use of pangolins and the level of knowledge of pangolin use among traditio...
Meng, Jingbo; McLaughlin, Margaret; Pariera, Katrina; Murphy, Sheila
This study aims to (a) examine the roles of knowledge, distrust in medical professionals, information sources, and 2 dimensions of religiosity (i.e., religious activity and religious belief) in influencing willingness to participate (WTP) in cancer clinical trials and to (b) compare the results for Caucasians and African Americans in order to inform future recruitment. An online survey was fielded via a Knowledge Networks panel with a nationally representative sample including 478 Caucasians and 173 African Americans. The results showed that distrust in medical professionals was a strong barrier to WTP for both ethnic groups, whereas factual knowledge about trial procedures was not associated with WTP for either ethnic group. Seeking trial information from doctors was positively associated with WTP for Caucasians; seeking trial information from hospitals was positively associated with WTP for African Americans. More interestingly, levels of religious activity negatively predicted WTP for Caucasians but positively predicted WTP for African Americans. Self-reported religious belief was not associated with WTP for either ethnic group. In sum, although distrust is a common barrier to WTP, the influence of preferred information sources and religious activity on WTP varies as a function of ethnicity. PMID:27175604
Tanner, Andrea; Bergeron, Caroline D; Zheng, Yue; Friedman, Daniela B; Kim, Sei-Hill; Foster, Caroline B
Clinical trial (CT) participation is low among African Americans (AAs). To better communicate with AAs about the importance of CTs, the purpose of this study was to explore the communication sources and perceived effective communication channels and strategies through which the general public, AAs, and White individuals receive CT information. A quantitative telephone survey was conducted with AAs and Whites in one Southern state (N = 511). The measures assessed CT sources of information, perceived effectiveness of communication channels and strategies, CT understanding, and CT participation. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were used to compare responses overall and by race. AAs reported being exposed to more CT information than Whites. AAs received CT information most often through television, social media, and doctors compared to Whites. Perceived effectiveness of communication strategies and channels varied by race. AAs preferred simple and easy-to-understand CT information distributed through faith-based organizations. Whites preferred to receive CT information through a trustworthy source (e.g., doctor). There were no significant differences between AAs and Whites in their perceived effectiveness of media sources (e.g., Internet). Recommendations are provided to help health promotion practitioners and CT recruiters tailor information and communicate it effectively to potential AA and White CT participants. PMID:26715695
Full Text Available Background: Community Psychiatry involves support and treatment of people with mental disorder in a domiciliary setting instead of mental hospital. The attitude of the public towards mental illness and mentally ill person is generally negative. Knowledge and attitude of nurses towards this topic is important because they deal directly patients, families and the community as negative attitude will hinder quality service. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitude of Registered Nurses (RNs towards Community Psychiatric services. Methods: A descriptive survey design was used for this study. A systematic random sampling method was used to select one hundred and fifty respondents. The research instrument for this study was self- developed structured questionnaire design in line with the variables to be measured. Descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages, independent t–test and Pearson Moment Correlation Coefficient analysis were used to analyze all data. Results: The study revealed that RNs with positive attitude have a higher mean value than Registered Nurses with negative attitude towards Community Psychiatric services. There is also a significant relationship between the knowledge and attitude of RNs and their participation in community psychiatric services. Conclusion: RNs disseminate information and care for mentally ill people and their relations, signifying a need for a positive knowledge and attitude that will enable the RNs to enter a personal relationship with the patient which is necessary for rehabilitation.
Olusanya Bolajoko O
Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood immunisation is recognised worldwide as an essential component of health systems and an indispensable indicator of quality of care for vaccine-preventable diseases. While performance of immunisation programmes is more commonly measured by coverage, ensuring that every child is immunised at the earliest/appropriate age is an important public health goal. This study therefore set out to determine the pattern and predictors of Bacille de Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunisation delays in the first three months of life in a Sub-Saharan African community where BCG is scheduled at birth in order to facilitate necessary changes in current policy and practices for improved services. Methods A cross-sectional study in which immunisation delays among infants aged 0-3 months attending community-based BCG clinics in Lagos, Nigeria over a 2-year period from July 2005 to June 2007 were assessed by survival analysis and associated factors determined by multivariable logistic regression. Population attributable risk (PAR was computed for the predictors of delays. Results BCG was delayed beyond three months in 31.6% of all eligible infants. Of 5171 infants enrolled, 3380 (65.4% were immunised within two weeks and a further 1265 (24.5% by six weeks. A significantly higher proportion of infants born in hospitals were vaccinated in the first six weeks compared to those born outside hospitals. Undernourishment was predictive of delays beyond 2 and 6 weeks while treated hyperbilirubinaemia was associated with decreased odds for any delays. Lack of antenatal care and multiple gestations were also predictive of delays beyond 6 weeks. Undernourishment was associated with the highest PAR for delays beyond 2 weeks (18.7% and 6 weeks (20.8%. Conclusions BCG immunisation is associated with significant delays in this setting and infants at increased risk of delays can be identified and supported early possibly through improved maternal uptake of
Correia, Ana Maria R.; Mesquita, A; Paulos, A.
Communities of Practice are places which provide a sound basis for organizational learning, enabling knowledge creation and acquisition thus improving organizational performance, leveraging innovation and consequently increasing competitively. Virtual Communities of Practice (VCoP‟s) can perform a central role in promoting communication and collaboration between members who are dispersed in both time and space. The ongoing case study, described here, aims to identify both the motivations and ...
Armstrong Gregory; Kermode Michelle; Raja Shoba; Suja Sujatha; Chandra Prabha; Jorm Anthony F
Abstract Background Unmet needs for mental health treatment in low income countries are pervasive. If mental health is to be effectively integrated into primary health care in low income countries like India then grass-roots workers need to acquire relevant knowledge and skills to be able to recognise, refer and support people experiencing mental disorders in their own communities. This study aims to provide a mental health training intervention to community health workers in Bangalore Rural ...
Armstrong, Gregory; Kermode, Michelle; RAJA, SHOBA; Suja, Sujatha; CHANDRA, PRABHA; Jorm, Anthony F
Background Unmet needs for mental health treatment in low income countries are pervasive. If mental health is to be effectively integrated into primary health care in low income countries like India then grass-roots workers need to acquire relevant knowledge and skills to be able to recognise, refer and support people experiencing mental disorders in their own communities. This study aims to provide a mental health training intervention to community health workers in Bangalore Rural District,...
Edna Alicia Cortés-Rodríguez; Francisco Raúl Venegas-Cardoso
Traditional knowledge (TK) integrates and shared local and cultural wealth by the members of a community. It includes information regarding beliefs, systems of values, respect and environmental care, as well as knowledge and management of native flora and the use of medicinal plants, like the mayority of the indigenous cultures of Latin America, which results in a viable resource management. Under this statement, the objetive of this paper was; to know, to collect and to analyze the TK of the...
Espaldon, Maria Victoria O.
The paper focuses on the importance of multiple knowledge systems on enhancing the adaptive capacity of farming communities in the Philippines. It discusses the epistemologies of knowledge that are pertinent to strengthen the resilience of small farmers and farming households, who are one of the most vulnerable groups in the event of climatic variabilities, climatic extremes and climate change. It also brings to the discussion the need for effective communication systems to disseminate the kn...
Robinson, Beatrice E.; Galbraith, Jennifer S.; Lund, Sharon M.; Hamilton, Autumn R.; Shankle, Michael D.
We describe the process of adapting a community-level, evidence-based behavioral intervention (EBI), Community PROMISE, for HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men (AAMSM). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Map of the Adaptation Process (MAP) guided the adaptation process for this new target population by two…
Koffi, N; Kouassi, B; Horo, K; Kouakou, Y G M; N'Gom, A; Toloba, Y; Bouzid, S; Aka-Danguy, E
Recent studies on smoking conducted in the ivory coast have been sparse despite increasingly aggressive tobacco company campaigns. The purpose of this prospective study was to examine the influence of medical specialty on patient knowledge, attitude and smoking behavior among people consulting three university hospitals in Abidjan. The inquiry was performed with a questionnaire concerning a comparative series of 180 subjects (90 patients in each sample). Overall, the series included 16.10% active smokers, 15.60% former smokers, and 68.30% non-smokers, with no difference between the groups. The well-known feature of smoking with friends was main reason cited for beginning smoking. Three quarters of patients (75.9%) had attempted to stop smoking. Information about smoking was obtained from the media. The hospital was involved little in acquiring knowledge about smoking. Type of specialist consultation (hospital units providing care for smoking-related disease or not) had little influence. Hospital units should become more involved in the anti-smoking campaign. Consultations on cessation of smoking should be instituted in a country with highly aggressive smoking advertisements. PMID:15545950
's argument that knowledge can be understood as "individual's ability to draw distinctions" based on appropriate understanding of the context, and Kastberg's (2007) framework for a communicative and integrative approach to knowledge communication. Although none of these theories specifically exclude the....... Communities of Practice. Oxford University Press, 1998. Burke, Kenneth. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature and Method. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1966. Choo, Chun Wei. The Knowing Organization: How organizations use information to construct meaning, create knowledge...
Ofovwe, G E; Ibadin, O M; Ofovwe, E C; Okolo, A A
To determine the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of home management of febrile convulsion (FC), by mothers in the community, focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted in two communities, Uselu (urban) and Evbuomodu village (rural), both in Edo State, Southern Nigeria. The study was conducted between December 2000 and February 2001. Our findings show that 71% of urban mothers compared to 25% of rural mothers attributed the cause of FC to fever (chi(2)=24.17: p<0.001). Seventy-five percent of mothers from rural community and 28.6% of urban mothers attributed the cause to witchcraft and/or evil spirits. Twenty-five percent of rural mothers also attributed abnormality of the spleen as a cause of FC. All the mothers, both urban and rural, were not directly involved in the management of the convulsive episode due to panic and confusion. Ninety-two percent of urban and all the rural mothers permitted the use of traditional medicine while 7.1% of urban mothers employed prayers during convulsion. Twenty percent of urban and twenty-two percent of rural mothers use urine (human and or cow's) for treating FC at home. Other home remedies include kerosene, fuel and crude oil. Mass enlightenment campaign for the community, especially the rural, against use of harmful traditional remedies to treat FC at home is strongly advised. PMID:12127675
Hemphill, David; Leskowitz, Shari
This study explored innovative alternative processes of living, learning, and knowledge sharing of a loosely knit community of anarchist, anticapitalist "Do-It-Yourself" (DIY) activists. Generated through participant observation and interviews, findings reinforced adult education theories--that adults can diagnose their own learning needs and…
Martin, Kathleen Carol
This dissertation focused upon non-formal and informal learning practices and knowledge production amongst [adult] participants involved in local sea turtle conservation practices along the US Atlantic coast. In the United States, adult learning and adult education has historically occurred within non-formal settings (e.g., through community-based…
This paper documents a study investigating co-construction of knowledge by doctoral students in an online learning community. In this study 12 students participated in the coursework and thesis proposal development stages of a doctoral program offered by a research-intensive university in New Zealand. Socio-cultural and social constructivist…
Antonova, Albena; Gourova, Elissaveta
Please, cite this publication as: Antonova, A. & Gourova, E. (2006). A note on organizational learning and knowledge sharing in the context of communities of practice. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. September 12th, Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompetence. Retrieved June 30th, 2006, from http://dspace.learningnetworks.org
Evnitskaya, Natalia; Morton, Tom
This paper draws on Wenger's model of community of practice to present preliminary findings on how processes of negotiation of meaning and identity formation occur in knowledge construction, meaning-making and interaction in two secondary Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) science classrooms. It uses a multimodal conversation analysis…
Willner, Paul; Jenkins, Rosemary; Rees, Paul; Griffiths, Vanessa J.; John, Elinor
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the state of knowledge of mental capacity issues among health and social services professionals working in community teams supporting people with learning disabilities. Methods A structured interview was constructed around three scenarios, based on actual cases, concerning a financial/legal issue,…
Nistor, Nicolae; Baltes, Beate; Schustek, Monika
Purpose: Online programs rely on the use of educational technology for knowledge sharing in academic virtual communities of practice (vCoPs). This poses the question as to which factors influence technology acceptance. Previous research has investigated the inter-relationship between educational technology acceptance (ETA) and the vCoP context…
Liu, Chien-Jen; Yang, Shu Ching
This study used the Community of Inquiry (CoI) model proposed by Garrison to investigate students' level of knowledge construction in asynchronous discussions. The participants included 36 senior students (27 males) majoring in information management. The students attended 18 weeks of an online information ethics course. In this study, four types…
Mateyu, Saul Fred
That the centre of Christianity is rapidly shifting from the global North to the global South, particularly to Sub-Saharan Africa, is undoubtedly a great cause of celebration. But the impact of this shift on ethical life remains to be seen among many African believers both at individual and community levels. One main factor for this is that moral life for most believers continues to be guided by a traditional ethical framework which derives its foundational moral values and norms from the con...
Schuyler, A C; Masvawure, T B; Smit, J A; Beksinska, M; Mabude, Z; Ngoloyi, C; Mantell, J E
Partner negotiation and insertion difficulties are key barriers to female condom (FC) use in sub-Saharan Africa. Few FC interventions have provided comprehensive training in both negotiation and insertion skills, or focused on university students. In this study we explored whether training in FC insertion and partner negotiation influenced young women's FC use. 296 female students at a South African university were randomized to a one-session didactic information-only minimal intervention (n= 149) or a two-session cognitive-behavioral enhanced intervention (n= 147), which received additional information specific to partner negotiation and FC insertion. Both groups received FCs. We report the 'experiences of' 39 randomly selected female students who participated in post-intervention qualitative interviews. Two-thirds of women reported FC use. Most women (n= 30/39) applied information learned during the interventions to negotiate with partners. Women reported that FC insertion practice increased their confidence. Twelve women failed to convince male partners to use the FC, often due to its physical attributes or partners' lack of knowledge about insertion. FC educational and skills training can help facilitate use, improve attitudes toward the device and help women to successfully negotiate safer sex with partners. Innovative strategies and tailored interventions are needed to increase widespread FC adoption. PMID:26956041
Speizer Ilene S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender-based violence is an important risk factor for adverse reproductive health (RH. Community-level violence may inhibit young women's ability to engage in safer sexual behaviors due to a lack of control over sexual encounters. Few studies examine violence as a contextual risk factor. Methods Using nationally representative data from five African countries, the association between community-level physical or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV and the circumstances of first sex (premarital or marital among young women (ages 20-29 was examined. Results In Mali, and Kenya bivariate analyses showed that young women who had premarital first sex were from communities where a significantly higher percentage of women reported IPV experience compared to young women who had marital first sex. Multivariate analyses confirmed the findings for these two countries; young women from communities with higher IPV were significantly more likely to have had premarital first sex compared to first sex in union. In Liberia, community-level IPV was associated with a lower risk of premarital sex as compared to first sex in union at a marginal significance level. There was no significant relationship between community-level IPV and the circumstances of first sex in the Democratic Republic of Congo or Zimbabwe. Conclusion These findings indicate that context matters for RH. Individualized efforts to improve RH may be limited in their effectiveness if they do not acknowledge the context of young women's lives. Programs should target prevention of violence to improve RH outcomes of youth.
Jones, Loretta; Wright, Kynna; Wright, Aziza; Brown, Neysa Dillon; Broussard, Marsha; Hogan, Vijaya
Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant death for African Americans and is significantly associated with lifelong morbidity. Primary prevention efforts using medical strategies to reduce the rates of preterm birth have been unsuccessful. Using community partnered participatory processes, the Healthy African American Families project in Los Angeles developed a multilevel, risk communications strategy to promote awareness about preterm birth in the local community. Participants included community members, community-based organizations, local government, healthcare providers, and national-level advocates. The initiative focused on increasing social support for pregnant women, providing current information on preterm birth risks, and improving quality of health services. The initiative includes components addressing community education, mass media, provider education, and community advocacy. Products include 100 Intentional Acts of Kindness toward a Pregnant Woman, a doorknob brochure on signs and symptoms of preterm labor, and an education manual on preterm birth and other African American health issues. Cooperation, affiliation, and community self-help were key aspects of the planning process and the health promotion products. Additional community benefits included increased leadership and skills development. The process and products described here may be useful in other communities and for addressing other health outcomes in communities of color. PMID:20629244
James, S.; M. Joseph Irudayaraj
This paper describes the strategies for enhancing resilience of a coastal community to natural disasters by effective disaster preparedness and mitigation measures. It elaborates the importance of capacity building and improved infrastructure performance. Participatory Disaster Risk Assessment (PDRA) is emphasised to understand the diverse vulnerabilities and resilience of the coastal communities. This paper presents a unique approach to integrate the existing capacities, ...
Holm, M. M.; Gearheard, S.; Parsons, M. A.
The combination of local and traditional knowledge (LTK) and community-based monitoring data with other scientific data presents many challenges and opportunities from a data management perspective. The upcoming International Polar Year (IPY) offers an opportunity to establish a data management system to support the collection and sharing of LTK and community-based monitoring data. This system will support Arctic peoples and communities in their own research efforts, as well as efforts of other researchers. The goal of data management is to both ensure preservation of data as well as access to the data. To ensure access to LTK and community-based monitoring data there must be appropriate metadata available, appropriate protections in place (e.g. intellectual property and privacy protections, varying levels of access), and an understanding of the data by diverse user communities and how it can be used in conjunction with other data (e.g. scientific, local, qualitative or quantitative). In recent years there has been an increased awareness of the value of incorporating LTK and community-based monitoring data into research and validation of other scientific data sets. This presentation discusses the issues encountered in a pilot research project that seeks to gain a better understanding of how to facilitate the use of LTK and community-based monitoring data with other scientific data. One of the primary goals of the upcoming International Polar Year (IPY) is that IPY related projects leave a legacy. It is the intention of this pilot project to help lay the foundation for other expanded projects such as the recently proposed Exchange for Local Observations and Knowledge of the Arctic (ELOKA) to build upon. The pilot project points to possibilities for a better understanding of how to represent and facilitate use of LTK and community-based monitoring data to the scientific user community, and other types of users, from a data management perspective.
Ratiba, Matome M
Throughout the years cultural communities across the world have borne witness to many unending attempts at the destruction of their places of worship. This endemic problem has arisen in a number of places, such as in the USA and in most of the world's former colonies. Having been colonised, South African cultural communities have experienced the same threats to their various sacred sites. This article seeks to argue and demonstrate that cultural communities in South Africa stand to benefit fr...
African universities have been called to respond to the social issues of trauma, adversity, injustice and inequality that trouble their embedding communities, their staff and their students. The need for South African universities to respond to HIV/Aids (in particular) includes the opening up of new knowledge about and ways of managing the impacts…
Wan Izatul Asma Wan Talaat
Full Text Available Traditional knowledge, generally defined as the long-standing traditions and practices of certain regional, indigenous, or local communities, constitutes a cumulative body of knowledge, know-how, practices, and representations maintained and developed by peoples with extended histories of interaction with the natural environment. Recognition, protection and enforcement of the rights of indigenous communities to have continued access to biological genetic resources is quite related to the principle of sustainable and use of biological diversity crucial not only for the continued sustenance of their culture but also to protect their knowledge, acquired over thousands of years of experimentation and experience, about the uses biological resources can be put to particularly in medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations. The signing of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD in 1992 has brought international intention to intellectual property laws to preserve, protect and promote their traditional knowledge. CBD recognises the value of traditional knowledge in protecting species, ecosystems and landscapes, which are inextricably associated to the sustainable conservation and use of natural resources. On the other hand, the subsequent adoption of the World Trade Organization (WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS in 1994 could be interpreted to contradict the agreements made under the CBD. This paper highlights the efforts to protect traditional knowledge in the midst of the dichotomy between CBD and TRIPS.
Rogel Villanueva-G.,; Roubik, David
We studied resource use and competition by varieties of a honey bee, Apis mellifera, through re-introducing European A. m. ligustica in experimental apiaries in a habitat 'saturated' by African (or hybrid African and European) honey bees that naturally colonized forest in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. Over 171 pollen species comprised honey bee diets. The Morisita-Horn similarity index (highest similarity = 1.0) between the two honey bee races was 0.76 for pollen use and, from the average ...
Nöstlinger, Christiana; Loos, Jasna
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has received considerable attention during past decades as a method to increase community ownership in research and prevention. We discuss its application to epidemiological research using the case of second-generation surveillance conducted among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in Antwerp city. To inform evidence-based prevention planning for this target group, this HIV-prevalence study used two-stage time-location sampling preceded by formative research. Extensive collaborative partnerships were built with community organizations, a Community Advisory Board provided input throughout the project, and community researchers were trained to participate in all phases of the seroprevalence study. Valid oral fluid samples for HIV testing were collected among 717 SSA migrants and linked to behavioural data assessed through an anonymous survey between December 2013 and August 2014. A qualitative content analysis of various data sources (extensive field notes, minutes of intervision, and training protocols) collected at 77 data collection visits in 51 settings was carried out to describe experiences with challenges and opportunities inherent to the CBPR approach at three crucial stages of the research process: building collaborative partnerships; implementing the study; dissemination of findings including prevention planning. The results show that CBPR is feasible in conducting scientifically sound epidemiological research, but certain requirements need to be in place. These include among others sufficient resources to train, coordinate, and supervise community researchers; continuity in the implementation; transparency about decision-taking and administrative procedures, and willingness to share power and control over the full research process. CBPR contributed to empowering community researchers on a personal level, and to create greater HIV prevention demand in the SSA communities. PMID:26885938
Nöstlinger, Christiana; Loos, Jasna
ABSTRACT Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has received considerable attention during past decades as a method to increase community ownership in research and prevention. We discuss its application to epidemiological research using the case of second-generation surveillance conducted among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in Antwerp city. To inform evidence-based prevention planning for this target group, this HIV-prevalence study used two-stage time-location sampling preceded by formative research. Extensive collaborative partnerships were built with community organizations, a Community Advisory Board provided input throughout the project, and community researchers were trained to participate in all phases of the seroprevalence study. Valid oral fluid samples for HIV testing were collected among 717 SSA migrants and linked to behavioural data assessed through an anonymous survey between December 2013 and August 2014. A qualitative content analysis of various data sources (extensive field notes, minutes of intervision, and training protocols) collected at 77 data collection visits in 51 settings was carried out to describe experiences with challenges and opportunities inherent to the CBPR approach at three crucial stages of the research process: building collaborative partnerships; implementing the study; dissemination of findings including prevention planning. The results show that CBPR is feasible in conducting scientifically sound epidemiological research, but certain requirements need to be in place. These include among others sufficient resources to train, coordinate, and supervise community researchers; continuity in the implementation; transparency about decision-taking and administrative procedures, and willingness to share power and control over the full research process. CBPR contributed to empowering community researchers on a personal level, and to create greater HIV prevention demand in the SSA communities. PMID:26885938
Zoellner, Jamie; Connell, Carol; Madson, Michael B; Thomson, Jessica L; Landry, Alicia S; Fontenot Molaison, Elaine; Blakely Reed, Vickie; Yadrick, Kathleen
The effectiveness of community-based participatory research (CBPR) efforts to address the disproportionate burden of hypertension among African Americans remains largely untested. The objective of this 6-month, noncontrolled, pre-/post-experimental intervention was to examine the effectiveness of a CBPR intervention in achieving improvements in blood pressure, anthropometric measures, biological measures, and diet. Conducted in 2010, this multicomponent lifestyle intervention included motivational enhancement, social support provided by peer coaches, pedometer diary self-monitoring, and monthly nutrition and physical activity education sessions. Of 269 enrolled participants, 94% were African American and 85% were female. Statistical analysis included generalized linear mixed models using maximum likelihood estimation. From baseline to 6 months, blood pressure decreased significantly: mean (± standard deviation) systolic blood pressure decreased from 126.0 ± 19.1 to 119.6 ± 15.8 mm Hg, P=0.0002; mean diastolic blood pressure decreased from 83.2 ± 12.3 to 78.6 ± 11.1 mm Hg, P<0.0001). Sugar intake also decreased significantly as compared with baseline (by approximately 3 tsp; P<0.0001). Time differences were not apparent for any other measures. Results from this study suggest that CBPR efforts are a viable and effective strategy for implementing nonpharmacologic, multicomponent, lifestyle interventions that can help address the persistent racial and ethnic disparities in hypertension treatment and control. Outcome findings help fill gaps in the literature for effectively translating lifestyle interventions to reach and engage African-American communities to reduce the burden of hypertension. PMID:24534602
Auger, P.A., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Laboratoire de Physique des Océans (LPO), UMR-CNRS 6523/IFREMER/IRD/UBO, BP70, 29280 Plouzané (France); Machu, E.; Gorgues, T.; Grima, N. [Laboratoire de Physique des Océans (LPO), UMR-CNRS 6523/IFREMER/IRD/UBO, BP70, 29280 Plouzané (France); Waeles, M. [Université de Bretagne Occidentale (UBO), Laboratoire de l' Environnement Marin (LEMAR), UMR-CNRS 6539/IRD/UBO, place N. Copernic, 29280 Plouzané (France)
A Lagrangian approach based on a physical–biogeochemical modeling was used to compare the potential transfer of cadmium (Cd) from natural and anthropogenic sources to plankton communities (Cd-uptake) in the North-West African upwelling. In this region, coastal upwelling was estimated to be the main natural source of Cd while the most significant anthropogenic source for marine ecosystem is provided by phosphate industry. In our model experiment, Cd-uptake (natural or anthropogenic) in the North-West African upwelling is the result of an interplay between the Cd dispersion (by advection processes) and the simulated biological productivity. In the Moroccan waters, advection processes limit the residence time of water masses resulting in a low natural Cd-uptake by plankton communities while anthropogenic Cd-uptake is high. As expected, the situation is reversed in the Senegalo-Mauritanian upwelling where natural Cd-uptake is higher than anthropogenic Cd-uptake. Based upon an estimate of Cd sources, our modeling study shows, unexpectedly, that the anthropogenic signal of potential Cd-bioaccumulation in the Moroccan upwelling is of the same order of magnitude as the natural signal mainly present in the Senegalo-Mauritanian upwelling region. A comparison with observed Cd levels in mollusk and fishes, which shows overall agreement with our simulations, is confirming our estimates. - Highlights: • We model the physical–biogeochemical dynamics in the North-West African upwelling. • We model the transport of cadmium from natural and anthropogenic sources. • We derive proxies of potential cadmium absorption and bioaccumulation in the plankton food chain. • The anthropogenic signal off Morocco at least equals the natural upwelling signal off Mauritania. • We compare our results with observed cadmium levels in mollusks and fishes.
Gabriela Cruz Garcia
Full Text Available In Mexico, native orchids are appreciated for their ornamental value and traditional uses and in many indigenous communities they comprise part of a biocultural heritage. The orchid Prosthechea karwinskii (Mart. J.M.H. Shaw, Orchidaceae, is particularly relevant in this context, although some of its traditional uses have been attributed to a very similar species, P. citrina. A recent study of P. karwinskii reported unknown medicinal and other traditional uses by the Mixtec community in Mexico. Unfortunately, increasing acculturation of indigenous communities has resulted in a loss of the community's traditional knowledge, thus, we herein documented the worldview and practices associated with the medicinal use of P. karwinskii as well as the socioeconomic aspects that characterize the holders of this knowledge. People with this knowledge are mainly indigenous women with little or no schooling, who learned the medicinal practices from family tradition. They use pseudobulbs, leaves, or flowers of the plant to treat coughs (infusions, wounds and burns (poultices, diabetes (tea or chewed, to prevent miscarriages and to assist in childbirth (infusions. These results show a promising future for ethnopharmacological research on P. karwinskii.
Kathleen P. Bell
Full Text Available Building successful, enduring research partnerships is essential for improving links between knowledge and action to address sustainability challenges. Communication research can play a critical role in fostering more effective research partnerships, especially those concerned with knowledge co-production processes. This article focuses on community-university research partnerships and factors that influence participation in the co-production process. We identify specific pathways for improving partnership development through a prospective analytical approach that examines community officials’ interest in partnering with university researchers. Using survey responses from a statewide sample of Maine municipal officials, we conduct a statistical analysis of community-university partnership potential to test a conceptual model of partnership interest grounded in natural resource management theory and environmental communication. Our findings both support and advance prior research on collaborations. Results reveal that belief in the helpfulness of the collaborator to solve problems, institutional proximity, familiarity, perceived problem severity and problem type and trust influence interest in developing community-university partnerships. These findings underscore the benefits of proactively assessing partnership potential prior to forming partnerships and the important roles for communication research within sustainability science, especially with regard to strengthening partnership formation and knowledge co-production processes.
Rocha, Gustavo Silva Souto; Lima, Marina Guimaraes; Moreira, Joyce Laura; Ribeiro, Kennedy Crepalde; Ceccato, Maria das Graças Braga; Carvalho, Wânia da Silva; Silveira, Micheline Rosa
This study assessed community health workers' (CHW) knowledge on tuberculosis (TB), TB control measures, and directly observed therapy (DOT) in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study that applied a questionnaire in a random and representative sample of 489 CHW. The overall proportion of correct answers was 74.6%. The mean proportions of correct answers in the domains for TB, TB control measures, and DOT were 81%, 84.1%, and 59.4%, respectively. The study showed knowledge gaps in the identification of patients with pulmonary TB, the target public for DOT, and adequate technique for treatment supervision. Better knowledge was associated with time working as a CHW (OR = 2.3) and follow-up of cases in the 12 months prior to the interview (OR = 1.7). The study provided new scientific data on level of knowledge among CHW concerning DOT and can support strategies to improve TB control activities. PMID:26248103
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) perform a diversity of functions in numerous important biological processes and are implicated in many human diseases. In this report we present lncRNAWiki (http://lncrna.big.ac.cn), a wiki-based platform that is open-content and publicly editable and aimed at community-based curation and collection of information on human lncRNAs. Current related databases are dependent primarily on curation by experts, making it laborious to annotate the exponentially accumulated information on lncRNAs, which inevitably requires collective efforts in community-based curation of lncRNAs. Unlike existing databases, lncRNAWiki features comprehensive integration of information on human lncRNAs obtained from multiple different resources and allows not only existing lncRNAs to be edited, updated and curated by different users but also the addition of newly identified lncRNAs by any user. It harnesses community collective knowledge in collecting, editing and annotating human lncRNAs and rewards community-curated efforts by providing explicit authorship based on quantified contributions. LncRNAWiki relies on the underling knowledge of scientific community for collective and collaborative curation of human lncRNAs and thus has the potential to serve as an up-to-date and comprehensive knowledgebase for human lncRNAs.
Full Text Available Pharmacovigilance has not progressed well in India and the concept is still in its infancy. India rates below 1% in pharmacovigilance as against the world rate of 5%. Objectives: The aim of our study was to evaluate the knowledge, perception and practice of pharmacovigilance among registered community pharmacists in Hyderabad, India. Methods: This was a prospective study to find out the knowledge, perception and practice of adverse drug reaction reporting among community pharmacists. It was conducted by a face to face questionnaire and the convenience factor of the pharmacist was taken into consideration. Results: From the 650 questionnaire administered to community pharmacists, 347 (53.3% were returned completely filled questionnaires. A number of 120 (34.6% pharmacists could define the term ‘pharmacovigilance’ to an acceptable extent and 119 (34.3% knew about the National Pharmacovigilance Programme in India. 96 (27.7% had good knowledge, 36(10.4% had fair knowledge and 215(61.9% had poor knowledge about pharmacovigilance. We have found that 196 (56.5% had good perception, 94(27.1% had fair perception and 57(16.4% had poor perception. Only 41(11.8% pharmacists ever reported an ADR and the other never reported ADR. The majority of pharmacists 223(64.3% felt that the AE is very simple and non-serious and hence did not report. Pharmacists have poor knowledge, good perception and negligibly low reporting rates. Conclusions: Incorporation of ADR reporting concepts in education curriculum, training of pharmacists and voluntary participation of pharmacists in ADR reporting is very crucial in achieving the safety goals and safeguarding public health.
Full Text Available Objective: To determine knowledge of folic acid use for neural tube defect (NTD prevention and counseling practices among community pharmacists registered in Ohio.Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on a random sample (n=500 of community pharmacists registered with the Ohio Board of Pharmacy and practicing in Ohio. A survey previously used by researchers to assess folic acid knowledge and practices among samples of other healthcare provider groups in the United States was adapted with permission for this study. The final tool consisted of 28 questions evaluating the knowledge, counseling practices, and demographics of respondents. The cover letter did not reveal the emphasis on folic acid, and surveys were completed anonymously. The university institutional review board deemed the study exempt.Results: Of the 122 pharmacists who completed the survey, 116 (95.1% knew that folic acid prevents some birth defects. Twenty-eight (22.9% responded that they “always” or “usually” discuss multivitamins with women of childbearing potential, and 19 (15.6% responded that they “always” or “usually” discuss folic acid supplements. Some gaps in knowledge specific to folic acid were revealed. While 63.1% of pharmacists selected the recommended dose of folic acid intake for most women of childbearing potential, 13.1% could identify the dose recommended for women who have had a previous NTD-affected pregnancy. Respondents identified continuing education programs, pharmacy journals/magazines, and the Internet as preferred avenues to obtain additional information about folic acid and NTD.Conclusion: This study represents the first systematic evaluation of folic acid knowledge and counseling practices among a sample of pharmacists in the United States. As highly accessible healthcare professionals, community pharmacists can fulfill a vital public health role by counseling women of childbearing potential about folic acid intake. Educational
Full Text Available An exploratory study of students' engagement in online learning and knowledge building is presented in this paper. Learning in an online community, composed of students (pre-service teachers and experts (experienced in-service schoolteachers and academics, is the study's primary focus. Students' interaction and knowledge discourse structures, arising from individual readings of academic papers and asynchronous collaboration with peers and experts, are investigated using social network and content analysis techniques. Additionally, several new measures for exploring structural-qualitative aspects of knowledge discourse are introduced. Analysis revealed several important trends. First, students' interaction was more intensive in forums where experienced teachers participated, rather than students only. Second, students' individual discourse structures in their postings were quite deep, knowledge-focussed and elaborated; while students' replies were short, usually focussed on specific idea and contained a substantial amount of non-cognitive information. Overall, it is argued that students were engaged with the individual and collaborative knowledge building in the online learning community. Practical implications of the study results for development of courses are discussed.
Abdullah, Rusli; Samah, Bahaman Abu; Bolong, Jusang; D'Silva, Jeffrey Lawrence; Shaffril, Hayrol Azril Mohamed
Today, teaching and learning (T&L) using technology as tool is becoming more important especially in the field of statistics as a part of the subject matter in higher education system environment. Eventhough, there are many types of technology of statistical learnig tool (SLT) which can be used to support and enhance T&L environment, however, there is lack of a common standard knowledge management as a knowledge portal for guidance especially in relation to infrastructure requirement of SLT in servicing the community of user (CoU) such as educators, students and other parties who are interested in performing this technology as a tool for their T&L. Therefore, there is a need of a common standard infrastructure requirement of knowledge portal in helping CoU for managing of statistical knowledge in acquiring, storing, desseminating and applying of the statistical knowedge for their specific purposes. Futhermore, by having this infrastructure requirement of knowledge portal model of SLT as a guidance in promoting knowledge of best practise among the CoU, it can also enhance the quality and productivity of their work towards excellence of statistical knowledge application in education system environment.
Abstract In this thesis, I have explored how an online community fosters communication and knowledge sharing in a global company. Based on empirical findings in this study, combined with theoretical aspects and previous research, I aimed to do research in one online community in a global oil service company. I was curious about how an online community, such as The Edge, can foster communication and knowledge sharing among the employees in the Company. My research questions aimed to explore wh...
Tafira, Chimusoro Kenneth
Love relationships between black South African women and immigrant men have not been given adequate attention by researchers of migration, refugee studies, and those concerned with anti-immigrant attitudes and violence. In this paper, based on ethnographicr esearch conducted in the Alexandra township of Johannesburg, South Africa, in 2009, I argue that cross-border love relationships provoke sexual and racial jealousies between the two sets of manhood: South African and black African immigran...
Gaylord-Harden, Noni K; Dickson, Daniel; Pierre, Cynthia
The current study employed latent class analysis (LCA) to identify distinct profiles of community violence exposure and their associations to desensitization outcomes in 241 African American early adolescents (M age = 12.86, SD = 1.28) in the sixth through eighth grade from under-resourced urban communities. Participants self-reported on their exposure to community violence, as well as on depressive and anxiety symptoms. The LCA revealed three distinct classes: a class exposed to low levels of violence (low exposure class), a class exposed to moderately high levels of victimization (victimization class), and a class exposed to high levels of all types of violence (high exposure class). Consistent with predictions, the high exposure class showed the lowest levels of depressive symptoms, suggesting a desensitization outcome. Gender and age were also examined in relation to the classes, and age was significantly associated with an increased risk of being a member of the high exposure class relative to the low exposure class. Using person-based analyses to examine desensitization outcomes provides useful information for prevention and intervention efforts, as it helps to identify a specific subgroup of youth that may be more likely to show desensitization outcomes in the context of community violence. PMID:25716195
Pine, Donald; Bissen, Joan; Abelson, David; Roller, Scott
HealthNet is a browser-based environment that connects HealthSystem Minnesota (HSM) health care providers to multiple information components needed in the process of providing care to patients. Its goal is to provide context-based access to professional knowledge at or near the point of care. HSM is a large integrated health care system including a hospital and 30 community clinic sites that provide health care to about sixteen percent of the Twin Cities residents.
Emmanuel Mpondo Mpondo; Didier Dibong Siegfried
Traditional knowledge is common and important among the tribal people but much of the information is empirical at best lacking logical validation. A number of ethnic communities residing in the study area are partially or fully dependent on the forest resources to meet their requirements. Plants have traditionally been used as a source of medicine in Cameroon since early times for the control of various ailments afflicting humans and their domestic animals. However, little work...
Daniel Olusoji J; Ogunfowora Olusoga B
Abstract Background Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is still a leading cause of preventable brain damage, physical and mental handicap, and early death among infants in many communities. Greater awareness is needed among all health workers. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge of primary health care workers about the description, causes, effective treatment, and sequelae of NNJ. Methods The setting was a local government area i.e. an administrative district within the south-western...
Andrews, Siara PsyD; Sorensen, James L. PhD; Guydish, Joseph R PhD; Delucchi, Kevin PhD; Greenberg, Brian PhD
Research demonstrates that drug treatment staff members’ knowledge and attitudes about methadone are positively correlated with treatment success among opiate-dependent clients. However the bulk of this research is on outpatient treatment in methadone clinics. This study examined a residential treatment program that allowed clients on methadone, a rare treatment opportunity that is growing nationwide. Staff (N = 87) working in four therapeutic community (TC) facilities, were surveyed using th...
Salam, Rehana A; Haroon, Sarah; Ahmed, Hashim H; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
In 2012, an estimated 35.3 million people lived with HIV, while approximately two million new HIV infections were reported. Community-based interventions (CBIs) for the prevention and control of HIV allow increased access and ease availability of medical care to population at risk, or already infected with, HIV. This paper evaluates the impact of CBIs on HIV knowledge, attitudes, and transmission. We included 39 studies on educational activities, counseling sessions, home visits, mentoring, w...
Jong, Michael; Neis, Barbara; Cartier, André; Horth-Susin, Lise; Howse, Dana
Objectives. This study was conducted to learn from snow crab plants workers and others involved in the industry their knowledge and beliefs of health issues and potential solutions. Study design. This is a survey in four communities with different crab plant designs in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Methods. At the start of a meeting to discuss crab asthma participants were requested to complete the questionnaire. Results. 65% of 196 participants believed there were health problems associ...
Elsner, Regina Marie
Using a mail survey, I questioned 490 representatives of local government (i.e., elected officials, administrative officials, animal control officers, and county Cooperative Extension agents) about their understanding of human-wildlife conflicts in their communities, and their receptivity to participating in co-management partnerships with regulatory agencies. Response rates for the mail survey of these four populations ranged from 25.2% to 75.9%. Knowledge of and perceptions about human-wi...
A group of Community Knowledge Workers (CKWs) test the complex game section of the Muth Helgeson Survey Tool (MHST) in the Oyam, Uganda region. Over 130 CKWs were equipped with smart phones with the MHST application, which also incorporated small behavioural economics games. These CKWs physically visited over 5000 Ugandan farms, measuring farmers behaviours and attitudes regarding risk. The MHST is the largest study of Ugandan farms since 1991 and the first to use this methodology to exami...
Altpeter, Mary; Earp, Jo Anne L.; Shopler, Janice H.
Social ecological theory, social-work community organization models, and health-promotion models are brought together to address ways to generate change at the individual and policy levels, and to provide guidance for community health-promotion programs. An eight-year cancer-prevention project is presented as a case study. (EMK)
Ruoti, Mónica; Oddone, Rolando; Lampert, Nathalie; Orué, Elizabeth; Miles, Michael A.; Alexander, Neal; Rehman, Andrea M.; Njord, Rebecca; Shu, Stephanie; Brice, Susannah; Krentel, Alison
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) due to Leishmania (V.) braziliensis are endemic in Paraguay. We performed a series of knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) surveys simultaneously with individuals in endemic communities in San Pedro department (n = 463), health professionals (n = 25), and patients (n = 25). Results showed that communities were exposed to high risk factors for transmission of L. braziliensis. In logistic regression analysis, age was the only factor independently associated with having seen a CL/MCL lesion (P = 0.002). The pervasive attitude in communities was that CL was not a problem. Treatment seeking was often delayed, partly due to secondary costs, and inappropriate remedies were applied. Several important cost-effective measures are indicated that may improve control of CL. Community awareness could be enhanced through existing community structures. Free supply of specific drugs should continue but ancillary support could be considered. Health professionals require routine and standardised provision of diagnosis and treatment algorithms for CL and MCL. During treatment, all patients could be given simple information to increase awareness in the community. PMID:23690792
Rist, Lucy; Shackleton, Charlie; Gadamus, Lily; Chapin, F. Stuart; Gowda, C. Made; Setty, Siddappa; Kannan, Ramesh; Shaanker, R. Uma
Multiple actors are typically involved in forest management, namely communities, managers and researchers. In such cases, suboptimal management outcomes may, in addition to other factors, be symptomatic of a divergence in perspectives among these actors driven by fundamental differences in ecological knowledge. We examine the degree of congruence between the understandings of actors surrounding key issues of management concern in three case studies from tropical, subtropical and boreal forests. We identify commonly encountered points of divergence in ecological knowledge relating to key management processes and issues. We use these to formulate seven hypotheses about differences in the bodies of knowledge that frequently underlie communication and learning failures in forest management contexts where multiple actors are involved and outcomes are judged to be suboptimal. Finally, we present a set of propositions to acknowledge and narrow these differences. A more complete recognition of the full triangulation between all actors involved, and of the influence that fundamental differences in ecological knowledge can exert, may help lead to a more fruitful integration between local knowledge and practice, manager knowledge and practice, and contemporary science in forest management.
Community-based natural resource management in northeast India has a long history.Indigenous knowledge and adaptation are the collective information, with improvement from generation to generation. The expectation is that under community control, local expertise on biodiversity will play a significant role in natural resource management through traditional practices.This paper discusses the characteristics and application of the traditional ecological knowledge of aboriginal peoples in northeast India and its role in natural resource management. Examples are provided in two different eco-cultural landscapes, i.e.,Demazong (the Buddhist eco-cultural landscape in Sikkim Himalaya) and the Apatani eco-cultural landscape in Arunachal Pradesh, which illustrate the utility value of traditional ecological knowledge in sustainable natural resource management. Both eco-cultural landscapes are indeed very complex and highly evolved systems with high levels of economic and ecological efficiencies. The paper concludes that traditional ecological knowledge systems and institutions could serve as entry points into the sustainable utilization and management of natural resources. This could be achieved through the exploration of the cultural practices of the local people and integrating useful aspects into the modern natural resource management expertise. With rapidly depleting biodiversity in the developing tropic regions,there is a greater utilization today than ever before of the value of respecting the "Sacred" as a tool towards better conservation of natural resources.
This study was designed to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of a cohort of Iranian community pharmacists about the pharmaceutical care indexes and drug therapy in female epileptic patients. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran (2011) and one hundred and twenty two community pharmacists were randomly selected using clustering method for sampling. A self-administered questionnaire which was originally made by a clinical pharmacy focus group was used. This questionnaire had 10 true/false questions for knowledge assessing (Spearman-Brown coefficient, 0.65) and 19 attitude statements (with Likert scale) about the intention of pharmacists for providing pharmaceutical care for epileptic females (Croanbach's alpha, 0.802). Face and content validity for both parts of the questionnaire were performed before the study. Results: There was a significant inverse relationship between pharmacists' knowledge on pharmaceutical care for epileptic females and the time elapsed from their graduation date. Considering the minimum passing score of 5, 85% of pharmacists did not have enough knowledge. The range of pharmacists' attitude scores was 35 to 64 and its mean was 46.09. Regarding the minimum passing score of 45, 63.3% of pharmacists had positive attitude to AEDs in epileptic females. Conclusion: It seems that the pharmaceutical care for epileptic females is a missing part of Pharmacy education. It is highly recommended to pay special attention to this topic in continuing education programs for Iranian pharmacists. (author)
Sims, Regina; Gordon, Shalanda; Garcia, Wanda; Clark, Elijah; Monye, Deloris; Callender, Clive; Campbell, Alfonso
Previous studies have reported that psychological stress is associated with greater food consumption, particularly consumption of high fat foods. We are unaware of any studies that have examined stress-induced eating among African Americans (AAs). The goals of the current study were to examine the relationship between perceived stress and high fat eating behaviors in a sample of AAs, to examine whether this relationship is stronger among overweight and obese participants, and to examine wheth...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Population health status scores are routinely used to inform economic evaluation and evaluate the impact of disease and/or treatment on health. It is unclear whether the health status in black and minority ethnic groups are comparable to these population health status data. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-status in South Asian and African-Caribbean populations. Methods Cross-sectional study recruiting participants aged ≥ 45 years (September 2006 to July 2009 from 20 primary care centres in Birmingham, United Kingdom.10,902 eligible subjects were invited, 5,408 participated (49.6%. 5,354 participants had complete data (49.1% (3442 South Asian and 1912 African-Caribbean. Health status was assessed by interview using the EuroQoL EQ-5D. Results The mean EQ-5D score in South Asian participants was 0.91 (standard deviation (SD 0.18, median score 1 (interquartile range (IQR 0.848 to 1 and in African-Caribbean participants the mean score was 0.92 (SD 0.18, median 1 (IQR 1 to 1. Compared with normative data from the UK general population, substantially fewer African-Caribbean and South Asian participants reported problems with mobility, usual activities, pain and anxiety when stratified by age resulting in higher average health status estimates than those from the UK population. Multivariable modelling showed that decreased health-related quality of life (HRQL was associated with increased age, female gender and increased body mass index. A medical history of depression, stroke/transient ischemic attack, heart failure and arthritis were associated with substantial reductions in HRQL. Conclusions The reported HRQL of these minority ethnic groups was substantially higher than anticipated compared to UK normative data. Participants with chronic disease experienced significant reductions in HRQL and should be a target for health intervention.
Calvert Melanie; Duffy Helen; Freemantle Nick; Davis Russell; Lip Gregory YH; Gill Paramjit
Abstract Background Population health status scores are routinely used to inform economic evaluation and evaluate the impact of disease and/or treatment on health. It is unclear whether the health status in black and minority ethnic groups are comparable to these population health status data. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-status in South Asian and African-Caribbean populations. Methods Cross-sectional study recruiting participants aged ≥ 45 years (September 2006 to July 2009) ...
Ramdani, Mohammed; Elkhiati, Najat; Flower, Roger J.; Birks, Hilary H.; Kraïem, Mejdidine M.; Adel A. Fathi; Patrick, Simon T.
Zooplankton (Copepoda, Cladocera, Ostracoda, Rotifera and Diptera larvae) in nine North African lakes was collected from open water areas over twenty months during 1997/99. The results were used to monitor changes in the pelagic micro-invertebrate fauna of these sites with the purpose of exploring diversity structure and regional species occurrences. The studied sites formed three distinct groups based on hydrology and water quality criteria: (i) acid water with no marine connection (Megen...
Best, Julia Y.
There is a nationwide decline in enrollment, retention and degree completion for African American students in predominantly White institutions (PWIs) in the United States. Colleges and Universities establish diversity initiatives to address these concerns, yet educational disparities persist. Institutions of higher learning also address ways to enhance the educational development of undergraduate students. One such initiative involves a paradigm shift to extend the curriculum into residential...
Lopez, Ygnacio; O’Connor, Daniel P.; Ledoux, Tracey A.; Rebecca E. Lee
The purposes of the authors in this study were: (1) to determine whether published body mass index and bioelectrical impedance analysis equations agreed with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry body fat percentage measures and (2) to estimate new body mass index and bioelectrical impedance analysis equations in a sample of African American women. Linear regression was used to determine how well 10 body mass index and bioelectrical impedance analysis equations reflected dual energy x-ray absorpti...
Liebson Philip R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk associated with diabetes may be partially attributed to left ventricular structural abnormalities. However, the relations between left ventricular structure and diabetes have not been extensively studied in African-Americans. Methods We studied 514 male and 965 female African-Americans 51 to 70 years old, in whom echocardiographic left ventricular mass measurements were collected for the ARIC Study. In these, we investigated the independent association of diabetes with left ventricular structural abnormalities. Results Diabetes, hypertension and obesity prevalences were 22%, 57% and 45%, respectively. Unindexed left ventricular mass was higher with diabetes in both men (238.3 ± 79.4 g vs. 213.7 ± 58.6 g; p Conclusion In African-Americans, diabetes is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and, with different patterns of left ventricular structural abnormalities between genders. Attenuation seen in adjusted associations suggests that the higher frequency of structural abnormalities seen in diabetes may be due to factors other than hyperglycemia.
African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of t...
This chapter presents the experience of two African Regional Economic Commissions (RECs) - East African Community (EAC), Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) - who, with assistance from the UNDP, have moved towards developing and implementing regional strategies to increase access to modern energy services (UNDP, 2006a). The Johannesburg consensus: access to energy underpins development and poverty reduction The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI) includes an emerging international consensus on the role of energy in sustainable development: 1) Energy services are an essential input to economic development and social progress, notably to achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Energy services are necessary for successful implementation of almost all sectoral development programmes, notably revenue generating activities, health, education, water, food security, agricultural development, etc. Increased access to energy fuels economic growth and poverty reduction. 'The lack of modern fuels and electricity in most developing countries entrenches poverty, constrains the delivery of social services, limits opportunities for women, and erodes environmental sustainability' (UN-Energy, 2005). 2) Under current economic conditions, provision of energy services to poor populations in many developing countries is not attractive to market actors. Experience in the decades before and after Johannesburg had amply demonstrated the positive and negative aspects of a purely market based approach to the provision of energy services. On the positive side, in the power sector for instance, privatization and deregulation had in many cases reduced expenditure of public funds in support of money losing public utilities. However, on the negative side, these attempts only rarely achieved improvement in the quality or reliability of service in urban areas (see Chapter 3). In almost no cases had they achieved improvement in the rates of access to electricity in rural
Jadesola O Lokulo-Sodipe
Full Text Available To reflect the growing trends in the international scene and in furtherance of the objective of its Revised 1993 Treaty, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS summit in December 2006 revolutionised the structure of ECOWAS by re-designating the Executive Secretariat into a quasi-independent commission headed by a President with a Vice President and seven commissioners. The rationale behind the revision was to make ECOWAS a supranational entity. This article considers whether or not a supranational system is essential for the attainment of ECOWAS' objectives. It asks if the conditions for an effective supranational system are in place in the West African sub-region which could provide a solid foundation for its success and why the quest for a supranational system has not yielded any fruitful result in West Africa. It argues that a retreat from the quest for supranationalism and a return to an inter-governmental system would be a retreat rather than the way forward, and expresses the need for the course of action to be sustained courageously till the impact of integration begins to emerge, and the disguised, patriotic impulse of states to protect their national sovereignty gives way to the full manifestation of ECOWAS as a supranational entity.
Twomey, Joshua Patrick
This study examined the relationship of career decision self-efficacy and perception of barriers to the outcome variables perception of academic reality (i.e., a construct for student perceived college readiness) and college GPA. The sample consisted of students of African descent (n = 85) attending a northeastern community college located in an…
Abstract This paper argues that immigrant civic activism which may at first glance seem to focus on diasporic ties and ethnic community building, becomes often a lever for transcultural capital and transcultural community building. The study is explorative of new repertoires and forms of transnationalism among sub Saharan African immigrant activists in Europe. The findings suggest that immigrant civic activism even if limited in size proposes new types of transcultural societal net...
Campbell, Catherine; Nair, Yugi; Maimane, Sbongile; Sibiya, Zweni
There is much debate about researchers’ ethical obligations to their informants, especially when they study marginalised communities in serious distress. Some say researchers should contribute to interventions to ameliorate the problems they investigate. Within this context, we report on a ‘dissemination as intervention’ exercise developed to report back research findings to a South African rural community -- using a dialogical approach which sought to strengthen participants’ confidence and ...
Full Text Available This article explores the perceptions and attitudes of community health workers (CHWs about hypertension. The level of knowledge of hypertension, as well as their personal attitude towards this is crucial in the style and quality of their interventions. CHWs, whose role in health promotion is being increasingly recognised, can help contain or reduce the prevalence of hypertension by influencing the community to adopt healthy lifestyles. Forty-three CHWs employed by Zanempilo in two study areas, Sites B and C in Khayelitsha in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, were included in the study. Firstly, focus group discussions were conducted with 17 purposively selected CHWs to explore attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of hypertension. Secondly, interviews were conducted to assess their basic knowledge about causes, prevention and control of hypertension. The focus group discussions revealed that CHWs were uncertain about the causes of hypertension. They also found it difficult to grasp the fact that people without risk factors, such as overweight or a family history of hypertension, could be hypertensive. Many CHWs believe in traditional medicines and home-brewed beer as the best treatment for hypertension. They believe that people who take medical treatment become sicker and that their health deteriorates rapidly. Risk factors of hypertension mentioned during the structured interviews include inheritance, lack of physical activity, consuming lots of salty and fatty food. Conclusions drawn from the findings of the CHWs’ responses highlighted their insufficient knowledge about hypertension as a chronic disease of lifestyle. Meanwhile they are expected to play a role in stimulating community residents’ interest in the broad principle of preventive health maintenance and follow-up. Data obtained from this research can be used for the planning of health-promotion programmes. These should include preventing hypertension and improving primary management
Daniel Olusoji J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal jaundice (NNJ is still a leading cause of preventable brain damage, physical and mental handicap, and early death among infants in many communities. Greater awareness is needed among all health workers. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge of primary health care workers about the description, causes, effective treatment, and sequelae of NNJ. Methods The setting was a local government area i.e. an administrative district within the south-western part of Nigeria. Community health workers in this area were interviewed by means of a self-administered questionnaire which focused on awareness and knowledge of neonatal jaundice and its causes, treatment and complications. Results Sixty-six community health workers participated in the survey and male-to-female ratio was 1:5. Their work experience averaged 13.5 (SD 12.7 years. Only 51.5% of the respondents gave a correct definition of NNJ. 75.8 % knew how to examine for this condition while 84.9 % knew at least two of its major causes in our environment. Also, only 54.5 % had adequate knowledge of effective treatment namely, phototherapy and exchange blood transfusion. Rather than referring affected babies to hospitals for proper management, 13.4 %, 10.4 % and 3 % of the participants would treat with ineffective drugs, natural phototherapy and herbal remedies respectively. None of the participants knew any effective means of prevention. Conclusion Primary health care workers may have inadequate knowledge and misconceptions on NNJ which must be addressed concertedly before the impact of the condition on child health and well-being can be significantly reduced. We recommend regular training workshops and seminars for this purpose.
Full Text Available An understanding of rural communities is fundamental to effective community-based rehabilitation work with persons with disabilities. By removing barriers to community participation, persons with disabilities are enabled to satisfy their fundamental human needs. However, insufficient attention has been paid to the challenges that rural community disability workers (CDWs face in trying to realise these objectives. This qualitative interpretive study, involving in-depth interviews with 16 community disability workers in Botswana, Malawi and South Africa, revealed the complex ways in which poverty, inappropriately used power and negative attitudes of service providers and communities combine to create formidable barriers to the inclusion of persons with disabilities in families and rural communities. The paper highlights the importance of understanding and working with the concept of ‘disability’ from a social justice and development perspective. It stresses that by targeting attitudes, actions and relationships, community disability workers can bring about social change in the lives of persons with disabilities and the communities in which they live.
Angela J Dean
Full Text Available Sustainable approaches to water management require broad community acceptance of changes in policy, practice and technology, which in turn, requires an engaged community. A critical first step in building an engaged community is to identify community knowledge about water management, an issue rarely examined in research. To address this, we surveyed a representative sample of Australian adults (n = 5172. Knowledge was assessed using 15 questions about impact of household activities on waterways, the urban water cycle, and water management. This survey also examined demographics, psychosocial characteristics, exposure to water-related information, and water-related behaviors and policy support. Participants correctly answered a mean of 8.0 questions (Range 0-15. Most respondents knew that household actions can reduce water use and influence waterway health, whereas less than one third correctly identified that domestic wastewater is treated prior to entering waterways, urban stormwater is not treated, and that these are carried via different pipes. Higher water knowledge was associated with older age, higher education and living in non-urban areas. Poorer water knowledge was associated with speaking a language other than English in the home. Garden size, experience of water restrictions, satisfaction, waterway use for swimming, and certain information sources were also associated with knowledge. Greater water knowledge was associated with adoption of water-saving and pollution-reduction behaviors, and support for both alternative water sources and raingardens. These findings confirm the importance of community knowledge, and identify potential subgroups who may require additional targeting to build knowledge and support for water management initiatives.
Fielding, Kelly S.; Newton, Fiona J.
Sustainable approaches to water management require broad community acceptance of changes in policy, practice and technology, which in turn, requires an engaged community. A critical first step in building an engaged community is to identify community knowledge about water management, an issue rarely examined in research. To address this, we surveyed a representative sample of Australian adults (n = 5172). Knowledge was assessed using 15 questions about impact of household activities on waterways, the urban water cycle, and water management. This survey also examined demographics, psychosocial characteristics, exposure to water-related information, and water-related behaviors and policy support. Participants correctly answered a mean of 8.0 questions (Range 0–15). Most respondents knew that household actions can reduce water use and influence waterway health, whereas less than one third correctly identified that domestic wastewater is treated prior to entering waterways, urban stormwater is not treated, and that these are carried via different pipes. Higher water knowledge was associated with older age, higher education and living in non-urban areas. Poorer water knowledge was associated with speaking a language other than English in the home. Garden size, experience of water restrictions, satisfaction, waterway use for swimming, and certain information sources were also associated with knowledge. Greater water knowledge was associated with adoption of water-saving and pollution-reduction behaviors, and support for both alternative water sources and raingardens. These findings confirm the importance of community knowledge, and identify potential subgroups who may require additional targeting to build knowledge and support for water management initiatives. PMID:27428372
Dean, Angela J; Fielding, Kelly S; Newton, Fiona J
Sustainable approaches to water management require broad community acceptance of changes in policy, practice and technology, which in turn, requires an engaged community. A critical first step in building an engaged community is to identify community knowledge about water management, an issue rarely examined in research. To address this, we surveyed a representative sample of Australian adults (n = 5172). Knowledge was assessed using 15 questions about impact of household activities on waterways, the urban water cycle, and water management. This survey also examined demographics, psychosocial characteristics, exposure to water-related information, and water-related behaviors and policy support. Participants correctly answered a mean of 8.0 questions (Range 0-15). Most respondents knew that household actions can reduce water use and influence waterway health, whereas less than one third correctly identified that domestic wastewater is treated prior to entering waterways, urban stormwater is not treated, and that these are carried via different pipes. Higher water knowledge was associated with older age, higher education and living in non-urban areas. Poorer water knowledge was associated with speaking a language other than English in the home. Garden size, experience of water restrictions, satisfaction, waterway use for swimming, and certain information sources were also associated with knowledge. Greater water knowledge was associated with adoption of water-saving and pollution-reduction behaviors, and support for both alternative water sources and raingardens. These findings confirm the importance of community knowledge, and identify potential subgroups who may require additional targeting to build knowledge and support for water management initiatives. PMID:27428372
Kishamawe Coleman; Malima Robert; Kaatano Godfrey M; Nnko Soori E; Mwanga Joseph R; Mashauri Fabian; Kinung'hi Safari M; Magesa Stephen; Mboera Leonard EG
Abstract Background Muleba district in North-western Tanzania has experienced malaria epidemics in recent years. Community knowledge, attitudes and practices are important in enhancing disease control interventions. This study investigated determinants of malaria epidemics in the study area in relation to household knowledge, attitudes and practice on malaria. Methods A community based cross-sectional survey involving 504 study participants was conducted between April and June 2007 using a st...
Edwards, Leslie D.
How do teenage girls develop an interest in science? What kinds of opportunities can science teachers present to female students that support their engagement with learning science? I studied one aspect of this issue by focusing on ways students could use science to enhance or gain identities that they (probably) already valued. To do that I created technology-rich activities and experiences for an after school class in science and technology for middle school girls who lived in a low socio-economic urban neighborhood. These activities and experiences were designed to create a virtual community of practice whose members used science in diverse ways. Student interest was made evident in their responses to the activities. Four conclusions emerged. (1) Opportunities to learn about the lives and work of admired African American business women interested students in learning by linking it to their middle-class aspirations and their interest in things that money and status can buy. (2) Opportunities to learn about the lives and work of African American women experts in science in a classroom context where students then practiced similar kinds of actual scientific tasks engaged students in relations of legitimate peripheral participation in a virtual and diverse community of practice focused on science which was created in the after-school classes. (3) Opportunities where students used science to show off for family, friends, and supporters of the after-school program, identities they valued, interested them enough that they engaged in long-term science and technology projects that required lots of revisions. (4) In response to the opportunities presented, new and enhanced identities developed around becoming a better student or becoming some kind of scientist.
Steen-Eibensteiner, Janice Lee
A strong science knowledge base and problem solving skills have always been highly valued for employment in the science industry. Skills currently needed for employment include being able to problem solve (Overtoom, 2000). Academia also recognizes the need for effectively teaching students to apply problem solving skills in clinical settings. This thesis investigates how students solve complex science problems in an academic setting in order to inform the development of problem solving skills for the workplace. Students' use of problem solving skills in the form of learned concepts and procedural knowledge was studied as students completed a problem that might come up in real life. Students were taking a community college sophomore biology course, Human Anatomy & Physiology II. The problem topic was negative feedback inhibition of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The research questions answered were (1) How well do community college students use a complex of conceptual knowledge when solving a complex science problem? (2) What conceptual knowledge are community college students using correctly, incorrectly, or not using when solving a complex science problem? (3) What problem solving procedural knowledge are community college students using successfully, unsuccessfully, or not using when solving a complex science problem? From the whole class the high academic level participants performed at a mean of 72% correct on chapter test questions which was a low average to fair grade of C-. The middle and low academic participants both failed (F) the test questions (37% and 30% respectively); 29% (9/31) of the students show only a fair performance while 71% (22/31) fail. From the subset sample population of 2 students each from the high, middle, and low academic levels selected from the whole class 35% (8/23) of the concepts were used effectively, 22% (5/23) marginally, and 43% (10/23) poorly. Only 1 concept was used incorrectly by 3/6 of the students and identified as
Edna Alicia Cortés-Rodríguez
Full Text Available Traditional knowledge (TK integrates and shared local and cultural wealth by the members of a community. It includes information regarding beliefs, systems of values, respect and environmental care, as well as knowledge and management of native flora and the use of medicinal plants, like the mayority of the indigenous cultures of Latin America, which results in a viable resource management. Under this statement, the objetive of this paper was; to know, to collect and to analyze the TK of the medicinal plants of the indigenous community of Santa Catarina, B.C. Mexico and propose guidelines for their management. It was obtained a 36 medicinal plants record of the Mediterranean ecosystem, it was also identified the suffering for which the medicinal plants are used, as well as parts of the plant and its employment forms. It was concluded that the integration of TK to government management plans, represents an option for the conservation of ecosystem natural resources, in which the agricultural and livestock pressure constitutes a serious menace for the conservation of plant communities.
Ash Joan S
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to identify recommended practices for computerized clinical decision support (CDS development and implementation and for knowledge management (KM processes in ambulatory clinics and community hospitals using commercial or locally developed systems in the U.S. Methods Guided by the Multiple Perspectives Framework, the authors conducted ethnographic field studies at two community hospitals and five ambulatory clinic organizations across the U.S. Using a Rapid Assessment Process, a multidisciplinary research team: gathered preliminary assessment data; conducted on-site interviews, observations, and field surveys; analyzed data using both template and grounded methods; and developed universal themes. A panel of experts produced recommended practices. Results The team identified ten themes related to CDS and KM. These include: 1 workflow; 2 knowledge management; 3 data as a foundation for CDS; 4 user computer interaction; 5 measurement and metrics; 6 governance; 7 translation for collaboration; 8 the meaning of CDS; 9 roles of special, essential people; and 10 communication, training, and support. Experts developed recommendations about each theme. The original Multiple Perspectives framework was modified to make explicit a new theoretical construct, that of Translational Interaction. Conclusions These ten themes represent areas that need attention if a clinic or community hospital plans to implement and successfully utilize CDS. In addition, they have implications for workforce education, research, and national-level policy development. The Translational Interaction construct could guide future applied informatics research endeavors.
Pride, C. J.; Olsen, M. M.
To make the greatest impact on African-American participation in the geosciences it is most efficient to bring programs designed to recruit future geoscientists to neighborhoods, campuses, and communities where African-Americans are actually in the majority rather than the minority. The "Natural History Interpretation Training Program" sponsored by SE-COSEE (NSF), SSU and SINERR did just that and impacted two generations of students in coastal Georgia in the process. In the first implementation of this program, ten HBCU science majors participated in an intensive week-long training program on coastal ecosystems, outdoor education, and regional internship/employment opportunities. The training session was followed by the planning and implementation of a two-day science camp for the youth of Sapelo Island, GA in which the undergraduates taught 15 children of Gullah/Geechee heritage aged 6 to 14 about the geology and ecology of their barrier island home. Key components to successfully recruiting undergraduate participants were to coordinate training activities around the college schedule to accommodate students who needed to enroll in summer courses and to base acceptance into the training program on interest rather than GPA. We facilitated the participation of campers by holding the camp on Sapelo Island, providing transportation, and charging no fees. Having HBCU students teach younger minority students served multiple purposes. It inspired the undergraduates to further their studies in science, to explore internship opportunities, and to consider careers in science education. For some it provided an opportunity to review and master material from past courses and inspired confidence in their approach to future course work. The program also piqued the curiosity of Sapelo Island youth so that they would further explore the science of their island home and, hopefully, will consider college attendance and majoring in the geosciences a natural path to follow. HBCU
Haworth, Rebecca J; Margalit, Ruth; Ross, Christine; Nepal, Tikka; Soliman, Amr S
Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer mortality among women with the vast majority of patients in developing countries. Bhutanese refugees in the United States are from South Central Asia, the 4th leading region of the world for cervical cancer incidence. Over the past few years, Bhutanese refugees have increased significantly in Nebraska. This study evaluates current knowledge of cervical cancer and screening practices among the Bhutanese refugee women in Omaha, Nebraska. The study aimed to investigate cervical cancer and screening knowledge and perceptions about the susceptibility and severity of cervical cancer and perceived benefits and barriers to screening. Self-administered questionnaires and focus groups based on the Health Belief Model were conducted among 42 healthy women from the Bhutanese refugee community in Omaha. The study revealed a significant lack of knowledge in this community regarding cervical cancer and screening practices, with only 22.2 % reporting ever hearing of a Pap test and 13.9 % reporting ever having one. Only 33.3 % of women were in agreement with their own perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer. Women who reported ever hearing about the Pap test tended to believe more strongly about curability of the disease if discovered early than women who never heard about the test (71.4 vs. 45.0 %, for the two groups. respectively). Refugee populations in the United States are in need for tailored cancer education programs especially when being resettled from countries with high risk for cancer. PMID:25060231
Nigatu Kebede; Alemayehu Worku; Ahmed Ali; Abebe Animut; Yohannes Negash; Wondwossen Abebe Gebreyes; Abhay Satoskar
Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of the community related to cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in an endemic area Ochello, Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia. Methods: We conducted community based cross-sectional survey among residents in Ochello from November to December 2014. The study area was purposely selected based on previous reports on endemicity of CL. Using simple random sampling technique, a total of 392 household participants were selected in the study area Ochello. Structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Regarding the responses given to knowledge, attitude and practice, a score of 1 was given for each right response and 0 for unsure responses. Data were double entered and analysis was conducted using SPSS version 20 statistical software. Descriptive statistics that include frequency and percentage were used to analyze the results. Results: In total, 392 individuals were participated in our study where 225 (57.4%) of the participants were males and 167 (42.6%) were females. Of all the total participants, 265 (67.6%) had heard of the disease, and 127 (32.4%) responded that they did not know CL. Based on the scoring results, 265 (67.6%) participants were knowledgeable about CL. Out of 265 participants who heard about CL, most of them [215 (54.8%)] had the attitude that CL was a problem in their area and had no positive attitude towards the treatment of CL. Approximately, 215 (54.8%) replied that CL was preventable. Majority of the respondents did not sleep outdoors and did not practice sleeping near vegetation with or without bed net. Conclusions: The current finding indicated that the inhabitants of Ochello developed good awareness and encouraging attitude regarding CL. However, their prevention and control practice was very low. Hence, the result of this study calls for organized com-munity awareness creation through various means.
Alaniz, M L; Wilkes, C
This paper examines targeted alcohol advertising in three ethnic communities: African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans in the U.S. We focus on the appropriation of cultural systems and the reinvention of them as commodities to consumers. We outline the specific strategies used in each ethnic community. For African Americans, there is an emphasis on selling malt liquor to young adults through the use of "power" and gang-related images. For Latinos, there is an appropriation of historical and cultural symbols such as the national flags and maps of Mexico and Central America. Native Americans have coalesced to keep the image of a chief and warrior, Crazy Horse, from being used to market malt liquor. Each of the ethnic groups is engaged in action to prevent alcohol-related problems in their communities. Generating and implementing solutions is a universal social responsibility. PMID:9922620
Novak, M.; Wootton, J.T.; Doak, D.F.; Emmerson, M.; Estes, J.A.; Tinker, M.T.
How best to predict the effects of perturbations to ecological communities has been a long-standing goal for both applied and basic ecology. This quest has recently been revived by new empirical data, new analysis methods, and increased computing speed, with the promise that ecologically important insights may be obtainable from a limited knowledge of community interactions. We use empirically based and simulated networks of varying size and connectance to assess two limitations to predicting perturbation responses in multispecies communities: (1) the inaccuracy by which species interaction strengths are empirically quantified and (2) the indeterminacy of species responses due to indirect effects associated with network size and structure. We find that even modest levels of species richness and connectance (??25 pairwise interactions) impose high requirements for interaction strength estimates because system indeterminacy rapidly overwhelms predictive insights. Nevertheless, even poorly estimated interaction strengths provide greater average predictive certainty than an approach that uses only the sign of each interaction. Our simulations provide guidance in dealing with the trade-offs involved in maximizing the utility of network approaches for predicting dynamics in multispecies communities. ?? 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.
Harvey, Gill; Marshall, Rhianon J; Jordan, Zoe; Kitson, Alison L
Debates about knowledge translation (KT) typically focus on the research-practice gap, which appears to be premised on the assumption that academics are a homogeneous collective, sharing a common view. We argue that a number of hidden barriers need to be addressed related to the understanding, interpretation, ability, and commitment to translate knowledge within academic communities. We explore this by presenting a qualitative case study in a health sciences faculty. Applying organizational and management theory, we discuss different types of boundaries and the resultant barriers generated, ranging from diversity in understanding and perceptions of KT to varying motivations and incentives to engage in translational activity. We illustrate how we are using the empirical findings to inform the development of a KT strategy that targets the identified barriers. Investing in this internal KT-focused activity is an important step to maximize the potential of future collaborations between producers and users of research in health care. PMID:25847856
Reisach, Ulrike; Weilemann, Mitja
South Africa desperately needs a comprehensive approach to fight HIV/AIDS. Education is crucial to reach this goal and Internet and e-learning could offer huge opportunities to broaden and deepen the knowledge basis. But due to the huge societal and digital divide between rich and poor areas, e-learning is difficult to realize in the townships. Community health workers often act as mediators and coaches for people seeking medical and personal help. They could give good advice regarding hygiene, nutrition, protection of family members in case of HIV/AIDS and finding legal ways to earn one's living if they were trained to do so. Therefore they need to have a broader general knowledge. Since learning opportunities in the townships are scarce, a system for e-learning has to be created in order to overcome the lack of experience with computers or the Internet and to enable them to implement a network of expertise. The article describes how the best international resources on basic medical knowledge, HIV/AIDS as well as on basic economic and entrepreneurial skills were benchmarked to be integrated into an e-learning system. After tests with community health workers, researchers developed recommendations on building a self-sustaining system for learning, including a network of expertise and best practice sharing. The article explains the opportunities and challenges for community health workers, which could provide information for other parts of the world with similar preconditions of rural poverty. PMID:25733133
Nie, Kun; Ji, Zhe; Nakamori, Yoshiteru
This Paper presents a new approach how to analyze research topics within a given research community. Under the guidance of the I-system methodology, this paper conducts both top-down and bottom-up analysis. For the bottom-up analysis, similarity measurement and hierarchical clustering are applied to obtain a tree-like dendrogram structure of research topics; for the top-down analysis, the experts' knowledge is included. Then resulting from the iterative dialogue between the above two stages o...
Samuel Masresha Wassie; Leul Lisanework Aragie; Belaynew Wasie Taye; Laychiluh Bantie Mekonnen
Background. In Ethiopia, up to 80% of the population use traditional medicine for primary health care. Studies on the current knowledge and practices of communities in the era of modern health care expansion are lacking. Therefore, this study is aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitude, and practice of traditional medicine among communities in Merawi town. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 403 residents of Merawi town. A systematic random sampling was used t...
Blackstock, Oni J.; Mba-Jonas, Adamma; Sacajiu, Galit M.
Disparities in the rates of unintended pregnancy have increased for low-income African American women as compared to other groups due, in part, to declining contraception use. Women obtain family planning information from diverse sources, which may ultimately influence contraceptive decision making. For this qualitative study, we conducted…
Full Text Available background: The aims of filariasis elimination was to reduce the number of microfilariae (microfilaria rate/Mf rate in district/city to <1% in 2020. One of the principal activities of the filariasis elimination program is the prevention of filariasis mass drug administration (MDA in districts/cities with Mf rate of >1%. Coverage of the population who need to take medication on filariasis MDA activity is >85% of the target population. The objective of this study was to improve the coverage mass treatment through the public health promotion activities. Methods:The study design was quasi-experimental, ie to assess the knowledge, attitude and behavior of the population before and after filarisis health promotion activity. Number of people had interviewed were 117 respondents. results:The level of knowledge of respondents with a high category of filariasis increased after health promotion activity from 30.8% to 59.8%. The proportion of respondents with both categories attitude towards filariasis prevention activities increased after health promotion activity from 62.4% to 79.5%. The behavior of the respondents taking medication increased from 70.1% after health promotion to 88.9%. conclusions:Health promotion has proven to improve the knowledge, attitudes and compliance in the treatment of filariasis community (p < 0.05. recommendation: Conduct training to improve the knowledge of cadres & public about of filariasis through social activities.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Seniors Health Research Transfer Network (SHRTN Collaborative is a network of networks that work together to improve the health and health care of Ontario seniors. The collaborative facilitates knowledge exchange through a library service, knowledge brokers (KBs, local implementation teams, collaborative technology, and, most importantly, Communities of Practice (CoPs whose members work together to identify innovations, translate evidence, and help implement changes. This project aims to increase our understanding of knowledge-to-action (KTA processes mobilized through SHRTN CoPs that are working to improve the health of Ontario seniors. For this research, KTA refers to the movement of research and experience-based knowledge between social contexts, and the use of that knowledge to improve practice. We will examine the KTA processes themselves, as well as the role of human agents within those processes. The conceptual framework we have adopted to inform our research is the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS framework. Methods/design This study will use a multiple case study design (minimum of nine cases over three years to investigate how SHRTN CoPs work and pursue knowledge exchange in different situations. Each case will yield a unique narrative, framed around the three PARIHS dimensions: evidence, context, and facilitation. Together, the cases will shed light on how SHRTN CoPs approach their knowledge exchange initiatives, and how they respond to challenges and achieve their objectives. Data will be collected using interviews, document analysis, and ethnographic observation. Discussion This research will generate new knowledge about the defining characteristics of CoPs operating in the health system, on leadership roles in CoPs, and on the nature of interaction processes, relationships, and knowledge exchange mechanisms. Our work will yield a better understanding of the factors that
Gibbs, Andrew; Campbell, Catherine; Maimane, Sbongile
Globally, there is a renewed interest in building the local sustainability of HIV/AIDS programmes to ensure that once funders withdraw, local communities can sustain programmes. While the ‘local sustainability assumption’ is widespread, little research has assessed this. In this article, we assess the sustainability of the Entabeni Project, a community-based intervention that sought to build women's local leadership and capacity to respond to HIV/AIDS through a group of volunteer carers, 3 ye...
Idoko, Olubukola T.; Diallo, Aldiouma; Sow, Samba O.; Hodgson, Abraham; Akinsola, Adebayo; Diarra, Bou; Haidara, Fadima Cheick; Ansah, Patrick Odum; Kampmann, Beate; Bouma, Enricke; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Enwere, Godwin C.
Background. The Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP) was established to address epidemic meningitis as a public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa and, to that end, worked to develop a group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, PsA-TT. Methods. Experiences in 4 clinical trial sites are described. Culturally sensitive collaborative strategies were adopted to manage acceptable communication methods, peculiarities with the consent process, participant medical issues, community care, and death. Results. The clinical trials were completed successfully through community acceptance and active community collaboration. The trials also strengthened the capacities in the participating communities, and actively worked to resolve community problems. Conclusions. The understanding and integration of sociocultural realities of communities were major assets in the conduct and acceptance of these trials. MVP succeeded in these sites and provided a sound example for future clinical studies in Africa. Clinical Trials Registration. ISRTCN78147026 (PsA-TT 002); ISRCTN87739946 (PsA-TT 003); ISRCTN82484612 (PsA-TT 004); PACTR ATMR2010030001913177 (PsA-TT 006); and PACTR201110000328305 (PsA-TT 007). PMID:26553669
AUSTIN, SANDRA A.; CLAIBORNE, NANCY
Community-based participatory action research was utilized to form a collaboration that developed a Health Ministry program in four Northeastern urban Black Churches, in which they designed and implemented a culturally competent Type II Diabetes self management education program. Minister sponsorship and a program coordinator synchronized the four Health Ministries’ development and diabetes program planning. A case study design, and participant observations and a focus group methodology were ...
Yanek, Lisa R; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Kral, Brian G; Kalyani, Rita R; Moy, Taryn F; Stewart, Kerry J; Becker, Diane M
African Americans have a high prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity, but few interventions have been successful in the long term. We describe a 1-year intervention program to increase physical activity and reduce cardiometabolic risk. Interventions incorporated the premise that self-selection into flexible venues and varying exercise modalities would result in improvement in fitness and risk factors. Results of this single-group pretest/posttest observational study show 1-year overall group reductions in body weight and body mass index and cardiometabolic factors including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and increases in dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-derived absolute and percent lean mass and lean-fat ratio, and decreased fat mass. PMID:27536930
Ford, Marvella E.; Siminoff, Laura A.; Pickelsimer, Elisabeth; Mainous, Arch G.; Smith, Daniel W.; Diaz, Vanessa A.; Soderstrom, Lea H.; Jefferson, Melanie S.; Tilley, Barbara C.
African Americans and Latinos are underrepresented in clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to elicit solutions to participation barriers from African Americans and Latinos. Fifty-seven adults (32 African Americans, 25 Latinos) ages 50 years and older participated. The Institute of Medicine's "Unequal Treatment" conceptual framework was…
Butler, Charles E.; Martin, Frederick N.
A survey questionnaire of 32 adult deaf subjects evaluated their knowledge of and interest in audiology and services of audiologists. Issues examined included communication, practices in audiology, deafness, hearing, the auditory system, delivery of specific services to the deaf community and general interrelationships in the deaf community.…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Policies targeting obesogenic environments and behaviours are critical to counter rising obesity rates and lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs. Policies are likely to be most effective and enduring when they are based on the best available evidence. Evidence-informed policy making is especially challenging in countries with limited resources. The Pacific TROPIC (Translational Research for Obesity Prevention in Communities project aims to implement and evaluate a tailored knowledge-brokering approach to evidence-informed policy making to address obesity in Fiji, a Pacific nation challenged by increasingly high rates of obesity and concomitant NCDs. Methods The TROPIC project draws on the concept of ‘knowledge exchange’ between policy developers (individuals; organisations and researchers to deliver a knowledge broking programme that maps policy environments, conducts workshops on evidence-informed policy making, supports the development of evidence-informed policy briefs, and embeds evidence-informed policy making into organisational culture. Recruitment of government and nongovernment organisational representatives will be based on potential to: develop policies relevant to obesity, reach broad audiences, and commit to resourcing staff and building a culture that supports evidence-informed policy development. Workshops will increase awareness of both obesity and policy cycles, as well as develop participants’ skills in accessing, assessing and applying relevant evidence to policy briefs. The knowledge-broking team will then support participants to: 1 develop evidence-informed policy briefs that are both commensurate with national and organisational plans and also informed by evidence from the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project and elsewhere; and 2 collaborate with participating organisations to embed evidence-informed policy making structures and processes. This knowledge broking initiative
David Phipps; Daniele Zanotti
Since 2006, United Way of York Region and York University have been collaborating to support community-university knowledge mobilisation and research collaborations that serve the human service needs of citizens in York Region. Ours is a sustained and sustainable community-university collaboration. What makes us sustainable? Certainly there is no single sustainability panacea (‘do this and you to will have a sustainable community-university collaboration’) but, in general, if you pay attentio...
Fong, Timothy; Campos, Michael; Rosenthal, Richard; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Schwartz, Bryan; Davis, Alice; Chung, Bowen
Background Emerging data suggest that problem/pathological gambling may be highly prevalent among Asian-Pacific Islanders (APIs) and that can be a major concern to their communities. Methods This study surveyed problem/pathological gambling knowledge, attitudes, and perceived community impact of problem gambling among self-identified male and female APIs and non-APIs attending one of two API community events in Los Angeles County. Results Unexpectedly, our results indicated no effect for ethn...
Salwa Dawaki; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Init Ithoi; Jamaiah Ibrahim; Abdulsalam, Awatif M.; Abdulhamid Ahmed; Hany Sady; Nasr, Nabil A.; Atroosh, Wahib M
Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most common neglected tropical diseases, especially in the developing countries in Africa, Asia and South America, with Nigeria having the greatest number of cases of schistosomiasis worldwide. This community-based study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) regarding schistosomiasis among rural Hausa communities in Kano State, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 551 participants from Hausa communities ...
Theoretical part: Basic terms of knowledge management, knowledge worker, knowledge creation and conversion process, prerequisites and benefits of knowledge management. Knowledge management and it's connection to organizational culture and structure, result measurements of knowledge management, learning organization and it's connection to knowledge management. Tacit knowledge management tools -- stories -- types, how to create, practical use, communities, coaching. Value Based Organization. Pr...
Riggs, Eric M.
The purpose of this study is to propose a framework drawing on theoretical and empirical science education research that explains the common prominent field-based components of the handful of persistent and successful Earth science education programs designed for indigenous communities in North America. These programs are primarily designed for adult learners, either in a postsecondary or in a technical education setting and all include active collaboration between local indigenous communities and geoscientists from nearby universities. Successful Earth science curricula for indigenous learners share in common an explicit emphasis on outdoor education, a place and problem-based structure, and the explicit inclusion of traditional indigenous knowledge in the instruction. Programs sharing this basic design have proven successful and popular for a wide range of indigenous cultures across North America. We present an analysis of common field-based elements to yield insight into indigenous Earth science education. We provide an explanation for the success of this design based in research on field-based learning, Native American learning styles research, and theoretical and empirical research into the nature and structure of indigenous knowledge. We also provide future research directions that can test and further refine our understanding of best practices in indigenous Earth science education.
Joyner, Brandi L; Oden, Rosalind P; Moon, Rachel Y
To investigate African-American parental reasons for pacifier use or non-use, and whether knowledge of the association with decreased SIDS risk changes decisions about pacifier use. We conducted focus groups and individual interviews with mothers. Grounded theory methodology was used. 83 mothers participated; 72.3 % of infants used pacifiers. Reasons for pacifier use included comfort/soothing, safety/SIDS, and preference over digit-sucking. Reasons for pacifier non-use included infant refusal, fear of attachment, nipple confusion, and germs. Many parents were unaware that pacifier use reduces SIDS risk; however, most parents of non-users did not think that this knowledge would have changed their decision. Reasons included skepticism about the pacifier-SIDS link. Many reasons underlie African-American parental decisions about pacifier use. Providers should provide information about the benefits of pacifiers. Establishing for parents any plausible link between the protective mechanism of pacifiers and SIDS pathophysiology may be important in promoting pacifier use. PMID:25864091
da Costa, Lanna Jamile Corrêa; Fernandes, Marcus Emanuel Barroncas
Background The occurrence of outbreaks of human rabies transmitted by Desmodus rotundus in Brazil in 2004 and 2005 reinforced the need for further research into this zoonosis. Studies of knowledge and practices related to the disease will help to define strategies for the avoidance of new cases, through the identification of gaps that may affect the preventive practices. Methodology/Principal findings A semi-structured questionnaire was applied to 681 residents of twelve communities of northeastern Pará state involved in the 2004 and 2005 outbreaks mentioned above. The objective was to evaluate the local knowledge and practices related to the disease. We found a highly significant difference (prabies among education levels, indicating that education is a primary determinant of knowledge on this disease. More than half of the respondents (63%) recognized the seriousness of the zoonosis, and 50% were aware of the importance of bats for its transmission, although few individuals (11%) were familiar with the symptoms, and only 40% knew methods of prevention. Even so, 70% of pet owners maintained their animals vaccinated, and 52% of the respondents bitten by bats had received post-exposure vaccination. Most of the respondents (57%) reported being familiarized with rabies through informal discussions, and only a few (23%) mentioned public health agents as the source of their information. Conclusion/Significance We identified many gaps in the knowledge and practices of the respondents regarding rabies. This may be the result of the reduced participation of public health agents in the transfer of details about the disease. The lack of knowledge may be a direct determinant in the occurrence of new outbreaks. Given these findings, there is a clear need for specific educational initiatives involving the local population and the public health entities, with the primary aim of contributing to the prevention of rabies. PMID:26927503
Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S; Mølbak, Kare;
In a household survey in Guinea-Bissau, 319 episodes of diarrhea in children were followed by interviews every second day with the aim of investigating perceived morbidity and subsequent actions taken. The majority of the mothers had good knowledge of oral rehydration salts (ORS). However, only 58......% of the episodes were treated with ORS and the amount given was insufficient. Mothers with no knowledge of ORS did not use it during the observed attack of diarrhea regardless of contact with a health center, which suggests that maternal knowledge is an important determinant of whether health...... personnel provide ORS. Children with diarrhea considered to be caused by teething were less likely to receive ORS in the acute phase (risk ratio = 0.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.5-0.9). Univariate analyses showed that the use of ORS was related to number of reported symptoms, the mother being the...
Full Text Available To assess the knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR among the nurses ( n= 302 of community-based health services in Hainan province of China, a survey was made by randomized stratified cluster sampling using self-designed questionnaires. The passing rate for qualification of the knowledge of CPR was found to be very low in Hainan province (23.18 %. A significant difference of regions and different educational level among the nurses were also noticed (P<0.01. It may be concluded from the study that nurses of community-based health services in Hainan province lack the basic knowledge of CPR, especially in rural region.
A.A. Adedotun, O.A. Morenikeji , A.B. Odaibo
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Oyo is an urban community in Oyo state of south-western Nigeria andit is holoendemic for malaria. Information was collected on the knowledge, attitudes and practices(KAP of inhabitants of Oyo town in relation to malaria.Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 192 households with the aid of self- or researcher-administeredquestionnaires was carried out to identify factors associated with the disease in the area.Results: About 93.2% (n=192 of respondents recognized mosquito bites as the cause of malaria. Asmall proportion of children (13.7% and adults (5.3% received prompt treatment; however, moreadults (65.8% got correct dosage of antimalarials than children (38.7%. About 90% of suspectedmalaria cases in children and adults were first treated at home with local herbs or drugs, purchasedfrom medicine stores. The use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs was scarce as only 16.7% ofhouseholds used them for their children. Other reported malaria prevention methods include theuse of insecticides (79.7% and herbs (44.3%. In all, 17 (8.9% of households did not have screeningnets on their windows and 6.3% of 175 households with screening nets on their windows had rustyand torn nets. The level of education of heads of households was a strong predictor of positivemalaria-related KAP. Window types and environmental hygiene were associated with prevalenceof malaria in households.Interpretation & conclusion: The control of malaria cannot be achieved without full involvementof the affected communities; the available tools for control can only be effective and sustainable ifthe local communities are mobilized and empowered with knowledge. It is suggested that healtheducation campaigns be intensified; chemist shop-keepers and mothers being important targetgroups
Roder, Giulia; Ruljigaljig, Tjuku; Lin, Ching-Weei; Tarolli, Paolo
The purpose of this work is to investigate the natural hazard knowledge and risk perception of Wujie indigenous community, located in Fazhi Village in the Central Mountain Range of Taiwan. Taiwan has encountered many different types of natural hazards (e.g. landslides and debris flows) that have increased sharply in the last century. Because of that, they are one of the most critical issues for the government and for the people living in mountainous areas. These areas are mainly populated by indigenous people that have experienced economic competition and military conflict with a series of colonizing periods causing a progressive loss of their original cultural identity. The motivation of selecting the case study of Wujie community is because (i) it has suffered, more than others, generations of devastating colonial oppression by foreign governments; (ii) the consequences of hydroelectric projects that moved a lot of water and sediment to the valley and modified the path of the river through the years; (iii) the documented landslides and debris flows occurred in the region during the last decades. Two questions appear spontaneously: How indigenous people are nowadays living with natural hazards? Have land use change or any other human footprint affected their knowledge and perception on natural hazards? This research, the first carried out in Taiwan involving an indigenous community, can offer a unique opportunity to answer these questions. The investigation utilized a variety of participatory methods conducted at the household and community level by the use of 65 face-to-face interviews. Results revealed that residents felt a higher worry about landslide and flood risks, and a slight preparedness to face them. This discrepancy may derive from an unsatisfactory level of communication and information, and the most considerable differences were found between the evaluations of individual subjects as opposed to overall communities. Results revealed also the complexity
Ruljigaljig, T.; Huang, M. L.
This study development interface for Mobile Application (App) use cloud technology, Web 2.0 and online community of technology to build the Environmental-Geological Disaster Network(EDN). The interaction App platform between expert knowledge and community is developed as a teaching tool, which bases on the open data released by Central Geological Survey. The APP can through Augmented Reality technology to potential hazards position through the camera lens, the real show in real-world environment. The interaction with experts in the community to improve the general public awareness of disaster. Training people to record the occurrence of geological disasters precursor, thereby awakened their to natural disaster consciousness and attention.General users obtain real-time information during travel, mountaineering and teaching process. Using App platform to upload and represent the environmental geological disaster data collected by themselves. It is expected that by public joint the open platform can accumulate environmental geological disaster data effectively, quickly, extensively and correctly. The most important thing of this study is rooting the concept of disaster prevention, reduction, and avoidance through public participation.
Full Text Available Once local expert knowledge regarding the harvesting of various non-timber forest products (NTFPs is lost, it is difficult to recover. We investigated whether the knowledge of expert forest harvesters can be used to determine the habitat distribution and harvesting sites of three popular edible wild ferns, i.e., ostrich fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris, bracken (Pteridium aquilinum, and royal fern (Osmunda japonica, in mountainous communities of western Fukushima, Japan. Using multi-criteria evaluation (MCE based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP and geographic information system (GIS, we found that harvesters were easily able to recognize differences in the spatial characteristics of the habitat distribution of fern species due to both natural and anthropogenic factors. These factors were described by various GIS layers, such as vegetation and terrain features (e.g., gradient, aspect, and slope position derived from a 20-m digital elevation model (DEM. Harvesting sites were limited by their distance from a roadway, which differed among species. By comparison with the GPS records of actual harvesting sites, we estimated the potential harvesting sites of each fern species with reasonable accuracy, particularly for bracken. Our results show that the knowledge of expert forest harvesters can be quantified using MCE and GIS, which is useful for determining the spatial characteristics of NTFP harvesting and ensuring sustainable management practices.
Jeannie van der Linde; De Wet Swanepoel; Glascoe, Frances P.; Louw, E.M.; Jannie F.M. Hugo; Bart Vinck
Background For optimal development young children need warm, responsive, enriched and communicative environments for learning social, language, and other skills. Infants and toddlers exposed to psychosocial risk lack enriched environments and may present with communication delays. Aim To investigate the relationship between psychosocial risks and communication delays in infants from underserved communities in South Africa. Setting Primary healthcare facilities in Tshwane district, South Afric...
Lynch Ervin, Saundra Elaina
Research in the area of student engagement has shown that the more engaged minority students are with faculty and staff, with other students, and with the subject matter they study, the more likely they are to learn and persist toward achieving their academic goals. Secondary data from the Community College Survey of Student Engagement (CCSSE)…
Moore, Leslie C.
This article examines variation in family religious language policy in a Muslim community in West Africa. Taking an ethnographically grounded case study approach, I situate families' choices with regards to their children's religious (language) education within the larger linguistic, social, and cultural context, focusing on new influences on…
Lombard, Wendy; Burke, Jodi; Waddell, Sandra; Franke, Arthur
This research note underscores the importance of including strategies to address gender-based disparities when planning and implementing community health improvement programs. Working in collaboration with the Inkster Partnership for a Healthier Community (IPHC), the National Kidney Foundation of Michigan conducted a gender-based analysis as part of its broader community health needs assessment efforts in Inkster, MI. The findings from these studies revealed significant challenges impacting women that were not being adequately addressed within the community. In response to these findings, the IPHC created a strategic action plan to respond to the highest priority needs by increasing community awareness of and linkages to resources that provide supportive services for low-income African-American women. PMID:25542367
Matome M Ratiba
Full Text Available Throughout the years cultural communities across the world have borne witness to many unending attempts at the destruction of their places of worship. This endemic problem has arisen in a number of places, such as in the USA and in most of the world's former colonies. Having been colonised, South African cultural communities have experienced the same threats to their various sacred sites. This article seeks to argue and demonstrate that cultural communities in South Africa stand to benefit from the properly construed and rich earth jurisprudence arising out of the courtroom experiences of some of the cultural communities identified elsewhere in the world. It also proposes several arguments peculiar to South Africa which could be advanced by cultural communities seeking to protect their sacred lands.
Full Text Available Hypertension is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Despite this, patients often cannot or inaccurately estimate their risk factors.Objectives: In order to improve pharmacist interventions, we sought to: 1 find out patients’ knowledge about blood pressure (BP and their self- monitoring behaviors and 2 identify the relationships between these two elements. Specifically, if evaluation of BP control were related to knowledge of one’s BP level and self-monitoring habits, and if knowledge of one’s target and BP level varied with monitoring habits. Methods: Final year pharmacy students were trained and interviewed patients in community pharmacies as a required exercise in their pharmacy clerkship. Each student recruited a convenience sample of 5-10 patients who were on hypertension medication, and surveyed them regarding their BP targets, recent BP levels as well as monthly and home BP monitoring practices. Results: One third of the 449 patients interviewed were able to report a blood pressure target with 26% reporting a JNC 7 recognized target. Three quarters of patients who reported a blood pressure target were able to report a blood pressure level, with 12% being at their self- reported target. Roughly two thirds of patients perceived their BP to be “about right”, and slightly less than a third thought it to be “high”. Sixty percent of patients monitor their BP monthly, but less than 50% of patients practice home BP monitoring. Conclusions: This study along with others before it point to the knowledge and self-management gaps in patients with chronic conditions. Furthermore, pharmacy students were able to use a brief intervention to screen patients during routine care. Pharmacists can help improve patient understanding and promote increased self-management through regular BP monitoring.
Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease causes 30% of deaths globally. By comparison, infectious disease accounts for 10% of global mortality. As these statistics indicate, cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in the world. In South Africa, through urbanisation and changes in lifestyle and dietary habits, the prevalence of risk factors and, by extension, the resulting morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease in black people, are expected to increase. Owing to the natural progression of the disease, the first ‘westernised illness’ is hypertension, which is very prevalent among the black population. Knowledge and awareness of risk factors are essential components of behaviour change; however, little is known about the knowledge and awareness of cardiovascular disease among the working-age people in the Ga-Rankuwa community. The purpose of the study was therefore to determine the knowledge and awareness of the identified risk factors among the working-age people (18-40 years old in the Ga-Rankuwa community. The design was a quantitative survey. The study sample (n=604 was selected from zones 1, 2, 4 and 16 of Ga-Rankuwa to determine the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Only people with an identified risk factor were included in the knowledge and awareness survey (n=551. Data was gathered from July to October 2005. The data gathering was self- reported with a structured questionnaire. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and statistical analysis. The results obtained from the knowledge and awareness survey indicate that knowledge and awareness of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease are low in the Ga-Rankuwa community. Opsomming Kardiovaskulêre siektes veroorsaak 30% van sterftes wêreldwyd. In vergelyking veroorsaak aansteeklike siektes net 10% van die sterftes wêreldwyd. Kardiovaskulêre siektes is dus die mees algemene oorsaak van sterftes. In Suid-Afrika, as gevolg van
Full Text Available The use of multivitamins within a pharmaceutical setting has been the subject of considerable debate.Objective: This research aimed to provide a platform for assessing and evaluating knowledge, attitudes and professional practices of Jordaninan community pharmacists in counselling patients about the safe consumption of vitamins.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2009 and May 2010. Data collection was carried out using a 44-item semi-structured self-administrated questionnaire. Setting: Community pharmacies in Amman with target sample of 400 pharmacists.Results: A total of 388 pharmacists participated in this study. The majority (77.8% of pharmacists believed that a balanced diet is more achievable by eating healthily than by vitamins supplements. 78.1% of participants believed that vitamins deficiency would not shorten life spans, while 80.7% agreed that vitamin supplements could be toxic or might contain unlabelled harmful ingredients. Less than half of pharmacists were aware that some antioxidant vitamins have been verified to be of unproven value, or may even cause cancer. While over 80% of pharmacists would recommend vitamins on a regular basis without prescription, the majority agreed that counselling on vitamin supplements is part of their role in pharmaceutical care (93.3%, in addition to providing relevant information to other healthcare professionals (78.4%. Moreover, responses to specific knowledge questions, such as the interactions of vitamins with drugs or the recommended dietary allowance of vitamins for infants, children, and pregnant women, were negative. Furthermore, only a minority of pharmacists would recheck the accuracy of dose regimens in prescriptions and symptoms of true vitamins deficiency or would follow up patients to record any consequences of vitamins consumption.Conclusion: The questionnaire revealed satisfactory awareness of community pharmacists about their role in counselling; however
Berling, Trine Villumsen
Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works as...... a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism and...... reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus on...
Understanding the social impacts of tourism is important as it enables tourism managers and developers to manage the impacts toward fostering vital community support for the industry. More so the distinction between the tangible and intangible social impacts can refine tourism management, development and marketing processes. The measurement and management of these impacts are fairly straight forward in developed countries. However in developing countries, such as South Africa, ...
Raven, Joanna; Akweongo, Patricia; Baba, Amuda; Baine, Sebastian Olikira; Sall, Mohamadou Guelaye; Buzuzi, Stephen; Martineau, Tim
Background Like any other health worker, community health workers (CHWs) need to be supported to ensure that they are able to contribute effectively to health programmes. Management challenges, similar to those of managing any other health worker, relate to improving attraction, retention and performance. Methods Exploratory case studies of CHW programmes in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Senegal, Uganda and Zimbabwe were conducted to provide an understanding of the practices for su...
One percent of a world population earns over 20 000 USD per year, while the other 99 percent struggle to survive. Although acknowledging the valuable development work which several non-governmental organizations have accomplished, this licentiate thesis demonstrates how to bridge these two separate worlds and build a sustainable flourishing learning Village Community. The face-to-face interview study, literature review, and reference studies highlight the needs of villagers and the role of su...
K. P. Mashige; O. A. Oduntan; Rampersad, N.
Community service (CS) was introduced inSouth Africa in an attempt to address the shortageand maldistribution of health care professionalswithin the public sector. The Professional Board forOptometry and Dispensing Opticians (PBODO)has approved legislation for the introductionof CS for graduating optometry students. This study examined the perceptions and opinionsof graduating optometry students regarding the proposed CS. A mixed-method design(questionnaires and interviews) was used. Bothappr...
Schoenfeld, Elinor R; Francis, Linda E
African American men face the highest rates of prostate cancer, yet with no consensus for screening and treatment, making informed health care decisions is difficult. This study aimed to identify approaches to empowering African American men as proactive participants in prostate cancer decision making using an established community-campus partnership employing elements of community-based participatory research methods. Community stakeholders with an interest in, and knowledge about, health care in two local African American communities were recruited and completed key informant interviews (N = 39). Grounded theory coding identified common themes related to prostate cancer knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and responses to them. Common barriers such as gender roles, fear, and fatalism were identified as barriers to work-up and treatment, and both communities' inadequate and inaccurate prostate cancer information described as the key problem. To build on community strengths, participants said the change must come from inside these communities, not be imposed from the outside. To accomplish this, they suggested reaching men through women, connecting men to doctors they can trust, making men's cancer education part of broader health education initiatives designed as fun and inexpensive family entertainment events, and having churches bring community members in to speak on their experiences with cancer. This study demonstrated the success of community engagement to identify not only barriers but also local strengths and facilitators to prostate cancer care in two suburban/rural African American communities. Building collaboratively on community strengths may improve prostate cancer care specifically and health care in general. PMID:25595017
Tempelhoff, J W N
Since their relocation in 2004 to Platfontein near Kimberley in South Africa’s Northern Cape Province, members of the !Xun and Khwe San, originally from the northern parts of Namibia and southern Angola, became a first generation African community grappling with urbanisation in a rapidly modernising South Africa. The Platfontein area, a number of farms with a settlement housing complex accommodating about 7 000 people, is currently an emergent urban area in which residents have...
The purpose of this study was to explore and describe post-graduate students‟ reflections on relational qualities that may enhance relational well-being in South African school communities. The research formed part of a broader research project, entitled “Relational well-being in school communities”. The researcher applied the Gestalt paradigm and the theories of existential dialogue and the field theory to this study. A qualitative, interpretive, descriptive design was followed. Non-probabil...
International Monetary Fund
The report provides a summary of the level of compliance at the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC) regional level and provides recommendations to improve compliance. The assessment focuses on the regional Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism (AML-CLT) framework and its conformity with international standard. The paper reviews the institutional framework, laws, regulations, guidelines, and other requirements, and the regulatory and other systems i...
Ernest, Richard D.
The Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) has been used to determine which polar-orbiter satellite channels are best suited to remotely sense in a cloud-free environment the lower-tropospheric temperature and moisture gradients that determine the location and intensity of the African Easterly Jet over West Africa. This study evaluates the capability of five microwave sensors and three infrared sensors, including both conical- and cross-track scanning instruments. Atmospheric profiles ...
Frausin, Victoria; Fraser, James Angus; Narmah, Woulay; Lahai, Morrison K; Winnebah, Thomas R. A.; Fairhead, James; Leach, Melissa
This paper describes West African farming practices and knowledge that lead to the formation of carbon-rich high-fertility African Dark Earths (AfDE) – human-made soils analogous to Amazonian terra preta, yet subject to continuing production and use. Gender relations and women’s roles are central to how these soils are produced and used. Through social and ecological field studies in Liberia and Sierra Leone we detail how AfDE formation and associated knowledge is gender-differentiated, the c...
Celia O. Larson, PhD
Full Text Available IntroductionThe objective of our study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Medical Outcomes Study’s 12-Item Short Form Survey Instrument (SF-12 for use in a low-income African American community. The SF-12, a commonly used functional health status assessment, was developed based on responses of an ethnically homogeneous sample of whites. Our assessment addressed the appropriateness of the instrument for establishing baseline indicators for mental and physical health status as part of Nashville, Tennessee’s, Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH 2010 initiative, a community-based participatory research study.MethodsA cross-sectional random residential sample of 1721 African Americans responded to a telephone survey that included the SF-12 survey items and other indicators of mental and physical health status. The SF-12 was assessed by examining item-level characteristics, estimates of scale reliability (internal consistency, and construct validity.ResultsConstruct validity assessed by the method of extreme groups determined that SF-12 summary scores varied for individuals who differed in self-reported medical conditions. Convergent and discriminate validity assessed by multitrait analysis yielded satisfactory coefficients. Concurrent validity was also shown to be satisfactory, assessed by correlating SF-12 summary scores with independent measures of physical and mental health status.ConclusionThe SF-12 appears to be a valid measure for assessing health status of low-income African Americans.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health services and population health innovations advance when knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE occurs among researchers, practitioners, policy-makers and consumers using high-quality evidence. However, few KTE models have been evaluated in practice. Communities of practice (CoP – voluntary, self-organizing, and focused groups of individuals and organizations – may provide one option. This paper outlines an approach to lay the foundation for a CoP within the area of Web-assisted tobacco interventions (WATI. The objectives of the study were to provide a data-driven foundation to inform decisions about organizing a CoP within the geographically diverse, multi-disciplinary WATI group using evaluation and social network methodologies. Methods A single-group design was employed using a survey of expectations, knowledge, and interpersonal WATI-related relationships administered prior to a meeting of the WATI group followed by a 3-week post-meeting Web survey to assess short-term impact on learning and networking outcomes. Results Twenty-three of 27 WATI attendees (85% from diverse disciplinary and practice backgrounds completed the baseline survey, with 21 (91% of those participants completing the three-week follow-up. Participants had modest expectations of the meeting at baseline. A social network map produced from the data illustrated a centralized, yet sparse network comprising of interdisciplinary teams with little trans-sectoral collaboration. Three-week follow-up survey results showed that participants had made new network connections and had actively engaged in KTE activities with WATI members outside their original network. Conclusion Data illustrating both the shape and size of the WATI network as well as member's interests and commitment to KTE, when shared and used to frame action steps, can positively influence the motivation to collaborate and create communities of practice. Guiding KTE planning through
Gregory, Nathan C; Sensenig, Ryan L; Wilcove, David S
In East Africa fire and grazing by wild and domestic ungulates maintain savannas, and pastoralists historically set fires and herded livestock through the use of temporary corrals called bomas. In recent decades traditional pastoral practices have declined, and this may be affecting biodiversity. We investigated the effects of prescribed fires and bomas on savanna bird communities in East Africa during the first and second dry seasons of the year (respectively before and after the rains that mark the onset of breeding for most birds). We compared abundance, richness, and community composition on 9-ha burned plots, recently abandoned bomas, and control plots in the undisturbed matrix habitat over a 3-year period. Generally, recently burned areas and abandoned bomas attracted greater densities of birds and had different community assemblages than the surrounding matrix. The effects of disturbances were influenced by interactions between primary productivity, represented by the normalized difference vegetation index, and time. Bird densities were highest and a greater proportion of species was observed on burned plots in the months following the fires. Drought conditions equalized bird densities across treatments within 1 year, and individuals from a greater proportion of species were more commonly observed on abandoned bomas. Yearly fluctuations in abundance were less pronounced on bomas than on burns, which indicate that although fire may benefit birds in the short term, bomas may have a more-lasting positive effect and provide resources during droughts. Several Palearctic migrants were attracted to burned plots regardless of rainfall, which indicates continued fire suppression may threaten their already-declining populations. Most notably, the paucity of birds observed on the controls suggests that the current structure of the matrix developed as a result of fire suppression. Traditional pastoralism appears critical to the maintenance of avian diversity in these
Meinck, F; Cluver, LD; Boyes, ME
Sexual abuse has severe negative impacts on children's lives, but little is known about risk factors for sexual abuse victimization in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examined prospective predictors of contact sexual abuse in a random community-based sample of children aged 10 to 17 years (N = 3,515, 56.6% female) in South Africa. Self-report questionnaires using validated scales were completed at baseline and at 1-year follow-up (96.8% retention rate). Cross-sectional and longitudinal associa...
Anggi Septia Irawan
Full Text Available Background: Malaria was becoming a re-emerging disease in central java, especially for Kebumen Regency, it has been hit by malaria outbreak with the increasing case. A study was conducted in rural area of sub district Rowokele, Kebumen, Central java to identify local knowledge and practice of the community that has been becoming one of the important factors for vector borne disease control, including malaria control. Methods: This research was conducted between June 2011 and November 2011, applying qualitative method with ethnoscience approach. Data were retrieved from in-depth interviews and focus-group. Qualitative thematic content analysis was applied to understanding sharpening of the social and cultural aspect of malaria disease. Results:Qualitative method using in-depth interview able to explain several findings, such as the result of a local term of malaria, called “udug-udug” in rowokele sub-district. It shows the insufficient understanding of malaria signs and symptoms in the sub of villages, it leads to delay for illness recognition and its treatment. Conclution: Misperceptions on the preventive activities, as well as confusion of malaria with dengue fever, were identified. This study detected risk group of malaria infection in community practices such as a farmer who works in the forest and seasonal migration. Recommendation:Promotion intensification and health education on vector, prevention and therapy are important to be introduced.
Ahmed, I S; Eltom, A R; Karrar, Z A; Gibril, A R
A survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices of mothers in the rural communities of two villages in Sudan regarding diarrhoeal diseases in children was conducted using a focus group research technique. Seven groups of literate mothers (87 mothers) and 13 groups of illiterate mothers (152 mothers) interviewed comprised 85% of mothers with children under 5 years of age in that community. The study showed that mothers can define and describe diarrhoea, however awareness about the aetiology and the importance of germs in its causation was low. The majority of mothers attributed diarrhoea to teething, milk of pregnant women, hot food and salty water. Less than 40% of mothers identify symptoms and signs of "dehydration" and the need for consultation. Only 10% could relate danger signs to severe dehydration. The ORS use rate was very low (2.1-4.3%). Although awareness about ORS was high (100%), only 25% prepared and used it correctly. However, home made fluids including rice water, custard, pap and tabaladi juice were used by 45% of the mothers. 45% of illiterate mothers stop breast feeding and food during diarrhoea compared to 30% of literate mothers. Harmful practices used in caring for children with diarrhoea included: fumigation (50%), cauterization and removal of teeth buds (45% illiterate mothers, 10% literate), withholding of breast feeding and indiscriminate use of drugs and herbs in 30%. PMID:7859655
Shendell, Derek G; Alexander, Melannie S; Huang, Yuqi
About one in five Americans spends a considerable number of hours in school each week, and thus, is exposed to a variety of environmental agents. Community health nursing professionals require resources and specific training to acquire the environmental knowledge needed to raise personal and community awareness as an enhancement of their practice. Given limited resources for schools and local public health education initiatives, identifying and prioritizing environmental concerns comes before actions to prevent or reduce exposures. With the rise in prevalence of childhood asthma, of special concern are those agents within the school environment that may serve as asthma triggers. This pilot project, within a larger study in a large school district in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, developed and piloted an environmental health priorities survey with school nurses and other school staff about indoor and outdoor microenvironments relevant to school-aged children. Findings indicate that participants (N = 34) could prioritize environmental issues to inform future intervention activities (such as continuing education training), and distinguish predominantly indoor from typical outdoor exposure agents and their major sources. PMID:20361441
Full Text Available It is suggested by various sources (Worldbank, 2000; Cypher, 1997 that investment in infrastructure and modern technologies such as ITC's may break down some of the barriers of access such as physical remoteness for poor rural communities. However there is little existing research that examines this sce-nario at the micro level. This paper uses a case study- the Rural Women's Association (RWA of Sek-huhkuneland, Northern Province, South Africa to examine if E- commerce can enable access to markets in an impoverished, under resourced rural location. This paper has five parts: Part 1 consists of the background and rationale for this study, Part 2 focuses on the education, business acumen and gender issues. Part 3 discusses the current market environment. Part 4 discusses possible business models that can integrate e-commerce in its implementation. Part 5 provides the research questions and the method-ology for this study. The final discussion in this study provides us with a viable e-commerce model that could be used in a rural setting and could provide greater economic development for this community.
Full Text Available The relation between theory and practice in social work has always been controversial. Recently, many have underlined how language is crucial in order to capture how knowledge is used in practice. This article introduces a language perspective to the issue, rooted in the ‘strong programme’ in the sociology of knowledge and in Wittgenstein’s late work. According to this perspective, the meaning of categories and concepts corresponds to the use that concrete actors make of them as a result of on-going negotiation processes in specific contexts. Meanings may vary dramatically across social groups moved by different interests and holding different cultures. Accordingly, we may reformulate the issue of theory and practice in terms of the connections between different language games and power relationship between segments of the professional community. In this view, the point is anyway to look at how theoretical language relates to practitioners’ broader frames, and how it is transformed while providing words for making sense of experience.
McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J; Massey, Robin; Hay, Phillipa J; Mond, Jonathan M; Rodgers, Bryan
Addressing stigma through social marketing campaigns has the potential to enhance currently low rates of treatment seeking and improve the well-being of individuals with the eating disorder bulimia nervosa. This study aimed to evaluate the persuasiveness of health messages designed to reduce stigma and improve mental health literacy about this disorder. A community sample of 1,936 adults (48.2% male, 51.8% female) from Victoria, Australia, provided (a) self-report information on knowledge and stigma about bulimia nervosa and (b) ratings of the persuasiveness of 9 brief health messages on dimensions of convincingness and likelihood of changing attitudes. Messages were rated moderately to very convincing and a little to moderately likely to change attitudes toward bulimia nervosa. The most persuasive messages were those that emphasized that bulimia nervosa is a serious mental illness and is not attributable to personal failings. Higher ratings of convincingness were associated with being female, with having more knowledge about bulimia nervosa, and with lower levels of stigma about bulimia nervosa. Higher ratings for likelihood of changing attitudes were associated with being female and with ratings of the convincingness of the corresponding message. This study provides direction for persuasive content to be included in social marketing campaigns to reduce stigma toward bulimia nervosa. PMID:26383053
Ash, Mary Callis
ASH, MARY CALLIS, Ph.D. Contributions to a Herpetological Community of Practice: Funds of Knowledge of Lumbee Youth. (2015) Directed by Dr. Catherine Matthews. 348 pp. American Indian K-12 students comprise less than 1% of the student population in the US. In southeastern North Carolina, the largest North Carolina tribe of American Indians, Lumbees, live and attend schools where they often perform poorly on standardized tests. The Lumbee Indians generally live in areas that are rural and economically disadvantaged and they speak a dialect of English, which is seldom heard except near their homeland. Away from their homeland, Lumbee speech is often construed as non-Standard English. The Lumbees have close knit family relationships and where you come from and where you live are important facts to assess. Because Lumbees live in rural areas, they are often involved in outdoor activities such as hunting, fishing, and gardening. They have a strong sense of place, particularly regarding the Lumber River, which runs through their homeland. Historically, schools, community organizations and universities have not provided sufficient informal science education opportunities for Lumbee youth. The purpose of this study was to document the experiences of nine Lumbee youths at a residential, week-long herpetological education experience for Lumbee students and others. The Funds of Knowledge (FoK) that these students brought to this experience and how these FoK were integrated into the herpetology program's Community of Practice (CoP) were examined. A mixed methods, ethnographically inspired, single case study was conducted and both qualitative and quantitative data were collected. Data collected included individual interviews, pre/post-tests, pre/post-surveys, observations and field notes. Analyses of qualitative and quantitative data demonstrated specific FoK of these Lumbee youths and the strategies they employed to be dynamic, contributing members of the informal science
Fong, Cresencia G. W.
This thesis presents a design-based research study of a new technology enhanced learning environment called Common Knowledge (CK), which supports students and teachers as they create socially shared notes, including tags, votes, and other forms of interactive knowledge construction. The research served to advance CK through 3 iterations, examining and extending the specific forms of technology, as well as the designs for activity sequences and teacher-mediated discussions. Two teachers participated, with their grade 5/6 students, in all three iterations. The teachers were actively involved in planning and designing the inquiry sequences, informing the designs of CK features, and giving feedback during and after the enactments. In early iterations, CK was employed as a stand-alone brainstorming and reflection tool, used to complement a broader inquiry activity where students collectively investigate a simulated phenomenon that is embedded within their classroom walls. In the final iteration, CK was employed as a scaffolding environment for a structured inquiry progression that included several phases for brainstorming, proposing topics, and open investigations. Discourse episodes are coded and analyzed to reveal patterns of interaction between teachers, students, and the shared knowledge base. Each iteration of CK is examined in terms of the interplay between technology features, activity sequences, and the forms of teacher-guided discourse that emerge to support effective enactment. Because the inquiry topics, technology features and activity sequences vary from one iteration to the next, the teacher-guided discussions must play different roles and make use of CK note content and other knowledge elements in different ways. An activity systems approach is well suited to the interpretation of such interdependencies, as patterns of discourse can be understood as emerging to meet the system requirements, given the fixed set of technology affordances and well defined
Li, Jie; Li, Juan; Huang, Yuanguang; THORNICROFT, GRAHAM
Background In order to reduce the huge treatment gap in mental health, WHO has called for integrating mental health into primary care. The purposes of this study are to provide a training course to improve the community mental health staff’s knowledge of mental health and reduce stigma related to mental illness, as well as to evaluate the impact of this training on knowledge and stigma. Methods The training intervention was a one day course for community mental health staff in Guangzhou, Chin...
Cabieses, Baltica; Ferrer, Lilian; Villarroel, Luis; Tunstall, Helena; Norr, Kathleen
Objective Testing the hypothesis of an association between knowledge and sexual risk behaviour (SRB) amongst community-clinic workers in Chile, explained by the confounding effect of self-perceived vulnerability to HIV. Methods A cross-sectional survey was analyzed; it was nested within a quasiexperimental study of 720 community-clinic workers in Santiago. The SRB score combined the number of sexual partners and condom use (coded as “high”/”low” SRB). Knowledge of HIV (a 25-item index) was co...
Cabieses Valdes, Baltica; Ferrer Lagunas, Lilian; Villarroel del Pino, Luis; Tunstall, Helena; Norr, Kathleen
Objective: To test the hypothesis of an association between knowledge and sexual risk behaviours (SRB) among community-clinic workers in Chile, explained by the confounding effect of self-perceived vulnerability to HIV. Methods: Analysis of a cross-sectional survey, nested within a quasi-experimental study of 720 community-clinic workers in Santiago. The SRB score combined number of sexual partners and condom use, coded as “high”/“low” SRB. The Knowledge of HIV, a 25-item index, was coded as ...
Wegscheider, S.; Post, J.; Zosseder, K.; Mück, M.; Strunz, G.; T. Riedlinger; A. Muhari; H. Z. Anwar
More than 4 million Indonesians live in tsunami-prone areas along the southern and western coasts of Sumatra, Java and Bali. Although a Tsunami Early Warning Center in Jakarta now exists, installed after the devastating 2004 tsunami, it is essential to develop tsunami risk knowledge within the exposed communities as a basis for tsunami disaster management. These communities need to implement risk reduction strategies to mitigate potential consequences.
The major aims of t...
Aminu U Kaoje; Mohammed Yahaya; Sabir, Anas A.; Mansur O Raji; Saad Abdulmumin; Ango U Mohammed
Background: Since the discovery of Ebola in 1967, many localized outbreaks have occurred but the recent cross-border epidemic was fueled by the high level of illiteracy and some bad cultural practices. Aim: To assess the awareness, knowledge, and misconceptions of Ebola among residents of a rural community in Sokoto State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used. The study was conducted in a rural community and the participants were selected using the systemati...
Swati Mahapatra; Chahat Narula; Chander Pal Thakur; Tapan Jyoti Kalita; Rakesh Mehra
Introduction: In India, community health workers are the main source of information for family planning services and male population want to interact and discuss with them to clear their doubts about male oriented family planning methods. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and perception of community health workers regarding the modern male sterilization method. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Simdega district of Jharkhand. The target ...
Kioko, Kimongu J; John F. Obiri
Ensuring safe drinking water remains a big challenge in developing countries where waterborne diseases cause havoc in many communities. A major challenge is limited knowledge, misinformation and attitudes that work against ensuring that drinking water is safe. This study investigated the knowledge, attitudes and practices of peri-urban households in Kakamega Town of Western Kenya, concerning the collection, treatment and storage of drinking water. Alongside this we examined the role of solid...
Sechi, Guido; Skilters, Jurgis; Selecka, Marta; Berzina, Krista; Brice, Liva
The role of ICT infrastructure in enhancing innovation processes through fostering knowledge and information exchange is a controversial topic in regional science. Opposing views exist, in particular, with regard to two topics: a) the persistence of a specific role of geographical proximity in knowledge exchange processes in the age of global virtual networking; b) the capability of virtual networking to recreate the social assets of a physical community (trust, solidarity?). Existing studies...
Victor Maduabuchi Oguoma; Ezekiel Uba Nwose; Philip Taderera Bwititi
Background: Knowledge and attitude are significant factors impinging on whether individuals seek healthcare service. This flows on to impact public health knowledge of prevalence of diseases, and in turn, the practice of preventive medicine. As part of the international research collaboration agenda for Prediabetes and Cardiovascular Complications Study, a preliminary survey of one of the Ndokwa communities of Nigeria has been carried out. Aim: This study was to understand the baseline knowle...
Siti Aisyah Panatik Abdul Rahman; Syaharizatul N. Muktar
This research will try to highlight on Communities of Practice (CoP) and how CoP will offer a productive solution for improving knowledge and Knowledge Management (KM). The relationship between individual and social learning has received a great deal of attention from the organisation theory perspective. Based on previous literature, the social constructivist perspective challenges the traditional idea that learning takes place in individuals’ minds or in organisational systems and structures...
To assess the knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) among the nurses ( n= 302) of community-based health services in Hainan province of China, a survey was made by randomized stratified cluster sampling using self-designed questionnaires. The passing rate for qualification of the knowledge of CPR was found to be very low in Hainan province (23.18 %). A significant difference of regions and different educational level among the nurses were also noticed (P
Abstract Contribution of indigenous knowledge in developing more effective drugs with minimum or no side effects helped to realise importance of study of indigenous remedies and the conservation of biological resources. This study analysed indigenous knowledge regarding medicinal plants use among the Chepang communities from ward number 3 and 4 of Shaktikhor Village Development Committee located in the central mid hills of Nepal. Data were collected in a one-year period and included interview...
Mamo Gezahegne; Ameni Gobena; Legesse Mengistu; Medhin Girmay; Shawel Dawit; Bjune Gunnar; Abebe Fekadu
Background Afar pastoralists live in the northeast of Ethiopia, confined to the most arid part of the country, where there is least access to educational, health and other social services. Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major public health problems in Afar region. Lack of knowledge about TB could affect the health-seeking behaviour of patients and sustain the transmission of the disease within the community. In this study, we assessed the knowledge and perception of appare...
Kabir Adekunle Durowade
Full Text Available AIM: Glaucoma is becoming an increasingly important public health problem and presents a greater public health challenge because the blindness it causes is irreversible. This study is aimed at assessing the knowledge and risk factors for glaucoma among adults in Oke-ose community, Kwara State in North-Cental Nigeria. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study which assessed the knowledge and risk factors for glaucoma among adults in a rural community of Kwara State. The respondents were selected using cluster sampling technique. Interviewer- administered semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 15. RESULTS: Less than half 94(47.0% respondents were aware of glaucoma. Only 11(5.5% respondents had some knowledge of symptoms and 18(9.0% had knowledge of the risk factors. Socio-economic status, age of respondents and educational status and family history of glaucoma among the respondents significantly influenced the awareness and knowledge of the disease (p<0.05. Among the respondents, a total of 22(11.0% and 37(18.5% were diabetic and hypertensive respectively. Only five (2.5% of respondents had high risk perception of glaucoma. CONCLUSION: The presence of risk factors for glaucoma coupled with the poor risk perception and poor knowledge of the disease require urgent community directed eye care interventions to reduce the devastating effects of glaucoma. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(5.000: 375-380
Jeannie van der Linde
Full Text Available Background: For optimal development young children need warm, responsive, enriched and communicative environments for learning social, language, and other skills. Infants and toddlers exposed to psychosocial risk lack enriched environments and may present with communication delays.Aim: To investigate the relationship between psychosocial risks and communication delays in infants from underserved communities in South Africa.Setting: Primary healthcare facilities in Tshwane district, South Africa.Methods: A parent interview and Rossetti Infant Toddler Language Scales were used to collect data from caregivers of 201 infants aged 6–12 months, selected through convenience sampling. Associations between communication delays and risks were determined (Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. A log-linear model analysis was used to model the simultaneous effect of significant risks on the probability of having communication delays.Results: Communication delays were present in 13% of infants. Infants with two or more siblings, born from mothers aged 18–29 years who own their house, had a 39% chance of presenting with communication delays.Conclusion: Developmental screening and early intervention is important in primary healthcare contexts in South Africa, as a clear relationship has been established between three risk factors and communication delays in infants.
Guzzo, Linda R.
Knowledge is a valuable resource that fosters innovation and growth in organizations. There are two forms of knowledge: explicit knowledge or documented information and tacit knowledge or undocumented information which resides in individuals' minds. There is heightened interest in knowledge management and specifically the transfer of tacit…
Draper, Darryl C.
The increased accessibility of technology and Internet connections has enabled organizations to provide their workforces with the opportunity to engage in distributed education. "Harnessing this innovation calls for organizational and technological infrastructures that support the interplay of knowledge and knowing" (Cook & Brown, 1999, p. 381).…
Rhodes, Lindsay A; Huisingh, Carrie E; McGwin, Gerald; Mennemeyer, Stephen T; Bregantini, Mary; Patel, Nita; Saaddine, Jinan; Crews, John E; Girkin, Christopher A; Owsley, Cynthia
Purpose To assess the impact of the education program of the Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY) telemedicine program on at-risk patients’ knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care as well as to assess patient satisfaction with EQUALITY. Patients and methods New or existing patients presenting for a comprehensive eye exam (CEE) at one of two retail-based primary eye clinics were enrolled based on ≥1 of the following at-risk criteria for glaucoma: African Americans ≥40 years of age, Whites ≥50 years of age, diabetes, family history of glaucoma, and/or preexisting diagnosis of glaucoma. A total of 651 patients were enrolled. A questionnaire was administered prior to the patients’ CEE and prior to the patients receiving any of the evidence-based eye health education program; a follow-up questionnaire was administered 2–4 weeks later by phone. Baseline and follow-up patient responses regarding knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care were compared using McNemar’s test. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association of patient-level characteristics with improvement in knowledge and attitudes. Overall patient satisfaction was summarized. Results At follow-up, all patient responses in the knowledge and attitude domains significantly improved from baseline (P≤0.01 for all questions). Those who were unemployed (odds ratio =0.63, 95% confidence interval =0.42–0.95, P=0.026) or had lower education (odds ratio =0.55, 95% confidence interval =0.29–1.02, P=0.058) were less likely to improve their knowledge after adjusting for age, sex, race, and prior glaucoma diagnosis. This association was attenuated after further adjustment for other patient-level characteristics. Ninety-eight percent (n=501) of patients reported being likely to have a CEE within the next 2 years, whereas 63% (n=326) had a CEE in the previous 2 years. Patient satisfaction with EQUALITY was high (99
Anne Marie Thow
Full Text Available Background: Addressing diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs will require a multisectoral policy approach that includes the food supply and trade, but implementing effective policies has proved challenging. The Southern African Development Community (SADC has experienced significant trade and economic liberalization over the past decade; at the same time, the nutrition transition has progressed rapidly in the region. This analysis considers the relationship between regional trade liberalization and changes in the food environment associated with poor diets and NCDs, with the aim of identifying feasible and proactive policy responses to support healthy diets. Design: Changes in trade and investment policy for the SADC were documented and compared with time-series graphs of import data for soft drinks and snack foods to assess changes in imports and source country in relation to trade and investment liberalization. Our analysis focuses on regional trade flows. Results: Diets and the burden of disease in the SADC have changed since the 1990s in parallel with trade and investment liberalization. Imports of soft drinks increased by 76% into SADC countries between 1995 and 2010, and processed snack foods by 83%. South Africa acts as a regional trade and investment hub; it is the major source of imports and investment related to these products into other SADC countries. At the same time, imports of processed foods and soft drinks from outside the region – largely from Asia and the Middle East – are increasing at a dramatic rate with soft drink imports growing by almost 1,200% and processed snack foods by 750%. Conclusions: There is significant intra-regional trade in products associated with the nutrition transition; however, growing extra-regional trade means that countries face new pressures in implementing strong policies to prevent the increasing burden of diet-related NCDs. Implementation of a regional nutrition policy framework could
Mattick, R.E. (comp.)
Approximately 85 percent of the land area of the ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African States) region is covered by basement rocks (igneous and highly metamorphosed rocks) or relatively thin layers of Paleozoic, Upper Precambrian, and Continental Intercalaire sedimentary rocks. These areas have little or no petroleum potential. The ECOWAS region can be divided into 13 sedimentary basins on the basis of analysis of the geologic framework of Africa. These 13 basins can be further grouped into 8 categories on the basis of similarities in stratigraphy, geologic history, and probable hydrocarbon potential. The author has attempted to summarize the petroleum potential within the geologic framework of the region. The coal discoveries can be summarized as follows: the Carboniferous section in the Niger Basin; the Paleocene-Maestrichtian, Maestrichtian, and Eocene sections in the Niger Delta and Benin; the Maestrichtian section in the Senegal Basin; and the Pleistocene section in Sierra Leone. The only proved commercial deposits are the Paleocene-Maestrichtian and Maestrichtian subbituminous coal beds of the Niger Delta. Some of the lignite deposits of the Niger Delta and Senegal Basin, however, may be exploitable in the future. Published literature contains limited data on heat-flow values in the ECOWAS region. It is inferred, however, from the few values available and the regional geology that the development of geothermal resources, in general, would be uneconomical. Exceptions may include a geopressured zone in the Niger Delta and areas of recent tectonic activity in the Benue Trough and Cameroon. Development of the latter areas under present economic conditions is not feasible.
Full Text Available Background: Internship is the best period foracquiring practical knowledge and skills in com-munity medicine to become a successful pri-mary health care physician. Effectiveness ofinternship has been questioned in many researchpapers. Internship in India is clinically orientedwith inadequate community experience. Objec-tives: This study was conducted among medi-cal interns with the objective of assessing thebase line knowledge about application of prin-ciples of primary health care and the change inknowledge about the same at the end of theCommunity Medicine posting. Methods: All theinterns attending the community medicineposting were included in the study. A structuredquestionnaire related to principles and elementsof primary health care was self administeredbefore and after the Community Medicine post-ing. Marking system was devised and WilcoxonSinged rank test, Paired t test and Pearsonscorrelation coefficient were applied whereverappropriate. Results: Among 9 questions re-lated to the theory aspect only two showed sta-tistically significant improvement. All the sixquestions related to practical aspect did notshow any significant change. Conclusion: In-ternship training of two months in CommunityMedicine has failed to create a positive impacton the post test scores, indicating no gain inknowledge during this period. Framework ofinternship training, especially in CommunityMedicine needs to be restructured. Further re-search needs to be directed to understand thefelt needs of the medical interns and reasonsfor their poor performance.
Full Text Available Background: Nurses in primary healthcare record data for the monitoring and evaluation of diseases and services. Information and communications technology (ICT can improve quality in healthcare by providing quality medical records. However, worldwide, the majority of health ICT projects have failed. Individual user acceptance is a crucial factor in successful ICT implementation.Objectives: The aim of this study is to explore nurses’ knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding ICT so as to inform the future implementation of electronic medical record (EMR systems.Methods: A qualitative design was used. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with nurses at three community health centres (CHCs in the King Sabata Dalyindyebo Local Municipality. The interview guide was informed by the literature on user acceptance of ICT. Interviews were recorded and analysed using content analysis.Results: Many nurses knew about health ICT and articulated clearly the potential benefits of an EMR such as fewer errors, more complete records, easier reporting and access to information. They thought that an EMR system would solve the challenges they identified with the current paper-based record system, including duplication of data, misfiling, lack of a chronological patient record, excessive time in recording and reduced time for patient care. For personal ICT needs, approximately half used cellphone Internet-based services and computers.Conclusions: In this study, nurses identified many challenges with the current recording methods. They thought that an EMR should be installed at CHCs. Their knowledge about EMR, positive attitudes to ICT and personal use of ICT devices increase the likelihood of successful EMR implementation at CHCs.
Abigail S Golden
Full Text Available Harnessing the traditional ecological knowledge (TEK of local communities has the potential to enhance conservation planning in developing regions. Marine protected areas (MPAs that incorporate traditional beliefs about reef tenure are generally more successful in reaching conservation goals and ensuring the participation of local fishermen on vulnerable tropical reef systems. Fiji possesses a unique system of traditional reef management in which local clans or villages, called mataqali, control individual units of a reef, known as qoliqoli, and make independent management decisions based on traditional beliefs and conservation concerns. This is an example of a system, known as customary marine tenure, which has attracted interest from conservation scientists hoping to set up MPAs in vulnerable regions. As one example of this grassroots participation, Nagigi village on the Fijian island of Vanua Levu has expressed interest in setting up an MPA in part of its qoliqoli because of concerns about overfishing. In response to this interest, we took a two-pronged approach to assessing Nagigi's fishery status and conservation needs, first conducting a fishery-independent species survey using destructive sampling and then focusing on fisheries targets identified through fisher interviews. These interviews allowed us to identify heavily targeted species, assess villagers' understanding of reef dynamics over 30 or 40 years of fisheries expansion, and evaluate village support and expectations for a proposed conservation program. Based on our findings we recommend a temporary closure to be in effect for at least three years, allowing one of the more important fishery targets, Lethrinus harak (Forsskål, 1775; Lethrinidae, to complete at least one generation within the reserve. The methodology of matching the proposed marine protected area with the life histories and ecologies of heavily targeted species identified through fisherman and -woman interviews can
Palha, Teresinha de Jesus Brabo Ferreira; Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Elzemar Martins; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Andrea; Guerreiro, João Farias; de Moura, Luciene Soraya Souza; Santos, Sidney
Some genetic markers on both the Y chromosome and mtDNA are highly polymorphic and population-specific in humans, representing useful tools for reconstructing the past history of populations with poor historical records. Such lack of information is usually true in the case of recent African-descent populations of the New World founded by fugitive slaves throughout the slavery period in the Americas, particularly in Brazil, where those communities are known as quilombos. Aiming to recover male-derived ethnic structure of nine quilombos from the Brazilian Amazon, a total of 300 individuals, belonging to Mazagão Velho (N = 24), Curiaú (N = 48), Mazagão (N = 36), Trombetas (N = 20), Itacoã (N = 22), Saracura (N = 46), Marajó (N = 58), Pitimandeua (N = 26), and Pontal (N = 20), were investigated for nine Y-STRs (DYS393, DYS19, DYS390, DYS389 I, DYS389 II, DYS392, DYS391, DYS385 I/II). From the 169 distinct haplotypes obtained, 120 were singletons. The results suggest the West African coast as the main origin of slaves brought to Brazil (54% of male contribution); the European contribution was high (41%), while the Amerindian's was low (5%). Those results contrast with previous mtDNA data that showed high Amerindian female contribution (46.6%) in African-descent populations. AMOVA suggests that the genetic differentiation among the quilombos is mainly influenced by admixture with European. However, when restricting AMOVA to African-specific haplotypes, low differentiation was detected, suggesting great genetic homogeneity of the African founding populations and/or a later homogenization by intense slave trade inside Brazil. PMID:21302273
Karsten, L.; Veen, K. van
In this paper, we argue that the role of the Dutch State has been (a) significant in the spread of management knowledge in the Dutch management community but (b) changed dramatically during the nineteen eighties. After the World War II, the Dutch government played an important role in the developmen
Wegner, Elisabeth; Nückles, Matthias
Learning has been described by two conceptual metaphors: as individual acquisition of knowledge ("acquisition metaphor"), and as an enculturation into a subject community ("participation metaphor"). On the other hand, academics' conceptions of teaching are usually reported to vary between teacher and student orientation. In…
Sumida Huaman, Elizabeth; Valdiviezo, Laura Alicia
In this article, we propose to approach Indigenous education beyond the formal/non-formal dichotomy. We argue that there is a critical need to conscientiously include Indigenous knowledge in education processes from the school to the community; particularly, when formal systems exclude Indigenous cultures and languages. Based on ethnographic…
Nayze de Almeida Marreiros
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to record the uses and knowledge of cacti in the rural communities of Barroquinha and Besouro, in the municipality of Lagoa, in Paraíba, Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 52 informants (men and women. The cacti cited were organized into eight categories of use. Five species were identified in the communities: Cereus jamacaru DC., Melocactus sp., Pilosocereus chrysostele (Vaupel Byles & G. D. Rowley, Nopalea cochenillifera (L. Salm-Dyck and Pilosocereus gounellei (F.A.C. Weber Byles & Rowley. We registered 201 citations of use in Barroquinha, which were placed in seven categories, and 76 citations in Besouro, which were placed in eight categories. In both communities, C. jamacaru was the most used specie and forage was the most common category of use. Within the communities, the menand women had similar knowledge about these plants. In relation to the transmission of knowledge, there was a predominance of a vertical transmission, from parents to children. Based on the categories applied to the species, the various uses recorded show that these cacti are important to the Besouro and Barroquinha communities.
Swanepoel, De Wet; Glascoe, Frances P.; Louw, E.M.; Hugo, Jannie F.M.; Vinck, Bart
Background For optimal development young children need warm, responsive, enriched and communicative environments for learning social, language, and other skills. Infants and toddlers exposed to psychosocial risk lack enriched environments and may present with communication delays. Aim To investigate the relationship between psychosocial risks and communication delays in infants from underserved communities in South Africa. Setting Primary healthcare facilities in Tshwane district, South Africa. Methods A parent interview and Rossetti Infant Toddler Language Scales were used to collect data from caregivers of 201 infants aged 6–12 months, selected through convenience sampling. Associations between communication delays and risks were determined (Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests). A log-linear model analysis was used to model the simultaneous effect of significant risks on the probability of having communication delays. Results Communication delays were present in 13% of infants. Infants with two or more siblings, born from mothers aged 18–29 years who own their house, had a 39% chance of presenting with communication delays. Conclusion Developmental screening and early intervention is important in primary healthcare contexts in South Africa, as a clear relationship has been established between three risk factors and communication delays in infants. Contexte Risques associés à des retards de communication verbale chez les nourrissons des communautés sud-africaines non desservies. Pour s'épanouir complètement les jeunes enfants ont besoin d'un environnement chaud, réceptif, enrichi et communicatif pour apprendre le langage social et d'autres compétences. Les nourrissons et les tout-petits exposés à des risques psychosociaux souffrent d'un manque d'environnements enrichissants et pourraient souffrir de retards de communication verbale. Objectif Pour étudier la relation entre les risques psychosociaux et les retards de communication verbale chez les
Full Text Available This study investigated if there was any change in the HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of the South African Police Service’s (SAPS employees of Limpopo province after attending the HIV/AIDS intervention programme. From a population of (N=108 employees, those who attended the HIV/AIDS awareness workshop participated as experimental group (n=51 while those who attended the suicide prevention and disability workshop as control group (n=57. Random sampling method was used to select the above sample. Both workshops were conducted at various places in Limpopo Province. Pre-tests were administered before the workshops while the post-tests were administered after the workshops. The results were analysed using 2 (Group: Experimental versus Control Group x 2 (Time: Pre-test versus Post-test, a repeated measure Analyses of Variances (ANOVA. The findings showed that there was a significant change in HIV/AIDS knowledge after employees have attended the HIV/AIDS awareness workshop. There was however no significant change in attitude and behaviour after the HIV/AIDS awareness programme. The study recommends that a one day workshop is not enough to change attitude and behaviour. It also recommends that a follow up in the form of delayed post-test is required to investigate if the behaviour of the members who promised to change positively had actually changed as behaviour changes cannot manifest in a one day workshop. This can also serve as a suggestion for further research.
programmes. Biomass and bio fuels: Some of the biomass cogeneration and biofuels projects are large enough scale to be implemented at national level. However, the scale of biomass potential is so large in the region that developing several 'demonstration projects' with high replicability and visibility could catalyze rapid growth of CDM projects in this sub-sector. Household scale biomass use is covered by the SADC Programme for Biomass Energy Conservation (ProBEC), but commercial and industrial use projects in the region would have high value for promoting CDM in SADC. Institutional strengthening through regional cooperation: rather than only working at national level to build capacity in DNAs and the local consulting industry for CDM projects, sharing knowledge and experience across the region would facilitate more rapid CDM market development. Providing the opportunity for key energy sector decision makers to become more active in the negotiations around the CDM and the future of the carbon market would also strengthen SADC's 'regional voice' in the climate change debate. (Author)
Carter-Veale, Wendy Y; Tull, Renetta G; Rutledge, Janet C; Joseph, Lenisa N
The problem of PhD attrition, especially at the dissertation-writing stage, is not solely related to mentoring, departments, or disciplines; it is a problem that affects the entire institution. As such, solutions require collaborative efforts for student success. Building on Yeatman's master-apprentice model, which assumes mastering disciplinary writing in singular advisor-student contexts, and Burnett's collaborative cohort model, which introduced doctoral dissertation supervision in a collaborative-learning environment with several faculty mentors in a single discipline, the Dissertation House model (DHM) introduces a model of doctoral dissertation supervision that involves multiple mentors across several disciplines. On the basis of more than 200 students' reflections, we find that challenges in completing the dissertation extend beyond departmental and disciplinary boundaries. The DHM's multidisciplinary approach preserves the traditional master-apprentice relationship between faculty and students within academic departments while providing an additional support mechanism through interdisciplinary collaborative cohorts. Using Thoits's coping assistance theory and data from DH students over a 10-year period, the DHM incorporates Hoadley's concept of knowledge communities to establish a successful dissertation-writing intervention for graduate students across doctoral programs. Using propensity score analysis, we provide in this study an empirical assessment of the benefits and efficacy of the DHM. PMID:27521236
Carter-Veale, Wendy Y.; Tull, Renetta G.; Rutledge, Janet C.; Joseph, Lenisa N.
The problem of PhD attrition, especially at the dissertation-writing stage, is not solely related to mentoring, departments, or disciplines; it is a problem that affects the entire institution. As such, solutions require collaborative efforts for student success. Building on Yeatman’s master–apprentice model, which assumes mastering disciplinary writing in singular advisor–student contexts, and Burnett’s collaborative cohort model, which introduced doctoral dissertation supervision in a collaborative-learning environment with several faculty mentors in a single discipline, the Dissertation House model (DHM) introduces a model of doctoral dissertation supervision that involves multiple mentors across several disciplines. On the basis of more than 200 students’ reflections, we find that challenges in completing the dissertation extend beyond departmental and disciplinary boundaries. The DHM’s multidisciplinary approach preserves the traditional master–apprentice relationship between faculty and students within academic departments while providing an additional support mechanism through interdisciplinary collaborative cohorts. Using Thoits’s coping assistance theory and data from DH students over a 10-year period, the DHM incorporates Hoadley’s concept of knowledge communities to establish a successful dissertation-writing intervention for graduate students across doctoral programs. Using propensity score analysis, we provide in this study an empirical assessment of the benefits and efficacy of the DHM. PMID:27521236
SNS (social network service,SNS)企业知识社区的认知、应用以及研究都处于起步阶段.本文研究目的是通过构建E-Learning知识获取过程计算模型,结合实验仿真,研究知识库存对SNS企业知识社区中E-Learning知识获取关键因素的影响.首先,识别SNS企业知识社区中E-Learning知识获取的关键因素,包括知识获取目标、知识获取基础和知识获取绩效；接着,基于知识获取关键因素,应用多主体建模思想,建立E-Learning知识获取的计算模型；第三,进行实验仿真,以知识需求为驱动,研究微观层面上的个体E-Learning知识获取行为经过知识交互后涌现出来的宏观特点.研究结果有助于企业关注知识库存对SNS企业知识社区中E-Learning知识获取的影响,采取适当策略实现企业E-Learning目标.%Awareness, application and research on social network service (SNS) oriented enterprise knowledge community are at the initial stage. By computation modelling and experimental simulation, the purpose of this paper is to research effects of knowledge inventory on knowledge acquisition via E-Learning of SNS oriented enterprise knowledge community. On basis of literature review, firstly, key factors in knowledge acquisition via E-Learning were identified, including goal, base and performance of knowledge acquisition. Then based on identified key factors, computation model for knowledge acquisition via E-Learning was constructed by multi-agent modelling idea. Thirdly, driven by knowledge demand, simulation was implemented to research macro characteristics of knowledge acquisition via E-Learning emerged by the interaction of individuals in micro level. Research results can help companies focus on effects of knowledge inventory on knowledge acquisition via E-Learning in SNS oriented enterprise knowledge community, so that appropriate strategies may be adopted to achieve business objectives of E-Learning.
Madsen, Lene Moller; Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine
Construction of scientific knowledge can be seen as a struggle over who should define the terms and conditions of legitimate fields of research. Sociologists of scientific knowledge (SSK) have pointed to the importance of analysing scientific knowledge in the same way as other types of knowledge. This idea guides the present paper on Danish…
Bussing, Regina; Zima, Bonnie T.; Mason, Dana M.; Meyer, Johanna.M.; White, Kimberly; Garvan, Cynthia W.
PURPOSE The chronic illness model advocates for psychoeducation within a collaborative care model to enhance outcomes. To inform psychoeducational approaches for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this study describes parent and adolescent knowledge, perceptions and information sources and explores how these vary by sociodemographic characteristics, ADHD risk, and past child mental health service use. METHODS Parents and adolescents were assessed 7.7 years after initial school district screening for ADHD risk. The study sample included 374 adolescents (56% high and 44% low ADHD risk), on average 15.4 (SD 1.8) years old, and 36% were African American. Survey questions assessed ADHD knowledge, perceptions, and cues to action, and elicited utilized and preferred information sources. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine potential independent predictors of ADHD knowledge. McNemar's tests compared information source utilization against preference. RESULTS Despite relatively high self-rated ADHD familiarity, misperceptions among parents and adolescents were common, including a sugar etiology (25% and 27%, respectively) and medication overuse (85% and 67%). African American respondents expressed lower ADHD awareness and greater belief in sugar etiology than Caucasians. Parents used a wide range of ADHD information sources while adolescents relied on social network members and teachers/school. However, parents and adolescents expressed similar strong preferences for the Internet (49% and 51%) and doctor (40% and 27%) as ADHD information sources. CONCLUSION Culturally appropriate psychoeducational strategies are needed that combine doctor-provided ADHD information with reputable Internet sources. Despite time limitations during patient visits, both parents and teens place high priority on receiving information from their doctor. PMID:23174470
McNeave, C.; Parsons, M. A.; Gearheard, S.; Huntington, H.; Pulsifer, P. L.; McCann, H.
Local and traditional knowledge (LTK) provides rich information about the Arctic environment at spatial and temporal scales that scientific knowledge often does not have access to (e.g. localized observations of fine-scale ecological change potentially from many different communities, or local sea ice and conditions prior to 1950s ice charts and 1970s satellite records). Community-based observations and monitoring are an opportunity for Arctic residents to provide 'frontline' observations and measurements that are an early warning system for Arctic change. The Exchange for Local Observations and Knowledge of the Arctic (ELOKA) was established in response to the growing number of community-based and community-oriented research and observation projects in the Arctic. ELOKA provides data management and user support to facilitate the collection, preservation, exchange, and use of local observations and knowledge. ELOKA fills a critical gap in Arctic research by providing data management services to social and physical science projects, community-based research projects, and other projects with ‘non-traditional data’ that currently have few options for support. ELOKA continues to develop methods for collection, management, and distribution of these important data. Management systems and processes include services for metadata authorship; online presentation of research including maps, photographs, and interactive hunter and elder interviews with translations. ELOKA is also investigating techniques for sharing geographic information over the Internet with computer-based mapping as well as providing data discovery and access via keyword-based catalogue searches. This presentation provides details on some of the methods and procedures developed by ELOKA to support the wider research community and beyond with collection support, and access and discoverability services.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Muleba district in North-western Tanzania has experienced malaria epidemics in recent years. Community knowledge, attitudes and practices are important in enhancing disease control interventions. This study investigated determinants of malaria epidemics in the study area in relation to household knowledge, attitudes and practice on malaria. Methods A community based cross-sectional survey involving 504 study participants was conducted between April and June 2007 using a structured questionnaire focusing on knowledge, attitudes and practices of community members in epidemic and non-epidemic villages about malaria transmission, signs and symptoms, treatment, prevention and control. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess determinants of malaria epidemics. Results A total of 504 respondents (males = 36.9% were interviewed. Overall, 453 (90.1% mentioned malaria as the most important disease in the area. Four hundred and sixty four respondents (92.1% knew that malaria is transmitted through mosquito bite. A total of 436 (86.7%, 306 (60.8% and 162 (32.1% mentioned fever, vomiting and loss of appetite as major symptoms/signs of malaria, respectively. Of those interviewed 328 (65.1% remembered the recent outbreak of 2006. Of the 504 respondents interviewed, 296 (58.7% reported that their households owned at least one mosquito net. Three hundred and ninety seven respondents (78.8% knew insecticides used to impregnate bed nets. About two thirds (63.3% of the respondents had at least a household member who suffered from malaria during the recent epidemic. During the 2006 outbreak, 278 people (87.2% sought treatment from health facilities while 27 (8.5% obtained drugs from drug shops and 10 (3.1% used local herbs. Logistic regression analysis showed that household location and level of knowledge of cause of malaria were significant predictors of a household being affected by epidemic. Conclusions Residents of Muleba
Seedat, Mohamed; Lazarus, Sandy
This article represents a South African contribution to the growing international body of knowledge on histories of community psychology. We trace the early antecedents of social-community psychology interventions and describe the social forces and academic influences that provided the impetus for the emergence and development of community…
Eucebious Lekalakala- Mokgele
Full Text Available The status of older adults in Africa occupies a small but rapidly expanding share of the global literature on ageing. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS pandemic has generated a new focus on the changing role of the elderly in communities that have been affected. In sub-Saharan Africa, where millions are projected to be infected with HIV and about two million deaths are recorded annually amongst the traditionally productive adults, such loss of parents and breadwinners means children and the elderly have had to take up unusual responsibilities. A literature review on the elderly and HIV and AIDS provided the data analysed for this article. Access to databases was mainly via EBSCO (www.ebsco.co, which allowed searches in major databases and search engines useful in an academic setting for finding and accessing articles in health and health-related academic journals, repositories and archived reports. Results showed that the AIDS pandemic has direct and indirect effects which have manifested in a set of interrelated social, economic and psychological dimensions that could ultimately impact on the health and well-being of the elderly. It is concluded that more needs to be done to articulate the knowledge base of the impact of HIV and AIDS in order to inform social, economic and political policies for the purpose of alleviating the problems that the pandemic is wreaking on the elderly African population.
Die status van ouer volwassenes in Afrika beklee’n klein, maar vinnig groeiende deel van die globale verouderings literatuur. Die menslike immuniteitsgebreksvirus (MIV en verworwe immuniteitsgebreksindroom (VIGS pandemie het ‘n nuwe fokus op die veranderende rol van bejaardes in die gemeenskap wat deur VIGS beïnvloed word, gegenereer. In sub-Sahara Afrika waar na beraming miljoene geïnfekteer word met MIV, met sowat twee miljoen sterftes jaarliks gerekordeer
Local-level participatory communication practices have enabled the opening of new democratic spaces in which decisions on water policies are taken. Through their resistance to water privatisation policies, many Colombian community aqueducts have made use of a transformed political and social role. Citizens from community aqueduct associations are generating new forms of political participation and citizenship, capable of challenging the widespread political apathy in the country. This arti...
Full Text Available Objective: To study the role of the community pharmacists in improving knowledge and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes residing in villages of Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients were interviewed, of whom 39 subjects were included in the study. The literate and chronic diabetic patients were included in the study and illiterate, children below 12 years of age, pregnant women, nursing mothers and subjects with any other chronic disorders were excluded from the study. The subjects were interviewed and divided randomly into two groups. There were 20 subjects in the control group and 19 in the intervention group. The study protocol was explained to all the participants, and written informed consent was obtained from them. Before the initiation of the study, the subjects were interviewedfor 20-40 min to educate them about diabetes. Subjects in the intervention group received continuous counselling and medical advice to improve their awareness about the disease and drugs. During the study period, the Diabetes Care Profile (a questionnaire developed by J.J. Fitzgerald of the Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Michigan was performed to each subject. The interval between visits was 2 months. All the values are expressed in mean ± standard deviation. Results: The intervention group showed better progress in the recovery of diabetics because of the continuous counselling and monitoring. There were significant changes in Diabetes Care Profile subscale scores in both the control and the intervention groups at the end of the study, viz. 1.8 ± 4.52 to 2.75 ± 6.62 and 3.10 ± 3.23 to 1.53 ± 2.66. Similarly, the knowledge test score was found to be increased in the intervention group compared with the baseline values (8.53 ± 1.81 to 12.16 ± 1.34. Conclusions: At the end of the study period, the patients of the intervention group had very good glycemic
Aspects of the construction of methylmercury as an authoritative object of knowledge is examined for the case of Chisasibi, a Cree community on the James Bay coast in northern Quebec. The community is located near large hydroelectric projects, and an extensive institutional apparatus has been established in the Chisasibi area to provide research and education about the resulting contamination of water and fish by methylmercury released by flooding of lands by hydro reservoirs. The historical development of the Cree community is reviewed and the evolution of a particular set of spheres of exchange which mediate economic relations in the region is described. Such relations occur between the Cree communities, the federal and provincial governments, and state and corporate structures tied to the state. Knowledge claims about mercury can be seen as situated among claims of injury in a moral economy which is based on conflict over the James Bay hydroelectric project. The politicization and subsequent medicalization of these knowledge claims are described. Finally, the emergence of particular concepts of normality, risk, and risk group are traced in medical and technocratic discourses about the effects of methylmercury on Canadian aboriginal populations. 122 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs
Full Text Available Introduction: In India, community health workers are the main source of information for family planning services and male population want to interact and discuss with them to clear their doubts about male oriented family planning methods. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and perception of community health workers regarding the modern male sterilization method. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Simdega district of Jharkhand. The target population was the community health workers and randomly selected from four randomly selected from blocks out of total seven in the district. A self-administered quantitative questionnaire was used for data collection comprising questions related to knowledge and perception of community health workers about modern male sterilization method. Results: 43% CHWs didn’t know that this method is different from traditional male sterilization method and around 62% thought man’s sexual performance get affected after NSV and 77% did not have any idea about time required to resume normal work. Conclusions: The poor knowledge and wrong perception could be one of the main reasons for poor male participation in family planning process in India.
Li Ping Wong
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Demographic, economic and behavioural factors are central features underpinning the successful management and biological control of dengue. This study aimed to examine these factors and their association with the seroprevalence of this disease. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a cross-sectional telephone survey of households in a 3 km radius of the schools where we had conducted serological tests on the student population in a previous study. Households were surveyed about their socio-demographics, knowledge, practices, and Health Belief Model (HBM constructs. The results were then associated with the prevalence rate of dengue in the community, as marked by IgG seropositivity of the students who attended school there. RESULTS: A total of 1,400 complete responses were obtained. The community's IgG seropositivity was significantly positively associated with high household monthly income, high-rise residential building type, high surrounding vegetation density, rural locality, high perceived severity and susceptibility, perceived barriers to prevention, knowing that a neighbour has dengue, frequent fogging and a higher level of knowledge about dengue. In the multivariate analyses, three major correlates of the presence of IgG seropositivity in the community: (1 high-rise residential apartment house type or condominium buildings; (2 the main construct of the HBM, perceived severity and susceptibility; and (3 the additional constructs of the HBM, lack of preventive measures from the community level and having a neighbour with dengue as a cue to action. Weak correlations were found between self-practices to prevent dengue and the level of dengue seropositivity in the community, and between HBM constructs and knowledge (r = 0.09. CONCLUSIONS: The residential environment factor and the constructs of the HBM are useful and important elements in developing interventions to prevent and control dengue. The study also sheds light on the importance
Budde, M. E.; Galu, G.; Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J. P.; Rowland, J.
The Planning for Resilience in East Africa through Policy, Adaptation, Research, and Economic Development (PREPARED) is a multi-organizational project aimed at mainstreaming climate-resilient development planning and program implementation into the East African Community (EAC). The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) has partnered with the PREPARED project to address three key development challenges for the EAC; 1) increasing resiliency to climate change, 2) managing trans-boundary freshwater biodiversity and conservation and 3) improving access to drinking water supply and sanitation services. USGS FEWS NET has been instrumental in the development of gridded climate data sets that are the fundamental building blocks for climate change adaptation studies in the region. Tools such as the Geospatial Climate Tool (GeoCLIM) have been developed to interpolate time-series grids of precipitation and temperature values from station observations and associated satellite imagery, elevation data, and other spatially continuous fields. The GeoCLIM tool also allows the identification of anomalies and assessments of both their frequency of occurrence and directional trends. A major effort has been put forth to build the capacities of local and regional institutions to use GeoCLIM to integrate their station data (which is not typically available to the public) into improved national and regional gridded climate data sets. In addition to the improvements and capacity building activities related to geospatial analysis tools, FEWS NET will assist in two other areas; 1) downscaling of climate change scenarios and 2) vulnerability impact assessments. FEWS NET will provide expertise in statistical downscaling of Global Climate Model output fields and work with regional institutions to assess results of other downscaling methods. Completion of a vulnerability impact assessment (VIA) involves the examination of sectoral consequences in identified climate "hot spots". FEWS NET
Sewry, Joyce D.; Glover, Sarah R.; Harrison, Timothy G.; Shallcross, Dudley E.; Ngcoza, Kenneth M.
Given the emphasis on community engagement in higher education, academic departments need to become more involved in the community. This paper discusses a number of outreach activities undertaken by the chemistry department at Rhodes University, South Africa. The activities range from service learning to community engagement with teachers and…
Victor Maduabuchi Oguoma
Full Text Available Background: Knowledge and attitude are significant factors impinging on whether individuals seek healthcare service. This flows on to impact public health knowledge of prevalence of diseases, and in turn, the practice of preventive medicine. As part of the international research collaboration agenda for Prediabetes and Cardiovascular Complications Study, a preliminary survey of one of the Ndokwa communities of Nigeria has been carried out. Aim: This study was to understand the baseline knowledge, attitudes and practices of a rural community in regards to cardiovascular diseases, and behavior toward risk management. Materials and Methods: Seventy-four volunteer participants were recruited, after public lectures, through secondary school and churches in the community. The survey was done using questionnaire. The knowledge component comprised questions about educational and personal health opinion. The attitude and practice components comprised questions about exercises and visiting healthcare facilities. Occupational backgrounds were also asked. Results: It is observed that majority of the community dwellers have (1 completed at least secondary education, (2 never attended a health check-up; and (3 do not engage in physical activity in the context of exercise. Twenty of the participants indicated not being in good health, of which only 35% have attended medical check-up for their ailment. Many of those who are yet to seek healthcare service cite affordability as their reason. With specific regards to diabetes and cardiovascular risk, over 71% of the survey participants are yet to do any blood sugar and/or lipid profile tests. Conclusion: This preliminary survey indicates that although the majority of respondents have secondary education and therefore are relatively literate, there is a gap between their knowledge of ill-health versus attitude and practice toward prevention; especially cardiovascular and diabetes diseases.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the northwest of Ethiopia, at the South Gondar region, there was a visceral leishmaniasis (VL outbreak in 2005, making the disease a public health concern for the regional health authorities ever since. The knowledge on how the population perceives the disease is essential in order to propose successful control strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two surveys on VL knowledge, attitudes and practices were conducted at the beginning (May 2009 and at the end (February 2011 of a VL longitudinal study carried out in rural communities of Libo Kemkem and Fogera, two districts of the Amhara Regional State. Results showed that VL global knowledge was very low in the area, and that it improved substantially in the period studied. Specifically, from 2009 to 2011, the frequency of proper knowledge regarding VL signs and symptoms increased from 47% to 71% (p<0.0001, knowledge of VL causes increased from 8% to 25% (p<0.0001, and knowledge on VL protection measures from 16% to 55% (p<0.0001. Moreover, the improvement observed in VL knowledge was more marked among the families with no previous history of VL case. Finally, in 2011 more than 90% of the households owned at least an impregnated bed net and had been sprayed, and attitudes towards these and other protective measures were very positive (over 94% acceptance for all of them. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In 2009 the level of knowledge regarding VL was very low among the rural population of this area, although it improved substantially in the study period, probably due to the contribution of many actors in the area. VL patients and relatives should be appropriately informed and trained as they may act as successful health community agents. VL risk behavioural patterns are subject to change as attitudes towards protective measures were very positive overall.
Poor knowledge of stroke risk factors and failure to recognize and act on acute symptoms hinders efforts to prevent stroke and improve clinical outcomes. Levels of stroke knowledge are poorly established within Ireland. This study was conducted to establish levels of knowledge among men and women aged >40 years in an Irish community, and also to determine the impact of a single education session on stroke knowledge. Subjects from 2 separate geographical locations were allocated to an intervention group (n = 200), who received stroke information over a 90-minute session, or a control group (n = 200). Both groups completed a stroke knowledge questionnaire at baseline and at 4 weeks after the educational session. Overall, the initial response rate was 70% (280\\/400); 52% of the respondents knew that the brain is affected by stroke, 58% could list 2 or more risk factors but only 27% could list 2 or more warning signs, 50% would call 999 (emergency number in Ireland) in response to stroke, 17% had heard of thrombolytic therapy, but only 1% knew the time frame for receiving thrombolytics. The response rate to the resurvey following the educational session was 57%, with 47 of 117 subjects in the intervention group (40%) attending the session. Stroke knowledge scores improved by 50% in the intervention group (P < .001). Overall, the knowledge of stroke risk factors, warning signs, and thrombolytic therapy was poor in this Irish community-dwelling cohort. Our study demonstrates that a single educational session can improve short-term knowledge of stroke symptoms and thrombolytic therapy.
Ryan, Margaret Vail
Prominent challenges facing contemporary community colleges are enhancing leadership capacity and serving their diverse student populations. While doctoral education constitutes a mainstay strategy for developing community college leaders, community college professionals face constraints accessing doctoral programs. The innovation of an…
Beltrán-Rodríguez, Leonardo; Ortiz-Sánchez, Amanda; Nestor A. Mariano; Maldonado-Almanza, Belinda; Reyes-García, Victoria
Background Worldwide, mestizo communities’s ethnobotanical knowledge has been poorly studied. Based on a mestizo group in Mexico, this study assesses a) the use value (UV) of the local flora, b) gendered differences in plant species, and c) the association between socio-economic variables and ethnobotanical knowledge. Methods To assess the degree of knowledge of plant resources, we conducted 41 interviews collecting information on knowledge of local plant resources and the socio-economic situ...
Beltrán-Rodríguez, Leonardo; Ortiz-Sánchez, Amanda; Nestor A. Mariano; Maldonado-Almanza, Belinda; Reyes García, Victòria
Background: worldwide, mestizo communities’s ethnobotanical knowledge has been poorly studied. Based on a mestizo group in Mexico, this study assesses a) the use value (UV) of the local flora, b) gendered differences in plant species, and c) the association between socio-economic variables and ethnobotanical knowledge. - Methods: to assess the degree of knowledge of plant resources, we conducted 41 interviews collecting information on knowledge of local plant resources and the socio-economic ...
Dawaki, Salwa; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Ithoi, Init; Ibrahim, Jamaiah; Abdulsalam, Awatif M.; Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Sady, Hany; Nasr, Nabil A.; Atroosh, Wahib M.
Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most common neglected tropical diseases, especially in the developing countries in Africa, Asia and South America, with Nigeria having the greatest number of cases of schistosomiasis worldwide. This community-based study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) regarding schistosomiasis among rural Hausa communities in Kano State, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 551 participants from Hausa communities in five local government areas in Kano State, North Central Nigeria. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information as well as KAP data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Moreover, faecal and urine samples were collected and examined for the presence of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium eggs respectively. Results The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 17.8%, with 8.9% and 8.3% infected with S. mansoni and S. haematobium respectively, and 0.5% had co-infection of both species. Moreover, 74.5% of the participants had prior knowledge about schistosomiasis with 67.0% of them how it is transmitted and 63.8% having no idea about the preventive measures. Three-quarters of the respondents considered schistosomiasis a serious disease while their practices to prevent infections were still inadequate, with only 34.7% of them seeking treatment from clinics/hospitals. Significant associations between the KAP and age, gender, education and employment status were reported. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age, gender, history of infection and educational level of the respondents were the most important factors significantly associated with the KAP on schistosomiasis among this population. Conclusions Schistosomiasis is still prevalent among Hausa communities in Nigeria and participants’ knowledge about the disease was poor. Mass drug administration, community mobilization and health education regarding the cause, transmission and
Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is one of the most common neglected tropical diseases, especially in the developing countries in Africa, Asia and South America, with Nigeria having the greatest number of cases of schistosomiasis worldwide. This community-based study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP regarding schistosomiasis among rural Hausa communities in Kano State, Nigeria.A cross-sectional study was carried out among 551 participants from Hausa communities in five local government areas in Kano State, North Central Nigeria. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information as well as KAP data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Moreover, faecal and urine samples were collected and examined for the presence of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium eggs respectively.The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 17.8%, with 8.9% and 8.3% infected with S. mansoni and S. haematobium respectively, and 0.5% had co-infection of both species. Moreover, 74.5% of the participants had prior knowledge about schistosomiasis with 67.0% of them how it is transmitted and 63.8% having no idea about the preventive measures. Three-quarters of the respondents considered schistosomiasis a serious disease while their practices to prevent infections were still inadequate, with only 34.7% of them seeking treatment from clinics/hospitals. Significant associations between the KAP and age, gender, education and employment status were reported. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age, gender, history of infection and educational level of the respondents were the most important factors significantly associated with the KAP on schistosomiasis among this population.Schistosomiasis is still prevalent among Hausa communities in Nigeria and participants' knowledge about the disease was poor. Mass drug administration, community mobilization and health education regarding the cause, transmission and prevention of schistosomiasis
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a vector-borne parasitic disease of major public health importance. Current prevention efforts are based on triatomine vector control to reduce transmission to humans. Success of vector control interventions depends on their acceptability and value to affected communities. We aimed to identify opportunities for and barriers to improved vector control strategies in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative research methods to investigate knowledge, attitudes and practices surrounding Chagas disease, triatomines and vector control in three rural communities. Our combined data show that community members are well aware of triatomines and are knowledgeable about their habits. However, most have a limited understanding of the transmission dynamics and clinical manifestations of Chagas disease. While triatomine control is not a priority for community members, they frequently use domestic insecticide products including insecticide spray, mosquito coils and plug-in repellents. Families spend about $32 US per year on these products. Alternative methods such as yard cleaning and window screens are perceived as desirable and potentially more effective. Screens are nonetheless described as unaffordable, in spite of a cost comparable to the average annual spending on insecticide products. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Further education campaigns and possibly financing schemes may lead families to redirect their current vector control spending from insecticide products to window screens. Also, synergism with mosquito control efforts should be further explored to motivate community involvement and ensure sustainability of Chagas disease vector control.
Floods are natural phenomena, but damage and losses from floods are the consequence of human action. The increasing climatic variability, storminess and more frequent flooding driven by climate change will affect poor urban communities far more than other people living in towns and cities. Although driven by human activities ranging from modernisation and development to land degradation by poor farmers and grazing flocks, climate change in Africa has uneven impacts, affecting the poor severely. Flooding in urban areas is not just related to heavy rainfall and extreme climatic events; it is also related to changes in the built-up areas themselves. Urbanisation aggravates flooding by restricting where floods waters can go, by covering large parts of the ground with roofs, roads and pavements, by obstructing sections of natural channels, and by building drains that ensure that water moves to rivers more rapidly than it did under natural conditions. As people crowd into African cities, these human impacts on urban land surfaces and drainage intensify. The proportions of small stream and river catchment areas that are urbanised will increase. As a result, even quite moderate storms now produce quite high flows in rivers because much more of the catchment area supplies direct surface runoff from its hard surfaces and drains. Where streams flow through a series of culverts and concrete channels, they cannot adjust to changes in the frequency of heavy rain as natural streams do. They often get obstructed by silt and urban debris, particularly when houses are built close to the channels. Such situations frequently arise where poor people build their shelters on low-lying flood plains, over swamps or above the tidewater on the coast. The effects of climate change are superimposed on these people-driven local land surface modifications. The links between changes in land use and in heavy rainfall patterns, the frequency and depth of flooding and the problems of the urban poor
Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank
This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183
Full Text Available Dengue fever (DF is the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. In this decade it has expanded to new countries and from urban to rural areas. Nepal was regarded DF free until 2004. Since then dengue virus (DENV has rapidly expanded its range even in mountain regions of Nepal, and major outbreaks occurred in 2006 and 2010. However, no data on the local knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of DF in Nepal exist although such information is required for prevention and control measures.We conducted a community based cross-sectional survey in five districts of central Nepal between September 2011 and February 2012. We collected information on the socio-demographic characteristics of the participants and their knowledge, attitude and practice regarding DF using a structured questionnaire. We then statistically compared highland and lowland communities to identify possible causes of observed differences.Out of 589 individuals interviewed, 77% had heard of DF. Only 12% of the sample had good knowledge of DF. Those living in the lowlands were five times more likely to possess good knowledge than highlanders (P<0.001. Despite low knowledge levels, 83% of the people had good attitude and 37% reported good practice. We found a significantly positive correlation among knowledge, attitude and practice (P<0.001. Among the socio-demographic variables, the education level of the participants was an independent predictor of practice level (P<0.05, and education level and interaction between the sex and age group of the participants were independent predictors of attitude level (P<0.05.Despite the rapid expansion of DENV in Nepal, the knowledge of people about DF was very low. Therefore, massive awareness programmes are urgently required to protect the health of people from DF and to limit its further spread in this country.
Aminu U Kaoje
Full Text Available Background: Since the discovery of Ebola in 1967, many localized outbreaks have occurred but the recent cross-border epidemic was fueled by the high level of illiteracy and some bad cultural practices. Aim: To assess the awareness, knowledge, and misconceptions of Ebola among residents of a rural community in Sokoto State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used. The study was conducted in a rural community and the participants were selected using the systematic sampling method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0. Skewed quantitative variables were summarized using median and categorical variables using frequencies and percentages. Chi-square test was performed to assess the relationship between outcome variables (knowledge of Ebola and respondents′ sociodemographic characteristics. Binary logistic regression analysis was also performed to identify the predictors of outcome variable. Results: Respondents′ median age was 30 years and nearly half of the respondents (49% had no formal education. A large proportion (88% of the respondents was aware of Ebola and radio was their major source of information. Residents′ knowledge of Ebola was low and only 13% had good knowledge. Eating bitter kola, bathing with salt water, and drinking salt water were mentioned as methods of preventing the spread of the disease. Of their socio-demographic characteristics, only the educational level attained did predict their knowledge of Ebola. Respondents without formal education [odds ratio (OR = 0.198, P < 0.02] and secondary education (OR = 0.292, P < 0.01 were more likely to have poor knowledge. Conclusion: Although the majority was aware of Ebola, their knowledge about it was very low and misconceptions and misinformation were still not uncommon. There is a need for continuous public education and enlightenment about Ebola.
These new forms of citizenship based on claims of sovereignty over natural, common goods are gradually transforming Colombian democratic space. The article draws on debates around active citizenship, deepening democracy, and participatory communication approaches to explain the aims of community organisations and the mechanisms by which they are self-organising and managing water at the local level.
At the Lisbon 2000 Summit, a strategic goal was proposed for the European Union: 'to become the most competitive knowledge-based economy with more and better employment and social cohesion by 2010'. Overall, in particular in the nuclear fission community, this EC initiative was well accepted by the main stakeholders. In Europe, the main stakeholders (i.e. suppliers and/or demanders) of nuclear knowledge are actually: the research organisations with mixed public/private funding), the manufacturing industry (or vendors), the utilities and waste management organisations, the regulatory bodies (or technical safety organisations/TSOs) and the academia. In the nuclear fission research area, under Euratom FP-5 (1998-2002), criticism was raised by a number of 'high level experts' that too many Community efforts were devoted to production (e.g. through execution of shared cost actions) and not enough to dissemination and transfer (e.g. through education and training) and exploitation (e.g. through innovation) of nuclear knowledge. They were also complaining about the wasted resources due to the 'fragmentation' of EU research. As far as production of nuclear fission knowledge is concerned, a variety of poles (or fragments) of scientific research and operational feedback does exist in many countries but there is no clear common strategy on how to integrate these fragments at European level with a long term prospect. As far as dissemination and transfer of nuclear knowledge is concerned, the situation in some EU-25 countries is dramatic: mostly due to a bad public perception of nuclear energy, the lack of teachers and students becomes a serious concern. As far as exploitation of nuclear knowledge is concerned, all stakeholders are concerned about the unfair balance between supply and demand of knowledge, and about the relatively poor impact of research on technological and societal changes. In conclusion, from a EU research point of view, the solutions to the above 'nuclear
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurological disorders of infectious origin are common in rural sub-Saharan Africa and usually have serious consequences. Unfortunately, these syndromes are often poorly documented for lack of diagnostic tools. Clinical management of these diseases is a major challenge in under-equipped rural health centers and hospitals. We documented health care provider knowledge, attitudes and practices related to this syndrome in two rural health zones in Bandundu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo. METHODS: We used a qualitative research approach combining observation, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. We observed 20 patient-provider contacts related to a neurological syndrome, conducted 12 individual interviews and 4 focus group discussions with care providers. All interviews were audiotaped and the transcripts were analyzed with the software ATLAS.ti. RESULTS: Care providers in this region usually limit their diagnostic work-up to clinical examination primarily because of the financial hurdles in this entirely out-of-pocket payment system. The patients prefer to purchase drugs rather than diagnostic tests. Moreover the general lack of diagnostic tools and the representation of the clinician as a "diviner" do not enhance any use of laboratory or other diagnostic methods. CONCLUSION: Innovation in diagnostic technology for neurological disorders is badly needed in Central-Africa, but its uptake in clinical practice will only be a success if tools are simple, affordable and embedded in a patient-centered approach.
At the Lisbon 2000 summit, a strategic goal was proposed for the European Union: to become the most competitive knowledge-based society by 2010. In the particular case of nuclear fission technologies, this EC initiative has been widely accepted by the stakeholders community concerned. Most stakeholders, indeed, have expressed their interest in the construction of a common durable knowledge base that they could then exploit for their own purposes. In line with the European Research Area (ERA) concept, one of the aims of Euratom FP-6 (2003-2006) is then to set up the foundations of this knowledge base in cooperation with the nuclear fission community. To reach this ambitious goal, a nuclear knowledge management strategy is needed at the EU level. An EU strategy is proposed, focussing on the cycle 'production-dissemination-exploitation' (PDE) of knowledge in the light of a possible internal market of research and innovation. There are a number of economical (e.g. EU internal market) and political (e.g. EU enlargement) reasons that are pushing against the fragmentation of European research and driving towards a consensus around a common durable knowledge base, as a result of shared (governmental/industrial) resources and programmes. A holistic approach of the cycle 'production/dissemination/exploitation' of knowledge (in short, the PDE cycle) is illustrated, referring explicitly to the role of the new FP-6 instruments (integrated projects /IP/ and networks of excellence /NoE/) in this system. The construction of the common durable knowledge base requires the integration of all stakeholders, sharing 3 essential items: a set of common needs, a common vision or strategy, and common instruments. In nuclear fission research, the main stakeholders are actually: the research organisations (with mixed governmental/industrial funding), the manufacturing industry, the utilities and waste organisations, the regulatory bodies (or technical safety organisations /TSO/) and the
Asian Development Bank
The Saemaul Undong movement was a community-driven development program of the Republic of Korea in the 1970s. The movement contributed to improved community wellbeing in rural communities through agricultural production, household income, village life, communal empowerment and regeneration, and women’s participation.This report examines the strengths and weaknesses of the movement along with contributing factors, including institutional arrangements, leadership influence, gender consideration...
Lifson Alan R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether scale-up of HIV prevention and care will reduce negative attitudes and discriminatory practices towards persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH is uncertain. An HIV knowledge and attitude survey was conducted in a rural Ethiopian community where HIV prevention and treatment was being rapidly scaled up. Data were analyzed to identify prevalence of and factors associated with stigma-associated attitudes towards PLWH. Methods We surveyed 561 adults from 250 randomly selected households in the rural town of Arba Minch and surrounding villages about positive or negative attitudes towards PLWH, as well as demographic characteristics, and knowledge about HIV transmission and treatment. Results Eighty percent of respondents agreed with ≥ 1 negative statements indicating blame or shame towards PLWH and 41% agreed with ≥ 1 negative statements associated with distancing themselves from PLWH. However, only 14% expressed negative responses about whether PLWH should receive support from their communities. In multivariate analysis, a greater number of negative attitudes towards PLWH was significantly (p Conclusions In a rural Ethiopian setting in which rapid scale-up of HIV treatment occurred, many respondents still characterized HIV as associated with shame or blame, or indicated PLWH would be isolated or discriminated against. HIV stigma can hamper both prevention and treatment programs. We identified multiple issues which, if addressed, can help promote a more positive cycle in which PLWH are appreciated as members of one’s own community who are affirmatively interacted with and supported. Stigma reduction programs should address knowledge gaps such as fears of casual contact contagion, and lack of awareness of medical interventions to help prevent HIV disease, as well as building upon community-based attitudes of the importance of supporting and showing compassion for PLWH.
Full Text Available In 1965, Gus Dinizulu, an African American percussionist, traveled to Ghana with the dance company he was leading. There, he took the trip as an opportunity to explore his African roots and met Nana Oparebea, the Ghanaian chief-priestess of the Akonedi Shrine, one of the most famous shrine houses north of Accra. At the Akonedi Shrine, Nana Oparebea performed for Dinizulu a divination, during which she explained that his enslaved ancestors were parts of the Akan people of Ghana and gave him the mission to search for other African Americans who, like him, were of Ghanaian ancestries. She also offered him a set of altars, containing the spiritual forces of the deities revered in the Akonedi Shrine and asked him to import in the United States what was then labelled the Akan religion. Based on research led both in Ghana and in the United States, the aim of this paper will be to describe the process of diffusion, importation, transnationalization and indigenization of the Akan religion between West Africa and the East Coast of the United States. Focusing on ethnographic data, we will argue that this process can only be understood if it is placed in the context of African American identity formations. Therefore, we will show how in the context of globalization, religion and identity constructions are walking hand-in-hand, creating new discourses on hybridity and authenticity.
Heyward, Kamela S.
This dissertation examines the strategic practice of virtual racial embodiment, as a case study of African Americans attempting to complicate current constructions of race and social justice in new media. I suggest that dominant racial constructions online teeter between racial stereotypes and the absence of race. Virtual racial classification and…
Todd, C S; Stanekzai, M R; Nasir, A; Fiekert, K; Orr, M G; Strathdee, S A; Vlahov, D
This pre-post evaluation aimed to measure changes in knowledge and attitudes towards drug users among community representatives in Kabul, Afghanistan, over a period of expansion of harm reduction and drug dependence programming. A convenience sample of 160 professionals aged 18+ years completed interview questionnaires in 2007 and 2009. Views endorsing programme quality and the provision of condoms, infection counselling/testing and needle/syringe distribution increased significantly over the 2-year period. In 13 of 38 statements, there was a substantial (> 10%) change in agreement level, most commonly among men and medical professionals. Attitudes concerning support of drug users remained largely positive, with substantial attitude changes in some subgroups of the population. Further community education through the media and a more cohesive government drug policy may be needed to strengthen community support for harm reduction/drug treatment in Afghanistan. PMID:27334075
Ouyang, Yan-Qiong; Hu, Xiaoyan
Studies indicate that women in China are not frequently carrying out breast cancer prevention practices. This is assumed to be due to lack of knowledge and/or lack of personalized instruction. This study was to explore the effect of breast cancer health education on women's knowledge and attitudes on breast cancer and breast self-examination, behavior related to breast self-examination among women living in the catchment area of a community health center. A pretest and posttest assessment of a 1-h health education session was conducted with 38 participants. A telephone reminder and questionnaires were administered at 1 and 3 months after the education. Three instruments were administered at each contact to assess the knowledge and attitudes on breast cancer and behavior related to breast self-examination and accuracy of breast self-examination before education, 1- and 3-month follow-ups after education. The findings showed the incidence of self-examination, and scores on the accuracy of breast self-examination practice were significantly increased immediately following the intervention and at 1- and 3-month follow-ups. Furthermore, the scores of the health belief regarding perceived benefits, perceived competency, and perceived seriousness significantly improved. The current findings imply community-based intervention could be used to teach women about the general knowledge of breast cancer and how to perform breast self-examination correctly, especially for women who are lack of such information. PMID:24504664
Cramm, Jane; Finkenflügel, Harry; Møller, Valerie; Nieboer, Anna
textabstractBackground. Tuberculosis (TB) is a global health concern. Inadequate case finding and case holding has been cited as major barrier to the control of TB. The TB literature is written almost entirely from a biomedical perspective, while recent studies show that it is imperative to understand lay perception to determine why people seek treatment and may stop taking treatment. The Eastern Cape is known as a province with high TB incidence, prevalence and with one of the worst cure rat...
Møller Valerie; Finkenflügel Harry JM; Cramm Jane M; Nieboer Anna P
Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a global health concern. Inadequate case finding and case holding has been cited as major barrier to the control of TB. The TB literature is written almost entirely from a biomedical perspective, while recent studies show that it is imperative to understand lay perception to determine why people seek treatment and may stop taking treatment. The Eastern Cape is known as a province with high TB incidence, prevalence and with one of the worst cure rates o...
Pereira, Antonio B; Putzke, Jair
This work aims to summarize the results of research carried out by Brazilian researchers on the plant communities of Antarctic ice free areas during the last twenty five years. Since 1988 field work has been carried out in Elephant Island, King George Island, Nelson Island and Deception Island. During this period six papers were published on the chemistry of lichens, seven papers on plant taxonomy, five papers on plant biology, two studies on UVB photoprotection, three studies about the relationships between plant communities and bird colonies and eleven papers on plant communities from ice free areas. At the present, Brazilian botanists are researching the plant communities of Antarctic ice free areas in order to understand their relationships to soil microbial communities, the biodiversity, the distribution of the plants populations and their relationship with birds colonies. In addition to these activities, a group of Brazilian researchers are undertaking studies related to Antarctic plant genetic diversity, plant chemistry and their biotechnological applications. PMID:24068084
Askell-Williams, Helen; Lawson, Michael J.
This paper reports an investigation into Australian primary school teachers' knowledge and confidence for mental health promotion. Questionnaires were delivered to 1397 teachers. In-depth interviews were held with 37 teachers. Quantitative results showed that half to two thirds of teachers felt efficacious and knowledgeable about selected…
Full Text Available Online collaboration and web-based knowledge sharing have gained momentum as major components of the Web 2.0 movement. Consequently, knowledge embedded in such platforms is no longer static and continuously evolves through experts’ micro-contributions. Traditional Information Retrieval and Social Network Analysis techniques take a document-centric approach to expertise modeling by creating a macro-perspective of knowledge embedded in large corpus of static documents. However, as knowledge in collaboration platforms changes dynamically, the traditional macro-perspective is insufficient for tracking the evolution of knowledge and expertise. Hence, Expertise Profiling is presented with major challenges in the context of dynamic and evolving knowledge. In our previous study, we proposed a comprehensive, domain-independent model for expertise profiling in the context of evolving knowledge. In this paper, we incorporate Language Modeling into our methodology to enhance the accuracy of resulting profiles. Evaluation results indicate a significant improvement in the accuracy of profiles generated by this approach. In addition, we present our profile visualization tool, Profile Explorer, which serves as a paradigm for exploring and analyzing time-dependent expertise profiles in knowledge-bases where content evolves overtime. Profile Explorer facilitates comparative analysis of evolving expertise, independent of the domain and the methodology used in creating profiles.
Yoon, Cheolho; Rolland, Erik
Although the role of motivation has been emphasised in knowledge-sharing literature, traditional motivation theories, such as self-determination theory (SDT), have not been actively used as a research framework in knowledge-sharing research. The purposes of this study are twofold. The first objective is to propose a model, based on SDT, to test…
Shava, Soul; Krasny, Marianne E.; Tidball, Keith G.; Zazu, Cryton
In light of globalising trends toward urbanisation and resettlement, we explore how agricultural knowledges may be adapted and applied among relocated people. Although indigenous and related forms of practice-based knowledge may be temporarily lost as people adopt commercial agricultural practices and switch to non-agricultural livelihoods, they…
Full Text Available Myo Nyein Aung,1,2 Thaworn Lorga,2 Janthila Srikrajang,2 Nongluk Promtingkran,2 Suchart Kreuangchai,2 Wilawan Tonpanya,2 Phatchanan Vivarakanon,2 Puangpet Jaiin,2 Nara Praipaksin,3 Apiradee Payaprom41Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan; 2Boromarajonani College of Nursing Nakhon Lampang (BCNLP, Lampang, Thailand; 3Baan Rekati Health Station, Thasongyang, Thailand; 4Thasongyang Hospital, ThailandBackground: Hypertension is currently a global health concern. Rural and minority populations are increasingly exposed to risk factors as a result of urbanization, leading to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. We conducted a survey in the rural Karen community in Thasongyang District, Tak Province, Thailand, with the aims of determining: the distribution of blood pressure across different age groups; the prevalence of hypertension and other risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, including diabetes, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, and excess alcohol use; knowledge and awareness of hypertension as a disease; and knowledge and awareness of risk factors for hypertension among the population at risk.Methods: This was a community-based, cross-sectional survey of 298 rural Karen residents. A set of questionnaires assessing lifestyle-related health risk behaviors and awareness and knowledge of hypertension were used. Blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, weight, height, and waist circumference were measured.Results: Median systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 110 (range 100–120 mmHg and 70 (range 60–80 mmHg, respectively. High blood pressure was observed in more than 27% of the population, with 15% being hypertensive and 12% being prehypertensive. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that people in the Karen community who were aware of hypertension were less likely to be current smokers (odds ratio [OR] 0.53, confidence interval [CI] 0.29–0.97 and those with primary
Kurth, Lori Ann
In light of continuing poor performance by American students in school science, feminists and sociocultural researchers have demonstrated that we need to look beyond content to address the science needs of all school children. In this study I examined issues of discourse norms, knowledge, language and subjectivities (meaning personal and social observations and characteristics) in elementary science. Over a two-year period, I used an interpretive methodological approach to investigate science experiences in two first-second and second grade classrooms. I first established some of the norms and characteristics of the discourse communities through case studies of new students attempting to gain entry to whole class conversations. I then examined knowledge, a central focus of science education addressed by a variety of theoretical approaches. In these classrooms students co-constructed and built knowledge in their whole class science conversations sometimes following convergent (similar knowledge) and, at other times, divergent (differing knowledge) paths allowing for broader discourse. In both paths, there was gendered construction of knowledge in which same gender students elaborated the reasoning of previous speakers. In conjunction with these analyses, I examined what knowledge sources the students used in their science conversations. Students drew on a variety of informal and formal knowledge sources including personal experiences, other students, abstract logic and thought experiments, all of which were considered valid. In using sources from both in and out of school, students' knowledge bases were broader than traditional scientific content giving greater access and richness to their conversations. The next analysis focused on students' use of narrative and paradigmatic language forms in the whole class science conversations. Traditionally, only paradigmatic language forms have been used in science classrooms. The students in this study used both narrative and
Emmanuel, Nikolas G.
peacekeeping operations in the region. It is important to add that the international community has frequently tried to facilitate the deployment of African armed forces with aid and training. From this reality, the following study goes beyond the current literature by focusing on the international factors...... behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...
Gitlin Laura N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care is the principle setting for depression treatment; yet many older African Americans in the United States fail to report depressive symptoms or receive the recommended standard of care. Older African Americans are at high risk for depression due to elevated rates of chronic illness, disability and socioeconomic distress. There is an urgent need to develop and test new depression treatments that resonate with minority populations that are hard-to-reach and underserved and to evaluate their cost and cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design Beat the Blues (BTB is a single-blind parallel randomized trial to assess efficacy of a non-pharmacological intervention to reduce depressive symptoms and improve quality of life in 208 African Americans 55+ years old. It involves a collaboration with a senior center whose care management staff screen for depressive symptoms (telephone or in-person using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Individuals screened positive (PHQ-9 ≥ 5 on two separate occasions over 2 weeks are referred to local mental health resources and BTB. Interested and eligible participants who consent receive a baseline home interview and then are randomly assigned to receive BTB immediately or 4 months later (wait-list control. All participants are interviewed at 4 (main study endpoint and 8 months at home by assessors masked to study assignment. Licensed senior center social workers trained in BTB meet with participants at home for up to 10 sessions over 4 months to assess care needs, make referrals/linkages, provide depression education, instruct in stress reduction techniques, and use behavioral activation to identify goals and steps to achieve them. Key outcomes include reduced depressive symptoms (primary, reduced anxiety and functional disability, improved quality of life, and enhanced depression knowledge and behavioral activation (secondary. Fidelity is enhanced through procedure manuals and staff
Sankaré, IC; Bross, R; Brown, AF; del Pino, HE; Jones, LF; Morris, DM; C. Porter; Lucas-Wright, A; Vargas, R.; Forge, N; Norris, KC; Kahn, KL
© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Background: This study used Community Partnered Participatory Research (CPPR) to address low participation of racial and ethnic minorities in medical research and the lack of trust between underrepresented communities and researchers. Methods: Using a community and academic partnership in July 2012, residents of a South Los Angeles neighborhood were exposed to research recruitment strategies: referral by word-of-mouth, community agencies, direct marketing, and e...
Tiago Marques dos Reis
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of pharmacists and check their conduct in relation to dispensing of drugs. This is a cross-sectional study performed in four municipalities from South and Southeast of Brazil, which are reference in health national scenario and concentrate 73.6% of national economic activity. Pharmacists who works in community pharmacies were invited to answer a questionnaire prepared by the authors of this study and validated. The main outcome measured was the pharmaceutical knowledge, rated according to the number of correct answers on that questionnaire prepared by the researchers, and professional conduct in relation to dispensing of drugs. The data collection occurred from September to December 2012 and the information obtained were tabulated in duplicate by two independent researchers for later analysis. 486 community pharmacies were visited but only 112 professionals participated in the study. Among the participants, 78.6% (n = 88 did not have adequate knowledge to perform the dispensing of drugs, despite this same number of pharmacists claiming to have participated in conferences and courses after graduation. The main sources of information on drugs used by participants have a low level of scientific evidence. The performance of non-employment related tasks reduces the time available for the care of medication users. In addition, the indiscriminate sale of antimicrobials and the sale of products other than health, mischaracterize the role of the pharmacist in the community pharmacy. There are gaps in the knowledge of professionals, limiting the satisfactory completion of dispensing of drugs. In addition, the excess of other duties and inadequate professional conduct compromise the promotion of the rational use of drugs.
McIntyre, Lauren; Liederbach, Marijeanne
Despite recent improvements in their concussion knowledge, athletes still demonstrate risky concussion behaviors (e.g., playing while concussed or not reporting a concussion). Little has been published about dancers' concussion knowledge and behaviors, but research in dance contending with questions about injury in general has found that dancers often avoid physician consults and ignore the signs of injury. In the present study, an IRB approved anonymous online survey, it was hypothesized that dancers would demonstrate concussion knowledge deficits, fail to report concussions, and have difficulty adhering to management guidelines. In addition, it was hypothesized that dancers in companies or schools with an onsite health care practitioner present would demonstrate improved concussion knowledge and safer concussion behaviors compared with those that do not have onsite health care. Concussion knowledge and behavior questions were modified for a dance sample based on validated sports-specific tools developed by other investigators. One hundred fifty-three subjects were recruited to complete the survey from an urban orthopaedic clinic specializing in dance medicine and via Facebook, email, and newsletter announcements. Dancers in this sample had good foundational knowledge of concussion; however, this knowledge did not correlate with safe, self-reported concussion care behaviors. Future research should focus on determination of dance-specific barriers to practicing safe behaviors and seeking care for concussive injury, as well as further identifying dance concussion epidemiology and outcomes. PMID:27245947
This poster provides a discussion of current and past EPA NCER Tribal Research that have successfully integrated TEK and Western Science practices to address environmental and human health issues facing tribal communities.
Dwivedi R. R
Full Text Available In the present study conducted in Kashi Vidyapeeth Block of Varanasi District, 20 Community Health Guides (CHGs were trained in order to strengthen their knowledge in some selected areas of Primary Health Care. Of the total score of 235, the mean score in pre-training was 115.65 (49.21%. During the first post-training assessment done after 3 months the mean score increased by 61.50 (26.17% which was statistically significant During the third post-training assessment after 9 months of training, the mean score increased significantly from the pre-training assessment by 38 (16.17%. Separate analysis for each item revealed significant improvements in the knowledge of CHGs after training. Age had no significant influence in the gain of knowledge. The increase in knowledge was significantly greater in CHGs with higher formal education. The â€practitionerâ€ group of CHGs could gain and retain more knowledge compared to the â€non-practitionerâ€ group.
Hart Graham J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor awareness and knowledge of Chlamydia trachomatis could be a barrier to uptake of screening. This study aimed to determine the level of awareness and knowledge of chlamydia among young people who were being approached in a variety of community settings and offered opportunistic screening. Methods Men and women aged 16-24 years were approached in education, health and fitness, and workplace settings and invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire then provide a urine sample for chlamydia testing. Follow-up semi-structured interviews with 24 respondents were carried out after test results were received. Results 363 questionnaires were completed (43.5% from men. Whilst awareness of chlamydia was high, knowledge decreased as questions became increasingly focussed so that around half of respondents were unaware of the asymptomatic nature of chlamydia infections. Men's knowledge of symptoms was consistently lower than women's, with most men failing to identify unusual discharge as a symptom in men (men 58.3%, female 45.8%, p = 0.019; fewer men knew unusual discharge was a symptom among women (men 65.3% female 21.4%, p Conclusions Despite scientific gains in understanding chlamydia infection, public understanding remains limited. Greater efforts are required to translate scientific evidence to the public. An improvement in knowledge may maximise gains from interventions to improve detection.
Seamark, D A; Thorne, C P; Jones, R V; Gray, D. J.; Searle, J. F.
Within a single district health authority all the general practitioners and community registered general nurses were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding awareness and perceptions of a domiciliary hospice service. Responses were received from 127 doctors (71%) and 58 nurses (80%). Awareness of resources offered by the domiciliary hospice service was high, especially among the 102 respondents with access to the service. Eighty per cent or more of general practitioners and community nurs...
Mark E Boyes
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The current study assessed the basic psychometric properties of the Child PTSD Checklist and examined the structure of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in a large sample of South African youth. METHODOLOGY: The checklist was completed by 1025 (540 male; 485 female South African youth (aged between 10 and 19 years. The factor structure of the scale was assessed with a combination of confirmatory and exploratory techniques. Internal consistencies for the full scale and all subscales were evaluated with Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega. Validity was assessed by comparing PTSD scores obtained by children who had and had not experienced a traumatic event, and by examining associations between total PTSD scores and known correlates of PTSD. RESULTS: Scores on the Child PTSD Checklist clearly discriminated between youth who had experienced a traumatic event and those who had not. Internal consistencies for the full scale (and all subscales were acceptable to good and hypothesized correlations between PTSD, depression, anxiety, somatic symptoms, and age were observed. Two of the reported fit statistics for the tripartite DSM-IV-TR model of PTSD did not meet traditional criteria and further exploratory analyses revealed a four-factor structure (broadly consistent with Simms and colleagues' Dysphoria Model of PTSD symptoms which provided a better fit to the observed data. CONCLUSION: Given the continued use of the Child PTSD Checklist in South Africa, findings offer an important first step in establishing the reliability and validity of the checklist for use with South African youth. However, further evaluation of the checklist in South African samples is clearly required before conclusions regarding its use as diagnostic tool in this context can be made.
Azeem Sultan Mir
Full Text Available Background: Unsafe abortion is a major Public health problem in developing countries, where women make several unsafe attempts at termination of the unintended pregnancy before turning to health services. Community health workers can act as a bridge between the community and their health facilities and can use Emergency Contraceptive Pills to significantly reduce the mortality and morbidity related to unsafe abortions. Aims: This study explores the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Lady Health Supervisor of the National Program for Family Planning, district Rawalpindi, regarding emergency contraception pills. Materials and Methods: The cross sectional survey was conducted during the monthly meeting of Lady Health Supervisors. Self administered, anonymous and voluntary questionnaire consisting of 17 items, regarding demographic profile, awareness, knowledge, attitudes and practices, was used. Results: Insufficient knowledge, high misinformation and strongly negative attitudes were revealed. More than half did not know that emergency contraceptive pills do not cause abortion. About four fifths believed that emergency contraceptive pills will lead to ′evil′ practices in society. More than four fifths recognized that the clients of National Program for Family Planning need emergency contraceptive pills. The attitudes were significantly associated with knowledge (P=0.034, Fisher′s Exact Test. Conclusion: The awareness of emergency contraceptive pills is high. Serious gaps in knowledge have been identified. There is a clear recognition of the need of emergency contraceptive pills for the clients of National Program for Family Planning. However, any strategy to introduce emergency contraceptive pills must cater for the misplaced beliefs of the work force.
The study was set to determine whether knowledge and attitudes toward organ dona-tion differ according to geographical location. Self-administered questionnaires were employed to collect data such as demographic characteristics, basic knowledge, attitudes and source of information about organ donation from subjects in rural and urban areas. The questionnaires were distributed randomly to 1,000 individuals in both areas during 2008. The data were analyzed in a descriptive fashion. Despite simi...
Geiger, Susi; Turley, Darach
This research posits personal selling as a knowledge-based activity. In their day-to-day interaction with customers, sales personnel gain priceless insights into their personalities, likes and dislikes, their process requirements or their position in formal and informal networks. If such ‘soft’ knowledge is externalised and made available in organisations, it can be a highly precious asset in developing genuine customer-oriented marketing and sales strategies. In most firms, however, such ...
Digital collaborations are often stymied because institutions of higher education are increasingly divided between two cultures: the culture of knowledge and the culture of information. Campuses primarily remain institutions of knowledge, although practices of information acquisition can no longer be ignored, especially since the advent of networked computing and study with digital texts. Yet the traditional division of labor and the ownership of intellectual property within the academy are t...
Ammouri, Ali A.; Ayman Tailakh; Chandrani Isac; Kamanyire, Joy K.; Joshua Muliira; Shreedevi Balachandran
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of Omani adults regarding conventional coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors and to identify demographic variables associated with these knowledge levels. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional pilot study was carried out among a convenience sample of 130 adults attending a health awareness fair held in a local shopping mall in Muscat, Oman, in November 2012. A modified version of the Heart Disease Facts Questionnaire in bot...
Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Yousefi, Nazila; Hashemian, Farshad; Maleksabet, Hanieh
The present study aimed to evaluate pharmacy practice regarding dietary supplements in Tehran (I.R. Iran). So, the factors affecting on pharmacists' practice including their knowledge, attitude, and some underlying factors were evaluated. This is an observational knowledge; attitude and practice (KAP) study. The unit of analysis include pharmacies practice located in Tehran. The data was collected in 2013 via an anonymous, self-administered; postal questionnaire consisted of demographic infor...
Full Text Available The study was set to determine whether knowledge and attitudes toward organ dona-tion differ according to geographical location. Self-administered questionnaires were employed to collect data such as demographic characteristics, basic knowledge, attitudes and source of information about organ donation from subjects in rural and urban areas. The questionnaires were distributed randomly to 1,000 individuals in both areas during 2008. The data were analyzed in a descriptive fashion. Despite similarities in knowledge and attitudes of respondents in both areas, rural res-pondents were less likely to have information about organ donation, to report willingness to donate organs, and to have knowledge about "brain death" or the "organ donation card" than their counter-parts in urban areas. The study identified that the principle respondents′ source of information about organ donation was the television. More than 90% of respondents in rural and urban areas reported that the contribution of health care providers in providing them with knowledge about organ dona-tion and transplantation was "none" or "little". Respondents identified several reasons, which may influence their decisions to donate organs. In conclusion, the deficit in knowledge and attitudes of rural respondents about organ donation may be justified by the lack of information about this signi-ficant issue. Accordingly, health facilities, local mass media and educational institutions should provide intensive educational programs to encourage the public donate organs.