WorldWideScience

Sample records for african children receiving

  1. The transmission of African culture to children

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Tanon Lora

    2014-01-01

    African ancient traditions suffered a major historical change as a result of colonization. Several decades after decolonization and access to independence, what is the situation and place of the African culture in Africa and outside Africa? Does African culture perpetuate effectively today? What are the obstacles to the transmission of African culture to our children? What are the beliefs or elements that have influenced the transmission of our culture after the period of independence? Roughl...

  2. A Qualitative Examination of the Maternal Racial Socialization of African American Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Adrienne Laney

    2014-01-01

    The salience of racial socialization among African American families has received considerable attention in the literature; however, few scholars have examined how the process of racial socialization unfolds in families with very young children. This study investigated how African American mothers of preschool-age children approached the process of racial socialization. I interviewed African American mothers who were at least age 18 (N=12) with biological children between the ages of three an...

  3. MRI in children receiving total parenteral nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranial MRI was obtained in 13 of a group of 57 children receiving long-term parenteral nutrition, who were being investigated for hypermanganasaemia. Increased signal intensity on T1-weighted images has been reported in adult patients on long-term parenteral nutrition and with encephalopathy following chronic manganese exposure in arc welding. It has been postulated that these changes are due to deposition of the paramagnetic trace element manganese. In excess manganese is hepato- and neurotoxic and we present the correlation of whole blood manganese levels with imaging findings. The age range of our patients was 6 months to 10 years, and the duration of therapy 3 months to 10 years. In 7 children we found characteristic increased signal intensity on T1-weighted images, with no abnormality on T2-weighted images. All patients had elevated whole blood manganese levels, suggesting that the basis for this abnormality is indeed deposition of manganese within the tissues. (orig.). With 3 figs

  4. Estimating age in black South African children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, A; Fabris-Rotelli, I; Bernitz, H

    2014-03-01

    Forensic dentists are frequently required to determine the age at death of unidentified skeletons, or to age live individuals who have no record/documentation of their chronological age. In order to be of the greatest value, the method used should have the lowest possible standard deviation and be validated for the individual's specific population group. The method most frequently used in Forensic Dentistry for the estimation of age in children, was described by Demirjian et al. The maturity standards determined were based on samples of French Canadian origin and it has been recommended by several authors that correction factors be incorporated when applying this method to different population groups. The current research was carried out on a sample of 838 black South African children. A new model for age estimation in the said population was developed, to accurately determine the chronological age from dental development. A sample of 604 black South African children was used to test the validity of the method described by Demirjian. PMID:24974518

  5. Linking Employment Status, Maternal Psychological Well-Being, Parenting, and Children's Attributions about Poverty in Families Receiving Government Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Velma McBride; Brody, Gene H.; Brown, Anita; Wisenbaker, Joseph; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    Using an ecological risk-protection perspective, explores functional changes in single African American mothers (N=96) receiving government assistance. Examines links among maternal employment, mothers' physical and psychological health, and children's attributions about causes of poverty. Maternal psychological distress was linked with children's…

  6. What Are the Real Risk Factors for African American Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jacquelyne Faye

    1999-01-01

    Educators should banish the specter of African-American children as high-risk, budding disasters and closely examine these children's schooling environment. Black children of all incomes are schooled in highly segregated settings, due to residential segregation. Exposure to health hazards (lead-based paint) and corporal punishment are serious…

  7. Language Learning and Use by African American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Dolores E.

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews recent investigations of the development of phonology, morphology, semantics, and pragmatics in the development of speech and language by African American children. Clinical implications are offered to aid the distinction between normal language development using features of African American English and language disorders.…

  8. Assessing Social Anxiety in African American Youth using the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pina, Armando A.; LITTLE, MICHELLE; Wynne, Henry; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2014-01-01

    Examined measurement invariance and cut-off scores of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C) using data corresponding to a convenience sample of 501 African American and Caucasian youth (Mage = 11.62 years, 249 girls; 49% with social anxiety disorder) using exploratory structural equation modeling and a weighted least squares mean variance estimator. For the cut-off scores, Receiver Operator Characteristic analyses were used along with Youden’s index to evaluate the bal...

  9. Social adjustment of African children in Icelandic compulsory schools

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Enyonam Sævarsson

    2011-01-01

    In Icelandic compulsory schools, all nationals are supposed to take teaching instructions in Icelandic. Article 16 of the National Curriculum guide, Compulsory School Act (2008) states that ―Pupils whose mother tongue is not Icelandic are entitled to instruction in Icelandic as second language.‖ The aim of this objective is to empower immigrant children to study and become active participants in Icelandic community. Does the culture of African children serve as a hindrance to adjusting social...

  10. Improving child support enforcement for children receiving SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilschke, S

    Less than half of all children who receive Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits and live in a single-parent home receive child support services. Although filing for child support is a condition of eligibility for income assistance programs such as Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), it is not a condition of eligibility for SSI benefits. Requiring single custodial parents applying for SSI on behalf of their children to pursue child support payments might result in more children on SSI receiving child support, and since the Social Security Administration (SSA) excludes one-third of child support when determining benefit amounts, increased receipt of child support would enhance the financial well-being of SSI children. Improving access to data on child support would enhance the integrity of the SSI program by reducing overpayments to children receiving child support. This article looks at the child support provisions in SSI and other means-tested programs and discusses policy options for improving receipt of child support and access to related data. Requiring cooperation with child support enforcement agencies would be consistent with the philosophy that the SSI program should serve as a program of last resort. Whenever possible, both parents should take primary responsibility for their children. While such a requirement has the potential to improve the financial status of children receiving SSI, factors such as their low-income status and their involvement with the TANF program raise questions about how much those children will actually benefit from such a requirement. Even if many additional children do not receive child support, the requirement demonstrates SSA's dedication to the stewardship of the SSI program. However, if custodial parents fail to comply with the requirement, children may be worse off as a result of the requirement. SSA should carefully pursue a requirement to induce cooperation while protecting children to the greatest extent

  11. Human rhinovirus infection in young African children with acute wheezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zar Heather J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections caused by human rhinoviruses (HRVs are important triggers of wheezing in young children. Wheezy illness has increasingly been recognised as an important cause of morbidity in African children, but there is little information on the contribution of HRV to this. The aim of this study was to determine the role of HRV as a cause of acute wheezing in South African children. Methods Two hundred and twenty children presenting consecutively at a tertiary children's hospital with a wheezing illness from May 2004 to November 2005 were prospectively enrolled. A nasal swab was taken and reverse transcription PCR used to screen the samples for HRV. The presence of human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus and human coronavirus-NL63 was assessed in all samples using PCR-based assays. A general shell vial culture using a pool of monoclonal antibodies was used to detect other common respiratory viruses on 26% of samples. Phylogenetic analysis to determine circulating HRV species was performed on a portion of HRV-positive samples. Categorical characteristics were analysed using Fisher's Exact test. Results HRV was detected in 128 (58.2% of children, most (72% of whom were under 2 years of age. Presenting symptoms between the HRV-positive and negative groups were similar. Most illness was managed with ambulatory therapy, but 45 (35% were hospitalized for treatment and 3 (2% were admitted to intensive care. There were no in-hospital deaths. All 3 species of HRV were detected with HRV-C being the most common (52% followed by HRV-A (37% and HRV-B (11%. Infection with other respiratory viruses occurred in 20/128 (16% of HRV-positive children and in 26/92 (28% of HRV-negative samples. Conclusion HRV may be the commonest viral infection in young South African children with acute wheezing. Infection is associated with mild or moderate clinical disease.

  12. Should children with inherited metabolic disorders receive varicella vaccination?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Varghese, M

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to determine the rate of varicella infection and complications in children with disorders of intermediary metabolism (IEM) between the ages of 1 and 16 years attending our national metabolic referral centre. Of 126 children identified, a response was received from 122. A history of previous varicella infection was identified in 64 cases (53%) and of varicella vaccination in 5 (4%). Fifty-three (43%) patients apparently did not have a history of clinical varicella infection. Of the 64 children with a history of varicella infection, five required hospitalisation for complications, including life-threatening lactic acidosis in one patient with mitochondrial disease and metabolic decompensation in four patients. In conclusion, varicella infection may cause an increased risk of metabolic decompensation in patients with IEMs. We propose that a trial of varicella vaccination be considered for this cohort of patients with monitoring of its safety and efficacy.

  13. NOMA: A Preventable "Scourge" of African Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbureke, Kalu U E; Ogbureke, Ezinne I

    2010-01-01

    Noma is a serious orofacial gangrene originating intraorally in the gingival-oral mucosa complex before spreading extraorally to produce a visibly destructive ulcer. Although cases of noma are now rarely reported in the developed countries, it is still prevalent among children in third world countries, notably in sub-Sahara Africa, where poverty, ignorance, malnutrition, and preventable childhood infections are still common. This review summarizes historical, epidemiological, management, and research updates on noma with suggestions for its prevention and ultimate global eradication. The global annual incidence remains high at about 140,000 cases, with a mortality rate exceeding 90% for untreated diseases. Where the patients survive, noma defects result in unsightly facial disfigurement, intense scarring, trismus, oral incompetence, and social alienation. Although the etiology has long been held to be infectious, a definitive causal role between microorganisms cited, and noma has been difficult to establish. The management of noma with active disease requires antibiotics followed by reconstructive surgery. Current research efforts are focused towards a comprehensive understanding of the epidemiology, and further elucidation of the microbiology and pathogenesis of noma.Although a formidable public health challenge, noma can be prevented with a potential for subsequent global eradication. To achieve both desirable goals, detection of early disease is crucial because these early lesions respond to conventional antibiotic treatments when instituted side by side with nutritional rehabilitation, and obviates the necessity for extensive surgical reconstruction often indicated in late stage disease. The eradication of noma in the developed world in the mid 20(th) century bears out the notion of a similar outcome following effective preventive strategies in Africa. A fundamental and necessary step towards attaining this goal is for the international community to adopt a

  14. Stereotype Threat Effects on African American Children in an Urban Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserberg, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether a diagnostic testing condition leads to stereotype threat effects for African American children (n = 198) at an urban elementary school. Results indicated that presenting a reading test as diagnostic of abilities hindered the performance of African American children aware of racial stereotypes but not of those…

  15. Cohesive Adequacy in the Narrative Samples of School-Age Children Who Use African American English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton-Ikard, RaMonda

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the type and adequacy of cohesive devices that are produced by school-age children who use African American English (AAE). Method: The language samples of 33 African American children, ages 7, 9, and 11 years, were transcribed, analyzed, and coded for AAE use and cohesive adequacy (e.g., personal reference,…

  16. African Refugee Parents' Involvement in Their Children's Schools: Barriers and Recommendations for Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Githembe, Purity Kanini

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine involvement of African refugee parents in the education of their elementary school children. The setting of the study was Northern and Southern Texas. African refugee parents and their children's teachers completed written surveys and also participated in interviews. In the study's mixed-method design,…

  17. Protective Factors for Depression among African American Children of Predominantly Low-Income Mothers with Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Rhonda C; Waanders, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Maternal depression has a deleterious impact on child psychological outcomes, including depression symptoms. However, there is limited research on the protective factors for these children and even less for African Americans. The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of positive parenting skills on child depression and the potential protective effects of social skills and kinship support among African American children whose mothers are depressed and low-income. African American moth...

  18. Pharmacokinetics of a Novel Sublingual Spray Formulation of the Antimalarial Drug Artemether in African Children with Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Salman, Sam; Bendel, Daryl; Lee, Toong C.; Templeton, David; Davis, Timothy M. E.

    2015-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of sublingual artemether (ArTiMist) was investigated in 91 young African children with severe malaria or who could not tolerate oral antimalarial therapy. Each received 3.0 mg/kg of body weight of artemether at 0, 8, 24, 36, 48, and 60 h or until the initiation of oral treatment. Few blood samples were drawn postdose. Plasma artemether and dihydroartemisinin (DHA) levels were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the data were analyzed using establis...

  19. Parameters of anesthesia/sedation in children receiving radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous reports establish low risk of complications in pediatric treatments under anesthesia/sedation (A/S) in the outpatient setting. Here, we present our institutional experience with A/S by age and gender in children receiving daily proton RT. After Institutional Review Board approval, we reviewed our center’s records between 9/9/2004 and 6/30/2013 with respect to age and gender of A/S requirement in our pediatric patients (defined as patients ≤18 years of age). Of 390 patients treated in this era, 182 were girls. Children aged ≤3 invariably required A/S; and by age 7–8, approximately half of patients do not. For pediatric patients ≥ 12 years of age, approximately 10% may require A/S for different reasons. There was no difference by gender. Beyond age 3, the requirement for A/S decreases in an age-dependent fashion, with a small cadre of older children having difficulty enough with sustained immobilization that A/S is necessary. In our experience, there is no difference in A/S requirement by gender

  20. A comparison of death recording by health centres and civil registration in South Africans receiving antiretroviral treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh F Johnson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is uncertainty regarding the completeness of death recording by civil registration and by health centres in South Africa. This paper aims to compare death recording by the two systems, in cohorts of South African patients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART. Methods: Completeness of death recording was estimated using a capture–recapture approach. Six ART programmes linked their patient record systems to the vital registration system using civil identity document (ID numbers and provided data comparing the outcomes recorded in patient files and in the vital registration. Patients were excluded if they had missing/invalid IDs or had transferred to other ART programmes. Results: After exclusions, 91,548 patient records were included. Of deaths recorded in patients files after 2003, 94.0% (95% CI: 93.3–94.6% were recorded by civil registration, with completeness being significantly higher in urban areas, older adults and females. Of deaths recorded by civil registration after 2003, only 35.0% (95% CI: 34.2–35.8% were recorded in patient files, with this proportion dropping from 60% in 2004–2005 to 30% in 2010 and subsequent years. Recording of deaths in patient files was significantly higher in children and in locations within 50 km of the health centre. When the information from the two systems was combined, an estimated 96.2% of all deaths were recorded (93.5% in children and 96.2% in adults. Conclusions: South Africa's civil registration system has achieved a high level of completeness in the recording of mortality. However, the fraction of deaths recorded by health centres is low and information from patient records is insufficient by itself to evaluate levels and predictors of ART patient mortality. Previously documented improvements in ART mortality over time may be biased if based only on data from patient records.

  1. 25 CFR 20.400 - Who should receive Services to Children, Elderly, and Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who should receive Services to Children, Elderly, and... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.400 Who should receive Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? Services to Children, Elderly, and...

  2. South African Mixed-Race Children's and Mothers' Judgments and Reasoning about Children's Nurturance and Self-Determination Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruck, Martin D.; Tenenbaum, Harriet; Willenberg, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the understanding of children's rights in 63 (9-, 11-, and 13-year-olds) mixed-race South African children and their mothers. In individual semi-structured interviews participants responded to hypothetical vignettes in which children's nurturance and self-determination rights conflicted with parental authority in the home.…

  3. [Post-traumatic cubitus varus in children (apropos of 8 cases in African children)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribault, L

    1992-01-01

    The author describes his experience after treatment of 8 cases of cubitus varus secondary to displaced supracondylar fractures of the humerus in African children. Measurement of the Baumann angle is necessary for the assessment of cubitus varus. The median angle is 24 degrees with a range of 10 degrees to 45 degrees. Indications were dictated by functional problems, discomfort, and esthetic considerations. The surgical treatment consisted in a supracondylar osteotomy of the humerus for correction of cubitus varus. PMID:1632217

  4. A comparison of death recording by health centres and civil registration in South Africans receiving antiretroviral treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Leigh F.; Dorrington, Rob E; Ria Laubscher; Christopher Hoffmann; Robin Wood; Fox, Matthew P; Morna Cornell; Michael Schomaker; Hans Prozesky; Frank Tanser; Mary-Ann Davies; Andrew Boulle

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: There is uncertainty regarding the completeness of death recording by civil registration and by health centres in South Africa. This paper aims to compare death recording by the two systems, in cohorts of South African patients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART). Methods: Completeness of death recording was estimated using a capture–recapture approach. Six ART programmes linked their patient record systems to the vital registration system using civil identity document (ID)...

  5. Raising Cultural Awareness of Second Grade African American Students Using Mexican American Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Sandra Lyniece

    2009-01-01

    An increase in the Mexican American population within the predominantly African American community and school was the basis of this qualitative study. The purpose of the study was to introduce African American second grade students to authentic Mexican and Mexican American children's literature. Interactive read-alouds of nonfiction and realistic…

  6. Spelling in African American Children: The Case of Final Consonant Devoicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Bowman, Margo

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of dialect variation on children's spelling by using devoicing of final /d/ in African American Vernacular English (AAVE) as a test case. In line with the linguistic interference hypothesis, African American 6-year-olds were significantly poorer at spelling the final "d" of words such as "salad"…

  7. Stereotype or reality: another look at alcohol and drug use among African American children.

    OpenAIRE

    Bass, L E; Kane-Williams, E

    1993-01-01

    The Center for Substance Abuse Prevention's Division of Communications Programs launched its Urban Youth Public Education Campaign in late 1990 to target African American youth in 14 cities with prevention messages about alcohol and other drugs. During the market research phase of the campaign, the Center sought to determine the extent inner city African American children are impacted by alcohol and other drugs and how widespread the use of these substances is among younger children. Is it ra...

  8. Positioning women's and children's health in African union policy-making: a policy analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Toure Kadidiatou; Sankore Rotimi; Kuruvilla Shyama; Scolaro Elisa; Bustreo Flavia; Osotimehin Babatunde

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background With limited time to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, progress towards improving women's and children's health needs to be accelerated. With Africa accounting for over half of the world's maternal and child deaths, the African Union (AU) has a critical role in prioritizing related policies and catalysing required investments and action. In this paper, the authors assess the evolution of African Union policies related to women's and children's health, and analyze h...

  9. Nonabusive physical punishment and child behavior among African-American children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Ivor Braden; Joseph, Jill G.; Cheng, Tina L.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of nonabusive physical punishment as a form of discipline has been greatly debated in the scientific and popular literature. Impact on child behavioral outcomes has frequently been found; however, the effects of its use are not clear, particularly for African-American children. This systematic review of the literature examined the impact of exposure to nonabusive physical punishment on the behavior of African-American children. METHODS: A search was conducted of PubMed and Psyclnfo from 1970 to 2000 using the key terms: corporal punishment, physical punishment, disciplinary practices, and discipline and parenting. Studies that described ethnicity of the population and included a majority of a well-described African-American population were included. Each study was required to include measurable data on child behavioral outcomes and at least one measure of discipline that assessed use of nonabusive physical punishment in children 0-14 years of age. RESULTS: All seven included studies used lower socioeconomic status (SES) and/or urban African-American populations. Study design and rural versus urban populations differentiated beneficial and detrimental outcomes. In all longitudinal studies, African-American children had beneficial or neutral outcomes. DISCUSSION: This review suggests that it is possible that there are benefits to nonabusive physical punishment for African-American children. However, needed are further longitudinal studies that better assess the multiple confounders that impact the use of discipline, such as SES, parental education level, and exposure to community or domestic violence. PMID:15481744

  10. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and amodiaquine in African children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouedraogo Alphonse

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacokinetic (PK data on amodiaquine (AQ and artesunate (AS are limited in children, an important risk group for malaria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the PK properties of a newly developed and registered fixed dose combination (FDC of artesunate and amodiaquine. Methods A prospective population pharmacokinetic study of AS and AQ was conducted in children aged six months to five years. Participants were randomized to receive the new artesunate and amodiaquine FDC or the same drugs given in separate tablets. Children were divided into two groups of 70 (35 in each treatment arm to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of AS and AQ, respectively. Population pharmacokinetic models for dihydroartemisinin (DHA and desethylamodiaquine (DeAq, the principal pharmacologically active metabolites of AS and AQ, respectively, and total artemisinin anti-malarial activity, defined as the sum of the molar equivalent plasma concentrations of DHA and artesunate, were constructed using the non-linear mixed effects approach. Relative bioavailability between products was compared by estimating the ratios (and 95% CI between the areas under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUC. Results The two regimens had similar PK properties in young children with acute malaria. The ratio of loose formulation to fixed co-formulation AUCs, was estimated as 1.043 (95% CI: 0.956 to 1.138 for DeAq. For DHA and total anti-malarial activity AUCs were estimated to be the same. Artesunate was rapidly absorbed, hydrolysed to DHA, and eliminated. Plasma concentrations were significantly higher following the first dose, when patients were acutely ill, than after subsequent doses when patients were usually afebrile and clinically improved. Amodiaquine was converted rapidly to DeAq, which was then eliminated with an estimated median (range elimination half-life of 9 (7 to 12 days. Efficacy was similar in the two treatments groups, with cure rates of 0

  11. Mothering Children in Africa: Interrogating single parenthood in African literature

    OpenAIRE

    Olayiwola, Abiodun; Olowonmi, Adekunle

    2013-01-01

    The issue of motherhood in African women’s writings has transcended the façade of binary oppositions created by radical “Western” feminists who pitch women against men in their campaign for gender equality or, worse still, belittle or show disdain for the men-folk. The approach of African women writers takes issue with the collapse of social inequalities and its potentially disastrous implications. This essay examines the representations of African women in their struggle against the divisive...

  12. Teacher and Observer Ratings of Young African American Children's Social and Emotional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Marisha L.; Keenan, Kate; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2012-01-01

    Children's social and emotional competence abilities have been linked to successful social interactions and academic performance. This study examined the teacher and observer ratings of social and emotional competence for 89 young (3- to 5-year-old), African American children from economically stressed urban environments. There was a specific…

  13. Iron deficiency and malaria as determinants of anaemia in African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, H.

    2001-01-01

    Approximately three quarters of east African children <5 y of age suffer from anaemia, which is due, at least in part, to malaria and iron deficiency. In children in areas of seasonal malaria, the benefits of iron supplementation may not outweigh possible inherent risks of adverse effects caused

  14. Dialect Awareness and Lexical Comprehension of Mainstream American English in African American English-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jan; Gross, Megan; Chen, Jianshen; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Kaplan, David; Brown, Megan; Seidenberg, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to examine the relationships among minority dialect use, language ability, and young African American English (AAE)-speaking children's understanding and awareness of Mainstream American English (MAE). Method: Eighty-three 4- to 8-year-old AAE-speaking children participated in 2 experimental tasks. One task…

  15. Variable Use of Features Associated with African American English by Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Janice E.; Pearson, Barbara Zurer

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The well-known decline in the use of African American English (AAE) features by groups of school-aged AAE-speaking children was reexamined for patterns of overt-, zero-, and mixed-marking for individual features and individual speakers. Methods: Seven hundred twenty-nine typically developing children between the ages of 4 and 12--511…

  16. African American Homeschool Parents' Motivations for Homeschooling and Their Black Children's Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the motivations of African American parents for choosing homeschooling for their children and the academic achievement of their Black homeschool students. Their reasons for homeschooling are similar to those of homeschool parents in general, although some use homeschooling to help their children understand Black culture and…

  17. Tradition and Modernization: Siting Philosophy for Children within the African Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndofirepi, Amasa Philip; Cross, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this philosophical paper, we investigate the project of doing philosophy with children in Africa. While the philosophy for children program has its roots in the Anglo-Saxon world, we contend that it can sit well in Africa if given an African outlook. We challenge Eurocentric specialists, who are attempting a wholesale introduction of the…

  18. Temperament Styles of Children in Three Sub-Saharan African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas; Callueng, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    This cross-national research examined temperament style preferences among children in three sub-Saharan African countries (i.e., Nigeria, South Africa, and Zimbabwe) and possible differences between them on four bipolar temperament styles: extroverted-introverted, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling, and organized-flexible. Children in these…

  19. The Refuge: An After-School Care Programme for African-American Children in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuason, Ma. Teresa; Marcetic, Andjela; Roberts, Shavaun; Stuart, Karly; Rearick, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    The Refuge is an after-school care programme in the southeastern USA that caters to the academic and psychological needs of impoverished African-American children. This study evaluated the Refuge through interviews with staff, small group discussions with children and persistent observation. By evaluating the after-school care services they…

  20. Zinc or multiple micronutrient supplementation to reduce diarrhea and respiratory disease in South African children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kany-Kany Angelique Luabeya

    Full Text Available Prophylactic zinc supplementation has been shown to reduce diarrhea and respiratory illness in children in many developing countries, but its efficacy in children in Africa is uncertain.To determine if zinc, or zinc plus multiple micronutrients, reduces diarrhea and respiratory disease prevalence.Randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.Rural community in South Africa.THREE COHORTS: 32 HIV-infected children; 154 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers; and 187 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers.Children received either 1250 IU of vitamin A; vitamin A and 10 mg of zinc; or vitamin A, zinc, vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, C, D, E, and K and copper, iodine, iron, and niacin starting at 6 months and continuing to 24 months of age. Homes were visited weekly.Primary outcome was percentage of days of diarrhea per child by study arm within each of the three cohorts. Secondary outcomes were prevalence of upper respiratory symptoms and percentage of children who ever had pneumonia by maternal report, or confirmed by the field worker.Among HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers, median percentage of days with diarrhea was 2.3% for 49 children allocated to vitamin A; 2.5% in 47 children allocated to receive vitamin A and zinc; and 2.2% for 46 children allocated to multiple micronutrients (P = 0.852. Among HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers, median percentage of days of diarrhea was 2.4% in 56 children in the vitamin A group; 1.8% in 57 children in the vitamin A and zinc group; and 2.7% in 52 children in the multiple micronutrient group (P = 0.857. Only 32 HIV-infected children were enrolled, and there were no differences between treatment arms in the prevalence of diarrhea. The prevalence of upper respiratory symptoms or incidence of pneumonia did not differ by treatment arms in any of the cohorts.When compared with vitamin A alone, supplementation with zinc, or with zinc and multiple

  1. African and African American Children's and Adolescent Literature in the Classroom: A Critical Guide. Black Studies and Critical Thinking. Volume 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenika-Agbaw, Vivian, Ed.; Napoli, Mary, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The essays in this collection discuss multicultural issues in children's and adolescent literature, focusing particularly on African and African American cultures. They challenge everyone's understanding of what, in an age of globalization, multicultural texts really are. Cumulatively, these essays illustrate multicultural literature's power to…

  2. Iron deficiency and malaria as determinants of anaemia in African children

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, H.

    2001-01-01

    Approximately three quarters of east African children <5 y of age suffer from anaemia, which is due, at least in part, to malaria and iron deficiency. In children in areas of seasonal malaria, the benefits of iron supplementation may not outweigh possible inherent risks of adverse effects caused by malaria. Intermittent administration of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) might improve haemoglobin concentrations while allowing children to develop protective immunity against severe disease and ...

  3. Combined teleseismic imaging of the structure of southern African cratons using P-receiver functions and P-and S-finite-frequency tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Thybo, Hans; Levander, Alan;

    2011-01-01

    We present a seismic model of the South-African cratonic region obtained by combining receiver functions and teleseismic P and S traveltime tomography. We determined receiver functions (RFs) for 82 stations by iterative deconvolution. Based on HK analysis (Zhou and Kananmori, JGR,2001), we measure...

  4. Prescribing patterns of medicine classified as 'antidepressants' in South African children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. P. Serfontein

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The main objective of this study was to characterise prescribing patterns of medicine classified as 'antidepressants' (hereafter simply referred to as antidepressants in children and adolescents in the private health care sector of South Africa. A retrospective drug utilisation design was used to identify patients aged 19 years and younger from a South African pharmaceutical benefit management company’s database, whom were issued at least one antidepressant between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2006. Prescribed daily dosages (PDDs were calculated using the Statistical Analysis System® program. A total of 1 013 patients received a mean number of 2.88 (SD 3.04 prescriptions per patient. Females received more prescriptions than their male counterparts, with the highest prevalence in the 15 ≤ 19 years age group. The pharmacological groups most prescribed were the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (43.0% and the tricyclics (42.7%, with imipramine (22.04% and amitriptyline (19% as the most commonly prescribed drugs. Approximately 30% (n = 2 300 of all antidepressants in the study population were prescribed off-label. Amitriptyline and clomipramine were prescribed at daily dosages higher than recommended in children and adolescents aged 9 ≤ 15 years. Lithium, trimipramine, trazodone and sulpiride were prescribed at sub-therapeutic dosages in adolescents. This study provided insight in the prescribing patterns of medicine classified as antidepressants in South African children and adolescents. These drugs, however, have many indications. Further research is needed to determine reasons why specific drugs are prescribed in this population.

    Opsomming

    Die algemene doelstelling van hierdie studie was om die voorskrifpatrone van middels wat as 'antidepressante' geklassifiseer word (hierna verwys na as slegs antidepressante wat vir kinders en adolessente in die Suid-Afrikaanse private gesondheidsorgsektor

  5. The moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron

    2010-04-01

    Given that parenting practices have been linked to suicidal behavior in adolescence, examining the moderating effect of parenting styles on suicidal behavior early in development could offer potential insight into possible buffers as well as directions for suicide prevention and intervention later in adolescence. Hence, the moderating effects of parenting styles, including authoritarian, permissive, and features of authoritative parenting, on depressed and aggressive children's suicidal behavior, including ideation and attempts, were evaluated with young children (N = 172; 72% male, 28% female) ranging from 6 to 12 years of age. African American (69%) and Caucasian (31%) children admitted for acute psychiatric inpatient care completed standardized measures of suicidal behavior, depressive symptoms, and proactive and reaction aggression. Their parents also completed standardized measures of parental distress and parenting style. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, while statistically controlling for age and gender, children who endorsed more depressive symptoms or reactive aggression reported more current and past suicidal behavior than children who endorsed fewer depressive or aggressive symptoms. The significant positive relationship observed between depressive symptoms and childhood suicidal behavior, however, was attenuated by parental use of authoritarian parenting practices for African-American and older children but not for younger and Caucasian children. The ethnic/racial difference observed for the buffering effect of authoritarian parenting practices offers potential theoretical and clinical implications for conceptualizing the moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behavior. PMID:19806443

  6. Parenting styles and child behavior in African American families of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querido, Jane G; Warner, Tamara D; Eyberg, Sheila M

    2002-06-01

    Examined the relations between parenting styles and child behavior problems in African American preschool children. Participants were 108 African American female caregivers of 3- to 6-year-old children. Correlational analysis showed that parent-reported child behavior problems were associated with maternal education, family income, and parents' endorsement of authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting, and permissive parenting. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the authoritative parenting style was most predictive of fewer child behavior problems. These results are consistent with previous findings with European American families and provide strong support for the cross-cultural validity of the authoritative parenting style. PMID:12056110

  7. Brief Report: Adherence to Fluid Recommendations in Children Receiving Treatment for Retentive Encopresis

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhl, Elizabeth S.; Felt, Barbara T.; Patton, Susana R

    2009-01-01

    Objective Limited data are available regarding whether children being treated for retentive encopresis are adherent to recommendations to increase their daily fluid intake. The purpose of this study was to examine fluid adherence in children who received treatment for retentive encopresis. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed using diet diary data for 26 children (ages 3–12) who completed a group behavioral intervention for retentive encopresis. Results Mean daily intake of clea...

  8. The majority of sick children receive paracetamol during the winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ertmann, Ruth Kirk; Møller, Janne Julie; Waldorff, Frans Boch;

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Even though fever is a common symptom in childhood, it often worries parents and they may try to reduce discomfort by giving the child paracetamol, which is currently the most commonly sold over-the-counter medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate parent-administered......INTRODUCTION: Even though fever is a common symptom in childhood, it often worries parents and they may try to reduce discomfort by giving the child paracetamol, which is currently the most commonly sold over-the-counter medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate parent......-administered paracetamol in toddlers during a winter-period in relation to symptoms, doctor contacts and severity-rated illness. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted as a prospective diary study covering a three-month winter-period. It comprised a cohort of 183 infants born in February 2001 in a district of the...... capital area in Denmark. RESULTS: According to the parents, a total of 119 toddlers (65%) received paracetamol at least once during the study period; 9.3% of the toddlers received paracetamol for more than ten days. The administration of paracetamol rose as the number of symptoms increased. Paracetamol...

  9. Structure and extent of the southern African cratons: Integrated images from receiver functions and teleseimic tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Levander, Alan; Bezada, Max;

    2011-01-01

    . The Receiver Functions show a thin crust with a flat and sharp Moho discontinuity throughout the entire Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons. These results are consistent with expectations for Archean areas. The lowest Vp/Vs value sites are found around the locations of diamondiferous kimberlite pipes at flat Moho...

  10. 42 CFR 435.110 - Individuals receiving aid to families with dependent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... essential to the well-being of a recipient (see 45 CFR 233.20(a)(2)(vi)) and who could be a recipient under... with dependent children. (a) A Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to individuals receiving AFDC. (b) For purposes of this section, an individual is receiving AFDC if his needs are included in...

  11. Patterns of resistance: African American mothers and adult children with HIV illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, J S; Hodnicki, D R; Ferrell, J A

    1999-01-01

    Although the research on caregiving and caregivers has been extensive, there have been few studies on the cultural context and meaning of African American caregiving in relation to HIV illness. Many Black feminists have argued that African American women experience a world different from those who are not Black and that failure to take account of race, class, and gender is paramount in an attempt to authentically portray the lives of African American women. This study argues that rural African American culture and experiences of racism and discrimination in the rural South shaped the responses of mothers when their adult children developed HIV illness. The study employed the ethnographic techniques of participant observation and in-depth interviews with 14 rural, poor, African American mothers who cared for adult children with HIV illness. Analysis of the data identified patterns of resistance that mothers employed throughout the caregiving experience. Mothers resisted labels and other controlling images that they believed marginalized them and negated what was happening to their children. Mothers used culturally patterned behaviors to protect their families and resist the stigma of HIV/AIDS. PMID:10530083

  12. Birth outcomes in South African women receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy: a retrospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Merwe Karin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, a triple-drug combination, in HIV-infected pregnant women markedly reduces mother to child transmission of HIV and decreases maternal morbidity. However, there remains uncertainty about the effects of in utero exposure to HAART on foetal development. Methods Our objectives were to investigate whether in utero exposure to HAART is associated with low birth weight and/or preterm birth in a population of South African women with advanced HIV disease. A retrospective observational study was performed on women with CD4 counts ≤250 cells/mm3 attending antenatal antiretroviral clinics in Johannesburg between October 2004 and March 2007. Low birth weight ( Results Among HAART-unexposed infants, 27% (60/224 were low birth weight compared with 23% (90/388 of early HAART-exposed (exposed 3 increase, 95% CI 0.45-0.71, p 3 increase, 95% CI 0.55-0.85, p = 0.001. HAART exposure was associated with an increased preterm birth rate (15%, or 138 of 946, versus 5%, or seven of 147, in unexposed infants, p = 0.001, with early nevirapine and efavirenz-based regimens having the strongest associations with preterm birth (AOR 5.4, 95% CI 2.1-13.7, p Conclusions In this immunocompromised cohort, in utero HAART exposure was not associated with low birth weight. An association between NNRTI-based HAART and preterm birth was detected, but residual confounding is plausible. More advanced immunosuppression was a risk factor for low birth weight and preterm birth, highlighting the importance of earlier HAART initiation in women to optimize maternal health and improve infant outcomes.

  13. Thirty-Year Retrospective on the Learning Styles of African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Janice E.

    2016-01-01

    This article is a review of the literature related to the cognitive, learning, behavioral, and cultural styles of African American children. This is an assessment of the progress that has been made since 1982 when my first book was published. Several flaws in the creation of the science that undergirds learning styles research related to African…

  14. Auxiliary BE Production by African American English-Speaking Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, April W.; Oetting, Janna B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine 3 forms ("am," "is," "are") of auxiliary BE production by African American English (AAE)-speaking children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Thirty AAE speakers participated: 10 six-year-olds with SLI, 10 age-matched controls, and 10 language-matched controls. BE production was examined through…

  15. Passive Participle Marking by African American English-Speaking Children Reared in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Sonja L.; Oetting, Janna B.; Hegarty, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined the linguistic profile of African American English (AAE)-speaking children reared in poverty by focusing on their marking of passive participles and by comparing the results with the authors' previous study of homophonous forms of past tense (S. Pruitt & J. Oetting, 2009). Method: The data were from 45…

  16. Culture and Dental Health among African Immigrant School-Aged Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeng, Cecilia S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper examines African immigrant parents' views on dental decay and whether such views affect their decision to obtain dental insurance for their children. The paper also examines the cultural underpinnings of the immigrants' oral health care practices. Design/methodology/approach: The data for the study were collected in the states…

  17. Neighborhood Matters: Racial Socialization of African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Nettles, Saundra Murray; O'Campo, Patricia J.; Lohrfink, Kimberly Fraleigh

    2006-01-01

    Differences in racial socialization practices and their effects were examined in a sample of 241 African American 1st graders (average age 6.59 years) living in an urban area. Child outcomes included cognitive development, receptive language skills, and child problem behavior. The cultural environment of the home was associated with higher…

  18. Observational cohort study of HIV-infected African children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laufer, M.K.; Oosterhout, J.J. van; Perez, M.A.; Kanyanganlika, J.; Taylor, T.E.; Plowe, C.V.; Graham, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most information about children living with HIV is based on follow up from children identified through mother-to-child transmission studies. Children identified through voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) represent a unique cohort that has not been previously described in the literatu

  19. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and artemether-lumefantrine for treating uncomplicated malaria in African children: a randomised, non-inferiority trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quique Bassat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs are currently the preferred option for treating uncomplicated malaria. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PQP is a promising fixed-dose ACT with limited information on its safety and efficacy in African children. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The non-inferiority of DHA-PQP versus artemether-lumefantrine (AL in children 6-59 months old with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria was tested in five African countries (Burkina Faso, Kenya, Mozambique, Uganda and Zambia. Patients were randomised (2:1 to receive either DHA-PQP or AL. Non-inferiority was assessed using a margin of -5% for the lower limit of the one-sided 97.5% confidence interval on the treatment difference (DHA-PQP vs. AL of the day 28 polymerase chain reaction (PCR corrected cure rate. Efficacy analysis was performed in several populations, and two of them are presented here: intention-to-treat (ITT and enlarged per-protocol (ePP. 1553 children were randomised, 1039 receiving DHA-PQP and 514 AL. The PCR-corrected day 28 cure rate was 90.4% (ITT and 94.7% (ePP in the DHA-PQP group, and 90.0% (ITT and 95.3% (ePP in the AL group. The lower limits of the one-sided 97.5% CI of the difference between the two treatments were -2.80% and -2.96%, in the ITT and ePP populations, respectively. In the ITT population, the Kaplan-Meier estimate of the proportion of new infections up to Day 42 was 13.55% (95% CI: 11.35%-15.76% for DHA-PQP vs 24.00% (95% CI: 20.11%-27.88% for AL (p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: DHA-PQP is as efficacious as AL in treating uncomplicated malaria in African children from different endemicity settings, and shows a comparable safety profile. The occurrence of new infections within the 42-day follow up was significantly lower in the DHA-PQP group, indicating a longer post-treatment prophylactic effect. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-trials.com ISRCTN16263443.

  20. Home Literacy Environment of African American Head Start Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janese Daniels

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have documented culturally specific family literacy practices in which low-income families engage, which are often a function of the context in which the family is currently embedded.  These practices are well documented in ethnographic literature. Although this evidence exists, its utility is limited due to small sample sizes and lack of quantitative documentation on their contribution to children’s language and literacy development.  This study attempted to quantify those culturally specific family literacy practices.  51 low-income African-American mother-child dyads participated.  The contribution of multiple literacy practices was examined in relation to child language and literacy outcomes.  Most low-income African-American families engaged in multiple literacy practices.  Recommended areas for future research directions are discussed.

  1. Using clinical signs to diagnose anaemia in African children.

    OpenAIRE

    Luby, S. P.; Kazembe, P.N.; Redd, S. C.; Ziba, C.; Nwanyanwu, O. C.; Hightower, A. W.; C. Franco; Chitsulo, L.; Wirima, J J; Olivar, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    Anaemia is a serious and common problem among young children in sub-Saharan Africa. As a first step towards developing guidelines for its recognition and treatment, we conducted a study to evaluate the ability of health workers to use clinical findings to identify children with anaemia. Health care workers examined a total of 1104 children under 5 years of age at two hospital-based outpatient clinics in rural Malawi. Blood samples were taken to determine haemoglobin concentrations. Pallor of ...

  2. Study of the factors associated with dental caries in children who receive early dental care

    OpenAIRE

    FRAIZ Fabian Calixto; Luiz Reynaldo de Figueiredo WALTER

    2001-01-01

    The present study investigated the factors associated with the development of dental caries in preschool children who receive regular dental care and follow-up. The research was carried out at the Baby Clinic, Londrina State University, and comprised two hundred preschool children, whose ages ranged from 24 to 48 months, as well as their mothers, who had already taken part in a dental program at the Baby Clinic during, at least, the previous twelve months. Regarding oral hygiene habits, there...

  3. Caregiver Participation in Community-based Mental Health Services for Children Receiving Outpatient Care

    OpenAIRE

    Fawley-King, Kya; Haine-Schlagel, Rachel; Trask, Emily V.; Zhang, Jinjin; Garland, Ann F

    2013-01-01

    Caregiver participation in child mental health treatment has been associated with better youth outcomes, but little is known about the amount and type of caregiver participation in usual care services for children. This study examined 1255 caregivers’ reports of their participation in the outpatient services their children received through a large, public mental health system in the Southwest. The majority of the caregivers reported that they participated in their child's services. Extent of ...

  4. The effect of chewing gum on oral mucositis in children receiving chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ocakcı, Ayşe Ferda; Ayverdi, Didem; Ekim, Ayfer

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Oral mucositis is an important clinical problem, resulting in significant patient morbidity, a change in health-related quality of life, and supportive care. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of chewing gum on children, who are receiving chemotherapy regimens, for prevention and treatment of oral mucositis. Method and Material: The study sample consisted of 60 children (30 study group-30 control group) between the ages 6-...

  5. Positioning women's and children's health in African union policy-making: a policy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toure Kadidiatou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With limited time to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, progress towards improving women's and children's health needs to be accelerated. With Africa accounting for over half of the world's maternal and child deaths, the African Union (AU has a critical role in prioritizing related policies and catalysing required investments and action. In this paper, the authors assess the evolution of African Union policies related to women's and children's health, and analyze how these policies are prioritized and framed. Methods The main method used in this policy analysis was a document review of all African Union policies developed from 1963 to 2010, focusing specifically on policies that explicitly mention health. The findings from this document review were discussed with key actors to identify policy implications. Results With over 220 policies in total, peace and security is the most common AU policy topic. Social affairs and other development issues became more prominent in the 1990s. The number of policies that mentioned health rose steadily over the years (with 1 policy mentioning health in 1963 to 7 in 2010. This change was catalysed by factors such as: a favourable shift in AU priorities and systems towards development issues, spurred by the transition from the Organization of African Unity to the African Union; the mandate of the African Commission on Human and People's Rights; health-related advocacy initiatives, such as the Campaign for the Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA; action and accountability requirements arising from international human rights treaties, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, and new health-funding mechanisms, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Prioritization of women's and children's health issues in AU policies has been framed primarily by human rights, advocacy and accountability considerations, more by economic and health frames

  6. Malaria, anaemia and antimalarial drug resistance in African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obonyo, C.O.

    2006-01-01

    Malaria-associated anaemia is a potentially preventable cause of severe morbidity and mortality in children < 5years of age, in areas of high malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. In a cross-sectional study of 3586 children, 80% were anaemic (haemoglobin [Hb]<11g/dL) and 3% had severe anaemia

  7. Social Support Networks of African-American Children Attending Head Start: A Longitudinal Investigation of Structural and Supportive Network Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost, Kelly K.; Vaughn, Brian E.; Boston, Ada L.; Kazura, Kerry L.; O'Neal, Colleen

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the stability and coherence of African-American children's social support networks. Participants included a total of 106 3- to 4-year-old children attending Head Start centers located in the southeast. Children completed a social network interview in two consecutive years at the Head Start centers. These interviews tapped…

  8. Nutritional status and HIV in rural South African children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klipstein-Grobusch Kerstin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Achieving the Millennium Development Goals that aim to reduce malnutrition and child mortality depends in part on the ability of governments/policymakers to address nutritional status of children in general and those infected or affected by HIV/AIDS in particular. This study describes HIV prevalence in children, patterns of malnutrition by HIV status and determinants of nutritional status. Methods The study involved 671 children aged 12-59 months living in the Agincourt sub-district, rural South Africa in 2007. Anthropometric measurements were taken and HIV testing with disclosure was done using two rapid tests. Z-scores were generated using WHO 2006 standards as indicators of nutritional status. Linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to establish the determinants of child nutritonal status. Results Prevalence of malnutrition, particularly stunting (18%, was high in the overall sample of children. HIV prevalence in this age group was 4.4% (95% CI: 2.79 to 5.97. HIV positive children had significantly poorer nutritional outcomes than their HIV negative counterparts. Besides HIV status, other significant determinants of nutritional outcomes included age of the child, birth weight, maternal age, age of household head, and area of residence. Conclusions This study documents poor nutritional status among children aged 12-59 months in rural South Africa. HIV is an independent modifiable risk factor for poor nutritional outcomes and makes a significant contribution to nutritional outcomes at the individual level. Early paediatric HIV testing of exposed or at risk children, followed by appropriate health care for infected children, may improve their nutritional status and survival.

  9. A Comparison of Concept Development and Human Figure Drawings of Children Who Receive Preschool Education vs Those Who Do Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balat, Gulden Uyanik

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated from a developmental point of view the basic concept knowledge and human figure drawings of children who did and did not attend preschool. A total of 118 children who received preschool education and 147 children who did not do so participated in the study. The mean age of children was 75.4 months. Their concept knowledge was…

  10. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September.This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,a leading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  11. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September. This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,aleading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  12. Seroprevalence of measles and natural rubella antibodies among children in Bangui, Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daba Régis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passively acquired maternal antibodies are necessary to protect infants against circulating measles virus until they reach the eligible age of vaccination. Likewise, high levels of population immunity must be achieved and maintained to reduce measles virus transmission. This study was undertaken to (1 assess the presence of maternally acquired measles-specific IgG antibodies among infants less than 9 months of age in Bangui, Central African Republic and (2 determine the immune status of vaccination-age children and the concordance with reported vaccination status. A secondary objective was to describe the presence of rubella-specific IgG antibody in the study population. Methods Vaccination history and blood samples were collected from 395 children using blotting paper. Samples were analyzed for the presence of measles-specific IgG antibodies using commercial ELISA kits. Results Measles-specific IgG antibodies were detected in 51.3% of vaccinated children and 27.6% of non-vaccinated children. Maternally derived measles IgG antibodies were present in only 14.8% of infants aged 0-3 months and were absent in all infants aged 4-8 months. The presence of IgG-specific measles antibodies varied among children of vaccination age, from 57.3% for children aged 9 months to 5 years, to 50.6% for children aged 6-9 years and 45.6% for chidren aged 10 years and above. The overall prevalence of rubella-specific IgG was 55.4%, with a high prevalence (87.4% among children over 10 years of age. Conclusion The findings suggest that despite efforts to accelerate measles control by giving a second dose of measles vaccine, a large number of children remain susceptible to measles virus. Further research is required to determine the geographic extent of immunity gaps and the factors that influence immunity to measles virus in the Central African Republic.

  13. Young African American children constructing identities in an urban integrated science-literacy classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Justine M.

    This is a qualitative study of identities constructed and enacted by four 3rd-grade African American children (two girls and two boys) in an urban classroom that engaged in a year-long, integrated science-literacy project. Juxtaposing narrative and discursive identity lenses, coupled with race and gender perspectives, I examined the ways in which the four children saw and performed themselves as students and as science students in their classroom. Interview data were used for the narrative analysis and classroom Discourse and artifacts were used for the discursive analysis. A constructivist grounded theory framework was adopted for both analyses. The findings highlight the diversity and richness of perspectives and forms of engagement these young children shared and enacted, and help us see African American children as knowers, doers, and talkers of science individually and collectively. In their stories about themselves, all the children identified themselves as smart but they associated with smartness different characteristics and practices depending on their strengths and preferences. Drawing on the children's social, cultural, and ethnolinguistic resources, the dialogic and multimodal learning spaces facilitated by their teacher allowed the children to explore, negotiate, question, and learn science ideas. The children in this study brought their understandings and ways of being into the "lived-in" spaces co-created with classmates and teacher and influenced how these spaces were created. At the same time, each child's ways of being and understandings were shaped by the words, actions, behaviors, and feelings of peers and teacher. Moreover, as these four children engaged with science-literacy activities, they came to see themselves as competent, creative, active participants in science learning. Although their stories of "studenting" seemed dominated by following rules and being well-behaved, their stories of "sciencing" were filled with exploration, ingenuity

  14. Relationship between physical fitness and academic performance in South African children

    OpenAIRE

    Du Toit, Dorita; Pienaar, Anita Elizabeth; Truter, Leani

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement in an urban South African group of primary school children. A one-way cross-sectional design was used to assess physical fitness of children 9 to12 years (N=212) by means of the Fitnessgram, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency II, percentage body fat and Body Mass Index (BMI). Average end-of-the-year academic marks served as measurement of academic achievement. Relationships...

  15. Identifying Metabolic Syndrome in African American Children Using Fasting HOMA-IR in Place of Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Sharma, PhD

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionMetabolic syndrome (MetS is increasing among young people. We compared the use of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR with the use of fasting blood glucose to identify MetS in African American children.MethodsWe performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from a sample of 105 children (45 boys, 60 girls aged 9 to 13 years with body mass indexes at or above the 85th percentile for age and sex. Waist circumference, blood pressure, and fasting levels of blood glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured.ResultsWe found that HOMA-IR is a stronger indicator of MetS in children than blood glucose. Using HOMA-IR as 1 of the 5 components, we found a 38% prevalence of MetS in this sample of African American children and the proportion of false negatives decreased from 94% with blood glucose alone to 13% with HOMA-IR. The prevalence of MetS was higher in obese than overweight children and higher among girls than boys.ConclusionUsing HOMA-IR was preferred to fasting blood glucose because insulin resistance was more significantly interrelated with the other 4 MetS components.

  16. Impact of effective nursing interventions to the fatigue syndrome in children who receive chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekti Genc, Rabia; Conk, Zeynep

    2008-01-01

    This experimental, randomized controlled study was conducted for children with cancer who are 7 to 12 years of age and receiving chemotherapy treatment to detect the impact of appropriate nursing interventions on decreasing the fatigue syndrome. The research sample is composed of a total of 60 children with cancer, with 30 children being included in the experimental group and 30 children included in the control group with their mothers. In the experimental group, after the 7th to 10th day of the chemotherapy treatment, throughout a week, the researcher conducted the effective nursing interventions every day for 45 to 60 minutes. In the control group, routine nursing interventions were carried out. The experimental and control group children's mean scores for the Fatigue Scale-Child and those of mothers for Fatigue Scale-Parent were compared. A statistically significant difference was found between the Fatigue Scale-Child and Fatigue Scale-Parent mean scores of the experimental and the control group children (P < .00). These results suggest that fatigue of children with cancer can be reduced by implementing appropriate nursing interventions. PMID:18600119

  17. Maternal resources, parenting, and dietary patterns among rural African American children in single-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E Juanita; McBride Murry, Velma; Brody, Gene; Parker, Veronica

    2002-01-01

    A correlation study was designed to test the hypothesis that maternal education, perceived family resources, and the importance of family routines would be related to children's dietary patterns. Additionally, the study examined the hypothesis that dietary patterns would be associated with children's cognitive and physical abilities. The sample for this study included 159 African American single-mother families with a 6- to 9-year-old child living in rural areas, most of whom lived in poverty. Children's eating patterns were assessed using a self-report questionnaire administered to the mother in an interview format. Children's cognitive ability was measured by several subscales from the Woodcock Johnson Psycho-Educational Instrument and the Harter Perceived Competence Scale for children. For male children, the mother's higher education was related to more adequate eating patterns at home, and more perceived family resources were related to the likelihood of taking vitamin supplements. For female children, greater milk intake was positively related to cognitive outcomes, including applied problem, passage comprehension, calculation, synonym identification, antonym identification, and quantitative concept scores. Milk intake was clearly related to more optimal cognitive development. The results of this study support the literature related to the importance of nutrition for cognitive and physical abilities in children. PMID:11860595

  18. Understanding HIV Transmission Risk Behavior Among HIV-Infected South Africans Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy: An Information—Motivation—Behavioral Skills Model Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kiene, Susan M.; Fisher, William A.; Shuper, Paul A.; Cornman, Deborah H.; Christie, Sarah; Macdonald, Susan; Pillay, Sandy; Mahlase, Gethwana; Fisher, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    The current study applied the Information—Motivation—Behavioral Skills (IMB) model (J. D. Fisher & Fisher, 1992; W. A. Fisher & Fisher, 1993) to identify factors associated with HIV transmission risk behavior among HIV-infected South Africans receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), a population of considerable significance for curtailing, or maintaining, South Africa’s generalized HIV epidemic. HIV prevention information, HIV prevention motivation, HIV prevention behavioral skills, and HIV tr...

  19. Novel genetic risk factors for asthma in African American children: Precision Medicine and the SAGE II Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marquitta J; Risse-Adams, O; Goddard, P; Contreras, M G; Adams, J; Hu, D; Eng, C; Oh, S S; Davis, A; Meade, K; Brigino-Buenaventura, E; LeNoir, M A; Bibbins-Domingo, K; Pino-Yanes, M; Burchard, E G

    2016-07-01

    Asthma, an inflammatory disorder of the airways, is the most common chronic disease of children worldwide. There are significant racial/ethnic disparities in asthma prevalence, morbidity, and mortality among US children. This trend is mirrored in obesity, which may share genetic and environmental risk factors with asthma. The majority of asthma biomedical research has been performed in populations of European decent. We sought to identify genetic risk factors for asthma in African American children. We also assessed the generalizability of genetic variants associated with asthma in European and Asian populations to African American children. Our study population consisted of 1227 (812 asthma cases, 415 controls) African American children with genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. Logistic regression was used to identify associations between SNP genotype and asthma status. We identified a novel variant in the PTCHD3 gene that is significantly associated with asthma (rs660498, p = 2.2 × 10(-7)) independent of obesity status. Approximately 5 % of previously reported asthma genetic associations identified in European populations replicated in African Americans. Our identification of novel variants associated with asthma in African American children, coupled with our inability to replicate the majority of findings reported in European Americans, underscores the necessity for including diverse populations in biomedical studies of asthma. PMID:27142222

  20. The Effects of Visual Stimuli on the Spoken Narrative Performance of School-Age African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Monique T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the fictional narrative performance of school-age African American children across 3 elicitation contexts that differed in the type of visual stimulus presented. Method: A total of 54 children in Grades 2 through 5 produced narratives across 3 different visual conditions: no visual, picture sequence, and single…

  1. Nutrition and Physical Activity Knowledge Assessment: Development of Questionnaires and Evaluation of Reliability in African American and Latino Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lindsay S.; Sharma, Sushma; Hudes, Mark L.; Fleming, Sharon E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: African-American and Latino children living in neighborhoods with a low-socioeconomic index are more at risk of obesity-associated metabolic disease than their higher socioeconomic index and/or white peers. Currently, consistent and reliable questionnaires to evaluate nutrition and physical activity knowledge in these children are…

  2. Maternal Control and Sensitivity, Child Gender, and Maternal Education in Relation to Children's Behavioral Outcomes in African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Briggs, Rahil D.; McClowry, Sandra G.; Snow, David L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relationships between mother-child interactions and children's behaviors in 119 urban African American mothers and their 6-7 year old children. Interactions during a cooking task and a follow-up child clean-up task were videotaped. Principal components analyses of behaviors during the cooking task yielded two factors in mothers…

  3. The Influence of Student Perceptions of Parenting and Coping on Achievement and Classroom Behavior among African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined children's coping strategies as mediators and moderators of the association between parenting factors and outcomes in 235 African American children (mean age = 10.37 years). Information about parenting and child coping strategies was obtained by child self-report. School adjustment was assessed by standardized…

  4. Message Framing, Perceived Susceptibility, and Intentions to Vaccinate Children Against HPV Among African American Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Xiaoli; Madden, Kelly; Richards, Adam; Holt, Cheryl; Wang, Min Qi; Tracy, Kate

    2016-07-01

    This research examines the interaction effect of message framing (gain vs. loss) and perceived susceptibility (i.e., perceived likelihood that one's child is at risk of contracting HPV) on African American parents' intentions to vaccinate their children against HPV. Results of an experiment (N = 193) in which parents were exposed to either a gain-framed or loss-framed message about HPV vaccination revealed a significant interaction between message framing and perceived susceptibility when parents were required to pay for the vaccine. The specific pattern of interaction suggested that parents who perceived their children to be at high risk of contracting HPV were more persuaded by the gain-framed message, whereas those who believed their children to be at low risk of contracting HPV were more persuaded by the loss-framed message. Implications of the findings for HPV vaccination messaging are discussed. PMID:26646190

  5. Acute respiratory infection as a cause of non-malarial febrile illness in African children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florida Muro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of “presumptive treatment for malaria” by “test before treat” strategies for the management of febrile illness is raising awareness of the importance of knowing more about the causes of illness in children who are suspected to have malaria but return a negative parasitological test. The most common cause of non-malarial febrile illness (NMFI in African children is respiratory tract infection. Whilst the bacterial causes of NMFI are well known, the increasing use of sensitive techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests is revealing large numbers of viruses that are potential respiratory pathogens. However, many of these organisms are commonly present in the respiratory tract of healthy children so causality and risk factors for pneumonia remain poorly understood. Infection with a combination of viral and bacterial pathogens is increasingly recognised as important in the pathogenesis of pneumonia. Similarly, blood stream infections with organisms typically grown by aerobic culture are well known but a growing number of organisms that can be identified only by PCR, viral culture, or serology are now recognised to be common pathogens in African children. The high mortality of hospitalised children on the first or second day of admission suggests that, unless results are rapidly available, diagnostic tests to identify specific causes of illness will still be of limited use in guiding the potentially life‑saving decisions relating to initial treatment of children admitted to district hospitals in Africa with severe febrile illness and a negative test for malaria. Malaria control and the introduction of vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal disease are contributing to improved child survival in Africa. However, increased parasitological testing for malaria is associated with increased use of antibiotics to which resistance is already high.

  6. The neglected role of antibody in protection against bacteremia caused by nontyphoidal strains of Salmonella in African children

    OpenAIRE

    MacLennan, Calman A.; Gondwe, Esther N.; Msefula, Chisomo L.; Kingsley, Robert A.; Thomson, Nicholas R.; White, Sarah A; Goodall, Margaret; Pickard, Derek J.; Graham, Stephen M.; Dougan, Gordon; Hart, C. Anthony; Molyneux, Malcolm E.; Drayson, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    Nontyphoidal strains of Salmonella (NTS) are a common cause of bacteremia among African children. Cell-mediated immune responses control intracellular infection, but they do not protect against extracellular growth of NTS in the blood. We investigated whether antibody protects against NTS bacteremia in Malawian children, because we found this condition mainly occurs before 2 years of age, with relative sparing of infants younger than 4 months old. Sera from all healthy Malawian children teste...

  7. Transient occult cardiotoxicity in children receiving continuous beta-agonist therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher L Carroll; Melinda Coro; Allison Cowl; Kathleen A Sala; Craig M Schramm

    2014-01-01

    Background: Continuous beta-agonist therapy, typically in the form of inhaled albuterol, is the first line therapy for the treatment of acute and severe bronchospasm in children. Although this treatment is commonly used, concerns about cardiotoxicity have been raised. We aimed to investigate the cardiotoxic effects of continuous beta-agonist therapy in children. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of children admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) between May 2008 and April 2009, who were treated with continuous beta-agonist therapy (intravenous and nebulized). Results: Twenty of the 36 children treated with continuous albuterol had repeated serum troponin-T and lactate levels measured. Eleven patients (55%) were also treated with continuous intravenous terbutaline. Elevated levels of troponin-T levels were found in 25% of children, and elevated lactate levels were found in 60%. However, all returned to normal levels within 48 hours of ICU admission, despite continued beta-agonist therapy. No children experienced arrhythmias during therapy. There was no association between intravenous terbutaline use and elevated troponin-T [odds ratio (OR), 1.3; 95% CI, 0.2-10.3] or with elevated serum lactate (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.1-3.7). There was also no association between elevated troponin-T or lactate and ICU or hospital length of stay. Conclusions: In this small study, a significant proportion of children had elevated serum troponin-T and lactate levels while receiving inhaled continuous beta-agonist therapy, irrespective of intravenous therapy. However, these abnormal values all returned to normal within 48 hours of ICU admission and were not associated with increased duration of hospitalization.

  8. Pulmonary diffusing capacity in healthy African-American and Caucasian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Jee; Christoph, Kathy; Yu, Zhangsheng; Eigen, Howard; Tepper, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of pulmonary diffusing capacity in healthy children primarily focused upon Caucasian (C) subjects. Since lung volumes in African-Americans (AA) are smaller than lung volumes in C subjects of the same height, diffusing capacity values in AA children might be interpreted as low or abnormal using currently available equations without adjusting for race. Healthy AA (N = 151) and C (N = 301) children between 5 and 18 years of age performed acceptable measurements of single breath pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO ) and alveolar volume (VA ) according to current ATS/ERS guidelines. The natural log of DLCO and VA were associated with height, gender, age, and race; AA children had lower DLCO and VA compared to C children. Adjustment of DLCO for Hemoglobin (Hgb) resulted in no significant difference in DLCO among these healthy subjects with normal Hgb. In summary, we report prediction equations for DLCO and VA that include adjustment for race (C; AA) demonstrating that AA have lower DLCO and VA compared to C children for the same height, gender, and age. PMID:25906836

  9. New constraints on the geometry of the subducting African plate and the overriding Aegean plate obtained from P receiver functions and seismicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sodoudi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available New combined P receiver functions and seismicity data obtained from the EGELADOS network employing 65 stations within the Aegean constrained new information on the geometry of the Hellenic subduction zone. The dense network and large dataset enabled us to accurately estimate the Moho of the continental Aegean plate across the whole area. Presence of a negative contrast at the Moho boundary indicating the serpentinized mantle wedge above the subducting African plate was clearly seen along the entire forearc. Furthermore, low seismicity was observed within the serpentinized mantle wedge. We found a relatively thick continental crust (30–43 km with a maximum thickness of about 48 km beneath the Peloponnesus Peninsula, whereas a thinner crust of about 27–30 km was observed beneath western Turkey. The crust of the overriding plate is thinning beneath the southern and central Aegean (Moho depth 23–27 km. Moreover, P receiver functions significantly imaged the subducted African Moho as a strong converted phase down to a depth of 180 km. However, the converted Moho phase appears to be weak for the deeper parts of the African plate suggesting reduced dehydration and nearly complete phase transitions of crustal material into denser phases. We show the subducting African crust along 8 profiles covering the whole southern and central Aegean. Seismicity of the western Hellenic subduction zone was taken from the relocated EHB-ISC catalogue, whereas for the eastern Hellenic subduction zone, we used the catalogues of manually picked hypocenter locations of temporary networks within the Aegean. P receiver function profiles significantly revealed in good agreement with the seismicity a low dip angle slab segment down to 200 km depth in the west. Even though, the African slab seems to be steeper in the eastern Aegean and can be followed down to 300 km depth implying lower temperatures and delayed dehydration towards larger depths in the eastern slab segment

  10. Reducing the Digital Divide among Children Who Received Desktop or Hybrid Computers for the Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gila Cohen Zilka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and policy makers have been exploring ways to reduce the digital divide. Parameters commonly used to examine the digital divide worldwide, as well as in this study, are: (a the digital divide in the accessibility and mobility of the ICT infrastructure and of the content infrastructure (e.g., sites used in school; and (b the digital divide in literacy skills. In the present study we examined the degree of effectiveness of receiving a desktop or hybrid computer for the home in reducing the digital divide among children of low socio-economic status aged 8-12 from various localities across Israel. The sample consisted of 1,248 respondents assessed in two measurements. As part of the mixed-method study, 128 children were also interviewed. Findings indicate that after the children received desktop or hybrid computers, changes occurred in their frequency of access, mobility, and computer literacy. Differences were found between the groups: hybrid computers reduce disparities and promote work with the computer and surfing the Internet more than do desktop computers. Narrowing the digital divide for this age group has many implications for the acquisition of skills and study habits, and consequently, for the realization of individual potential. The children spoke about self improvement as a result of exposure to the digital environment, about a sense of empowerment and of improvement in their advantage in the social fabric. Many children expressed a desire to continue their education and expand their knowledge of computer applications, the use of software, of games, and more. Therefore, if there is no computer in the home and it is necessary to decide between a desktop and a hybrid computer, a hybrid computer is preferable.

  11. Burkitt's lymphoma between African and American types in Turkish children: clinical, viral (EBV), and molecular studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavdar, A O; Gözdaşoğlu, S; Yavuz, G; Babacan, E; Unal, E; Uluoğlu, O; Yücesan, S; Magrath, I T; Akar, N

    1993-01-01

    Seventy-two Turkish children with Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) observed during a period of 22 years (1968-1990) have been analysed retrospectively. The diagnosis was established histologically according to WHO criteria. BL represented 50% of NHL in this series. The patients were staged according to Ziegler's system. The median age of patients was 5.5 years with a sex (M/F) ratio of 2.1/1. The most common primary site of tumor involvement was the abdomen (69.4%), which was followed by facial tumors, in particular the jaw and orbit (49.9%). There were 21 cases with jaw (29.1%) and 15 cases with orbital involvement (20.8%) at initial presentation. The majority of the patients (84.4%) were in advanced stages (C and D) at initial diagnosis. Facial tumors observed in Turkish children with BL were more similar to African Burkitt's lymphoma than American or European cases. High titers of antibodies against VCA and EA of EBV were also seen in our recent cases of BL. Two main treatment regimens, namely, single agent chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide (CYX) (1968-1974) and three drug (COM) combination chemotherapy, were used consecutively (1974-1988). COM has been shown to produce better results than single agent therapy. The clinical presentation, mean age, and high antibodies (IgG) to EBV and preliminary molecular studies revealed that BL appears to be in between African and non-African types in Turkish children. This will be further elucidated by direct examination of tumor cells for EBV and investigation of the molecular characteristics of Turkish tumors. Such studies are presently under way. PMID:8381202

  12. T-lymphocyte subsets in West African children: impact of age, sex, and season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Whittle, H;

    1997-01-01

    determinants of T-lymphocyte subset levels. METHODS: A total of 803 healthy West African children younger than 6 years were included in the three community studies of T-lymphocyte subsets among twins and singletons, after measles infection and after measles immunization. We used the immunoalkaline phosphatase...... method to determine T-lymphocyte subsets. RESULTS: We found differences by age, sex, and season, whereas there were no significant differences by birth order, twinning, or ethnic group. The CD4+ percentage declined from birth to age 2 years, at which time it started to increase to higher levels at age 4...

  13. Ten years of democracy: attitudes and identity among some South African school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlyn Dyers

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ten years into South Africa’s democracy, how do school children feel about themselves as part of specific groups, and what is the role of language in their socio-cultural identities? This paper looks at the ways in which two groups of fourteen-year-old Xhosa-speaking and mixed-race ‘Coloured’ South African secondary school learners in a new housing area near Cape Town negotiate their identities through language in a context of rapid social change. It analyses their beliefs and attitudes about the languages and speech communities to which they are exposed.

  14. Association of pol diversity with antiretroviral treatment outcomes among HIV-infected African children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Chen

    Full Text Available In HIV-infected children, viral diversity tends to increase with age in the absence of antiretroviral treatment (ART. We measured HIV diversity in African children (ages 6-36 months enrolled in a randomized clinical trial comparing two ART regimens (Cohort I of the P1060 trial. Children in this cohort were exposed to single dose nevirapine (sdNVP at birth.HIV diversity was measured retrospectively using a high resolution melting (HRM diversity assay. Samples were obtained from 139 children at the enrollment visit prior to ART initiation. Six regions of the HIV genome were analyzed: two in gag, one in pol, and three in env. A single numeric HRM score that reflects HIV diversity was generated for each region; composite HRM scores were also calculated (mean and median for all six regions.In multivariable median regression models using backwards selection that started with demographic and clinical variables, older age was associated with higher HRM scores (higher HIV diversity in pol (P = 0.005 and with higher mean (P = 0.014 and median (P<0.001 HRM scores. In multivariable models adjusted for age, pre-treatment HIV viral load, pre-treatment CD4%, and randomized treatment regimen, higher HRM scores in pol were associated with shorter time to virologic suppression (P = 0.016 and longer time to study endpoints (virologic failure [VF], VF/death, and VF/off study treatment; P<0.001 for all measures.In this cohort of sdNVP-exposed, ART-naïve African children, higher levels of HIV diversity in the HIV pol region prior to ART initiation were associated with better treatment outcomes.

  15. The Effects of Music and Movement Opportunity on the Analogical Reasoning Performance of African American and White School Children: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brenda A.; Butler, Lisa

    1996-01-01

    Studies contextual factors informed by cultural experiences and their influence on learning task performance in 15 African American and 13 white children. The African American children performed better when allowed to coordinate movement and music to the learning task while white students had the opposite results. (GR)

  16. Association between age at antiretroviral therapy initiation and 24-month immune response in West-African HIV-infected children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desmonde, Sophie; Dicko, Fatoumata; Koueta, Fla;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We describe the association between age at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and 24-month CD4 cell response in West African HIV-infected children. METHODS: All HIV-infected children from the IeDEA paediatric West African cohort, initiating ART, with at least two CD4 cell count...... measurements, including one at ART initiation (baseline) were included. CD4 cell gain on ART was estimated using a multivariable linear mixed model adjusted for baseline variables: age, CD4 cell count, sex, first-line ART regimen. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and a Cox proportional hazards regression model...... compared immune recovery for age within 24 months post-ART. RESULTS: Of the 4808 children initiated on ART, 3014 were enrolled at a median age of 5.6 years; 61.2% were immunodeficient. After 12 months, children at least 4 years at baseline had significantly lower CD4 cell gains compared with children less...

  17. Cytokine Profiles during Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella Disease Predict Outcome in African Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, James J; Heath, Jennifer N; Msefula, Chisomo L; Gondwe, Esther N; Naranbhai, Vivek; Mandala, Wilson; MacLennan, Jenny M; Molyneux, Elizabeth M; Graham, Stephen M; Drayson, Mark T; Molyneux, Malcolm E; MacLennan, Calman A

    2016-07-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella is a leading cause of sepsis in African children. Cytokine responses are central to the pathophysiology of sepsis and predict sepsis outcome in other settings. In this study, we investigated cytokine responses to invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease in Malawian children. We determined serum concentrations of 48 cytokines with multiplexed immunoassays in Malawian children during acute iNTS disease (n = 111) and in convalescence (n = 77). Principal component analysis and logistic regression were used to identify cytokine signatures of acute iNTS disease. We further investigated whether these responses are altered by HIV coinfection or severe malnutrition and whether cytokine responses predict inpatient mortality. Cytokine changes in acute iNTS disease were associated with two distinct cytokine signatures. The first is characterized by increased concentrations of mediators known to be associated with macrophage function, and the second is characterized by raised pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines typical of responses reported in sepsis secondary to diverse pathogens. These cytokine responses were largely unaltered by either severe malnutrition or HIV coinfection. Children with fatal disease had a distinctive cytokine profile, characterized by raised mediators known to be associated with neutrophil function. In conclusion, cytokine responses to acute iNTS infection in Malawian children are reflective of both the cytokine storm typical of sepsis secondary to diverse pathogens and the intramacrophage replicative niche of NTS. The cytokine profile predictive of fatal disease supports a key role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of NTS sepsis. PMID:27170644

  18. Cytokine Profiles during Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella Disease Predict Outcome in African Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, James J.; Heath, Jennifer N.; Msefula, Chisomo L.; Gondwe, Esther N.; Naranbhai, Vivek; Mandala, Wilson; MacLennan, Jenny M.; Molyneux, Elizabeth M.; Graham, Stephen M.; Drayson, Mark T.; Molyneux, Malcolm E.

    2016-01-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella is a leading cause of sepsis in African children. Cytokine responses are central to the pathophysiology of sepsis and predict sepsis outcome in other settings. In this study, we investigated cytokine responses to invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease in Malawian children. We determined serum concentrations of 48 cytokines with multiplexed immunoassays in Malawian children during acute iNTS disease (n = 111) and in convalescence (n = 77). Principal component analysis and logistic regression were used to identify cytokine signatures of acute iNTS disease. We further investigated whether these responses are altered by HIV coinfection or severe malnutrition and whether cytokine responses predict inpatient mortality. Cytokine changes in acute iNTS disease were associated with two distinct cytokine signatures. The first is characterized by increased concentrations of mediators known to be associated with macrophage function, and the second is characterized by raised pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines typical of responses reported in sepsis secondary to diverse pathogens. These cytokine responses were largely unaltered by either severe malnutrition or HIV coinfection. Children with fatal disease had a distinctive cytokine profile, characterized by raised mediators known to be associated with neutrophil function. In conclusion, cytokine responses to acute iNTS infection in Malawian children are reflective of both the cytokine storm typical of sepsis secondary to diverse pathogens and the intramacrophage replicative niche of NTS. The cytokine profile predictive of fatal disease supports a key role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of NTS sepsis. PMID:27170644

  19. Outcome of left heart mechanical valve replacement in West African children - A 15-year retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamatey Martin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The West African sub-region has poor health infrastructure. Mechanical valve replacement in children from such regions raises important postoperative concerns; among these, valve-related morbidity and complications of lifelong anticoagulation are foremost. Little is known about the long-term outcome of mechanical valve replacement in West Africa. We sought to determine the outcome of mechanical valve replacement of the left heart in children from this sub-region. Method We conducted a retrospective review of all consecutive left heart valve replacements in children ( Results One hundred and fourteen patients underwent mitral valve replacement (MVR, aortic valve replacement (AVR or mitral and aortic valve replacements (MAVR. Their ages ranged from 6-18 years (13.3 ± 3.1 years. All patients were in NYHA class III or IV. Median follow up was 9.1 years. MVR was performed in 91 (79.8% patients, AVR in 13 (11.4% and MAVR in 10 (8.8% patients. Tricuspid valve repair was performed concomitantly in 45 (39.5% patients. There were 6 (5.3% early deaths and 6 (5.3% late deaths. Preoperative left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction Conclusion Mechanical valve replacement in West African children has excellent outcomes in terms of mortality, valve-related events, and reoperation rate. Preoperative left ventricular dysfunction is the primary determinant of mortality within the first 2 years of valve replacement. The risk of valve-related complications is acceptably low. Anticoagulation is well tolerated with a very low risk of bleeding even in this socioeconomic setting.

  20. Advocating for efforts to protect African children, families, and communities from the threat of infectious diseases: report of the First International African Vaccinology Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Waggie, Zainab; Hawkridge, Anthony; Schoub, Barry; Madhi, Shabir Ahmed; Rees, Helen; Hussey, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    One means of improving healthcare workers' knowledge of and attitudes to vaccines is through running vaccine conferences which are accessible, affordable, and relevant to their everyday work. Various vaccinology conferences are held each year worldwide. These meetings focus heavily on basic science with much discussion about new developments in vaccines, and relatively little coverage of policy, advocacy, and communication issues. A negligible proportion of delegates at these conferences come from Africa, home to almost 40% of the global burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. To the best of our knowledge, no major vaccinology conference has ever been held on the African continent apart from World Health Organization (WHO) meetings. The content of the first International African Vaccinology Conference was planned to be different; to focus on the science, with a major part of discussions being on clinical, programmatic, policy, and advocacy issues. The conference was held in Cape Town, South Africa, from 8 to 11 November 2012. The theme of the conference was "Advocating for efforts to protect African children, families, and communities from the threat of infectious diseases". There were more than 550 registered participants from 55 countries (including 37 African countries). There were nine pre-conference workshops, ten plenary sessions, and 150 oral and poster presentations. The conference discussed the challenges to universal immunisation in Africa as well as the promotion of dialogue and communication on immunisation among all stakeholders. There was general acknowledgment that giant strides have been made in Africa since the global launch of the Expanded Programme on Immunisation in 1974. For example, there has been significant progress in introducing new and under-utilised vaccines; including hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenza type b, pneumococcal conjugate, rotavirus, meningococcal A conjugate, and human papillomavirus vaccines. In May 2012, African countries

  1. Percentage of Children Aged 5--17 Years Ever Receiving a Diagnosis of Learning Disability, United States, 2007--2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5--17 Years Ever Receiving a Diagnosis of Learning Disability,* by Race/Ethnicity † and Family Income Group § --- National ... professional ever told you that [child] had a learning disability?" † White and black children are non-Hispanic children ...

  2. Association of pol Diversity with Antiretroviral Treatment Outcomes among HIV-Infected African Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Iris; Khaki, Leila; Lindsey, Jane C.; Fry, Carrie; Cousins, Matthew M.; Siliciano, Robert F.; Violari, Avy; Palumbo, Paul; Eshleman, Susan H.

    2013-01-01

    Background In HIV-infected children, viral diversity tends to increase with age in the absence of antiretroviral treatment (ART). We measured HIV diversity in African children (ages 6–36 months) enrolled in a randomized clinical trial comparing two ART regimens (Cohort I of the P1060 trial). Children in this cohort were exposed to single dose nevirapine (sdNVP) at birth. Methods HIV diversity was measured retrospectively using a high resolution melting (HRM) diversity assay. Samples were obtained from 139 children at the enrollment visit prior to ART initiation. Six regions of the HIV genome were analyzed: two in gag, one in pol, and three in env. A single numeric HRM score that reflects HIV diversity was generated for each region; composite HRM scores were also calculated (mean and median for all six regions). Results In multivariable median regression models using backwards selection that started with demographic and clinical variables, older age was associated with higher HRM scores (higher HIV diversity) in pol (P = 0.005) and with higher mean (P = 0.014) and median (PHIV viral load, pre-treatment CD4%, and randomized treatment regimen, higher HRM scores in pol were associated with shorter time to virologic suppression (P = 0.016) and longer time to study endpoints (virologic failure [VF], VF/death, and VF/off study treatment; PHIV diversity in the HIV pol region prior to ART initiation were associated with better treatment outcomes. PMID:24312277

  3. The Chicago Parent Program: comparing 1-year outcomes for African American and Latino parents of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenstein, Susan M; Gross, Deborah; Fogg, Louis; Ridge, Alison; Garvey, Christine; Julion, Wrenetha; Tucker, Sharon

    2012-10-01

    Data were merged from two prevention randomized trials testing 1-year outcomes of a parenting skills program, the Chicago Parent Program (CPP) and comparing its effects for African-American (n = 291) versus Latino (n = 213) parents and their preschool children. Compared to controls, intervention parents had improved self-efficacy, used less corporal punishment and more consistent discipline, and demonstrated more positive parenting. Intervention children had greater reductions in behavior problems based on parent-report, teacher-report, and observation. Although improvements from the CPP were evident for parents in both racial/ethnic groups, Latino parents reported greater improvements in their children's behavior and in parenting self-efficacy but exhibited greater decreases in praise. Findings support the efficacy of the CPP for African American and Latino parents and young children from low-income urban communities. PMID:22622598

  4. The Chicago Parent Program: Comparing 1-Year Outcomes for African American and Latino Parents of Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Breitenstein, Susan M.; Gross, Deborah; Fogg, Louis; Ridge, Alison; Garvey, Christine; Julion, Wrenetha; Tucker, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Data were merged from two prevention randomized trials testing 1-year outcomes of a parenting skills program, the Chicago Parent Program (CPP), and comparing its effects for African-American (n=291) versus Latino (n=213) parents and their preschool children. Compared to controls, intervention parents had improved self-efficacy, used less corporal punishment and more consistent discipline, and demonstrated more positive parenting. Intervention children had greater reductions in behavior proble...

  5. Acute respiratory infection and bacteraemia as causes of non-malarial febrile illness in African children: a narrative review.

    OpenAIRE

    Florida Muro; Rita Reyburn; Hugh Reyburn

    2015-01-01

    The replacement of “presumptive treatment for malaria” by “test before treat” strategies for the management of febrile illness is raising awareness of the importance of knowing more about the causes of illness in children who are suspected to have malaria but return a negative parasitological test. The most common cause of non-malarial febrile illness (NMFI) in African children is respiratory tract infection. Whilst the bacterial causes of NMFI are well known, the increasing use of sensitive ...

  6. Metabolic and Hormonal Changes of Severely Burned Children Receiving Long-Term Oxandrolone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przkora, Rene; Jeschke, Marc G.; Barrow, Robert E.; Suman, Oscar E.; Meyer, Walter J.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Sanford, Arthur P.; Lee, Jong; Chinkes, David L.; Mlcak, Ronald P.; Herndon, David N.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: When given to children for 1 year after a severe burn, oxandrolone significantly improves lean body mass, bone mineral content, and muscle strength. The beneficial effects of oxandrolone on height and weight were observed 1 year after treatment was discontinued. To study the efficacy of oxandrolone in severely burned children for 12 months after burn and 12 months after the drug was discontinued. Summary Background Data: Oxandrolone attenuates body catabolism during the acute phase after burn. It is unclear whether oxandrolone would have any beneficial effects during long-term treatment or if there were any effects after the drug was stopped. Methods: Sixty-one children with 40% total body surface area burns were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomized into those to receive oxandrolone (n = 30) or placebo (n = 31) for the first 12 months. Treatment was discontinued after 12 months, and the patients were studied without the drug for the following 12 months. At discharge and 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after burn, height, weight, body composition, resting energy expenditure, muscle strength, and serum human growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1), IGF binding protein-3, insulin, cortisol, parathyroid hormone, tri-iodothyronine uptake (T3 uptake), and free thyroxine index (FTI) were measured. Statistical analysis used Tukey multiple comparison test. Significance was accepted at P < 0.05. Results: Oxandrolone improved lean body mass, bone mineral content and muscle strength compared with controls during treatment, P < 0.05. Serum IGF-1, T3 uptake, and FTI were significantly higher during drug treatment compared with controls, P < 0.05. Significant increases in height and weight with oxandrolone were observed after the end of treatment. Conclusions: Oxandrolone improved body composition and strength in severely burned children during the 12 months of treatment. Its effect on height and weight continued after treatment was discontinued. PMID

  7. A Matter of Vocabulary II: Low-Income African American Children's Performance on the Expressive Vocabulary Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Allyssa; Champion, Tempii B.

    2010-01-01

    The "Expressive Vocabulary Test" (EVT) has recently been found culturally fair for an economically mixed sample of African American children, and others have argued that it is fairer for such participants than the "Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III" (PPVT-III). In this study, the authors sought to replicate these findings with an exclusively…

  8. Relations between Perceived Competence, Importance Ratings, and Self-Worth among African American School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Leslie K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate how domain-specific importance ratings affect relations between perceived competence and self-worth among African American school-age children. Importance ratings have been found to affect the strength of the relationship between perceived competence and self-worth and have implications for…

  9. Fun & Fit, Phase I: A Program for Overweight African American and Hispanic American Children from Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Karen S.; Hart, Melanie A.; Griffin, L. Kent

    2009-01-01

    Fun & Fit is a program designed to create positive physical activity experiences and to promote healthy lifestyle choices among overweight children from low-income African American and Hispanic American families. The program is a collaborative project between Texas Tech University and the Lubbock Independent School District funded through a grant…

  10. Associations of Child Maltreatment and Intimate Partner Violence with Psychological Adjustment among Low SES, African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaslow, Nadine J.; Thompson, Martie P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the unique and interactive effects of child maltreatment and mothers' physical intimate partner violence (IPV) status on low-SES African American children's psychological functioning. Methods: Mothers were recruited from a large, inner-city hospital, and those who met eligibility criteria were asked to complete a…

  11. Facial Expression Recognition and Social Competence among African American Elementary School Children: An Examination of Ethnic Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanville, Denise N.; Nowicki, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the potential for cross-ethnic miscommunication of facial expressions, examining elementary students' ability to identify emotion in African American and white facial expressions and noting the relationship to social competence. Student data indicated that ability to read faces differing in ethnicity did not differ by children's…

  12. Social Integration as a Factor in Academic Achievements of Children: A Case Study of African Immigrants in Louisville, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odetunde, Florence Olayinka

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how social integration of African immigrants in the Louisville metropolitan area of Kentucky could be a factor in the academic achievements of their children. It involved critically investigating how the process of their adjustments as immigrants might have been shaped by various personal and environmental factors such as…

  13. Coping Patterns of African American Adolescents: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis of the Children's Coping Strategies Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Gipson, Polly; Mance, GiShawn; Grant, Kathryn E.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined patterns of coping strategies in a sample of 497 low-income urban African American adolescents (mean age = 12.61 years). Results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the 4-factor structure of the Children's Coping Strategies Checklist (T. S. Ayers, I. N. Sandler, S. G. West, & M. W. Roosa, 1996) was not…

  14. Dental Caries in High-Risk School-Aged African-American Children in Alabama: A Six-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazal, Tariq S.; Levy, Steven M.; Childers, Noel K.; Broffitt, Barbara A.; Caplan, Daniel J; Warren, John J.; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Kolker, Justine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence and incidence of dental caries in school-aged African-American children who received semi-annual fluoride varnish applications. Methods A cohort of six-year-old high caries-risk African-American children (n=98) was recruited in Uniontown, Alabama and followed for six years. Oral examinations were done annually by three trained/calibrated dentists. Tooth surfaces with cavitated caries, missing due to caries and with filled surfaces were recorded, using WHO criteria. Also, as part of the study, children received periodic oral health instruction, fluoride varnish applications and referral to dentists starting at baseline. Results The person-level prevalence of dmfs/DMFS was: 61.2 percent at mean age 5.9 (n=98, mean dmfs/DMFS=11.6); 63.8 percent at age 6.7 (n=80, mean dmfs/DMFS=13.2); 70.6 percent at age 7.8 (n=68, mean dmfs/DMFS=14.2); 65.7 percent at age 8.8 (n=68, mean dmfs/DMFS=11.8); 55.6 percent at age 9.7 (n=63, mean dmfs/DMFS=8.8); 40.3 percent at age 10.7 (n=62, mean dmfs/DMFS=3.4); and 37.1 percent at age 11.7 (n=62, mean dmfs/DMFS=2.3). The six-year person-level incidence of dmfs/DMFS was 32.3 percent (mean dmfs/DMFS=1.6) from age 5.9 to age 11.7 (n=62). Conclusion In spite of the oral health education and fluoride varnish applications, there was substantial new dental caries in this high-risk sample. Additional studies evaluating risk factors for caries development are ongoing. PMID:27306247

  15. The challenges of underweight and overweight in South African children: are we winning or losing the battle? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monyeki, Makama Andries; Awotidebe, Adedapo; Strydom, Gert L; de Ridder, J Hans; Mamabolo, Ramoteme Lesly; Kemper, Han C G

    2015-02-01

    Underweight and overweight are adverse effects of malnutrition and both are associated with negative health consequences in children and adolescents. In South Africa, the burden of economic and social disparity coexists with malnutrition in children. The purpose of this study was to review available South Africa studies regarding the comprehensive summary of prevalence of underweight and overweight and evaluates government policies in addressing undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children and adolescents. We searched subject-specific electronic bibliographic databases of observational studies published on malnutrition, undernutrition, overnutrition, underweight and overweight in South African boys and girls from birth to 20 years of age in studies published on or after 1990. A total of sixteen cross-sectional, three longitudinal studies and one report met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Descriptive data synthesis revealed the small number of longitudinal studies highlights the dearth of research in tracking undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children. In this review, 0.7%-66% of underweight was reported among children in rural areas compared to a 3.1%-32.4% of overweight in urban areas. All studies reported a higher rate of underweight in boys than girls who were significantly more likely to have higher body fat. The data indicated that both underweight and overweight were positively related with health-related physical activity and psychological health problems such as low activity, low fitness, low self-image and self-esteem. Numerous recommendations were made in the reviewed studies, however effective strategic programs in eradicating both underweight and overweight are minimal. It is evident from the reviewed studies that the burden of underweight and overweight are still a problem in South African children. The most highly affected by underweight are rural children, while children in urban areas in transition are faced

  16. The Challenges of Underweight and Overweight in South African Children: Are We Winning or Losing the Battle? A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makama Andries Monyeki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Underweight and overweight are adverse effects of malnutrition and both are associated with negative health consequences in children and adolescents. In South Africa, the burden of economic and social disparity coexists with malnutrition in children. The purpose of this study was to review available South Africa studies regarding the comprehensive summary of prevalence of underweight and overweight and evaluates government policies in addressing undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children and adolescents. We searched subject-specific electronic bibliographic databases of observational studies published on malnutrition, undernutrition, overnutrition, underweight and overweight in South African boys and girls from birth to 20 years of age in studies published on or after 1990. A total of sixteen cross-sectional, three longitudinal studies and one report met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Descriptive data synthesis revealed the small number of longitudinal studies highlights the dearth of research in tracking undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children. In this review, 0.7%–66% of underweight was reported among children in rural areas compared to a 3.1%–32.4% of overweight in urban areas. All studies reported a higher rate of underweight in boys than girls who were significantly more likely to have higher body fat. The data indicated that both underweight and overweight were positively related with health-related physical activity and psychological health problems such as low activity, low fitness, low self-image and self-esteem. Numerous recommendations were made in the reviewed studies, however effective strategic programs in eradicating both underweight and overweight are minimal. It is evident from the reviewed studies that the burden of underweight and overweight are still a problem in South African children. The most highly affected by underweight are rural children, while children in urban areas

  17. Thyroid dysfunction and neoplasia in children receiving neck irradiation for cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, I.D.; Black, T.L.; Thompson, E.I.; Pratt, C.; Rao, B.; Hustu, O.

    1985-03-15

    The reported relationship of radiation exposure and thyroid carcinoma stimulated this retrospective study of 298 patients treated at St. Jude Children's Hospital with radiation therapy to the neck for childhood cancer to identify patients who developed subsequent thyroid abnormalities. This series includes 153 patients with Hodgkin's disease, 95 with acute lymphocytic leukemia, 28 with lymphoepithelioma, and 22 with miscellaneous tumors. Inclusion in the study required 5 years of disease-free survival following therapy for their original tumor, which included thyroid irradiation. Follow-up has been 100%. Most patients also received chemotherapy. Seventeen patients were found to have decreased thyroid reserve with normal levels of free triiodothyroxine (T3) or free thyroxin, (T4) and an elevated level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). In nine patients hypothyroidism developed, with decreased T3 or T4 levels and an elevated level of TSH. One hyperthyroid patient was identified. Two patients had thyroiditis, and seven had thyroid neoplasms: (carcinoma in two, adenoma in two, colloid nodule in one, and undiagnosed nodules in two). This survey has demonstrated an increased incidence of thyroid dysfunction and thyroid neoplasia when compared to the general population. The importance of long-term follow-up for thyroid disease is emphasized in patients who have received thyroid irradiation. The possible role of subclinical hypothyroidism with TSH elevation coupled with radiation damage to the thyroid gland as a model for the development of neoplastic disease is discussed.

  18. Efficacy of the Chicago Parent Program with Low-Income African American and Latino Parents of Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Deborah; Garvey, Christine; Julion, Wrenetha; Fogg, Louis; Tucker, Sharon; Mokros, Hartmut

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of a 12-session parent training program, the Chicago Parent Program (CPP), which was developed in collaboration with African American and Latino parents. Using growth curve modeling, data were analyzed from 253 parents (58.9% African American, 32.8% Latino) of 2–4 year old children enrolled in 7 day care centers serving low-income families. Day care centers were matched and randomly assigned to intervention and waiting-list control conditions. At 1-year follow-u...

  19. Prospective study of cognitive function in children receiving whole-brain radiotherapy and chemotherapy: 2-year results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As survival rates have risen for children with malignant primary brain tumors, so has the concern that many survivors have significant permanent cognitive deficits. Cranial irradiation (CRT) has been implicated as the major cause for cognitive dysfunction. To clarify the etiology, incidence, and severity of intellectual compromise in children with brain tumors after CRT, a prospective study was undertaken comparing the neuropsychological outcome in 18 consecutive children with malignant brain tumors treated with CRT to outcome in 14 children harboring brain tumors in similar sites in the nervous system who had not received CRT. Children with cortical or subcortical brain tumors were not eligible for study. Neuropsychological testing was performed after surgery prior to radiotherapy, after radiotherapy, and at 1- and 2-year intervals thereafter. Children who had received CRT had a mean full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) of 105 at diagnosis which fell to 91 by Year 2. Similar declines were noted in their performance intelligence quotient (IQ) and verbal IQ. After CRT, patients demonstrated a statistically significant decline from baseline in FSIQ (p less than 0.02) and verbal IQ (p less than 0.04). Children who had not received CRT did not demonstrate a fall in any cognitive parameter over time. The decline between baseline testing and testing performed at Year 2 in patients who had CRT was inversely correlated with age (p less than 0.02), as younger children demonstrated the greatest loss of intelligence. Children less than 7 years of age at diagnosis had a mean decline in FSIQ of 25 points 2 years posttreatment. No other clinical parameter correlated with the overall IQ or decline in IQ. After CRT, children demonstrated a wide range of dysfunction including deficits in fine motor, visual-motor, and visual-spatial skills and memory difficulties

  20. South African parents' perception of television food advertising directed at children / A.A.F.C. da Fonseca

    OpenAIRE

    Da Fonseca, Abel Alexandre Ferreira Claro

    2010-01-01

    Advertising to children has received regular focus since 1961, yet it remains a controversial topic. When people speak about advertising to children, they are frequently discussing food advertising. Recent concerns about food, nutrition and an increase in childhood obesity have resulted in a resurgence of interest towards advertising to children. Many factors contribute to the rise in childhood obesity; and advertising of unhealthy food to children has been recognised as one su...

  1. Performance on the PPVT?III and the EVT: Applicability of the Measures with African American and European American Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Maria Adelaida; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Blake, Jamilia; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Cramer, Stephen E.; Ruston, Hilary P.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether two vocabulary measures were appropriate for the evaluation of African American children and children whose mothers have low education levels, regardless of gender. Method: Data were collected for 210 high-risk, preschool children from a southeastern state in the United States on the…

  2. Determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices play a crucial role in the health and development of children. The objective of this research paper was to identify factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries, namely, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal. This study covered 22 376 children aged 6-23 months from the seven countries surveyed (Benin: 3732 children; Burkina Faso: 4205 children; Cote d'Ivoire: 2109 children, Guinea: 1944 children, Mali: 3798 children, Niger: 3451 children and Senegal: 3137 children). The most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the various countries were used as data sources. A set of individual-, household- and community-level factors were used to examine the four complementary feeding indicators. Multivariate analysis revealed that the youngest age bracket (6-11 months) of children, administrative/geographical region, mother's limited or non-access to the mass media, mothers' lack of contact with a health facility, rural residence, poor households and non-working mothers were the main factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding in the countries surveyed. Our findings highlight the need to consider broader social, cultural and economic factors when designing child nutritional interventions. PMID:26364790

  3. Pharmacokinetics of a Novel Sublingual Spray Formulation of the Antimalarial Drug Artemether in African Children with Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Sam; Bendel, Daryl; Lee, Toong C.; Templeton, David

    2015-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of sublingual artemether (ArTiMist) was investigated in 91 young African children with severe malaria or who could not tolerate oral antimalarial therapy. Each received 3.0 mg/kg of body weight of artemether at 0, 8, 24, 36, 48, and 60 h or until the initiation of oral treatment. Few blood samples were drawn postdose. Plasma artemether and dihydroartemisinin (DHA) levels were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the data were analyzed using established population compartmental pharmacokinetic models. Parasite clearance was prompt (median parasite clearance time, 24 h), and there were no serious adverse events. Consistent with studies in healthy adults (S. Salman, D. Bendel, T. C. Lee, D. Templeton, and T. M. E. Davis, Antimicrob Agents Chemother 59:3197–3207, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.05013-14), the absorption of sublingual artemether was biphasic, and multiple dosing was associated with the autoinduction of the metabolism of artemether to DHA (which itself has potent antimalarial activity). In contrast to studies using healthy volunteers, pharmacokinetic modeling indicated that the first absorption phase did not avoid first-pass metabolism, suggesting that the drug is transferred to the upper intestine through postdose fluid/food intake. Simulations using the present data and those from an earlier study in older Melanesian children with uncomplicated malaria treated with artemether-lumefantrine tablets suggested that the bioavailability of sublingual artemether was at least equivalent to that after conventional oral artemether-lumefantrine (median [interquartile range] areas under the concentration-time curve for artemether, 3,403 [2,471 to 4,771] versus 3,063 [2,358 to 4,514] μg · h/liter, respectively; and for DHA, 2,958 [2,146 to 4,278] versus 2,839 [1,812 to 3,488] μg · h/liter, respectively; P ≥ 0.42). These findings suggest that sublingual artemether could be used as prereferral treatment for sick

  4. From an imbalance to a new imbalance: Italian-style gluten-free diet alters the salivary microbiota and metabolome of African celiac children

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo Ercolini; Ruggiero Francavilla; Lucia Vannini; Francesca De Filippis; Teresa Capriati; Raffaella Di Cagno; Giuseppe Iacono; Maria De Angelis; Marco Gobbetti

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen Saharawi celiac children following an African-style gluten-free diet for at least two years were subjected to a change of diet to an Italian-style gluten-free diet for 60 days. Significant differences were identified in the salivary microbiota and metabolome when Saharawi celiac children switched from African- to Italian-style dietary habits. An Italian-style gluten-free diet caused increases in the abundance of Granulicatella, Porphyromonas and Neisseria and decreases in Clostridium...

  5. PdS and SdP Receiver Functions Image of the Lithosphere underneath the Southern African Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Thybo, Hans; Levander, A;

    2009-01-01

    total of 534 events during the two years of recording from 1997 to 1999. We give special emphasis to imaging converters in the upper mantle, where crustal multiples often coincide with the conversions from real mantle boundaries. By modelling predicted multiples for comparison with the PdS receiver...... significant difference in anisotropy between the craton and the surrounding tectonic belts. The evidence for this variation arises from the good azimuthal coverage, which provides an obvious polarity reversal of signals versus back azimuth coinciding spatially with the Kaapvaal boundaries. To confirm these...

  6. Socioeconomic status and the prevalence of fever in children under age five: evidence from four sub-Saharan African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Novignon Jacob; Nonvignon Justice

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The burden of fevers remains enormous in sub-Saharan Africa. While several efforts at reducing the burden of fevers have been made at the macro level, the relationship between socioeconomic status and fever prevalence has been inconclusive at the household and individual levels. The purpose of this study was to examine how individual and household socioeconomic status influences the prevalence of fever among children under age five in four sub-Saharan African countries. Me...

  7. The Importance of Efficacy: Using the Extended Parallel Process Model to Examine Factors Related to Preschool-Age Children Enrolled in Medicaid Receiving Preventive Dental Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Chi, Donald L.; Momany, Elizabeth T.; Kuthy, Raymond A.; Carter, Knute D.; Field, Kathryn; Damiano, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Early preventive dental visits are vital to the oral health of children. Yet many children, especially preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid, do not receive early visits. This study attempts to uncover factors that can be used to encourage parents to seek preventive dental care for preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid. The extended…

  8. 7 CFR 245.8 - Nondiscrimination practices for children eligible to receive free and reduced price meals and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nondiscrimination practices for children eligible to receive free and reduced price meals and free milk. 245.8 Section 245.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY...

  9. Eina! Ouch! Eish! Professionals’ Perceptions of How Children with Cerebral Palsy Communicate About Pain in South African School Settings: Implications for the use of AAC

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Ensa; Nilsson, Stefan; Adolfsson, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Most children with severe cerebral palsy experience daily pain that affects their school performance. School professionals need to assess pain in these children, who may also have communication difficulties, in order to pay attention to the pain and support the children’s continued participation in school. In this study, South African school professionals’ perceptions of how they observed pain in children with cerebral palsy, how they questioned them about it and how the children com...

  10. Differences in body circumferences, skin-fold thicknesses and lipid profiles among HIV-infected African children on and not on stavudine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Musiime

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study To compare body circumferences, skin-fold thickness (SFT and lipid levels (LL, as measures of lipodystrophy, among antiretroviral therapy (ART-naïve and experienced children at enrolment into the CHAPAS-3 trial. Methods HIV-infected children in Uganda and Zambia, either ART-naïve or on stavudine (d4T for ≥2 years without clinical lipodystrophy, were randomised to receive d4T, abacavir (ABC or zidovudine (ZDV with lamivudine and efavirenz (EFV or nevirapine. At enrolment, mid-upper arm (MUAC and calf (CC circumferences, SFT (biceps, triceps, sub-scapular, supra-iliac and fasting lipids (total cholesterol (TC, low density lipo-protein (LDL, high density lipoprotein (HDL, triglycerides (TRIG were measured. Age/sex adjusted z-scores of MUAC, CC, SFT and the sum of SFT (SSF used Dutch reference data. ART-naïve and ART-experienced children were compared with t-tests using Stata v11.0. Summary of results Among 444 children, 224 (51% were male and 331 (74.5% ART-naïve. Mean (sd CD4% was 19.7% (10.2 versus (vs 34.2% (7.7 in ART-naïve vs ART-experienced children. The ART-naïve were younger than the ART-experienced children (median [IQR] age 2.5 [1.5, 4.0] vs 6.0 [5.5, 7.0] years, p<0.0001. Among the ART-experienced, 4/108 (3.7% were on EFV and median (IQR d4T use was 3.5 (2.7, 4.2 years. As expected, MUAC, CC, weight-for-age (WAZ and height-for-age (HAZ z-scores were lower in the ART-naïve; the ART-experienced had lower SFT z-scores and higher TC and HDL, but lower TRIG (Table 1. Conclusions Failure-to-thrive likely contributed to lower circumference values in ART-naïve children. Among the ART-experienced, thinner SFT and higher TC values could be ART (particularly d4T-related. Normal values, currently unavailable for African children, are being collected. During trial follow-up, we will evaluate the effect of ABC, ZDV and d4T on development of lipodystrophy in naïve children and its reversibility in d4T-treated children

  11. Effects of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Obesity on Salivary Secretory IgA and Alpha-Amylase in South African Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzak, Dorota E; Konkol, Kristen F; McKune, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and body composition are associated with salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), a mucosal immunity marker, and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a marker of stress-related sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, in South African children. Morning (7:30-8:00 a.m.) saliva samples were collected from 132 children (10.05 ± 1.68 years old, 74 females, 58 males). Body composition, resting blood pressure, and predicted maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) were determined, and SIgA and sAA were quantified. Obese children had significantly higher sAA compared with overweight and normal weight children (p mitigator. Age and BMI predicted SIgA secretion rate (p mitigated sympathetic activation was not associated with mucosal immunity. PMID:27483329

  12. The challenge of language assessment for african american english-speaking children: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Harry N

    2004-02-01

    The diagnostic problem of how validly to assess the language of children who speak dialects different from Mainstream American English (MAE) has challenged the field of communication disorders for several decades. The key to its solution is to recognize differences due to dialect or development and remove them from the initial diagnosis of a disorder. A new approach to the puzzle, implemented jointly by University of Massachusetts scholars and the Psychological Corporation (TPC), takes two directions: (1) it provides new normative data on African American English (AAE) development, and (2) it proposes a level of analysis deeper than dialect for the discovery of alternate markers of a disorder. We present three objectives for a language assessment instrument designed to solve this longstanding problem: (1) to answer the problem/no problem question for a given child; (2) to provide explanatory data about the nature of the problem; and (3) to achieve objectives 1 and 2 in a way that is culturally and linguistically fair to both speakers of MAE and speakers of other dialects of English such as AAE. PMID:15088228

  13. "For the Sake of the Children": South African Family Relocation Disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Domingo

    Full Text Available Decisions by primary caregiving parents to relocate after divorce, thereby disrupting the non-primary caregivers’ right of contact with children or, where both parents have joint care, the denial of the other’s parental rights and responsibilities to care, give rise to cases which deal with relocation disputes. My paper deals with the development of South African family jurisprudence in this area. Since the Children’s Act does not provide any criteria for cases dealing with relocation I examine the different jurisprudential approaches/trends taken by our courts in dealing with relocation. I pave the way forward by making the argument that we need a general consistency in approach by our courts when dealing with relocation disputes. As our society becomes increasingly mobile, our courts will be faced with more frequent applications for local and international family relocations. I conclude by making the recommendation that despite the Children’s Act, we still need “guidelines” or perhaps a “Relocation Act” which works in tandem with the Children’s Act.

  14. Wilms′ tumour in African children: Can an institutional approach improve outcome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lofty-John Chukwuemeka Anyanwu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The poor outcome for patients with Wilms′ tumour (WT in developing countries has been predicated on late presentation, poverty and low rate of chemotherapeutic access. This study aims to evaluate the effects of an institutionalised approach to improving outcome for patients managed in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Oncology records of children diagnosed with WT between 2009 and 2013 were analysed for therapy completion and other prognostic parameters. Ensuing data were then compared with those from other centres in Africa. Results: Compared with results from some local and African studies, the therapy completion rate was higher (60% with a survival rate among this group being between 1 and 4 years. No patient was lost to follow-up because of unavailability or unaffordability of cytotoxic agents. Conclusion: This study shows that an institutionalised approach can help to improve access to anti-cancer drugs, reduce the rate of loss to follow-up and thus improve outcome. There is however need to improve on patient-doctor communication, form support groups and establish a WT registry.

  15. European-American and African-American Mothers' Emotion Socialization Practices Relate Differently to Their Children's Academic and Social-Emotional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Perry, Nicole B.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines whether the relation between mothers' responses to their children's negative emotions and teachers' reports of children's academic performance and social-emotional competence are similar or different for European-American and African-American families. Two hundred mothers (137 European-American, 63…

  16. Increasing Daily Water Intake and Fluid Adherence in Children Receiving Treatment for Retentive Encopresis

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhl, Elizabeth S.; Hoodin, Flora; Rice, Jennifer; Felt, Barbara T.; Rausch, Joseph R.; Patton, Susana R

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the efficacy of an enhanced intervention (EI) compared to standard care (SC) in increasing daily water intake and fluid goal adherence in children seeking treatment for retentive encopresis. Methods Changes in beverage intake patterns and fluid adherence were examined by comparing 7-week diet diary data collected during participation in the EI to achieved data for families who had previously completed the SC. Results Compared to children in SC (n = 19), children in the EI...

  17. Norovirus diversity in diarrheic children from an African-descendant settlement in Belem, Northern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glicélia Cruz Aragão

    Full Text Available Norovirus (NoV, sapovirus (SaV and human astrovirus (HAstV are viral pathogens that are associated with outbreaks and sporadic cases of gastroenteritis. However, little is known about the occurrence of these pathogens in relatively isolated communities, such as the remnants of African-descendant villages ("Quilombola". The objective of this study was the frequency determination of these viruses in children under 10 years, with and without gastroenteritis, from a "Quilombola" Community, Northern Brazil. A total of 159 stool samples were obtained from April/2008 to July/2010 and tested by an enzyme immunoassay (EIA and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR to detect NoV, SaV and HAstV, and further molecular characterization was performed. These viruses were detected only in the diarrheic group. NoV was the most frequent viral agent detected (19.7%-16/81, followed by SaV (2.5%-2/81 and HAstV (1.2%-1/81. Of the 16 NoV-positive samples, 14 were sequenced with primers targeting the B region of the polymerase (ORF1 and the D region of the capsid (ORF2. The results showed a broad genetic diversity of NoV, with 12 strains being classified as GII-4 (5-41.7%, GII-6 (3-25%, GII-7 (2-16.7%, GII-17 (1-8.3% and GI-2 (1-8.3%, as based on the polymerase region; 12 samples were classified, based on the capsid region, as GII-4 (6-50%, being 3-2006b variant and 3-2010 variant, GII-6 (3-25%, GII-17 (2-16.7% and GII-20 (1-8.3%. One NoV-strain showed dual genotype specificity, based on the polymerase and capsid region (GII-7/GII-20. This study provides, for the first time, epidemiological and molecular information on the circulation of NoV, SaV and HAstV in African-descendant communities in Northern Brazil and identifies NoV genotypes that were different from those detected previously in studies conducted in the urban area of Belém. It remains to be determined why a broader NoV diversity was observed in such a semi-isolated community.

  18. Comparison of Environmental Attitudes and Experiences of Five-Year-Old Children Receiving Preschool Education in the Village and City Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkan, Nazmi; Güngör, Hande; Fetihi, Leyla; Erol, Ahmet; Gülay Ogelman, Hülya

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to compare environmental attitudes and experiences of five-year-old children receiving preschool education in the village and city centre. The first group comprised 54 five-year-old children who received preschool education and attended kindergartens of two primary schools in the Karateke and Kocabas villages of Honaz…

  19. Accuracy of Knowledge of Child Development in Mothers of Children Receiving Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, Debra H.; Pierce, Katherine J.; Bultas, Margaret W.; McMillin, Stephen Edward; Gott, Rolanda Maxim; Wilmott, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Parents' involvement in early intervention (EI) services fosters positive developmental trajectories in young children. Although EI research on parenting skills has been abundant, fewer data are available on parents' knowledge of normative child development. Sixty-seven mothers of children participating in a Midwestern city's EI program completed…

  20. Outcome for Children Receiving the Early Start Denver Model before and after 48 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanti, Giacomo; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    The Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) is an intervention program recommended for pre-schoolers with autism ages 12-48 months. The rationale for this recommendation is the potential for intervention to affect developmental trajectories during early sensitive periods. We investigated outcomes of 32 children aged 18-48 months and 28 children aged…

  1. Asking, Giving, Receiving: Friendship as Survival Strategy among Accra's Street Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizen, Phillip; Ofosu-Kusi, Yaw

    2010-01-01

    This article considers friendship among street children in Accra. Drawing upon the findings of a three-year qualitative research project, the article argues that friendship is a neglected element of research yet cooperation, mutuality and exchange between friends are essential to street children's survival. Living within the extremities of the…

  2. Oral Reading Fluency and Prediction of Reading Comprehension in African American and Caucasian Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, John M.; Callahan, James E., III; Matthews, William J.; Williams, Stacy A.S.; Tobin, Kevin G.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the differential predictive bias of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) in reading across African American and Caucasian students. Results of this study suggest that CBM continues to appear to be a sensitive form of direct reading assessment in the local curriculum for both African American and Caucasian elementary-age students. (Contains…

  3. Dyslipidemia in a Cohort of HIV-infected Latin American Children Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy*

    OpenAIRE

    Brewinski, Margaret; Megazzini, Karen; Freimanis Hance, Laura; Cruz, Miguel Cashat; Pavia-Ruz, Noris; Della Negra, Marinella; Ferreira, Flavia Gomes Faleiro; Marques, Heloisa; Hazra, Rohan

    2010-01-01

    In order to describe the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in a cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents in Latin America and to determine associations with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), we performed this cross-sectional analysis within the NICHD International Site Development Initiative pediatric cohort study. Eligible children had to be at least 2 years of age and be on HAART. Among the 477 eligible HIV-infected youth, 98 (20.5%) had hypercho...

  4. Carnitine levels and cardiac functions in children with solid malignancies receiving doxorubicin therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Anant Khositseth; Suwadee Jirasakpisarn; Samart Pakakasama; Lulin Choubtuym; Duangrurdee Wattanasirichaigoon

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Previous studies demonstrated l-carnitine decreasing doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Our objectives were to study carnitine levels and cardiac functions in children treated with doxorubicin and the effect of short-term l-carnitine supplements. Materials and Methods: Serial carnitine levels and cardiac functions were obtained in children with newly diagnosed solid malignancies before doxorubicin, after cumulative doses of ≥150 mg/m 2 and ≥300 mg/m 2 , respectively. Oral l-carnitine 10...

  5. Survival and secondary tumors in children with medulloblastoma receiving radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy: results of Children's Oncology Group trial A9961

    OpenAIRE

    PACKER, ROGER J.; Zhou, Tianni; Holmes, Emi; Vezina, Gilbert; Gajjar, Amar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the trial was to determine the survival and incidence of secondary tumors in children with medulloblastoma receiving radiotherapy plus chemotherapy. Three hundred seventy-nine eligible patients with nondisseminated medulloblastoma between the ages of 3 and 21 years were treated with 2340 cGy of craniospinal and 5580 cGy of posterior fossa irradiation. Patients were randomized between postradiation cisplatin and vincristine plus either CCNU or cyclophosphamide. Survival, pattern...

  6. Patterns of injury in children and adolescents presenting to a South African township health centre.

    OpenAIRE

    Zwi, K. J.; Zwi, A. B.; Smettanikov, E.; Söderlund, N; Logan, S.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the patterns and causes of childhood injury presenting to a South African township health centre in 1991. DESIGN: Retrospective review of clinic held case notes. SETTING: Typical South-African urban township within Greater Johannesburg. SUBJECTS: 695 subjects aged 0-19 years presenting as a direct result of injury. RESULTS: Overall rates of presentation for injury were 6297/100,000/year (95% confidence interval 5463 to 7131); 35% of injuries were caused by violence, 14...

  7. Diagnosing severe falciparum malaria in parasitaemic African children: a prospective evaluation of plasma PfHRP2 measurement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse C E Hendriksen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In African children, distinguishing severe falciparum malaria from other severe febrile illnesses with coincidental Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia is a major challenge. P. falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2 is released by mature sequestered parasites and can be used to estimate the total parasite burden. We investigated the prognostic significance of plasma PfHRP2 and used it to estimate the malaria-attributable fraction in African children diagnosed with severe malaria. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Admission plasma PfHRP2 was measured prospectively in African children (from Mozambique, The Gambia, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo aged 1 month to 15 years with severe febrile illness and a positive P. falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH-based rapid test in a clinical trial comparing parenteral artesunate versus quinine (the AQUAMAT trial, ISRCTN 50258054. In 3,826 severely ill children, Plasmadium falciparum PfHRP2 was higher in patients with coma (p = 0.0209, acidosis (p<0.0001, and severe anaemia (p<0.0001. Admission geometric mean (95%CI plasma PfHRP2 was 1,611 (1,350-1,922 ng/mL in fatal cases (n = 381 versus 1,046 (991-1,104 ng/mL in survivors (n = 3,445, p<0.0001, without differences in parasitaemia as assessed by microscopy. There was a U-shaped association between log(10 plasma PfHRP2 and risk of death. Mortality increased 20% per log(10 increase in PfHRP2 above 174 ng/mL (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.21, 95%CI 1.05-1.39, p = 0.009. A mechanistic model assuming a PfHRP2-independent risk of death in non-malaria illness closely fitted the observed data and showed malaria-attributable mortality less than 50% with plasma PfHRP2≤174 ng/mL. The odds ratio (OR for death in artesunate versus quinine-treated patients was 0.61 (95%CI 0.44-0.83, p = 0.0018 in the highest PfHRP2 tertile, whereas there was no difference in the lowest tertile (OR 1.05; 95%CI 0.69-1.61; p = 0.82. A

  8. Determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in four anglophone West African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices have a detrimental impact on a child's growth, health and development in the first two years of life. They lead to child malnutrition, which contributes to the high prevalence of stunting (38%) and underweight (28%) reported for children semi-solid or soft foods across all four countries. Predictors for minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet included children aged 6-11 months, administrative/geographical region, poorer household income and limited access to media. The authors recommend that the four anglophone West African countries studied should prioritise efforts to improve complementary feeding practices in order to reduce child morbidity and mortality. Interventional studies on complementary feeding should target those from poor and illiterate households. PMID:26364789

  9. Which Sexual Abuse Victims Receive a Forensic Medical Examination?: The Impact of Children's Advocacy Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Jones, Lisa M.; Simone, Monique; Kolko, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the impact of Children's Advocacy Centers (CAC) and other factors, such as the child's age, alleged penetration, and injury on the use of forensic medical examinations as part of the response to reported child sexual abuse. Methods: This analysis is part of a quasi-experimental study, the Multi-Site Evaluation of…

  10. Family Perceptions of Participation in Educational Planning for Children Receiving Mental Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivanjee, Pauline; Kruzich, Jean M.; Friesen, Barbara J.; Robinson, Adjoa

    2007-01-01

    Family participation in educational planning for children with disabilities is believed to result in plans that are more responsive to the child's needs and that lead to better social, emotional, and educational outcomes. Participation in educational planning is also a fundamental right of parents and a cornerstone of special education…

  11. The challenge of linguistic and cultural diversity: Does length of experience affect South African speech-language therapists’ management of children with language impairment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frenette Southwood

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: South African speech-language therapists (SLTs currently do not reflect the country’s linguistic and cultural diversity. The question arises as to who might be better equipped currently to provide services to multilingual populations: SLTs with more clinical experience in such contexts, or recently trained SLTs who are themselves linguistically and culturally diverse and whose training programmes deliberately focused on multilingualism and multiculturalism?Aims: To investigate whether length of clinical experience influenced: number of bilingual children treated, languages spoken by these children, languages in which assessment and remediation can be offered, assessment instrument(s favoured, and languages in which therapy material is required.Method: From questionnaires completed by 243 Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA-registered SLTs who treat children with language problems, two groups were drawn:71 more experienced (ME respondents (20+ years of experience and 79 less experienced (LE respondents (maximum 5 years of experience.Results: The groups did not differ significantly with regard to (1 number of children(monolingual or bilingual with language difficulties seen, (2 number of respondents seeing child clients who have Afrikaans or an African language as home language, (3 number of respondents who can offer intervention in Afrikaans or English and (4 number of respondents who reported needing therapy material in Afrikaans or English. However, significantly more ME than LE respondents reported seeing first language child speakers of English, whereas significantly more LE than ME respondents could provide services, and required therapymaterial, in African languages.Conclusion: More LE than ME SLTs could offer remediation in an African language, but there were few other significant differences between the two groups. There is still an absence of appropriate assessment and remediation material for Afrikaans and

  12. Psychometric properties of the child PTSD checklist in a community sample of South African children and adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E Boyes

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The current study assessed the basic psychometric properties of the Child PTSD Checklist and examined the structure of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in a large sample of South African youth. METHODOLOGY: The checklist was completed by 1025 (540 male; 485 female South African youth (aged between 10 and 19 years. The factor structure of the scale was assessed with a combination of confirmatory and exploratory techniques. Internal consistencies for the full scale and all subscales were evaluated with Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega. Validity was assessed by comparing PTSD scores obtained by children who had and had not experienced a traumatic event, and by examining associations between total PTSD scores and known correlates of PTSD. RESULTS: Scores on the Child PTSD Checklist clearly discriminated between youth who had experienced a traumatic event and those who had not. Internal consistencies for the full scale (and all subscales were acceptable to good and hypothesized correlations between PTSD, depression, anxiety, somatic symptoms, and age were observed. Two of the reported fit statistics for the tripartite DSM-IV-TR model of PTSD did not meet traditional criteria and further exploratory analyses revealed a four-factor structure (broadly consistent with Simms and colleagues' Dysphoria Model of PTSD symptoms which provided a better fit to the observed data. CONCLUSION: Given the continued use of the Child PTSD Checklist in South Africa, findings offer an important first step in establishing the reliability and validity of the checklist for use with South African youth. However, further evaluation of the checklist in South African samples is clearly required before conclusions regarding its use as diagnostic tool in this context can be made.

  13. Effects of ketamine and midazolam on emergence agitation after sevoflurane anaesthesia in children receiving caudal block: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Ozcan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Emergence agitation is a common postanaesthetic problem in children after sevoflurane anaesthesia. We aimed to compare the effects of ketamine and midazolam administered intravenously, before the end of surgery, for prevention of emergence agitation in children who received caudal block for pain relief under sevoflurane anaesthesia. Methods: 62 American Society of Anesthesiologists patient classification status I children, aged 2–7 years, scheduled for inguinal hernia repair, circumcision or orchidopexy were enrolled to the study. Anaesthesia was induced with sevoflurane 8% in a mixture of 50% oxygen and nitrous oxide. After achieving adequate depth of anaesthesia, a laryngeal mask was placed and then caudal block was performed with 0.75 mL kg−1, 0.25% bupivacaine. At the end of the surgery, ketamine 0.25 mg kg−1, midazolam 0.03 mg kg−1 and saline were given to ketamine, midazolam and control groups, respectively. Agitation was assessed using Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scale and postoperative pain was evaluated with modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale. Results and conclusions: Modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale scores were found higher in control group than in ketamine and midazolam groups. Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores were similar between groups. Modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale and Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores showed a significant decrease by time in all groups during follow-up in postanaesthesia care unit. The present study resulted in satisfactory Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores which are below 10 in all groups. As a conclusion, neither ketamine nor midazolam added to caudal block under sevoflurane anaesthesia did show further effect on emergence agitation. In addition, pain relief still seems to be the major factor in preventing emergence agitation after

  14. Listening to Africa’s children in the process of practical theological interpretation: A South African application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatius Swart

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As part of the theological task of developing a publicly oriented ministry that will do justice to the social plight of children in Africa, this article adopted as its point of departure an appreciation of the new ‘hermeneutics of listening’ that is advanced today by an interdisciplinary movement of scholars from the disciplines of practical theology, theological ethics and religion studies. Emphasising the fact that this new hermeneutics is by and large the result of this scholarly movement’s newly-found engagement with, and exposure to, the social science field of childhood studies, the article moved from a more general appreciation of the new hermeneutical line of thinking to a more pertinent evaluation of the unfolding of this line of thinking in the scholarly context of Africa. In a further development that narrows the African focus to South Africa, the results from a recent empirical investigation amongst members of the South African practical theological academy were discussed in particular to determine the extent of this group’s shift to the new line of thinking. This led the article to make a concluding statement, in the light of its overt practical theological interest, about the way in which the new ‘hermeneutics of listening’ to children could still be seen as an important ongoing challenge, not only for practical theological scholarship in South Africa but also within the larger context of Africa.

  15. Use of deuterium oxide to measure breast-milk intake in children aged 7 to 12 months receiving complementary foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is being conducted to pilot the use of the deuterium oxide method for the measurement of breast-milk intake in children 7 - 12 months of age receiving complementary foods. This will be applied to a community efficacy study to determine the effects on total energy and nutrient intake and on breast-milk consumption of an intensive education intervention using locally available, culturally acceptable complementary foods. In order to apply the methodology to this evaluation the washout period of deuterium from the mother and the child after the administration of a dose to the mother is being determined and the comparison of this methodology with the test weighing technique for breast-milk intake. The measurement of deuterium oxide using the infrared spectrometer of the Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional [IIN] is being compared with the IR Mass Spectrometer of INTA Chile. During the present period we have conducted a pilot study to measure breast-milk intake using deuterium oxide in 9 mother-child pairs of children aged 7 - 11 months of age; samples of saliva have been taken for analyses. One child has completed the 28 days of the study and 8 children are in process. Test weighing for 48 hours has been conducted on 5 children; unadjusted breast-milk intake ranges from 589 to 682 g per 24 hours. The samples are awaiting analysis for deuterium oxide. (author)

  16. Use of deuterium oxide to measure breast milk intake in children aged 7-12 months receiving complementary foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study we performed a pilot study using deuterium oxide method to determine the breast-milk intake in children 7-12 months of age receiving complementary food. This is applied to a community efficacy study to determine the effects on total energy and nutrient intake and on breast-milk consumption of an intensive education intervention using locally available, culturally acceptable complementary foods. We determined the washout period for the deuterium finding a value of 21 days for the mother and child. This measurement was performed using the infrared spectrometer of the Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional and compared with the values obtained with the IR Mass Spectrometer of INTA Chile. The test weighing was conduced on 14 children and compared with the values obtained using the deuterium methodology. Our result suggest that the breast milk intake determined by the weighing test was lower with regard to the value obtained with the deuterium methodology. (author)

  17. PREVALENCE OF CYTOMEGALOVIRUS IN CHILDREN WHO RECEIVE BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION BY MEANS OF REAL-TIME POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Montanero Edith Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The citomegalovirus (CMV is an important virus worldwide. The early and mass-produced detection of the viral load for CMV helps to treat in an early way the infection and to avoid the disease in immunodeficient patients that in several cases could be lethal. Objective: To determine the prevalence of CMV in immunodeficient children who received bone marrow transplantation by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction. Methods: Retrospective, descriptive and cross-sectional study. The viral load was determined in plasma samples recollected since 2009 to 2012 in children who received bone marrow transplantation in the Hospital de la Sociedad de Lucha contra el Cáncer (SOLCA in Guayaquil, Ecuador. Results: 38 samples were analyzed. The average age was 7.2 years, and 57.9% (n=22 were men and 42.1% (n=16 women, with a male-female relationship 1:4. Of the analyzed samples, five patients presented positive results in the mentioned technique, who were the 80% of the female gender. And the population with the higher number of cases with positive results were Los Ríos, Guayas and Esmeraldas. The patients who were transplanted due to acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoma with leukemization to acute lymphoblastic leukemia had positive results for active infection by CMV, 80% and 20%, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of CMV in children who received bone marrow transplantation by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction was of 13%, higher in the female gender. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2015;6(1:53-59 KEYWORDS Cytomegalovirus; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Transplant Recipients; Polymerase Chain Reaction.

  18. Evaluation of Adverse Events Noted in Children Receiving Continuous Infusions of Dexmedetomidine in the Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey, Brooke L.; Harrison, Donald L.; Gormley, Andrew K.; Johnson, Peter N.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Dexmedetomidine is an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist with sedative and analgesic effects in mechanically ventilated adults and children. Safety and efficacy data are limited in children. The purpose of this study is to retrospectively identify the incidence and types of adverse events noted in children receiving continuous infusions of dexmedetomidine and evaluate potential risk factors for adverse events. METHODS Between July 1, 2006, and July 31, 2007, data were collected on all children (< 18 years) who received continuous infusions of dexmedetomidine. Data collection included demographics, dexmedetomidine regimen, and type/number of adverse events. The primary endpoint was the total number of adverse events noted, including: transient hypertension, hypotension, neurological manifestations, apnea, and bradycardia. Secondary endpoints included categorization of each type of adverse event and an assessment of risk factors. A logistic regression model was used to assess the relationship of adverse events with independent variables including length of ICU stay, cumulative dose, peak infusion rate, duration of therapy, PRISM III score, and bolus dose. RESULTS Thirty-six patients received dexmedetomidine representing 41 infusions. The median age was 16 months (range, 0.1–204 months) and median PRISM III score was 2 (range, 0–18). Eighteen (43.9%) patients received a bolus dose of dexmedetomidine. The median cumulative dose (mcg/kg) and peak dose (mcg/kg/hr) were 8.5 (range, 2.2–193.7) and 0.5 (range, 0.2–0.7), respectively. Dexmedetomidine was continued for a median of 20 (range, 3–263) hours. Six (14.6%) patients were slowly tapered off the continuous infusions. Twenty-one adverse events were noted in 17 patients, including 4 neurologic manifestations. Fourteen patients required interventions for adverse events. ICU length of stay was the only independent risk factor (p=0.036) for development of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS Several potential

  19. Trained, generalized, and collateral behavior changes of preschool children receiving gross-motor skills training.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, K C; Holborn, S W

    1986-01-01

    Three preschool children participated in a behavioral training program to improve their gross-motor skills. Ten target behaviors were measured in the training setting to assess direct effects of the program. Generalization probes for two gross-motor behaviors, one fine-motor skill, and two social behaviors were conducted in other settings. Results indicated that the training program improved the gross-motor skills trained and that improvements sometimes generalized to other settings. Contrary...

  20. PLASMA AND ERYTHROCYTE NITRIC OXIDE LEVELS IN EPILEPTIC CHILDREN RECEIVING LONG-TERM SODIUM VALPROATE THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZEROL, Elif; ÖZEROL, İbrahim; Aslan, Mehmet; GÜLEÇ, Mukaddes; YAKINCI, Cengiz; AKYOL, ÖMER

    2003-01-01

    Valproate (VPA) is a widely used drug as the first-line treatment for epilepsy in children. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important intercellular physiological messenger capable of evoking a number of cellular responses. It is generally believed that the erytrocyte membrane is highly permeable to NO. It has been claimed that VPA may show its antiepileptic effect throughout NO. Therefore, the aim of our study were to evaluate whether differences exist in the plasma and erythrocyte NO concentrati...

  1. Parent Perceptions of Care Received by Children With an Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Sarah; McCloskey, Cynthia Ricci

    2016-01-01

    Research in the post-genomic era has provided substantial contributions toward identification of medical, genetic and environmental heritability factors associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A specific etiology related to the diagnosis remains unclear, although prevalence statistics continue to rise with profound impact on families and their primary care providers (PCPs). Support professionals encounter significant challenges delivering comprehensive management for this complex neurobehavioral and developmental disorder. Children with ASD experience significantly higher risk for unmet healthcare needs, and parents report less satisfaction with their care although current literature does not fully explain why this issue persists. This study sought parent insight for the missing answers needed to inform practice. Eleven parents of children with an ASD participated in the study. Parent perceptions of care were examined utilizing Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) and the Measure of Process of Care (MPOC-20) to illuminate and describe their lived experiences raising children with ASD, and interactions with their PCPs. Most parents utilized their child's PCP for general health maintenance, and many felt their PCP was unable to manage issues specifically related to their child's ASD. Most did not have an expectation for support with behavioral management in the home and school setting or identification of community and mental health resources, although many struggled with unaddressed needs in both of these realms. Utilizing parent perceptions to highlight practice deficiencies can build a foundation for care models that are more comprehensive and family centered. PMID:26724967

  2. Carnitine levels and cardiac functions in children with solid malignancies receiving doxorubicin therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant Khositseth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Previous studies demonstrated l-carnitine decreasing doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Our objectives were to study carnitine levels and cardiac functions in children treated with doxorubicin and the effect of short-term l-carnitine supplements. Materials and Methods: Serial carnitine levels and cardiac functions were obtained in children with newly diagnosed solid malignancies before doxorubicin, after cumulative doses of ≥150 mg/m 2 and ≥300 mg/m 2 , respectively. Oral l-carnitine 100 mg/kg/day for 3 days were given to the children treated with doxorubicin at cumulative doses of ≥150 mg/m 2 and ≥300 mg/m 2 . Carnitine levels and cardiac functions were also obtained in those children before and after short-term oral l-carnitine at each cumulative dose of doxorubicin. Results: Five children (3 females, median age of 9.1 years (range 1.5-13 years with newly diagnosed solid malignancies were enrolled in the study. Free carnitine (FC tended to decrease while acyl-carnitine (AC increased making AC/FC ratio increased after cumulative dose of ≥150 and ≥300 mg/m 2 but the statistics was not significant. Left ventricular (LV systolic function was not significantly changed. Interestingly, LV global function (LV myocardial performance index was significantly increased after 150 mg/m 2 (median 0.39, 0.27-0.51 and 300 mg/m 2 (median 0.46, 0.27-0.50 when compared to baseline (median 0.28, 0.14-0.48 (P=0.05. Carnitine levels and cardiac functions were not significantly changed after oral l-carnitine supplement at cumulative dose of ≥150 mg/m 2 (n=6 and ≥300 mg/m 2 (n=9. Conclusions: Carnitine levels tended to decrease after doxorubicin treatment. LV global dysfunction was documented early after doxorubicin. However, short-term l-carnitine supplement did not improve cardiac function.

  3. Trends in Genotypic HIV-1 Antiretroviral Resistance between 2006 and 2012 in South African Patients Receiving First- and Second-Line Antiretroviral Treatment Regimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert U Van Zyl

    Full Text Available South Africa's national antiretroviral (ARV treatment program expanded in 2010 to include the nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT inhibitors (NRTI tenofovir (TDF for adults and abacavir (ABC for children. We investigated the associated changes in genotypic drug resistance patterns in patients with first-line ARV treatment failure since the introduction of these drugs, and protease inhibitor (PI resistance patterns in patients who received ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r-containing therapy.We analysed ARV treatment histories and HIV-1 RT and protease mutations in plasma samples submitted to the Tygerberg Academic Hospital National Health Service Laboratory.Between 2006 and 2012, 1,667 plasma samples from 1,416 ARV-treated patients, including 588 children and infants, were submitted for genotypic resistance testing. Compared with 720 recipients of a d4T or AZT-containing first-line regimen, the 153 recipients of a TDF-containing first-line regimen were more likely to have the RT mutations K65R (46% vs 4.0%; p<0.001, Y115F (10% vs. 0.6%; p<0.001, L74VI (8.5% vs. 1.8%; p<0.001, and K70EGQ (7.8% vs. 0.4% and recipients of an ABC-containing first-line regimen were more likely to have K65R (17% vs 4.0%; p<0.001, Y115F (30% vs 0.6%; p<0.001, and L74VI (56% vs 1.8%; p<0.001. Among the 490 LPV/r recipients, 55 (11% had ≥1 LPV-resistance mutations including 45 (9.6% with intermediate or high-level LPV resistance. Low (20 patients and intermediate (3 patients darunavir (DRV cross resistance was present in 23 (4.6% patients.Among patients experiencing virological failure on a first-line regimen containing two NRTI plus one NNRTI, the use of TDF in adults and ABC in children was associated with an increase in four major non- thymidine analogue mutations. In a minority of patients, LPV/r-use was associated with intermediate or high-level LPV resistance with predominantly low-level DRV cross-resistance.

  4. The Development of Cognitive, Language, and Cultural Skills from Age 3 to 6: A Comparison between Children of Turkish Origin and Children of Native-Born German Parents and the Role of Immigrant Parents' Acculturation to the Receiving Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Birgit; Klein, Oliver; Biedinger, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the longitudinal development of differences in academic skills between children of Turkish origin and children of native-born German parents from age 3 to 6 in Germany with a focus on the role of immigrant parents' acculturation to the receiving society. Growth curve models show that Turkish-origin children start with lower…

  5. The feasibility of implementing a point-of-use micronutrient fortification among African pre-school children : a pilot study / Ogunlade, Adebayo Olakunle

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunlade, Adebayo Olakunle

    2009-01-01

    Background The high prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies among South African preschool children reinforces the need for an intensified micronutrient malnutrition control strategy targeting children at home or in school. The use of recently developed micronutrient powders also known as "in-home fortification" or "point-of-use fortification" can be an effective long-term, sustainable approach in improving early childhood nutrition and cognitive developmental potential. However, before em...

  6. What the Face and Body Reveal: In-Group Emotion Effects and Stereotyping of Emotion in African American and European American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuminello, Elizabeth R.; Davidson, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether 3- to 7-year-old African American and European American children's assessment of emotion in face-only, face + body, and body-only photographic stimuli was affected by in-group emotion recognition effects and racial or gender stereotyping of emotion. Evidence for racial in-group effects was found, with European American…

  7. Neighborhood Violence and Psychosocial Adjustment in Low-Income Urban African American Children: Physical Symptoms as a Marker of Child Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah J.; Foster, Sarah; Forehand, Greg; O'Connell, Cara

    2005-01-01

    We examined the association between neighborhood violence and three domains of psychosocial adjustment in low-income, urban African American children: internalizing, externalizing, and physical symptoms. Based on anecdotal and empirical evidence, it was hypothesized that, relative to internalizing and externalizing problems, a stronger association…

  8. Association of Neuroantibodies(NAB) with Glutathione-S-Tranferase(GST) Isozyme Polymorphisms(SNP) in African-American Children with Heavy Metal Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymorphisms in GST isozymes have implications in heavy metal accumulation, neurodegeneration, and immune-mediated disease. Blood cell DNA and sera from 131 African-American children were used to determine GST Pi [rs947895 (C>A), rs17593068 (G>T), rs6591256 (A>G), rs187...

  9. Exploring Resilience in African American Single Mothers of Children with Disabilities and Its Impact on Their Engagement in the IEP Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple-Journiette, Cheryl Elaine

    2011-01-01

    The construct of resilience has been defined in the research in various ways and in specific and broad terms. In this qualitative study, the resilience process was specifically explored in African American single mothers of children with disabilities as they developed their capacity to rebound from adversity, adapted to having a child with a…

  10. Antibody responses to Hepatitis B and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines in children who received chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Santana Viana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate viral vaccine antibody levels in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after chemotherapy and after vaccine booster doses. METHODS: Antibody levels against hepatitis B, rubella, measles and mumps vaccine antigens were evaluated in 33 children after completing chemotherapy (before and after vaccine booster doses and the results were compared to the data of 33 healthy children matched for gender, age and social class. RESULTS: After chemotherapy, 75.9%, 67.9%, 59.3% and 51.7% of the patients showed low antibody titers that would be unlikely to protect against exposure to measles, rubella, hepatitis B and mumps, respectively. After receiving a vaccine booster dose for these antigens the patients had high antibody levels consistent with potential protection against measles, mumps and hepatitis B, but not against rubella. CONCLUSION: Extra doses of measles-mumps-rubella plus hepatitis B vaccines are recommended in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients submitted to treatment after hematologic recovery. After this, viral vaccine antibody levels should be verified to define the individual's protective status.

  11. Removing Obstacles for African American English-Speaking Children through Greater Understanding of Language Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Barbara Zurer; Conner, Tracy; Jackson, Janice E.

    2013-01-01

    Language difference among speakers of African American English (AAE) has often been considered language deficit, based on a lack of understanding about the AAE variety. Following Labov (1972), Wolfram (1969), Green (2002, 2011), and others, we define AAE as a complex rule-governed linguistic system and briefly discuss language structures that it…

  12. Early Childhood Inclusion: A Silver Lining in the Dark Clouds for African Immigrant Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbenyega, Joseph; Peers, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This article presents preliminary findings of an ongoing study that attempts to gauge the level of access to and support for early childhood education and care programs for sub Saharan African immigrant families living in Melbourne Australia. Using the Australian Early Years Learning Framework as a guide, we explored 30 parents' perception of…

  13. Socioeconomic status and the prevalence of fever in children under age five: evidence from four sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novignon Jacob

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of fevers remains enormous in sub-Saharan Africa. While several efforts at reducing the burden of fevers have been made at the macro level, the relationship between socioeconomic status and fever prevalence has been inconclusive at the household and individual levels. The purpose of this study was to examine how individual and household socioeconomic status influences the prevalence of fever among children under age five in four sub-Saharan African countries. Methods The study used data from the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS from Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Sierra Leone with a total of 38,990 children below age five. A multi-level random effects logistic model was fitted to examine the socioeconomic factors that influence the prevalence of fever in the two weeks preceding the survey. Data from the four countries were also combined to estimate this relationship, after country-specific analysis. Results The results show that children from wealthier households reported lower prevalence of fever in Ghana, Nigeria and Kenya. Result from the combined dataset shows that children from wealthier households were less likely to report fever. In general, vaccination against fever-related diseases and the use of improved toilet facility reduces fever prevalence. The use of bed nets by children and mothers did not show consistent relationship across the countries. Conclusion Poverty does not only influence prevalence of fever at the macro level as shown in other studies but also the individual and household levels. Policies directed towards preventing childhood fevers should take a close account of issues of poverty alleviation. There is also the need to ensure that prevention and treatment mechanisms directed towards fever related diseases (such as malaria, pneumonia, measles, diarrhoea, polio, tuberculosis etc. are accessible and effectively used.

  14. Detection of TT Virus Among Thalassaemic Children With Chronic Viral Hepatitis B and C Receiving Irradiated and Non Irradiated RBCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TTV was first identified in the serum of a patient with post transfusion hepatitis of unknown etiology in 1997.As a consequence of the high prevalence of TTV in blood donors, thalassemia patients frequently acquire various genotypes of this virus through therapeutic blood transfusions.TTV as a cause of chronic hepatitis has not yet determined . Ten healthy and twenty-eight poly-transfused thalassemia children were evolved in this study where ten patients were receiving irradiated RBCs and eighteen receiving non irradiated ones.TTV was detected in serum samples by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using TTV-specific primer. Transaminases levels, hepatitis B and C virus markers were interpreted for possible association with TTV infection. As a result, TTV was found in 50% of thalassemia patients and in 20 % of the controls. Among thalassemia patients, isolated HBsAG, isolated HCV-AB, HBsAG and TTV-DNA and HCV-AB and TTV-DNA distributions were: 6 (21.43%) ,8 ( 28.57%) , 4 ( 14.29%) and 10 (35.7%) respectively. Regarding thalassemia patients receiving irradiated RBCs, the frequency of viral infections were 8(80%), 2(20%) and 0% for TTV co-infections, isolated HBV and isolated HCV, respectively. On the other hand, the prevalence of viral infections among patients receiving non irradiated RBCs were 6(33.3%), 4(22.2%) and 8(44.5%) for TTV co-infection, isolated HBV and isolated HCV, respectively. These data may give evidence that radiation raises the levels of blood safety especially regarding HCV. Furthermore, liver transaminase levels were significantly higher in all patients versus the controls, meanwhile, transaminase values were not different in HBsAG-positive subjects as compared with subjects who had both HBsAG and TTV-DNA positive. Also, there was no significant difference between isolated HCV infection and HCV and TTV co-infection. So, no convincing evidence was found to support TTV involvement in the D. F. EL-MAGHRABY, et al. / J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci

  15. Perceived and desired weight, weight related eating and exercising behaviours, and advice received from parents among thin, overweight, obese or normal weight Australian children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Nancy K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thin children are less muscular, weaker, less active, and have lower performance in measures of physical fitness than their normal weight peers. Thin children are also more frequently subjected to teasing and stigmatization. Little is known about thin children's weight perceptions, desired weight and attitudes and behaviours towards food and exercise. The study aimed to compare perceived weight status, desired weight, eating and exercise behaviours and advice received from parents among thin, overweight, obese or normal weight Australian children and adolescents. Methods The sample included 8550 school children aged 6 to 18 years selected from every state and territory of Australia. The children were weighed, measured and classified as thin, normal, overweight or obese using international standards. The main outcome measures were perceived and desired weight, weight related eating and exercising behaviours, and advice received from parents. Results The distribution of weight status was - thin 4.4%; normal weight 70.7%; overweight 18.3%; and obese 6.6%. Thin children were significantly shorter than normal weight, overweight or obese children and they were also more likely to report regularly consuming meals and snacks. 57.4% of thin children, 83.1% of normal weight children, 63.7% of overweight and 38.3% of obese children perceived their weight as "about right". Of the thin children, 53.9% wanted to be heavier, 36.2% wanted to stay the same weight, and 9.8% wanted to weigh less. Thin children were significantly less likely than obese children to respond positively to statements such as "I am trying to get fitter" or "I need to get more exercise." Parents were significantly less likely to recommend exercise for thin children compared with other weight groups. Conclusions Thin children, as well as those who are overweight or obese, are less likely than normal weight children to consider their weight "about right'. Thin children

  16. Vitamin A supplementation in iodine-deficient African children decreases thyrotropin stimulation of the thyroid and reduces the goiter rate 1-3

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, M B; Jooste, P.L.; Mabapa, N.S.; S. Schoeman; Biebinger, R; Mushaphi, L.F.; Mbhenyane, X.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Vitamin A (VA) deficiency (VAD) and iodine deficiency (ID) often coexist in children in Africa. VAD may affect thyroid function and the response to iodine prophylaxis. Objective: The aim was to investigate the effects of supplementation with iodine or VA alone, and in combination, in children with concurrent VAD and ID. Design: A 6-mo randomized, double-blind, 2 x 2 intervention trial was conducted in 5¿14 y-old South African children (n = 404), who, on average, had mild-to-modera...

  17. Fine motor skills in South African children with symptoms of ADHD: influence of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Anneke

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motor problems, often characterised as clumsiness or poor motor coordination, have been associated with ADHD in addition to the main symptom groups of inattention, impulsiveness, and overactivity. The problems addressed in this study were: (1 Are motor problems associated with ADHD symptoms, also in African cultures? (2 Are there differences in motor skills among the subtypes with ADHD symptoms? (3 Are there gender differences? (4 Is there an effect of age? (5 Are there differences in performance between the dominant and non-dominant hand? Method A total of 528 children (264 classified as having symptoms of ADHD and 264 matched comparisons of both genders and from seven different South African ethnic groups participated in the study. They were assessed with three simple, easy to administer instruments which measure various functions of motor speed and eye-hand coordination: The Grooved Pegboard, the Maze Coordination Task, and the Finger Tapping Test. The results were analysed as a function of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance. Results The findings indicate that children with symptoms of ADHD performed significantly poorer on the Grooved Pegboard and Motor Coordination Task, but not on the Finger Tapping Test than their comparisons without ADHD symptoms. The impairment was most severe for the subtype with symptoms of ADHD-C (combined and less severe for the subtypes with symptoms of ADHD-PI (predominantly inattentive and ADHD-HI (predominantly hyperactive/impulsive. With few exceptions, both genders were equally affected while there were only slight differences in performance between the dominant and non-dominant hand. The deficiencies in motor control were mainly confined to the younger age group (6 – 9 yr. Conclusion An association between the symptoms of ADHD and motor problems was demonstrated in terms of accuracy and speed in fairly complex tasks, but not in simple motor tests of speed. This deficiency is found

  18. Communication dated 10 September 2008 received from the Permanent Mission of Egypt to the Agency concerning the High Level Policy Review Seminar of African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Secretariat has received a communication dated 10 September 2008 from the Permanent Mission of Egypt enclosing the documents of the High Level Policy Review Seminar of the African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) held in Aswan, Egypt on 28-29 November 2007. The communication, and as requested therein, the enclosures containing the Declaration of Aswan, the Aswan Action Plan and the Profile of the Regional Strategic Cooperative Framework (2008-2013) are circulated herewith for information

  19. An open-label trial of enhanced brief interpersonal psychotherapy in depressed mothers whose children are receiving psychiatric treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Holly A; Zuckoff, Allan; Frank, Ellen; Spielvogle, Heather N; Shear, M Katherine; Fleming, M A Dana; Scott, John

    2006-01-01

    Major depression affects one out of five women during her lifetime. Depressed mothers with psychiatrically ill children represent an especially vulnerable population. Challenged by the demands of caring for ill children, these mothers often put their own needs last; consequently, their depressions remain untreated. This population is especially difficult to engage in treatment. We have developed a nine-session intervention, an engagement session followed by eight sessions of brief interpersonal psychotherapy designed to increase maternal participation in their own psychotherapy, resolve symptoms of maternal depression, and enhance relationships (IPT-MOMS). This open-label trial assesses the feasibility and acceptability of providing this treatment to depressed mothers. Thirteen mothers meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depression were recruited from a pediatric mental health clinic where their school-age children were receiving psychiatric treatment. Subjects (mothers) were treated openly with IPT-MOMS. Eighty-five percent (11/13) completed the study. Subjects were evaluated with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and completed self-report measures of quality of life and functioning at three time points: baseline, after treatment completion, and 6-months posttreatment. A signed rank test was used to compare measurement changes between assessment time points. Subjects showed significant improvement from baseline to posttreatment on measures of maternal symptoms and functioning. These gains were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Therapy was well tolerated and accepted by depressed mothers, who are typically difficult to engage in treatment. A high proportion of subjects completed treatment and experienced improvements in functioning. Future randomized clinical trials are needed to establish the efficacy of this approach. PMID:16841341

  20. The Relationship between Types of Rap Music and Memory in African American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Pamela D.

    1998-01-01

    Studied the types of rap music that are most understandable and the age groups most likely to be affected with 30 children, half ages 7 to 9 and the others ages 10 to 12 years. Younger children could not always describe what the music was about, but they did have a general understanding. (SLD)

  1. Helping African American Children Self-Manage Asthma: The Importance of Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Teri

    2011-01-01

    Background: Asthma is the leading cause of chronic illness among children in the United States, with a disproportionately higher incidence among minority children. In an attempt to increase understanding of the factors that may influence self-management of chronic disease, the study examined the relationship between self-efficacy belief and asthma…

  2. Keeping African Masks Real

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  3. Forced expiratory indices in normal black Southern African children aged 6-19 years

    OpenAIRE

    Shamssain, M H

    1991-01-01

    Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory ratio (FEV1/FVC x 100), forced mid expiratory flow (FMF), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were measured in 2000 non-smoking black African schoolchildren aged 6-19 years from Umtata in the Republic of Transkei in Southern Africa. FVC, FEV1, FMF, and PEF were highly correlated with each other and all were highly correlated with age and standing height in both sexes. There was a significant negative corr...

  4. Comparative analysis of iron homeostasis in sub-Saharan African children with sickle cell disease and their unaffected siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma eGomez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential trace element subject to tight regulation to ensure adequate running of biological processes. In sub-Saharan Africa where hemoglobinopathies are common, iron homeostasis is likely to be impaired by these conditions. Here we assessed and compared key serum proteins associated with iron metabolism between sub-Saharan African children with sickle cell disease (SCD and their unaffected siblings. Complete blood counts and serum concentrations of four key proteins involved in iron regulation (ferritin, transferrin, sTfR and hepcidin were measured for 73 children with SCD and 68 healthy siblings in Benin, West Africa. We found significant differences in concentration of transferrin, sTfR and ferritin between the two groups. Hepcidin concentrations were found at unusually high concentrations but did not differ among the two groups. We found a significant negative correlation between hepcidin levels and both MCH and MCV in the SCD group and report that sTfR concentrations show a correlation with MCV and MHC in opposite directions in the two groups. These results highlight the unusually high levels of hepcidin in the Beninese population and the patterns of differential iron homeostasis taking place under sickle cell disease status. These results lay the foundation for a systematic evaluation of the underlying mechanisms deregulating iron homeostasis in populations with SCD or high prevalence of iron deficiency.

  5. The Multidimensional Media Influence Scale: confirmatory factor structure and relationship with body dissatisfaction among African American and Anglo American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kristen

    2009-06-01

    The Multidimensional Media Influence Scale (MMIS; Cusumano & Thompson, 2001). Media influence and body image in 8-11-year-old boys and girls: A preliminary report on the multidimensional media influence scale. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 29, 37-44) is a child-appropriate, 3-factor scale designed to assess perceived media influence on body image. It has been used in studies exploring the relationship between the entire scale as well as its subscales (awareness, internalization, and pressure) and variables related to body image. However, the 3-factor structure of the scale has never been confirmed via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), nor has the scale been evaluated with a racially diverse sample of children. This paper reports the results of CFAs establishing the multidimensionality of the scale and the unidimensionality of its subscales among a sample of 661 girls and boys aged 7-12 years, primarily African American and Anglo American. The pressure factor of the MMIS predicted the idealization of a thinner current (child) and future (adult) body both cross-sectionally and one year later for girls and for Anglo American children. PMID:19447694

  6. Comparisons of complementary feeding indicators among children aged 6-23 months in Anglophone and Francophone West African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Stunting, a consequence of suboptimal complementary feeding practices, continues to be a significant public health problem in West Africa. This paper aimed to compare rates of complementary feeding indicators among children aged 6-23 months between four Anglophone and seven Francophone West African countries. The data used for this study were the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys of the various countries, namely Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone (Anglophone countries), Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal (Francophone countries) conducted between 2006 and 2013. The analyses were limited to last-born children aged 6-23 months and covered 34 999 children: 12 623 in the Anglophone countries and 22 376 children in the Francophone countries. Complementary feeding indicators were examined using the method proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2008. Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among children aged 6-23 months in the Anglophone countries ranged from 55.3% (Liberia) to 72.6% (Ghana). The corresponding rates for the Francophone countries ranged from 29.7% (Mali) to 65.9% (Senegal). The average rate of minimum dietary diversity for the Anglophone countries was 32.0% while that of the Francophone countries was only 10.6%. While the minimum meal frequency rates ranged between 42.0% (Sierra Leone) and 55.3% (Nigeria) for the Anglophone countries, the corresponding rates for the Francophone countries ranged between 25.1% (Mali) and 52.4% (Niger). Both the Anglophone and the Francophone countries reported alarmingly low rates of minimum acceptable diet, with the two groups of countries averaging rates of 19.9% (Anglophone) and 5.5% (Francophone). The rates of all four complementary feeding indicators across all the 11 countries fell short of the WHO's requirement for optimal complementary feeding practices. Intervention studies using cluster-randomised controlled trials are needed in order to improve

  7. Hepcidin is the major predictor of erythrocyte iron incorporation in anemic African children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron supplementation strategies in the developing world remain controversial owing to fears of exacerbating prevalent infectious diseases. Understanding the conditions in which iron will be absorbed and incorporated into erythrocytes is therefore important. We studied Gambian children with either po...

  8. "It’s like Big Mama’s house": Examining Extended Family Influences on the Dietary Behaviors of African American Children

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Natasha A.; Thornton, Rachel L. J.; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Surkan, Pamela J.; Levine, David M.

    2014-01-01

    The family environment plays an important role in influencing children’s dietary behaviors. Traditionally, African American extended family members play a key role in child socialization. We examine the role of extended families in how children are socialized to adopt dietary norms. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 24 individuals across eight family units to elicit information regarding the influences of culture and families on children’s dietary behaviors. Findings sugg...

  9. Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Characteristics of a new Pediatric Formulation of Artemether-Lumefantrine in African Children with Uncomplicated Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria.

    OpenAIRE

    Djimdé, Abdoulaye A.; Tekete, Mamadou; Abdulla, Salim; Lyimo, John; Bassat, Quique; Mandomando, Inacio; Lefèvre, Gilbert; Borrmann, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of a new pediatric formulation of artemether-lumefantrine, dispersible tablet, were determined within the context of a multicenter, randomized, parallel-group study. In an exploratory approach, we compared a new pediatric formulation with the tablet formulation administered crushed in the treatment of African children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Patients were randomized to 3 different dosing groups (weights of 5 to

  10. Efficacy of a Novel Sublingual Spray Formulation of Artemether in African Children with Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Bendel, Daryl; Rulisa, Stephen; Ansah, Patrick; Sirima, Sodiomon

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of sublingual artemether (ArTiMist) was investigated in two studies. In study 1, 31 children were randomized to sublingual artemether (n = 16) or intravenous (i.v.) quinine (n = 15). In study 2, 151 children were randomized to sublingual artemether (n = 77) or i.v. quinine (n = 74). For both studies, patients weighed between 5 and 15 kg and had either severe or complicated malaria based on WHO criteria, or they had uncomplicated malaria but were unable to tolerate oral medication...

  11. Caregiver perceptions and motivation for disclosing or concealing the diagnosis of HIV infection to children receiving HIV care in Mbarara, Uganda: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Kiwanuka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disclosure of the diagnosis of HIV to HIV-infected children is challenging for caregivers. Despite current recommendations, data suggest that levels of disclosure of HIV status to HIV-infected children receiving care in resource-limited settings are very low. Few studies describe the disclosure process for children in these settings, particularly the motivators, antecedent goals, and immediate outcomes of disclosure to HIV-infected children. This study examined caregivers' perception of the disclosure concept prior to disclosure, their motivation towards or away from disclosure, and their short- and long-term intentions for disclosure to their HIV-infected children. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted with primary caregivers of 40 HIV-infected children (ages 5-15 years who were receiving HIV care but did not know their HIV status. RESULTS: Caregivers of HIV-infected children mainly perceived disclosure as a single event rather than a process of gradual delivery of information about the child's illness. They viewed disclosure as potentially beneficial both to children and themselves, as well as an opportunity to explain the parents' role in the transmission of HIV to the children. Caregivers desired to personally conduct the disclosure; however, most reported being over-whelmed with fear of negative outcomes and revealed a lack of self-efficacy towards managing the disclosure process. Consequently, most cope by deception to avoid or delay disclosure until they perceive their own readiness to disclose. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions for HIV disclosure should consider that caregivers may desire to be directly responsible for disclosure to children under their care. They, however, need to be empowered with practical skills to recognize opportunities to initiate the disclosure process early, as well as supported to manage it in a phased, developmentally appropriate manner. The potential role for peer counselors in the disclosure

  12. Witchcraft Branding and the Abuse of African Children in the UK: Causes, Effects and Professional Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedam, Prospera

    2014-01-01

    The branding of children as "witches", capable of harming others is a widespread practice in some countries in Africa and across the world. There is evidence of this within specific communities and faith groups; however, the extent to which this phenomenon occurs in England is unclear as is the response by childcare professionals,…

  13. Bender-Gestalt Performance of Sierra Leone, West African Children from Four Sub-Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Sharon K.

    1982-01-01

    The quality of the Bender-Gestalt performance of normal class-six children in four Sierra Leone subcultures with varying degrees of modernization showed the quality of the reproductions of the most modern subcultures to be significantly higher. The interaction of gender and the parallel to adult divisions of labor are discussed. (Author/CM)

  14. Before the Rescue Squad Arrived: Community Sponsorship of Exceptional African-American Children in Poor Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfield, John H. II

    1999-01-01

    Investigated the social origins of black physicians from poor, rural, southern communities, examining contextual factors that helped explain their great academic and professional success as young adults. Argues that it was the community that identified and nurtured these gifted children, thus making it possible for them to attend college and…

  15. South African AIDS Orphans: Examining Assumptions around Vulnerability from the Perspective of Rural Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Patricia C.

    2006-01-01

    The article examines assumptions circulating in development or interventionist discourse concerning the vulnerabilities of AIDS orphans in South Africa. Ongoing ethnographic research, begun in March 2003, with 31 rural children and youth between the ages of 14 and 22, in Magangangozi, KwaZulu-Natal, points to the ways in which global terms may…

  16. Unique and protective contributions of parenting and classroom processes to the adjustment of African American children living in single-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Dorsey, Shannon; Forehand, Rex; Armistead, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    The unique contributions that parenting processes (high levels of monitoring with a supportive, involved mother-child relationship) and classroom processes (high levels of organization, rule clarity, and student involvement) make to children's self-regulation and adjustment were examined with a sample of 277 single-parent African American families. A multi-informant design involving mothers, teachers, and 7- to 15-year-old children was used. Structural equation modeling indicated that parenting and classroom processes contributed uniquely to children's adjustment through the children's development of self-regulation. Additional analyses suggested that classroom processes can serve a protective-stabilizing function when parenting processes are compromised, and vice versa. Further research is needed to examine processes in both family and school contexts that promote child competence and resilience. PMID:14717257

  17. Risking it for love: romantic relationships and early pubertal development confer risk for later disruptive behavior disorders in African-American girls receiving psychiatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javdani, Shabnam; Rodriguez, Erin M; Nichols, Sara R; Emerson, Erin; Donenberg, Geri R

    2014-11-01

    Disruptive behavior problems (DBP) represent a growing concern for young women (e.g., Snyder and Sickmund, 2006), but gender-specific investigations have been traditionally underrepresented in this area. The purpose of this study is to examine the associations among gender-relevant risk factors for DBP among 217 African American girls in psychiatric care. African American girls, 12-16 years old (M = 14.6; SD = 1.2), and their primary female caregivers (N = 254) were recruited from outpatient mental health clinics and reported on girls' DBP, heterosexual dating experiences (romantic and sexual), peer relationships, pubertal development, and self-silencing at baseline, 6-, and 12 months. Structural Equation Modeling examined evidence for full versus mediated (via self-silencing) models and the structural relationships (direct and indirect) among key study variables. Results suggest that the full model was a significantly better fit than the mediated model as indicated by a Chi-squared difference test (p romantic dating experiences and lower quality peer relationships at baseline predicted DBP at 12 months. Sexual dating experiences were more strongly linked with DBP at 12 months for early maturing compared to average or later maturing girls. Indirect effects analyses suggested that girls' suppression of relational needs, assessed through a measure of self-silencing, explained the association between peer relationships and DBP. Findings highlight the importance of the relational context for girls' DBP, with treatment implications supporting relationship-based models of care, early intervention, and skill building around negotiating needs with peers and partners. PMID:24748499

  18. Benzodiazepine prescribing in children under 15 years of age receiving free medical care on the General Medical Services scheme in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, K

    2015-06-01

    To examine the prevalence and secular trends in benzodiazepine (BZD) prescribing in the Irish paediatric population. In addition, we examine coprescribing of antiepileptic, antipsychotic, antidepressant and psychostimulants in children receiving BZD drugs and compare BZD prescribing in Ireland to that in other European countries.

  19. The VERB campaign's strategy for reaching African-American, Hispanic, Asian, and American Indian children and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhman, Marian; Berkowitz, Judy M; Wong, Faye L; Prosper, Erika; Gray, Michael; Prince, David; Yuen, Jeannie

    2008-06-01

    The VERB campaign promoted physical activity to U.S. children aged 9-13 years (tweens) by surrounding them with appealing messages that were associated with the VERB brand and tag line It's what you do! To maximize the impact of the campaign, VERB had a two-level strategy for its marketing. One level was designed to reach a general audience of tweens (i.e., most tweens who use mainstream media). The second level was designed specifically to reach four racial or ethnic audiences: African Americans, Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians as an augmentation to the first level. This article focuses on VERB's market segmentation strategy and reports how messages for the general audience were adapted to reach specific racial or ethnic segments of the U.S. population. Findings are reported from qualitative studies conducted with tweens and the parents of tweens from these ethnic groups, and the marketing strategies used to reach each ethnic group and the results of evaluations of those strategies are also described. PMID:18471600

  20. Extended Malaria Parasite Clearance Time in African Children Following Artemisinincombination Therapy Enhances Transmission to Anopheles Mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Beshir Khalid B; Sawa Patrick; Drakeley Chris J; Baidjoe Amrish Y; Mweresa Collins K; Yussuf Rahma U; Omar Sabah A; Hermsen Cornelus C; Shekalaghe Seif A; Schallig Henk DFH; Sauerwein Robert W; Sutherland Colin J; Hallett Rachel L; Bousema Teun

    2012-01-01

    Artemisinin resistance was recently shown to have spread or emerged on the Thailand/Myanmar border. Evidence is accumulating that the parasite clearance time after artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is increasing in settings in Asia and Africa. It is currently unknown if an extended parasite clearance time after ACTs has consequences for the individual patient or confers a higher malaria transmission potential. 298 children in Mbita, Western Kenya, with uncomplicated falciparum malar...

  1. Risk factors for overweight and overfatness in rural South African children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Craig, E; Reilly, J J; Bland, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine risk factors for overweight/overfatness in children and adolescents from rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods Anthropometric data were collected from a cross-sectional sample (n = 1519, ages 7, 11 and 15 years) and linked to demographic information (n = 1310 and n = 1317 in overweight and overfat analyses, respectively). Candidate risk factors for overweight/overfatness were identified and tested for associations with overweight (BMI-for-age >+1SD, WHO reference)...

  2. Risk factors for overweight and overfatness in rural South African children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Craig, E; Reilly, J J; Bland, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background To determine risk factors for overweight/overfatness in children and adolescents from rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods Anthropometric data were collected from a cross-sectional sample (n = 1519, ages 7, 11 and 15 years) and linked to demographic information (n = 1310 and n = 1317 in overweight and overfat analyses, respectively). Candidate risk factors for overweight/overfatness were identified and tested for associations with overweight (BMI-for-age >+1SD, WHO ref...

  3. Hepcidin is the major predictor of erythrocyte iron incorporation in anemic African children

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Iron supplementation strategies in the developing world remain controversial because of fears of exacerbating prevalent infectious diseases. Understanding the conditions in which iron will be absorbed and incorporated into erythrocytes is therefore important. We studied Gambian children with either postmalarial or nonmalarial anemia, who were given oral iron supplements daily for 30 days. Supplements administered on days 1 and 15 contained the stable iron isotopes 57Fe and 58Fe, respectively,...

  4. Between Innocence and Cold-blooded Killing: Children as Soldiers in Two Contemporary African Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehan M.Anwer Deeb

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available When I began to translate the US Department reports on trafficking-in-Persons six years ago, I was horrified to learn that slavery still exists, and appalled by the fact that very young children are being kidnapped, stolen, mutilated, tricked into leaving their friends and families, and forced to bear arms in conflicts around the globe. A special feature of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries was the marked increase in children being made into soldiers or slave workers. This research does not deal with general child labor problems, but it deals with a more prevalent topic of concern in the international arena and a well-publicized issue that has obtained greater media coverage in recent years, children as soldiers, as preys and predators. They are not forced to pick crops or harvest cotton in the open air, they rather hold guns and witness the horrors of crossfire that would bring nightmares to grown men in a lifetime; they pick the harvest of fear and death. They endure the evils of being forced to become combatants long before their minds and bodies are prepared for the rigors and stresses of war. They are exposed to extreme violence which they have both experienced and inflicted upon others. They find themselves dragged in a psychotic war that physically, mentally and emotionally kills them.

  5. The prevalence of stunting, overweight and obesity, and metabolic disease risk in rural South African children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunger David B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low- to middle-income countries are undergoing a health transition with non-communicable diseases contributing substantially to disease burden, despite persistence of undernutrition and infectious diseases. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and patterns of stunting and overweight/obesity, and hence risk for metabolic disease, in a group of children and adolescents in rural South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional growth survey was conducted involving 3511 children and adolescents 1-20 years, selected through stratified random sampling from a previously enumerated population living in Agincourt sub-district, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight and waist circumference were taken using standard procedures. Tanner pubertal assessment was conducted among adolescents 9-20 years. Growth z-scores were generated using 2006 WHO standards for children up to five years and 1977 NCHS/WHO reference for older children. Overweight and obesity for those 2 for overweight and obesity respectively were used for those ≥ 18 years. Waist circumference cut-offs of ≥ 94 cm for males and ≥ 80 cm for females and waist-to-height ratio of 0.5 for both sexes were used to determine metabolic disease risk in adolescents. Results About one in five children aged 1-4 years was stunted; one in three of those aged one year. Concurrently, the prevalence of combined overweight and obesity, almost non-existent in boys, was substantial among adolescent girls, increasing with age and reaching approximately 20-25% in late adolescence. Central obesity was prevalent among adolescent girls, increasing with sexual maturation and reaching a peak of 35% at Tanner Stage 5, indicating increased risk for metabolic disease. Conclusions The study highlights that in transitional societies, early stunting and adolescent obesity may co-exist in the same socio-geographic population. It is likely that this profile

  6. Measuring coverage in MNCH: population HIV-free survival among children under two years of age in four African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S A Stringer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Population-based evaluations of programs for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT are scarce. We measured PMTCT service coverage, regimen use, and HIV-free survival among children ≤24 mo of age in Cameroon, Côte D'Ivoire, South Africa, and Zambia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We randomly sampled households in 26 communities and offered participation if a child had been born to a woman living there during the prior 24 mo. We tested consenting mothers with rapid HIV antibody tests and tested the children of seropositive mothers with HIV DNA PCR or rapid antibody tests. Our primary outcome was 24-mo HIV-free survival, estimated with survival analysis. In an individual-level analysis, we evaluated the effectiveness of various PMTCT regimens. In a community-level analysis, we evaluated the relationship between HIV-free survival and community PMTCT coverage (the proportion of HIV-exposed infants in each community that received any PMTCT intervention during gestation or breastfeeding. We also compared our community coverage results to those of a contemporaneous study conducted in the facilities serving each sampled community. Of 7,985 surveyed children under 2 y of age, 1,014 (12.7% were HIV-exposed. Of these, 110 (10.9% were HIV-infected, 851 (83.9% were HIV-uninfected, and 53 (5.2% were dead. HIV-free survival at 24 mo of age among all HIV-exposed children was 79.7% (95% CI: 76.4, 82.6 overall, with the following country-level estimates: Cameroon (72.6%; 95% CI: 62.3, 80.5, South Africa (77.7%; 95% CI: 72.5, 82.1, Zambia (83.1%; 95% CI: 78.4, 86.8, and Côte D'Ivoire (84.4%; 95% CI: 70.0, 92.2. In adjusted analyses, the risk of death or HIV infection was non-significantly lower in children whose mothers received a more complex regimen of either two or three antiretroviral drugs compared to those receiving no prophylaxis (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.34, 1.06. Risk of death was not different for children whose

  7. Parent Mentoring and Child Anticipatory Guidance with Latino and African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Michaela L. Z.

    2009-01-01

    Poor health and developmental outcomes for children are linked to scarcity of economic resources, various barriers in the delivery of health services, and inadequate parenting. To mitigate such adverse effects and address the needs of 50 high-risk, low-income Latino and African American families receiving well-baby care at an urban primary care…

  8. High-level cross-resistance to didanosine observed in South African children failing an abacavir- or stavudine-based 1st-line regimen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Steegen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The knowledge-base of emerging drug resistance profiles in children exposed to abacavir-based antiretroviral regimens in South Africa is very limited. This study investigated the suitability of didanosine-based 2nd-line regimens for children in the context of antiretroviral drug resistance patterns emerging after 1st-line virologic failure. METHODS: A retrospective dataset of 354 antiretroviral drug resistant genotypes from children failing either abacavir (n = 81 or stavudine (n = 273 based 1st-line regimens, was analysed. Samples were sent to the HIV genotyping laboratory at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, for routine testing. Pol sequences were submitted to the Stanford HIV drug resistance database for genotypic predictions. RESULTS: Children were exposed to abacavir or stavudine-based 1st-line regimens for an average of 21 and 36 months, respectively. The frequency of reduced susceptibility to didanosine was substantial in the abacavir-exposed group (69.1%.This reduced susceptibility was commonly attributed to L74V/I (n = 44 and to a lesser extent K65R (n = 10 mutations. Didanosine resistance was observed in 43.2% of patients exposed to stavudine-based regimens. In contrast, most children remained susceptible to stavudine regardless of exposure to abacavir (77.8% or stavudine (74.7%. At least 80% of children remained susceptible to zidovudine irrespective of stavudine or abacavir-exposure. The presence of the K65R mutation was more common after abacavir pressure (12.3% vs 1.8%. CONCLUSION: Analysis revealed that didanosine-based 2nd-line regimens have limitations for South African children, given the high frequency of mutations that confer cross-resistance to didanosine; especially after abacavir-exposure. This data has influenced South African paediatric treatment guidelines, which now recommend zidovudine-based 2nd-line regimens.

  9. Moment-to-moment dynamics of ADHD behaviour in South African children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Anneke

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The behaviour of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is characterized by low predictability of responding. Low behavioural predictability is one way of operationalizing intra-individual ADHD-related variability. ADHD-related variability may be caused by inefficient behavioural selection mechanisms linked to reinforcement and extinction, as suggested by the recently published dynamic developmental theory (DDT of ADHD. DDT argues that ADHD is a basic neurobehavioural disorder, caused by dysfunctioning dopamine systems. For establishing ADHD as a neurobehavioural disorder, findings from studies conducted in Western countries should be replicated in other cultural populations. The present study replicated the study conducted in Norway, with children from the Limpopo province in the Republic of South Africa. Methods Boys and girls, aged 6–9 yr, from seven ethnic groups participated. Scores by teachers on the Disruptive Behavior Disorders rating scale defined participation in either ADHD-hyperactive/impulsive (-HI, ADHD-predominantly inattentive (-PI, or ADHD-combined (-C groups. Children below the 86th percentile were matched on gender and age and comprised the non-ADHD group. The children completed a computerized game-like task where mouse clicks on one of two squares on the screen resulted in delivery of a reinforcer according to a variable interval schedule of reinforcement. Reinforcers were cartoon pictures presented on the screen together with a sound. Predictability of response location and timing were measured in terms of explained variance. Results Overall, the results replicated findings from Norway. Specifically, the ADHD-C group showed significantly lower predictability of responding than the non-ADHD group, while the ADHD-HI and the ADHD-PI groups were in-between. In accordance with the previous study, response location, but not response timing, was a sensitive behavioural measure. There were no

  10. A randomized controlled Phase Ib trial of the malaria vaccine candidate GMZ2 in African children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bélard, Sabine; Issifou, Saadou; Hounkpatin, Aurore B; Schaumburg, Frieder; Ngoa, Ulysse Ateba; Esen, Meral; Fendel, Rolf; de Salazar, Pablo Martinez; Mürbeth, Raymund E; Milligan, Paul; Imbault, Nathalie; Imoukhuede, Egeruan Babatunde; Theisen, Michael; Jepsen, Søren; Noor, Ramadhani A; Okech, Brenda; Kremsner, Peter G; Mordmüller, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    GMZ2 is a fusion protein of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP3) and glutamate rich protein (GLURP) that mediates an immune response against the blood stage of the parasite. Two previous phase I clinical trials, one in naïve European adults and one in malaria-exposed Gabonese ...... adults showed that GMZ2 was well tolerated and immunogenic. Here, we present data on safety and immunogenicity of GMZ2 in one to five year old Gabonese children, a target population for future malaria vaccine efficacy trials.......GMZ2 is a fusion protein of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP3) and glutamate rich protein (GLURP) that mediates an immune response against the blood stage of the parasite. Two previous phase I clinical trials, one in naïve European adults and one in malaria-exposed Gabonese...

  11. Community Violence, Interpartner Conflict, Parenting, and Social Support as Predictors of the Social Competence of African American Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravecz, Linda M.; Koblinsky, Sally A.; Randolph, Suzanne M.

    2008-01-01

    Adopting an ecological framework, this study examines the role of community violence exposure, interpartner conflict, positive parenting, and informal social support in predicting the social skills and behavior problems of low-income African American preschoolers. Participants were 184 African American mothers and female caregivers of Head Start…

  12. First results of phase 3 trial of RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine in African children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agnandji, Selidji Todagbe; Lell, Bertrand; Soulanoudjingar, Solange Solmeheim;

    2011-01-01

    An ongoing phase 3 study of the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of candidate malaria vaccine RTS,S/AS01 is being conducted in seven African countries.......An ongoing phase 3 study of the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of candidate malaria vaccine RTS,S/AS01 is being conducted in seven African countries....

  13. Iodine status of young Burkinabe children receiving small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements and iodised salt: a cluster-randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Sonja Y; Abbeddou, Souheila; Yakes Jimenez, Elizabeth; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Brown, Kenneth H

    2015-12-14

    The objective of the present study was to assess the impact of providing small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) on the I status of young Burkinabe children. In total, thirty-four communities were assigned to intervention (IC) or non-intervention cohorts (NIC). IC children were randomly assigned to receive 20 g lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)/d containing 90 µg I with 0 or 10 mg Zn from 9 to 18 months of age, and NIC children received no SQ-LNS. All the children were exposed to iodised salt through the national salt iodization programme. Spot urinary iodine (UI), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and total thyroxine (T4) in dried blood spots as well as plasma thyroglobulin (Tg) concentrations were assessed at 9 and 18 months of age among 123 IC and fifty-six NIC children. At baseline and at 18 months, UI, TSH and T4 did not differ between cohorts. Tg concentration was higher in the NIC v. IC at baseline, but this difference did not persist at 18 months of age. In both cohorts combined, the geometric mean of UI was 339·2 (95% CI 298·6, 385·2) µg/l, TSH 0·8 (95% CI 0·7, 0·8) mU/l, T4 118 (95 % CI 114, 122) nmol/l and Tg 26·0 (95% CI 24·3, 27·7) µg/l at 18 months of age. None of the children had elevated TSH at 18 months of age. Marginally more children in NIC (8·9%) had low T4 (15 ppm). A reduction of SQ-LNS I content could be considered in settings with similarly successful salt iodisation programmes. PMID:26411504

  14. High rates of virological failure and drug resistance in perinatally HIV-1-infected children and adolescents receiving lifelong antiretroviral therapy in routine clinics in Togo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounerou Salou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antiretroviral treatment (ART has been scaled up over the last decade but compared to adults, children living with HIV are less likely to receive ART. Moreover, children and adolescents are more vulnerable than adults to virological failure (VF and emergence of drug resistance. In this study we determined virological outcome in perinatally HIV-1-infected children and adolescents receiving ART in Togo. Methods: HIV viral load (VL testing was consecutively proposed to all children and adolescents who were on ART for at least 12 months when attending HIV healthcare services for their routine follow-up visit (June to September 2014. Plasma HIV-1 VL was measured using the m2000 RealTime HIV-1 assay (Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA. Genotypic drug resistance was done for all samples with VL>1000 copies/ml. Results and discussion: Among 283 perinatally HIV-1-infected children and adolescents included, 167 (59% were adolescents and 116 (41% were children. The median duration on ART was 48 months (interquartile range: 28 to 68 months. For 228 (80.6%, the current ART combination consisted of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs (zidovudine and lamivudine and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI (nevirapine or efavirenz. Only 28 (9.9% were on a protease inhibitor (PI-based regimen. VL was below the detection limit (i.e. 40 copies/ml for 102 (36%, between 40 and 1000 copies/ml for 35 (12.4% and above 1000 copies/ml for 146 (51.6%. Genotypic drug-resistance testing was successful for 125/146 (85.6%; 110/125 (88.0% were resistant to both NRTIs and NNRTIs, 1/125 (0.8% to NRTIs only, 4/125 (3.2% to NNRTIs only and three harboured viruses resistant to reverse transcriptase and PIs. Overall, 86% (108/125 of children and adolescents experiencing VF and successfully genotyped, corresponding thus to at least 38% of the study population, had either no effective ART or had only a single effective drug in

  15. Lp(a-cholesterol is associated with HDL-cholesterol in overweight and obese African American children and is not an independent risk factor for CVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Sushma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of Lipoprotein (a cholesterol {Lp(a-C}as an additional and/or independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD is not clear. We evaluated the associations between Lp(a-C and other CVD risk factors including plasma lipoprotein concentrations and body fatness in overweight and obese African American children. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was carried out using data from a sample of 121 African American children aged 9-11 years with Body Mass Index (BMI's greater than the 85th percentile. Body height, weight and waist circumference (WC were measured. Fasting plasma concentrations of Lp(a-C, Total cholesterol (TC, High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, Very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C, Intermediate density lipoprotein cholesterol (IDL-C, Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and Triacylglycerides (TAG were analyzed using the vertical auto profile (VAP cholesterol method. Results After adjusting for child age, gender, and pubertal status, Lp(a-C was positively associated with both HDL-C and TC, and negatively associated with VLDL-C and TAG. Including BMIz and WC as additional covariates did not alter the direction of the relationships between Lp(a-C and the other lipoproteins. Finally, after adjusting for the other plasma lipoproteins, Lp(a-C remained strongly associated with HDL-C, whereas the associations of Lp(a-C with the other lipoproteins were not significant when HDL-C was simultaneously included in the regression models. Conclusions Lp(a-C was positively associated with HDL-C and this association is not influenced by other lipoprotein subclasses or by the degree of obesity. We conclude that Lp(a cholesterol is not an independent risk factor for CVD in African American children.

  16. Sociocultural and Socioeconomic Influences on Type 2 Diabetes Risk in Overweight/Obese African-American and Latino-American Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Hasson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. It is unclear whether sociocultural and socioeconomic factors are directly linked to type 2 diabetes risk in overweight/obese ethnic minority children and adolescents. This study examines the relationships between sociocultural orientation, household social position, and type 2 diabetes risk in overweight/obese African-American (n=43 and Latino-American (n=113 children and adolescents. Methods. Sociocultural orientation was assessed using the Acculturation, Habits, and Interests Multicultural Scale for Adolescents (AHIMSA questionnaire. Household social position was calculated using the Hollingshead Two-Factor Index of Social Position. Insulin sensitivity (SI, acute insulin response (AIRG and disposition index (DI were derived from a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT. The relationships between AHIMSA subscales (i.e., integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization, household social position and FSIGT parameters were assessed using multiple linear regression. Results. For African-Americans, integration (integrating their family’s culture with those of mainstream white-American culture was positively associated with AIRG (β=0.27±0.09, r=0.48, P<0.01 and DI (β=0.28±0.09, r=0.55, P<0.01. For Latino-Americans, household social position was inversely associated with AIRG (β=-0.010±0.004, r=-0.19, P=0.02 and DI (β=-20.44±7.50, r=-0.27, P<0.01. Conclusions. Sociocultural orientation and household social position play distinct and opposing roles in shaping type 2 diabetes risk in African-American and Latino-American children and adolescents.

  17. THE USE OF SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE IN ACCELERATING SYMPTOM RELIEF IN ASTHMATIC AND HOUSE DUST MITE ALLERGIC CHILDREN RECEIVING HOUSE DUST MITE IMMUNOTHERAPY: DOUBLE BLIND RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anang Endaryanto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of superoxide dismutase (SOD in lung function (FEV1 reversibility and respiratory symptoms (drug scores, symptoms scores in asthmatic and house dust mite allergic children receiving house dust mites immunotherapy. Methods: Forty subjects aged 6–17 years old with asthma, tested positive for house dust mite allergy on skin prick test, and received immunotherapy were enrolled in this study. All subjects completed clinical based assessments and diary-based assessments for drug and symptom scores. Following a four-week baseline assessment, all subjects were randomized to receive SOD or placebo. Respiratory symptoms (drug and symptoms score and FEV1 were evaluated at the end of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th weeks after randomization. Drug score, symptoms score, and FEV1 reversibility test results were analyzed using a Paired t test and repeated measure of ANOVA. Results: There was a significant difference in drug scores, symptoms score, and FEV1 reversibility test outcomes between SOD and placebo. SOD group showed a significant decrease in all outcome measures compared to those in placebo group. Conclusions: The use of SOD as antioxidants is effective in accelerating symptom relief for children with asthma and house dust mite allergy receiving house dust mite immunotherapy.

  18. NIH Research: Children Research Volunteers Receive Care and Help Advance Knowledge | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hereditary illness found in fewer than 1,000 children worldwide. It used to be a death sentence for kids before they reached age 10. But thanks to her mother, who wouldn’t accept that scenario, at age ...

  19. A randomized controlled trial comparing mandibular local anesthesia techniques in children receiving nitrous oxide-oxygen sedation.

    OpenAIRE

    Naidu, Sinuba; Loughlin, Pat; Coldwell, Susan E.; Noonan, Carolyn J.; Milgrom, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that dental pain control using infiltration/intrapapillary injection was less effective than inferior alveolar block/long buccal infiltration anesthesia in children. A total of 101 healthy children, aged 5-8 years, who had no contraindication for local anesthetic and who needed a pulpotomy treatment and stainless steel crown placement in a lower primary molar were studied. A 2-group randomized blinded controlled design was employed comparing th...

  20. Taking Action Together: A YMCA-based protocol to prevent Type-2 Diabetes in high-BMI inner-city African American children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Rita A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Associated with a tripling in obesity since 1970, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in children has risen 9-10 fold. There is a critical need of protocols for trials to prevent T2DM in children. Methods/Design This protocol includes the theory, development, evaluation components and lessons learned from a novel YMCA-based T2DM prevention intervention designed specifically for high-BMI African American children from disadvantaged, inner-city neighborhoods of Oakland, California. The intervention was developed on the basis of: review of epidemiological and intervention studies of pediatric T2DM; a conceptual theory (social cognitive; a comprehensive examination of health promotion curricula designed for children; consultation with research, clinical experts and practitioners and; input from community partners. The intervention, Taking Action Together, included culturally sensitive and age-appropriate programming on: healthy eating; increasing physical activity and, improving self esteem. Discussion Evaluations completed to date suggest that Taking Action Together may be an effective intervention, and results warrant an expanded evaluation effort. This protocol could be used in other community settings to reduce the risk of children developing T2DM and related health consequences. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01039116.

  1. Measuring coverage in MNCH: challenges in monitoring the proportion of young children with pneumonia who receive antibiotic treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Campbell

    Full Text Available Pneumonia remains a major cause of child death globally, and improving antibiotic treatment rates is a key control strategy. Progress in improving the global coverage of antibiotic treatment is monitored through large household surveys such as the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS, which estimate antibiotic treatment rates of pneumonia based on two-week recall of pneumonia by caregivers. However, these survey tools identify children with reported symptoms of pneumonia, and because the prevalence of pneumonia over a two-week period in community settings is low, the majority of these children do not have true pneumonia and so do not provide an accurate denominator of pneumonia cases for monitoring antibiotic treatment rates. In this review, we show that the performance of survey tools could be improved by increasing the survey recall period or by improving either overall discriminative power or specificity. However, even at a test specificity of 95% (and a test sensitivity of 80%, the proportion of children with reported symptoms of pneumonia who truly have pneumonia is only 22% (the positive predictive value of the survey tool. Thus, although DHS and MICS survey data on rates of care seeking for children with reported symptoms of pneumonia and other childhood illnesses remain valid and important, DHS and MICS data are not able to give valid estimates of antibiotic treatment rates in children with pneumonia.

  2. Sequence variation does not confound the measurement of plasma PfHRP2 concentration in African children presenting with severe malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramutton Thiranut

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein PFHRP2 measurement is used widely for diagnosis, and more recently for severity assessment in falciparum malaria. The Pfhrp2 gene is highly polymorphic, with deletion of the entire gene reported in both laboratory and field isolates. These issues potentially confound the interpretation of PFHRP2 measurements. Methods Studies designed to detect deletion of Pfhrp2 and its paralog Pfhrp3 were undertaken with samples from patients in seven countries contributing to the largest hospital-based severe malaria trial (AQUAMAT. The quantitative relationship between sequence polymorphism and PFHRP2 plasma concentration was examined in samples from selected sites in Mozambique and Tanzania. Results There was no evidence for deletion of either Pfhrp2 or Pfhrp3 in the 77 samples with lowest PFHRP2 plasma concentrations across the seven countries. Pfhrp2 sequence diversity was very high with no haplotypes shared among 66 samples sequenced. There was no correlation between Pfhrp2 sequence length or repeat type and PFHRP2 plasma concentration. Conclusions These findings indicate that sequence polymorphism is not a significant cause of variation in PFHRP2 concentration in plasma samples from African children. This justifies the further development of plasma PFHRP2 concentration as a method for assessing African children who may have severe falciparum malaria. The data also add to the existing evidence base supporting the use of rapid diagnostic tests based on PFHRP2 detection.

  3. A Study of Messages Received by Children Who Viewed an Episode of "The Harlem Globetrotters Popcorn Machine".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Research Service, Inc., New York, NY.

    A total of 687 children, aged 7 through 11, was interviewed in fall, 1974 to determine the extent to which the Harlem Globetrotters Popcorn Machine television programs communicated "pro-social" messages to its audience. Viewers of four different episodes of the Globetrotters were questioned about the program they had seen. Among the findings were:…

  4. Patching the gaps towards the 90–90–90 targets: outcomes of Nigerian children receiving antiretroviral treatment who are co-infected with tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick D Chamla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nigeria has a high burden of children living with HIV and tuberculosis (TB. This article examines the magnitude of TB among children receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART, compares their ART outcomes with their non-TB counterparts and argues that addressing TB among children on ART is critical for achieving the 90–90–90 targets. Methods: This was a facility-based, retrospective analysis of medical records of children aged <15 years who were newly initiated on ART between 2011 and 2012. Structured tools were used to collect data. STATA software was used to perform descriptive, survival and multivariate analyses. Results: A total of 1142 children with a median age of 3.5 years from 20 selected facilities were followed for 24 months. Of these, 95.8% were assessed for TB at ART initiation and 14.7% had TB. Children on ART were more likely to have TB if they were aged 5 years or older (p<0.01 and had delayed ART initiation (p<0.05. The cotrimoxazole and isoniazid prophylaxes were provided to 87.9 and 0.8% of children, respectively. The rate of new TB cases was 3 (2.2–4.0 per 100 person-years at six months and declined to 0.2 (0.06–1.4 per 100 person-years at 24 months. TB infection [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR: 4.3; 2.3–7.9], malnutrition (aHR: 5.1; 2.6–9.8, delayed ART initiation (aHR: 3.2; 1.5–6.7 and age less than 1 year at ART initiation (aHR: 4.0; 1.4–12.0 were associated with death. Additionally, patients with TB (aHR: 1.3; 1.1–1.6 and children below the age of 1 at ART initiation (aHR: 2.9; 1.7–5.2 were more likely to be lost to follow-up (LFU. Conclusions: Children on ART with TB are less likely to survive and more likely to be LFU. These risks, along with low isoniazid uptake and delayed ART initiation, present a serious challenge to achieving the 90–90–90 targets and underscore an urgent need for inclusion of childhood TB/HIV in global plans and reporting mechanisms.

  5. The descriptive statistics and health implications of occupational radiation doses received by men at the Sellafield nuclear installation before the conception of their children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From a database of a quarter of a million births in Cumbria during 1950-1989, 10 363 children have been positively linked to paternal employment at the Sellafield nuclear installation in West Cumbria at, or before, the conception of the child. 9256 children have been associated with paternal preconceptional radiation exposure. The doses of external whole-body radiation received by fathers prior to conception have been estimated from annual recorded doses, and the detailed distributions of these preconceptional doses are presented. The collective paternal total preconceptional dose is 539 person-Sv, a mean individual preconceptional dose per paternally exposed child of 58 mSv. The number of serious hereditary effects predicted to be induced by this collective dose among these first generation children is less than two, and these will not be discernible against the much larger number of background cases. There is no evidence of an excess of hereditary disorders in the immediate vicinity of Sellafield, although comprehensive studies have not, as yet, been carried out. The suggestion advanced by Gardner et al (1990b) that paternal preconceptional irradiation is sufficient to account for the excess of childhood leukaemia cases in the West Cumbrian village of Seascale is highly unlikely to be correct because, inter alia, of the absence of a comparable excess among children born outside Seascale who are associated with the great majority (93%) of the collective paternal preconceptional dose. (Author)

  6. A RUDMAN PER / PELJ 2016 (19 1 Abstract The African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights has worked as the continent's watchdog, under the ACHPR, for almost 30 years. Much has changed since the time of its inception. More institutions, set to ensure the implementation of the ACHPR, have been added. As the African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights became operational, a two-tiered human rights system was created. This article explores the inter-relationship between the ACHPR, the Protocol Establishing the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights and the Procedural Rules of these two institutions within the specific context of the African Commission's mandate to refer communications to the African Court. The aim is to offer a purposeful interpretation of the Procedural Rules governing referrals, guided by the understanding of the principle of complementarity in the preparatory works. The author argues that an appropriate interpretation of complementarity, within the context of referrals, becomes vital in alleviating one of the long-term plagues of the African, protective, human rights system, namely the lack of resources and human capital. It is suggested that the African Commission and the African Court can only be effective if they take proper cognisance of the principle of complementarity, in referring and receiving communications. Keywords African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights; African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights; African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights; referrals; complementarity; human rights; gross violations of human rights; individual communications. ………………………………………………………. The Commission as a Party before the Court – Reflections on the Complementarity Arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Rudman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights has worked as the continent's watchdog, under the ACHPR, for almost 30 years. Much has changed since the time of its inception. More institutions, set to ensure the implementation of the ACHPR, have been added. As the African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights became operational, a two-tiered human rights system was created. This article explores the inter-relationship between the ACHPR, the Protocol Establishing the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights and the Procedural Rules of these two institutions within the specific context of the African Commission's mandate to refer communications to the African Court. The aim is to offer a purposeful interpretation of the Procedural Rules governing referrals, guided by the understanding of the principle of complementarity in the preparatory works. The author argues that an appropriate interpretation of complementarity, within the context of referrals, becomes vital in alleviating one of the long-term plagues of the African, protective, human rights system, namely the lack of resources and human capital. It is suggested that the African Commission and the African Court can only be effective if they take proper cognisance of the principle of complementarity, in referring and receiving communications.

  7. Clinical Inquiries Received by CDC Regarding Suspected Ebola Virus Disease in Children--United States, July 9, 2014-January 4, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Alyson B; Meites, Elissa; Anstey, Erica H; Fullerton, Kathleen E; Jayatilleke, Achala; Ruben, Wendy; Koumans, Emily; Oster, Alexandra M; Karwowski, Mateusz P; Dziuban, Eric; Kirkcaldy, Robert D; Glover, Maleeka; Lowe, Luis; Peacock, Georgina; Mahon, Barbara; Griese, Stephanie E

    2015-09-18

    The 2014–2015 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic is the largest in history and represents the first time Ebola has been diagnosed in the United States. On July 9, 2014, CDC activated its Emergency Operations Center and established an Ebola clinical consultation service to assist U.S. state and local public health officials and health care providers with the evaluation of suspected cases. CDC reviewed all 89 inquiries received by the consultation service during July 9, 2014– January 4, 2015, about children (persons aged ≤18 years). Most (56 [63%]) children had no identifiable epidemiologic risk factors for Ebola; among the 33 (37%) who did have an epidemiologic risk factor, in every case this was travel from an Ebola-affected country. Thirty-two of these children met criteria for a person under investigation (PUI) because of clinical signs or symptoms. Fifteen PUIs had blood samples tested for Ebola virus RNA by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction; all tested negative. Febrile children who have recently traveled from an Ebola-affected country can be expected to have other common diagnoses, such as malaria and influenza, and in the absence of epidemiologic risk factors for Ebola, the likelihood of Ebola is extremely low. Delaying evaluation and treatment for these other more common illnesses might lead to poorer clinical outcomes. Additionally, many health care providers expressed concerns about whether and how parents should be allowed in the isolation room. While maintaining an appropriate level of vigilance for Ebola, public health officials and health care providers should ensure that pediatric PUIs receive timely triage, diagnosis, and treatment of other more common illnesses, and care reflecting best practices in supporting children’s psychosocial needs. PMID:26390343

  8. Motor outcome differences between two groups of children with spastic diplegia who received different intensities of early onset physiotherapy followed for 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Toyoko; Pidcock, Frank S; Hayakawa, Katumi; Yamori, Yuriko; Shikata, Yuko

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the clinical effectiveness of early onset long-term intensive physiotherapy on motor development in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (CP). The study was a non-randomized cohort study with 62 months (mean) follow-up. The participants were ten infants who were first examined before 3 months of age corrected for prematurity. All had a gestational age of less than 33 weeks and a birth weight of less than 2000 g. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed periventricular white matter injury in nine subjects and moderate grade bilateral porencephaly in one. Five completed a full course of training of 52 months (mean), two did not receive therapy, and three received an insufficient course of therapy. The study was conducted at the Regional Center for Children with Disabilities including outpatient clinics and a school for children with special needs. The Vojta Method was used, which is an extensive family oriented physiotherapy program which uses isometric strengthening of muscles with tactile stimulation. Subjects were evaluated for the highest motor developmental level at the outcome evaluation 59 months (mean) after initiation of therapy. Four of the five who completed training could either stand still for 5 s or walk at the time of the outcome evaluation 52 months after the beginning of the therapy program. None of the five subjects with no training or insufficient training could accomplish this task when evaluated 64 months following therapy initiation. This was a statistically significant difference (P = 0.0278). A consistently applied physiotherapy program resulted in better motor outcomes in this group of children at risk for developing spastic diplegic CP. PMID:15036431

  9. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, chlorproguanil-dapsone with artesunate and post-treatment haemolysis in African children treated for uncomplicated malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Malderen Carine

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a leading cause of mortality, particularly in sub-Saharan African children. Prompt and efficacious treatment is important as patients may progress within a few hours to severe and possibly fatal disease. Chlorproguanil-dapsone-artesunate (CDA was a promising artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT, but its development was prematurely stopped because of safety concerns secondary to its associated risk of haemolytic anaemia in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD-deficient individuals. The objective of the study was to assess whether CDA treatment and G6PD deficiency are risk factors for a post-treatment haemoglobin drop in African children Methods This case–control study was performed in the context of a larger multicentre randomized clinical trial comparing safety and efficacy of four different ACT in children with uncomplicated malaria. Children, who after treatment experienced a haemoglobin drop ≥2 g/dl (cases within the first four days (days 0, 1, 2, and 3, were compared with those without an Hb drop (controls. Cases and controls were matched for study site, sex, age and baseline haemoglobin measurements. Data were analysed using a conditional logistic regression model. Results G6PD deficiency prevalence, homo- or hemizygous, was 8.5% (10/117 in cases and 6.8% (16/234 in controls (p = 0.56. The risk of a Hb drop ≥2 g/dl was not associated with either G6PD deficiency (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 0.81; p = 0.76 or CDA treatment (AOR: 1.28; p = 0.37 alone. However, patients having both risk factors tended to have higher odds (AOR: 11.13; p = 0.25 of experiencing a Hb drop ≥2 g/dl within the first four days after treatment, however this finding was not statistically significant, mainly because G6PD deficient patients treated with CDA were very few. In non-G6PD deficient individuals, the proportion of cases was similar between treatment groups while in G6PD-deficient individuals

  10. Older white people's experiences of giving care to or receiving care from their children / Sonia S. Howes

    OpenAIRE

    Howes, Sonia S

    2013-01-01

    Social and demographic changes have a tremendous effect on the care for older people to the effect that caring for older people might have become a rare commodity. Increased life expectancy during the past century has prolonged the period in which older people need care and has made family care giving an increasingly recurrent activity for adult children. After the demolition of the apartheid area in South Africa, most research focused on previously disadvantaged groups, namely Black and Brow...

  11. Retention in care and outpatient costs for children receiving antiretroviral therapy in Zambia: a retrospective cohort analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callie A Scott

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are few published estimates of the cost of pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART in Africa. Our objective was to estimate the outpatient cost of providing ART to children remaining in care at six public sector clinics in Zambia during the first three years after ART initiation, stratified by service delivery site and time on treatment. METHODS: Data on resource utilization (drugs, diagnostics, outpatient visits, fixed costs and treatment outcomes (in care, died, lost to follow up were extracted from medical records for 1,334 children at six sites who initiated ART at 50% at four sites. At the two remaining sites, outpatient visits and fixed costs together accounted for >50% of outpatient costs. The distribution of costs is slightly skewed, with median costs 3% to 13% lower than average costs during the first year after ART initiation depending on site. CONCLUSIONS: Outpatient costs for children initiating ART in Zambia are low and comparable to reported outpatient costs for adults. Outpatient costs and retention in care vary widely by site, suggesting opportunities for efficiency gains. Taking advantage of such opportunities will help ensure that targets for pediatric treatment coverage can be met.

  12. Relationships between familial HIV/AIDS and symptoms of anxiety and depression: the mediating effect of bullying victimization in a prospective sample of South African children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Mark E; Cluver, Lucie D

    2015-04-01

    South African children and adolescents living in HIV/AIDS-affected families are at elevated risk of both symptoms of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Poverty and HIV/AIDS-related stigma are additional risk factors for these negative mental health outcomes. Community level factors, such as poverty and stigma, are difficult to change in the short term and identifying additional potentially malleable mechanisms linking familial HIV/AIDS with mental health is important from an intervention perspective. HIV/AIDS-affected children are also at increased risk of bullying victimization. This longitudinal study aimed to determine whether prospective relationships between familial HIV/AIDS and both anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms operate indirectly via bullying victimization. Adolescents (M = 13.45 years, 56.67 % female, n = 3,515) from high HIV-prevalent (>30 %) communities in South Africa were interviewed and followed-up one year later (n = 3,401, 96.70 % retention). Census enumeration areas were randomly selected from urban and rural sites in two provinces, and door-to-door sampling included all households with a resident child/adolescent. Familial HIV/AIDS at baseline assessment was not directly associated with mental health outcomes 1 year later. However, significant indirect effects operating via bullying victimization were obtained for both anxiety and depression scores. Importantly, these effects were independent of poverty, HIV/AIDS-related stigma, and baseline mental health, which highlight bullying victimization as a potential target for future intervention efforts. The implementation and rigorous evaluation of bullying prevention programs in South African communities may improve mental health outcomes for HIV/AIDS-affected children and adolescents and this should be a focus of future research and intervention. PMID:24996836

  13. Effect of Age at Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation on Catch-up Growth Within the First 24 Months Among HIV-infected Children in the IeDEA West African Pediatric Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jesson, Julie; Koumakpaï, Sikiratou; Diagne, Ndeye R;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We described malnutrition and the effect of age at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation on catch-up growth over 24 months among HIV-infected children enrolled in the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate Aids West African paediatric cohort. METHODS: Malnutrition was def...

  14. African American Fathers' Contributions to Children's Early Academic Achievement: Evidence from Two-Parent Families from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Claire E.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: This study utilized a large sample ("N" = 750) of 2-parent families from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort to examine the contributions of African American fathers' home literacy involvement, play activities, and caregiving at 24 months to children's reading and math achievement in…

  15. Oral manifestations of HIV infection in children and adults receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy [HAART] in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikx Frans HM

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence and types of HIV-related oral lesions between children and adult Tanzanian patients on HAART with those not on HAART and to relate the occurrence of the lesions with anti-HIV drug regimen, clinical stage of HIV disease and CD4+ cell count. Methods Participants were 532 HIV infected patients, 51 children and 481 adults, 165 males and 367 females. Children were aged 2–17 years and adults 18 and 67 years. Participants were recruited consecutively at the Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH HIV clinic from October 2004 to September 2005. Investigations included; interviews, physical examinations, HIV testing and enumeration of CD4+ T cells. Results A total of 237 HIV-associated oral lesions were observed in 210 (39.5% patients. Oral candidiasis was the commonest (23.5%, followed by mucosal hyperpigmentation (4.7%. There was a significant difference in the occurrence of oral candidiasis (χ2 = 4.31; df = 1; p = 0.03 and parotid enlargement (χ2 = 36.5; df = 1; p = 0.04 between children and adults. Adult patients who were on HAART had a significantly lower risk of; oral lesions (OR = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.22 – 0.47; p = 0.005, oral candidiasis (OR = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.18 – 0.44; p = 0.003 and oral hairy leukoplakia (OR = 0.18; 95% CI = 0.04 – 0.85; p = 0.03. There was no significant reduction in occurrence of oral lesions in children on HAART (OR = 0.35; 95% CI = 0.11–1.14; p = 0.15. There was also a significant association between the presence of oral lesions and CD4+ cell count 3 (χ2 = 52.4; df = 2; p = 0.006 and with WHO clinical stage (χ2 = 121; df = 3; p = 0.008. Oral lesions were also associated with tobacco smoking (χ2 = 8.17; df = 2; p = 0.04. Conclusion Adult patients receiving HAART had a significantly lower prevalence of oral lesions, particularly oral candidiasis and oral hairy leukoplakia. There was no significant change in occurrence of oral lesions in children

  16. Secondary Neoplasms in Children with Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Receiving C-MOPP and Radiotherapy: Presentation of Four Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Sevgi Gözdaşoğlu; İsmail Haluk Gökçora; Ömer Uluoğlu

    2016-01-01

    Patients who survive Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are at increased risk of secondary neoplasms (SNs). A wide variety of SNs have been reported, including leukemias, non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, and solid tumors, specifically breast and thyroid cancers. Herein we report subsequent neoplasms in four patients with HL receiving chemoradiotherapy. It is interesting that three SNs, fibrosarcoma, thyroid carcinoma, and retrobulbar meningioma, were observed in the radiation area in one of o...

  17. Validation of a Multidimensional Assessment of Parenting Styles for Low-Income African-American Families with Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolahan, Kathleen; McWayne, Christine; Fantuzzo, John; Grim, Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    Examined the construct and concurrent validity of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire-Head Start (PBQ-HS) with low-income African-American families with preschoolers, and whether parenting styles differed by caregiver characteristics. Derived Active-Responsive, Active-Restrictive, and Passive-Permissive parenting dimensions; the last differed…

  18. Educating At-Risk Urban African American Children: The Effects of School Climate on Motivation and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenzel, L. Mickey; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines the mediating effects of student intrinsic motivation and teacher ratings of student academic engagement on the relation between school climate perceptions and student academic performance among 282 urban African American middle school students. Results provided support for the hypothesized model and suggest the…

  19. Phonological Milestones for African American English-Speaking Children Learning Mainstream American English as a Second Dialect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Barbara Z.; Velleman, Shelley L.; Bryant, Timothy J.; Charko, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study provides milestones for phonological development in African American English (AAE) speakers who are learning Mainstream American English (MAE) as a second dialect. Method: The Dialect Sensitive Language Test (DSLT; H. Seymour, T. Roeper, & J. G. de Villiers, 2000) was administered to a nationwide sample of typically developing…

  20. Parenting Practices among Low-Income Parents/Guardians of Academically Successful Fifth Grade African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Sanders, Tiffany; Mehta, Sejal; Behar-Horenstein, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Research investigating the relationship between parenting and academic achievement has provided conflicting results, particularly for low-income, culturally-diverse parents. Using resilience theory, the researchers conducted a case study with five low-income African American mothers. Findings suggest that educators can benefit from partnering with…

  1. Parenting among Low-Income, African American Single Mothers with Preschool-Age Children: Patterns, Predictors, and Developmental Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGroder, Sharon M.

    2000-01-01

    Examined dimensions and patterns of parenting among 193 low-income African American single mothers with preschoolers. Identified four parenting patterns (aggravated but nurturant, cognitively stimulating, patient and nurturant, and low nurturance). Found that maternal well-being and sociodemographic characteristics accounted for 93 percent of…

  2. Exploratory study describing 6 month outcomes for young children with autism who receive treatment as usual in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muratori F

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Filippo Muratori,1,2 Antonio Narzisi1IDIA group 1Department of Developmental Neuroscience, IRCCS Stella Maris Foundation, Calambrone, Pisa, Italy; 2University of Pisa, Calambrone, Pisa, Italy Background: In the last few years, the results of different studies have confirmed, in different ways, the importance of early intervention for autism. This study aims to evaluate the role of early "as usual" interventions in the outcome of toddlers diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Method: Seventy children with ASD aged between 24 and 48 months were recruited at different centers in Italy. They were evaluated by blind researchers at baseline and after 6 months of using Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G, Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales, and Vineland Adaptive Behavior scales. Parents filled out the MacArthur Inventory, Social Communication Questionnaire, and Child Behavior Check List. All children were referred to community providers for available interventions. Results: At the endpoint, most of the children were still classified as having an ADOS-G classification of ASD. However, 21 (34.2% passed from autism to autism spectrum, and 3 (4.2% passed from autism spectrum to no spectrum. Treatment effects were obtained for cognitive functioning, language, adaptive behavior, and child behavior without differences between development-oriented and behavior-oriented interventions. Parent involvement was a mediator for the best clinical outcome. Baseline low impairments of communication, language comprehension, and gesture were predictors of positive outcome. Conclusion: Treatment as usual, composed of individual therapy plus school-supported inclusion, may be an effective intervention in ASD. Better initial levels of communication in child and parent involvement during treatment have an important role for a positive outcome. Keywords: autism, preschoolers, treatment as usual, early intervention

  3. Prevention of oral mucositis in children receiving cancer therapy: a systematic review and evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qutob, Akram F; Gue, Sumant; Revesz, Tamas; Logan, Richard M; Keefe, Dorothy

    2013-02-01

    This systematic review investigated, critically appraised, and rated the evidence on agents used to prevent oral mucositis in children. A comprehensive search of the relevant literature was performed up to December 2011. Articles were included according to the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were critically appraised for validation and quality assessment using a checklist consisting of 18 categories. Each article was then rated for its strength of evidence. 16,471 articles were retrieved from 19 different databases and then reduced to 27 articles that fit the inclusion criteria. Five articles on oral care protocols supported their use to prevent oral mucositis in children. Seven articles on chlorhexidine mouthwash and three on laser therapy had conflicting evidence of its use. The preventative agents that were supported by one or two articles included: benzydamine mouthwash, iseganan mouthwash, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) mouthwash, oral/enteral glutamine, oral propantheline and cryotherapy, oral cryotherapy, oral sucralfate suspension, prostaglandin E2 tablets, and chewing gum. The reduction in the rates of occurrence of oral mucositis when using agents of fair (B) to good (A) evidence ranged from 22% to 52%. In conclusion, this review suggests the use of oral care protocols to prevent oral mucositis in children because of their strength of evidence (fair to good). The authors suggest avoiding agents with fair to good evidence against their use (oral sucralfate suspension, prostaglandin E2 tablets, and GM-CSF mouthwash). Agents with conflicting evidence (chlorhexidine mouthwash (used solely), laser therapy, and glutamine) should also be avoided until further research confirms their efficacy. PMID:22959949

  4. Peer Victimization of Children with Disabilities: Examining Prevalence and Early Risk and Protective Factors among a National Sample of Children Receiving Special Education Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Peer victimization is a serious social problem that can negatively affect a child's psychosocial development and school adjustment, and may have lasting effects for victims. Previous studies on peer victimization have suggested that children with disabilities (CWD) are likely to be more frequent targets of peer victimization. This longitudinal…

  5. Seeing African Americans as Competent Parents: Implications for Family Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla

    2011-01-01

    One of the primary roles of parents is to guide and socialize children to make meaningful life choices. African American parents, in particular, have the additional tasks of preparing their children to thrive in an environment that has historically been hostile toward African Americans. Yet, many African American parents are often depicted as…

  6. Identifying phonological processing deficits in Northern Sotho-speaking children: The use of non-word repetition as a language assessment tool in the South African context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsenach, Carien

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic testing of speech/language skills in the African languages spoken in South Africa is a challenging task, as standardised language tests in the official languages of South Africa barely exist. Commercially available language tests are in English, and have been standardised in other parts of the world. Such tests are often translated into African languages, a practice that speech language therapists deem linguistically and culturally inappropriate. In response to the need for developing clinical language assessment instruments that could be used in South Africa, this article reports on data collected with a Northern Sotho non-word repetition task (NRT). Non-word repetition measures various aspects of phonological processing, including phonological working memory (PWM), and is used widely by speech language therapists, linguists, and educational psychologists in the Western world. The design of a novel Northern Sotho NRT is described, and it is argued that the task could be used successfully in the South African context to discriminate between children with weak and strong Northern Sotho phonological processing ability, regardless of the language of learning and teaching. The NRT was piloted with 120 third graders, and showed moderate to strong correlations with other measures of PWM, such as digit span and English non-word repetition. Furthermore, the task was positively associated with both word and fluent reading in Northern Sotho, and it reliably predicted reading outcomes in the tested population. Suggestions are made for improving the current version of the Northern Sotho NRT, whereafter it should be suitable to test learners from various age groups. PMID:27245134

  7. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease ... 13 to 17 years who ever received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, 2014 - Males # doses ... 240-453-2882 Office of Minority Health Resource Center Toll Free: 1-800-444-6472 / Fax: ...

  8. Secondary Neoplasms in Children with Hodgkin's Lymphoma Receiving C-MOPP and Radiotherapy: Presentation of Four Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gözdaşoğlu, Sevgi; Pamir, Ali; Ünal, Emel; Gökçora, İsmail Haluk; Uluoğlu, Ömer; Ceyhan, Koray; Deda, Haluk; Işıkman, Erdoğan; Yavuz, Gülsan; Taçyıldız, Nurdan; Çavdar, Ayhan

    2016-03-01

    Patients who survive Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are at increased risk of secondary neoplasms (SNs). A wide variety of SNs have been reported, including leukemias, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and solid tumors, specifically breast and thyroid cancers. Herein we report subsequent neoplasms in four patients with HL receiving chemoradiotherapy. It is interesting that three SNs, fibrosarcoma, thyroid carcinoma, and retrobulbar meningioma, were observed in the radiation area in one of our patients. A hypopharyngeal epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor as an unusual secondary malignant neoplasm developed in another patient, while a benign thyroid nodule and invasive ductal breast carcinoma were observed at different times in the female patient. Follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland developed in one of our patients. PMID:26377258

  9. Secondary Neoplasms in Children with Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Receiving C-MOPP and Radiotherapy: Presentation of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Gözdaşoğlu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients who survive Hodgkin lymphoma (HL are at increased risk of secondary neoplasms (SNs. A wide variety of SNs have been reported, including leukemias, non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, and solid tumors, specifically breast and thyroid cancers. Herein we report subsequent neoplasms in four patients with HL receiving chemoradiotherapy. It is interesting that three SNs, fibrosarcoma, thyroid carcinoma, and retrobulbar meningioma, were observed in the radiation area in one of our patients. A hypopharyngeal epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor as an unusual secondary malignant neoplasm developed in another patient, while a benign thyroid nodule and invasive ductal breast carcinoma were observed at different times in the female patient. Follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland developed in one of our patients.

  10. Fine motor skills in South African children with symptoms of ADHD: influence of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer Anneke; Sagvolden Terje

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Motor problems, often characterised as clumsiness or poor motor coordination, have been associated with ADHD in addition to the main symptom groups of inattention, impulsiveness, and overactivity. The problems addressed in this study were: (1) Are motor problems associated with ADHD symptoms, also in African cultures? (2) Are there differences in motor skills among the subtypes with ADHD symptoms? (3) Are there gender differences? (4) Is there an effect of age? (5) Are the...

  11. Are ethnic and gender specific equations needed to derive fat free mass from bioelectrical impedance in children of South asian, black african-Caribbean and white European origin? Results of the assessment of body composition in children study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M Nightingale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is a potentially valuable method for assessing lean mass and body fat levels in children from different ethnic groups. We examined the need for ethnic- and gender-specific equations for estimating fat free mass (FFM from BIA in children from different ethnic groups and examined their effects on the assessment of ethnic differences in body fat. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of children aged 8-10 years in London Primary schools including 325 South Asians, 250 black African-Caribbeans and 289 white Europeans with measurements of height, weight and arm-leg impedance (Z; Bodystat 1500. Total body water was estimated from deuterium dilution and converted to FFM. Multilevel models were used to derive three types of equation {A: FFM = linear combination(height+weight+Z; B: FFM = linear combination(height(2/Z; C: FFM = linear combination(height(2/Z+weight}. RESULTS: Ethnicity and gender were important predictors of FFM and improved model fit in all equations. The models of best fit were ethnicity and gender specific versions of equation A, followed by equation C; these provided accurate assessments of ethnic differences in FFM and FM. In contrast, the use of generic equations led to underestimation of both the negative South Asian-white European FFM difference and the positive black African-Caribbean-white European FFM difference (by 0.53 kg and by 0.73 kg respectively for equation A. The use of generic equations underestimated the positive South Asian-white European difference in fat mass (FM and overestimated the positive black African-Caribbean-white European difference in FM (by 4.7% and 10.1% respectively for equation A. Consistent results were observed when the equations were applied to a large external data set. CONCLUSIONS: Ethnic- and gender-specific equations for predicting FFM from BIA provide better estimates of ethnic differences in FFM and FM in children, while generic equations

  12. South African Families Raising Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Relationship between Family Routines, Cognitive Appraisal and Family Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlebusch, L.; Samuels, A. E.; Dada, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between family routines, cognitive appraisal of the impact of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) on the family and family quality of life (FQOL) in families raising children with ASD in South Africa. Methods: A sample of 180 families of young children with ASD who were…

  13. Child and Parent Perceptions of Relational Aggression within Urban Predominantly African American Children's Friendships: Examining Patterns of Concordance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing research documents the negative short- and long-term effects of relational aggression on children's behavior and social-emotional functioning. Although parents likely play an important role in the way children learn to cope with and attempt to resolve relational aggression, there is little research on this issue. The present study…

  14. Direct contrast enhanced Venography MR in the study of central venous accesses in children receiving total parenteral nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. To present direct contrast enhanced Magnetic Resonance Venography, a recently developed method for the study of central venous accesses. Materials and methods. Six patients (4 males and 2 females; age range 15-18 Years) with severe intestinal failure treated with indwelling central Venous catheter since childhood were studied by MR-angiography. The examination was carried out with a 1.5 Philips Gyroscan Intera Magnet, sequences during the simultaneous injection of about 60 ml/limb paramagnetic contrast material, Gd DTPA, diluted with saline solution at a ratio of 1:12. The images were processed with maximum intensity coronal projections and compared with the phlebographic images obtained earlier. Results. In 4 cases the method demonstrated superior vena cava occlusion, in 2 cases inferior vena cava occlusion. The examination was well tolerated by all patients and image quality was very similar to that of the gold standard Study, conventional phlebography. Conclusions. We believe direct contrast-enhanced MR-venography to be a minimally invasive, panoramic and diagnostically reliable method, which should be considered the first choice in the study of central venous accesses of patients receiving total parental nutrition for the medical treatment of intestinal failure. The method does not expose the patients to ionizing radiation or require iodinated contrast material, and is relatively short with a room lime of about 30-40 minutes

  15. Radio receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankov, V. N.; Barulin, L. G.; Zhodzishskii, M. I.; Malyshev, I. V.; Petrusinskii, V. V.

    The book is concerned with the design of microelectronic radio receivers and their components based on semiconductor and hybrid integrated circuits. Topics discussed include the hierarchical structure of radio receivers, the synthesis of structural schemes, the design of the principal functional units, and the design of radio receiver systems with digital signal processing. The discussion also covers the integrated circuits of multifunctional amplifiers, analog multipliers, charge-transfer devices, frequency filters, piezoelectronic devices, and microwave amplifiers, filters, and mixers.

  16. The Perspectives of African Immigrants in Sweden on Intercountry Child Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Armah, Collins

    2010-01-01

    The views of minority groups who speak on behalf of adopted children in Western countries like Sweden have relevance with regards to enriching the international adoption discourse; and to inform adoption policies in both sending and receiving countries. This study aimed at seeking the views of African immigrants in Sweden on intercountry adoption with the objective of bringing out the meanings they create on the major themes involved to enrich the international adoption debate and to inform p...

  17. The Challenges of Underweight and Overweight in South African Children: Are We Winning or Losing the Battle? A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Makama Andries Monyeki; Adedapo Awotidebe; Strydom, Gert L.; J. Hans de Ridder; Ramoteme Lesly Mamabolo; Kemper, Han C. G.

    2015-01-01

    Underweight and overweight are adverse effects of malnutrition and both are associated with negative health consequences in children and adolescents. In South Africa, the burden of economic and social disparity coexists with malnutrition in children. The purpose of this study was to review available South Africa studies regarding the comprehensive summary of prevalence of underweight and overweight and evaluates government policies in addressing undernutrition and overnutrition in South Afri...

  18. An Analysis of Water Collection Labor among Women and Children in 24 Sub-Saharan African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Mitsuaki; Kim, Seung-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Background It is estimated that more than two-thirds of the population in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) must leave their home to collect water, putting them at risk for a variety of negative health outcomes. There is little research, however, quantifying who is most affected by long water collection times. Objectives This study aims to a) describe gender differences in water collection labor among both adults and children (water, disaggregated by urban and rural residence; and b) estimate the absolute number of adults and children affected by water collection times greater than 30 minutes in 24 SSA countries. Methods We analyzed data from the Demographic Health Survey (DHS) and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) (2005–2012) to describe water collection labor in 24 SSA countries. Results Among households spending more than 30 minutes collecting water, adult females were the primary collectors of water across all 24 countries, ranging from 46% in Liberia (17,412 HHs) to 90% in Cote d’Ivoire (224,808 HHs). Across all countries, female children were more likely to be responsible for water collection than male children (62% vs. 38%, respectively). Six countries had more than 100,000 households (HHs) where children were reported to be responsible for water collection (greater than 30 minutes): Burundi (181,702 HHs), Cameroon (154,453 HHs), Ethiopia (1,321,424 HHs), Mozambique (129,544 HHs), Niger (171,305 HHs), and Nigeria (1,045,647 HHs). Conclusion In the 24 SSA countries studied, an estimated 3.36 million children and 13.54 million adult females were responsible for water collection in households with collection times greater than 30 minutes. We suggest that accessibility to water, water collection by children, and gender ratios for water collection, especially when collection times are great, should be considered as key indicators for measuring progress in the water, sanitation and hygiene sector. PMID:27248494

  19. Calcium Intake and Body Composition in African-American Children and Adolescents at Risk for Overweight and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances A. Tylavsky

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the role of calcium intake on body composition in 186 African-American adolescents at risk for overweight and obesity. The average weight of 89.8 kg ± 23.6 (SD had a mean BMI z score of 2.2. Females with a calcium intake of < 314 mg/day had higher percent fat mass compared to those with the highest calcium intakes that were ≥ 634 mg/day. Compared to those with a low calcium intake (< 365 mg/day, those with the highest calcium intake of > 701 mg/day had higher intake of thiamin, folate, cobalamin, vitamin D, phosphorus, iron, zinc.

  20. Young children's probability of dying before and after their mother's death: a rural South African population-based surveillance study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J Clark

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is evidence that a young child's risk of dying increases following the mother's death, but little is known about the risk when the mother becomes very ill prior to her death. We hypothesized that children would be more likely to die during the period several months before their mother's death, as well as for several months after her death. Therefore we investigated the relationship between young children's likelihood of dying and the timing of their mother's death and, in particular, the existence of a critical period of increased risk. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data from a health and socio-demographic surveillance system in rural South Africa were collected on children 0-5 y of age from 1 January 1994 to 31 December 2008. Discrete time survival analysis was used to estimate children's probability of dying before and after their mother's death, accounting for moderators. 1,244 children (3% of sample died from 1994 to 2008. The probability of child death began to rise 6-11 mo prior to the mother's death and increased markedly during the 2 mo immediately before the month of her death (odds ratio [OR] 7.1 [95% CI 3.9-12.7], in the month of her death (OR 12.6 [6.2-25.3], and during the 2 mo following her death (OR 7.0 [3.2-15.6]. This increase in the probability of dying was more pronounced for children whose mothers died of AIDS or tuberculosis compared to other causes of death, but the pattern remained for causes unrelated to AIDS/tuberculosis. Infants aged 0-6 mo at the time of their mother's death were nine times more likely to die than children aged 2-5 y. The limitations of the study included the lack of knowledge about precisely when a very ill mother will die, a lack of information about child nutrition and care, and the diagnosis of AIDS deaths by verbal autopsy rather than serostatus. CONCLUSIONS: Young children in lower income settings are more likely to die not only after their mother's death but also in the months before

  1. Study of the factors associated with dental caries in children who receive early dental care Estudo de fatores associados à cárie dental em crianças que recebem atendimento odontológico precoce

    OpenAIRE

    FRAIZ Fabian Calixto; Luiz Reynaldo de Figueiredo WALTER

    2001-01-01

    The present study investigated the factors associated with the development of dental caries in preschool children who receive regular dental care and follow-up. The research was carried out at the Baby Clinic, Londrina State University, and comprised two hundred preschool children, whose ages ranged from 24 to 48 months, as well as their mothers, who had already taken part in a dental program at the Baby Clinic during, at least, the previous twelve months. Regarding oral hygiene habits, there...

  2. Hypercholesterolemia is associated with the apolipoprotein C-III (APOC3 genotype in children receiving HAART: an eight-year retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Rocco

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in apolipoprotein genes have shown to be predictors of plasma lipid levels in adult cohorts receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Our objective was to confirm the association between the APOC3 genotype and plasma lipid levels in an HIV-1-infected pediatric cohort exposed to HAART. A total of 130 HIV-1-infected children/adolescents that attended a reference center in Argentina were selected for an 8-year longitudinal study with retrospective data collection. Longitudinal measurements of plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C were analyzed under linear or generalized linear mixed models. The contribution of the APOC3 genotype at sites -482, -455 and 3238 to plasma lipid levels prediction was tested after adjusting for potential confounders. Four major APOC3 haplotypes were observed for sites -482/-455/3238, with estimated frequencies of 0.60 (C/T/C, 0.14 (T/C/C, 0.11 (C/C/C, and 0.11 (T/C/G. The APOC3 genotype showed a significant effect only for the prediction of total cholesterol levels (p<0.0001. However, the magnitude of the differences observed was dependent on the drug combination (p = 0.0007 and the drug exposure duration at the time of the plasma lipid measurement (p = 0.0002. A lower risk of hypercholesterolemia was predicted for double and triple heterozygous individuals, mainly at the first few months after the initiation of Ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor-based regimens. We report for the first time a significant contribution of the genotype to total cholesterol levels in a pediatric cohort under HAART. The genetic determination of APOC3 might have an impact on a large portion of HIV-1-infected children at the time of choosing the treatment regimens or on the counter-measures against the adverse effects of drugs.

  3. Racial/Ethnic Socialization and Parental Involvement in Education as Predictors of Cognitive Ability and Achievement in African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Meeta; Harrell, Zaje A. T.; Johnson, Deborah J.

    2011-01-01

    Racial/ethnic socialization has not been studied in the context of other parenting behaviors such as parental involvement in education and its relationship to children's cognitive outcomes. The present study tested the impact of racial/ethnic socialization and parental involvement in education on cognitive ability and achievement in a sample of…

  4. Longitudinal Pathways to Competence and Psychological Adjustment among African American Children Living in Rural Single-Parent Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Murry, Velma McBride; Kim, Sooyeon; Brown, Anita C.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between maternal psychological functioning and child competence and psychological adjustment among black families with 11-year-old children. Found a chain of influences over a 3-year period in which maternal education and income were linked with maternal psychological functioning, which predicted competence-promoting…

  5. The pharmacokinetics and acceptability of lopinavir/ritonavir minitab sprinkles, tablets, and syrups in african HIV-infected children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musiime, V.; Fillekes, Q.; Kekitiinwa, A.; Kendall, L.; Keishanyu, R.; Namuddu, R.; Young, N.; Opilo, W.; Lallemant, M.; Walker, A.S.; Burger, D.M.; Gibb, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) as first- and second-line therapy for young and older HIV-infected children, respectively. Available formulations have limitations making their widespread use complex. METHODS: An open-label comparative bioavailability (randomized crossove

  6. Internalizing Symptoms and Affect of Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Comparative Study with an Urban African American Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Deanna E.; Merrell, Kenneth W.; Cobb, Harriet C.

    1999-01-01

    Self-reported internalizing symptoms of seriously emotionally disturbed (SED) and regular education students were compared using the Internalizing Symptoms Scale for Children. The SED group reported significantly higher levels of internalizing distress than the regular education group. Results are discussed in terms of future research needs and…

  7. Preliminary studies of radiation port in children receiving cranial irradiation for preventing central nervous system (CNS) disease of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For preventing CNS leukemia in children with ALL, simple whole skull irradiation that included only retro-orbital spaces and not anterior part of the cribriform plate and first two cervical vertebrae had been given until March 1982 to patients who had remission after drug therapy. Since March 1982, however, such patients have received new modified cranial irradiation of Pinkel's method of preventive CNS therapy to include the cribriform plate. Pinkel's method usually includes first two cervical vertebrae in radiation port, but sometimes his method of radiation fails to reach the brain and the meninges on the anterior parts of the lamina cribrosa. In this study, a comparison of CNS-relapes ratio between these two methods of preventive CNS therapy was carried out. The frequency of CNS leukemia was remarkably high in patients given the simple whole skull irradiation. Of 18 patients, 7 developed CNS leukemia. Among these 7, 5 patients (71 %) had occurence of CNS-relapse within 1 year 7 months with the other one patient, making a total of 86 %, having CNS-relapse within 1 year 11 months. On the other hand, 17 of 39 patients who received new modified cranial irradiation were followed up for more than 1 year 9 months, and all patient had no CNS-relapse to date. This result showed that the irradiation of whole circulation areas of cerebrospinal fluid of the brain and the spine at first two cervical vertebra levels had great importance in preventing CNS-relapse after achievement of drug-induced remission. (author)

  8. An assessment of the dose received by children from CT examinations along with the quality control parameters from a conventional CT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2000, the UNSCEAR reported that CT constitutes 5% of all the medical x-ray examinations and it contributes 34% of the resultant collective dose worldwide. Children are more sensitive to the ionizing radiations than adults. So, routine quality control tests are expected to be carried out periodically on the CT scanners. The aim of this research was to estimate the effective doses received by the children below two years of age from routine CT examinations carried out at an educational imaging center in Tehran. It was also aimed to evaluate the quality control parameters of the mentioned CT scanner at the same time. Materials and Methods: In this study, the Computed Tomography Dose Index were measured at the central axis of the CT gantry in air and in the standard quality control phantoms of the head and body (as recommended by the FDA) using a pencil ionization chamber and LiF TLD pellets for a single scan. By using the measured Computed Tomography Dose Index values and the IrnPACT software, the effective doses were calculated for every routine CT examination protocol. In this study, the quality control parameters such as noise, CT number calibration, high and low contrast resolution and the flatness of the CT image were also evaluated. These parameters were also measured using standard procedures and test objects. Results: The effective dose estimated in this research ranged from 2.05 to 21.45 and 2.05 to 15.7 mSv for the female and male children, respectively. The measured values of the Computed Tomography Dose Index in the standard head and body phantoms were 20.6) 2.01 and 11.13 f 1.04 mGy1100 mAs, respectively. The high and low contrast resolution was estimated to be 0.8 mm and 1.0 rnm, respectively. Conclusion: The estimated values of the effective doses in this research were less than the values reported for the Netherlands, the USA, Germany and were comparable with the values reported in the UK. The measured Computed Tomography Dose Index values were 11

  9. LGBT African-American Individuals and African-American Same-Sex Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Gary J.; Kastanis, Angel

    2013-01-01

    An estimated 1,018,700 or 3.7 percent of African-American adults consider themselves lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT) and 34 percent of African-American same-sex couples are raising children. Currently, the estimated 84,000 African-American individuals in same-sex couples tend to live in areas where there are higher proportions of African-Americans. For example, a quarter of African-American same-sex couples live in Georgia, New York, North Carolina, and Maryland. The rep...

  10. Immune Activation and Viral Replication after Vaccination with an Influenza A H1N1 2009 Vaccine in HIV-Infected Children Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattawat Onlamoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunization with a pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 was recommended for HIV-infected patients. However, there is limited information concerning the impact of immunization with this vaccine on immune activation and HIV viral replication. In this study, 45 HIV-infected children and adolescents receiving antiretroviral therapy were immunized with a 2-dose series of nonadjuvated monovalent influenza A H1N1 2009 vaccine upon enrollment and approximately 1 month later. Immunogenicity was determined by haemagglutination inhibition assay. The level of immune activation was determined by identification of CD38 and HLA-DR on CD8+ T cells. Patients were divided into 2 groups which include patients who had an undetectable HIV viral load (HIV detectable group and patients who show virological failure (HIV nondetectable group. The results showed seroconversion rate of 55.2% in HIV nondetectable group, whereas 31.3% was found in HIV detectable group. Both groups of patients showed no major increase in immune activation after immunization. Interestingly, a decrease in the frequency of CD8+ T cells that coexpressed CD38 and HLA-DR was observed after immunization in both groups of patients. We suggested that immunization with influenza A H1N1 2009 vaccine can induce immune response to the pandemic virus without major impact on HIV viral replication and immune activation.

  11. Overweight status of the primary caregivers of orphan and vulnerable children in 3 Southern African countries: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Kanamori, Mariano; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Feldman, Robert; He, Xin; Lee, Sunmin

    2015-01-01

    Background Africa is facing a nutritional transition where underweight and overweight coexist. Although the majority of programs for orphan and vulnerable children (OVC) focus on undernourishment, the association between OVC primary caregiving and the caregivers’ overweight status remains unclear. We investigated the association between OVC primary caregiving status with women’s overweight status in Namibia, Swaziland and Zambia. Methods Demographic Health Survey (DHS) cross-sectional data co...

  12. The impact of aircraft noise exposure on South African children's reading comprehension: the moderating effect of home language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabi, Joseph; Cockcroft, Kate; Goldschagg, Paul; Greyling, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Given the limited studies conducted within the African continent, the purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of chronic aircraft noise exposure and the moderating effect of home language on the learners' reading comprehension. The sample comprised 437 (52%) senior primary learners exposed to high levels of aircraft noise (Experimental group) and 337 (48%) learners residing in a quieter area (Control group). Of these, 151 learners in the Experimental group spoke English as a first language (EFL) and 162 spoke English as a second language (ESL). In the Control group, the numbers were similarly divided (EFL n = 191; ESL n = 156). A univariate General Linear Model was used to investigate the effects of aircraft noise exposure and language on reading comprehension, while observing for the possible impact of intellectual ability, gender, and socioeconomic status on the results. A significant difference was observed between ESL and EFL learners in favor of the latter (F 1,419 = 21.95, P =.000). In addition a substantial and significant interaction effect was found between the experimental and control groups for the two language groups. For the EFL speakers there was a strong reduction in reading comprehension in the aircraft noise group. By contrast this difference was not significant for the ESL speakers. Implications of the findings and suggestions for further research are made in the article. PMID:23117540

  13. Current socio-economic measures, and not those measured during infancy, affect bone mass in poor urban South african children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Shane A; Sheppard, Zoë A; Griffiths, Paula L; Cameron, Noël; Pettifor, John M

    2008-09-01

    Understanding the impact of socio-economic status (SES) on physical development in children is important, especially in developing countries where considerable inequalities persist. This is the first study to examine the association between SES on bone development at the whole body, femoral neck, and lumbar spine in black children living in Soweto and Johannesburg, South Africa. Linear regression models were used to study associations between SES during infancy and current SES, anthropometric, and DXA-derived bone mass in 9/10-yr-old children (n = 309). Findings suggest that current SES measures, rather than SES during infancy, are stronger predictors of current whole body bone area (BA) and whole body BMC after adjusting for body size, pubertal development, physical activity, habitual dietary calcium intake, and body composition. SES had no significant effect on either hip or spine bone mass. Caregiver's marital/cohabiting status (indicator of social support) and whether there was a television in the home (indicator of greater income) at age 9/10 yr were the most important socio-economic determinants of whole body BA and BMC. SES has a significant independent effect on whole body BMC through its impact on BA. This suggests that poverty alleviation policies in South Africa could have a positive effect on bone health. PMID:18442310

  14. Young children's probability of dying before and after their mother's death: a rural South African population-based surveillance study.

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Samuel J.; Kathleen Kahn; Brian Houle; Adriane Arteche; Collinson, Mark A.; Tollman, Stephen M; Alan Stein

    2013-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Over the past few years, there has been enormous international effort to meet the target set by Millennium Development Goal 4—to reduce the under-five child mortality rate by two-thirds from the 1990 level by 2015. There has been some encouraging progress, and according to the latest figures from the World Health Organization, in 2011, just under 7 million children less than five years died, a fall of almost 3 million from a decade ago. However, such efforts must a...

  15. Long-chain n-3 PUFA supplementation decreases physical activity during class time in iron-deficient South African school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smuts, Cornelius M; Greeff, Jani; Kvalsvig, Jane; Zimmermann, Michael B; Baumgartner, Jeannine

    2015-01-01

    Both Fe deficiency and poor n-3 fatty acid status have been associated with behavioural changes in children. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Fe and DHA+EPA supplementation, alone or in combination, on physical activity during school days and on teacher-rated behaviour in healthy Fe-deficient school children. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, children (n 98, 6-11 years) were randomly assigned to receive (1) Fe (50 mg) plus DHA (420 mg)+EPA (80 mg), (2) Fe plus placebo, (3) placebo plus DHA+EPA or (4) placebo plus placebo as oral supplements (4 d/week) for 8·5 months. Physical activity was measured during four school days at baseline and endpoint using accelerometers, and data were stratified into morning class time (08.00-10.29 hours), break time (10.30-11.00 hours) and after-break class time (11.01-12.00 hours) for analysis. Classroom behaviour was assessed at endpoint using Conners' Teacher Rating Scales. DHA+EPA supplementation decreased physical activity counts during morning class time, increased sedentary physical activity, and decreased light- and moderate-intensity physical activities. Consistently, DHA+EPA supplementation increased sedentary physical activity and decreased light-intensity physical activity during after-break class time. Even though there were no treatment effects found on teacher-rated behaviour, lower physical activity during morning class time was associated with lower levels of teacher-rated hyperactivity and oppositional behaviour at endpoint. Despite a positive association between Fe status and physical activity during break time at baseline, Fe supplementation did not affect physical activity during break time and class time. Our findings suggest that DHA+EPA supplementation may decrease physical activity levels during class time, and further indicate that accelerometry might be a useful tool to assess classroom behaviour in healthy children. PMID:25471216

  16. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  17. Problem and pro-social behavior among Nigerian children with intellectual disability: the implication for developing policy for school based mental health programs

    OpenAIRE

    Bakare Muideen O; Ubochi Vincent N; Ebigbo Peter O; Orovwigho Andrew O

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background School based mental health programs are absent in most educational institutions for intellectually disabled children and adolescents in Nigeria and co-morbid behavioral problems often complicate intellectual disability in children and adolescents receiving special education instructions. Little is known about prevalence and pattern of behavioral problems existing co-morbidly among sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability. This study assessed the prevalence...

  18. Mandela’s Favourite African Folktales

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Concilio

    2014-01-01

    In this essay I would like to examine the selection of African tales that Nelson Mandela took care to leave as heritage to the future generations, not only to children, and not only to African children. The fact that a political leader, ex freedom fighter and political prisoner dedicated his time to the collection and editing of stories from all over the African continent to be addressed to new readers as simple entertainment or as educational tools clearly testifies to the great humanity, cu...

  19. Literacy Practices in the Homes of African American Families and the Perceived Affects on the Language and Literacy Development of Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Delilah A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the tenacities, practices, and discourse of family-based literacy practices and their connection in African American families. It scrutinized the influence of the practices of African American families on the multiple contexts of literacy practices in their passageway across the school-community periphery.…

  20. Measles virus antibody responses in children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer edmonston-zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age, 9 months of age, or 9 and 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos;

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends administration of measles vaccine (MV) at age 9 months in low-income countries. We tested the measles virus antibody response at 4.5, 9, 18, and 24 months of age for children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer Edmonston-Zagreb MV at 4.5 and 9 months...... levels at 24 months of age. In addition, the response at both 9 and 24 months of age was inversely correlated with the antibody level at receipt of the first dose of MV, and the second dose of MV, received at 9 months of age, provided a significant boost in antibody level to children who had low antibody...... levels. In the group of 318 children who received MV at 9 months of age, with or without a second dose at 18 months of age, 99% (314) had protective levels at 24 months of age. The geometric mean titer at 24 months of age was significantly lower in the group that received MV at 4.5 and 9 months of age...

  1. Comparison of Role Perceptions of White and African American Foster Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasuti, John P.; York, Reginald; Sandell, Karen

    2004-01-01

    The number of U.S. children entering foster care is increasing faster than the number of available foster parents. Of particular concern are the growing number of African American children in foster care and the lack of African American foster parents to care for them. This study compares role perceptions of African American and white foster…

  2. Etiology and Epidemiology of Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children from Low Income Country: A Matched Case-Control Study in Central African Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Breurec

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Sub-Saharan Africa, infectious diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A case-control study was conducted to identify the etiology of diarrhea and to describe its main epidemiologic risk factors among hospitalized children under five years old in Bangui, Central African Republic.All consecutive children under five years old hospitalized for diarrhea in the Pediatric Complex of Bangui for whom a parent's written consent was provided were included. Controls matched by age, sex and neighborhood of residence of each case were included. For both cases and controls, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded. Stool samples were collected to identify enteropathogens at enrollment. Clinical examination data and blood samples were collected only for cases.A total of 333 cases and 333 controls was recruited between December 2011 and November 2013. The mean age of cases was 12.9 months, and 56% were male. The mean delay between the onset of first symptoms and hospital admission was 3.7 days. Blood was detected in 5% of stool samples from cases. Cases were significantly more severely or moderately malnourished than controls. One of the sought-for pathogens was identified in 78% and 40% of cases and controls, respectively. Most attributable cases of hospitalized diarrhea were due to rotavirus, with an attributable fraction of 39%. Four other pathogens were associated with hospitalized diarrhea: Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, astrovirus and norovirus with attributable fraction of 9%, 10%, 7% and 7% respectively. Giardia intestinalis was found in more controls than cases, with a protective fraction of 6%.Rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis were found to be positively associated with severe diarrhea: while Giardia intestinalis was found negatively associated. Most attributable episodes of severe diarrhea were associated with rotavirus, highlighting the urgent

  3. Etiology and Epidemiology of Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children from Low Income Country: A Matched Case-Control Study in Central African Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breurec, Sébastien; Vanel, Noémie; Bata, Petulla; Chartier, Loïc; Farra, Alain; Favennec, Loïc; Franck, Thierry; Giles-Vernick, Tamara; Gody, Jean-Chrysostome; Luong Nguyen, Liem Binh; Onambélé, Manuella; Rafaï, Clotaire; Razakandrainibe, Romy; Tondeur, Laura; Tricou, Vianney; Sansonetti, Philippe; Vray, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, infectious diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A case-control study was conducted to identify the etiology of diarrhea and to describe its main epidemiologic risk factors among hospitalized children under five years old in Bangui, Central African Republic. Methods All consecutive children under five years old hospitalized for diarrhea in the Pediatric Complex of Bangui for whom a parent’s written consent was provided were included. Controls matched by age, sex and neighborhood of residence of each case were included. For both cases and controls, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded. Stool samples were collected to identify enteropathogens at enrollment. Clinical examination data and blood samples were collected only for cases. Results A total of 333 cases and 333 controls was recruited between December 2011 and November 2013. The mean age of cases was 12.9 months, and 56% were male. The mean delay between the onset of first symptoms and hospital admission was 3.7 days. Blood was detected in 5% of stool samples from cases. Cases were significantly more severely or moderately malnourished than controls. One of the sought-for pathogens was identified in 78% and 40% of cases and controls, respectively. Most attributable cases of hospitalized diarrhea were due to rotavirus, with an attributable fraction of 39%. Four other pathogens were associated with hospitalized diarrhea: Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, astrovirus and norovirus with attributable fraction of 9%, 10%, 7% and 7% respectively. Giardia intestinalis was found in more controls than cases, with a protective fraction of 6%. Conclusions Rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis were found to be positively associated with severe diarrhea: while Giardia intestinalis was found negatively associated. Most attributable episodes of severe diarrhea were associated with rotavirus

  4. Bone marrow suppression and severe anaemia associated with persistent Plasmodium falciparum infection in African children with microscopically undetectable parasitaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriques Onike

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe anaemia can develop in the aftermath of Plasmodium falciparum malaria because of protracted bone marrow suppression, possibly due to residual subpatent parasites. Materials and methods Blood was collected from patients with recent malaria and negative malaria microscopy. Detection of the Plasmodium antigens, lactate dehydrogenase (Optimal®, aldolase and histidine rich protein 2 (Now malaria® were used to differentiate between patients with (1 no malaria, (2 recent cleared malaria, (3 persistent P. falciparum infection. Red cell distribution width (RDW, plasma levels of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR and erythropoietin (EPO were measured as markers of erythropoiesis. Interleukin (IL 10 and tumour necrosis factor (TNFα were used as inflammation markers. Results EPO was correlated with haemoglobin, irrespective of malaria (R = -0.36, P P. falciparum infection, but not recent malaria without residual parasites, was associated with bone marrow suppression i.e., low RDW (P Conclusion In the treatment of malaria, complete eradication of parasites may prevent subsequent development of anaemia. Severely anaemic children may benefit from antimalarial treatment if antigen tests are positive, even when no parasites can be demonstrated by microscopy.

  5. Stakeholder Perspectives on Barriers for Healthy Living for Low-Income African American Families

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Veronnie Faye; Rowland, Michael L.; Young, Linda; Atwood, Katherine; Thompson, Kirsten; Sterrett, Emma; Honaker, Sarah Morsbach; Joel E. Williams; Johnson, Knowlton; Davis, Deborah Winders

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity is a growing problem for children in the United States, especially for children from low-income, African American families. Objective: The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand facilitators and barriers to engaging in healthy lifestyles faced by low-income African American children and their families. Methods: This qualitative study used semi-structured focus group interviews with eight African American children clinically identified as overwe...

  6. Evaluation of cosmetic appearance of herniotomy wound scars in African children: Comparison of tissue glue and subcuticular suturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademuyiwa A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the cosmetic appearance of herniotomy wound scars closed using either the tissue glue or subcuticular suturing technique. Materials and Methods: Prospective randomised control study; randomisation into tissue glue and suturing groups. Ethical clearance obtained. Cosmetic outcome were based on visual analogue scale by parents and Hollander wound evaluation scale by a Plastic Surgeon blinded to the wound closure method. Results: Fifty one wounds were evaluated, 26 in the tissue glue group and 25 in the suturing group. Parents′ evaluation using Visual Analogue scale (VAS showed that in the suturing group, 17 parents (68% gave a VAS of 8cm while six parents (24% gave a score of 7cm. Two parents (8% gave a score of 9cm. In the tissue glue group, 22 parents (84.6% scored the scar of their children as 8 or 9cm on the VAS while four parents (15.4% gave a score of 7cm. The median VAS was 8cm for both groups with a range of 7 to 9cm. The Chi- square test showed that the parents preferred tissue glue compared with subcuticular suturing (X2 = 7.90, P < 0.05. The Hollander Wound Evaluation Scale (HWES used by Plastic Surgeon showed 21 herniotomy wounds (84% had a score of 6 in the suturing group while four wounds (16% had a score of 5. In the tissue glue group, 19 wounds (73% had a score of 6, six wounds (23.1% had a score of 5 and a patient (3.8% had a score of 4. The median score is 6 for both groups. There was no statistically significant difference between both groups (X 2 = 1.481, P = 0.393. Conclusion: This study has shown that the cosmetic outcome of wound closure using the tissue glue technique and subcuticular suturing technique are similar.

  7. African dance

    OpenAIRE

    Mumberson, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The RE Open will be shown at the Mall Gallery London and the international section was judged by major practitioners and educators, print dealers and collectors, President of RE and Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum Dr Bren Unwin, John Purcell, Deborah Roslund, Colin Harrison, Dave Ferry, and Mark Hampson. Piece selected "African Dance" print.

  8. The Role of Stigma in Parental Help-Seeking for Perceived Child Behavior Problems in Urban, Low-Income African American Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Robert; Davis, Deborah Winders; Faye Jones, V; Keating, Adam; Wildman, Beth

    2015-12-01

    Significant numbers of children have diagnosable mental health problems, but only a small proportion of them receive appropriate services. Stigma has been associated with help-seeking for adult mental health problems and for Caucasian parents. The current study aims to understand factors, including stigma, associated with African American parents' help-seeking behavior related to perceived child behavior problems. Participants were a community sample of African American parents and/or legal guardians of children ages 3-8 years recruited from an urban primary care setting (N = 101). Variables included child behavior, stigma (self, friends/family, and public), object of stigma (parent or child), obstacles for engagement, intention to attend parenting classes, and demographics. Self-stigma was the strongest predictor of help-seeking among African American parents. The impact of self-stigma on parents' ratings of the likelihood of attending parenting classes increased when parents considered a situation in which their child's behavior was concerning to them. Findings support the need to consider parent stigma in the design of care models to ensure that children receive needed preventative and treatment services for behavioral/mental health problems in African American families. PMID:26370202

  9. Cooking and season as risk factors for acute lower respiratory infections in African children: a cross-sectional multi-country analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Buchner

    Full Text Available Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI are a leading cause of death among African children under five. A significant proportion of these are attributable to household air pollution from solid fuel use.We assessed the relationship between cooking practices and ALRI in pooled datasets of Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 2000 and 2011 in countries of sub-Saharan Africa. The impacts of main cooking fuel, cooking location and stove ventilation were examined in 18 (n = 56,437, 9 (n = 23,139 and 6 countries (n = 14,561 respectively. We used a causal diagram and multivariable logistic mixed models to assess the influence of covariates at individual, regional and national levels.Main cooking fuel had a statistically significant impact on ALRI risk (p<0.0001, with season acting as an effect modifier (p = 0.034. During the rainy season, relative to clean fuels, the odds of suffering from ALRI were raised for kerosene (OR 1.64; CI: 0.99, 2.71, coal and charcoal (OR 1.54; CI: 1.21, 1.97, wood (OR 1.20; CI: 0.95, 1.51 and lower-grade biomass fuels (OR 1.49; CI: 0.93, 2.35. In contrast, during the dry season the corresponding odds were reduced for kerosene (OR 1.23; CI: 0.77, 1.95, coal and charcoal (OR 1.35; CI: 1.06, 1.72 and lower-grade biomass fuels (OR 1.07; CI: 0.69, 1.66 but increased for wood (OR 1.32; CI: 1.04, 1.66. Cooking location also emerged as a season-dependent statistically significant (p = 0.0070 determinant of ALRI, in particular cooking indoors without a separate kitchen during the rainy season (OR 1.80; CI: 1.30, 2.50. Due to infrequent use in Africa we could, however, not demonstrate an effect of stove ventilation.We found differential and season-dependent risks for different types of solid fuels and kerosene as well as cooking location on child ALRI. Future household air pollution studies should consider potential effect modification of cooking fuel by season.

  10. Breastfeeding and the anthropometric profile of children with sickle cell anemia receiving follow-up in a newborn screening reference service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeni Drubi Nogueira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the breastfeeding history (BF and the anthropometric status of children with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 357 children with SCD aged between 2 and 6 years, regularly followed at a Newborn Screening Reference Service (NSRS between November 2007 and January 2009. The outcome was anthropometric status and the exposures were: BF pattern, type of hemoglobinopathy and child's age and gender. RESULTS: The mean (SD age was 3.7 (1.1 years, 52.9% were boys and 53.5% had SCA (hemoglobin SS. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding (EBR up to six months of age was 31.5%, the median EBR times (p25-p75 was 90.0 (24.0-180.0 days and the median weaning ages (p25-p75 was 360.0 (90.0-720.0 days respectively. Normal W/H children experienced EBR for a mean duration almost four times longer than malnourished children (p=0.01, and were weaned later (p<0.05. Height deficit was found in 5.0% of children, while all the children with severe short stature had had SCA (hemoglobin SS and were older than 4 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: EBF time and weaning age were greater than that found in the literature, which is a possible effect of the multidisciplinary follow-up. Duration of EBF and later weaning were associated with improved anthropometric indicators.

  11. Tensions in setting health care priorities for South Africa's children.

    OpenAIRE

    Landman, W A; Henley, L D

    1998-01-01

    The new South African constitution commits the government to guarantee "basic health services" for every child under 18. Primary health care for pregnant women and children under six and elements of essential primary health care have received priority. At present, there is little analysis of the moral considerations involved in making choices about more advanced or costly health care which may, arguably, also be "basic". This paper illustrates some of the tensions in setting priorities for a ...

  12. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  13. Breastfeeding and the anthropometric profile of children with sickle cell anemia receiving follow-up in a newborn screening reference service

    OpenAIRE

    Zeni Drubi Nogueira; Ney Boa-Sorte; Maria Efigênia de Queiroz Leite; Márcia Miyuki Kiya; Tatiana Amorim; Silvana Fahel da Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the breastfeeding history (BF) and the anthropometric status of children with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD). METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 357 children with SCD aged between 2 and 6 years, regularly followed at a Newborn Screening Reference Service (NSRS) between November 2007 and January 2009. The outcome was anthropometric status and the exposures were: BF pattern, type of hemoglobinopathy and child's age and gender. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age was 3.7 (1.1) years, 52.9...

  14. A Comparison of the Cognitive Development of 3-6 Year-Old Children Who Receive Family-Supported Preschool Education, Institutional Education and No Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembat, Rengin; Kuday, Fatma Servet

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effects of Family Supported Preschool Education programs on the development of preschool children. By measuring the effects of family-supported preschool education on cognitive development, this study helps support alternative methods of making preschool education more widespread. The study uses the experimental…

  15. Mental health of the African girl child: challenges for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, Leana

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, the ecological systems theory of child development is used as the framework for exploring research on the development of African children, especially girl children. The special problems faced by children and the challenges this raises for nurses also are described in this paper. PMID:19544126

  16. Phonological Awareness Skills in Young African American English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…

  17. HIV Prevention Counseling Intervention Delivered During Routine Clinical Care Reduces HIV Risk Behavior in HIV-Infected South Africans Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy: The Izindlela Zokuphila/Options for Health Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jeffrey D.; Cornman, Deborah H.; Shuper, Paul A.; Christie, Sarah; Pillay, Sandy; Macdonald, Susan; Ngcobo, Ntombenhle; Amico, K. Rivet; Lalloo, Umesh; Friedland, Gerald; Fisher, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Context Sustainable interventions are needed to minimize HIV risk behavior among people living with HIV (PLWH) in South Africa on antiretroviral therapy (ART), a significant proportion of whom do not achieve viral suppression. Objective To determine whether a brief lay counselor delivered intervention implemented during routine care can reduce risky sex among PLWH on ART. Design Cluster randomized 16 HIV clinical care sites in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, to intervention or standard-of-care. Setting Publicly funded HIV clinical care sites. Patients 1891 PLWH on ART received the HIV prevention counseling intervention (n = 967) or standard-of-care counseling (n = 924). Intervention Lay counselors delivered a brief intervention using motivational interviewing strategies based on the Information—Motivation—Behavioral Skills (IMB) model during routine clinical care. Main Outcome Measures Number of sexual events without a condom in the past four weeks with partners of any HIV status, and with partners perceived to be HIV-negative or HIV-status unknown, assessed at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. Results Intervention participants reported significantly greater reductions in HIV risk behavior on both primary outcomes, compared to standard-of-care participants. Differences in STI incidence between arms were not observed. Conclusion Effective behavioral interventions, delivered by lay counselors within the clinical care setting, are consistent with the strategy of linking HIV care and HIV prevention and integrating biomedical and behavioral approaches to stemming the HIV epidemic. PMID:25230288

  18. Estimating bioenergy potentials of common African agricultural residues

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Kádár, Zsófia; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2013-01-01

    Asking a bioenergy researcher about the composition of wheat straw, he would know it by heart. But if enquiring about typicalAfrican biomasses – it would be another case. Until now, biomasses common to African countries have not received the samescientific attention as biomasses from Europe, North America or Brazil. For that reason, it is difficult to estimate bioenergypotentials in the African region.As a part of an on‐going research collaboration investigating production of 2g biofuels in G...

  19. The Role of the African Languages Research Institute in Addressing Language of Instruction Dilemmas in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesta Masuku

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The lexicographic work of the African Languages Research Institute (ALRI has played a significant role in attempting to avoid some of the dilemmas associated with using African languages as media of instruction in the Zimbabwean education system. Monolingual Shona and Ndebele dictionaries, biomedical reference works, dictionaries of musical, literary and linguistic terms as well as children's dictionaries constitute part of ALRI's contribution towards the goal of mainstreaming African languages in the education system. This article is an evaluation of the research activities taking place at ALRI. The aim of the article is to demonstrate that if they receive adequate attention through corpus planning, African languages possess the capacity to play an important role as media of instruction across the entire spectrum of the education curricula in Zimbabwe and elsewhere. The article concludes by observing that, if the efforts of ALRI are to succeed, there is need for the co-operation of all stakeholders in language practice.

    Keywords: DICTIONARIES, LEXICOGRAPHY, LEXICOGRAPHER, LEXICOGRAPHIC RESEARCH, INDIGENOUS AFRICAN LANGUAGES, AFRICAN LANGUAGES RESEARCH INSTITUTE (ALRI, EDUCATION, CURRICULUM, MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION, SHONA, NDEBELE, ZIMBABWE

    Opsomming: Die rol van die African Languages Research Institute by die hantering van onderrigtaaldilemmas in Zimbabwe. Die leksikografiese werk van die African Languages Research Institute (ALRI het 'n betekenisvolle rol gespeel om sommige van die dilemmas te probeer vermy wat gepaard gaan met die gebruik van Afrikatale as onderrigmedia in die Zimbabwiese opvoedingstelsel. Eentalige Sjona- en Ndebelewoordeboeke, biomediese naslaanwerke, woordeboeke van musiek-, letterkunde- en taalkundeterme sowel as woordeboeke vir kinders maak deel uit van ALRI se bydrae tot die doelwit om Afrikatale in die hoofstroom van die opvoedingstelsel te plaas. Hierdie artikel is 'n beoordeling van die

  20. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  1. The challenge of linguistic and cultural diversity: Does length of experience affect South African speech-language therapists’ management of children with language impairment?

    OpenAIRE

    Frenette Southwood; Ondene van Dulm

    2015-01-01

    Background: South African speech-language therapists (SLTs) currently do not reflect the country’s linguistic and cultural diversity. The question arises as to who might be better equipped currently to provide services to multilingual populations: SLTs with more clinical experience in such contexts, or recently trained SLTs who are themselves linguistically and culturally diverse and whose training programmes deliberately focused on multilingualism and multiculturalism?Aims: To investigate wh...

  2. Predictors of treatment failure and time to detection and switching in HIV-infected Ethiopian children receiving first line anti-retroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacha Tigist

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of resistance to first line antiretroviral therapy (ART regimen leads to the need for more expensive and less tolerable second line drugs. Hence, it is essential to identify and address factors associated with an increased probability of first line ART regimen failure. The objective of this article is to report on the predictors of first line ART regimen failure, the detection rate of ART regime failure, and the delay in switching to second line ART drugs. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted from 2005 to 2011. All HIV infected children under the age of 15 who took first line ART for at least six months at the four major hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia were included. Data were collected, entered and analyzed using Epi info/ENA version 3.5.1 and SPSS version 16. The Cox proportional-hazard model was used to assess the predictors of first line ART failure. Results Data of 1186 children were analyzed. Five hundred seventy seven (48.8% were males with a mean age of 6.22 (SD = 3.10 years. Of the 167(14.1% children who had treatment failure, 70 (5.9% had only clinical failure, 79 (6.7% had only immunologic failure, and 18 (1.5% had both clinical and immunologic failure. Patients who had height for age in the third percentile or less at initiation of ART were found to have higher probability of ART treatment failure [Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR, 3.25 95% CI, 1.00-10.58]. Patients who were less than three years old [AHR, 1.85 95% CI, 1.24-2.76], chronic diarrhea after initiation of antiretroviral treatment [AHR, 3.44 95% CI, 1.37-8.62], ART drug substitution [AHR, 1.70 95% CI, 1.05-2.73] and base line CD4 count below 50 cells/mm3 [AHR, 2.30 95% CI, 1.28-4.14] were also found to be at higher risk of treatment failure. Of all the 167 first line ART failure cases, only 24 (14.4% were switched to second line ART with a mean delay of 24 (SD = 11.67 months. The remaining 143 (85.6% cases were diagnosed

  3. Stigma, explanatory models and unmet needs of caregivers of children with developmental disorders in a low-income African country: a cross-sectional facility-based survey

    OpenAIRE

    Tilahun, Dejene; Hanlon, Charlotte; Fekadu, Abebaw; Tekola, Bethlehem; Baheretibeb, Yonas; Hoekstra, Rosa Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding the perspectives of caregivers of children with developmental disorders living in low-income countries is important to inform intervention programmes. The purpose of this study was to examine the stigma experiences, explanatory models, unmet needs, preferred interventions and coping mechanisms of caregivers of children with developmental disorders in Ethiopia. Methods Participants comprised caregivers (n = 102) of children with developmental disorders attending two ch...

  4. High-Level Cross-Resistance to Didanosine Observed in South African Children Failing an Abacavir- or Stavudine-Based 1st-Line Regimen

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Steegen; Leon Levin; Irene Ketseoglou; Michelle Bronze; Papathanasopoulos, Maria A.; Sergio Carmona; Wendy Stevens

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The knowledge-base of emerging drug resistance profiles in children exposed to abacavir-based antiretroviral regimens in South Africa is very limited. This study investigated the suitability of didanosine-based 2nd-line regimens for children in the context of antiretroviral drug resistance patterns emerging after 1st-line virologic failure. METHODS: A retrospective dataset of 354 antiretroviral drug resistant genotypes from children failing either abacavir (n = 81) or stavudine (n...

  5. Perspectives of African Americans on Lung Cancer: A Qualitative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lathan, Christopher S.; Waldman, Laura Tesler; Browning, Emily; Gagne, Joshua; Emmons, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study suggests that African American smokers are aware of the relationship between smoking and lung cancer and are interested in smoking-cessation treatment. These data also indicate that lung cancer disparities are unlikely to be associated with differential willingness to receive care but that African Americans may perceive financial and insurance barriers to lung cancer treatment.

  6. The African School of Fundamental Physics and its Applications 2012 - English subtitles

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2012-01-01

    Forty-nine students from 15 African countries plus one student from Iran are currently attending the African School of Physics (ASP) 2012. The school, which is in its second year, is a unique opportunity for young African students to receive training in cutting-edge physics research. Listen to their voices…

  7. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  8. Infant Mortality and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... African American > Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.2 times the infant mortality rate ... birthweight as compared to non-Hispanic white infants. African Americans had almost twice the sudden infant death syndrome ...

  9. Connective Complexity: African American Adolescents and the Relational Context of Kinship Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Attempts to address racial disproportionality in child welfare must include a focus on the benefits and challenges facing children in kinship care. African American children not only are overrepresented in the child welfare system, but also are placed disproportionately in kinship foster care. Using a sample of 18 African American adolescents ages…

  10. Culturally Responsive Pedagogy in Citizenship Education: Using African Proverbs as Tools for Teaching in Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Rachel A.; Asimeng-Boahene, Lewis

    2006-01-01

    Preparing today's children to be tomorrow's global citizens will require social educators who have knowledge of the histories, experiences, and cultural practices of the children they teach. This article offers culturally responsive pedagogy and the African proverb as frames for teaching African American students to become engaged local and global…

  11. Developing Children's Awareness of the Human-Animal Bond: An Assessment of the Experiences and Benefits that Children Receive in the United Animal Nation's Humane Education Ambassador Readers (HEAR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Laura

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, the United Animal Nations (UAN) launched the Humane Education Ambassador Readers (HEAR), an innovation that focused on mitigation of animal suffering through education. In the HEAR program, adult volunteers read carefully selected story books to children in grades 3-6 in schools or other educational settings, and hold discussions with the…

  12. 儿童髓母细胞瘤34例三维适形放射治疗的疗效分析%The follow-up of 34 children with medulloblastoma who received 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongfeng He; Siheng Ha; Changsheng Wang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In our investigation, we studied the patients with medulloblastoma who received 3-dimensional con- formal radiation therapy (3DCRT) and recorded their effects, side effects and failure reasons. Methods: From August 2001 to August 2007, 34 children with medulloblastoma were treated in our hospital. The age at diagnosis was 3-16 years old, and the mean age at diagnosis was 9.5 years old. Among all the patients, 16 cases were included in the high risk group and 18cases were included in the low risk group. All the patients were performed total resection or subtotal resection and no patientsreceived radiotherapy or chemotherapy before operation. All patients received 3DCRT within 3 weeks after resection. The dose of 30 Gy were given to the whole brain and whole spine, followed by 20-25 Gy boosted to the posterior brain fossa. The median fraction dose was 180 cGy. Every patient received the chemotherapy scheme of the Lomustine, Cisplatinum and Vincristine. Nobody received intrathecal chemotherapy. The tests of the complete blood count, blood biochemistry, hepatic and renal functions were required before every cycle of chemotherapy. Results: 5-year overall survival (OS) and 5-year disease free survival (DFS) were 71% and 62% respectively. The median follow-up time was 36.5 months. The 5-year OS of the high risk group was 71% compared to 62% of the low risk group. There were significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.01). There were 13 failure cases in all the patients. Of these 13 patients, 10 were dead and the other 3 were alive with tumor. The complete remission (CR) rate was 70.5% and the partial remission (PR) rate was 14%. Among the failure patients, there were 3 patients (8.8%) with the recurrences located in the brain of cribriform region. The 5-year OS of the patients with preoperative metastases was 12.5% (1/8), and which of the patients with residual tumor volume > 1.5 cm3 was 0% (0/5). Through the statistic analysis, it was found that both

  13. What parents of children who have received emergency care think about deferring consent in randomised trials of emergency treatments: postal survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrol Gamble

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate parents' views about deferred consent to inform management of trial disclosure after a child's death. METHODS: A postal questionnaire survey was sent to members of the Meningitis Research Foundation UK charity, whose child had suffered from bacterial meningitis or meningococcal septicaemia within the previous 5 years. Main outcome measures were acceptability of deferred consent; timing of requesting consent; and the management of disclosure of the trial after a child's death. RESULTS: 220 families were sent questionnaires of whom 63 (29% were bereaved. 68 families responded (31%, of whom 19 (28% were bereaved. The majority (67% was willing for their child to be involved in the trial without the trial being explained to them beforehand; 70% wanted to be informed about the trial as soon as their child's condition had stabilised. In the event of a child's death before the trial could be discussed the majority of bereaved parents (66% 12/18 anticipated wanting to be told about the trial at some time. This compared with 37% (18/49 of non-bereaved families (p = 0.06. Parents' free text responses indicated that the word 'trial' held strongly negative connotations. A few parents regarded gaps in the evidence base about emergency treatments as indicating staff lacked expertise to care for a critically ill child. Bereaved parents' free text responses indicated the importance of individualised management of disclosure about a trial following a child's death. DISCUSSION: Deferred consent is acceptable to the majority of respondents. Parents whose children had recovered differed in their views compared to bereaved parents. Most bereaved parents would want to be informed about the trial in the aftermath of a child's death, although a minority strongly opposed such disclosure. Distinction should be drawn between the views of bereaved and non-bereaved parents when considering the acceptability of different consent processes.

  14. Optimizing the interval between G-CSF therapy and F-18 FDG PET imaging in children and young adults receiving chemotherapy for sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) speed recovery from chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression but the marrow stimulation they cause can interfere with interpretation of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET) exams. To assess the frequency of interfering G-CSF-induced bone marrow activity on FDG PET imaging in children and young adults with Ewing sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma and to define an interval between G-CSF administration and FDG PET imaging that limits marrow interference. Blinded, retrospective review of FDG PET exams performed in patients treated with long-acting G-CSF as part of their chemotherapeutic regimen. Exams were subjectively scored by two reviewers (R1 and R2) who assessed the level of marrow uptake of FDG and measured standardized uptake values in the marrow, liver, spleen and blood pool. FDG PET findings were correlated with time since G-CSF administration and with blood cell counts. Thirty-eight FDG PET exams performed in 17 patients were reviewed with 47.4% (18/38) of exams having marrow uptake of FDG sufficient to interfere with image interpretation. Primary predictors of marrow uptake of FDG were patient age (P = 0.0037) and time since G-CSF exposure (P = 0.0028 for subjective marrow uptake of FDG, P = 0.008 [R1] and P = 0.004 [R2] for measured maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax)). The median interval between G-CSF administration and PET imaging in cases with marrow activity considered normal or not likely to interfere was 19.5 days (range: 7-55 days). In pediatric and young adult patients with Ewing sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma, an interval of 20 days between administration of the long-acting form of G-CSF and FDG PET imaging should limit interference by stimulated marrow. (orig.)

  15. Optimizing the interval between G-CSF therapy and F-18 FDG PET imaging in children and young adults receiving chemotherapy for sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trout, Andrew T.; Sharp, Susan E.; Gelfand, Michael J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Turpin, Brian K. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute, Division of Oncology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Zhang, Bin [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) speed recovery from chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression but the marrow stimulation they cause can interfere with interpretation of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET) exams. To assess the frequency of interfering G-CSF-induced bone marrow activity on FDG PET imaging in children and young adults with Ewing sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma and to define an interval between G-CSF administration and FDG PET imaging that limits marrow interference. Blinded, retrospective review of FDG PET exams performed in patients treated with long-acting G-CSF as part of their chemotherapeutic regimen. Exams were subjectively scored by two reviewers (R1 and R2) who assessed the level of marrow uptake of FDG and measured standardized uptake values in the marrow, liver, spleen and blood pool. FDG PET findings were correlated with time since G-CSF administration and with blood cell counts. Thirty-eight FDG PET exams performed in 17 patients were reviewed with 47.4% (18/38) of exams having marrow uptake of FDG sufficient to interfere with image interpretation. Primary predictors of marrow uptake of FDG were patient age (P = 0.0037) and time since G-CSF exposure (P = 0.0028 for subjective marrow uptake of FDG, P = 0.008 [R1] and P = 0.004 [R2] for measured maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax)). The median interval between G-CSF administration and PET imaging in cases with marrow activity considered normal or not likely to interfere was 19.5 days (range: 7-55 days). In pediatric and young adult patients with Ewing sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma, an interval of 20 days between administration of the long-acting form of G-CSF and FDG PET imaging should limit interference by stimulated marrow. (orig.)

  16. Development and Tracking of Body Mass Index from Preschool Age into Adolescence in Rural South African Children: Ellisras Longitudinal Growth and Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    K.D. Monyeki; Monyeki, Makama A.; Brits, S.J.; Kemper, H.C.G.; Makgae, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this observational prospective cohort study was to investigate the development and tracking of body mass index (BMI) of Ellisras rural children from preschool age into late adolescence from the Ellisras Longitudinal Growth and Health Study. Heights and weights of children were measured according to the standard procedures recommended by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry twice a year from 1996 to 2003. In total, 2,225 children—550 preschool and 1,...

  17. Abacavir, zidovudine, or stavudine as paediatric tablets for African HIV-infected children (CHAPAS-3): an open-label, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    V Mulenga; Musiime, V.; Kekitiinwa, A.; Cook, AD; G Abongomera; Kenny, J.; Chabala, C; Mirembe, G.; Asiimwe, A; Owen-Powell, E.; Burger, D.; McIlleron, H.; N. Klein; Chintu, C; Thomason, MJ

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background WHO 2013 guidelines recommend universal treatment for HIV-infected children younger than 5 years. No paediatric trials have compared nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Africa, where most HIV-infected children live. We aimed to compare stavudine, zidovudine, or abacavir as dual or triple fixed-dose-combination paediatric tablets with lamivudine and nevirapine or efavirenz. Methods In this open-label, parallel-gro...

  18. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't ...

  19. Musical therapy for children receiving venous transfusion in outpatient department%浅析音乐治疗在儿内科门诊静脉穿刺输液治疗患儿中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段建华; 张婧雯; 张倩丽

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过分析患儿在北京新世纪儿童医院儿内科门诊静脉穿刺输液治疗时接受音乐治疗前后行为及言语紧张度数据,积累音乐治疗在儿科静脉穿刺输液治疗中的应用经验.方法 北京新世纪儿童医院门诊接受静脉穿刺输液治疗同时接受音乐治疗的患儿23名,采取行为评价量表和家长问卷评价患儿接受音乐治疗前后的行为和语言指标.结果 在儿内科门诊静脉穿刺输液治疗时接受音乐治疗可以使患儿语言恐惧表达率和紧张性肢体动作出现率降低,差异有统计学意义.结论 音乐治疗可以减轻静脉穿刺输液治疗对儿童的不良情绪刺激.%Objective To share the experience of musical therapy for children who receive venous transfusion in outpatient department. Methods Behavior scales and parents questionnaire were developed to obtain data before and after musical therapy for children receiving venous transfusion. Results Musical therapy could significantly reduce fearful language expression and tonic limb action. Conclusion Musical therapy was effective in reducing anxiety and distress.

  20. Diabetes in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, M.

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of t...

  1. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, ... 46 per 100,000. • The suicide rate for African Americans ages 10-19 was 2.98 per ...

  2. Cataloging the Pan-African Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Of all the honors and accolades bibliophile and noted authority on the Underground Railroad Charles Blockson has received, being bequeathed recently with some of Harriet Tubman's personal items by her great-niece is one of the most significant experiences of his life. A longtime collector of books and rare items by and about African-Americans,…

  3. Clinical epidemiology of bocavirus, rhinovirus, two polyomaviruses and four coronaviruses in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected South African children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C Nunes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advances in molecular diagnostics have implicated newly-discovered respiratory viruses in the pathogenesis of pneumonia. We aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of human bocavirus (hBoV, human rhinovirus (hRV, polyomavirus-WU (WUPyV and -KI (KIPyV and human coronaviruses (CoV-OC43, -NL63, -HKU1 and -229E among children hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI. METHODS: Multiplex real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was undertaken on archived nasopharyngeal aspirates from HIV-infected and -uninfected children (<2 years age hospitalized for LRTI, who had been previously investigated for respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza I-III, adenovirus and influenza A/B. RESULTS: At least one of these viruses were identified in 274 (53.0% of 517 and in 509 (54.0% of 943 LRTI-episodes in HIV-infected and -uninfected children, respectively. Human rhinovirus was the most prevalent in HIV-infected (31.7% and -uninfected children (32.0%, followed by CoV-OC43 (12.2% and hBoV (9.5% in HIV-infected; and by hBoV (13.3% and WUPyV (11.9% in HIV-uninfected children. Polyomavirus-KI (8.9% vs. 4.8%; p = 0.002 and CoV-OC43 (12.2% vs. 3.6%; p<0.001 were more prevalent in HIV-infected than -uninfected children. Combined with previously-tested viruses, respiratory viruses were identified in 60.9% of HIV-infected and 78.3% of HIV-uninfected children. The newly tested viruses were detected at high frequency in association with other respiratory viruses, including previously-investigated viruses (22.8% in HIV-infected and 28.5% in HIV-uninfected children. CONCLUSIONS: We established that combined with previously-investigated viruses, at least one respiratory virus was identified in the majority of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children hospitalized for LRTI. The high frequency of viral co-infections illustrates the complexities in attributing causality to specific viruses

  4. Are Ethnic and Gender Specific Equations Needed to Derive Fat Free Mass from Bioelectrical Impedance in Children of South Asian, Black African-Caribbean and White European Origin? Results of the Assessment of Body Composition in Children Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nightingale, Claire M; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Owen, Christopher G; Donin, Angela S.; Newton, Sian L.; Furness, Cheryl A.; Emma L Howard; Gillings, Rachel D.; Jonathan C K Wells; Cook, Derek G.; Whincup, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a potentially valuable method for assessing lean mass and body fat levels in children from different ethnic groups. We examined the need for ethnic- and gender-specific equations for estimating fat free mass (FFM) from BIA in children from different ethnic groups and examined their effects on the assessment of ethnic differences in body fat. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of children aged 8-10 years in London Primary schools including 325 ...

  5. Low birth weight, very low birth weight and extremely low birth weight in African children aged between 0 and 5 years old: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchamo, M E; Prista, A; Leandro, C G

    2016-08-01

    Low birth weight (LBWAcademic Search Complete in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus and Scholar Google. Quantitatives studies that investigated the association between LBW, VLBW, ELBW with growth, neurodevelopmental outcome and mortality, published between 2008 and 2015 were included. African studies with humans were eligible for inclusion. From the total of 2205 articles, 12 articles were identified as relevant and were subsequently reviewed in full version. Significant associations were found between LBW, VLBW and ELBW with growth, neurodevelopmental outcome and mortality. Surviving VLBW and ELBW showed increased risk of death, growth retardation and delayed neurodevelopment. Post-neonatal interventions need to be carried out in order to minimize the short-term effects of VLBW and ELBW. PMID:27072315

  6. Cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis: the African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldeyarbi, Hebatalla M; Abu El-Ezz, Nadia M T; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2016-07-01

    The present overview discusses the findings of cryptosporidiosis research conducted in Africa and highlights the currently available information on Cryptosporidium epidemiology, genetic diversity, and distribution on the African continent, particularly among vulnerable populations, including children. It also emphasizes the burden of cryptosporidiosis, which is underestimated due to the presence of many silent asymptomatic carriers.Cryptosporidiosis is recognized as one of the leading causes of childhood diarrhea in African countries. It has dramatic adverse effects on child growth and development and causes increased mortality on a continent where HIV, poverty, and lack of sanitation and infrastructure increase the risk of cryptosporidial waterborne infection. PMID:27126869

  7. Pentoxifylline as an adjunct therapy in children with cerebral malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokwaro Gilbert

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pentoxifylline (PTX affects many processes that may contribute to the pathogenesis of severe malaria and it has been shown to reduce the duration of coma in children with cerebral malaria. This pilot study was performed to assess pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy of PTX in African children with cerebral malaria. Methods Ten children admitted to the high dependency unit of the Kilifi District Hospital in Kenya with cerebral malaria (Blantyre coma score of 2 or less received quinine plus a continuous infusion of 10 mg/kg/24 hours PTX for 72 hours. Five children were recruited as controls and received normal saline instead of PTX. Plasma samples were taken for PTX and tumour necrosis factor (TNF levels. Blantyre Coma Score, parasitemia, hematology and vital signs were assessed 4 hourly. Results One child (20% in the control group died, compared to four children (40% in the PTX group. This difference was not significant (p = 0.60. Laboratory parameters and clinical data were comparable between groups. TNF levels were lower in children receiving PTX. Conclusions The small sample size does not permit definitive conclusions, but the mortality rate was unexpectedly high in the PTX group.

  8. Nutritional zinc deficiency, immune capacity and malaria : a study on mediators of immunity to malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum in African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbugi, E.V.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis aimed at investigating the role of genetic and nutritional factors that affect the immune response to malaria in Tanzanian children. The introductory chapter (Chapter 1) reviews the importance of nutritional deficiencies, particularly of zinc, and presents the hypothesis that such defici

  9. Unique and Protective Contributions of Parenting and Classroom Processes to the Adjustment of African American Children Living in Single-Parent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Dorsey, Shannon; Forehand, Rex; Armistead, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Examined contributions parenting and classroom processes make to 7- to 15-year-olds' self-regulation and adjustment among single-parent Black families. Found that parenting and classroom processes contributed uniquely to children's adjustment through the development of self-regulation, and that each process could serve a protective or stabilizing…

  10. Eating Disorders in African American Girls: Implications for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…

  11. "Are You Sure You Know What You Are Doing?"--The Lived Experiences of an African American Male Kindergarten Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Nathaniel; Browder, Jamison K.

    2013-01-01

    As of 2012, data indicate that only one percent of public school teachers are African American males. Numerous reports urge decision makers and higher education professionals to aggressively recruit and retain African American males as teachers in an effort to improve the academic outcomes of African American children in our educational system…

  12. Mobility, surveillance and control of children and young people in the everyday : perspectives from sub-Saharan Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, G.; Hampshire, K; Munthali, A; Robson, E.

    2011-01-01

    Surveillance of children and young people in non-Western contexts has received little attention in the literature. In this paper we draw principally on our research in one African country, Malawi, to examine the ways in which their independent travel is shaped by (usually adult-directed) surveillance and control in diverse urban and rural contexts. Surveillance is interpreted very broadly, because our empirical data indicates a range of practices whereby a close watch is kept over childr...

  13. Influence of Adiposity on Insulin Resistance and Glycemia Markers Among U.K. Children of South Asian, Black African-Caribbean, and White European Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Claire M Nightingale; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Owen, Christopher G; Jonathan C K Wells; Sattar, Naveed; Cook, Derek G.; Whincup, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Ethnic differences in type 2 diabetes risk between South Asians and white Europeans originate before adult life and are not fully explained by higher adiposity levels in South Asians. Although metabolic sensitivity to adiposity may differ between ethnic groups, this has been little studied in childhood. We have therefore examined the associations among adiposity, insulin resistance, and glycemia markers in children of different ethnic origins. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Cross-secti...

  14. The relationship between quality of child-caregiver attachment, self-evaluation and cognitive development in a group of preschool South African children / Marichelle van Deventer

    OpenAIRE

    Van Deventer, Marichelle

    2008-01-01

    Attachment theory is a fast growing field which contribute considerably to the understanding of the quality of the child-caregiver relationship and its influence in the shaping of the child. The attachment system utilizes cognitive components (Internal Working Models (IWM's)) of the attachment figure, the self and the environment, during the child's interaction with the primary caregiver. These models permit successful navigation of a child's environment, influence the way children construe t...

  15. Parental Perspectives on Antismoking Discussions With Adolescents in Rural African American Households, May 2004-January 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Susan; Crozier Kegler, Michelle; Escoffery, Cam

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to use qualitative interviews to examine antismoking discussions African American parents and adult family members have with adolescent children. This study is one of the first studies to examine the content of family discussions about not smoking among rural African American families from the perspective of parents and extended family members. Methods Interview topics included discussions with their children, how their children reacted to those disc...

  16. What Teachers Perceive--Children Receive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algozzine, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Reports a study designed to ascertain the relationship between teacher perceived attractiveness and classroom interactions and suggests that "main effects" such as facial attractiveness of youngsters acts to determine individual potential for interactions with others. (MH)

  17. African Otter Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Reed-Smith; Hughes Akpona; Grace Yoxon

    2016-01-01

    All concerned thought this was an excellent workshop with important progress made towards creating a viable beginning of an African Otter Network. There is a long road ahead but the 2015 African Otter Workshop is a start on developing range country partners, activists and researchers as well as collaborating on issue identification and resolution which will assist in preserving at least some refugia for Africa’s otters. A list of actions was agreed on, including the creation of an African Ott...

  18. African and non-African admixture components in African Americans and an African Caribbean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Tanda; Beaty, Terri H; Mathias, Rasika A; Rafaels, Nicholas; Grant, Audrey Virginia; Faruque, Mezbah U; Watson, Harold R; Ruczinski, Ingo; Dunston, Georgia M; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2010-09-01

    Admixture is a potential source of confounding in genetic association studies, so it becomes important to detect and estimate admixture in a sample of unrelated individuals. Populations of African descent in the US and the Caribbean share similar historical backgrounds but the distributions of African admixture may differ. We selected 416 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate and compare admixture proportions using STRUCTURE in 906 unrelated African Americans (AAs) and 294 Barbadians (ACs) from a study of asthma. This analysis showed AAs on average were 72.5% African, 19.6% European and 8% Asian, while ACs were 77.4% African, 15.9% European, and 6.7% Asian which were significantly different. A principal components analysis based on these AIMs yielded one primary eigenvector that explained 54.04% of the variation and captured a gradient from West African to European admixture. This principal component was highly correlated with African vs. European ancestry as estimated by STRUCTURE (r(2)=0.992, r(2)=0.912, respectively). To investigate other African contributions to African American and Barbadian admixture, we performed PCA on approximately 14,000 (14k) genome-wide SNPs in AAs, ACs, Yorubans, Luhya and Maasai African groups, and estimated genetic distances (F(ST)). We found AAs and ACs were closest genetically (F(ST)=0.008), and both were closer to the Yorubans than the other East African populations. In our sample of individuals of African descent, approximately 400 well-defined AIMs were just as good for detecting substructure as approximately 14,000 random SNPs drawn from a genome-wide panel of markers. PMID:20717976

  19. RRH: envenoming syndrome due to 200 stings from Africanized honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Almeida Rosa da Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Envenoming syndrome from Africanized bee stings is a toxic syndrome caused by the inoculation of large amounts of venom from multiple bee stings, generally more than five hundred. The incidence of severe toxicity from Africanized bee stings is rare but deadly. This report reveals that because of the small volume of distribution, having fewer stings does not exempt a patient from experiencing an unfavorable outcome, particularly in children, elderly people or underweight people.

  20. English South African children’s literature and the environment

    OpenAIRE

    E.R. Jenkins

    2004-01-01

    Historical studies of nature conservation and literary criticism of fiction concerned with the natural environment provide some pointers for the study of South African children’s literature in English. This kind of literature, in turn, has a contribution to make to studies of South African social history and literature. There are English-language stories, poems and picture books for children which reflect human interaction with nature in South Africa since early in the nineteenth century: fro...

  1. Chronic Pain in Older African American Grandparent Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Staja Q

    2016-06-01

    African American grandparent caregiving is increasing, and evidence shows that grandparent caregiving influences health and its management. As older adults age, their potential of experiencing chronic pain increases, and this is profound given that physiological research shows that African Americans, aside from aging, may have a predisposition for developing chronic pain. Research shows older African Americans experience significant chronic pain, but few have discussed the implications of managing chronic pain in older African Americans who have added parental responsibility. Many older African Americans receive home healthcare services and there is a unique role for home healthcare clinicians in caring for this vulnerable population. This article discusses the impact of pain on caregiving, challenges in pain management, and practice and policy implications to assist home healthcare clinicians maintain the safety and protection of both the older grandparent and grandchildren. PMID:27243429

  2. HIV Infection and the Epidemiology of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD in South African Adults and Older Children Prior to the Introduction of a Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Meiring

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is the commonest cause of bacteremic pneumonia among HIV-infected persons. As more countries with high HIV prevalence are implementing infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV programs, we aimed to describe the baseline clinical characteristics of adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD in the pre-PCV era in South Africa in order to interpret potential indirect effects following vaccine use.National, active, laboratory-based surveillance for IPD was conducted in South Africa from 1 January 2003 through 31 December 2008. At 25 enhanced surveillance (ES hospital sites, clinical data, including HIV serostatus, were collected from IPD patients ≥ 5 years of age. We compared the clinical characteristics of individuals with IPD in those HIV-infected and -uninfected using multivariable analysis. PCV was introduced into the routine South African Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI in 2009.In South Africa, from 2003-2008, 17 604 cases of IPD occurred amongst persons ≥ 5 years of age, with an average incidence of 7 cases per 100 000 person-years. Against a national HIV-prevalence of 18%, 89% (4190/4734 of IPD patients from ES sites were HIV-infected. IPD incidence in HIV-infected individuals is 43 times higher than in HIV-uninfected persons (52 per 100 000 vs. 1.2 per 100 000, with a peak in the HIV-infected elderly population of 237 per 100 000 persons. Most HIV-infected individuals presented with bacteremia (74%, 3 091/4 190. HIV-uninfected individuals were older; and had more chronic conditions (excluding HIV than HIV-infected persons (39% (210/544 vs. 19% (790/4190, p<0.001. During the pre-PCV immunization era in South Africa, 71% of serotypes amongst HIV-infected persons were covered by PCV13 vs. 73% amongst HIV-uninfected persons, p = 0.4, OR 0.9 (CI 0.7-1.1.Seventy to eighty-five percent of adult IPD in the pre-PCV era were vaccine serotypes and 93% of cases had recognized risk factors (including HIV-infection for

  3. Percepción y expectativas de cuidadoras de niños con gran discapacidad: Sobre la atención sanitaria recibida Perception and expectations of mothers with seriously disable children on received sanitary attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Cruz-Escobosa

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: (1 Conocer la percepción que tienen las cuidadoras principales de niños con Gran Discapacidad respecto a la atención recibida dentro del Sistema Sanitario Público de Andalucía. (2 Identificar propuestas de mejora para la atención integral tanto de los niños, como de sus cuidadoras. Metodología: estudio cualitativo mediante Grupo Focal con madres/padres de niños y niñas diagnosticados de patologías crónicas que generan gran dependencia con edades comprendidas entre 4 y 12 años. Resultados: las repercusiones de la enfermedad de sus hijos en sus familias y en ellas supusieron un impacto total. Expresan una falta de apoyo familiar efectivo y de tiempo para su autocuidado. Perciben un trato y una atención mejorable por parte de algunos de los profesionales de Atención Especializada. En el Centro de Salud ven muy positivo el trato de los profesionales, la accesibilidad, las facilidades que encuentran ante cualquier problema que les surge y ahora el plan de atención a cuidadoras de grandes discapacitados. Conclusiones: es necesario tener en cuenta la visión de las madres en el tratamiento de la enfermedad de sus hijos. Asumirla por los profesionales como una información valiosa va a producir una mejora en la calidad prestada. Valoran que se les informe con claridad y no técnicamente. Cualquier intervención del sistema socio-sanitario debe abarcar al paciente, a la cuidadora y a la familia, aumentar las prestaciones ofrecidas, especialmente el tratamiento rehabilitador y facilitar recursos para minimizar la sobrecarga económica y emocional.Objectives: (1 To know the perception which they have the main nursemaids of children with seriously disabilities about the attention received within the Public System Sanitary of Andalusia, identifying strong and weak points. (2 To as much identify proposals of improvement for the integral attention of the children, as of its nursemaids. Methodology: qualitative study by means of Focal

  4. Optical communication receiver design

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Stephen B

    2006-01-01

    Copublished with IEE. This Tutorial Text provides an overview of design principles for receivers used in optical communication systems, intended for practicing engineers. The author reviews technologies used to construct optical links and illustrates the flow of system performance specifications into receiver requirements. Photodetector fundamentals, associated statistics, characteristics and performance issues are presented, together with a tutorial on noise analysis and the specific techniques needed to model optical receivers.

  5. Empowering African States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China helps bring lasting peace and stability to Africa African think tanks expressed a high opinion of China’s role in helping build African peace and security at the first meeting of the China-Africa Think Tanks Forum. The

  6. African Literature as Celebration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achebe, Chinua

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Igbo tradition of "Mbari," a communal creative enterprise that celebrates the world and the life lived in it through art. Contrasts the cooperative, social dimension of pre-colonial African culture with the exclusion and denial of European colonialism, and sees new African literature again celebrating human presence and dignity. (AF)

  7. Delphi Accounts Receivable Module

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...

  8. Violence, homelessness, and HIV risk among crack-using African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Lam, Wendy K K; Zule, William; Hall, Grace; Middlesteadt, Rachel; Edwards, Jessica

    2003-01-01

    This study compares the characteristics of out-of-treatment, homeless, crack-using African-American women with those who are not homeless to determine what risks and protective factors differentiate the two groups. From 1999 to 2001, 683 out-of-treatment, African-American crack-using women (of whom 219 were categorized as homeless) were interviewed and serologically tested. Risk factors that were examined include adverse childhood experiences, psychological distress, physical health, violence and victimization, drug use, and risky sex behaviors. Protective factors that were examined include marital status, education, public assistance, and the responsibility of caring for children. Overall, both groups of women started crack use in their mid-twenties and started drug use with alcohol in their teenage years, though differed significantly on each risk factor examined. Logistic regression analysis found that variables associated with increased odds of being homeless are physical abuse before age 18, crack runs greater than 24 hours, income less than dollars 500 in the last 30 days, depression, and current cigarette smoking. Protective factors found are marital status, living with children under 18, having had a physical in the past year, and receiving money from welfare in the last 30 days. Being sexually assaulted in the past 90 days was marginally associated with homelessness in the model. These findings, specific to crack-using African-American women, suggest that not only do these women overall report painful histories and currently stressful lives, but homeless women are more likely than women who are not homeless to have experienced childhood abuse and are more involved with drug use. Interventions designed for these women need to consider gender, cultural, and contextual issues that not only incorporate aspects of risk reduction related to violence, alcohol use, and comorbid conditions, but also linkages that will address housing issues, education, and skills

  9. Study of the factors associated with dental caries in children who receive early dental care Estudo de fatores associados à cárie dental em crianças que recebem atendimento odontológico precoce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Calixto FRAIZ

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the factors associated with the development of dental caries in preschool children who receive regular dental care and follow-up. The research was carried out at the Baby Clinic, Londrina State University, and comprised two hundred preschool children, whose ages ranged from 24 to 48 months, as well as their mothers, who had already taken part in a dental program at the Baby Clinic during, at least, the previous twelve months. Regarding oral hygiene habits, there was no significant difference between the preschool children who presented with caries and those who did not present with caries. However, the presence of visible bacterial plaque on the upper incisors was strongly associated with the presence of dental caries. Other factors associated with the presence of caries were: period of formal education of the father or of both parents equal or inferior to 8 years, high sugar consumption and bottle-feeding during sleep. In the studied population, the dietary pattern is still the main cause of carious lesions. In addition, the presence of visible bacterial plaque on the labial surface of the upper incisors must be considered as an important clinical sign, often associated with inadequate patterns of diet and oral hygiene.Esta pesquisa estudou os fatores associados com o desenvolvimento de cárie dentária em pré-escolares que recebem acompanhamento e intervenção odontológica. O estudo abrangeu 200 crianças, de 24 a 48 meses de idade, que participavam do programa da Bebê-Clínica (Universidade Estadual de Londrina havia pelo menos 12 meses. A comparação entre as crianças com cárie e sem cárie não apresentou diferenças estatisticamente significantes com relação aos hábitos de higiene bucal. No entanto, a presença de placa visível nos incisivos superiores esteve fortemente associada com a presença de cárie dentária. Outros fatores relacionados à presença de cárie foram a educação formal

  10. African American Families on Autism Diagnosis and Treatment: The Influence of Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Karen; Morris, Edith; Manning-Courtney, Patricia; Anthony, Jean; Shambley-Ebron, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Cultural factors such as health care access and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom interpretations have been proposed as impacting delayed diagnosis and treatment for African American children with ASD. A qualitative study of urban African American families caring for their child with autism was conducted with 24 family members and 28 ASD…

  11. African American English and Spelling: How Do Second Graders Spell Dialect-Sensitive Features of Words?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton-Terry, Nicole; Connor, Carol

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the spelling skills of African American second graders who produced African American English (AAE) features in speech. The children (N = 92), who varied in spoken AAE use and word reading skills, were asked to spell words that contained phonological and morphological dialect-sensitive (DS) features that can vary between AAE and…

  12. Taking Boys out of the Hood: Exile as a Parenting Strategy for African American Male Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.; Van Brakle, Mischelle; St. Vil, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that inner-city neighborhood effects are correlated with school dropout, substance abuse, crime, violence, homicide, HIV risk related behaviors, and incarceration for adolescent African American males. Parents of adolescent African American males face many challenges as they try to keep their children safe in high-risk…

  13. Meaningful Learning with African American Families: The Freedom Quilt FunPacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell-Mikle, Angiline; Patton, Mary Martin

    2004-01-01

    Despite some characterization as being uninvolved in the education of their children, African American parents have always valued education and recognized it as the key to economic and political freedom. Despite laws in the United States prohibiting the education of slaves, African Americans were the first southerners to campaign for universal,…

  14. African Peacekeepers in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    peacekeeping operations in the region. It is important to add that the international community has frequently tried to facilitate the deployment of African armed forces with aid and training. From this reality, the following study goes beyond the current literature by focusing on the international factors...... behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...

  15. Reading the African context

    OpenAIRE

    Musonda Bwalya

    2012-01-01

    There is so much alienation, pain and suffering in our today�s world. In this vein, African Christianity, a voice amongst many voices, should seek to be a transformational religion for the whole of life, affecting all facets of human life towards a fuller life of all in Africa. This article sought to highlight and point to some of the major societal challenges in the African context which African Christianity, as a life-affirming religion, should continue to embrace, re-embrace and engag...

  16. Developments and Microbiological applications in African foods: Emphasis on Nigerian Wara cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Raheem, Bamidele

    2006-01-01

    African indigenous foods have received limited research. Most of these indigenous foods are fermented and they form part of the rich nutritional culture of many groups in African countries. The industrialization and commercialisation of these indigenous African fermented foods should be preceded by a thorough scientific knowledge of their processing which can be vital in the elimination of hunger and poverty. This study highlighted emerging developments and the microbiology of cereal-based an...

  17. Capitalism and African business cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars and practitioners once commonly linked 'African culture' to a distinctive 'African capitalism', at odds with genuine capitalism and the demands of modern business. Yet contemporary African business cultures reveal that a capitalist ethos has taken hold within both state and society. The success and visibility of an emergent, and celebrated, class of African big business reveals that business and profit are culturally acceptable. Existing theories of African capitalism are ill-equippe...

  18. "Give a Brotha a Break!": The Experiences and Dilemmas of Middle-Class African American Male Students in White Suburban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Beverly M.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Today, in the era of the first African American president, approximately one third of all African Americans live in suburban communities, and their children are attending suburban schools. Although most research on the education of African American students, particularly males, focuses on their plight in urban schooling, what…

  19. Ceramic Solar Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Solar receiver uses ceramic honeycomb matrix to absorb heat from Sun and transfer it to working fluid at temperatures of 1,095 degrees and 1,650 degrees C. Drives gas turbine engine or provides heat for industrial processes.

  20. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  1. Women and the social construction of gender in African development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalu, A C

    1996-01-01

    Because a footnote of Marxism teaches that capitalism must first destroy primitive cultures that lack a dynamic social change mechanism and then rejuvenate them as modern industrialized states, the economic and cultural bases of social relationships in developing countries have been deemed irrelevant. In a similar way, Western feminist paradigms fail to acknowledge epistemological differences from those of African women. This article explores these contradictions and analyzes social change mechanisms within the Igbo culture in Africa that were stunted by colonialism. The first topic considered is the relationship of African literature (using Toni Morrison's "Beloved" as a point of reference) with sustainable African development and African women. The remainder of the article is devoted to an examination of the role of women in light of precolonial and colonial literary traditions. It is noted that continued use of Western feudal and capitalist terms for self-identification alienates Africans from Africa's problems. Traditional African thought assigned women the power to feed the family and to serve as protectors of children and society, and ancestral wisdom directed how societies responded to threats, took charge of their world, and resolved conflict. Problems faced by contemporary African researchers are shown to center on the dilemma faced by those who wish to design a program that analyzes the content of African development and provides contemporary solutions without completely deriving the program completely from contemporary thought. It is, thus, concluded that redefinition of the African development agenda must involve recognition of the essential role of African women as a change agent and a rearticulation of the male role within traditional thought. PMID:12292424

  2. Multicenter Study of Human Papillomavirus and the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: Knowledge and Attitudes among People of African Descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Blackman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare knowledge and attitudes of human papillomavirus (HPV and the vaccine between different cultures of African descent. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of 555 African-Americans and Afro-Caribbeans residing in the US and the Bahamas (BHM was conducted. Results. General knowledge about HPV and the HPV vaccine differed between the two countries significantly. Bahamian respondents were less likely to have higher numbers of correct knowledge answers when compared to Americans (Adjusted Odds Ratio [Adj. OR] 0.47, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.30–0.75. Older age, regardless of location, was also associated with answering fewer questions correctly (Adj. OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.40–0.92. Attitudes related to HPV vaccination were similar between the US and BHM, but nearly 80% of BHM respondents felt that children should not be able to receive the vaccine without parental consent compared to 57% of American respondents. Conclusions. Grave lack of knowledge, safety and cost concerns, and influence of parental restrictions may negatively impact vaccine uptake among African-American and Afro-Caribbean persons. Interventions to increase the vaccine uptake in the Caribbean must include medical provider and parental involvement. Effective strategies for education and increasing vaccine uptake in BHM are crucial for decreasing cervical cancer burden in the Caribbean.

  3. Vaccination coverage and timeliness in three South African areas: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders David

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Timely vaccination is important to induce adequate protective immunity. We measured vaccination timeliness and vaccination coverage in three geographical areas in South Africa. Methods This study used vaccination information from a community-based cluster-randomized trial promoting exclusive breastfeeding in three South African sites (Paarl in the Western Cape Province, and Umlazi and Rietvlei in KwaZulu-Natal between 2006 and 2008. Five interview visits were carried out between birth and up to 2 years of age (median follow-up time 18 months, and 1137 children were included in the analysis. We used Kaplan-Meier time-to-event analysis to describe vaccination coverage and timeliness in line with the Expanded Program on Immunization for the first eight vaccines. This included Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG, four oral polio vaccines and 3 doses of the pentavalent vaccine which protects against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type B. Results The proportion receiving all these eight recommended vaccines were 94% in Paarl (95% confidence interval [CI] 91-96, 62% in Rietvlei (95%CI 54-68 and 88% in Umlazi (95%CI 84-91. Slightly fewer children received all vaccines within the recommended time periods. The situation was worst for the last pentavalent- and oral polio vaccines. The hazard ratio for incomplete vaccination was 7.2 (95%CI 4.7-11 for Rietvlei compared to Paarl. Conclusions There were large differences between the different South African sites in terms of vaccination coverage and timeliness, with the poorer areas of Rietvlei performing worse than the better-off areas in Paarl. The vaccination coverage was lower for the vaccines given at an older age. There is a need for continued efforts to improve vaccination coverage and timeliness, in particular in rural areas. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00397150

  4. Educational and socio-cultural experiences of immigrant students in South African schools

    OpenAIRE

    Vandeyar, Saloshna

    2010-01-01

    The advent of democracy and the easing of both legal and unauthorised entry to South Africa have made the country a new destination for Black asylum-seekers, long-distance traders, entrepreneurs, students and professionals. As this population continues to grow, its children have begun to experience South African schools in an array of uniquely challenging ways. In addition to opening their doors to all South African children irrespective of race, colour or creed, most public schools in South ...

  5. Incidencia de bacteriemia asociada a catéter en niños hospitalizados que reciben nutrición parenteral Blood-stream catheter related infection in inpatient children receiving parenteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vaquero Sosa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones relacionadas con el catéter son la complicación más grave en los pacientes portadores de un catéter venoso central. Se considera que la nutrición parenteral (NP constituye un factor de riesgo de desarrollar una infección relacionada con el catéter (IRCat. Material y métodos: para conocer la tasa de infección y poder establecer estrategias de prevención de la infección nosocomial, se revisaron todas las historias de los 120 pacientes que recibieron NP a lo largo de 2008. Todas las historias de los pacientes con un episodio fiebre y hemocultivo positivo fueron consideradas. La tasa de infección se definió como número de episodios por cada 1000 días de NP. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 48 hemocultivos positivos. La tasa global de bacteriemia asociada a catéter fue de 37,8/1000 días de NP. La incidencia fue significativamente mayor en lactantes menores de 2 años de edad. Los gérmenes que se encontraron con mayor frecuencia fueron Estafilococo coagulasa negativo (56,8%, seguidos de bacilos Gram (20,8%, Staph aureus (12,5% y los hongos (12,5%. No encontramos diferencias en la tasa de infección cuando ajustamos por la enfermedad de base o la duración de la NP. Conclusiones: La tasa de infección en niños con NP en el hospital es considerablemente elevada. La NP parece constituir un factor de riesgo de desarrollar IRCat. Es necesario establecer políticas adecuadas y continuadas para conseguir disminuir la tasa de infección nosocomial.Blood-stream catheter related infection is the most severe complication in patients carrying a central venous catheter. Parenteral nutrition (PN use seems to be a risk factor for developing a catheter-related infection (CRI. Material & methods: In order to know the incidence of CRI in children to further implement policies to reduce nosocomial infection, we review all charts of children (1 month to 17 years who received parenteral nutrition while in hospital. All episodes of fever

  6. Problem and pro-social behavior among Nigerian children with intellectual disability: the implication for developing policy for school based mental health programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakare Muideen O

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School based mental health programs are absent in most educational institutions for intellectually disabled children and adolescents in Nigeria and co-morbid behavioral problems often complicate intellectual disability in children and adolescents receiving special education instructions. Little is known about prevalence and pattern of behavioral problems existing co-morbidly among sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability. This study assessed the prevalence and pattern of behavioral problems among Nigerian children with intellectual disability and also the associated factors. Method Teachers' rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ was used to screen for behavioral problems among children with intellectual disability in a special education facility in south eastern Nigeria. Socio-demographic questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic information of the children. Results A total of forty four (44 children with intellectual disability were involved in the study. Twenty one (47.7% of the children were classified as having behavioral problems in the borderline and abnormal categories on total difficulties clinical scale of SDQ using the cut-off point recommended by Goodman. Mild mental retardation as compared to moderate, severe and profound retardation was associated with highest total difficulties mean score. Males were more likely to exhibit conduct and hyperactivity behavioral problems compared to the females. The inter-clinical scales correlations of teachers' rated SDQ in the studied population also showed good internal consistency (Cronbach Alpha = 0.63. Conclusion Significant behavioral problems occur co-morbidly among Nigerian children with intellectual disability receiving special education instructions and this could impact negatively on educational learning and other areas of functioning. There is an urgent need for establishing school-based mental health program and appropriate

  7. Solar thermal central receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Market issues, environmental impact, and technology issues related to the Solar Central Receiver concept are addressed. The rationale for selection of the preferred configuration and working fluid are presented as the result of a joint utility-industry analysis. A $30 million conversion of Solar One to an external molten salt receiver would provide the intermediate step to a commercial demonstration plant. The first plant in this series could produce electricity at 11.2 cents/kWhr and the seventh at 8.2 cents/kWhr, completely competitive with projected costs of new utility plants in 1992

  8. Wideband CMOS receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Luis

    2015-01-01

    This book demonstrates how to design a wideband receiver operating in current mode, in which the noise and non-linearity are reduced, implemented in a low cost single chip, using standard CMOS technology.  The authors present a solution to remove the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) block and connect directly the mixer’s output to a passive second-order continuous-time Σ∆ analog to digital converter (ADC), which operates in current-mode. These techniques enable the reduction of area, power consumption, and cost in modern CMOS receivers.

  9. The Origins of African-American Family Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Steven

    1994-01-01

    Uses the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series to trace race differences in African American family structure between 1880 and 1980. Confirms a long-standing high incidence rate of single parenthood and children residing without their parents. Data also show blacks have had a consistently higher percentage of extended households than have whites.…

  10. Psychopathology in African Unaccompanied Refugee Minors in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Julia; Karnik, Niranjan; Voelkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Steiner, Hans

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of a range of psychopathology among African unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) in Austria. Additionally, the predictive value of war exposure on PTSD symptoms was examined. Forty-one URMs were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents, the Youth Self-Report, the UCLA…

  11. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset among African American Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.

    2010-01-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship…

  12. Dental Care Issues for African Immigrant Families of Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeng, Cecilia S.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines dental health issues for African immigrant families of preschoolers living in the United States. The study was done within the framework of narrative inquiry and ethnographic impressionism. Through personal interviews and questionnaire completion, 125 parents of children ages 3 to 5 answered questions about ways in which…

  13. Effect on longitudinal growth and anemia of zinc or multiple micronutrients added to vitamin A: a randomized controlled trial in children aged 6-24 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luabeya Kany-Kany A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of zinc or multiple micronutrient supplementations in African children are uncertain. African children may differ from other populations of children in developing countries because of differences in the prevalence of zinc deficiency, low birth weight and preterm delivery, recurrent or chronic infections such as HIV, or the quality of complementary diets and genetic polymorphisms affecting iron metabolism. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether adding zinc or multiple micronutrients to vitamin A supplementation improves longitudinal growth or reduces prevalence of anemia in children aged 6-24 months. Methods Randomized, controlled double-blinded trial of prophylactic micronutrient supplementation to children aged 6-24 months. Children in three cohorts - 32 HIV-infected children, 154 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers, and 187 uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers - were separately randomly assigned to receive daily vitamin A (VA [n = 124], vitamin A plus zinc (VAZ [n = 123], or multiple micronutrients that included vitamin A and zinc (MM [n = 126]. Results Among all children there were no significant differences between intervention arms in length-for-age Z scores (LAZ changes over 18 months. Among stunted children (LAZ below -2 [n = 62], those receiving MM had a 0.7 Z-score improvement in LAZ versus declines of 0.3 in VAZ and 0.2 in VA (P = 0.029 when comparing effects of treatment over time. In the 154 HIV-uninfected children, MM ameliorated the effect of repeated diarrhea on growth. Among those experiencing more than six episodes, those receiving MM had no decline in LAZ compared to 0.5 and 0.6 Z-score declines in children receiving VAZ and VA respectively (P = 0.06 for treatment by time interaction. After 12 months, there was 24% reduction in proportion of children with anemia (hemoglobin below 11 g/dL in MM arm (P = 0.001, 11% in VAZ (P = 0.131 and 18% in VA (P = 0

  14. Pressure difference receiving ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2007-01-01

    Directional sound receivers are useful for locating sound sources, and they can also partly compensate for the signal degradations caused by noise and reverberations. Ears may become inherently directional if sound can reach both surfaces of the eardrum. Attempts to understand the physics of such...

  15. Olympus beacon receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergaard, Jens

    1988-01-01

    A medium-size Beacon Receiving System for reception and processing of the B1 (20 GHz) and B2 (30 GHz) beacons from Olympus has been developed. Integration of B1 and B2 receiving equipment into one system using one antenna and a common computer for control and data processing provides the advantages of a compact configuration and synchronization of the two receiver chains. Range for co-polar signal attenuation meaurement is about 30 dB for both beacons, increasing to 40 dB for B2 if the receivers are synchronized to B1. The accuracy is better than 0.5 dB. Cross-polarization discriminations of the order of 10 to 30 dB may be determined with an accuracy of 1 to 2 dB. A number of radiometers for complementary measurements of atmospheric attenuation of 13 to 30 GHz has also been constructed. A small multi-frequency system for operation around 22 GHz and 31 GHz is presently under development.

  16. Characterizing the admixed African ancestry of African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Zakharia, Fouad; Basu, Analabha; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Go, Alan S.; Hlatky, Mark A.; Iribarren, Carlos; Knowles, Joshua W.; Li, Jun; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian; Sidney, Steven; Southwick, Audrey; Myers, Richard M.; Quertermous, Thomas; Risch, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Accurate, high-throughput genotyping allows the fine characterization of genetic ancestry. Here we applied recently developed statistical and computational techniques to the question of African ancestry in African Americans by using data on more than 450,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 94 Africans of diverse geographic origins included in the...

  17. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  18. Severe Anemia in Malawian Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calis, J.C.J.; Kamija, S.P.; Faragher, E.B.; Brabin, B.J.; Bates, I.; Cuevas, L.E.; Haan, de R.J.; Phiri, A.I.; Malange, P.; Khoka, M.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Lieshout, L.; Beld, M.G.H.M.; Teo, Y.Y.; Rockett, K.A.; Richardson, A.; Kwiatkowski, D.P.; Molyneux, M.E.; Hensbroek, van M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Background Severe anemia is a major cause of sickness and death in African children, yet the causes of anemia in this population have been inadequately studied. Methods We conducted a case¿control study of 381 preschool children with severe anemia (hemoglobin concentration,

  19. Advancement of Children's Rights in Africa: A Social Justice Framework for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Jace

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations Convention on Children's Rights and the subsequent African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child together with the Bill of Children's Rights and numerous other policies and regulations in many African countries have set the precedent for children's rights to be respected and implemented across the African…

  20. Temperament Styles of Children from South Africa and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas; Pretorius, Jenny D.; Lee, Dong Hun

    2008-01-01

    Four bipolar temperament qualities (i.e. extroversion-introversion, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling and organized-flexible) of 800 South African children, ages 9-10, 11-12, 13-14 and 15-17, first are described and then compared to temperament qualities of 800 US children of the same ages. South African children do not differ in their…

  1. Receiving Pseudorandom PSK

    OpenAIRE

    Janson, Thomas; Schindelhauer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Pseudorandom PSK [1] enables parallel communication on the same carrier frequency and at the same time. We propose different signal processing methods to receive data modulated with pseudorandom PSK. This includes correlation with the carrier frequency which can be applied to signals in the kHz to MHz range and signal processing in the intermediate frequency where the correlation with the carrier frequency is performed analogous in the RF front end. We analyze the computation complexity for s...

  2. African Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Jarita C; Medupe, R. Thebe; Current Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy research in Africa

    2008-01-01

    Astronomy is the science of studying the sky using telescopes and light collectors such as photographic plates or CCD detectors. However, people have always studied the sky and continue to study the sky without the aid of instruments this is the realm of cultural astronomy. This is the first scholarly collection of articles focused on the cultural astronomy of Africans. It weaves together astronomy, anthropology, and Africa. The volume includes African myths and legends about the sky, alignments to celestial bodies found at archaeological sites and at places of worship, rock art with celestial imagery, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions including ethnomathematics and the creation of calendars. Authors include astronomers Kim Malville, Johnson Urama, and Thebe Medupe; archaeologist Felix Chami, and geographer Michael Bonine, and many new authors. As an emerging subfield of cultural astronomy, African cultural astronomy researchers are focused on training students specifically for do...

  3. African names for American plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.

    2015-01-01

    African slaves brought plant knowledge to the New World, sometimes applying it to related plants they found there and sometimes bringing Old World plants with them. By tracing the linguistic parallels between names for plants in African languages and in communities descended from African slaves, pie

  4. The Struggles over African Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  5. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... elimination, non-tariff barrier reductions and time in transit cost reductions are likely to be cumulative and would generate very large gains to Africa. The policy implications are clear: while cooperation will enhance the gains, much of the benefits will result from unilateral actions and regional...

  6. Children's Literature as a Pathway of Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Ebony Joy

    2014-01-01

    Visionaries like W. E. B. Du Bois opened the door to possibility and opportunity for the next generations of African American artists. Among those who benefited from and contributed to this legacy are award-winning African American authors and illustrators who created works that celebrate Black children, equality, and diversity. These artists…

  7. Prevalence of asthma in Rhodesian Africans.

    OpenAIRE

    Cookson, J B; Makoni, G

    1980-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma in a small African town has been assessed using two questionnaires. The first was put to 9768 subjects aged 5 years and older and the second, more detailed, questionnaire to random selections of these subjects grouped according to their replies. The overall prevalence of asthma was 1.40%. In those under 20 years of age it was 1.20% and in adults, 1.57%. This adult rate is similar to those in developed countries but that in children is lower. The relative paucity of ch...

  8. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  9. Adaptive antennas and receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Weiner, Melvin M

    2005-01-01

    In our modern age of remote sensing, wireless communication, and the nearly endless list of other antenna-based applications, complex problems require increasingly sophisticated solutions. Conventional antenna systems are no longer suited to high-noise or low-signal applications such as intrusion detection. Detailing highly effective approaches to non-Gaussian weak signal detection, Adaptive Antennas and Receivers provides an authoritative introduction to state-of-the-art research on the modeling, testing, and application of these technologies.Edited by innovative researcher and eminent expert

  10. Deepening African Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chinese President Hu Jintao has just embarked on his state visits to eight African countries that will take him to both the northern and southern tips of the continent. This is his first trip abroad this year, and also his third visit to Africa

  11. East African institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja

    For the past decade security in East Africa has gained focus internationally. However there is a growing ambition among African states to handle such issues by themselves, sometimes through regional institutions. This has been supported by many Western states but potential risks are often forgotten....

  12. African Women Writing Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Browdy de Hernandez; Pauline Dongala; Omotayo; Jolaosho; Anne Serafin

    2011-01-01

    AFRICAN Women Writing Resistance is the first transnational anthology to focus on women's strategies of resistance to the challenges they face in Africa today.The anthology brings together personal narratives,testimony,interviews,short stories,poetry,performance scripts,folktales and lyrics.

  13. African Women Writing Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer; Browdy; de; Hernandez; Pauline; Dongala; Omotayo; Jolaosho; Anne; Serafin

    2011-01-01

    An Anthology of Contemporary Voices AFRICAN Women Writing Resistance is the first transnational anthology to focus on women’s strategies of resistance to the challenges they face in Africa today.The anthology brings together personal narratives,testimony,interviews, short stories,po-

  14. West African Antislavery Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    In the context of liberalization of West African political regimes, the upsurge of audacious political entrepreneurs who want to end chattel slavery in their nation-state, resulted in the legal criminalisation of slavery in both Mauritania (2007) and Niger (2003) and in a proposal to revise the...... cultures (or ‘mentalities’) go hand in hand....

  15. The African Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas; Mandrup, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    . Moreover, the ‘African Security Architecture’, of which it is the central component, also includes sub-regional organisations to which responsibility is to be devolved for dealing with armed confl ict and other matters. These so-called Regional Economic Communities (RECs) are, likewise, constantly changing...

  16. African tick bite fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jakob Aaquist; Thybo, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The incident of spotted fever imported to Denmark is unknown. We present a classic case of African Tick Bite Fever (ATBF) to highlight a disease, which frequently infects wildlife enthusiasts and hunters on vacation in South Africa. ATBF has a good prognosis and is easily treated with doxycyclin...

  17. An Online Evaluation of a Website Featuring a Brief Electronic Media E-Health Educational Intervention to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Physical Activity among African American Mothers and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    African-American youth experience disproportionate rates of childhood obesity compared to their White counterparts. Culturally tailored electronic media solutions hold the potential to overcome health literacy and health communication barriers. This study aimed to identify the impact of exposure to a new website portal…

  18. Mothers' Academic Gender Stereotypes and Education-Related Beliefs about Sons and Daughters in African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Dana; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Okeke-Adeyanju, Ndidi

    2010-01-01

    The role of African American mothers' academic gender stereotype endorsement in shaping achievement-related expectations for and perceptions of their own children was examined. Mothers (N = 334) of 7th and 8th graders completed measures of expectations for their children's future educational attainment, perceptions of their children's academic…

  19. Language Deficits or Differences: What We Know about African American Vernacular English in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Yvette R.; Schroeder, Valarie M.

    2013-01-01

    This focus of this paper is to present an overview of the current research which examines the language and literacy performance of African American children who speak African American Vernacular English (AAVE), as presented from a deficit versus difference perspective. Language and literacy and assessment and remediation of AAVE speakers are…

  20. Aspects of size and geography of an African cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Nwagwu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, data on web links collected from 15 African countries, three with the highest Internet penetration in each of North, West, Central, East, and South regions were used to study the number and origins of links to Africa. The sample has a ratio of one Internet user per 12 persons. Altogether, all African countries generated a total of 124,047,702 Web pages and 30,546,967 inlinks to the pages, an average of about 0.25 links per page. But the sample constituted which 28% of all the countries in the region generated 98,629,700 pages and 21,272,500 inlinks, an average of about 0.21 inlinks per page. South Africa ranked highest in web pages and web links per population and also received the highest number of inlinks from other African countries and the G8. However, Kenya linked other African countries more than the others did. Population size does not relate to number of web pages, self-inlinks, and inlinks or penetration, but relates positively with number of Internet users. Among others, a major step in boosting use of Internet resources in Africa will be in developing policies that will encourage African countries to use information developed by other African countries.

  1. The African VLBI network project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loots, Anita

    2015-01-01

    The AVN is one of the most significant vehicles through which capacity development in Africa for SKA participation will be realized. It is a forerunner to the long baseline Phase 2 component of the mid-frequency SKA. Besides the 26m HartRAO telescope in South Africa, Ghana is expected to be the first to establish a VLBI-capable telescope through conversion of a redundant 32m telecommunications system near Accra. The most widely used receivers in the EVN are L-band and C-band (5 GHz). L-band is divided into a low band around the hydrogen (HI) line frequency of 1420 MHz, and a high band covering the hydroxyl line frequencies of 1612-1720 MHz. The high band is much more commonly used for VLBI as it provides more bandwidth. For the AVN, the methanol maser line at 6668 MHz is a key target for the initial receiver and the related 12178MHz methanol maser line also seen in star-forming regions a potential future Ku-band receiver. In the potential future band around 22GHz(K-band), water masers in star-forming regions and meg-maser galaxies at 22.235 GHz are targets, as are other radio continuum sources such as AGNs. The AVN system will include 5GHz and 6.668GHz receiver systems with recommendation to partner countries that the first upgrade should be L-band receivers. The original satellite telecommunications feed horns cover 3.8 - 6.4 GHz and should work at 5 GHz and operation at 6.668 GHz for the methanol maser is yet to be verified. The first light science will be conducted in the 6.7 GHz methanol maser band. Telescopes developed for the AVN will initially join other global networks for VLBI. When at least four VLBI-capable telescopes are operational on the continent, it will be possible to initiate stand-alone AVN VLBI. Each country where an AVN telescope becomes operational will have its own single-dish observing program. Capacity building to run an observatory includes the establishment of competent core essential observatory staff in partner countries who can train

  2. African American Students in East Baton Rouge Parish: How Have They Fared in Desegregated Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossey, Richard

    Three generations of children have passed through the Baton Rouge (Louisiana) school system since the "Brown" decision (1954) and one generation since the federal court's 1981 desegregation order. The impact of school desegregation on African American children was studied in the East Baton Rouge School District. For the student body as a whole,…

  3. Impact of Technology on the Academic Self-Efficacy and Career Selection of African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    With the continuing debate of the use and impact of technology on young children, this article examines the impact on technology on the academic self-efficacy and career intentions of African American students. The results from this study may be applicable to teaching, implementation, and use of technology with young children.

  4. African American Preschoolers' Social and Emotional Competence at School: The Influence of Teachers and Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Marisha L.; Strickland, Jennifer; Keenan, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Children learn social and emotional competence through socialization. Research has focused on the role of parents, however teachers also play an important part. This study examined the social and emotional competence of preschool African American children and the role teachers and mothers played in supporting these competencies. Teachers who…

  5. Antecedents and Consequences of Psychiatric Disorders in African-American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Run; Ge, Xiaojia; Brody, Gene H.; Simons, Ronald L.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2008-01-01

    This study included three waves of data, collected from approximately 890 African-American children and their families. Antecedents and consequences of psychiatric disorders among this population were examined. Children's temperament, pubertal timing, and experience of stressful life events were tested as antecedents of psychiatric disorders.…

  6. Female genital mutilation in African and African American women's literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Marinšek

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.

  7. Mandela’s Favourite African Folktales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Concilio

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I would like to examine the selection of African tales that Nelson Mandela took care to leave as heritage to the future generations, not only to children, and not only to African children. The fact that a political leader, ex freedom fighter and political prisoner dedicated his time to the collection and editing of stories from all over the African continent to be addressed to new readers as simple entertainment or as educational tools clearly testifies to the great humanity, culture, and open mindedness of one of the most important men of our times. In his most recent autobiographical writing Conversations With Myself, Mandela claimed his double affiliation to both his own indigenous culture as well as to western culture. Moreover, he recalled with affection a dear pastime of his childhood:After supper we would listen enthralled to my mother and sometimes my aunt telling us stories, legends, myths and fables which have come down from countless generations, and all of which tended to stimulate the imagination and contained some valuable moral lesson. (p. 10Thus, it is not surprising that such a charismatic public figure, as Mandela has been, was also interested in- and worried about- the future survival of a cluster of traditional folktales with their lively, specific and “valuable moral lesson”. It is my intention to verify if there might be a dialogue between the western tradition of folktales where animals are protagonists and speak as anthropomorphic figures and the facets of the African traditions and cultures from which Mandela draws inspiration. Among the critical tools on this topic, Tess Cosslett’s Talking Animals in British Children’s Fiction (2006 seems to provide a useful starting point, together with the latest studies in the volume Dall’ABC a Harry Potter (2011, among others. Moreover, aspects of “orature” will be discussed with reference to the stories chosen by Nelson Mandela. Finally, an attempt will

  8. Solar thermal energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Karl W. (Inventor); Dustin, Miles O. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A plurality of heat pipes in a shell receive concentrated solar energy and transfer the energy to a heat activated system. To provide for even distribution of the energy despite uneven impingement of solar energy on the heat pipes, absence of solar energy at times, or failure of one or more of the heat pipes, energy storage means are disposed on the heat pipes which extend through a heat pipe thermal coupling means into the heat activated device. To enhance energy transfer to the heat activated device, the heat pipe coupling cavity means may be provided with extensions into the device. For use with a Stirling engine having passages for working gas, heat transfer members may be positioned to contact the gas and the heat pipes. The shell may be divided into sections by transverse walls. To prevent cavity working fluid from collecting in the extensions, a porous body is positioned in the cavity.

  9. Improved prognosis of Epstein-Barr virus associated childhood Hodgkin's lymphoma: study of 47 South African cases

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, M.; Essop, M; Close, P; Hartley, P.; Pallesen, G; Sinclair-Smith, C

    2000-01-01

    Aim—To study the distribution of Hodgkin's lymphoma in South African children and report the incidence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as regards age, race, sex, and histological subtype; to investigate whether EBV is relevant to survival.

  10. RELATIONS OF SELF-APPRAISAL AND MOOD CHANGES WITH VOLUNTARY PHYSICAL ACTIVITY CHANGES IN AFRICAN AMERICAN PREADOLESCENTS IN AN AFTER-SCHOOL CARE INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Annesi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing prevalence of overweight in preadolescents that predicts physical problems over the lifespan. Physical inactivity has been implicated as an associated factor, with African American youth being at an increased risk. Based on social cognitive theory, and proposed correlates of physical activity in youth, changes over 12 weeks in measures of self-appraisal (general self, physical appearance, physical self-concept, exercise barriers self-efficacy and mood (tension, vigor, and their relations with voluntary physical activity changes, were assessed within an after-school care physical activity intervention. Participants were volunteers recruited from children already registered for a 12-week segment of YMCA after-school care. The treatment group consisted of 146 African American preadolescents with the control group comprised of 123 African American preadolescents who were scheduled to receive the program during the next sequence that it was offered. Results indicated the intervention group reported significantly more positive self-appraisals, reduced tension, and enhanced vigor. Bivariate and multiple regression analyses indicated that when each of the 4 self-appraisal and 2 mood factors were simultaneously entered into a regression equation, 36% of the variance in voluntary physical activity was explained. Findings support the treatment's association with theoretically based correlates of physical activity in the present sample, and suggest directions for physical activity interventions for youth

  11. Leadership in the African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Masango

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The Western world has always viewed the African continent as plagued by corruption; dictatorship; military coups; rebellious leaders; greediness; misuse of power; and incompetent, politically unstable leaders - in effect, suspicious leaders who undermine their own democracies. This paper analyzes African leadership and its impact by concentrating on three historical eras, namely; the African Religious era; the Christian era, and the era of Globalization. These affected African leadership. In addition, many brilliant minds left the continent in search of greener pastures. A review of these three eras will help us understand how leadership shifted from African values into Western concepts. The role of missionaries lead African people to live with both an African and a Western concept of life. In spite of the above problems, our past leaders did their best in addressing the difficulties they faced during the three eras. African concepts of leadership were often regarded as barbaric and uncultured. Structures were evaluated by Western standards. Due to globalisation, African leaders, through programmes like NEPAD, are going back to basics, drawing on African concepts of unity among its leadership. Effectiveness or life-giving leadership is emerging and empowering villagers/communities in the continent. This type of leadership is innovative and has brought new hope for the continent.

  12. GNSS Software Receiver for UAVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Daniel Madelung; Jakobsen, Jakob; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik;

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the current activities of GPS/GNSS Software receiver development at DTU Space. GNSS Software receivers have received a great deal of attention in the last two decades and numerous implementations have already been presented. DTU Space has just recently started development of ...... our own GNSS software-receiver targeted for mini UAV applications, and we will in in this paper present our current progress and briefly discuss the benefits of Software Receivers in relation to our research interests....

  13. Relationship between Receipt of a Social Protection Grant for a Child and Second Pregnancy Rates among South African Women: A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Rosenberg

    Full Text Available Social protection programs issuing cash grants to caregivers of young children may influence fertility. Grant-related income could foster economic independence and/or increase access to job prospects, education, and health services, resulting in lower pregnancy rates. In the other direction, these programs may motivate family expansion in order to receive larger grants. Here, we estimate the net effect of these countervailing mechanisms among rural South African women.We constructed a retrospective cohort of 4845 women who first became eligible for the Child Support Grant with the birth of their first child between 1998 and 2008, with data originally collected by the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. We fit Cox regression models to estimate the hazard of second pregnancy in women who reported grant receipt after birth of first child, relative to non-recipients. As a secondary analysis to explore the potential for grant loss to incentivize second pregnancy, we exploited a natural experiment created by a 2003 expansion of the program's age eligibility criterion from age seven to nine. We compared second pregnancy rates between (i women with children age seven or eight in 2002 (recently aged out of grant eligibility to (ii women with children age seven or eight in 2003 (remained grant-eligible.The adjusted hazard ratio for the association between grant exposure and second pregnancy was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.58, 0.75. Women with first children who aged out of grant eligibility in 2002 had similar second pregnancy rates to women with first children who remained grant-eligible in 2003 [IRR (95% CI: 0.9 (0.5, 1.4].Across both primary and secondary analyses, we found no evidence that the Child Support Grant incentivizes pregnancy. In harmony with South African population policy, receipt of the Child Support Grant may result in longer spacing between pregnancies.

  14. The content of African diets is adequate to achieve optimal efficacy with fixed-dose artemether-lumefantrine: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premji, Zulfiqarali G; Abdulla, Salim; Ogutu, Bernhards; Ndong, Alice; Falade, Catherine O; Sagara, Issaka; Mulure, Nathan; Nwaiwu, Obiyo; Kokwaro, Gilbert

    2008-01-01

    A fixed-dose combination of artemether-lumefantrine (AL, Coartem(R)) has shown high efficacy, good tolerability and cost-effectiveness in adults and children with uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Lumefantrine bioavailability is enhanced by food, particularly fat.As the fat content of sub-Saharan African meals is approximately a third that of Western countries, it raises the question of whether fat consumption by African patients is sufficient for good efficacy. Data from healthy volunteers have indicated that drinking 36 mL soya milk (containing only 1.2 g of fat) results in 90% of the lumefantrine absorption obtained with 500 mL milk (16 g fat). African diets are typically based on a carbohydrate staple (starchy root vegetables, fruit [plantain] or cereals) supplemented by soups, relishes and sauces derived from vegetables, pulses, nuts or fish. The most important sources of dietary fat in African countries are oil crops (e.g. peanuts, soya beans) and cooking oils as red palm, peanut, coconut and sesame oils. Total fat intake in the majority of subSaharan countries is estimated to be in the range 30-60 g/person/day across the whole population (average 43 g/person/day). Breast-feeding of infants up to two years of age is standard, with one study estimating a fat intake of 15-30 g fat/day from breast milk up to the age of 18 months. Weaning foods typically contain low levels of fat, and the transition from breast milk to complete weaning is associated with a marked reduction in dietary fat. Nevertheless, fat intake >10 g/day has been reported in young children post-weaning. A randomized trial in Uganda reported no difference in the efficacy of AL between patients receiving supervised meals with a fixed fat content (~23 g fat) or taking AL unsupervised, suggesting that fat intake at home was sufficient for optimal efficacy. Moreover, randomized trials in African children aged 5-59 months have shown similar high cure rates to those observed in

  15. The content of African diets is adequate to achieve optimal efficacy with fixed-dose artemether-lumefantrine: a review of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagara Issaka

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A fixed-dose combination of artemether-lumefantrine (AL, Coartem® has shown high efficacy, good tolerability and cost-effectiveness in adults and children with uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Lumefantrine bioavailability is enhanced by food, particularly fat. As the fat content of sub-Saharan African meals is approximately a third that of Western countries, it raises the question of whether fat consumption by African patients is sufficient for good efficacy. Data from healthy volunteers have indicated that drinking 36 mL soya milk (containing only 1.2 g of fat results in 90% of the lumefantrine absorption obtained with 500 mL milk (16 g fat. African diets are typically based on a carbohydrate staple (starchy root vegetables, fruit [plantain] or cereals supplemented by soups, relishes and sauces derived from vegetables, pulses, nuts or fish. The most important sources of dietary fat in African countries are oil crops (e.g. peanuts, soya beans and cooking oils as red palm, peanut, coconut and sesame oils. Total fat intake in the majority of subSaharan countries is estimated to be in the range 30–60 g/person/day across the whole population (average 43 g/person/day. Breast-feeding of infants up to two years of age is standard, with one study estimating a fat intake of 15–30 g fat/day from breast milk up to the age of 18 months. Weaning foods typically contain low levels of fat, and the transition from breast milk to complete weaning is associated with a marked reduction in dietary fat. Nevertheless, fat intake >10 g/day has been reported in young children post-weaning. A randomized trial in Uganda reported no difference in the efficacy of AL between patients receiving supervised meals with a fixed fat content (~23 g fat or taking AL unsupervised, suggesting that fat intake at home was sufficient for optimal efficacy. Moreover, randomized trials in African children aged 5–59 months have shown similar high cure

  16. The genetic structure and history of Africans and African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Tishkoff, Sarah A; Reed, Floyd A; Friedlaender, Françoise R; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Awomoyi, Agnes A; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T; Kotze, Maritha J.; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H.

    2009-01-01

    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic p...

  17. Retention of HIV-Infected Children in the First 12 Months of Anti-Retroviral Therapy and Predictors of Attrition in Resource Limited Settings: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christiana; McFarland, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Current UNAIDS goals aimed to end the AIDS epidemic set out to ensure that 90% of all people living with HIV know their status, 90% initiate and continue life-long anti-retroviral therapy (ART), and 90% achieve viral load suppression. In 2014 there were an estimated 2.6 million children under 15 years of age living with HIV, of which only one-third were receiving ART. Little literature exists describing retention of HIV-infected children in the first year on ART. We conducted a systematic search for English language publications reporting on retention of children with median age at ART initiation less than ten years in resource limited settings. The proportion of children retained in care on ART and predictors of attrition were identified. Twelve studies documented retention at one year ranging from 71–95% amongst 31877 African children. Among the 5558 children not retained, 4082 (73%) were reported as lost to follow up (LFU) and 1476 (27%) were confirmed to have died. No studies confirmed the outcomes of children LFU. Predictors of attrition included younger age, shorter duration of time on ART, and severe immunosuppression. In conclusion, significant attrition occurs in children in the first 12 months after ART initiation, the majority attributed to LFU, although true outcomes of children labeled as LFU are unknown. Focused efforts to ensure retention and minimize early mortality are needed as universal ART for children is scaled up. PMID:27280404

  18. African American Women’s Perceptions and Experiences about Breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia S Obeng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There are health benefits to breastfeeding for both mothers and their children. The preventive health effects of breastfeeding continue into adulthood, lowering rate of various chronic illnesses. African American women, especially of lower socioeconomic status, are less likely to breastfeed in comparison to their racial and ethnic counterparts. The purpose of this study was to explore how African American women experience breastfeeding in the early stages of postpartum care. Two focus groups (N=20, 10 in each group were conducted with African American mothers. Results revealed that participants felt that there were health benefits to breastfeeding, and organizations such as WIC provided support. However, participants stated that lack of information, negative perceptions, and unforeseen circumstances were barriers to breastfeeding. This study proposes support and interventions for this group to increase breastfeeding among this population.

  19. CERN apprentice receives award

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Another CERN apprentice has received an award for the quality of his work. Stéphane Küng (centre), at the UIG ceremony last November, presided over by Geneva State Councillor Pierre-François Unger, Head of the Department of Economics and Health. Electronics technician Stéphane Küng was honoured in November by the Social Foundation of the Union Industrielle Genevoise (UIG) as one of Geneva’s eight best apprentices in the field of mechatronics. The 20-year-old Genevan obtained his Federal apprentice’s certificate (Certificat fédéral de capacité - CFC) in June 2007, achieving excellent marks in his written tests at the Centre d’Enseignement Professionnel Technique et Artisanal (CEPTA). Like more than 200 youngsters before him, Stéphane Küng spent part of his four-year sandwich course working at CERN, where he followed many practical training courses and gained valuable hands-on experience in various technical groups and labs. "It’ always very gr...

  20. Steps to African Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The development of Africa is vital to the world’s sustainable development.However,African countries still face key challenges in achieving the meaningful expansion of their economies.At the High-Level Symposium on China-Africa Investment Cooperation in Xiamen,southeast China’s Fujian Province,held from September 8 to 10,Chen Deming,Minister of Commerce of China,elaborates on these challenges and sees

  1. Biofuels: The African experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo, L.A.; Nkolo, M. [German Agency for Technical Cooperation GTZ, Delegation Regionale des Eaux et Forets, Bertoua (Cameroon)

    2009-07-01

    In July 2006, the African Non-Petroleum Producers Association was formed in Senegal, Africa to develop alternative energy sources. It involved 13 of Africa's poorest nations, who joined forces to become global suppliers of biofuels, and some have set mandatory mixing of ethanol into gasoline. Although several biofuel production projects have been launched in western Africa, many of the new projects and plantations have not yet reached maturity due to the time lag between plantation and full-scale production, which is about 6 years. Major projects that could be producing significant quantities of biofuels in the next few years are not yet reflected in production statistics. Although ethanol is not yet being produced in large quantities in Africa, short-term opportunities exist. Countries in the South African Development Community are using molasses from the sugar can industry to produce ethanol. Biodiesel is also not currently produced on a significant scale in western Africa, but several other countries are gaining experience with cotton and palm oil resources, and Jatropha. Biomass residue also represents a large potential for all African countries involved in timber production. Unlike biodiesel production, land use conflicts are not an issue with biomass residue production.

  2. Diversity among African pygmies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando V Ramírez Rozzi

    Full Text Available Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies.

  3. Institution Building for African Regionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Khadiagala, Gilbert M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1960s, African states have embraced regional integration as a vital mechanism for political cooperation and for pooling resources to overcome problems of small and fragmented economies. In building meaningful institutions for regionalism, however, Africans have faced the challenges of reconciling the diversities of culture, geography, and politics. As a result, African regional institutions are characterized by multiple and competing mandates and weak institutionalization. This stud...

  4. African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Apr 18, ... of getting those diseases are even higher for African-Americans. The good news is, African-Americans can ...

  5. Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans Among African Americans, chronic liver disease is a ... white women. At a glance – Cancer Rates for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100,000 – ...

  6. A Randomized Trial of Targeted Educational Materials for Smoking Cessation in African Americans Using Transdermal Nicotine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollen, Nicole; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Mayo, Matthew S.; Richter, Kim; Choi, Won S.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Resnicow, Ken

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the efficacy of targeted versus standard care smoking cessation materials among urban African American smokers. Five hundred smokers (250 to each group) are randomized to receive a culturally targeted or standard care videotape and print guide. Both groups receive 8 weeks of nicotine patches and reminder telephone calls at…

  7. Exploring Maternal and Child Effects of Comorbid Anxiety Disorders among African American Mothers with Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Rhonda C; Tervo-Clemmens, Brenden

    2013-01-01

    Comorbid depression and anxiety disorders are commonly experienced in mothers. Both maternal depression and anxiety as well as their comorbidity has been shown to increase psychopathology in children, however, there is limited research focusing on African American families. The aim of this study is to examine whether comorbid anxiety disorders are associated with maternal depression severity, kinship support, and child behavioral problems in a sample of African American mothers with depressio...

  8. Cultural Pride Reinforcement as a Dimension of Racial Socialization Protective of Urban African American Child Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Bannon, William M.; McKay, Mary M.; Chacko, Anil; Rodriguez, James A.; Cavaleri, Mary

    2009-01-01

    The study objective was to examine how parental endorsement of cultural pride reinforcement messages may explain African American child anxiety. Data were gathered from 72 African American parents and their elementary school-aged children. Results indicated stronger parental endorsement of cultural pride reinforcement messages predicted less child anxiety. Additionally parental endorsement of these messages moderated the relationship between child mental health risk factor exposure and child ...

  9. English South African children’s literature and the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Jenkins

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Historical studies of nature conservation and literary criticism of fiction concerned with the natural environment provide some pointers for the study of South African children’s literature in English. This kind of literature, in turn, has a contribution to make to studies of South African social history and literature. There are English-language stories, poems and picture books for children which reflect human interaction with nature in South Africa since early in the nineteenth century: from hunting, through domestication of the wilds, the development of scientific agriculture, and the changing roles of nature reserves, to modern ecological concern for the entire environment. Until late in the twentieth century the literature usually endorsed the assumption held by whites that they had exclusive ownership of the land and wildlife. In recent years English-language children’s writers and translators of indigenous folktales for children have begun to explore traditional beliefs about and practices in conservation.

  10. National survey of paediatric audiological services for diagnosis and intervention in the South African private health care sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam E. Meyer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A national survey of early hearing detection and intervention services was undertaken to describe the current status of diagnostic and intervention services in the South African private health care sector.Methods: All private hospitals with obstetric units (n = 166 were surveyed telephonically. The data was integrated with data collected from self-administered questionnaires subsequently distributed nationally to private audiology practices providing hearing screening at the respective hospitals reporting hearing screening services (n = 87. Data was analysed descriptively to yield national percentages and frequency distributions.Results: Average reported age at diagnosis was 11 months. Most participants (74% indicated that less than 20% of infants fitted with hearing aids received amplification before the age of 6 months. Most (64% participants indicated that the average period between confirmed diagnosis and hearing aid fitting was 1 month, on par with international benchmarks. Only 16%–23% of participants included all diagnostic procedures recommended by the Health Professions Council of South Africa’s 2007 position statement for minimum diagnostic test batteries for infants and young children.Conclusions: Diagnosis of hearing loss, hearing aid fitting and audiological intervention is delayed significantly in the South African private health care sector. Improved services should include integrated systematic hospital-based screening as part of birthing packages with diagnostic referral to specialist paediatric audiologists for accurate assessment and management of patients in a timely manner.

  11. The African Diaspora, Civil Society and African Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opoku-Mensah, Paul Yaw

    This paper, a work-in-progress, makes a contribution to the discussions on the appropriate modalities for incorporating the African diaspora in the African integration project.  It argues that the most appropriate entry points for incorporating the African diaspora into the integration project...... might not, necessarily, be in the formal political structures, although this is important. To the contrary, the most effective and sustainable might be within civil society---that is the links between the peoples and organizations of Africa and the diaspora. Using the case of the African academy-- as an...... institution of civil society--- the paper outlines a conceptual framework for incorporating the diaspora into the African integration project....

  12. Advanced solar thermal receiver technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudirka, A. A.; Leibowitz, L. P.

    1980-01-01

    Development of advanced receiver technology for solar thermal receivers designed for electric power generation or for industrial applications, such as fuels and chemical production or industrial process heat, is described. The development of this technology is focused on receivers that operate from 1000 F to 3000 F and above. Development strategy is mapped in terms of application requirements, and the related system and technical requirements. Receiver performance requirements and current development efforts are covered for five classes of receiver applications: high temperature, advanced Brayton, Stirling, and Rankine cycle engines, and fuels and chemicals.

  13. Reflux solar receiver design considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diver, R. B.

    Reflux heat-pipe and pool-boiler receivers are being developed to improve upon the performance and life of directly-illuminated tube receiver technology used in previous successful demonstrations of dish-Stirling systems. The design of a reflux receiver involves engineering tradeoffs. In this paper, on-sun performance measurements of the Sandia pool-boiler receiver are compared with results from the reflux receiver thermal analysis model, AEETES. Flux and performance implications of various design options are analyzed and discussed.

  14. Community initiative projects of the East African Whale Shark Trust.

    OpenAIRE

    Njonjo, N.

    2007-01-01

    The East African Whale Shark Trust (EAWST) in Kenya was established to increase awareness and conservation of the whale shark. This is to be achieved by various research and education campaigns, with the education initiatives being designed specifically to target different stakeholders. Programs aimed at fishermen will focus on alternative fishing techniques, ecotourism and socio-economic aspects, while school children, people recently completing high school and tourists will be exposed to re...

  15. Developmental Origins of Perfectionism Among African American Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Keith C.; Trotter, Reid; Reinke, Wendy M.; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    The present study used a person-centered latent variable approach to classify types of perfectionism among 6th-grade African American children living in an urban setting. In particular, the authors were interested in determining whether an adaptive subtype could be found and validated against external criteria. The authors also attempted to identify any developmental precursors that could reliably differentiate the perfectionist subtypes. A social learning and competence framework was used to...

  16. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset Among African American Adolescent Males

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.

    2009-01-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship between child maltreatment (i.e., neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other/mixed abuse) and the likelihood of a delinquency petition using a...

  17. Phytogeography of African Commelinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Faden

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Africa (including Madagascar has nearly twice as many species of Commelinaceae as any other continent (approximately 270 species, or about 40% of the total in the family. Of the 17 genera which are native, seven (Anthericopsis, Coleotrype, Palisota, Polyspatha, Pseudoparis, Stanfieldiella and  Triceratella are endemic, the highest percentage generic endemism of any continent. Within Africa gcneric diversity is slightly higher in western than in eastern tropical floras. Species richness, however, is greatest in eastern Africa, mainly due to a high diversity of species of Commelina and Aneilema. Africa shares more genera with Asia (nine than with any other continent. Only one African genus, Buforrestia, is neither endemic nor shared with Asia. Its western African/northeastern South American distribution is unique in the family. Besides Buforrestia, only five other genera of Commelinaceae (out of a total of 50 in the family, occur in both the Old and New Worlds. These genera.  Aneilema, Commelina, Floscopa, Murdannia and  Pollia are all very widespread in the Old World, occurring in Australia and Asia in addition to Africa (both continental and Madagascar. Madagascar is relatively poor in species (31. but these include the endemic Madagascan genus Pseudoparis, the sole African species of Rhopalephora, and the largest number of species of the Afro-Malagasy endemic genus Coleotrype. The high rate of generic endemism of Commelinaceae in Africa probably indicates that Africa was one of the ancient centres of diversity for the family. The high species diversity is more likely due to relatively recent radiations by genera pre-adapted to survival in non-forest habitats. The occurrence of only a small number of genera on both sides of the Atlantic suggests that the Commelinaceae have been evolving independently in the eastern and western hemispheres for a long period.

  18. RFI receiver. [deep space network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, R.

    1980-01-01

    An S-band radio frequency interference (RFI) receiver to analyze and identify sources of RFI problems in the Deep Space Network DSN tracking stations is described. The RFI receiver is a constant gain, double conversion, open loop receiver with dual sine/cosine channel outputs, providing a total of 20 MHZ monitoring capability. This receiver is computer controlled using a MODCOMP II miniprocessor. The RFI receiver has been designed to operate at a 150 Kelvin system noise temperature accomplished by cascading two low noise field effect transistor (FET) amplifiers for the receiver front-end. The first stage low noise FET amplifier is mounted at the feed horn to minimize any cable losses to achieve a lower system noise temperature. The receiver is tunable over the frequency range of 2150 to 2450 MHz in both sine/cosine output channels with a resolution of 100 kHz.

  19. Booster for African Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China’s investment is fueling African growth SINCE 2000,driven by the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation,China’s foreign direct investment(FDI) in Africa has been growing rapidly.In the face of the global financial crisis,which led to global FDI flows falling,China’s investment in Africa has been on a steady, upbeat rise without any interruption.In 2009,China’s direct investment in Africa reached $1.44 billion,of which nonfinancial direct investment soared by 55.4 percent from the previous year.Africa

  20. Immune Responses to Circulating and Vaccine Viral Strains in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Children and Youth Who Received the 2013/2014 Quadrivalent Live-Attenuated Influenza Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Adriana; Curtis, Donna; Ning, Mariangeli Freitas; Claypool, David Jeremy; Jalbert, Emilie; Patterson, Julie; Frank, Daniel N.; Ir, Diana; Armon, Carl

    2016-01-01

    The live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has generally been more efficacious than the inactivated vaccine in children. However, LAIV is not recommended for HIV-infected children because of insufficient data. We compared cellular, humoral, and mucosal immune responses to the 2013–2014 LAIV quadrivalent (LAIV4) in HIV-infected and uninfected children 2–25 years of age (yoa). We analyzed the responses to the vaccine H1N1 (H1N1-09), to the circulating H1N1 (H1N1-14), which had significant mutations compared to H1N1-09 and to B Yamagata (BY), which had the highest effectiveness in 2013–2014. Forty-six HIV-infected and 56 uninfected participants with prior influenza immunization had blood and nasal swabs collected before and after LAIV4 for IFNγ T and IgG/IgA memory B-cell responses (ELISPOT), plasma antibodies [hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and microneutralization (MN)], and mucosal IgA (ELISA). The HIV-infected participants had median CD4+ T cells = 645 cells/μL and plasma HIV RNA = 20 copies/mL. Eighty-four percent were on combination anti-retroviral therapy. Regardless of HIV status, significant increases in T-cell responses were observed against BY, but not against H1N1-09. H1N1-09 T-cell immunity was higher than H1N1-14 both before and after vaccination. LAIV4 significantly increased memory IgG B-cell immunity against H1N1-14 and BY in uninfected, but not in HIV-infected participants. Regardless of HIV status, H1N1-09 memory IgG B-cell immunity was higher than H1N1-14 and lower than BY. There were significant HAI titer increases after vaccination in all groups and against all viruses. However, H1N1-14 MN titers were significantly lower than H1N1-09 before and after vaccination overall and in HIV-uninfected vaccinees. Regardless of HIV status, LAIV4 increased nasal IgA concentrations against all viruses. The fold-increase in H1N1-09 IgA was lower than BY. Overall, participants HIV-infected and uninfected children and youth had comparable

  1. African Conservation Tillage Network Website

    OpenAIRE

    African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT)

    2009-01-01

    Metadata only record Maintained by the African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT), this website provides information on Conservation Agriculture in an African context and gathered by stakeholders (NGOs) native to the continent. Resources on projects, practices, reports, and training courses are provided.

  2. A Call to African Unity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    This month's paper, written by Professor Mammo Muchie, examines the necessity for a pan-African monetary union.  Professor Muchie argues for the "the creation of a unified African strategy and unified approach to dealing with the outside donor world by neutralising the poison of money as honey th...

  3. African Diaspora Associations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vammen, Ida Marie; Trans, Lars Ove

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically on their...

  4. Strategic repositioning of Safripol in the South African polymer industry / W.A. du Plessis

    OpenAIRE

    Du Plessis, Willem Adriaan

    2010-01-01

    Safripol is a South African polymer company producing mainly high density polyethylene and polypropylene for the South African market. Safripol used to be part of a global chemical company Dow Chemicals. Dow Chemical's divested in South Africa in 2006 and Safripol lost all the advantages of being part of a global corporate enterprise. The company is faced with a unique situation in that it is receiving monomer from Sasol, which is also its main competitor in the polymer market. The price o...

  5. The relationship between burnout and cognition in a South African metal manufacturing company / Carla Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador, Carla marisa Rosa

    2005-01-01

    Employees in South African organisations are faced with increasing work pressures as economic and business factors (such as globalisation) lead to extensive restructuring, cost cutting and initiatives to continuously improve organisational processes. These conditions are conducive to the occurrence of burnout in the South African private sector. Burnout has been extensively researched in areas such as health services and law enforcement, however, the subject has received less f...

  6. Should a hospitalized child receive empiric treatment with acyclovir?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulik Dina M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpes simplex encephalitis is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality and may be related to timely diagnosis and treatment. While awaiting the results of testing, hospitalization and empiric treatment with acyclovir is recommended, though the direct and indirect costs associated with this management are substantial. We sought to examine children hospitalized for possible herpes simplex encephalitis, following clinical and laboratory assessment in the emergency department, and empiric treatment with acyclovir, in order to describe the proportion receiving a complete course of treatment; and to identify the clinical variables which are associated with receiving a complete course, as compared with an incomplete course of acyclovir. Methods Hospitalized children prescribed acyclovir were included in this case control study. Clinical, laboratory and diagnostic variables were abstracted for children prescribed a complete (≥ 14 days or an incomplete course ( Results 289 children met eligibility criteria, 30 (10% received a complete course and 259 (90% received an incomplete course. A history of mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus infection (p  Conclusions Many children did not complete a full course of therapy. Unnecessary testing and treatment is burdensome to families and the health care system. Possible predictive variables include abnormal Glascow Coma Scale, focal neurologic findings and cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis.

  7. Children and Poverty in South Africa: The Right to Social Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Plessis, Pierre; Conley, Lloyd

    2007-01-01

    Poverty is one of the major threats to the realization of children's rights worldwide and in South Africa. Currently, 66% of South African children live in severe poverty. This places all other rights at risk; the rights guaranteed by the South African Constitution and by the UN Convention. Poverty and inequality in South Africa continue to…

  8. The African Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network:The Ghana Antenna Conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Copley, C J; Loots, A; Bangani, S; Cloete, K; Combrinck, L; Gioio, S; Ludick, J; Nicolson, G; Pollak, A W; Pretorius, P; Quick, J F H; Taylor, G; Ebrahim, F; Humphreys, C; Maake, K; Maganane, R; Majinjiva, R; Mapunda, A; Manzini, M; Mogakwe, N; Moseki, A; Qwabe, N; Royi, N; Rosie, K; Smith, J; Schietekat, S; Toruvanda, O; Tong, C; van Niekerk, B; Walbrugh, W; Zeeman, W

    2016-01-01

    The African Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (AVN) is a pan-African project that will develop Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observing capability in several countries across the African continent, either by conversion of existing telecommunications antennas into radio telescopes, or by building new ones. This paper focuses on the conversion of the Nkutunse satellite communication station (near Accra, Ghana), specifically the early mechanical and infrastructure upgrades, together with the development of a custom ambient receiver and digital backend. The paper concludes with what remains to be done, before the station can be commissioned as an operational VLBI station.

  9. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures. PMID:25709714

  10. Job-hopping amongst African Black senior management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanyile C.C. Nzukuma

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The study focuses on understanding labour turnover trends amongst African Black senior managers in South Africa. There is a perception that turnover amongst African Black senior managers is higher than average. There is also a perception that African Black senior managers are only motivated by financial rewards when considering job change.Research purpose: The study focused on understanding why African Black senior managers have a propensity to change jobs and how organisations can resolve the trend.Motivation for the study: To develop a better understanding of the push and pull factors for African Black senior managers in organisations.Research design, approach and method: The research was conducted in two phases, namely as part of a qualitative study and a quantitative study: Creswell (2003 refers to this approach as triangulation. The target population was African Black senior managers on the database of a large Human Resources Consultancy, The South African Rewards Association and the Association of Black Actuaries and Investment Professionals (ABSIP (n = 2600. A total of 208 usable responses were received.Main findings: The main findings and contribution to the field of study was that African Black senior managers do not trust organisations with their career development. They would rather take control of their own career development by moving from organisation to organisation to build their repertoire of skills and competence. They want to be in charge of their careers. This finding has profound implications for organisations employing African Black managers in the senior cadre.Practical/managerial implications: Managers of African Black senior managers need to create attractive employee value propositions that address the main findings. Contribution/value-add: The research shows that African Black senior managers generally seek corporate environments that encourage a sense of belonging and with a clear career growth plan.

  11. Minority mothers' perceptions of children's body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study is to investigate African-American and Hispanic mothers' perceptions of their children's body size using a scale with child figure silhouettes and compare those perceptions with their children's actual body mass index. A set of child figure silhouettes was developed depic...

  12. Clinical Factors Associated with Long-Term Complete Remission versus Poor Response to Chemotherapy in HIV-Infected Children and Adolescents with Kaposi Sarcoma Receiving Bleomycin and Vincristine: A Retrospective Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mallawany, Nader Kim; Kamiyango, William; Slone, Jeremy S.; Villiera, Jimmy; Kovarik, Carrie L.; Cox, Carrie M.; Dittmer, Dirk P.; Ahmed, Saeed; Schutze, Gordon E.; Scheurer, Michael E.; Kazembe, Peter N.; Mehta, Parth S.

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is the most common HIV-associated malignancy in children and adolescents in Africa. Pediatric KS is distinct from adult disease. We evaluated the clinical characteristics associated with long-term outcomes. We performed a retrospective observational analysis of 70 HIV-infected children and adolescents with KS less than 18 years of age diagnosed between 8/2010 and 6/2013 in Lilongwe, Malawi. Local first-line treatment included bleomycin and vincristine plus nevirapine-based highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Median age was 8.6 years (range 1.7–17.9); there were 35 females (50%). Most common sites of presentation were: lymph node (74%), skin (59%), subcutaneous nodules (33%), oral (27%), woody edema (24%), and visceral (16%). Eighteen (26%) presented with lymphadenopathy only. Severe CD4 suppression occurred in 28%. At time of KS diagnosis, 49% were already on HAART. Overall, 28% presented with a platelet count < 100 x 109/L and 37% with hemoglobin < 8 g/dL. The 2-year event-free (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 46% and 58% respectively (median follow-up 29 months, range 15–50). Multivariable analysis of risk of death and failure to achieve EFS demonstrated that visceral disease (odds ratios [OR] 19.08 and 11.61, 95% CI 2.22–163.90 and 1.60–83.95 respectively) and presenting with more than 20 skin/oral lesions (OR 9.57 and 22.90, 95% CI 1.01–90.99 and 1.00–524.13 respectively) were independent risk factors for both. Woody edema was associated with failure to achieve EFS (OR 7.80, 95% CI 1.84–33.08) but not death. Univariable analysis revealed that lymph node involvement was favorable for EFS (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.08–0.99), while T1 TIS staging criteria, presence of cytopenias, and severe immune suppression were not associated with increased mortality. Long-term complete remission is achievable in pediatric KS, however outcomes vary according to clinical presentation. Based on clinical heterogeneity, treatment according

  13. [The African Charter on the Rights of the Child. The member states of the Organization of African Unity must ratify without further delay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diongue, A

    1994-12-01

    In July 1990, the Organization of African Unity (OUA) adopted the African Charter of the Rights and Welfare of the Child. It includes a Preamble, two relative parts on the Rights and Respects of the Child, and 47 articles. It defines "child" as a complete human being less than 18 years old. It recognizes the child's unique and privileged place in African society and that African children need protection and special care. It also recognizes that the child has freedom of expression, association, peaceful assembly, thought, religion, and conscience. It aims to protect the private life of the child and safeguard the child against all forms of economic exploitation and against work that is hazardous, interferes with the child's education, or compromises his/her health or physical, social, mental, spiritual, and moral development. It also calls for protection against abuse and bad treatment, negative social and cultural practices, all forms of exploitation or sexual abuse, and illegal drug use. It also aims to prevent the sale, trading, kidnapping, and begging of children. It calls for the creation of an African expert committee on the rights and well-being of the child. Its mission is to promote and protect the rights consecrated by the Charter, to practice applying these rights, and to interpret the disposition of the Charter as required of party states, OUA institutions, or all other institutions recognized by OUA or by a member state. The Charter goes into effect 30 days after OUA or 15 member states ratify it. As of August 24, 1994, only four states had ratified it. Member states have taken it upon themselves to take all necessary measures to adopt the Charter. The delay of African states in this affair is incomprehensible. Eleven years separate the adoption of the Declaration on the Rights and Welfare of the African Child and this Charter. Must the African child wait as long to see the Charter become law? PMID:12288686

  14. Solar advanced internal film receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a Solar Central Internal Film Receiver, the heat absorbing fluid (a molten nitrate salt) flows in a thin film down over the non illuminated side of an absorber panel. Since the molten salt working fluid is not contained in complicated tube manifolds, the receiver design is simples than a conventional tube type-receiver resulting in a lower cost and a more reliable receiver. The Internal Film Receiver can be considered as an alternative to the Direct Absorption Receiver, in the event that the current problems of the last one can not be solved. It also describes here the test facility which will be used for its solar test, and the test plans foreseen. (Author) 17 refs

  15. Immigration: perspectives from receiving countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, M

    1990-01-01

    The author examines the issue of international migration from the standpoint of receiving countries. He attempts "to understand how and why migrant-receiving countries respond as they do, and to suggest some of the new issues in international migration that arise in a world in which the supply of would-be migrants and refugees is now greater than receiving countries are willing to accept." PMID:12283227

  16. Health information-seeking behavior and older African American women.

    OpenAIRE

    Gollop, C J

    1997-01-01

    This study explored the ways in which urban, older, African American women obtain health information and some of the factors that influence such activity. Among the possible determinants examined were self-perceived literacy, access to health information, and mobility. The findings suggest that respondents receive health information from their physicians, the mass media, and members of their social networks. The results of this research also indicated that members of this population have a hi...

  17. Court stories in selected African short narratives

    OpenAIRE

    E. Yewah

    1994-01-01

    This article attempts to cross-examine African Literature and African costumary, Islamic and inherited colonial laws. It opens a new topic in the study of African literature by showing how legal discourses are inscribed in certain African narratives and how these discourses link the narratives to the overall context of their production.

  18. 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop was held from 10 May to 18 June 2002 at Hangzhou Regional Center for Small Hydro Power(HRC). Attended altogether 9 participants from 5 African countries, i.e. Burundi, Nigeria, South African, Tanzania and Tunisia. This is the second training workshop on SHP that HRC conducted for African countries.

  19. Assimilation Differences among Africans in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo

    1997-01-01

    Census data (1990) indicate that male African immigrants earn more than their Caribbean-born counterparts or native-born African Americans, but controlling for relevant earnings-related endowments erases the African advantage and elevates Caribbean earnings above those of the other groups. Also, African (but not Caribbean) university degree…

  20. Do Educators See and Honor Biliteracy and Bidialectalism in African American Language Speakers? Apprehensions and Reflections of Two Grandparents/Professional Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutte, Gloria Swindler; Johnson, George L., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Educators often do not recognize biliteracy and bidialectalism in African American Language (AAL) speakers. Chronicling the experiences of twin four/five-year old AAL and emergent Standard English speakers, we discuss the importance of recognizing and building on the routines and identities of African American children and families. We present…

  1. African Independent Churches in Zambia (Lusaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mildnerová Kateřina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The African Independent churches (AICs in Zambia, as elsewhere in Africa, from their very beginning formed a protest movement against the cultural imperialism undertaken by the missionary representatives of the historic mission churches and also played an important role in the anti-colonial political struggles. In Zambia, the early AICs were closely related to witchcraft eradication movements such as the Mchape, or socially and politically oriented prophet-healing churches such as The Lumpa church of Alice Lenshina. Since the 1970s and in particular in the 1990s the Christianity in Zambia has been significantly marked by the proliferation of the African Independent Churches - both of Pentecostal and prophet-healing type. These churches that started mushrooming particularly in urban settings became part of the strengthening charismatic movement, particularly within Protestantism. A typical feature of AICs is focus on spiritual healing and religious syncretism - the local traditional customs and beliefs in dangerous ghosts, ancestral spirits, or witches are placed within the biblical religious framework where the Holy Spirit (Muzimu Oyela is considered to be the only source of healing whereas other ‘inferior spirits’ are labelled as demons. The traditional methods of healing are creatively combined with Christian healing by means of prayers, spiritual blessings, laying on of hands on patients and demon exorcism - it is believed that only a body rid of bad spirits can receive the Holy Spirit, and thus be healed. The paper draws on both secondary literature concerning African Independent Churches and primary data issued from fieldwork in Lusaka (2008-2009.

  2. Is the Moratorium over? African American Psychology Professionals' Views on Intelligence Testing in Response to Changes to Federal Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Scott; Mitchell, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Collectively, advocates for the well-being of African American children have long called for a moratorium on the use of intelligence testing for the placement of children in special education. With the 2004 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, intelligence testing is no longer required and in some states prohibited…

  3. African-American English and Reading Achievement: The Relationships among Dialect Awareness, Dialect Shifting and Reading Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajous-Brady, Daphne Lucienne

    2012-01-01

    When children begin to connect spoken speech to print, regardless of their language, they all encounter disparities between oral and written representations. Children who speak the African-American English (AAE) dialect at home and in their communities may encounter an even greater number of disparities between oral and written representations…

  4. How student teachers understand African philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Matsephe M. Letseka; Elza Venter

    2012-01-01

    The question ‘What constitutes African philosophy?’ was first raised with the publication of Placide Tempels’s seminal work Bantu philosophy in 1959. Tempels’s book inevitably elicited considerable critical response from African philosophers, which culminated in a wide range of publications such as Wiredu’s (1980) Philosophy and an African culture, Hountondji’s (1983) African philosophy: Myth and reality, Oruka’s (1990) Sage philosophy: Indigenous thinkers and modern debate on African philoso...

  5. A partitioned central solar receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Else of solar energy as substitute for conventional fuels at a competitive cost requires efficient conversion from solar radiation to usable forms of energy. In solar thermal or thermochemical applications, high efficiency usually re- quires high temperature and high concentration of incoming radiation. The main form of energy loss from high temperature solar central receivers is thermal emission ('re radiation'), at an effective temperature close to the maximum receiver temperature. This loss is reduced if the aperture is divided into segments, most of which are maintained at lower temperatures. A two-stage partitioned receiver demonstrating this concept is under construction at the Weizman Solar Tower. The high-temperature stage is the DIAPR (Directly Irradiated Annular Pressurized Receiver). The low-temperature stage is made of tubular cavity receivers of simpler design. Preliminary optical and thermal design of the partitioned receiver is presented. For the design exit temperature of 1500 K, the aperture size of the partitioned receiver is about 60% of the equivalent single-stage receiver, indicating a significant increase of conversion efficiency. The exit temperature of the low-temperature stage is around 1100 K, allowing simpler design and inexpensive construction. (authors)

  6. 12-month mortality and loss-to-program in antiretroviral-treated children: The IeDEA pediatric West African Database to evaluate AIDS (pWADA, 2000-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Kevin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The IeDEA West Africa Pediatric Working Group (pWADA was established in January 2007 to study the care and treatment of HIV-infected children in this region. We describe here the characteristics at antiretroviral treatment (ART initiation and study the 12-month mortality and loss-to-program of HIV-infected children followed in ART programs in West Africa. Methods Standardized data from HIV-infected children followed-up in ART programs were included. Nine clinical centers from six countries contributed to the dataset (Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Mali and Senegal. Inclusion criteria were the followings: age 0-15 years and initiated triple antiretroviral drug regimens. Baseline time was the date of ART initiation. WHO criteria was used to define severe immunosuppression based on CD4 count by age or CD4 percent 6 months after ART initiation and factors associated with these two outcomes. Results Between June 2000 and December 2007, 2170 children were included. Characteristics at ART initiation were the following: median age of 5 years (Interquartile range (IQR: 2-9 and median CD4 percentage of 13% (IQR: 7-19. The most frequent drug regimen consisted of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (62%. During the first 12 months, 169 (7.8% children died and 461(21.2% were lost-to-program. Overall, in HIV-infected children on ART, the 12-month probability of death was 8.3% (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 7.2-9.6%, and of loss-to-program was 23.1% (95% CI: 21.3-25.0%. Both mortality and loss-to program were associated with advanced clinical stage, CD4 percentage 2005 of ART initiation. Conclusion Innovative and sustainable approaches are needed to better document causes of death and increase retention in HIV pediatric clinics in West Africa.

  7. Genotyping and Resolution of a Case of Osteomyelitis in a 16-Month-Old Boy of Hispanic/African American Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachira, Eunice; Tran, Kayla; Taylor, Sara; Hoger, Sally; Dunn, James

    2016-02-01

    Most cases of osteomyelitis in children are caused by Staphylococcus aureus, although Kingella kingae, various streptococci, and Salmonella species also underlie this condition. Organisms such as Mycobacterium, Histoplasma, and Cryptococcus are much less commonly identified as etiologic agents in osteomyelitis. This case report describes a 16-month-old boy of Hispanic/African American ethnicity who had extensive inflammation of and discharge from his right ankle. Imaging studies supported a diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Acid-fast bacillus (AFB) and routine wound cultures were ordered on the wound discharge. The AFB culture yielded a positive result for Mycobacterium bovis, and molecular diagnostic testing further genotyped the microorganism as Mycobacterium bovis, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). Herein, we report a rare case of osteomyelitis that we believe resulted from a BCG vaccine that the patient had received outside the United States. PMID:26715611

  8. Caregiver perceptions of the food marketing environment of African-American 3–11-year-olds: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Monica L; Herbey, Ivan; Williams, Ronnie; Ard, Jamy D; Ivankova, Nataliya; Odoms-Young, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess caregivers’ perceptions of the extent to which the food marketing environment influences food consumption among African-American children (aged 3–11 years) in order to generate potential strategies to make the marketing environment more favourable to healthier eating. Design Individual semi-structured interviews with caregivers were conducted by trained community leaders to ascertain their awareness of and perceptions about food marketing environments contributing to African-American children’s food consumption. Setting Six predominantly African-American communities in metro Birmingham, Alabama, USA with high proportions of school-age children and lower-income residents. Subjects Caregivers (n 25) were predominantly female (93 %) and either parents/guardians (64 %) or grandparents (28 %) of African-American children aged 3–11 years. Caregiver mean age was 43 years and 46% had lived in their current residence for over 10 years. Results Caregivers reported all aspects of the food marketing matrix as supporting unhealthy eating among African-American youth. Child preference for foods higher in fat and sugar, lower pricing of less healthy foods, limited access to healthier food retailers and targeted advertisements were particularly influential on the food selection, acquisition and consumption of children. Company loyalty, corporate sponsorship of local events and conflicts over parental v. food company responsibility contributed to less consensus about the overall impact (positive or negative) of food companies in African-American communities. Conclusions While caregivers perceived aspects of their food marketing environments as primarily contributing to unhealthy eating among African-American children, framing the demand for changes in the food marketing environments of African-American youth may be particularly challenging. PMID:23830058

  9. Customizable Digital Receivers for Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Delwyn; Heavey, Brandon; Sadowy, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Compact, highly customizable digital receivers are being developed for the system described in 'Radar Interferometer for Topographic Mapping of Glaciers and Ice Sheets' (NPO-43962), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 7 (August 2007), page 72. The receivers are required to operate in unison, sampling radar returns received by the antenna elements in a digital beam-forming (DBF) mode. The design of these receivers could also be adapted to commercial radar systems. At the time of reporting the information for this article, there were no commercially available digital receivers capable of satisfying all of the operational requirements and compact enough to be mounted directly on the antenna elements. A provided figure depicts the overall system of which the digital receivers are parts. Each digital receiver includes an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a demultiplexer (DMUX), and a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The ADC effects 10-bit band-pass sampling of input signals having frequencies up to 3.5 GHz. The input samples are demultiplexed at a user-selectable rate of 1:2 or 1:4, then buffered in part of the FPGA that functions as a first-in/first-out (FIFO) memory. Another part of the FPGA serves as a controller for the ADC, DMUX, and FIFO memory and as an interface between (1) the rest of the receiver and (2) a front-panel data port (FPDP) bus, which is an industry-standard parallel data bus that has a high data-rate capability and multichannel configuration suitable for DBF. Still other parts of the FPGA in each receiver perform signal-processing functions. The digital receivers can be configured to operate in a stand-alone mode, or in a multichannel mode as needed for DBF. The customizability of the receiver makes it applicable to a broad range of system architectures. The capability for operation of receivers in either a stand-alone or a DBF mode enables the use of the receivers in an unprecedentedly wide variety of radar systems.

  10. Morphine sulphation in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Choonara, I; Ekbom, Y; Lindström, B; Rane, A.

    1990-01-01

    The metabolism of morphine was studied in nine children and seven preterm neonates receiving a continuous infusion of morphine. All the neonates and three children had detectable concentrations of morphine-3-sulphate (M3S) in urine. None of the neonates or the children had detectable concentrations of morphine-6-sulphate (M6S) in urine. None of the children had detectable concentrations of M3S in plasma. The M3S/morphine ratios were significantly higher in neonates than children (P less than ...

  11. African Ethnobotany in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Zent, Egleé L

    2013-01-01

    Review of African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Edited by Robert Voeks and John Rashford. 2013. Springer. Pp. 429, 105 illustrations, 69 color illustrations. $49.95 (paperback). ISBN 978‐1461408352.

  12. Mental Health and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease Diabetes Heart Disease Hepatitis HIV/AIDS Immunizations Infant Heath & Mortality Mental Health Obesity Organ and Tissue Donation Stroke Stay Connected ...

  13. African Ethnobotany in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egleé L. Zent

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Review of African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Edited by Robert Voeks and John Rashford. 2013. Springer. Pp. 429, 105 illustrations, 69 color illustrations. $49.95 (paperback. ISBN 978‐1461408352.

  14. Perioperative nursing of 4 children receiving contralateral healthy cervical seventh nerve root transfer for brachial plexus injury%4例儿童臂丛神经损伤健侧C(7)椎体前移位直接修复术的护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄天雯; 何翠环; 戚剑; 顾立强; 陈晓玲; 刘巧梨; 桂自珍; 刘回芬

    2011-01-01

    总结了4例儿童臂丛神经损伤健侧C(7)椎体前移位直接修复术围手术期的护理体会.术前通过心理护理、预防再损伤及功能锻炼、疼痛护理及术前体位训练等,患者情绪稳定,患者及家属对患者的伤残接受程度提高,患肢未出现再损伤.术后做好体位护理、病情观察、功能锻炼及出院指导,患儿术后康复过程顺利,切口Ⅰ级愈合,能够配合进行功能锻炼.%This paper summarizes the experience of perioperative nursing for 4 children receiving contralateral healthy cervical seventh nerve root transfer for brachial plexus injury. Before the operation,nursing care focused on psychological nursing,prevention from re-injury,functional training,pain management and posture training. The children and parents could face up the state of injury and keep calm in mood,and no re-injury occurred. The postoperative care included posture care,disease observation,functional training and discharge instruction. As a result,the children had a smooth recovery period after the operation. They could cooperate with physical therapy and the wounds healed well.

  15. Urban African American Pre-Adolescent Social Problem Solving Skills: Family Influences and Association with Exposure to Situations of Sexual Possibility

    OpenAIRE

    Traube, Dorian E.; Chasse, Kelly Taber; McKay, Mary M.; Bhorade, Anjali M.; PAIKOFF, ROBERTA; Young, Stacie D.

    2007-01-01

    The results of two studies focusing on the social problem solving skills of African American preadolescent youth are detailed. In the first study data from a sample of 150 African American children, ages 9 to 11 years, was used to examine the association between type of youth social problem solving approaches applied to hypothetical risk situations and time spent in unsupervised peer situations of sexual possibility. Findings revealed that children with more exposure to sexual possibility sit...

  16. Effects of Divorce on children / Matlhodi Elizabeth Matsafu

    OpenAIRE

    Matsafu, Matlhodi Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    South African society may have erased the stigma that once accompanied divorce, but its massive effects cannot be ignored. Hence. the purpose of this research was to determine the causes, nature and impact of divorce on children. From the literature, it became evident that social scientists tracked successive generations of South African children whose parents have ended their marriages. Literature further indicates that divorce is a traumatic experience, characterized by...

  17. Twin Sessions Through African Eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Yanshuo

    2012-01-01

    Every year journalists from around China and the world flock to Beijing in March to cover the sessions of the National People's Congress (NPC) and the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), known as the lianghui, or twin sessions. With the deepening of Sino-African relations in the past decades, an increasing number of African journalists are involved in reporting China's lianghui to their audiences in Africa.

  18. The Good African Society Index

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdi Botha

    2014-01-01

    This paper constructs a Good Society Index for 45 African countries, termed the Good African Society Index (GASI). The GASI consists of nine main indexes: (i) economic sustainability, (ii) democracy and freedom, (iii) child well-being, (iv) environment and infrastructure, (v) safety and security, (vi) health and health systems, (vii) integrity and justice, (viii) education, and (xi) social sustainability and social cohesion. Each component is split into four sub-components for a total of 36 i...

  19. Training in African aquaculture development

    OpenAIRE

    Brummett, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    The article focuses on the types of training needed in African aquaculture development. The author suggested that rather than needing less training, extension agents and others who operate in the idiosyncratic world of the poor African farmer, need a far deeper understanding of fish culture (particularly the basics of pond dynamics and ecology) than do those who can take advantage of industrialized-country infrastructure.

  20. Intermittent Preventive Treatment to Reduce the Burden of Malaria in Children: New Evidence on Integration and Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Konaté, AT; Yaro, JB; Ouédraogo, AZ; Diarra, A.; Gansané, A; Soulama, I.; Kangoyé, DT; Kaboré, Y; Ouédraogo, E.; Ouédraogo, A.; Tiono, AB; Ouédraogo, IN; Chandramohan, D; Cousens, S; Milligan, PJ

    2011-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Malaria accounts for one in five of all childhood deaths in Africa and of the one million annual malarial deaths world-wide, over 75% occur in African children under 5 years old. Malaria also causes severe morbidity in children, such as anemia, low birth weight, and neurological problems, which compromise the health and development of millions of children living in malaria endemic areas. As much of the impact of malaria on African children can be effectively preven...

  1. African American Caregivers and Substance Abuse in Child Welfare: Identification of Multiple Risk Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Eusebius; Kohl, Patricia L

    2012-07-01

    Despite the strong correlation between caregiver substance abuse and child maltreatment, little information exists to understand the typology of African American caregivers with substance abuse problems in the child welfare system. Research shows African American caregivers contend with multiple problems stemming from substance abuse. Unfortunately, we do not yet know how to best tailor resources to be responsive to varying groups of African American caregivers. Using data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW), this investigation tested for distinct multivariate profiles among a subset of African American caregivers with substance abuse problems (n=258). Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to classify caregivers, and five classes were identified among this high risk sample - each with distinct risk profiles. Based on these findings, we discuss implications for tailored practices to enhance the safety and stability of children involved with child welfare. PMID:22962521

  2. 恩丹西酮联合维生素B6防治儿童化疗呕吐的疗效观察%Study on the antiemetic effects of ondansetron plus vitamin B6 in children receiving chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉齐; 秦鑫添; 温宗秋

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察恩丹西酮联合维生素B6对儿童实体瘤化疗所致呕吐的疗效.方法 42例化疗患者采用自身随机对照,分为AB组与BA组.AB组第一疗程为A方案,止吐治疗为每天化疗前静脉注射恩丹西酮5 mg/m2配合维生素B64mg/kg静脉滴注;第二疗程为B方案,化疗前单纯静脉注射恩丹西酮5 mgB6m2.BA组则相反.均使用含顺铂方案化疗,A、B两疗程化疗方案一致.结果 A方案化疗后控制急性呕吐和延迟性呕吐的有效率分别为90.5%,92.9%.B方案化疗后控制急性呕吐和延迟性呕吐的有效率分别为69.0%,73.8%.A方案止吐疗效明显优干B方案(P<0.05).副作用主要为便秘,两组发生率相似.结论 恩丹西酮配合维生素B6对儿童实体瘤化疗所致呕吐有协同防治的作用.%Objective: To assess the efficacy of ondansetron plus vitamin B6 on chemotherapy induced vomiting in chil-dren with solid tumors. Methods: We conducted a randomized, self-controlled trial comparing ondansetron plus vitamin B6 with ondansetron monotherapy in 42 children receiving chemotherapy for solid tumors. Patients in AB group were treated with intravenous injection of 5mg/m2 ondansetron combined with intravenous infusion of 4mg/kg vitamin B6 as the A treat-ment regimen, and intravenous injection of 5mg/m2 ondansetron monotherapy as the B treatment regimen; whereas children in BA group received the B treatment regimen at first, followed by the A treatment regimen. All patients received the same cisplatin chemotherapy throughout the trial. Results: The combination therapy resulted in a 90.5% and 92.9% response rate to acute and delayed vomiting, respectively, which were significant lower with the monotherapy (69.0% and 73.8%, respectively). Therefore ondansetron plus vitamin B6 regimen was significant better than ondansetron concerning the antie-metic effects(P<0.05). Constipation was the primary adverse reaction, and its incidence was comparable across the two groups

  3. Children's access to medicines

    OpenAIRE

    Alkahtani, Saad Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Access to health care for children is important. It is dependent on access to health professionals and also parental attitudes towards illness. Children have the right to receive medicines that are scientifically evaluated for both efficacy and safety. Counterfeit and substandard medicines unfortunately result in the death of many children worldwide. There have been particular problems with diethylene glycol which has been used as a solvent in counterfeit medicines. It has also been foun...

  4. Solar dynamic heat receiver technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, Leigh M.

    1991-01-01

    A full-size, solar dynamic heat receiver was designed to meet the requirements specified for electrical power modules on the U.S. Space Station, Freedom. The heat receiver supplies thermal energy to power a heat engine in a closed Brayton cycle using a mixture of helium-xenon gas as the working fluid. The electrical power output of the engine, 25 kW, requires a 100 kW thermal input throughout a 90 minute orbit, including when the spacecraft is eclipsed for up to 36 minutes from the sun. The heat receiver employs an integral thermal energy storage system utilizing the latent heat available through the phase change of a high-temperature salt mixture. A near eutectic mixture of lithium fluoride and calcium difluoride is used as the phase change material. The salt is contained within a felt metal matrix which enhances heat transfer and controls the salt void distribution during solidification. Fabrication of the receiver is complete and it was delivered to NASA for verification testing in a simulated low-Earth-orbit environment. This document reviews the receiver design and describes its fabrication history. The major elements required to operate the receiver during testing are also described.

  5. The New African Civil-Military Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    the lead author accorded the responsibility of organizing a Session on ACMR. From amongst some of the exciting Abstracts presented, authors submitted these as full chapters for this book which captures International African Studies Perspectives, managed by the African Public Policy & Research...... on the African continent to embark upon the New African Civil Military Relations (ACMR). In the last decade and half, the implosion of African states exposed to forces of democratization has escalated, manifest in Algeria, Egypt, Mali, Madagascar, Somalia, South Sudan, Central African Republic and...

  6. Disarmament: the African perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disarmament is now generally accepted as the process of reduction in the size of, and expenditures on, armed forces, the destruction or dismantling of weapons, whether deployed or stockpiled, the progressive elimination of the capacity to produce new weapons and the release and integration into civilian life of military personnel. To realize this objective, the nations of the world have been advocating such measures as the establishment of nuclear weapon-free zones, non-proliferation, limitation of the arms trade, reduction of military budgets, and confidence-building measures. To ensure general and complete elimination of arms, there has been widespread recognition of the need to link the disarmament process with other political as well as socio-economic problems of the world such as the need for security, good relations between states and development of a system of peaceful settlement of disputes. Other measures that have been considered to be relevant in boosting the disarmament process include the role of the general public in putting pressure on their respective governments with a view to accelerating and realizing disarmament objectives. Africans have presented to the world a strong case for global disarmament

  7. East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Places where the earth's crust has formed deep fissures and the plates have begun to move apart develop rift structures in which elongate blocks have subsided relative to the blocks on either side. The East African Rift is a world-famous example of such rifting. It is characterized by 1) topographic deep valleys in the rift zone, 2) sheer escarpments along the faulted walls of the rift zone, 3) a chain of lakes within the rift, most of the lakes highly saline due to evaporation in the hot temperatures characteristic of climates near the equator, 4) voluminous amounts of volcanic rocks that have flowed from faults along the sides of the rift, and 5) volcanic cones where magma flow was most intense. This example in Kenya displays most of these features near Lake Begoria. The image was acquired December 18, 2002, covers an area of 40.5 x 32 km, and is located at 0.1 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  8. The rights of refugee children in South Africa / van Baalen C.H.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Baalen, Christina Henriëtta

    2012-01-01

    Refugee children are a specific vulnerable group in the South African society. In terms of the South African Constitution, refugee children are equally entitled to the right to basic nutrition, shelter, basic health care services, and social services in section 28(1)(c) and basic education in section 29(1)(a). It is unclear from jurisprudence whether indigent children under parental or family care have a direct entitlement to these rights. In Government of the Republic of South...

  9. Decreasing Substance use Risk among African American Youth: Parent-based Mechanisms of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Steven R H; Barton, Allen W; Lei, Man Kit; Mandara, Jelani; Wells, Ashley C; Kogan, Steven M; Brody, Gene H

    2016-07-01

    African American couples (N = 139; 67.7 % married; with children between the ages of 9 and 14) were randomly assigned to (a) a culturally sensitive, couple- and parenting-focused program designed to prevent stress-spillover (n = 70) or (b) an information-only control condition in which couples received self-help materials (n = 69). Eight months after baseline, youth whose parents participated in the program, compared with control youth, reported increased parental monitoring, positive racial socialization, and positive self-concept, as well as decreased conduct problems and self-reported substance use. Changes in youth-reported parenting behavior partially mediated the effect of the intervention on conduct problems and fully mediated its impact on positive self-concept, but did not mediate effects on lifetime substance use initiation. Results suggest the potential for a culturally sensitive family-based intervention targeting adults' couple and parenting processes to enhance multiple parenting behaviors as well as decrease youths' substance use onset and vulnerability. PMID:27129477

  10. Early Educational Foundations for the Development of Civic Responsibility: An African Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, Robert; Mumba, Paul; Chansa-Kabali, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    An innovative curriculum designed to foster the development of social responsibility among pre-adolescent children was introduced at a rural Zambian primary school. The curriculum invoked Child-to-Child principles focusing on health education, advancing a synthesis of Western psychological theories and African cultural traditions. The teacher…

  11. Detection of East/Central/South African Genotype of Chikungunya Virus in Myanmar, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Tun, Mya Myat Ngwe; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Inoue, Shingo; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Aoki, Kotaro; Kyaw, Aung Kyaw; Myint, Tin; Tar, Thi; Maung, Kay Thwe Thwe; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Morita, Kouichi

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, chikungunya virus of the East Central South African genotype was isolated from 4 children in Myanmyar who had dengue-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 gene revealed that the isolates were closely related to isolates from China, Thailand, and Malaysia that harbor the A226V mutation in this gene.

  12. Parental Factors that Influence the Career Development of College-Bound African American High School Seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostic, Shenice S.

    2010-01-01

    Parents have been identified as being the most influential factor upon their children career development. There are various factors that influence the career development of individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. The purpose of the study was to identify parental factors that influence the career development of college-bound African American…

  13. To Label or Not to Label: The Special Education Question for African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Moniqueka E.; Richards, Heraldo

    2012-01-01

    Over the years, the benefits of categorically identifying and labeling students with disabilities have been debated on many grounds, particularly when it comes to labeling African-American children who many argue are over-labeled or disproportionately represented in selected categories such as learning disabilities. In this article, the authors…

  14. Emotion-Related Behavioral Regulation in African American Preschoolers: Social-Emotional Correlates of Teacher Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maureen C.

    2004-01-01

    This preliminary and exploratory study examined the correlates of 5 aspects of teacher-rated emotion-related regulation (modulation, flexibility, organization, emotion-focused coping, aggressive-coping strategies) in a sample of 36 low- to middle-income African American preschoolers. Results showed that children's empathy, emotional intensity,…

  15. Unemployment and Work Interruption among African American Single Mothers: Effects on Parenting and Adolescent Socioemotional Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoyd, Vonnie C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Using interview data from 241 single African American mothers and their seventh- and eighth-grade children, this study tested a model of how 2 economic stressors, maternal unemployment and work interruption, influenced adolescent socioemotional functioning. Found that current unemployment, but not past work interruption, contributed to depressive…

  16. Behavior Problems of African American Boys and Girls Attending Head Start Programs in Violent Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Suzanne M.; Koblinsky, Sally A.; Beemer, Martha A.; Roberts, Debra D.; Letiecq, Bethany L.

    2000-01-01

    Examined behavior problems of African American children attending Head Start in violent neighborhoods. Found Child Behavior Checklist externalization scores significantly higher than standardization sample; higher percentages of boys than girls had severe internalizing problems; higher percentages of girls than boys had severe externalizing…

  17. Talking about Corporal Punishment: Nine Low-Income African American Mothers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispa, J.M.; Halgunseth, L.C.

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative interviews conducted over the course of 5 years with nine young low-income African American mothers were analyzed in order to gain understanding of their perspectives on corporal punishment. All used corporal punishment with their children. Results pertain to the vocabulary mothers used to describe corporal punishment (pop, tap, whup,…

  18. Profiles of Racial Socialization among African American Parents: Correlates, Context, and Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Nettles, Saundra Murray; Lima, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Self report and observational data on racial socialization practices in a sample of 218 African American parents of young children were used to determine whether or not parents could be characterized in terms of their pattern of racial socialization practices. Parents fell into four groups: silence about race, emphasis on cultural socialization,…

  19. Bidialectalism in the Classroom: The Case of African-American English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordaunt, Owen G.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief description of the linguistic features of African-American English (AAE) and reviews the positions that have been taken up about its role in American education, ranging from those in which AAE is seen as an obstacle to the education of black children to those in which it becomes a language that is different from…

  20. BE, DO, and Modal Auxiliaries of 3-Year-Old African American English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Oetting, Janna B.; Stockman, Ida J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined African American English--speaking children's use of BE, DO, and modal auxiliaries. Method: The data were based on language samples obtained from 48 three-year-olds. Analyses examined rates of marking by auxiliary type, auxiliary surface form, succeeding element, and syntactic construction and by a number of child…