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Sample records for african children receiving

  1. Classic African American Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  2. The transmission of African culture to children

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Tanon Lora

    2014-01-01

    African ancient traditions suffered a major historical change as a result of colonization. Several decades after decolonization and access to independence, what is the situation and place of the African culture in Africa and outside Africa? Does African culture perpetuate effectively today? What are the obstacles to the transmission of African culture to our children? What are the beliefs or elements that have influenced the transmission of our culture after the period of independence? Roughl...

  3. A Qualitative Examination of the Maternal Racial Socialization of African American Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Adrienne Laney

    2014-01-01

    The salience of racial socialization among African American families has received considerable attention in the literature; however, few scholars have examined how the process of racial socialization unfolds in families with very young children. This study investigated how African American mothers of preschool-age children approached the process of racial socialization. I interviewed African American mothers who were at least age 18 (N=12) with biological children between the ages of three an...

  4. Reasons Parents Exempt Children from Receiving Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthy, Karlen E.; Beckstrand, Renea L.; Callister, Lynn C.; Cahoon, Spencer

    2012-01-01

    School nurses are on the front lines of educational efforts to promote childhood vaccinations. However, some parents still choose to exempt their children from receiving vaccinations for personal reasons. Studying the beliefs of parents who exempt vaccinations allows health care workers, including school nurses, to better understand parental…

  5. MRI in children receiving total parenteral nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranial MRI was obtained in 13 of a group of 57 children receiving long-term parenteral nutrition, who were being investigated for hypermanganasaemia. Increased signal intensity on T1-weighted images has been reported in adult patients on long-term parenteral nutrition and with encephalopathy following chronic manganese exposure in arc welding. It has been postulated that these changes are due to deposition of the paramagnetic trace element manganese. In excess manganese is hepato- and neurotoxic and we present the correlation of whole blood manganese levels with imaging findings. The age range of our patients was 6 months to 10 years, and the duration of therapy 3 months to 10 years. In 7 children we found characteristic increased signal intensity on T1-weighted images, with no abnormality on T2-weighted images. All patients had elevated whole blood manganese levels, suggesting that the basis for this abnormality is indeed deposition of manganese within the tissues. (orig.). With 3 figs

  6. Consequences of Learning about Historical Racism among European American and African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Julie M.; Bigler, Rebecca S.; Levy, Sheri R.

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge about racism is a critical component of educational curricula and contemporary race relations. To examine children's responses to learning about racism, European American (Study 1; N = 48) and African American (Study 2; N = 69) elementary-aged children (ages 6-11) received history lessons that included information about racism…

  7. "It Was like a Book Buffet!" Parents and Children Selecting African American Children's Literature Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how African American children--in grades kindergarten through 2--and their parents selected books within the context of a unique family literacy program entitled, "I Never Knew There Were So Many Books About Us!: Parents and Children Reading African American Children's Literature Together". This study is informed by research…

  8. What Are the Real Risk Factors for African American Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jacquelyne Faye

    1999-01-01

    Educators should banish the specter of African-American children as high-risk, budding disasters and closely examine these children's schooling environment. Black children of all incomes are schooled in highly segregated settings, due to residential segregation. Exposure to health hazards (lead-based paint) and corporal punishment are serious…

  9. Spacing and crowding among African and Caucasian children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugonzibwa, E.A.; Eskeli, R.; Laine-Alava, M.T.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Katsaros, C.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine spacing and crowding according to ethnic group, gender and dental emergence stage among Tanzanian African and Caucasian children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional epidemiological clinical study. SETTING: A total of 869 African (428 boys, 441 girls) and 706 Caucasian (319 boys, 387 gir

  10. Language Learning and Use by African American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Dolores E.

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews recent investigations of the development of phonology, morphology, semantics, and pragmatics in the development of speech and language by African American children. Clinical implications are offered to aid the distinction between normal language development using features of African American English and language disorders.…

  11. What's So "Powerful" about African American Children's Literature?: Let's Ask the Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefflin, Bena R.

    2003-01-01

    Outlines what educators and academics describe as the "power" of children's literature and multicultural children's literature, which includes African American children's literature. Explores what four African American third-graders have to say about the "power" of six African American children's books. Concludes with the patterns and implications…

  12. The Expression of Distress by Children Receiving Medical Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Brenda D.; Gipson, Martin

    The nature of children's distress reactions to medical treatment is examined in terms of age and sex differences and initial normative data are provided. Predominately white, middle class children, ages 1 to 11, were observed while receiving allergy treatment injections. Males were observed on 453 injection occasions while females were observed on…

  13. Assessing Social Anxiety in African American Youth using the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pina, Armando A.; LITTLE, MICHELLE; Wynne, Henry; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2014-01-01

    Examined measurement invariance and cut-off scores of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C) using data corresponding to a convenience sample of 501 African American and Caucasian youth (Mage = 11.62 years, 249 girls; 49% with social anxiety disorder) using exploratory structural equation modeling and a weighted least squares mean variance estimator. For the cut-off scores, Receiver Operator Characteristic analyses were used along with Youden’s index to evaluate the bal...

  14. Risky business: trauma exposure and rate of posttraumatic stress disorder in African American children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kristin L; Martens, Patricia M; Belcher, Harolyn M E

    2011-06-01

    Demographics, parental risk factors, and experiencing interpersonal trauma (domestic violence, community violence, and physical and sexual abuse) are related to childhood posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Little is known about these factors and the risk of PTSD in African American children. This study examined associations between PTSD symptoms and gender, age, parent mental illness, parent substance abuse, and interpersonal trauma in African American children. Participants were 257 children and adolescents, ages 8-17 years (M = 11.7, SD = 2.5), who received outpatient mental health treatment. Being female and witnessing domestic violence was associated with more PTSD symptoms. Exposure to community violence and physical abuse increased the odds of clinically significant PTSD symptomatology by more than 2 times. The rate of PTSD (16%) was lower in the current study than in other same-age study populations (25%-40%). Risk factors and identification strategies for PTSD are discussed.

  15. Improving child support enforcement for children receiving SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilschke, S

    Less than half of all children who receive Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits and live in a single-parent home receive child support services. Although filing for child support is a condition of eligibility for income assistance programs such as Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), it is not a condition of eligibility for SSI benefits. Requiring single custodial parents applying for SSI on behalf of their children to pursue child support payments might result in more children on SSI receiving child support, and since the Social Security Administration (SSA) excludes one-third of child support when determining benefit amounts, increased receipt of child support would enhance the financial well-being of SSI children. Improving access to data on child support would enhance the integrity of the SSI program by reducing overpayments to children receiving child support. This article looks at the child support provisions in SSI and other means-tested programs and discusses policy options for improving receipt of child support and access to related data. Requiring cooperation with child support enforcement agencies would be consistent with the philosophy that the SSI program should serve as a program of last resort. Whenever possible, both parents should take primary responsibility for their children. While such a requirement has the potential to improve the financial status of children receiving SSI, factors such as their low-income status and their involvement with the TANF program raise questions about how much those children will actually benefit from such a requirement. Even if many additional children do not receive child support, the requirement demonstrates SSA's dedication to the stewardship of the SSI program. However, if custodial parents fail to comply with the requirement, children may be worse off as a result of the requirement. SSA should carefully pursue a requirement to induce cooperation while protecting children to the greatest extent

  16. Improving child support enforcement for children receiving SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilschke, S

    Less than half of all children who receive Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits and live in a single-parent home receive child support services. Although filing for child support is a condition of eligibility for income assistance programs such as Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), it is not a condition of eligibility for SSI benefits. Requiring single custodial parents applying for SSI on behalf of their children to pursue child support payments might result in more children on SSI receiving child support, and since the Social Security Administration (SSA) excludes one-third of child support when determining benefit amounts, increased receipt of child support would enhance the financial well-being of SSI children. Improving access to data on child support would enhance the integrity of the SSI program by reducing overpayments to children receiving child support. This article looks at the child support provisions in SSI and other means-tested programs and discusses policy options for improving receipt of child support and access to related data. Requiring cooperation with child support enforcement agencies would be consistent with the philosophy that the SSI program should serve as a program of last resort. Whenever possible, both parents should take primary responsibility for their children. While such a requirement has the potential to improve the financial status of children receiving SSI, factors such as their low-income status and their involvement with the TANF program raise questions about how much those children will actually benefit from such a requirement. Even if many additional children do not receive child support, the requirement demonstrates SSA's dedication to the stewardship of the SSI program. However, if custodial parents fail to comply with the requirement, children may be worse off as a result of the requirement. SSA should carefully pursue a requirement to induce cooperation while protecting children to the greatest extent

  17. Social adjustment of African children in Icelandic compulsory schools

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Enyonam Sævarsson

    2011-01-01

    In Icelandic compulsory schools, all nationals are supposed to take teaching instructions in Icelandic. Article 16 of the National Curriculum guide, Compulsory School Act (2008) states that ―Pupils whose mother tongue is not Icelandic are entitled to instruction in Icelandic as second language.‖ The aim of this objective is to empower immigrant children to study and become active participants in Icelandic community. Does the culture of African children serve as a hindrance to adjusting social...

  18. Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss: Information Parents Receive about Supporting Children's Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Kalli B.; Vallotton, Claire D.

    2016-01-01

    Family-centered early intervention for children with hearing loss is intended to strengthen families' interactions with their children to support children's language development, and should include providing parents with information they can use as part of their everyday routines. However, little is known about the information received by families…

  19. Human rhinovirus infection in young African children with acute wheezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zar Heather J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections caused by human rhinoviruses (HRVs are important triggers of wheezing in young children. Wheezy illness has increasingly been recognised as an important cause of morbidity in African children, but there is little information on the contribution of HRV to this. The aim of this study was to determine the role of HRV as a cause of acute wheezing in South African children. Methods Two hundred and twenty children presenting consecutively at a tertiary children's hospital with a wheezing illness from May 2004 to November 2005 were prospectively enrolled. A nasal swab was taken and reverse transcription PCR used to screen the samples for HRV. The presence of human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus and human coronavirus-NL63 was assessed in all samples using PCR-based assays. A general shell vial culture using a pool of monoclonal antibodies was used to detect other common respiratory viruses on 26% of samples. Phylogenetic analysis to determine circulating HRV species was performed on a portion of HRV-positive samples. Categorical characteristics were analysed using Fisher's Exact test. Results HRV was detected in 128 (58.2% of children, most (72% of whom were under 2 years of age. Presenting symptoms between the HRV-positive and negative groups were similar. Most illness was managed with ambulatory therapy, but 45 (35% were hospitalized for treatment and 3 (2% were admitted to intensive care. There were no in-hospital deaths. All 3 species of HRV were detected with HRV-C being the most common (52% followed by HRV-A (37% and HRV-B (11%. Infection with other respiratory viruses occurred in 20/128 (16% of HRV-positive children and in 26/92 (28% of HRV-negative samples. Conclusion HRV may be the commonest viral infection in young South African children with acute wheezing. Infection is associated with mild or moderate clinical disease.

  20. Should children with inherited metabolic disorders receive varicella vaccination?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Varghese, M

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to determine the rate of varicella infection and complications in children with disorders of intermediary metabolism (IEM) between the ages of 1 and 16 years attending our national metabolic referral centre. Of 126 children identified, a response was received from 122. A history of previous varicella infection was identified in 64 cases (53%) and of varicella vaccination in 5 (4%). Fifty-three (43%) patients apparently did not have a history of clinical varicella infection. Of the 64 children with a history of varicella infection, five required hospitalisation for complications, including life-threatening lactic acidosis in one patient with mitochondrial disease and metabolic decompensation in four patients. In conclusion, varicella infection may cause an increased risk of metabolic decompensation in patients with IEMs. We propose that a trial of varicella vaccination be considered for this cohort of patients with monitoring of its safety and efficacy.

  1. Methylphenidate Improves Aspects of Executive Function in African American Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel-Fernandez, Leslie Ann; Klorman, Rafael; Wallace, James M.; Cook, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The undertreatment of ethnic minority children with ADHD prompted a study on the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on the executive functions of African American children with ADHD. Method: Nineteen African American children with ADHD are tested on the Tower of Hanoi (TOH) and the Paired Associates Learning Task (PAL) in a double-blind…

  2. Parameters of anesthesia/sedation in children receiving radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous reports establish low risk of complications in pediatric treatments under anesthesia/sedation (A/S) in the outpatient setting. Here, we present our institutional experience with A/S by age and gender in children receiving daily proton RT. After Institutional Review Board approval, we reviewed our center’s records between 9/9/2004 and 6/30/2013 with respect to age and gender of A/S requirement in our pediatric patients (defined as patients ≤18 years of age). Of 390 patients treated in this era, 182 were girls. Children aged ≤3 invariably required A/S; and by age 7–8, approximately half of patients do not. For pediatric patients ≥ 12 years of age, approximately 10% may require A/S for different reasons. There was no difference by gender. Beyond age 3, the requirement for A/S decreases in an age-dependent fashion, with a small cadre of older children having difficulty enough with sustained immobilization that A/S is necessary. In our experience, there is no difference in A/S requirement by gender

  3. A comparison of death recording by health centres and civil registration in South Africans receiving antiretroviral treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh F Johnson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is uncertainty regarding the completeness of death recording by civil registration and by health centres in South Africa. This paper aims to compare death recording by the two systems, in cohorts of South African patients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART. Methods: Completeness of death recording was estimated using a capture–recapture approach. Six ART programmes linked their patient record systems to the vital registration system using civil identity document (ID numbers and provided data comparing the outcomes recorded in patient files and in the vital registration. Patients were excluded if they had missing/invalid IDs or had transferred to other ART programmes. Results: After exclusions, 91,548 patient records were included. Of deaths recorded in patients files after 2003, 94.0% (95% CI: 93.3–94.6% were recorded by civil registration, with completeness being significantly higher in urban areas, older adults and females. Of deaths recorded by civil registration after 2003, only 35.0% (95% CI: 34.2–35.8% were recorded in patient files, with this proportion dropping from 60% in 2004–2005 to 30% in 2010 and subsequent years. Recording of deaths in patient files was significantly higher in children and in locations within 50 km of the health centre. When the information from the two systems was combined, an estimated 96.2% of all deaths were recorded (93.5% in children and 96.2% in adults. Conclusions: South Africa's civil registration system has achieved a high level of completeness in the recording of mortality. However, the fraction of deaths recorded by health centres is low and information from patient records is insufficient by itself to evaluate levels and predictors of ART patient mortality. Previously documented improvements in ART mortality over time may be biased if based only on data from patient records.

  4. 25 CFR 20.400 - Who should receive Services to Children, Elderly, and Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who should receive Services to Children, Elderly, and... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.400 Who should receive Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? Services to Children, Elderly, and...

  5. NOMA: A Preventable "Scourge" of African Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbureke, Kalu U E; Ogbureke, Ezinne I

    2010-01-01

    Noma is a serious orofacial gangrene originating intraorally in the gingival-oral mucosa complex before spreading extraorally to produce a visibly destructive ulcer. Although cases of noma are now rarely reported in the developed countries, it is still prevalent among children in third world countries, notably in sub-Sahara Africa, where poverty, ignorance, malnutrition, and preventable childhood infections are still common. This review summarizes historical, epidemiological, management, and research updates on noma with suggestions for its prevention and ultimate global eradication. The global annual incidence remains high at about 140,000 cases, with a mortality rate exceeding 90% for untreated diseases. Where the patients survive, noma defects result in unsightly facial disfigurement, intense scarring, trismus, oral incompetence, and social alienation. Although the etiology has long been held to be infectious, a definitive causal role between microorganisms cited, and noma has been difficult to establish. The management of noma with active disease requires antibiotics followed by reconstructive surgery. Current research efforts are focused towards a comprehensive understanding of the epidemiology, and further elucidation of the microbiology and pathogenesis of noma.Although a formidable public health challenge, noma can be prevented with a potential for subsequent global eradication. To achieve both desirable goals, detection of early disease is crucial because these early lesions respond to conventional antibiotic treatments when instituted side by side with nutritional rehabilitation, and obviates the necessity for extensive surgical reconstruction often indicated in late stage disease. The eradication of noma in the developed world in the mid 20(th) century bears out the notion of a similar outcome following effective preventive strategies in Africa. A fundamental and necessary step towards attaining this goal is for the international community to adopt a

  6. NOMA: A Preventable "Scourge" of African Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbureke, Kalu U E; Ogbureke, Ezinne I

    2010-10-21

    Noma is a serious orofacial gangrene originating intraorally in the gingival-oral mucosa complex before spreading extraorally to produce a visibly destructive ulcer. Although cases of noma are now rarely reported in the developed countries, it is still prevalent among children in third world countries, notably in sub-Sahara Africa, where poverty, ignorance, malnutrition, and preventable childhood infections are still common. This review summarizes historical, epidemiological, management, and research updates on noma with suggestions for its prevention and ultimate global eradication. The global annual incidence remains high at about 140,000 cases, with a mortality rate exceeding 90% for untreated diseases. Where the patients survive, noma defects result in unsightly facial disfigurement, intense scarring, trismus, oral incompetence, and social alienation. Although the etiology has long been held to be infectious, a definitive causal role between microorganisms cited, and noma has been difficult to establish. The management of noma with active disease requires antibiotics followed by reconstructive surgery. Current research efforts are focused towards a comprehensive understanding of the epidemiology, and further elucidation of the microbiology and pathogenesis of noma.Although a formidable public health challenge, noma can be prevented with a potential for subsequent global eradication. To achieve both desirable goals, detection of early disease is crucial because these early lesions respond to conventional antibiotic treatments when instituted side by side with nutritional rehabilitation, and obviates the necessity for extensive surgical reconstruction often indicated in late stage disease. The eradication of noma in the developed world in the mid 20(th) century bears out the notion of a similar outcome following effective preventive strategies in Africa. A fundamental and necessary step towards attaining this goal is for the international community to adopt a

  7. Pharmacokinetics of a Novel Sublingual Spray Formulation of the Antimalarial Drug Artemether in African Children with Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Salman, Sam; Bendel, Daryl; Lee, Toong C.; Templeton, David; Davis, Timothy M. E.

    2015-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of sublingual artemether (ArTiMist) was investigated in 91 young African children with severe malaria or who could not tolerate oral antimalarial therapy. Each received 3.0 mg/kg of body weight of artemether at 0, 8, 24, 36, 48, and 60 h or until the initiation of oral treatment. Few blood samples were drawn postdose. Plasma artemether and dihydroartemisinin (DHA) levels were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the data were analyzed using establis...

  8. African American Children and Mental Health. Child Psychology and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nancy E., Ed.; Mann, Tammy L., Ed.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This groundbreaking two-volume set examines the psychological, social, physical, and environmental factors that undermine or support healthy development in African American children while considering economic, historical, and public policies. African American children are at the highest risk for becoming school dropouts, for academic disengagement…

  9. The Images of African Americans in Children's Literature of the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Regina

    Focusing on the early examples of African American literature for children, this paper provides a glimpse into the historical development of children's literature that portrays African Americans and the people who had a definite effect on it. In contemporary time, numerous books are available that reflect the social and cultural traditions…

  10. Stereotype Threat Effects on African American Children in an Urban Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserberg, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether a diagnostic testing condition leads to stereotype threat effects for African American children (n = 198) at an urban elementary school. Results indicated that presenting a reading test as diagnostic of abilities hindered the performance of African American children aware of racial stereotypes but not of those…

  11. Serum Thyroid Hormone Levels in Epileptic Children Receiving Anticonvulsive Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl MAHYAR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Mahyar A, Ayazi P, Dalirani R, Hosseini SM, Daneshi Kohan MM. Serum Thyroid Hormone Levels in Epileptic Children Receiving AnticonvulsiveDrugs. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology 2011;5(4:21-24.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate serum thyroid hormone levels in epileptic children receiving anticonvulsive drugs.Materials & MethodsIn this case- control study, 30 epileptic children who were receiving anticonvulsive drugs (case group were compared with 30 healthy children (control group. This study was carried out in the Qazvin Children's Hospital (Qazvin, Iran from October to December 2007. Both groups were matched for age and sex. Thyroid hormone levels were measured using a radioimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assay. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and Student's t-tests.ResultsThe mean serum T3 and T4 levels in the case group were 2.36 ± 0.73 nmol/L and 95.96 ± 27.01 nmol/L, respectively, and the corresponding values in the control group were 1.88 ± 0.93 nmol/L and 147.46 ± 35.77 nmol/L, respectively. The mean serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels in the case and control groups were 2.73±0.73 mIU/mL and 2.49 ± 2.17mIU/mL, respectively.ConclusionThis study revealed that long-term consumption of anticonvulsive drugs resulted in a decline in serum T4 levels and an increase in serum T3 levels, but had no effect on TSH levels. 1. Johnston M. Neurodegenerative disorders of childhood;Spingolipidoses. Nelson textbook of pediatrics, 17th edPhiladelphia: Saunders; 2004.P.2031-2.2. Sankar R, Koh S, Wu J, Menkes J. Paroxysmal disorders.In(eds: Menkes JH, Sarnat HB, Maria BL. ChildNeurology; 2006.P.7:877.3. Shiva S, Ashrafi M, Mostafavi F, Abasi F, RahbariA, Shabanian R. Effects of anticonvulsant drugs onthyroid function tests. Iranian Journal of pediatrics2003;13(02:101.4. Kimura M, Yoshino K, Suzuki N, Maeoka Y. Effect ofantiepileptic drugs on thyroid function. Psychiatry andclinical neurosciences

  12. South African Mixed-Race Children's and Mothers' Judgments and Reasoning about Children's Nurturance and Self-Determination Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruck, Martin D.; Tenenbaum, Harriet; Willenberg, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the understanding of children's rights in 63 (9-, 11-, and 13-year-olds) mixed-race South African children and their mothers. In individual semi-structured interviews participants responded to hypothetical vignettes in which children's nurturance and self-determination rights conflicted with parental authority in the home.…

  13. Sports Biographies of African American Football Players: The Racism of Colorblindness in Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winograd, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This is an exploratory study of racism in a genre of children's literature that has been largely overlooked by research and teaching in multicultural children's literature: sports biographies and, in particular, the biographies of African American professional football players. By examining the race bias of this genre of children's literature, the…

  14. Spelling in African American Children: The Case of Final Consonant Devoicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Bowman, Margo

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of dialect variation on children's spelling by using devoicing of final /d/ in African American Vernacular English (AAVE) as a test case. In line with the linguistic interference hypothesis, African American 6-year-olds were significantly poorer at spelling the final "d" of words such as "salad"…

  15. Rationales for Support That African American Grandmothers Provide to Their Children Who Are Parenting Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumo, Jen'nea; Dancy, Barbara; Julion, Wrenetha; Wilbur, JoEllen

    2015-01-01

    African American grandmothers are known to be a major source of support for their children who are parenting adolescents, but little is known about why they provide support. The purpose of this study was to describe the kinds of support provided by African American maternal and paternal grandmothers to their parenting adolescents and the reasons…

  16. Raising Cultural Awareness of Second Grade African American Students Using Mexican American Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Sandra Lyniece

    2009-01-01

    An increase in the Mexican American population within the predominantly African American community and school was the basis of this qualitative study. The purpose of the study was to introduce African American second grade students to authentic Mexican and Mexican American children's literature. Interactive read-alouds of nonfiction and realistic…

  17. Cognitive and neuropsychological characteristics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children receiving stimulant medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, M G; Bowers, T G

    1993-12-01

    10 children receiving stimulant medication for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder were compared to normal children on cognitive and neuropsychological dimensions in a pilot study. When compared with 10 normal children the ADHD children showed significant differences on cognitive measures, including the Wechsler Developmental Index, the Bender Visual-motor Gestalt Test, and the Benton Revised Visual Retention Test. Elevated levels of polyspike EEG activity were also noted for these children. Analysis suggested that ADHD children receiving stimulant medications may have persisting neuropsychological difficulty. Further research on the neuropsychological correlates of ADHD seems warranted.

  18. Household context, generational status, and English proficiency among the children of African immigrants in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Kevin J.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how household and parental-level determinants affect English proficiency among the children of African immigrants in the US. Within immigrant families, the study finds that children's level of proficiency has a stronger positive association with the proficiency of their mothers than with that of their fathers. Children's level of English proficiency significantly increases as the number other English-proficient children within their household increases. These impacts are s...

  19. Nonabusive physical punishment and child behavior among African-American children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Ivor Braden; Joseph, Jill G.; Cheng, Tina L.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of nonabusive physical punishment as a form of discipline has been greatly debated in the scientific and popular literature. Impact on child behavioral outcomes has frequently been found; however, the effects of its use are not clear, particularly for African-American children. This systematic review of the literature examined the impact of exposure to nonabusive physical punishment on the behavior of African-American children. METHODS: A search was conducted of PubMed and Psyclnfo from 1970 to 2000 using the key terms: corporal punishment, physical punishment, disciplinary practices, and discipline and parenting. Studies that described ethnicity of the population and included a majority of a well-described African-American population were included. Each study was required to include measurable data on child behavioral outcomes and at least one measure of discipline that assessed use of nonabusive physical punishment in children 0-14 years of age. RESULTS: All seven included studies used lower socioeconomic status (SES) and/or urban African-American populations. Study design and rural versus urban populations differentiated beneficial and detrimental outcomes. In all longitudinal studies, African-American children had beneficial or neutral outcomes. DISCUSSION: This review suggests that it is possible that there are benefits to nonabusive physical punishment for African-American children. However, needed are further longitudinal studies that better assess the multiple confounders that impact the use of discipline, such as SES, parental education level, and exposure to community or domestic violence. PMID:15481744

  20. "I Never Knew There Were so Many Books about Us": Parents and Children Reading and Responding to African American Children's Literature Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how the social practices of African American families--with children in grades K-2--changed as a result of participating in a family literacy program utilizing African American children's literature. The families were exposed, through a series of workshops, to an abundance of children's literature…

  1. Mothering Children in Africa: Interrogating single parenthood in African literature

    OpenAIRE

    Olayiwola, Abiodun; Olowonmi, Adekunle

    2013-01-01

    The issue of motherhood in African women’s writings has transcended the façade of binary oppositions created by radical “Western” feminists who pitch women against men in their campaign for gender equality or, worse still, belittle or show disdain for the men-folk. The approach of African women writers takes issue with the collapse of social inequalities and its potentially disastrous implications. This essay examines the representations of African women in their struggle against the divisive...

  2. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and amodiaquine in African children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouedraogo Alphonse

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacokinetic (PK data on amodiaquine (AQ and artesunate (AS are limited in children, an important risk group for malaria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the PK properties of a newly developed and registered fixed dose combination (FDC of artesunate and amodiaquine. Methods A prospective population pharmacokinetic study of AS and AQ was conducted in children aged six months to five years. Participants were randomized to receive the new artesunate and amodiaquine FDC or the same drugs given in separate tablets. Children were divided into two groups of 70 (35 in each treatment arm to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of AS and AQ, respectively. Population pharmacokinetic models for dihydroartemisinin (DHA and desethylamodiaquine (DeAq, the principal pharmacologically active metabolites of AS and AQ, respectively, and total artemisinin anti-malarial activity, defined as the sum of the molar equivalent plasma concentrations of DHA and artesunate, were constructed using the non-linear mixed effects approach. Relative bioavailability between products was compared by estimating the ratios (and 95% CI between the areas under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUC. Results The two regimens had similar PK properties in young children with acute malaria. The ratio of loose formulation to fixed co-formulation AUCs, was estimated as 1.043 (95% CI: 0.956 to 1.138 for DeAq. For DHA and total anti-malarial activity AUCs were estimated to be the same. Artesunate was rapidly absorbed, hydrolysed to DHA, and eliminated. Plasma concentrations were significantly higher following the first dose, when patients were acutely ill, than after subsequent doses when patients were usually afebrile and clinically improved. Amodiaquine was converted rapidly to DeAq, which was then eliminated with an estimated median (range elimination half-life of 9 (7 to 12 days. Efficacy was similar in the two treatments groups, with cure rates of 0

  3. Temperament Styles of Children in Three Sub-Saharan African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas; Callueng, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    This cross-national research examined temperament style preferences among children in three sub-Saharan African countries (i.e., Nigeria, South Africa, and Zimbabwe) and possible differences between them on four bipolar temperament styles: extroverted-introverted, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling, and organized-flexible. Children in these…

  4. Tradition and Modernization: Siting Philosophy for Children within the African Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndofirepi, Amasa Philip; Cross, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this philosophical paper, we investigate the project of doing philosophy with children in Africa. While the philosophy for children program has its roots in the Anglo-Saxon world, we contend that it can sit well in Africa if given an African outlook. We challenge Eurocentric specialists, who are attempting a wholesale introduction of the…

  5. Teacher and Observer Ratings of Young African American Children's Social and Emotional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Marisha L.; Keenan, Kate; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2012-01-01

    Children's social and emotional competence abilities have been linked to successful social interactions and academic performance. This study examined the teacher and observer ratings of social and emotional competence for 89 young (3- to 5-year-old), African American children from economically stressed urban environments. There was a specific…

  6. African American Homeschool Parents' Motivations for Homeschooling and Their Black Children's Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the motivations of African American parents for choosing homeschooling for their children and the academic achievement of their Black homeschool students. Their reasons for homeschooling are similar to those of homeschool parents in general, although some use homeschooling to help their children understand Black culture and…

  7. Iron deficiency and malaria as determinants of anaemia in African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, H.

    2001-01-01

    Approximately three quarters of east African children <5 y of age suffer from anaemia, which is due, at least in part, to malaria and iron deficiency. In children in areas of seasonal malaria, the benefits of iron supplementation may not outweigh possible inherent risks of adverse effects caused

  8. Sexual Health Discussions between African-American Mothers and Mothers of Latino Descent and Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Ashley; Ellis, Monica U.; Castellanos, Ted; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline Y.; Sneed, Carl D.

    2014-01-01

    We examined approaches used by African-American mothers and mothers of Latino descent for informal sex-related discussions with their children to inform sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV intervention development efforts. We recruited mothers (of children aged 12-15) from youth service agencies and a university in southern California.…

  9. Zinc or multiple micronutrient supplementation to reduce diarrhea and respiratory disease in South African children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kany-Kany Angelique Luabeya

    Full Text Available Prophylactic zinc supplementation has been shown to reduce diarrhea and respiratory illness in children in many developing countries, but its efficacy in children in Africa is uncertain.To determine if zinc, or zinc plus multiple micronutrients, reduces diarrhea and respiratory disease prevalence.Randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.Rural community in South Africa.THREE COHORTS: 32 HIV-infected children; 154 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers; and 187 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers.Children received either 1250 IU of vitamin A; vitamin A and 10 mg of zinc; or vitamin A, zinc, vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, C, D, E, and K and copper, iodine, iron, and niacin starting at 6 months and continuing to 24 months of age. Homes were visited weekly.Primary outcome was percentage of days of diarrhea per child by study arm within each of the three cohorts. Secondary outcomes were prevalence of upper respiratory symptoms and percentage of children who ever had pneumonia by maternal report, or confirmed by the field worker.Among HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers, median percentage of days with diarrhea was 2.3% for 49 children allocated to vitamin A; 2.5% in 47 children allocated to receive vitamin A and zinc; and 2.2% for 46 children allocated to multiple micronutrients (P = 0.852. Among HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers, median percentage of days of diarrhea was 2.4% in 56 children in the vitamin A group; 1.8% in 57 children in the vitamin A and zinc group; and 2.7% in 52 children in the multiple micronutrient group (P = 0.857. Only 32 HIV-infected children were enrolled, and there were no differences between treatment arms in the prevalence of diarrhea. The prevalence of upper respiratory symptoms or incidence of pneumonia did not differ by treatment arms in any of the cohorts.When compared with vitamin A alone, supplementation with zinc, or with zinc and multiple

  10. African and African American Children's and Adolescent Literature in the Classroom: A Critical Guide. Black Studies and Critical Thinking. Volume 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenika-Agbaw, Vivian, Ed.; Napoli, Mary, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The essays in this collection discuss multicultural issues in children's and adolescent literature, focusing particularly on African and African American cultures. They challenge everyone's understanding of what, in an age of globalization, multicultural texts really are. Cumulatively, these essays illustrate multicultural literature's power to…

  11. Structure and extent of the southern African cratons: Integrated images from receiver functions and teleseimic tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Levander, Alan; Bezada, Max;

    2011-01-01

    and the Bushveld complex. Both P- and S-wave (PdS and SdP) receiver functions are calculated by iterative deconvolution processing, which lead to estimates of Moho depth and the Vp/Vs ratio via the HK-stacking method, as well as param- eters describing anisotropy in the crust (strength dt and trend phi....... The Receiver Functions show a thin crust with a flat and sharp Moho discontinuity throughout the entire Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons. These results are consistent with expectations for Archean areas. The lowest Vp/Vs value sites are found around the locations of diamondiferous kimberlite pipes at flat Moho...

  12. Progress and Outcomes for Children with Autism Receiving Parent-Managed Intensive Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikeseth, Svein; Martin, Neil T.; Mudford, Oliver C.; Reeves, David

    2001-01-01

    Data were analyzed from 66 young children with autism served by 25 different early intervention consultants and receiving parent-managed interventions. Parent-managed intensive interventions resulted in progress for 60 children for mental age, adaptive behavior, and language skills. Interventions did not reproduce results from clinic-based…

  13. Prescribing patterns of medicine classified as 'antidepressants' in South African children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. P. Serfontein

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The main objective of this study was to characterise prescribing patterns of medicine classified as 'antidepressants' (hereafter simply referred to as antidepressants in children and adolescents in the private health care sector of South Africa. A retrospective drug utilisation design was used to identify patients aged 19 years and younger from a South African pharmaceutical benefit management company’s database, whom were issued at least one antidepressant between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2006. Prescribed daily dosages (PDDs were calculated using the Statistical Analysis System® program. A total of 1 013 patients received a mean number of 2.88 (SD 3.04 prescriptions per patient. Females received more prescriptions than their male counterparts, with the highest prevalence in the 15 ≤ 19 years age group. The pharmacological groups most prescribed were the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (43.0% and the tricyclics (42.7%, with imipramine (22.04% and amitriptyline (19% as the most commonly prescribed drugs. Approximately 30% (n = 2 300 of all antidepressants in the study population were prescribed off-label. Amitriptyline and clomipramine were prescribed at daily dosages higher than recommended in children and adolescents aged 9 ≤ 15 years. Lithium, trimipramine, trazodone and sulpiride were prescribed at sub-therapeutic dosages in adolescents. This study provided insight in the prescribing patterns of medicine classified as antidepressants in South African children and adolescents. These drugs, however, have many indications. Further research is needed to determine reasons why specific drugs are prescribed in this population.

    Opsomming

    Die algemene doelstelling van hierdie studie was om die voorskrifpatrone van middels wat as 'antidepressante' geklassifiseer word (hierna verwys na as slegs antidepressante wat vir kinders en adolessente in die Suid-Afrikaanse private gesondheidsorgsektor

  14. Factors related to the institutionalization of children and adolescents received in the district of Uberaba - MG

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Tavares Gontijo; Paula Cardoso Buiati; Rosana Lourenço dos Santos; André Tuma Delbim Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe the socio-demographic profile and factors related to the institutionalization of children and adolescents received in the District of Uberaba in 2009. Methods: Descriptive, documental, retrospective study, which included all children and adolescents who have been housed, by judicial decision, in the District of Uberaba-MG, Brazil, in 2009. Data collected from the judicial proceedings was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Of 169 children and adolescen...

  15. Brief Report: Adherence to Fluid Recommendations in Children Receiving Treatment for Retentive Encopresis

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhl, Elizabeth S.; Felt, Barbara T.; Patton, Susana R

    2009-01-01

    Objective Limited data are available regarding whether children being treated for retentive encopresis are adherent to recommendations to increase their daily fluid intake. The purpose of this study was to examine fluid adherence in children who received treatment for retentive encopresis. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed using diet diary data for 26 children (ages 3–12) who completed a group behavioral intervention for retentive encopresis. Results Mean daily intake of clea...

  16. Research Protocol: Development, implementation and evaluation of a cognitive behavioural therapy-based intervention programme for the management of anxiety symptoms in South African children with visual impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Visagie

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood anxiety presents a serious mental health problem, and it is one of the most common forms of psychological distress reported by youth worldwide. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms amongst South African youth is reported to be significantly higher than in other parts of the world. These high prevalence rates become even more significant when viewed in terms of children with visual impairments, as it is suggested that children with physical disabilities may be more prone, than their non-disabled peers, for the development of psychological difficulties. Objectives: The main aim of this study is to develop, implement and evaluate a specifically tailored anxiety intervention programme for use with South African children with visual impairments. Method: A specifically tailored cognitive-behavioural therapy-based anxiety intervention, for 9–13 year old South African children with visual impairments, will be evaluated in two special schools. The study will employ a randomised wait-list control group design with pre- postand follow-up intervention measures, with two groups each receiving a 10 session anxiety intervention programme. The main outcome measure relates to the participants’ symptoms of anxiety as indicated on the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale. Conclusion: If the anxiety intervention programme is found to be effective in reducing symptoms of anxiety, this universal intervention will lay down the foundation upon which future contextually sensitive (South African anxiety intervention programmes can be built.

  17. The moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron

    2010-04-01

    Given that parenting practices have been linked to suicidal behavior in adolescence, examining the moderating effect of parenting styles on suicidal behavior early in development could offer potential insight into possible buffers as well as directions for suicide prevention and intervention later in adolescence. Hence, the moderating effects of parenting styles, including authoritarian, permissive, and features of authoritative parenting, on depressed and aggressive children's suicidal behavior, including ideation and attempts, were evaluated with young children (N = 172; 72% male, 28% female) ranging from 6 to 12 years of age. African American (69%) and Caucasian (31%) children admitted for acute psychiatric inpatient care completed standardized measures of suicidal behavior, depressive symptoms, and proactive and reaction aggression. Their parents also completed standardized measures of parental distress and parenting style. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, while statistically controlling for age and gender, children who endorsed more depressive symptoms or reactive aggression reported more current and past suicidal behavior than children who endorsed fewer depressive or aggressive symptoms. The significant positive relationship observed between depressive symptoms and childhood suicidal behavior, however, was attenuated by parental use of authoritarian parenting practices for African-American and older children but not for younger and Caucasian children. The ethnic/racial difference observed for the buffering effect of authoritarian parenting practices offers potential theoretical and clinical implications for conceptualizing the moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behavior.

  18. Narrative Performance of Gifted African American School-Aged Children From Low-Income Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Method Forty-three children, Grades 2–5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. Results There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. Conclusion African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms. PMID:25409770

  19. Parenting styles and child behavior in African American families of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querido, Jane G; Warner, Tamara D; Eyberg, Sheila M

    2002-06-01

    Examined the relations between parenting styles and child behavior problems in African American preschool children. Participants were 108 African American female caregivers of 3- to 6-year-old children. Correlational analysis showed that parent-reported child behavior problems were associated with maternal education, family income, and parents' endorsement of authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting, and permissive parenting. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the authoritative parenting style was most predictive of fewer child behavior problems. These results are consistent with previous findings with European American families and provide strong support for the cross-cultural validity of the authoritative parenting style.

  20. Birth outcomes in South African women receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy: a retrospective observational study

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    van der Merwe Karin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, a triple-drug combination, in HIV-infected pregnant women markedly reduces mother to child transmission of HIV and decreases maternal morbidity. However, there remains uncertainty about the effects of in utero exposure to HAART on foetal development. Methods Our objectives were to investigate whether in utero exposure to HAART is associated with low birth weight and/or preterm birth in a population of South African women with advanced HIV disease. A retrospective observational study was performed on women with CD4 counts ≤250 cells/mm3 attending antenatal antiretroviral clinics in Johannesburg between October 2004 and March 2007. Low birth weight ( Results Among HAART-unexposed infants, 27% (60/224 were low birth weight compared with 23% (90/388 of early HAART-exposed (exposed 3 increase, 95% CI 0.45-0.71, p 3 increase, 95% CI 0.55-0.85, p = 0.001. HAART exposure was associated with an increased preterm birth rate (15%, or 138 of 946, versus 5%, or seven of 147, in unexposed infants, p = 0.001, with early nevirapine and efavirenz-based regimens having the strongest associations with preterm birth (AOR 5.4, 95% CI 2.1-13.7, p Conclusions In this immunocompromised cohort, in utero HAART exposure was not associated with low birth weight. An association between NNRTI-based HAART and preterm birth was detected, but residual confounding is plausible. More advanced immunosuppression was a risk factor for low birth weight and preterm birth, highlighting the importance of earlier HAART initiation in women to optimize maternal health and improve infant outcomes.

  1. The majority of sick children receive paracetamol during the winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ertmann, Ruth Kirk; Møller, Janne Julie; Waldorff, Frans Boch;

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Even though fever is a common symptom in childhood, it often worries parents and they may try to reduce discomfort by giving the child paracetamol, which is currently the most commonly sold over-the-counter medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate parent-administered......INTRODUCTION: Even though fever is a common symptom in childhood, it often worries parents and they may try to reduce discomfort by giving the child paracetamol, which is currently the most commonly sold over-the-counter medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate parent...... was given in 37% of days with fever. The most frequent combinations of symptoms to trigger paracetamol administration were fever and earache with a probability of 64%. For the symptoms of vomiting and earache, the probability was 60%. In the rare cases with monosymptomatic fever, some 23% used paracetamol....... CONCLUSION: The majority of ill toddlers received paracetamol if they had several symptoms. However, paracetamol was administrated in 37% of days with fever. This use of paracetamol seems reasonable as the parents differentiate between degrees of illness and withhold paracetamol until the second day...

  2. Abnormal Myocardial Strain Indices in Children Receiving Anthracycline Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatelli, Ricardo H; Ghazi, Payam; Reddy, S Chandra-Bose; Thompson, Patrick; Cui, Qiqiong; Castro, Jacqueline; Okcu, Mehmet F; Jefferies, John Lynn

    2015-12-01

    Anthracycline chemotherapy (AC) is associated with impaired left ventricular (LV) systolic function. LV ejection fraction (EF %) obtained by two-dimensional echocardiography is the current gold standard for detection and monitoring of LV systolic function. However, dependence on LVEF has been shown to be unreliable due to its inherent limitations. Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) measures myocardial strain and is a sensitive method to detect LV systolic dysfunction with demonstrated utility in such detection in adult and pediatric cohort studies. Compare myocardial strain indices derived by STE with LVEF to detect ACT-induced LV systolic dysfunction. Prospective, cross-sectional measurements of LV myocardial strain indices derived from STE with LVEF. Pediatric cohort of 25 patients (pts): 17 females, eight males with a mean age 9.8 ± 5.8 years, who received anthracyclines (AC); median cumulative dose ≥150 ± 124.4 mg/m(2), range 60-450 mg/m(2) showing normal LV end-diastolic diameter (mm) and normal LVEF (≥55 %) underwent STE to obtain LV myocardial strain indices: strain and strain rate. The inter- and intraobserver variability for the strain indices was 5 %. Fifteen of 25 pts (60 %) showed abnormal global longitudinal peak systolic strain (GLPSS) and 19/25 pts (76 %) showed abnormal peak circumferential strain (PCS) compared to age-matched controls (p = 0.005). In contrast, no significant differences was observed in either indices with the dose of AC. Likewise, no significant changes in the systolic or diastolic strain rate were noted with the dose of AC (r (2) = 0.0076 for peak E, r (2) = 0.072 for peak A, p = NS). GLPSS and PCS were diminished and, however, correlated poorly with the cumulative dose of AC. These observations indicate an early onset of LV systolic dysfunction by the strain indices in pts who continue to show a normal LVEF implying presence of occult LV systolic dysfunction. These novel strain indices may assist in

  3. Patterns of resistance: African American mothers and adult children with HIV illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, J S; Hodnicki, D R; Ferrell, J A

    1999-01-01

    Although the research on caregiving and caregivers has been extensive, there have been few studies on the cultural context and meaning of African American caregiving in relation to HIV illness. Many Black feminists have argued that African American women experience a world different from those who are not Black and that failure to take account of race, class, and gender is paramount in an attempt to authentically portray the lives of African American women. This study argues that rural African American culture and experiences of racism and discrimination in the rural South shaped the responses of mothers when their adult children developed HIV illness. The study employed the ethnographic techniques of participant observation and in-depth interviews with 14 rural, poor, African American mothers who cared for adult children with HIV illness. Analysis of the data identified patterns of resistance that mothers employed throughout the caregiving experience. Mothers resisted labels and other controlling images that they believed marginalized them and negated what was happening to their children. Mothers used culturally patterned behaviors to protect their families and resist the stigma of HIV/AIDS. PMID:10530083

  4. Contrasting two models of academic self-efficacy--domain-specific versus cross-domain--in children receiving and not receiving special instruction in mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungert, Tomas; Hesser, Hugo; Träff, Ulf

    2014-10-01

    In social cognitive theory, self-efficacy is domain-specific. An alternative model, the cross-domain influence model, would predict that self-efficacy beliefs in one domain might influence performance in other domains. Research has also found that children who receive special instruction are not good at estimating their performance. The aim was to test two models of how self-efficacy beliefs influence achievement, and to contrast children receiving special instruction in mathematics with normally-achieving children. The participants were 73 fifth-grade children who receive special instruction and 70 children who do not receive any special instruction. In year four and five, the children's skills in mathematics and reading were assessed by national curriculum tests, and in their fifth year, self-efficacy in mathematics and reading were measured. Structural equation modeling showed that in domains where children do not receive special instruction in mathematics, self-efficacy is a mediating variable between earlier and later achievement in the same domain. Achievement in mathematics was not mediated by self-efficacy in mathematics for children who receive special instruction. For normal achieving children, earlier achievement in the language domain had an influence on later self-efficacy in the mathematics domain, and self-efficacy beliefs in different domains were correlated. Self-efficacy is mostly domain specific, but may play a different role in academic performance depending on whether children receive special instruction. The results of the present study provided some support of the Cross-Domain Influence Model for normal achieving children.

  5. Impact of learning orientation on African American children's attitudes toward high-achieving peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marryshow, Derrick; Hurley, Eric A; Allen, Brenda A; Tyler, Kenneth M; Boykin, A Wade

    2005-01-01

    This study examined Ogbu's widely accepted thesis that African American students reject high academic achievement because they perceive its limited utility in a world where their upward mobility is constrained by racial discrimination. Boykin's psychosocial integrity model contends that Black students value high achievement but that discrepancies between their formative cultural experiences and those imposed in school lead them to reject the modes of achievement available in classrooms. Ninety Black children completed a measure of attitudes toward students who achieve via mainstream or African American cultural values. Participants rejected the mainstream achievers and embraced the African American cultural achievers. Moreover, they expected their teachers to embrace the mainstream achievers and reject those who achieved through high-verve behavior. Results suggest that Boykin's thesis is a needed refinement to Ogbu's ideas. They indicate that Black children may reject not high achievement but some of the mainstream cultural values and behaviors on which success in mainstream classrooms is made contingent.

  6. Nonstandard Maternal Work Schedules: Implications for African American Children's Early Language Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Erika C.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Crouter, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, observed maternal positive engagement and perception of work-family spillover were examined as mediators of the association between maternal nonstandard work schedules and children's expressive language outcomes in 231 African American families living in rural households. Mothers reported their work schedules when their child was 24…

  7. Thirty-Year Retrospective on the Learning Styles of African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Janice E.

    2016-01-01

    This article is a review of the literature related to the cognitive, learning, behavioral, and cultural styles of African American children. This is an assessment of the progress that has been made since 1982 when my first book was published. Several flaws in the creation of the science that undergirds learning styles research related to African…

  8. African-American Children and the Case for Community: Eleanora Tate's South Carolina Trilogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Carole Brown

    1998-01-01

    Three books by Eleanora Tate, "The Secret of Gumbo Grove" (1988), "Thank You, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.!" (1992), and "A Blessing in Disguise" (1995) are discussed with respect to their portrayal of African-American children and their responsibility to both themselves and their community. (MAK)

  9. "Combing" through Representations of Black Girls' Hair in African American Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Wanda M.; McNair, Jonda C.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we share findings from a content analysis of six picturebooks about hair. The picturebooks selected feature Black female protagonists and are written by African American females. Our content analysis examines the ways in which Black hair is theorized and represented to children (from diverse backgrounds) very early on in their…

  10. Culture and Dental Health among African Immigrant School-Aged Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeng, Cecilia S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper examines African immigrant parents' views on dental decay and whether such views affect their decision to obtain dental insurance for their children. The paper also examines the cultural underpinnings of the immigrants' oral health care practices. Design/methodology/approach: The data for the study were collected in the states…

  11. Cultural Enrichment: Connecting African American Elementary Children to Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Deborah L.

    2011-01-01

    A large, growing number of mis-educated American citizens are being produced by America's public schools. Many of these students are being funneled into the penal system shortly after dropping out of high school. This phenomenon is especially prevalent among African American male students, many of whom have withdrawn academically years prior…

  12. Observational cohort study of HIV-infected African children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laufer, M.K.; Oosterhout, J.J. van; Perez, M.A.; Kanyanganlika, J.; Taylor, T.E.; Plowe, C.V.; Graham, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most information about children living with HIV is based on follow up from children identified through mother-to-child transmission studies. Children identified through voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) represent a unique cohort that has not been previously described in the literatu

  13. Study of the factors associated with dental caries in children who receive early dental care

    OpenAIRE

    FRAIZ Fabian Calixto; Luiz Reynaldo de Figueiredo WALTER

    2001-01-01

    The present study investigated the factors associated with the development of dental caries in preschool children who receive regular dental care and follow-up. The research was carried out at the Baby Clinic, Londrina State University, and comprised two hundred preschool children, whose ages ranged from 24 to 48 months, as well as their mothers, who had already taken part in a dental program at the Baby Clinic during, at least, the previous twelve months. Regarding oral hygiene habits, there...

  14. The effect of chewing gum on oral mucositis in children receiving chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ocakcı, Ayşe Ferda; Ayverdi, Didem; Ekim, Ayfer

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Oral mucositis is an important clinical problem, resulting in significant patient morbidity, a change in health-related quality of life, and supportive care. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of chewing gum on children, who are receiving chemotherapy regimens, for prevention and treatment of oral mucositis. Method and Material: The study sample consisted of 60 children (30 study group-30 control group) between the ages 6-...

  15. Caregiver Participation in Community-based Mental Health Services for Children Receiving Outpatient Care

    OpenAIRE

    Fawley-King, Kya; Haine-Schlagel, Rachel; Trask, Emily V.; Zhang, Jinjin; Garland, Ann F

    2013-01-01

    Caregiver participation in child mental health treatment has been associated with better youth outcomes, but little is known about the amount and type of caregiver participation in usual care services for children. This study examined 1255 caregivers’ reports of their participation in the outpatient services their children received through a large, public mental health system in the Southwest. The majority of the caregivers reported that they participated in their child's services. Extent of ...

  16. Dominican Children with HIV Not Receiving Antiretrovirals: Massage Therapy Influences their Behavior and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hernandez-Reif

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight children (M age = 4.8 years infected with HIV/AIDS and living in the Dominican Republic were randomly assigned to a massage therapy or a play session control group. The children in the massage therapy group received two weekly 20-min massages for 12 weeks; the children in the control group participated in a play session (coloring, playing with blocks for the same duration and length as the massage therapy group. Overall, the children in the massage therapy group improved in self-help abilities and communication, suggesting that massage therapy may enhance daily functioning for children with HIV/AIDS. Moreover, the HIV infected children who were six or older also showed a decrease in internalizing behaviors; specifically depressive/anxious behaviors and negative thoughts were reduced. Additionally, baseline assessments revealed IQ equivalence below normal functioning for 70% of the HIV infected children and very high incidences of mood problems (depression, withdrawn for 40% of the children and anxiety problems for 20% of the children, suggesting the need for better monitoring and alternative interventions in countries with limited resources to improve cognition and the mental health status of children infected with HIV/AIDS.

  17. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and artemether-lumefantrine for treating uncomplicated malaria in African children: a randomised, non-inferiority trial.

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    Quique Bassat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs are currently the preferred option for treating uncomplicated malaria. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PQP is a promising fixed-dose ACT with limited information on its safety and efficacy in African children. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The non-inferiority of DHA-PQP versus artemether-lumefantrine (AL in children 6-59 months old with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria was tested in five African countries (Burkina Faso, Kenya, Mozambique, Uganda and Zambia. Patients were randomised (2:1 to receive either DHA-PQP or AL. Non-inferiority was assessed using a margin of -5% for the lower limit of the one-sided 97.5% confidence interval on the treatment difference (DHA-PQP vs. AL of the day 28 polymerase chain reaction (PCR corrected cure rate. Efficacy analysis was performed in several populations, and two of them are presented here: intention-to-treat (ITT and enlarged per-protocol (ePP. 1553 children were randomised, 1039 receiving DHA-PQP and 514 AL. The PCR-corrected day 28 cure rate was 90.4% (ITT and 94.7% (ePP in the DHA-PQP group, and 90.0% (ITT and 95.3% (ePP in the AL group. The lower limits of the one-sided 97.5% CI of the difference between the two treatments were -2.80% and -2.96%, in the ITT and ePP populations, respectively. In the ITT population, the Kaplan-Meier estimate of the proportion of new infections up to Day 42 was 13.55% (95% CI: 11.35%-15.76% for DHA-PQP vs 24.00% (95% CI: 20.11%-27.88% for AL (p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: DHA-PQP is as efficacious as AL in treating uncomplicated malaria in African children from different endemicity settings, and shows a comparable safety profile. The occurrence of new infections within the 42-day follow up was significantly lower in the DHA-PQP group, indicating a longer post-treatment prophylactic effect. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-trials.com ISRCTN16263443.

  18. Home Literacy Environment of African American Head Start Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janese Daniels

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have documented culturally specific family literacy practices in which low-income families engage, which are often a function of the context in which the family is currently embedded.  These practices are well documented in ethnographic literature. Although this evidence exists, its utility is limited due to small sample sizes and lack of quantitative documentation on their contribution to children’s language and literacy development.  This study attempted to quantify those culturally specific family literacy practices.  51 low-income African-American mother-child dyads participated.  The contribution of multiple literacy practices was examined in relation to child language and literacy outcomes.  Most low-income African-American families engaged in multiple literacy practices.  Recommended areas for future research directions are discussed.

  19. Home Literacy Environment of African American Head Start Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janese Daniels

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Researchers have documented culturally specific family literacy practices in which low-income families engage, which are often a function of the context in which the family is currently embedded.  These practices are well documented in ethnographic literature. Although this evidence exists, its utility is limited due to small sample sizes and lack of quantitative documentation on their contribution to children’s language and literacy development.  This study attempted to quantify those culturally specific family literacy practices.  51 low-income African-American mother-child dyads participated.  The contribution of multiple literacy practices was examined in relation to child language and literacy outcomes.  Most low-income African-American families engaged in multiple literacy practices.  Recommended areas for future research directions are discussed.

  20. Using clinical signs to diagnose anaemia in African children.

    OpenAIRE

    Luby, S. P.; Kazembe, P.N.; Redd, S. C.; Ziba, C.; Nwanyanwu, O. C.; Hightower, A. W.; C. Franco; Chitsulo, L.; Wirima, J J; Olivar, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    Anaemia is a serious and common problem among young children in sub-Saharan Africa. As a first step towards developing guidelines for its recognition and treatment, we conducted a study to evaluate the ability of health workers to use clinical findings to identify children with anaemia. Health care workers examined a total of 1104 children under 5 years of age at two hospital-based outpatient clinics in rural Malawi. Blood samples were taken to determine haemoglobin concentrations. Pallor of ...

  1. Assessing Progress during Treatment for Young Children with Autism Receiving Intensive Behavioural Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Diane; Eikeseth, Svein; Gale, Catherine; Morgan, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This study examined progress after 1 year of treatment for children with autism who received a mean of 36 hours per week one-to-one University of California at Los Angeles Applied Behavior Analysis (UCLA ABA) treatment. Two types of service provision were compared: an intensive clinic based treatment model with all treatment personnel (N = 23),…

  2. Malaria, anaemia and antimalarial drug resistance in African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obonyo, C.O.

    2006-01-01

    Malaria-associated anaemia is a potentially preventable cause of severe morbidity and mortality in children < 5years of age, in areas of high malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. In a cross-sectional study of 3586 children, 80% were anaemic (haemoglobin [Hb]<11g/dL) and 3% had severe anaemia

  3. Reflections on the Development of African American Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Rudine Sims

    2012-01-01

    As a doctoral student at Wayne State University in Detroit, the author taught, along with a few other doctoral students, some of the undergraduate courses in children's literature. One year in the early 1970s, they graduate student-instructors were recruited as helpers at a book fair. Among the books to be displayed was a set of children's books,…

  4. Children's spontaneous emotional expressions while receiving (un)wanted prizes in the presence of peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Mandy; Krahmer, Emiel; Swerts, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Although current emotion theories emphasize the importance of contextual factors for emotional expressive behavior, developmental studies that examine such factors are currently thin on the ground. In this research, we studied the course of emotional expressions of 8- and 11-year-old children after winning a (large) first prize or a (substantially smaller) consolation prize, while playing a game competing against the computer or a physically co-present peer. We analyzed their emotional reactions by conducting two perception tests in which participants rated children's level of happiness. Results showed that co-presence positively affected children's happiness only when receiving the first prize. Moreover, for children who were in the presence of a peer, we found that eye contact affected children's expressions of happiness, but that the effect was different for different age groups: 8-year-old children were negatively affected, and 11-year-old children positively. Overall, we can conclude that as children grow older and their social awareness increases, the presence of a peer affects their non-verbal expressions, regardless of their appreciation of their prize.

  5. Predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors using social cognitive theory among upper elementary African-American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Shakeyrah; Sharma, Manoj

    Childhood obesity is a major public health problem in the African-American community. Commonly suggested public health strategies to reduce childhood obesity are limiting television viewing, encouraging daily moderately intense physical activity of at least 60 minutes per day, increasing fruit and vegetable intake to five or more cups per day, and increasing water consumption. This study examined the extent to which selected social cognitive theory constructs can predict these four behaviors in African-American upper elementary children. A 56-item valid and reliable scale was administered to 222 students. Glasses of water consumed were predicted by self-control for drinking water and self-efficacy for drinking water (R2 = 0.123). Fruits and vegetables consumed were predicted by self-efficacy for eating fruits and vegetables (R2 = 0.083). For designing primary prevention interventions to reduce childhood obesity in the African-American community, social cognitive theory provides a useful framework.

  6. Parental depression, family functioning and obesity among African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melvin; Young, LaShun; Davis, Sheila P; Moll, George

    2008-01-01

    Obesity has reached an epidemic level in America (National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] 1999), and this epidemic is more acute for African Americans than for other groups of Americans. In this study, 44 parent-child dyads completed measurements of height, depression, and body fat composition. In addition, parents completed a demographic questionnaire, and instruments, which measured family functioning, parental psychopathology, child behavior, and cardiovascular risks. Several models emerged for predicting childhood and parental body mass index, parental depression, and child behavioral problems. Findings indicated a role for parental depression in childhood obesity. These findings are discussed in light of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory, and the family's role in childhood obesity.

  7. Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents: The South African problem

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    Margaretha Viljoen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents are on the increase worldwide.Overweight and obesity increase the risk for the development of non-communicable diseases during childhood and adolescence, and predispose the individual to the development of overweight, obesity,ardiovascular disease, and metabolic and other disorders in adulthood.In Africa the number of overweight or obese children has doubled since 1990. In South Africa,overweight and obesity in children and adolescents are on the increase, but the prevalencevaries with age, gender and population group. These differences are important when intervention programmes and policies are considered. South Africa faces a double burden of disease where undernutrition and overweight or obesity are found in the same populations, in the same households and even in the same children. Malnutrition is a major contributor to the double burden of disease in South African children and adolescents.

  8. Nutritional status and HIV in rural South African children

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    Klipstein-Grobusch Kerstin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Achieving the Millennium Development Goals that aim to reduce malnutrition and child mortality depends in part on the ability of governments/policymakers to address nutritional status of children in general and those infected or affected by HIV/AIDS in particular. This study describes HIV prevalence in children, patterns of malnutrition by HIV status and determinants of nutritional status. Methods The study involved 671 children aged 12-59 months living in the Agincourt sub-district, rural South Africa in 2007. Anthropometric measurements were taken and HIV testing with disclosure was done using two rapid tests. Z-scores were generated using WHO 2006 standards as indicators of nutritional status. Linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to establish the determinants of child nutritonal status. Results Prevalence of malnutrition, particularly stunting (18%, was high in the overall sample of children. HIV prevalence in this age group was 4.4% (95% CI: 2.79 to 5.97. HIV positive children had significantly poorer nutritional outcomes than their HIV negative counterparts. Besides HIV status, other significant determinants of nutritional outcomes included age of the child, birth weight, maternal age, age of household head, and area of residence. Conclusions This study documents poor nutritional status among children aged 12-59 months in rural South Africa. HIV is an independent modifiable risk factor for poor nutritional outcomes and makes a significant contribution to nutritional outcomes at the individual level. Early paediatric HIV testing of exposed or at risk children, followed by appropriate health care for infected children, may improve their nutritional status and survival.

  9. Impact of effective nursing interventions to the fatigue syndrome in children who receive chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekti Genc, Rabia; Conk, Zeynep

    2008-01-01

    This experimental, randomized controlled study was conducted for children with cancer who are 7 to 12 years of age and receiving chemotherapy treatment to detect the impact of appropriate nursing interventions on decreasing the fatigue syndrome. The research sample is composed of a total of 60 children with cancer, with 30 children being included in the experimental group and 30 children included in the control group with their mothers. In the experimental group, after the 7th to 10th day of the chemotherapy treatment, throughout a week, the researcher conducted the effective nursing interventions every day for 45 to 60 minutes. In the control group, routine nursing interventions were carried out. The experimental and control group children's mean scores for the Fatigue Scale-Child and those of mothers for Fatigue Scale-Parent were compared. A statistically significant difference was found between the Fatigue Scale-Child and Fatigue Scale-Parent mean scores of the experimental and the control group children (P < .00). These results suggest that fatigue of children with cancer can be reduced by implementing appropriate nursing interventions. PMID:18600119

  10. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September. This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,aleading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  11. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September.This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,a leading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  12. Factors related to the institutionalization of children and adolescents received in the district of Uberaba - MG

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    Daniela Tavares Gontijo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the socio-demographic profile and factors related to the institutionalization of children and adolescents received in the District of Uberaba in 2009. Methods: Descriptive, documental, retrospective study, which included all children and adolescents who have been housed, by judicial decision, in the District of Uberaba-MG, Brazil, in 2009. Data collected from the judicial proceedings was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Of 169 children and adolescents received in 2009, 82 (51.47% were female. Ages between 4 and 6 (33 - 19.53% and between 13 to 15 (30 - 17.75% were the most prevalent age groups. Among school-age children, only 41(24.26% had education level appropriate to age. In 109 (65.08% of cases, the father figure was not identified as present within the family composition. The main reasons for institutional sheltering were negligence, socio-economic conditions of the family, use of alcohol and drugs by those responsible, abuse, abandonment, physical violence and sexual violence. Conclusions: Data point to the process of social vulnerability experienced by families, which raises the articulation and strengthening of policies and intersectoral actions, with active partipation of the society, seeking the promotion of better living and health conditions for children and adolescents.

  13. Young African American children constructing identities in an urban integrated science-literacy classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Justine M.

    This is a qualitative study of identities constructed and enacted by four 3rd-grade African American children (two girls and two boys) in an urban classroom that engaged in a year-long, integrated science-literacy project. Juxtaposing narrative and discursive identity lenses, coupled with race and gender perspectives, I examined the ways in which the four children saw and performed themselves as students and as science students in their classroom. Interview data were used for the narrative analysis and classroom Discourse and artifacts were used for the discursive analysis. A constructivist grounded theory framework was adopted for both analyses. The findings highlight the diversity and richness of perspectives and forms of engagement these young children shared and enacted, and help us see African American children as knowers, doers, and talkers of science individually and collectively. In their stories about themselves, all the children identified themselves as smart but they associated with smartness different characteristics and practices depending on their strengths and preferences. Drawing on the children's social, cultural, and ethnolinguistic resources, the dialogic and multimodal learning spaces facilitated by their teacher allowed the children to explore, negotiate, question, and learn science ideas. The children in this study brought their understandings and ways of being into the "lived-in" spaces co-created with classmates and teacher and influenced how these spaces were created. At the same time, each child's ways of being and understandings were shaped by the words, actions, behaviors, and feelings of peers and teacher. Moreover, as these four children engaged with science-literacy activities, they came to see themselves as competent, creative, active participants in science learning. Although their stories of "studenting" seemed dominated by following rules and being well-behaved, their stories of "sciencing" were filled with exploration, ingenuity

  14. Understanding HIV Transmission Risk Behavior Among HIV-Infected South Africans Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy: An Information—Motivation—Behavioral Skills Model Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kiene, Susan M.; Fisher, William A.; Shuper, Paul A.; Cornman, Deborah H.; CHRISTIE, Sarah; MacDonald, Susan; Pillay, Sandy; Mahlase, Gethwana; Jeffrey D. Fisher

    2013-01-01

    The current study applied the Information—Motivation—Behavioral Skills (IMB) model (J. D. Fisher & Fisher, 1992; W. A. Fisher & Fisher, 1993) to identify factors associated with HIV transmission risk behavior among HIV-infected South Africans receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), a population of considerable significance for curtailing, or maintaining, South Africa’s generalized HIV epidemic. HIV prevention information, HIV prevention motivation, HIV prevention behavioral skills, and HIV tr...

  15. Assessment of antibody titers and immunity to Hepatitis B in children receiving chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams Shahemabadi, A; Salehi, F; Hashemi, A; Vakili, M; Zare, F; Esphandyari, N; Kashanian, S

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a decrease in vaccine-specific antibody to certain vaccine-preventable diseases in children after chemotherapy, but the frequency of non-immune patients is not clear. In the present case-control study, was taken under investigation protection level to Hepatitis B infection in children 6 months after completing chemotherapy. Materials and Methods In this study 68 patients with cancer and 68 healthy children were enrolled. Patients were 1.5 -12 years old with completed standard chemotherapy at least for 6 months. All the patients and healthy children were negative for HBsAg and HBeAg and had received Hepatitis B vaccination. IgG antibody concentrations against Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) were determined in the patients receiving chemotrapy and healthy subjects serum by ELISA method. IgG antibody titer > 10 mIU/ml was considered as baseline protective titer for preventing HBV infection. Results Anti-HBs antibody titer in 19.12% of patients was less than 10 mIU/ml and 11.76% of the patients had borderline antibody titer (10-20 mIU/ml). In healthy subjects, 2.94% and 5.88% had antibody titer < 10 mIU/ml and 10-20 mIU/ml, respectively. According to statistical analysis, frequency of non immune subjects in children with cancer was significantly higher than those in healthy children (P-value=0.024). Conclusion HBV vaccination post-intensive chemotherapy in the children with cancer is strongly recommended. PMID:24575253

  16. Maternal Control and Sensitivity, Child Gender, and Maternal Education in Relation to Children's Behavioral Outcomes in African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Briggs, Rahil D.; McClowry, Sandra G.; Snow, David L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relationships between mother-child interactions and children's behaviors in 119 urban African American mothers and their 6-7 year old children. Interactions during a cooking task and a follow-up child clean-up task were videotaped. Principal components analyses of behaviors during the cooking task yielded two factors in mothers…

  17. Nutrition and Physical Activity Knowledge Assessment: Development of Questionnaires and Evaluation of Reliability in African American and Latino Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lindsay S.; Sharma, Sushma; Hudes, Mark L.; Fleming, Sharon E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: African-American and Latino children living in neighborhoods with a low-socioeconomic index are more at risk of obesity-associated metabolic disease than their higher socioeconomic index and/or white peers. Currently, consistent and reliable questionnaires to evaluate nutrition and physical activity knowledge in these children are…

  18. How Homes Influence Schools: Early Parenting Predicts African American Children's Classroom Social-Emotional Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Claire E.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.

    2014-01-01

    Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort were used to examine the extent to which early parenting predicted African American children's kindergarten social-emotional functioning. Teachers rated children's classroom social-emotional functioning in four areas (i.e., approaches to learning, self-control,…

  19. The Effects of Visual Stimuli on the Spoken Narrative Performance of School-Age African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Monique T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the fictional narrative performance of school-age African American children across 3 elicitation contexts that differed in the type of visual stimulus presented. Method: A total of 54 children in Grades 2 through 5 produced narratives across 3 different visual conditions: no visual, picture sequence, and single…

  20. Transient occult cardiotoxicity in children receiving continuous beta-agonist therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher L Carroll; Melinda Coro; Allison Cowl; Kathleen A Sala; Craig M Schramm

    2014-01-01

    Background: Continuous beta-agonist therapy, typically in the form of inhaled albuterol, is the first line therapy for the treatment of acute and severe bronchospasm in children. Although this treatment is commonly used, concerns about cardiotoxicity have been raised. We aimed to investigate the cardiotoxic effects of continuous beta-agonist therapy in children. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of children admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) between May 2008 and April 2009, who were treated with continuous beta-agonist therapy (intravenous and nebulized). Results: Twenty of the 36 children treated with continuous albuterol had repeated serum troponin-T and lactate levels measured. Eleven patients (55%) were also treated with continuous intravenous terbutaline. Elevated levels of troponin-T levels were found in 25% of children, and elevated lactate levels were found in 60%. However, all returned to normal levels within 48 hours of ICU admission, despite continued beta-agonist therapy. No children experienced arrhythmias during therapy. There was no association between intravenous terbutaline use and elevated troponin-T [odds ratio (OR), 1.3; 95% CI, 0.2-10.3] or with elevated serum lactate (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.1-3.7). There was also no association between elevated troponin-T or lactate and ICU or hospital length of stay. Conclusions: In this small study, a significant proportion of children had elevated serum troponin-T and lactate levels while receiving inhaled continuous beta-agonist therapy, irrespective of intravenous therapy. However, these abnormal values all returned to normal within 48 hours of ICU admission and were not associated with increased duration of hospitalization.

  1. Reducing the Digital Divide among Children Who Received Desktop or Hybrid Computers for the Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gila Cohen Zilka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and policy makers have been exploring ways to reduce the digital divide. Parameters commonly used to examine the digital divide worldwide, as well as in this study, are: (a the digital divide in the accessibility and mobility of the ICT infrastructure and of the content infrastructure (e.g., sites used in school; and (b the digital divide in literacy skills. In the present study we examined the degree of effectiveness of receiving a desktop or hybrid computer for the home in reducing the digital divide among children of low socio-economic status aged 8-12 from various localities across Israel. The sample consisted of 1,248 respondents assessed in two measurements. As part of the mixed-method study, 128 children were also interviewed. Findings indicate that after the children received desktop or hybrid computers, changes occurred in their frequency of access, mobility, and computer literacy. Differences were found between the groups: hybrid computers reduce disparities and promote work with the computer and surfing the Internet more than do desktop computers. Narrowing the digital divide for this age group has many implications for the acquisition of skills and study habits, and consequently, for the realization of individual potential. The children spoke about self improvement as a result of exposure to the digital environment, about a sense of empowerment and of improvement in their advantage in the social fabric. Many children expressed a desire to continue their education and expand their knowledge of computer applications, the use of software, of games, and more. Therefore, if there is no computer in the home and it is necessary to decide between a desktop and a hybrid computer, a hybrid computer is preferable.

  2. Comparative self-concept variances of school children in two English-speaking West African nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawiye, O; Alawiye, C Z; Thomas, J I

    1990-03-01

    This study examined the self-concepts of elementary school children in Grades 2, 4, 6, and 8, from two West African nations, Ghana and Gambia. Measures of self-concept in the areas of physical maturity, peer relations, academic success, and school adaptiveness were obtained from 195 Ghanaian and 156 Gambian students. The mean scores of the students were subjected to a series of three-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs). The independent variables were sex, grade level, and nationality. The overall analyses revealed grade level as the most potent variable in the self-concept development of both groups, whereas the sex variable indicated interaction with grade level only in Gambian children. The self-esteem of the children in both nations in the areas of physical maturity, peer relations, and academic success was relatively high and stable. Self-concept developmental patterns showed differences across grade levels in the four self-concept areas being tested.

  3. Message Framing, Perceived Susceptibility, and Intentions to Vaccinate Children Against HPV Among African American Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Xiaoli; Madden, Kelly; Richards, Adam; Holt, Cheryl; Wang, Min Qi; Tracy, Kate

    2016-07-01

    This research examines the interaction effect of message framing (gain vs. loss) and perceived susceptibility (i.e., perceived likelihood that one's child is at risk of contracting HPV) on African American parents' intentions to vaccinate their children against HPV. Results of an experiment (N = 193) in which parents were exposed to either a gain-framed or loss-framed message about HPV vaccination revealed a significant interaction between message framing and perceived susceptibility when parents were required to pay for the vaccine. The specific pattern of interaction suggested that parents who perceived their children to be at high risk of contracting HPV were more persuaded by the gain-framed message, whereas those who believed their children to be at low risk of contracting HPV were more persuaded by the loss-framed message. Implications of the findings for HPV vaccination messaging are discussed. PMID:26646190

  4. Prevalence and correlates of substance use among school children in six African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl

    2009-10-01

    An increasing trend of noncommunicable diseases is a worldwide phenomenon, also including the developing countries. Few studies focus on adolescents' substance use in relation to mental distress and protective factors in African countries. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates (mental distress and protective factors) of substance use among school-going adolescents in six African countries. The sample included 20,765 students aged from 13 to 15 years from six African countries (Kenya, Namibia, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe), chosen by a two-stage cluster sample design to represent all students in grades 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 in each country. The measure used was part of the Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS) questionnaire, including various domains of health behaviour. Results indicate a prevalence of 12.6% tobacco use (past month), 6.6% risky alcohol use (two or more per day for at least 20 days or more in the past month), and 10.5% of illicit drug use (three or more times ever) in school-going adolescents in six African countries. School truancy, loneliness, sleeping problems, sadness, suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and poverty were associated with substance use (tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs), while school attendance and parental supervision and connectedness were protective factors for substance use, and peer support protective for tobacco use. It is concluded that tobacco use, risky drinking and illicit drug use were common, clustered together and were associated with school truancy, mental distress, and lack of parental and peer support among adolescent African school children. These findings stress the need for early and integrated prevention programmes. PMID:22029616

  5. The neglected role of antibody in protection against bacteremia caused by nontyphoidal strains of Salmonella in African children

    OpenAIRE

    MacLennan, Calman A.; Gondwe, Esther N.; Msefula, Chisomo L.; Kingsley, Robert A.; Thomson, Nicholas R.; White, Sarah A; Goodall, Margaret; Pickard, Derek J.; Graham, Stephen M.; Dougan, Gordon; Hart, C. Anthony; Molyneux, Malcolm E.; Drayson, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    Nontyphoidal strains of Salmonella (NTS) are a common cause of bacteremia among African children. Cell-mediated immune responses control intracellular infection, but they do not protect against extracellular growth of NTS in the blood. We investigated whether antibody protects against NTS bacteremia in Malawian children, because we found this condition mainly occurs before 2 years of age, with relative sparing of infants younger than 4 months old. Sera from all healthy Malawian children teste...

  6. Obesity and sugar-sweetened beverages in African-American preschool children: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sungwoo; Zoellner, Jamie M; Lee, Joyce M; Burt, Brian A; Sandretto, Anita M; Sohn, Woosung; Ismail, Amid I; Lepkowski, James M

    2009-06-01

    A representative sample of 365 low-income African-American preschool children aged 3-5 years was studied to determine the association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (soda, fruit drinks, and both combined) and overweight and obesity. Children were examined at a dental clinic in 2002-2003 and again after 2 years. Dietary information was collected using the Block Kids Food Frequency Questionnaire. A BMI score was computed from recorded height and weight. Overweight and obesity were defined by national reference age-sex specific BMI: those with an age-sex specific BMI>or=85th, but or=95th age-sex specific percentile as obese. The prevalence of overweight was 12.9% in baseline, and increased to 18.7% after 2 years. The prevalence of obesity increased from 10.3 to 20.4% during the same period. Baseline intake of soda and all sugar-sweetened beverages were positively associated with baseline BMI z-scores. After adjusting for covariates, additional intake of fruit drinks and all sugar-sweetened beverages at baseline showed significantly higher odds of incidence of overweight over 2 years. Among a longitudinal cohort of African-American preschool children, high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was significantly associated with an increased risk for obesity.

  7. Pulmonary diffusing capacity in healthy African-American and Caucasian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Jee; Christoph, Kathy; Yu, Zhangsheng; Eigen, Howard; Tepper, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of pulmonary diffusing capacity in healthy children primarily focused upon Caucasian (C) subjects. Since lung volumes in African-Americans (AA) are smaller than lung volumes in C subjects of the same height, diffusing capacity values in AA children might be interpreted as low or abnormal using currently available equations without adjusting for race. Healthy AA (N = 151) and C (N = 301) children between 5 and 18 years of age performed acceptable measurements of single breath pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO ) and alveolar volume (VA ) according to current ATS/ERS guidelines. The natural log of DLCO and VA were associated with height, gender, age, and race; AA children had lower DLCO and VA compared to C children. Adjustment of DLCO for Hemoglobin (Hgb) resulted in no significant difference in DLCO among these healthy subjects with normal Hgb. In summary, we report prediction equations for DLCO and VA that include adjustment for race (C; AA) demonstrating that AA have lower DLCO and VA compared to C children for the same height, gender, and age. PMID:25906836

  8. Children's exposure to community and war violence and mental health in four African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Holly; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2015-12-01

    In this article we review the mental health consequences of children's exposure to community and war violence (ETV) in four African countries: South Africa, Sierra Leone, Gambia and Rwanda. A focus on Africa is particularly pressing because of children's high levels of community and war ETV in countries therein. Regions of Africa present important macro-contexts for understanding children's various types of violence exposure amidst war and economic disadvantage. Findings of the review across 20 quantitative studies from 2004 to 2015 indicate consistent associations between exposure to war and community violence and children's symptoms of Post-traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and aggression. School climate and family support mitigate these ETV influences upon children: however, more research is needed on the buffering effects of such resources. The effects of war violence are mediated by perceived discrimination in communities post-conflict. We integrate findings across studies to synthesize knowledge on children's ETV in Africa around a model of its correlates, mediators, and moderators in relation to mental health. Emerging research points to avenues for prevention and future inquiry.

  9. Burkitt's lymphoma between African and American types in Turkish children: clinical, viral (EBV), and molecular studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavdar, A O; Gözdaşoğlu, S; Yavuz, G; Babacan, E; Unal, E; Uluoğlu, O; Yücesan, S; Magrath, I T; Akar, N

    1993-01-01

    Seventy-two Turkish children with Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) observed during a period of 22 years (1968-1990) have been analysed retrospectively. The diagnosis was established histologically according to WHO criteria. BL represented 50% of NHL in this series. The patients were staged according to Ziegler's system. The median age of patients was 5.5 years with a sex (M/F) ratio of 2.1/1. The most common primary site of tumor involvement was the abdomen (69.4%), which was followed by facial tumors, in particular the jaw and orbit (49.9%). There were 21 cases with jaw (29.1%) and 15 cases with orbital involvement (20.8%) at initial presentation. The majority of the patients (84.4%) were in advanced stages (C and D) at initial diagnosis. Facial tumors observed in Turkish children with BL were more similar to African Burkitt's lymphoma than American or European cases. High titers of antibodies against VCA and EA of EBV were also seen in our recent cases of BL. Two main treatment regimens, namely, single agent chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide (CYX) (1968-1974) and three drug (COM) combination chemotherapy, were used consecutively (1974-1988). COM has been shown to produce better results than single agent therapy. The clinical presentation, mean age, and high antibodies (IgG) to EBV and preliminary molecular studies revealed that BL appears to be in between African and non-African types in Turkish children. This will be further elucidated by direct examination of tumor cells for EBV and investigation of the molecular characteristics of Turkish tumors. Such studies are presently under way. PMID:8381202

  10. T-lymphocyte subsets in West African children: impact of age, sex, and season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Whittle, H;

    1997-01-01

    determinants of T-lymphocyte subset levels. METHODS: A total of 803 healthy West African children younger than 6 years were included in the three community studies of T-lymphocyte subsets among twins and singletons, after measles infection and after measles immunization. We used the immunoalkaline phosphatase...... method to determine T-lymphocyte subsets. RESULTS: We found differences by age, sex, and season, whereas there were no significant differences by birth order, twinning, or ethnic group. The CD4+ percentage declined from birth to age 2 years, at which time it started to increase to higher levels at age 4...

  11. Oral Communication Development in Severe to Profound Hearing Impaired Children After Receiving Aural Habilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleimani Farin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Communication, cognition, language, and speech are interrelated and develop together. It should come as no surprise to us that the key to intervention with deaf children is to establish, as early as possible, a functional communication system for the child and the parents. Early intervention programs need to be multidisciplinary, technologically sound and most important, it should take cognizance of the specific context (community, country in which the child and family function. The main aim of this study was to obtain oral communication development regarding current status of the intervention (aural habilitation and speech therapyfor children with severe to profound hearing impairment in Iran. A prospective longitudinal study was undertaken on a consecutive group of children with severe to profound deafness. Nine severe to profound hearing-impaired children out of the primer 42 cases, who were detected below two years old, had been selected in the previous study to receive aural habilitation. The average of their speech intelligibility scores was near 70% at age 6, which was accounted as poor oral communication and only two of them were able to communicate by spoken language. An integrated intervention services continued again for one year and their oral communication skill was assessed by their speech intelligibility. The intelligibility test of children was recorded on audio-tape, when they read 10 questions such as where is your home. This can be answered only in one word. Each tape was presented to10 normal hearing listeners, and their task was to write down, the answers in Persian orthography. At the beginning (at age 6 the average speech intelligibility score of these children was 72% and only two of them had score of 90% and 100%. At age 7, all of the severe groups were over 90%, and only two profound ones achieved the score of 48% and 62%. All of severe groups develop oral communication, but profound ones had a semi-intelligible speech

  12. The Effects of Music and Movement Opportunity on the Analogical Reasoning Performance of African American and White School Children: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brenda A.; Butler, Lisa

    1996-01-01

    Studies contextual factors informed by cultural experiences and their influence on learning task performance in 15 African American and 13 white children. The African American children performed better when allowed to coordinate movement and music to the learning task while white students had the opposite results. (GR)

  13. Cytokine Profiles during Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella Disease Predict Outcome in African Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, James J; Heath, Jennifer N; Msefula, Chisomo L; Gondwe, Esther N; Naranbhai, Vivek; Mandala, Wilson; MacLennan, Jenny M; Molyneux, Elizabeth M; Graham, Stephen M; Drayson, Mark T; Molyneux, Malcolm E; MacLennan, Calman A

    2016-07-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella is a leading cause of sepsis in African children. Cytokine responses are central to the pathophysiology of sepsis and predict sepsis outcome in other settings. In this study, we investigated cytokine responses to invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease in Malawian children. We determined serum concentrations of 48 cytokines with multiplexed immunoassays in Malawian children during acute iNTS disease (n = 111) and in convalescence (n = 77). Principal component analysis and logistic regression were used to identify cytokine signatures of acute iNTS disease. We further investigated whether these responses are altered by HIV coinfection or severe malnutrition and whether cytokine responses predict inpatient mortality. Cytokine changes in acute iNTS disease were associated with two distinct cytokine signatures. The first is characterized by increased concentrations of mediators known to be associated with macrophage function, and the second is characterized by raised pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines typical of responses reported in sepsis secondary to diverse pathogens. These cytokine responses were largely unaltered by either severe malnutrition or HIV coinfection. Children with fatal disease had a distinctive cytokine profile, characterized by raised mediators known to be associated with neutrophil function. In conclusion, cytokine responses to acute iNTS infection in Malawian children are reflective of both the cytokine storm typical of sepsis secondary to diverse pathogens and the intramacrophage replicative niche of NTS. The cytokine profile predictive of fatal disease supports a key role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of NTS sepsis. PMID:27170644

  14. Cytokine Profiles during Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella Disease Predict Outcome in African Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, James J.; Heath, Jennifer N.; Msefula, Chisomo L.; Gondwe, Esther N.; Naranbhai, Vivek; Mandala, Wilson; MacLennan, Jenny M.; Molyneux, Elizabeth M.; Graham, Stephen M.; Drayson, Mark T.; Molyneux, Malcolm E.

    2016-01-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella is a leading cause of sepsis in African children. Cytokine responses are central to the pathophysiology of sepsis and predict sepsis outcome in other settings. In this study, we investigated cytokine responses to invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease in Malawian children. We determined serum concentrations of 48 cytokines with multiplexed immunoassays in Malawian children during acute iNTS disease (n = 111) and in convalescence (n = 77). Principal component analysis and logistic regression were used to identify cytokine signatures of acute iNTS disease. We further investigated whether these responses are altered by HIV coinfection or severe malnutrition and whether cytokine responses predict inpatient mortality. Cytokine changes in acute iNTS disease were associated with two distinct cytokine signatures. The first is characterized by increased concentrations of mediators known to be associated with macrophage function, and the second is characterized by raised pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines typical of responses reported in sepsis secondary to diverse pathogens. These cytokine responses were largely unaltered by either severe malnutrition or HIV coinfection. Children with fatal disease had a distinctive cytokine profile, characterized by raised mediators known to be associated with neutrophil function. In conclusion, cytokine responses to acute iNTS infection in Malawian children are reflective of both the cytokine storm typical of sepsis secondary to diverse pathogens and the intramacrophage replicative niche of NTS. The cytokine profile predictive of fatal disease supports a key role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of NTS sepsis. PMID:27170644

  15. Cytokine Profiles during Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella Disease Predict Outcome in African Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, James J; Heath, Jennifer N; Msefula, Chisomo L; Gondwe, Esther N; Naranbhai, Vivek; Mandala, Wilson; MacLennan, Jenny M; Molyneux, Elizabeth M; Graham, Stephen M; Drayson, Mark T; Molyneux, Malcolm E; MacLennan, Calman A

    2016-07-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella is a leading cause of sepsis in African children. Cytokine responses are central to the pathophysiology of sepsis and predict sepsis outcome in other settings. In this study, we investigated cytokine responses to invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease in Malawian children. We determined serum concentrations of 48 cytokines with multiplexed immunoassays in Malawian children during acute iNTS disease (n = 111) and in convalescence (n = 77). Principal component analysis and logistic regression were used to identify cytokine signatures of acute iNTS disease. We further investigated whether these responses are altered by HIV coinfection or severe malnutrition and whether cytokine responses predict inpatient mortality. Cytokine changes in acute iNTS disease were associated with two distinct cytokine signatures. The first is characterized by increased concentrations of mediators known to be associated with macrophage function, and the second is characterized by raised pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines typical of responses reported in sepsis secondary to diverse pathogens. These cytokine responses were largely unaltered by either severe malnutrition or HIV coinfection. Children with fatal disease had a distinctive cytokine profile, characterized by raised mediators known to be associated with neutrophil function. In conclusion, cytokine responses to acute iNTS infection in Malawian children are reflective of both the cytokine storm typical of sepsis secondary to diverse pathogens and the intramacrophage replicative niche of NTS. The cytokine profile predictive of fatal disease supports a key role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of NTS sepsis.

  16. Association between age at antiretroviral therapy initiation and 24-month immune response in West-African HIV-infected children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desmonde, Sophie; Dicko, Fatoumata; Koueta, Fla;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We describe the association between age at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and 24-month CD4 cell response in West African HIV-infected children. METHODS: All HIV-infected children from the IeDEA paediatric West African cohort, initiating ART, with at least two CD4 cell count...... measurements, including one at ART initiation (baseline) were included. CD4 cell gain on ART was estimated using a multivariable linear mixed model adjusted for baseline variables: age, CD4 cell count, sex, first-line ART regimen. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and a Cox proportional hazards regression model...

  17. Sufentanil reduces emergence agitation in children receiving sevoflurane anesthesia for adenotonsillectomy compared with fentanyl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; HUANG Zhi-lian; ZHANG Xu-tong; LUO Ke; ZHANG Zhan-qin; MAO Yi; ZHUANG Xiao-biao; LIAN Qing-quan; CAO Hong

    2011-01-01

    Background Emergence agitation is a common problem in pediatric anesthesia,especially after sevoflurane induction and maintenance anesthesia.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of sufentanil to reduce emergence agitation after sevoflurane anesthesia in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy compared with fentanyl.Methods One hundred and five children,aged 3-11 years,were randomly allocated to receive normal saline (control group),sufentanil 0.2 μg/kg (S2) or fentanyl 2 μg/kg (F2) 1 minute after loss of the eyelash reflex.Anesthesia was induced and maintained with sevoflurane.Time to tracheal extubation,recovery time,Paediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED) scale,and emergence behavior were assessed.Results The incidence of severe agitation was significantly lower in S2 and F2 groups vs.the control group,4/32 and 15/34 vs.24/34 respectively,(P=0.002,0.009,respectively).PAED scales were significantly different among three groups (P=0.007),and lower in the S2 and F2 groups than in the control group (P=0.007 and P=0.025,respectively).And the incidence of severe agitation and the PAED scale score was significantly different between the S2 and F2 groups (P=0.007,P=0.019,respectively).Time to tracheal extubation and recovery time were similar in all three groups.Conclusions Administration of sufentanil at 0.2 μg/kg after induction of anesthesia reduced emergence agitation in children receiving sevoflurane anesthesia for adenotonsillectomy compared with fentanyl.This was without delaying the recovery time or causing significant hypotension.

  18. Percentage of Children Aged 5--17 Years Ever Receiving a Diagnosis of Learning Disability, United States, 2007--2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5--17 Years Ever Receiving a Diagnosis of Learning Disability,* by Race/Ethnicity † and Family Income Group § --- National ... professional ever told you that [child] had a learning disability?" † White and black children are non-Hispanic children ...

  19. Outcome of left heart mechanical valve replacement in West African children - A 15-year retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamatey Martin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The West African sub-region has poor health infrastructure. Mechanical valve replacement in children from such regions raises important postoperative concerns; among these, valve-related morbidity and complications of lifelong anticoagulation are foremost. Little is known about the long-term outcome of mechanical valve replacement in West Africa. We sought to determine the outcome of mechanical valve replacement of the left heart in children from this sub-region. Method We conducted a retrospective review of all consecutive left heart valve replacements in children ( Results One hundred and fourteen patients underwent mitral valve replacement (MVR, aortic valve replacement (AVR or mitral and aortic valve replacements (MAVR. Their ages ranged from 6-18 years (13.3 ± 3.1 years. All patients were in NYHA class III or IV. Median follow up was 9.1 years. MVR was performed in 91 (79.8% patients, AVR in 13 (11.4% and MAVR in 10 (8.8% patients. Tricuspid valve repair was performed concomitantly in 45 (39.5% patients. There were 6 (5.3% early deaths and 6 (5.3% late deaths. Preoperative left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction Conclusion Mechanical valve replacement in West African children has excellent outcomes in terms of mortality, valve-related events, and reoperation rate. Preoperative left ventricular dysfunction is the primary determinant of mortality within the first 2 years of valve replacement. The risk of valve-related complications is acceptably low. Anticoagulation is well tolerated with a very low risk of bleeding even in this socioeconomic setting.

  20. Advocating for efforts to protect African children, families, and communities from the threat of infectious diseases: report of the First International African Vaccinology Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Waggie, Zainab; Hawkridge, Anthony; Schoub, Barry; Madhi, Shabir Ahmed; Rees, Helen; Hussey, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    One means of improving healthcare workers' knowledge of and attitudes to vaccines is through running vaccine conferences which are accessible, affordable, and relevant to their everyday work. Various vaccinology conferences are held each year worldwide. These meetings focus heavily on basic science with much discussion about new developments in vaccines, and relatively little coverage of policy, advocacy, and communication issues. A negligible proportion of delegates at these conferences come from Africa, home to almost 40% of the global burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. To the best of our knowledge, no major vaccinology conference has ever been held on the African continent apart from World Health Organization (WHO) meetings. The content of the first International African Vaccinology Conference was planned to be different; to focus on the science, with a major part of discussions being on clinical, programmatic, policy, and advocacy issues. The conference was held in Cape Town, South Africa, from 8 to 11 November 2012. The theme of the conference was "Advocating for efforts to protect African children, families, and communities from the threat of infectious diseases". There were more than 550 registered participants from 55 countries (including 37 African countries). There were nine pre-conference workshops, ten plenary sessions, and 150 oral and poster presentations. The conference discussed the challenges to universal immunisation in Africa as well as the promotion of dialogue and communication on immunisation among all stakeholders. There was general acknowledgment that giant strides have been made in Africa since the global launch of the Expanded Programme on Immunisation in 1974. For example, there has been significant progress in introducing new and under-utilised vaccines; including hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenza type b, pneumococcal conjugate, rotavirus, meningococcal A conjugate, and human papillomavirus vaccines. In May 2012, African countries

  1. Advocating for efforts to protect African children, families, and communities from the threat of infectious diseases: report of the First International African Vaccinology Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Waggie, Zainab; Hawkridge, Anthony; Schoub, Barry; Madhi, Shabir Ahmed; Rees, Helen; Hussey, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    One means of improving healthcare workers' knowledge of and attitudes to vaccines is through running vaccine conferences which are accessible, affordable, and relevant to their everyday work. Various vaccinology conferences are held each year worldwide. These meetings focus heavily on basic science with much discussion about new developments in vaccines, and relatively little coverage of policy, advocacy, and communication issues. A negligible proportion of delegates at these conferences come from Africa, home to almost 40% of the global burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. To the best of our knowledge, no major vaccinology conference has ever been held on the African continent apart from World Health Organization (WHO) meetings. The content of the first International African Vaccinology Conference was planned to be different; to focus on the science, with a major part of discussions being on clinical, programmatic, policy, and advocacy issues. The conference was held in Cape Town, South Africa, from 8 to 11 November 2012. The theme of the conference was "Advocating for efforts to protect African children, families, and communities from the threat of infectious diseases". There were more than 550 registered participants from 55 countries (including 37 African countries). There were nine pre-conference workshops, ten plenary sessions, and 150 oral and poster presentations. The conference discussed the challenges to universal immunisation in Africa as well as the promotion of dialogue and communication on immunisation among all stakeholders. There was general acknowledgment that giant strides have been made in Africa since the global launch of the Expanded Programme on Immunisation in 1974. For example, there has been significant progress in introducing new and under-utilised vaccines; including hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenza type b, pneumococcal conjugate, rotavirus, meningococcal A conjugate, and human papillomavirus vaccines. In May 2012, African countries

  2. 'But where are our moral heroes?' An analysis of South African press reporting on children affected by HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meintjes, Helen; Bray, Rachel

    2005-12-01

    Messages conveyed both explicitly and implicitly in the media play an important role in shaping the public's understanding of issues, as well as in shaping associated policy, programmes and popular responses to these issues. This paper applies discourse analysis to a series of articles about children affected by HIV/AIDS published in 2002/2003 in the English-language South African press. The analysis reveals layers of moral messaging present in the reporting, the cumulative effect of which is the communication of a series of moral judgements about who is and who is not performing appropriate roles in relation to children. Discourses of moral transgression, specifically on the part of African parents and 'families' for failing in their moral responsibilities towards their children, coalesce with discourses on anticipated moral decay among (previously innocent) children who lack their due care. A need for moral regeneration among South Africans (but implicitly black South Africans) contrasts with accolades for (usually white), middle-class individuals, who, it is implied, have gone beyond their moral duty to respond. The article argues that in each instance the particular moralism is questionable in light of both empirical evidence and the principles of human dignity that underlie the South African constitution. Children - and particularly 'AIDS orphans' - are often presented in the press as either quintessential, innocent victims of the epidemic or as potential delinquents. While journalists' intentions are likely to be positive when representing children in these ways, the paper argues that this approach is employed at a cost, both to the public's knowledge and attitudes around the impact of HIV/AIDS, and, more importantly, to the lives of children affected by the epidemic. PMID:25865783

  3. Correlates of African American and Latino parents' messages to children about ethnicity and race: a comparative study of racial socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Diane

    2003-03-01

    Recently, social scientists have become increasingly interested in the nature of communications from parents to children regarding ethnicity and race. Termed racial socialization, race-related messages to children may have important consequences for children's identity development and well-being. This study examined the frequency and correlates of two dimensions of racial socialization-messages about ethnic pride, history, and heritage (Cultural Socialization) and messages about discrimination and racial bias (Preparation for Bias)--among 273 urban African American, Puerto Rican, and Dominican parents. Parents reported more frequent Cultural Socialization than Preparation for Bias. There were no significant ethnic group differences in the frequency of Cultural Socialization. However, African American parents reported more frequent Preparation for Bias than did Dominican parents who, in turn, reported more frequent messages of this sort than did Puerto Rican parents Ethnic identity was a stronger predictor of Cultural Socialization among Puerto Rican and Dominican parents than among their African American counterparts. In contrast, perceived discrimination experiences was a stronger predictor of Preparation for Bias among African American and Dominican parents than among Puerto Rican parents. Finally, race-related phenomenon accounted for more variance in both Cultural Socialization and Preparation for Bias among parents reporting on their behaviors with children 10-17 years old as compared to parents reporting on their behaviors with children 6-9 years old. PMID:12741687

  4. Metabolic and Hormonal Changes of Severely Burned Children Receiving Long-Term Oxandrolone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przkora, Rene; Jeschke, Marc G.; Barrow, Robert E.; Suman, Oscar E.; Meyer, Walter J.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Sanford, Arthur P.; Lee, Jong; Chinkes, David L.; Mlcak, Ronald P.; Herndon, David N.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: When given to children for 1 year after a severe burn, oxandrolone significantly improves lean body mass, bone mineral content, and muscle strength. The beneficial effects of oxandrolone on height and weight were observed 1 year after treatment was discontinued. To study the efficacy of oxandrolone in severely burned children for 12 months after burn and 12 months after the drug was discontinued. Summary Background Data: Oxandrolone attenuates body catabolism during the acute phase after burn. It is unclear whether oxandrolone would have any beneficial effects during long-term treatment or if there were any effects after the drug was stopped. Methods: Sixty-one children with 40% total body surface area burns were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomized into those to receive oxandrolone (n = 30) or placebo (n = 31) for the first 12 months. Treatment was discontinued after 12 months, and the patients were studied without the drug for the following 12 months. At discharge and 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after burn, height, weight, body composition, resting energy expenditure, muscle strength, and serum human growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1), IGF binding protein-3, insulin, cortisol, parathyroid hormone, tri-iodothyronine uptake (T3 uptake), and free thyroxine index (FTI) were measured. Statistical analysis used Tukey multiple comparison test. Significance was accepted at P < 0.05. Results: Oxandrolone improved lean body mass, bone mineral content and muscle strength compared with controls during treatment, P < 0.05. Serum IGF-1, T3 uptake, and FTI were significantly higher during drug treatment compared with controls, P < 0.05. Significant increases in height and weight with oxandrolone were observed after the end of treatment. Conclusions: Oxandrolone improved body composition and strength in severely burned children during the 12 months of treatment. Its effect on height and weight continued after treatment was discontinued. PMID

  5. The Chicago Parent Program: comparing 1-year outcomes for African American and Latino parents of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenstein, Susan M; Gross, Deborah; Fogg, Louis; Ridge, Alison; Garvey, Christine; Julion, Wrenetha; Tucker, Sharon

    2012-10-01

    Data were merged from two prevention randomized trials testing 1-year outcomes of a parenting skills program, the Chicago Parent Program (CPP) and comparing its effects for African-American (n = 291) versus Latino (n = 213) parents and their preschool children. Compared to controls, intervention parents had improved self-efficacy, used less corporal punishment and more consistent discipline, and demonstrated more positive parenting. Intervention children had greater reductions in behavior problems based on parent-report, teacher-report, and observation. Although improvements from the CPP were evident for parents in both racial/ethnic groups, Latino parents reported greater improvements in their children's behavior and in parenting self-efficacy but exhibited greater decreases in praise. Findings support the efficacy of the CPP for African American and Latino parents and young children from low-income urban communities. PMID:22622598

  6. Bullying victimisation, internalising symptoms, and conduct problems in South African children and adolescents: a longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Mark E; Bowes, Lucy; Cluver, Lucie D; Ward, Catherine L; Badcock, Nicholas A

    2014-11-01

    Bullying victimisation has been prospectively linked with mental health problems among children and adolescents in longitudinal studies in the developed world. However, research from the developing world, where adolescents face multiple risks to social and emotional development, has been limited by cross-sectional designs. This is the first longitudinal study of the psychological impacts of bullying victimisation in South Africa. The primary aim was to examine prospective relationships between bullying victimisation and internalising and externalising symptoms in South African youth. Secondary aims were to examine gender and age-related differences in experiences of bullying victimisation. Children and adolescents (10-17 years, 57 % female, n = 3,515) from high HIV-prevalent (>30 %) communities in South Africa were interviewed and followed-up 1 year later (97 % retention). Census enumeration areas were randomly selected from urban and rural sites in two provinces and door-to-door sampling included all households with a resident child/adolescent. Exposure to multiple experiences of bullying victimisation at baseline predicted internalising symptoms and conduct problems 1 year later. Additionally, baseline mental health scores predicted later bullying victimisation, demonstrating bi-directionality of relationships between bullying victimisation and mental health outcomes in this sample. Expected gender differences in physical, verbal, and relational bullying victimisation were evident and predicted declines in bullying victimisation over time were observed. In the developed world, school-based anti-bullying programmes have been shown to be effective in reducing bullying and victimisation. Anti-bullying programmes should be implemented and rigorously evaluated in South Africa, as this may promote improved mental health among South African children and adolescents.

  7. Treatment of African children with severe malaria - towards evidence-informed clinical practice using GRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    English Mike

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe malaria is a major contributor of deaths in African children up to five years of age. One valuable tool to support health workers in the management of diseases is clinical practice guidelines (CPGs developed using robust methods. A critical assessment of the World Health Organization (WHO and Kenyan paediatric malaria treatment guidelines with quinine was undertaken, with a focus on the quality of the evidence and transparency of the shift from evidence to recommendations. Methods Systematic reviews of the literature were conducted using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE tool to appraise included studies. The findings were used to evaluate the WHO and Kenyan recommendations for the management of severe childhood malaria. Results The WHO 2010 malaria guidance on severe malaria in children, which informed the Kenyan guidelines, only evaluated the evidence on one topic on paediatric care using the GRADE tool. Using the GRADE tool, this work explicitly demonstrated that despite the established use of quinine in the management of paediatric cases of severe malaria for decades, low or very low quality evidence of important outcomes, but not critical outcomes such as mortality, have informed national and international guidance on the paediatric quinine dosing, route of administration and adverse effects. Conclusions Despite the foreseeable shift to artesunate as the primary drug for treatment of severe childhood malaria, the findings reported here reflect that the particulars of quinine therapeutics for the management of severe malaria in African children have historically been a neglected research priority. This work supports the application of the GRADE tool to make transparent recommendations and to inform advocacy efforts for a greater research focus in priority areas in paediatric care in Africa and other low-income settings.

  8. The Chicago Parent Program: Comparing 1-Year Outcomes for African American and Latino Parents of Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Breitenstein, Susan M.; Gross, Deborah; Fogg, Louis; Ridge, Alison; Garvey, Christine; Julion, Wrenetha; Tucker, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Data were merged from two prevention randomized trials testing 1-year outcomes of a parenting skills program, the Chicago Parent Program (CPP), and comparing its effects for African-American (n=291) versus Latino (n=213) parents and their preschool children. Compared to controls, intervention parents had improved self-efficacy, used less corporal punishment and more consistent discipline, and demonstrated more positive parenting. Intervention children had greater reductions in behavior proble...

  9. Fun & Fit, Phase I: A Program for Overweight African American and Hispanic American Children from Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Karen S.; Hart, Melanie A.; Griffin, L. Kent

    2009-01-01

    Fun & Fit is a program designed to create positive physical activity experiences and to promote healthy lifestyle choices among overweight children from low-income African American and Hispanic American families. The program is a collaborative project between Texas Tech University and the Lubbock Independent School District funded through a grant…

  10. Associations of Child Maltreatment and Intimate Partner Violence with Psychological Adjustment among Low SES, African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaslow, Nadine J.; Thompson, Martie P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the unique and interactive effects of child maltreatment and mothers' physical intimate partner violence (IPV) status on low-SES African American children's psychological functioning. Methods: Mothers were recruited from a large, inner-city hospital, and those who met eligibility criteria were asked to complete a…

  11. Relations between Perceived Competence, Importance Ratings, and Self-Worth among African American School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Leslie K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate how domain-specific importance ratings affect relations between perceived competence and self-worth among African American school-age children. Importance ratings have been found to affect the strength of the relationship between perceived competence and self-worth and have implications for…

  12. Making Books Available: The Role of Early Libraries, Librarians, and Booksellers in the Promotion of African American Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolson, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Children's books produced from the 1920s to the 1950s contain many examples of negative African-American stereotypes. The role of librarians in recognizing these stereotypes and their attempts to change the types of books available to their patrons is discussed. One hurdle they faced was publishers' unwillingness to create books with positive…

  13. Facial Expression Recognition and Social Competence among African American Elementary School Children: An Examination of Ethnic Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanville, Denise N.; Nowicki, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the potential for cross-ethnic miscommunication of facial expressions, examining elementary students' ability to identify emotion in African American and white facial expressions and noting the relationship to social competence. Student data indicated that ability to read faces differing in ethnicity did not differ by children's…

  14. "But This Story of Mine Is Not Unique": A Review of Research on African American Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Wanda; McNair, Jonda C.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of research on African American children's literature by synthesizing the growing body of textual and reader response research conducted across the past several decades. The literature presented in this article cuts across the disciplines of education as well as English and library science. Using the selective…

  15. Social Integration as a Factor in Academic Achievements of Children: A Case Study of African Immigrants in Louisville, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odetunde, Florence Olayinka

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how social integration of African immigrants in the Louisville metropolitan area of Kentucky could be a factor in the academic achievements of their children. It involved critically investigating how the process of their adjustments as immigrants might have been shaped by various personal and environmental factors such as…

  16. A Matter of Vocabulary II: Low-Income African American Children's Performance on the Expressive Vocabulary Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Allyssa; Champion, Tempii B.

    2010-01-01

    The "Expressive Vocabulary Test" (EVT) has recently been found culturally fair for an economically mixed sample of African American children, and others have argued that it is fairer for such participants than the "Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III" (PPVT-III). In this study, the authors sought to replicate these findings with an exclusively…

  17. Thyroid dysfunction and neoplasia in children receiving neck irradiation for cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, I.D.; Black, T.L.; Thompson, E.I.; Pratt, C.; Rao, B.; Hustu, O.

    1985-03-15

    The reported relationship of radiation exposure and thyroid carcinoma stimulated this retrospective study of 298 patients treated at St. Jude Children's Hospital with radiation therapy to the neck for childhood cancer to identify patients who developed subsequent thyroid abnormalities. This series includes 153 patients with Hodgkin's disease, 95 with acute lymphocytic leukemia, 28 with lymphoepithelioma, and 22 with miscellaneous tumors. Inclusion in the study required 5 years of disease-free survival following therapy for their original tumor, which included thyroid irradiation. Follow-up has been 100%. Most patients also received chemotherapy. Seventeen patients were found to have decreased thyroid reserve with normal levels of free triiodothyroxine (T3) or free thyroxin, (T4) and an elevated level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). In nine patients hypothyroidism developed, with decreased T3 or T4 levels and an elevated level of TSH. One hyperthyroid patient was identified. Two patients had thyroiditis, and seven had thyroid neoplasms: (carcinoma in two, adenoma in two, colloid nodule in one, and undiagnosed nodules in two). This survey has demonstrated an increased incidence of thyroid dysfunction and thyroid neoplasia when compared to the general population. The importance of long-term follow-up for thyroid disease is emphasized in patients who have received thyroid irradiation. The possible role of subclinical hypothyroidism with TSH elevation coupled with radiation damage to the thyroid gland as a model for the development of neoplastic disease is discussed.

  18. Shortcomings of adherence counselling provided to caregivers of children receiving antiretroviral therapy in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Bronwyne; Kagee, Ashraf; Bland, Ruth

    2016-03-01

    In order to achieve optimal benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART), caregivers of children receiving ART are required to attend routine clinic visits monthly and administer medication to the child as prescribed. Yet, the level of adherence to these behaviours varies considerably in many settings. As a way to achieve optimal adherence in rural KwaZulu-Natal, caregivers are required to attend routine counselling sessions at HIV treatment clinics that are centred on imparting information, motivation, and behavioural skills related to medication administration. According to the information-motivation-behavioural skills model, information related to adherence, motivation, and behavioural skills are necessary and fundamental determinants of adherence to ART. The purpose of the study was to observe and document the content of adherence counselling sessions that caregivers attending rural clinics in KwaZulu Natal receive. We observed 25 adherence counselling sessions, which lasted on average 8.1 minutes. Counselling typically consisted of counsellors recording patient attendance, reporting CD4 count and viral load results to caregivers, emphasising dose times, and asking caregivers to name their medications and dosage amounts. Patients were seldom asked to demonstrate how they measure the medication. They were also not probed for problems regarding treatment, even when an unsuppressed VL was reported to a caregiver. This paper calls attention to the sub-optimal level of counselling provided to patients on ART and the urgent need to standardise and improve the training, support, and debriefing provided to counsellors.

  19. Effects of iron supplementation on dominant bacterial groups in the gut, faecal SCFA and gut inflammation: a randomised, placebo-controlled intervention trial in South African children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, Alexandra; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Riesen, Nathalie; Chassard, Christophe; Smuts, Cornelius M; Zimmermann, Michael B; Lacroix, Christophe

    2014-08-28

    Fe supplementation is a common strategy to correct Fe-deficiency anaemia in children; however, it may modify the gut microbiota and increase the risk for enteropathogenic infection. In the present study, we studied the impact of Fe supplementation on the abundance of dominant bacterial groups in the gut, faecal SCFA concentration and gut inflammation in children living in rural South Africa. In a randomised, placebo-controlled intervention trial of 38 weeks, 6- to 11-year-old children with Fe deficiency received orally either tablets containing 50 mg Fe as FeSO₄ (n 22) for 4 d/week or identical placebo (n 27). In addition, Fe-sufficient children (n 24) were included as a non-treated reference group. Faecal samples were analysed at baseline and at 2, 12 and 38 weeks to determine the effects of Fe supplementation on ten bacterial groups in the gut (quantitative PCR), faecal SCFA concentration (HPLC) and gut inflammation (faecal calprotectin concentration). At baseline, concentrations of bacterial groups in the gut, faecal SCFA and faecal calprotectin did not differ between Fe-deficient and Fe-sufficient children. Fe supplementation significantly improved Fe status in Fe-deficient children and did not significantly increase faecal calprotectin concentration. Moreover, no significant effect of Fe treatment or time × treatment interaction on the concentrations of bacterial groups in the gut or faecal SCFA was observed compared with the placebo treatment. Also, there were no significant differences observed in the concentrations of any of the bacterial target groups or faecal SCFA at 2, 12 or 38 weeks between the three groups of children when correcting for baseline values. The present study suggests that in African children with a low enteropathogen burden, Fe status and dietary Fe supplementation did not significantly affect the dominant bacterial groups in the gut, faecal SCFA concentration or gut inflammation.

  20. The Challenges of Underweight and Overweight in South African Children: Are We Winning or Losing the Battle? A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makama Andries Monyeki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Underweight and overweight are adverse effects of malnutrition and both are associated with negative health consequences in children and adolescents. In South Africa, the burden of economic and social disparity coexists with malnutrition in children. The purpose of this study was to review available South Africa studies regarding the comprehensive summary of prevalence of underweight and overweight and evaluates government policies in addressing undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children and adolescents. We searched subject-specific electronic bibliographic databases of observational studies published on malnutrition, undernutrition, overnutrition, underweight and overweight in South African boys and girls from birth to 20 years of age in studies published on or after 1990. A total of sixteen cross-sectional, three longitudinal studies and one report met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Descriptive data synthesis revealed the small number of longitudinal studies highlights the dearth of research in tracking undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children. In this review, 0.7%–66% of underweight was reported among children in rural areas compared to a 3.1%–32.4% of overweight in urban areas. All studies reported a higher rate of underweight in boys than girls who were significantly more likely to have higher body fat. The data indicated that both underweight and overweight were positively related with health-related physical activity and psychological health problems such as low activity, low fitness, low self-image and self-esteem. Numerous recommendations were made in the reviewed studies, however effective strategic programs in eradicating both underweight and overweight are minimal. It is evident from the reviewed studies that the burden of underweight and overweight are still a problem in South African children. The most highly affected by underweight are rural children, while children in urban areas

  1. The challenges of underweight and overweight in South African children: are we winning or losing the battle? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monyeki, Makama Andries; Awotidebe, Adedapo; Strydom, Gert L; de Ridder, J Hans; Mamabolo, Ramoteme Lesly; Kemper, Han C G

    2015-02-01

    Underweight and overweight are adverse effects of malnutrition and both are associated with negative health consequences in children and adolescents. In South Africa, the burden of economic and social disparity coexists with malnutrition in children. The purpose of this study was to review available South Africa studies regarding the comprehensive summary of prevalence of underweight and overweight and evaluates government policies in addressing undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children and adolescents. We searched subject-specific electronic bibliographic databases of observational studies published on malnutrition, undernutrition, overnutrition, underweight and overweight in South African boys and girls from birth to 20 years of age in studies published on or after 1990. A total of sixteen cross-sectional, three longitudinal studies and one report met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Descriptive data synthesis revealed the small number of longitudinal studies highlights the dearth of research in tracking undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children. In this review, 0.7%-66% of underweight was reported among children in rural areas compared to a 3.1%-32.4% of overweight in urban areas. All studies reported a higher rate of underweight in boys than girls who were significantly more likely to have higher body fat. The data indicated that both underweight and overweight were positively related with health-related physical activity and psychological health problems such as low activity, low fitness, low self-image and self-esteem. Numerous recommendations were made in the reviewed studies, however effective strategic programs in eradicating both underweight and overweight are minimal. It is evident from the reviewed studies that the burden of underweight and overweight are still a problem in South African children. The most highly affected by underweight are rural children, while children in urban areas in transition are faced

  2. Prospective study of cognitive function in children receiving whole-brain radiotherapy and chemotherapy: 2-year results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As survival rates have risen for children with malignant primary brain tumors, so has the concern that many survivors have significant permanent cognitive deficits. Cranial irradiation (CRT) has been implicated as the major cause for cognitive dysfunction. To clarify the etiology, incidence, and severity of intellectual compromise in children with brain tumors after CRT, a prospective study was undertaken comparing the neuropsychological outcome in 18 consecutive children with malignant brain tumors treated with CRT to outcome in 14 children harboring brain tumors in similar sites in the nervous system who had not received CRT. Children with cortical or subcortical brain tumors were not eligible for study. Neuropsychological testing was performed after surgery prior to radiotherapy, after radiotherapy, and at 1- and 2-year intervals thereafter. Children who had received CRT had a mean full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) of 105 at diagnosis which fell to 91 by Year 2. Similar declines were noted in their performance intelligence quotient (IQ) and verbal IQ. After CRT, patients demonstrated a statistically significant decline from baseline in FSIQ (p less than 0.02) and verbal IQ (p less than 0.04). Children who had not received CRT did not demonstrate a fall in any cognitive parameter over time. The decline between baseline testing and testing performed at Year 2 in patients who had CRT was inversely correlated with age (p less than 0.02), as younger children demonstrated the greatest loss of intelligence. Children less than 7 years of age at diagnosis had a mean decline in FSIQ of 25 points 2 years posttreatment. No other clinical parameter correlated with the overall IQ or decline in IQ. After CRT, children demonstrated a wide range of dysfunction including deficits in fine motor, visual-motor, and visual-spatial skills and memory difficulties

  3. Efficacy of the Chicago Parent Program with Low-Income African American and Latino Parents of Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Deborah; Garvey, Christine; Julion, Wrenetha; Fogg, Louis; Tucker, Sharon; Mokros, Hartmut

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of a 12-session parent training program, the Chicago Parent Program (CPP), which was developed in collaboration with African American and Latino parents. Using growth curve modeling, data were analyzed from 253 parents (58.9% African American, 32.8% Latino) of 2–4 year old children enrolled in 7 day care centers serving low-income families. Day care centers were matched and randomly assigned to intervention and waiting-list control conditions. At 1-year follow-u...

  4. Baseline correlates of insulin resistance in inner city high-BMI African-American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Aarthi; Fitch, Mark D; Hudes, Mark L; Lustig, Robert H; Murray, Carolyn B; Ikeda, Joanne P; Fleming, Sharon E

    2008-09-01

    To characterize the influence of diet-, physical activity-, and self-esteem-related factors on insulin resistance in 8- 10-year-old African-American (AA) children with BMI greater than the 85th percentile who were screened to participate in a community-based type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevention trial. In 165 subjects, fasting glucose- and insulin-derived values for homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) assessed insulin resistance. Body fatness was calculated following bioelectrical impedance analysis, and fitness was measured using laps from a 20-m shuttle run. Child questionnaires assessed physical activity, dietary habits, and self-esteem. Pubertal staging was assessed using serum levels of sex hormones. Parent questionnaires assessed family demographics, family health, and family food and physical activity habits. Girls had significantly higher percent body fat but similar anthropometric measures compared with boys, whereas boys spent more time in high-intensity activities than girls. Scores for self-perceived behavior were higher for girls than for boys; and girls desired a more slender body. Girls had significantly higher insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), compared with boys (P < 0.01). Adjusting for age, sex, pubertal stage, socioeconomic index (SE index), and family history of diabetes, multivariate regression analysis showed that children with higher waist circumference (WC) (P < 0.001) and lower Harter's scholastic competence (SC) scale (P = 0.044) had higher insulin resistance. WC and selected self-esteem parameters predicted insulin resistance in high-BMI AA children. The risk of T2DM may be reduced in these children by targeting these factors.

  5. PdS and SdP Receiver Functions Image of the Lithosphere underneath the Southern African Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Thybo, Hans; Levander, A;

    2009-01-01

    One of the unique spots in our Earth is the Kaapvaal craton; it preserves a rich record of the early earth and is underlain by unusually thick, ~ 200 km deep, chemically depleted lithospheric mantle of early Archean age. The internal structure of this unusual upper mantle, termed the tectosphere...... to 350 km depth by Jordan (1975), has to be revealed in more detail, and a better understanding should yield new insight into the origin of Earth’s early continents. We have reassessed the data from the Kaapvaal seismic experiment for lithosphere structure by application of PdS receiver functions...

  6. South African parents' perception of television food advertising directed at children / A.A.F.C. da Fonseca

    OpenAIRE

    Da Fonseca, Abel Alexandre Ferreira Claro

    2010-01-01

    Advertising to children has received regular focus since 1961, yet it remains a controversial topic. When people speak about advertising to children, they are frequently discussing food advertising. Recent concerns about food, nutrition and an increase in childhood obesity have resulted in a resurgence of interest towards advertising to children. Many factors contribute to the rise in childhood obesity; and advertising of unhealthy food to children has been recognised as one su...

  7. Performance on the PPVT?III and the EVT: Applicability of the Measures with African American and European American Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Maria Adelaida; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Blake, Jamilia; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Cramer, Stephen E.; Ruston, Hilary P.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether two vocabulary measures were appropriate for the evaluation of African American children and children whose mothers have low education levels, regardless of gender. Method: Data were collected for 210 high-risk, preschool children from a southeastern state in the United States on the…

  8. Determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices play a crucial role in the health and development of children. The objective of this research paper was to identify factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries, namely, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal. This study covered 22 376 children aged 6-23 months from the seven countries surveyed (Benin: 3732 children; Burkina Faso: 4205 children; Cote d'Ivoire: 2109 children, Guinea: 1944 children, Mali: 3798 children, Niger: 3451 children and Senegal: 3137 children). The most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the various countries were used as data sources. A set of individual-, household- and community-level factors were used to examine the four complementary feeding indicators. Multivariate analysis revealed that the youngest age bracket (6-11 months) of children, administrative/geographical region, mother's limited or non-access to the mass media, mothers' lack of contact with a health facility, rural residence, poor households and non-working mothers were the main factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding in the countries surveyed. Our findings highlight the need to consider broader social, cultural and economic factors when designing child nutritional interventions. PMID:26364790

  9. Exploring story grammar structure in the book reading interactions of African American mothers and their preschool children: a pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Yvette R; Rothstein, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to identify the book reading behaviors and book reading styles of middle class African American mothers engaged in a shared book reading activity with their preschool children. To this end, the mothers and their children were videotaped reading one of three books, Julius, Grandfather and I, or Somewhere in Africa. Both maternal and child behaviors were coded for the frequency of occurrence of story grammar elements contained in their stories and maternal behaviors were also coded for their use of narrative eliciting strategies. In addition, mothers were queried about the quality and quantity of book reading/story telling interactions in the home environment. The results suggest that there is a great deal of individual variation in how mothers use the story grammar elements and narrative eliciting strategies to engage their children in a shared book reading activity. Findings are discussed in terms of suggestions for additional research and practical applications are offered on ways to optimally engage African American preschool children and African American families from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds in shared book reading interactions.

  10. Expression of the iron hormone hepcidin distinguishes different types of anemia in African children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Atkinson, Sarah H; Armitage, Andrew E; Khandwala, Shivani; Veenemans, Jacobien; Cox, Sharon E; Eddowes, Lucy A; Hayes, Theodore; Doherty, Conor P; Demir, Ayse Y; Tijhaar, Edwin; Verhoef, Hans; Prentice, Andrew M; Drakesmith, Hal

    2014-05-01

    Childhood anemia is a major global health problem resulting from multiple causes. Iron supplementation addresses iron deficiency anemia but is undesirable for other types of anemia and may exacerbate infections. The peptide hormone hepcidin governs iron absorption; hepcidin transcription is mediated by iron, inflammation, and erythropoietic signals. However, the behavior of hepcidin in populations where anemia is prevalent is not well established. We show that hepcidin measurements in 1313 African children from The Gambia and Tanzania (samples taken in 2001 and 2008, respectively) could be used to identify iron deficiency anemia. A retrospective secondary analysis of published data from 25 Gambian children with either postmalarial or nonmalarial anemia demonstrated that hepcidin measurements identified individuals who incorporated >20% oral iron into their erythrocytes. Modeling showed that this sensitivity of hepcidin expression at the population level could potentially enable simple groupings of individuals with anemia into iron-responsive and non-iron-responsive subtypes and hence could guide iron supplementation for those who would most benefit.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of a Novel Sublingual Spray Formulation of the Antimalarial Drug Artemether in African Children with Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Sam; Bendel, Daryl; Lee, Toong C.; Templeton, David

    2015-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of sublingual artemether (ArTiMist) was investigated in 91 young African children with severe malaria or who could not tolerate oral antimalarial therapy. Each received 3.0 mg/kg of body weight of artemether at 0, 8, 24, 36, 48, and 60 h or until the initiation of oral treatment. Few blood samples were drawn postdose. Plasma artemether and dihydroartemisinin (DHA) levels were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the data were analyzed using established population compartmental pharmacokinetic models. Parasite clearance was prompt (median parasite clearance time, 24 h), and there were no serious adverse events. Consistent with studies in healthy adults (S. Salman, D. Bendel, T. C. Lee, D. Templeton, and T. M. E. Davis, Antimicrob Agents Chemother 59:3197–3207, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.05013-14), the absorption of sublingual artemether was biphasic, and multiple dosing was associated with the autoinduction of the metabolism of artemether to DHA (which itself has potent antimalarial activity). In contrast to studies using healthy volunteers, pharmacokinetic modeling indicated that the first absorption phase did not avoid first-pass metabolism, suggesting that the drug is transferred to the upper intestine through postdose fluid/food intake. Simulations using the present data and those from an earlier study in older Melanesian children with uncomplicated malaria treated with artemether-lumefantrine tablets suggested that the bioavailability of sublingual artemether was at least equivalent to that after conventional oral artemether-lumefantrine (median [interquartile range] areas under the concentration-time curve for artemether, 3,403 [2,471 to 4,771] versus 3,063 [2,358 to 4,514] μg · h/liter, respectively; and for DHA, 2,958 [2,146 to 4,278] versus 2,839 [1,812 to 3,488] μg · h/liter, respectively; P ≥ 0.42). These findings suggest that sublingual artemether could be used as prereferral treatment for sick

  12. From an imbalance to a new imbalance: Italian-style gluten-free diet alters the salivary microbiota and metabolome of African celiac children

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo Ercolini; Ruggiero Francavilla; Lucia Vannini; Francesca De Filippis; Teresa Capriati; Raffaella Di Cagno; Giuseppe Iacono; Maria De Angelis; Marco Gobbetti

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen Saharawi celiac children following an African-style gluten-free diet for at least two years were subjected to a change of diet to an Italian-style gluten-free diet for 60 days. Significant differences were identified in the salivary microbiota and metabolome when Saharawi celiac children switched from African- to Italian-style dietary habits. An Italian-style gluten-free diet caused increases in the abundance of Granulicatella, Porphyromonas and Neisseria and decreases in Clostridium...

  13. Socioeconomic status and the prevalence of fever in children under age five: evidence from four sub-Saharan African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Novignon Jacob; Nonvignon Justice

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The burden of fevers remains enormous in sub-Saharan Africa. While several efforts at reducing the burden of fevers have been made at the macro level, the relationship between socioeconomic status and fever prevalence has been inconclusive at the household and individual levels. The purpose of this study was to examine how individual and household socioeconomic status influences the prevalence of fever among children under age five in four sub-Saharan African countries. Me...

  14. Differences in body circumferences, skin-fold thicknesses and lipid profiles among HIV-infected African children on and not on stavudine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Musiime

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study To compare body circumferences, skin-fold thickness (SFT and lipid levels (LL, as measures of lipodystrophy, among antiretroviral therapy (ART-naïve and experienced children at enrolment into the CHAPAS-3 trial. Methods HIV-infected children in Uganda and Zambia, either ART-naïve or on stavudine (d4T for ≥2 years without clinical lipodystrophy, were randomised to receive d4T, abacavir (ABC or zidovudine (ZDV with lamivudine and efavirenz (EFV or nevirapine. At enrolment, mid-upper arm (MUAC and calf (CC circumferences, SFT (biceps, triceps, sub-scapular, supra-iliac and fasting lipids (total cholesterol (TC, low density lipo-protein (LDL, high density lipoprotein (HDL, triglycerides (TRIG were measured. Age/sex adjusted z-scores of MUAC, CC, SFT and the sum of SFT (SSF used Dutch reference data. ART-naïve and ART-experienced children were compared with t-tests using Stata v11.0. Summary of results Among 444 children, 224 (51% were male and 331 (74.5% ART-naïve. Mean (sd CD4% was 19.7% (10.2 versus (vs 34.2% (7.7 in ART-naïve vs ART-experienced children. The ART-naïve were younger than the ART-experienced children (median [IQR] age 2.5 [1.5, 4.0] vs 6.0 [5.5, 7.0] years, p<0.0001. Among the ART-experienced, 4/108 (3.7% were on EFV and median (IQR d4T use was 3.5 (2.7, 4.2 years. As expected, MUAC, CC, weight-for-age (WAZ and height-for-age (HAZ z-scores were lower in the ART-naïve; the ART-experienced had lower SFT z-scores and higher TC and HDL, but lower TRIG (Table 1. Conclusions Failure-to-thrive likely contributed to lower circumference values in ART-naïve children. Among the ART-experienced, thinner SFT and higher TC values could be ART (particularly d4T-related. Normal values, currently unavailable for African children, are being collected. During trial follow-up, we will evaluate the effect of ABC, ZDV and d4T on development of lipodystrophy in naïve children and its reversibility in d4T-treated children

  15. Effects of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Obesity on Salivary Secretory IgA and Alpha-Amylase in South African Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzak, Dorota E; Konkol, Kristen F; McKune, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and body composition are associated with salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), a mucosal immunity marker, and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a marker of stress-related sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, in South African children. Morning (7:30-8:00 a.m.) saliva samples were collected from 132 children (10.05 ± 1.68 years old, 74 females, 58 males). Body composition, resting blood pressure, and predicted maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) were determined, and SIgA and sAA were quantified. Obese children had significantly higher sAA compared with overweight and normal weight children (p mitigator. Age and BMI predicted SIgA secretion rate (p mitigated sympathetic activation was not associated with mucosal immunity. PMID:27483329

  16. Increasing Daily Water Intake and Fluid Adherence in Children Receiving Treatment for Retentive Encopresis

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhl, Elizabeth S.; Hoodin, Flora; Rice, Jennifer; Felt, Barbara T.; Rausch, Joseph R.; Patton, Susana R

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the efficacy of an enhanced intervention (EI) compared to standard care (SC) in increasing daily water intake and fluid goal adherence in children seeking treatment for retentive encopresis. Methods Changes in beverage intake patterns and fluid adherence were examined by comparing 7-week diet diary data collected during participation in the EI to achieved data for families who had previously completed the SC. Results Compared to children in SC (n = 19), children in the EI...

  17. The challenge of language assessment for african american english-speaking children: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Harry N

    2004-02-01

    The diagnostic problem of how validly to assess the language of children who speak dialects different from Mainstream American English (MAE) has challenged the field of communication disorders for several decades. The key to its solution is to recognize differences due to dialect or development and remove them from the initial diagnosis of a disorder. A new approach to the puzzle, implemented jointly by University of Massachusetts scholars and the Psychological Corporation (TPC), takes two directions: (1) it provides new normative data on African American English (AAE) development, and (2) it proposes a level of analysis deeper than dialect for the discovery of alternate markers of a disorder. We present three objectives for a language assessment instrument designed to solve this longstanding problem: (1) to answer the problem/no problem question for a given child; (2) to provide explanatory data about the nature of the problem; and (3) to achieve objectives 1 and 2 in a way that is culturally and linguistically fair to both speakers of MAE and speakers of other dialects of English such as AAE. PMID:15088228

  18. Wilms′ tumour in African children: Can an institutional approach improve outcome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lofty-John Chukwuemeka Anyanwu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The poor outcome for patients with Wilms′ tumour (WT in developing countries has been predicated on late presentation, poverty and low rate of chemotherapeutic access. This study aims to evaluate the effects of an institutionalised approach to improving outcome for patients managed in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Oncology records of children diagnosed with WT between 2009 and 2013 were analysed for therapy completion and other prognostic parameters. Ensuing data were then compared with those from other centres in Africa. Results: Compared with results from some local and African studies, the therapy completion rate was higher (60% with a survival rate among this group being between 1 and 4 years. No patient was lost to follow-up because of unavailability or unaffordability of cytotoxic agents. Conclusion: This study shows that an institutionalised approach can help to improve access to anti-cancer drugs, reduce the rate of loss to follow-up and thus improve outcome. There is however need to improve on patient-doctor communication, form support groups and establish a WT registry.

  19. Accuracy of Knowledge of Child Development in Mothers of Children Receiving Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, Debra H.; Pierce, Katherine J.; Bultas, Margaret W.; McMillin, Stephen Edward; Gott, Rolanda Maxim; Wilmott, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Parents' involvement in early intervention (EI) services fosters positive developmental trajectories in young children. Although EI research on parenting skills has been abundant, fewer data are available on parents' knowledge of normative child development. Sixty-seven mothers of children participating in a Midwestern city's EI program completed…

  20. Outcome for Children Receiving the Early Start Denver Model before and after 48 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanti, Giacomo; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    The Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) is an intervention program recommended for pre-schoolers with autism ages 12-48 months. The rationale for this recommendation is the potential for intervention to affect developmental trajectories during early sensitive periods. We investigated outcomes of 32 children aged 18-48 months and 28 children aged…

  1. Asking, Giving, Receiving: Friendship as Survival Strategy among Accra's Street Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizen, Phillip; Ofosu-Kusi, Yaw

    2010-01-01

    This article considers friendship among street children in Accra. Drawing upon the findings of a three-year qualitative research project, the article argues that friendship is a neglected element of research yet cooperation, mutuality and exchange between friends are essential to street children's survival. Living within the extremities of the…

  2. Comparison of Environmental Attitudes and Experiences of Five-Year-Old Children Receiving Preschool Education in the Village and City Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkan, Nazmi; Güngör, Hande; Fetihi, Leyla; Erol, Ahmet; Gülay Ogelman, Hülya

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to compare environmental attitudes and experiences of five-year-old children receiving preschool education in the village and city centre. The first group comprised 54 five-year-old children who received preschool education and attended kindergartens of two primary schools in the Karateke and Kocabas villages of Honaz…

  3. European-American and African-American Mothers' Emotion Socialization Practices Relate Differently to Their Children's Academic and Social-Emotional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Perry, Nicole B.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines whether the relation between mothers' responses to their children's negative emotions and teachers' reports of children's academic performance and social-emotional competence are similar or different for European-American and African-American families. Two hundred mothers (137 European-American, 63…

  4. Norovirus diversity in diarrheic children from an African-descendant settlement in Belem, Northern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glicélia Cruz Aragão

    Full Text Available Norovirus (NoV, sapovirus (SaV and human astrovirus (HAstV are viral pathogens that are associated with outbreaks and sporadic cases of gastroenteritis. However, little is known about the occurrence of these pathogens in relatively isolated communities, such as the remnants of African-descendant villages ("Quilombola". The objective of this study was the frequency determination of these viruses in children under 10 years, with and without gastroenteritis, from a "Quilombola" Community, Northern Brazil. A total of 159 stool samples were obtained from April/2008 to July/2010 and tested by an enzyme immunoassay (EIA and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR to detect NoV, SaV and HAstV, and further molecular characterization was performed. These viruses were detected only in the diarrheic group. NoV was the most frequent viral agent detected (19.7%-16/81, followed by SaV (2.5%-2/81 and HAstV (1.2%-1/81. Of the 16 NoV-positive samples, 14 were sequenced with primers targeting the B region of the polymerase (ORF1 and the D region of the capsid (ORF2. The results showed a broad genetic diversity of NoV, with 12 strains being classified as GII-4 (5-41.7%, GII-6 (3-25%, GII-7 (2-16.7%, GII-17 (1-8.3% and GI-2 (1-8.3%, as based on the polymerase region; 12 samples were classified, based on the capsid region, as GII-4 (6-50%, being 3-2006b variant and 3-2010 variant, GII-6 (3-25%, GII-17 (2-16.7% and GII-20 (1-8.3%. One NoV-strain showed dual genotype specificity, based on the polymerase and capsid region (GII-7/GII-20. This study provides, for the first time, epidemiological and molecular information on the circulation of NoV, SaV and HAstV in African-descendant communities in Northern Brazil and identifies NoV genotypes that were different from those detected previously in studies conducted in the urban area of Belém. It remains to be determined why a broader NoV diversity was observed in such a semi-isolated community.

  5. Dyslipidemia in a Cohort of HIV-infected Latin American Children Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy*

    OpenAIRE

    Brewinski, Margaret; Megazzini, Karen; Freimanis Hance, Laura; Cruz, Miguel Cashat; Pavia-Ruz, Noris; Della Negra, Marinella; Ferreira, Flavia Gomes Faleiro; Marques, Heloisa; Hazra, Rohan

    2010-01-01

    In order to describe the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in a cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents in Latin America and to determine associations with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), we performed this cross-sectional analysis within the NICHD International Site Development Initiative pediatric cohort study. Eligible children had to be at least 2 years of age and be on HAART. Among the 477 eligible HIV-infected youth, 98 (20.5%) had hypercho...

  6. Professionals' Perceptions about the Need for Pain Management Interventions for Children with Cerebral Palsy in South African School Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Stefan; Johnson, Ensa; Adolfsson, Margareta

    2016-08-01

    Pain is common in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and may have negative consequences for children's success in their studies. Research has shown that pain in childhood negatively influences individuals' participation and quality of life in later years. This study investigated how professionals in South African school settings respond to children's need for pain management in an attempt to enable the children to be active participants in school activities, despite their pain. The study was descriptive and followed a qualitative design (i.e., focus group interviews with semistructured questions and a conventional content analysis). Five government schools for children with special education needs in South Africa's Gauteng province participated. Participants/Subjects: Thirty-eight professionals who represented eight professions. Professional statements on the topic were collected from five focus group sessions conducted during one week. Qualitative content analysis of the data was performed. Similar statements were combined, coded, and sorted into main categories and subcategories. The analysis identified three main categories for pain management: environmental, treatment, and support strategies. In addition, four groups of statements emerged on how contextual factors might affect pain in children with CP and their participation in school settings. It is important to train professionals in pain management and to implement structured models for pain prevention and management to ensure that best practices are adhered to for children with CP who suffer from acute or chronic pain. PMID:27349380

  7. Detection of antinuclear and antilaminin antibodies in autistic children who received thimerosal-containing vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijendra K; Rivas, Wyatt H

    2004-01-01

    Autism, a neurodevelopmental disorder, may involve autoimmune pathogenesis. Since mercury is potentially a risk factor for autoimmunity, we conducted a study of mercury-induced antinuclear and antilaminin antibodies in autistic and normal children who had been pre-administered with thimerosal-containing vaccines. Laboratory analysis by different immunoassays showed that the serum level of these two autoimmune markers did not significantly differ between autistic and normal children. This finding suggests that the mercury as in thimerosal-containing vaccines is likely not related to autoimmune phenomenon in autism.

  8. [Comparison of the effectiveness of artemether and quinine for treatment of severe malaria in children, Bangui, Central African Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobossi-Serengbe, G; Gody, J-C; Fioboy, R; Elowa, J-B; Manirakiza, A

    2015-03-01

    The management of severe malaria is a major challenge in the health care services in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of artemether and quinine in severe malaria at Complexe pédiatrique of Bangui, Central African Republic. A total of 212 children among 1125 hospital admissions (18.8%), and aged 6 to 59 months were randomly treated with artemether and quinine. Anemia (58.5%) and seizures (33.5%) were the major syndromes observed. On the third day of follow up, a regression of clinical signs and parasite clearance were observed in 98.1% of children treated with artemether and 97.1% of children treated with quinine. The death rate was 2.3% due to anemic and neurological forms. These findings show that the artemether and quinine have similar efficacy. Hence, associated with adequate intensive health care, the use of these antimalarial drugs can significantly reduce mortality from severe malaria in the Central African Republic.

  9. Survival and secondary tumors in children with medulloblastoma receiving radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy: results of Children's Oncology Group trial A9961

    OpenAIRE

    PACKER, ROGER J.; Zhou, Tianni; Holmes, Emi; Vezina, Gilbert; Gajjar, Amar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the trial was to determine the survival and incidence of secondary tumors in children with medulloblastoma receiving radiotherapy plus chemotherapy. Three hundred seventy-nine eligible patients with nondisseminated medulloblastoma between the ages of 3 and 21 years were treated with 2340 cGy of craniospinal and 5580 cGy of posterior fossa irradiation. Patients were randomized between postradiation cisplatin and vincristine plus either CCNU or cyclophosphamide. Survival, pattern...

  10. Children with FASD- Related Disabilities Receiving Services from Child Welfare Agencies in Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Don; Burnside, Linda; Marchenski, Sheila; Mudry, Andria

    2010-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a serious social and health problem for the child welfare, health and education systems in North America and other parts of the world. This article describes the population of children in care of the child welfare system in Manitoba. Also this article will highlight the relevance of these research findings…

  11. Which Sexual Abuse Victims Receive a Forensic Medical Examination?: The Impact of Children's Advocacy Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Jones, Lisa M.; Simone, Monique; Kolko, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the impact of Children's Advocacy Centers (CAC) and other factors, such as the child's age, alleged penetration, and injury on the use of forensic medical examinations as part of the response to reported child sexual abuse. Methods: This analysis is part of a quasi-experimental study, the Multi-Site Evaluation of…

  12. Family Perceptions of Participation in Educational Planning for Children Receiving Mental Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivanjee, Pauline; Kruzich, Jean M.; Friesen, Barbara J.; Robinson, Adjoa

    2007-01-01

    Family participation in educational planning for children with disabilities is believed to result in plans that are more responsive to the child's needs and that lead to better social, emotional, and educational outcomes. Participation in educational planning is also a fundamental right of parents and a cornerstone of special education…

  13. Effects of ketamine and midazolam on emergence agitation after sevoflurane anaesthesia in children receiving caudal block: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Ozcan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Emergence agitation is a common postanaesthetic problem in children after sevoflurane anaesthesia. We aimed to compare the effects of ketamine and midazolam administered intravenously, before the end of surgery, for prevention of emergence agitation in children who received caudal block for pain relief under sevoflurane anaesthesia. Methods: 62 American Society of Anesthesiologists patient classification status I children, aged 2–7 years, scheduled for inguinal hernia repair, circumcision or orchidopexy were enrolled to the study. Anaesthesia was induced with sevoflurane 8% in a mixture of 50% oxygen and nitrous oxide. After achieving adequate depth of anaesthesia, a laryngeal mask was placed and then caudal block was performed with 0.75 mL kg−1, 0.25% bupivacaine. At the end of the surgery, ketamine 0.25 mg kg−1, midazolam 0.03 mg kg−1 and saline were given to ketamine, midazolam and control groups, respectively. Agitation was assessed using Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scale and postoperative pain was evaluated with modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale. Results and conclusions: Modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale scores were found higher in control group than in ketamine and midazolam groups. Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores were similar between groups. Modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale and Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores showed a significant decrease by time in all groups during follow-up in postanaesthesia care unit. The present study resulted in satisfactory Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores which are below 10 in all groups. As a conclusion, neither ketamine nor midazolam added to caudal block under sevoflurane anaesthesia did show further effect on emergence agitation. In addition, pain relief still seems to be the major factor in preventing emergence agitation after

  14. Retrospective reports of parenting received in their families of origin: relationships to adult attachment in adult children of alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Nair, Veena; Rawlings, Tanaya; Cash, Thomas F; Steer, Kate; Fals-Stewart, William

    2005-09-01

    The present study examined general and romantic attachment and parenting students received in their families of origin among 401 college students who resided with an alcohol-abusing parent prior to age 16 years as compared to those who did not reside with alcohol-abusing parents. Participants completed the Children's Report of Parent Behavior Instrument [Schludermann, E. and Schludermann, S. (1970). Children's Report of Parent Behavior Inventory (CRPBI). Canada: University of Manitoba], Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised [Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., and Brennan, K. G. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350-365], Relationship Scale Questionnaire [Griffin, D. W. and Bartholomew, K. (1994). Models of the self and other: Fundamental dimensions underlying measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 430-445], and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test [Jones, J. W. (1983). The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test: Test manual. Chicago: Camelot]. Young adults who met criteria for ACOAs reported more anxious and avoidant behavior in romantic relationships and a more fearful style of general adult attachment. Parenting behavior in one's family of origin predicted anxious behavior in romantic relationships and a fearful overall style of attachment, whereas being an ACOA and parenting in one's family of origin predicted avoidant behavior in romantic relationships. PMID:15896922

  15. Retrospective reports of parenting received in their families of origin: relationships to adult attachment in adult children of alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Nair, Veena; Rawlings, Tanaya; Cash, Thomas F; Steer, Kate; Fals-Stewart, William

    2005-09-01

    The present study examined general and romantic attachment and parenting students received in their families of origin among 401 college students who resided with an alcohol-abusing parent prior to age 16 years as compared to those who did not reside with alcohol-abusing parents. Participants completed the Children's Report of Parent Behavior Instrument [Schludermann, E. and Schludermann, S. (1970). Children's Report of Parent Behavior Inventory (CRPBI). Canada: University of Manitoba], Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised [Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., and Brennan, K. G. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350-365], Relationship Scale Questionnaire [Griffin, D. W. and Bartholomew, K. (1994). Models of the self and other: Fundamental dimensions underlying measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 430-445], and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test [Jones, J. W. (1983). The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test: Test manual. Chicago: Camelot]. Young adults who met criteria for ACOAs reported more anxious and avoidant behavior in romantic relationships and a more fearful style of general adult attachment. Parenting behavior in one's family of origin predicted anxious behavior in romantic relationships and a fearful overall style of attachment, whereas being an ACOA and parenting in one's family of origin predicted avoidant behavior in romantic relationships.

  16. Use of deuterium oxide to measure breast-milk intake in children aged 7 to 12 months receiving complementary foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is being conducted to pilot the use of the deuterium oxide method for the measurement of breast-milk intake in children 7 - 12 months of age receiving complementary foods. This will be applied to a community efficacy study to determine the effects on total energy and nutrient intake and on breast-milk consumption of an intensive education intervention using locally available, culturally acceptable complementary foods. In order to apply the methodology to this evaluation the washout period of deuterium from the mother and the child after the administration of a dose to the mother is being determined and the comparison of this methodology with the test weighing technique for breast-milk intake. The measurement of deuterium oxide using the infrared spectrometer of the Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional [IIN] is being compared with the IR Mass Spectrometer of INTA Chile. During the present period we have conducted a pilot study to measure breast-milk intake using deuterium oxide in 9 mother-child pairs of children aged 7 - 11 months of age; samples of saliva have been taken for analyses. One child has completed the 28 days of the study and 8 children are in process. Test weighing for 48 hours has been conducted on 5 children; unadjusted breast-milk intake ranges from 589 to 682 g per 24 hours. The samples are awaiting analysis for deuterium oxide. (author)

  17. Use of deuterium oxide to measure breast milk intake in children aged 7-12 months receiving complementary foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study we performed a pilot study using deuterium oxide method to determine the breast-milk intake in children 7-12 months of age receiving complementary food. This is applied to a community efficacy study to determine the effects on total energy and nutrient intake and on breast-milk consumption of an intensive education intervention using locally available, culturally acceptable complementary foods. We determined the washout period for the deuterium finding a value of 21 days for the mother and child. This measurement was performed using the infrared spectrometer of the Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional and compared with the values obtained with the IR Mass Spectrometer of INTA Chile. The test weighing was conduced on 14 children and compared with the values obtained using the deuterium methodology. Our result suggest that the breast milk intake determined by the weighing test was lower with regard to the value obtained with the deuterium methodology. (author)

  18. PREVALENCE OF CYTOMEGALOVIRUS IN CHILDREN WHO RECEIVE BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION BY MEANS OF REAL-TIME POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Montanero Edith Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The citomegalovirus (CMV is an important virus worldwide. The early and mass-produced detection of the viral load for CMV helps to treat in an early way the infection and to avoid the disease in immunodeficient patients that in several cases could be lethal. Objective: To determine the prevalence of CMV in immunodeficient children who received bone marrow transplantation by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction. Methods: Retrospective, descriptive and cross-sectional study. The viral load was determined in plasma samples recollected since 2009 to 2012 in children who received bone marrow transplantation in the Hospital de la Sociedad de Lucha contra el Cáncer (SOLCA in Guayaquil, Ecuador. Results: 38 samples were analyzed. The average age was 7.2 years, and 57.9% (n=22 were men and 42.1% (n=16 women, with a male-female relationship 1:4. Of the analyzed samples, five patients presented positive results in the mentioned technique, who were the 80% of the female gender. And the population with the higher number of cases with positive results were Los Ríos, Guayas and Esmeraldas. The patients who were transplanted due to acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoma with leukemization to acute lymphoblastic leukemia had positive results for active infection by CMV, 80% and 20%, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of CMV in children who received bone marrow transplantation by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction was of 13%, higher in the female gender. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2015;6(1:53-59 KEYWORDS Cytomegalovirus; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Transplant Recipients; Polymerase Chain Reaction.

  19. Trained, generalized, and collateral behavior changes of preschool children receiving gross-motor skills training.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, K C; Holborn, S W

    1986-01-01

    Three preschool children participated in a behavioral training program to improve their gross-motor skills. Ten target behaviors were measured in the training setting to assess direct effects of the program. Generalization probes for two gross-motor behaviors, one fine-motor skill, and two social behaviors were conducted in other settings. Results indicated that the training program improved the gross-motor skills trained and that improvements sometimes generalized to other settings. Contrary...

  20. PLASMA AND ERYTHROCYTE NITRIC OXIDE LEVELS IN EPILEPTIC CHILDREN RECEIVING LONG-TERM SODIUM VALPROATE THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZEROL, Elif; ÖZEROL, İbrahim; Aslan, Mehmet; GÜLEÇ, Mukaddes; YAKINCI, Cengiz; AKYOL, ÖMER

    2003-01-01

    Valproate (VPA) is a widely used drug as the first-line treatment for epilepsy in children. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important intercellular physiological messenger capable of evoking a number of cellular responses. It is generally believed that the erytrocyte membrane is highly permeable to NO. It has been claimed that VPA may show its antiepileptic effect throughout NO. Therefore, the aim of our study were to evaluate whether differences exist in the plasma and erythrocyte NO concentrati...

  1. Patterns of injury in children and adolescents presenting to a South African township health centre.

    OpenAIRE

    Zwi, K. J.; Zwi, A. B.; Smettanikov, E.; Söderlund, N; Logan, S.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the patterns and causes of childhood injury presenting to a South African township health centre in 1991. DESIGN: Retrospective review of clinic held case notes. SETTING: Typical South-African urban township within Greater Johannesburg. SUBJECTS: 695 subjects aged 0-19 years presenting as a direct result of injury. RESULTS: Overall rates of presentation for injury were 6297/100,000/year (95% confidence interval 5463 to 7131); 35% of injuries were caused by violence, 14...

  2. Do children who receive an ‘early dose’ of MMR vaccine during a measles outbreak return for their regularly scheduled dose? A retrospective population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoyan; Simmonds, Kimberley A; Svenson, Jill; MacDonald, Shannon E

    2016-01-01

    Background Children under the age of 12 months may receive an early dose of measles–mumps–rubella (MMR) vaccine to provide short-term protection in the case of a disease outbreak. Following a measles outbreak in Alberta, Canada, there was concern that children who received an early dose may not be returning for their routinely scheduled dose at 12 months, leaving them vulnerable to disease in the long term. Methods This population-based study of children born between 2006 and 2014 used administrative health data to assess coverage and timeliness of the first routine dose of MMR vaccine administered at age 12–24 months for children who received an early dose of the vaccine due to a disease outbreak. We compared this group to children who received an early dose due to travel to a measles-endemic region and to children who did not receive an early dose. Results Only 5.5% of 366 351 children received an early dose. Coverage for the routine dose at age 24 months was 96.5% for children receiving an outbreak dose, 92.2% for those travelling to measles-endemic regions and 86.6% for those without an early dose (paHR): 1.52, 95% CI 1.44 to 1.60), followed by the travel group (aHR: 1.26, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.34). Conclusions It is reassuring that the majority of children who received an early dose returned for their routine dose and did so in a timely manner. PMID:27580838

  3. Diagnosing severe falciparum malaria in parasitaemic African children: a prospective evaluation of plasma PfHRP2 measurement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse C E Hendriksen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In African children, distinguishing severe falciparum malaria from other severe febrile illnesses with coincidental Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia is a major challenge. P. falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2 is released by mature sequestered parasites and can be used to estimate the total parasite burden. We investigated the prognostic significance of plasma PfHRP2 and used it to estimate the malaria-attributable fraction in African children diagnosed with severe malaria. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Admission plasma PfHRP2 was measured prospectively in African children (from Mozambique, The Gambia, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo aged 1 month to 15 years with severe febrile illness and a positive P. falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH-based rapid test in a clinical trial comparing parenteral artesunate versus quinine (the AQUAMAT trial, ISRCTN 50258054. In 3,826 severely ill children, Plasmadium falciparum PfHRP2 was higher in patients with coma (p = 0.0209, acidosis (p<0.0001, and severe anaemia (p<0.0001. Admission geometric mean (95%CI plasma PfHRP2 was 1,611 (1,350-1,922 ng/mL in fatal cases (n = 381 versus 1,046 (991-1,104 ng/mL in survivors (n = 3,445, p<0.0001, without differences in parasitaemia as assessed by microscopy. There was a U-shaped association between log(10 plasma PfHRP2 and risk of death. Mortality increased 20% per log(10 increase in PfHRP2 above 174 ng/mL (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.21, 95%CI 1.05-1.39, p = 0.009. A mechanistic model assuming a PfHRP2-independent risk of death in non-malaria illness closely fitted the observed data and showed malaria-attributable mortality less than 50% with plasma PfHRP2≤174 ng/mL. The odds ratio (OR for death in artesunate versus quinine-treated patients was 0.61 (95%CI 0.44-0.83, p = 0.0018 in the highest PfHRP2 tertile, whereas there was no difference in the lowest tertile (OR 1.05; 95%CI 0.69-1.61; p = 0.82. A

  4. Determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in four anglophone West African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices have a detrimental impact on a child's growth, health and development in the first two years of life. They lead to child malnutrition, which contributes to the high prevalence of stunting (38%) and underweight (28%) reported for children semi-solid or soft foods across all four countries. Predictors for minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet included children aged 6-11 months, administrative/geographical region, poorer household income and limited access to media. The authors recommend that the four anglophone West African countries studied should prioritise efforts to improve complementary feeding practices in order to reduce child morbidity and mortality. Interventional studies on complementary feeding should target those from poor and illiterate households. PMID:26364789

  5. The challenge of linguistic and cultural diversity: Does length of experience affect South African speech-language therapists’ management of children with language impairment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frenette Southwood

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: South African speech-language therapists (SLTs currently do not reflect the country’s linguistic and cultural diversity. The question arises as to who might be better equipped currently to provide services to multilingual populations: SLTs with more clinical experience in such contexts, or recently trained SLTs who are themselves linguistically and culturally diverse and whose training programmes deliberately focused on multilingualism and multiculturalism?Aims: To investigate whether length of clinical experience influenced: number of bilingual children treated, languages spoken by these children, languages in which assessment and remediation can be offered, assessment instrument(s favoured, and languages in which therapy material is required.Method: From questionnaires completed by 243 Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA-registered SLTs who treat children with language problems, two groups were drawn:71 more experienced (ME respondents (20+ years of experience and 79 less experienced (LE respondents (maximum 5 years of experience.Results: The groups did not differ significantly with regard to (1 number of children(monolingual or bilingual with language difficulties seen, (2 number of respondents seeing child clients who have Afrikaans or an African language as home language, (3 number of respondents who can offer intervention in Afrikaans or English and (4 number of respondents who reported needing therapy material in Afrikaans or English. However, significantly more ME than LE respondents reported seeing first language child speakers of English, whereas significantly more LE than ME respondents could provide services, and required therapymaterial, in African languages.Conclusion: More LE than ME SLTs could offer remediation in an African language, but there were few other significant differences between the two groups. There is still an absence of appropriate assessment and remediation material for Afrikaans and

  6. Psychometric properties of the child PTSD checklist in a community sample of South African children and adolescents.

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    Mark E Boyes

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The current study assessed the basic psychometric properties of the Child PTSD Checklist and examined the structure of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in a large sample of South African youth. METHODOLOGY: The checklist was completed by 1025 (540 male; 485 female South African youth (aged between 10 and 19 years. The factor structure of the scale was assessed with a combination of confirmatory and exploratory techniques. Internal consistencies for the full scale and all subscales were evaluated with Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega. Validity was assessed by comparing PTSD scores obtained by children who had and had not experienced a traumatic event, and by examining associations between total PTSD scores and known correlates of PTSD. RESULTS: Scores on the Child PTSD Checklist clearly discriminated between youth who had experienced a traumatic event and those who had not. Internal consistencies for the full scale (and all subscales were acceptable to good and hypothesized correlations between PTSD, depression, anxiety, somatic symptoms, and age were observed. Two of the reported fit statistics for the tripartite DSM-IV-TR model of PTSD did not meet traditional criteria and further exploratory analyses revealed a four-factor structure (broadly consistent with Simms and colleagues' Dysphoria Model of PTSD symptoms which provided a better fit to the observed data. CONCLUSION: Given the continued use of the Child PTSD Checklist in South Africa, findings offer an important first step in establishing the reliability and validity of the checklist for use with South African youth. However, further evaluation of the checklist in South African samples is clearly required before conclusions regarding its use as diagnostic tool in this context can be made.

  7. Trends in Genotypic HIV-1 Antiretroviral Resistance between 2006 and 2012 in South African Patients Receiving First- and Second-Line Antiretroviral Treatment Regimens.

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    Gert U Van Zyl

    Full Text Available South Africa's national antiretroviral (ARV treatment program expanded in 2010 to include the nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT inhibitors (NRTI tenofovir (TDF for adults and abacavir (ABC for children. We investigated the associated changes in genotypic drug resistance patterns in patients with first-line ARV treatment failure since the introduction of these drugs, and protease inhibitor (PI resistance patterns in patients who received ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r-containing therapy.We analysed ARV treatment histories and HIV-1 RT and protease mutations in plasma samples submitted to the Tygerberg Academic Hospital National Health Service Laboratory.Between 2006 and 2012, 1,667 plasma samples from 1,416 ARV-treated patients, including 588 children and infants, were submitted for genotypic resistance testing. Compared with 720 recipients of a d4T or AZT-containing first-line regimen, the 153 recipients of a TDF-containing first-line regimen were more likely to have the RT mutations K65R (46% vs 4.0%; p<0.001, Y115F (10% vs. 0.6%; p<0.001, L74VI (8.5% vs. 1.8%; p<0.001, and K70EGQ (7.8% vs. 0.4% and recipients of an ABC-containing first-line regimen were more likely to have K65R (17% vs 4.0%; p<0.001, Y115F (30% vs 0.6%; p<0.001, and L74VI (56% vs 1.8%; p<0.001. Among the 490 LPV/r recipients, 55 (11% had ≥1 LPV-resistance mutations including 45 (9.6% with intermediate or high-level LPV resistance. Low (20 patients and intermediate (3 patients darunavir (DRV cross resistance was present in 23 (4.6% patients.Among patients experiencing virological failure on a first-line regimen containing two NRTI plus one NNRTI, the use of TDF in adults and ABC in children was associated with an increase in four major non- thymidine analogue mutations. In a minority of patients, LPV/r-use was associated with intermediate or high-level LPV resistance with predominantly low-level DRV cross-resistance.

  8. Listening to Africa’s children in the process of practical theological interpretation: A South African application

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    Ignatius Swart

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As part of the theological task of developing a publicly oriented ministry that will do justice to the social plight of children in Africa, this article adopted as its point of departure an appreciation of the new ‘hermeneutics of listening’ that is advanced today by an interdisciplinary movement of scholars from the disciplines of practical theology, theological ethics and religion studies. Emphasising the fact that this new hermeneutics is by and large the result of this scholarly movement’s newly-found engagement with, and exposure to, the social science field of childhood studies, the article moved from a more general appreciation of the new hermeneutical line of thinking to a more pertinent evaluation of the unfolding of this line of thinking in the scholarly context of Africa. In a further development that narrows the African focus to South Africa, the results from a recent empirical investigation amongst members of the South African practical theological academy were discussed in particular to determine the extent of this group’s shift to the new line of thinking. This led the article to make a concluding statement, in the light of its overt practical theological interest, about the way in which the new ‘hermeneutics of listening’ to children could still be seen as an important ongoing challenge, not only for practical theological scholarship in South Africa but also within the larger context of Africa.

  9. Impact of varied center volume categories on volume-outcome relationship in children receiving ECMO for heart operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Seib, Paul M; Robertson, Michael J; Wilcox, Andrew; Gupta, Punkaj

    2016-09-01

    To study the volume-outcome relationship among children receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), different studies from different databases use different volume categories. The objective of this study was to evaluate if different center volume categories impact the volume-outcome relationship among children receiving ECMO for heart operations. We performed a post hoc analysis of data from an existing national database, the Pediatric Health Information System. Centers were classified into five different volume categories using different cut-offs and different variables. Mortality rates were compared between the varied volume categories using a mixed effects logistic regression model after adjusting for patient- and center-level risk factors. Data collection included demographic information, baseline characteristics, pre-ECMO risk factors, operation details, patient diagnoses, and center data. In unadjusted analysis, there was a significant relationship between center volume and mortality, with low-and medium-volume centers associated with higher mortality rates compared to high-volume centers in all volume categories, except the hierarchical clustering volume category. In contrast, there was no significant association between center-volume and mortality among all volume categories in adjusted analysis. We concluded that high-volume centers were not associated with improved outcomes for the majority of the categorization schemes despite using different cut-offs and different variables for volume categorization.

  10. The Children of Immigrants and Host-Society Educational Systems: Mexicans in the United States and North Africans in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Richard; Silberman, Roxane

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: The educational fate of the children of low-wage immigrants is a salient issue in all the economically developed societies that have received major immigration flows since the 1950s. The article considers the way in which educational systems in the two countries structure the educational experiences and shape the opportunities…

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of serum biochemical fibrosis markers in children with chronic hepatitis B evaluated by receiver operating characteristics analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dariusz Marek Lebensztejn; El(z)bieta Skiba; Jolanta Tobolczyk; Maria El(z)bieta Sobaniec-Lotowska; Maciej Kaczmarski

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of potent serum biochemical fibrosis markers in children with chronic hepatitis B evaluated by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis.METHODS: We determined the serum level of apolipoprotein A-I (APO A-I), haptoglobin (HPT) and a-2macroglobulin (A2M) with an automatic nephelometer in 63 children (age range 4-17 years, mean 10 years)with biopsy-verified chronic HBeAg-positive hepatitis B.Fibrosis stage and inflammation grade were assessed in a blinded fashion according to Batts and Ludwig. We defined mild liver fibrosis as a score ≤2 and advanced fibrosis as a score equal to 3. ROC analysis was used to calculate the power of the assays to detect advanced liver fibrosis (AccuROC, Canada).RESULTS: Serum concentrations of APO A-I, HPT and A2M were not significantly different in patients with chronic hepatitis B compared to controls. However, APO A-I level of 1.19 ng/L had a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 60.7% (AUC = 0.7117, P = 0.035) to predict advanced fibrosis. All other serum biochemical markers and their combination did not allow a useful prediction.None of these markers was a good predictor of histologic inflammation.CONCLUSION: Apolipoprotein A-I may be a suitable serum marker to predict advanced liver fibrosis in children with chronic hepatitis B.

  12. Antibody responses to Hepatitis B and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines in children who received chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Santana Viana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate viral vaccine antibody levels in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after chemotherapy and after vaccine booster doses. METHODS: Antibody levels against hepatitis B, rubella, measles and mumps vaccine antigens were evaluated in 33 children after completing chemotherapy (before and after vaccine booster doses and the results were compared to the data of 33 healthy children matched for gender, age and social class. RESULTS: After chemotherapy, 75.9%, 67.9%, 59.3% and 51.7% of the patients showed low antibody titers that would be unlikely to protect against exposure to measles, rubella, hepatitis B and mumps, respectively. After receiving a vaccine booster dose for these antigens the patients had high antibody levels consistent with potential protection against measles, mumps and hepatitis B, but not against rubella. CONCLUSION: Extra doses of measles-mumps-rubella plus hepatitis B vaccines are recommended in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients submitted to treatment after hematologic recovery. After this, viral vaccine antibody levels should be verified to define the individual's protective status.

  13. [Estimates of trace elements requirements of children receiving total parenteral nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricour, C; Duhamel, J F; Gros, J; Mazière, B; Comar, D

    1977-01-01

    Ten children on total parenteral nutrition were studied. Plasma copper, zinc, manganese and selenium levels were determined by neutron activation and gamma spectrometry, every 10 days. With a copper intake of 20 microgram/kg/24 h, the average level 120 microgram% (94-144) was normal (N: 118 microgram +/- 11%). With a manganese intake of 40 microgram/kg/24 h, the level increased to 2.6 microgram% (1.3-4.5) (N: 1.1 microgram +/- 0.2%). With a zinc intake of 30 microgram/kg/24 h, the level decreased to 45.9 microgram % (20-63) (N: 83 microgram +/- 28%); with an intake of 50 microgram/kg/24 h the level remained under normal. With a selenium intake of 1 microgram/kg/24 h, the level decreased to 10.6 ng/ml (3.6-21.6) (N: 38.2 ng/ml +/- 11.9), but was normalized with an intake of 3 microgram/kg/24 h. From these results, with all reserves that estimation implies, the authors suggest that the disorders due to deficit or excess of trace elements could be avoided by daily intakes per kg of body weight: copper 20 microgram, zinc 100 microgram, manganese 10 microgram and selenium 3 microgram, with supplementation of iron, iodine and fluoride.

  14. What the Face and Body Reveal: In-Group Emotion Effects and Stereotyping of Emotion in African American and European American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuminello, Elizabeth R.; Davidson, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether 3- to 7-year-old African American and European American children's assessment of emotion in face-only, face + body, and body-only photographic stimuli was affected by in-group emotion recognition effects and racial or gender stereotyping of emotion. Evidence for racial in-group effects was found, with European American…

  15. Effectiveness of pre-school- and school-based interventions to impact weight-related behaviours in African American children and youth: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, L E; Webster, E K; Whitt-Glover, M C; Ceaser, T G; Alhassan, S

    2014-10-01

    This review assessed the effectiveness of pre-school- and school-based obesity prevention and/or treatment interventions targeting healthy eating, physical activity or obesity in African American children and adolescents. Systematic searches were conducted for English-printed research articles published between January 1980 and March 2013. Retained articles included experimental studies conducted in the United States that targeted ≥ 80% African American/black children and adolescents and/or studies whose results were stratified by race/ethnicity, and that were conducted in pre-schools/head start or schools (excluding after-school programmes). Of the 12,270 articles identified, 17 met the inclusion criteria (pre-school, n=2; elementary school, n=7; middle and secondary schools, n=8). Thirteen studies found significant improvements in nutrition (pre-school, n=1; elementary, n=7; secondary, n=5) and three found significant improvements in physical activity (pre-school, n=1; elementary, n=2) variables of interest. Two studies (pre-school, n=1; secondary, n=1) reported significant reductions in obesity in African American children. The evidence available suggests school-based interventions are effective in promoting healthy nutrition behaviours in African American children. Conclusions overall and, particularly, about effects on physical activity and obesity are limited due to the small number of studies, differences in assessment approaches and a lack of follow-up assessments.

  16. Association of Neuroantibodies(NAB) with Glutathione-S-Tranferase(GST) Isozyme Polymorphisms(SNP) in African-American Children with Heavy Metal Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymorphisms in GST isozymes have implications in heavy metal accumulation, neurodegeneration, and immune-mediated disease. Blood cell DNA and sera from 131 African-American children were used to determine GST Pi [rs947895 (C>A), rs17593068 (G>T), rs6591256 (A>G), rs187...

  17. Neuroantibodies (NAB) in African-American Children with Heavy Metal Exposures are Associated with Cytokine and Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Polymorphisms (SNP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymorphisms in cytokine and HLA genes are associated with allergies, autoimmunity and neurodegeneration (ND). Samples from 131 African-American children (71 males; 60 females) in the Mechanistic Indicators of Childhood Asthma (MICA) study were used to determine SNPs of IL-4, IL...

  18. Exploring Resilience in African American Single Mothers of Children with Disabilities and Its Impact on Their Engagement in the IEP Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple-Journiette, Cheryl Elaine

    2011-01-01

    The construct of resilience has been defined in the research in various ways and in specific and broad terms. In this qualitative study, the resilience process was specifically explored in African American single mothers of children with disabilities as they developed their capacity to rebound from adversity, adapted to having a child with a…

  19. Duration of hospitalization and appetite of HIV-infected South-African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mda, S.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; MacIntyre, U.E.; Villiers, de F.R.M.; Kok, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children generally show poor growth. Episodes of diarrhoea and pneumonia in HIV-infected children are thought to be more severe than in HIV-uninfected children. The objective of this study was to compare duration of hospitalization, appetite and nutritiona

  20. Serum Creatinine Versus Plasma Methotrexate Levels to Predict Toxicities in Children Receiving High-dose Methotrexate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Priya; Thomas, M K; Pathania, Subha; Dhawan, Deepa; Gupta, Y K; Vishnubhatla, Sreenivas; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Facilities for measuring methotrexate (MTX) levels are not available everywhere, potentially limiting administration of high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX). We hypothesized that serum creatinine alteration after HDMTX administration predicts MTX clearance. Overall, 122 cycles in 50 patients of non-Hodgkin lymphoma or acute lymphoblastic leukemia aged ≤18 years receiving HDMTX were enrolled prospectively. Plasma MTX levels were measured at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 hours; serum creatinine was measured at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Correlation of plasma MTX levels with creatinine levels and changes in creatinine from baseline (Δ creatinine) were evaluated. Plasma MTX levels at 72 hours showed positive correlation with serum creatinine at 48 hours (P = .011) and 72 hours (P = .013) as also Δ creatinine at 48 hours (P = .042) and 72 hours (P = .045). However, cut-off value of either creatinine or Δ creatinine could not be established to reliably predict delayed MTX clearance. Greater than 50% Δ creatinine at 48 and 72 hours significantly predicted grade 3/4 leucopenia (P = .036 and P = .001, respectively) and thrombocytopenia (P = .012 and P = .009, respectively) but not mucositis (P = .827 and P = .910, respectively). Delayed MTX elimination did not predict any grade 3/4 toxicity. In spite of demonstration of significant correlation between serum creatinine and Δ creatinine with plasma MTX levels at 72 hours, cut-off value of either variable to predict MTX delay could not be established. Thus, either of these cannot be used as a surrogate for plasma MTX estimation. Interestingly, Δ creatinine effectively predicted hematological toxicities, which were not predicted by delayed MTX clearance.

  1. Socioeconomic status and the prevalence of fever in children under age five: evidence from four sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novignon Jacob

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of fevers remains enormous in sub-Saharan Africa. While several efforts at reducing the burden of fevers have been made at the macro level, the relationship between socioeconomic status and fever prevalence has been inconclusive at the household and individual levels. The purpose of this study was to examine how individual and household socioeconomic status influences the prevalence of fever among children under age five in four sub-Saharan African countries. Methods The study used data from the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS from Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Sierra Leone with a total of 38,990 children below age five. A multi-level random effects logistic model was fitted to examine the socioeconomic factors that influence the prevalence of fever in the two weeks preceding the survey. Data from the four countries were also combined to estimate this relationship, after country-specific analysis. Results The results show that children from wealthier households reported lower prevalence of fever in Ghana, Nigeria and Kenya. Result from the combined dataset shows that children from wealthier households were less likely to report fever. In general, vaccination against fever-related diseases and the use of improved toilet facility reduces fever prevalence. The use of bed nets by children and mothers did not show consistent relationship across the countries. Conclusion Poverty does not only influence prevalence of fever at the macro level as shown in other studies but also the individual and household levels. Policies directed towards preventing childhood fevers should take a close account of issues of poverty alleviation. There is also the need to ensure that prevention and treatment mechanisms directed towards fever related diseases (such as malaria, pneumonia, measles, diarrhoea, polio, tuberculosis etc. are accessible and effectively used.

  2. Child maltreatment, impulsivity, and antisocial behavior in African American children: Moderation effects from a cumulative dopaminergic gene index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Eric L; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A

    2015-11-01

    A model examining the effects of an increasing number of maltreatment subtypes experienced on antisocial behavior, as mediated by impulsivity and moderated by a polygenic index of dopaminergic genotypes, was investigated. An African American sample of children (N = 1,012, M age = 10.07) with and without maltreatment histories participated. Indicators of aggression, delinquency, and disruptive peer behavior were obtained from peer- and counselor-rated measures to form a latent variable of antisocial behavior; impulsivity was assessed by counselor report. Five genotypes in four dopaminergic genes (dopamine receptors D4, D2, known as DRD4, DRD2; dopamine active transporter 1, known as DAT1; and catechol-O-methyltransferase, known as COMT) conferring heightened environmental sensitivity were combined into one polygenic index. Using structural equation modeling, a first-stage, moderated-mediation model was evaluated. Age and sex were entered as covariates, both as main effects and in interaction with maltreatment and the gene index. The model had excellent fit: χ2 (32, N = 1,012) = 86.51, p effect of maltreatment subtypes on antisocial behavior was partially mediated by impulsivity (β = 0.173, p maltreatment and impulsivity was stronger as children evinced more differentiating genotypes, thereby strengthening the mediational effect of impulsivity on antisocial behavior. These findings elucidate the manner by which maltreated children develop early signs of antisocial behavior, and the genetic mechanisms involved in greater vulnerability for maladaptation in impulse control within the context of child maltreatment. PMID:26535948

  3. Survival of Mexican Children with Acute Myeloid Leukaemia Who Received Early Intensification Chemotherapy and an Autologous Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Dueñas-González, María Teresa; Arellano-Galindo, José; Medrano-Ortíz-De-Zárate, María Elena; Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina; Berges-García, Adolfina; Solís-Labastida, Karina; Sánchez-Jara, Berenice; Tiznado-García, Héctor Manuel; Jaimes-Reyes, Ethel Zulie; García-Jiménez, Xochiketzalli; Espinoza-Hernández, Laura; Núñez-Villegas, Nora Nancy; Franco-Ornelas, Sergio; Pérez-Casillas, Ruy Xavier; Martínez Villegas, Octavio; Palomares, Teresa Marin; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Background. In Mexico and other developing countries, few reports of the survival of children with acute leukaemia exist. Objective. We aimed at comparing the disease-free survival of children with acute myeloid leukaemia who, in addition to being treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy and an autologous transplant, either underwent early intensified chemotherapy or did not undergo such treatment. Procedure. This was a cohort study with a historical control group, forty patients, less than 16 years old. Group A (20 patients), diagnosed in the period 2005–2007, was treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy with an autologous transplant plus early intensified chemotherapy: high doses of cytarabine and mitoxantrone. Group B (20 patients), diagnosed in the period 1999–2004, was treated as Group A, but without the early intensified chemotherapy. Results. Relapse-free survival for Group A was 90% whereas that for Group B it was 60% (P = 0.041). Overall survival for Group A (18, 90%) was higher than that for Group B (60%). Complete remission continued for two years of follow-up. Conclusions. Relapse-free survival for paediatric patients treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy with an autologous transplant plus early intensified chemotherapy was higher than that for those who did not receive early intensified chemotherapy. PMID:25821830

  4. Survival of Mexican Children with Acute Myeloid Leukaemia Who Received Early Intensification Chemotherapy and an Autologous Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elva Jiménez-Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In Mexico and other developing countries, few reports of the survival of children with acute leukaemia exist. Objective. We aimed at comparing the disease-free survival of children with acute myeloid leukaemia who, in addition to being treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy and an autologous transplant, either underwent early intensified chemotherapy or did not undergo such treatment. Procedure. This was a cohort study with a historical control group, forty patients, less than 16 years old. Group A (20 patients, diagnosed in the period 2005–2007, was treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy with an autologous transplant plus early intensified chemotherapy: high doses of cytarabine and mitoxantrone. Group B (20 patients, diagnosed in the period 1999–2004, was treated as Group A, but without the early intensified chemotherapy. Results. Relapse-free survival for Group A was 90% whereas that for Group B it was 60% (P=0.041. Overall survival for Group A (18, 90% was higher than that for Group B (60%. Complete remission continued for two years of follow-up. Conclusions. Relapse-free survival for paediatric patients treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy with an autologous transplant plus early intensified chemotherapy was higher than that for those who did not receive early intensified chemotherapy.

  5. Communication dated 10 September 2008 received from the Permanent Mission of Egypt to the Agency concerning the High Level Policy Review Seminar of African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Secretariat has received a communication dated 10 September 2008 from the Permanent Mission of Egypt enclosing the documents of the High Level Policy Review Seminar of the African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) held in Aswan, Egypt on 28-29 November 2007. The communication, and as requested therein, the enclosures containing the Declaration of Aswan, the Aswan Action Plan and the Profile of the Regional Strategic Cooperative Framework (2008-2013) are circulated herewith for information

  6. Fine motor skills in South African children with symptoms of ADHD: influence of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Anneke

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motor problems, often characterised as clumsiness or poor motor coordination, have been associated with ADHD in addition to the main symptom groups of inattention, impulsiveness, and overactivity. The problems addressed in this study were: (1 Are motor problems associated with ADHD symptoms, also in African cultures? (2 Are there differences in motor skills among the subtypes with ADHD symptoms? (3 Are there gender differences? (4 Is there an effect of age? (5 Are there differences in performance between the dominant and non-dominant hand? Method A total of 528 children (264 classified as having symptoms of ADHD and 264 matched comparisons of both genders and from seven different South African ethnic groups participated in the study. They were assessed with three simple, easy to administer instruments which measure various functions of motor speed and eye-hand coordination: The Grooved Pegboard, the Maze Coordination Task, and the Finger Tapping Test. The results were analysed as a function of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance. Results The findings indicate that children with symptoms of ADHD performed significantly poorer on the Grooved Pegboard and Motor Coordination Task, but not on the Finger Tapping Test than their comparisons without ADHD symptoms. The impairment was most severe for the subtype with symptoms of ADHD-C (combined and less severe for the subtypes with symptoms of ADHD-PI (predominantly inattentive and ADHD-HI (predominantly hyperactive/impulsive. With few exceptions, both genders were equally affected while there were only slight differences in performance between the dominant and non-dominant hand. The deficiencies in motor control were mainly confined to the younger age group (6 – 9 yr. Conclusion An association between the symptoms of ADHD and motor problems was demonstrated in terms of accuracy and speed in fairly complex tasks, but not in simple motor tests of speed. This deficiency is found

  7. The Relationship between Types of Rap Music and Memory in African American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Pamela D.

    1998-01-01

    Studied the types of rap music that are most understandable and the age groups most likely to be affected with 30 children, half ages 7 to 9 and the others ages 10 to 12 years. Younger children could not always describe what the music was about, but they did have a general understanding. (SLD)

  8. Helping African American Children Self-Manage Asthma: The Importance of Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Teri

    2011-01-01

    Background: Asthma is the leading cause of chronic illness among children in the United States, with a disproportionately higher incidence among minority children. In an attempt to increase understanding of the factors that may influence self-management of chronic disease, the study examined the relationship between self-efficacy belief and asthma…

  9. Keeping African Masks Real

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  10. Partially neutralizing potency against emerging genotype I virus among children received formalin-inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chin Fan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genotype I (GI Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV that replaced GIII virus has become the dominant circulating virus in Asia. Currently, all registered live and inactivated JEV vaccines are derived from genotype III viruses. In Taiwan, the compulsory JEV vaccination policy recommends that children receives four doses of formalin-inactivated Nakayama (GIII JEV vaccine. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To evaluate the influence of genotype replacement on the post-vaccination viral neutralizing ability by GIII and GI viruses, the small panel of vaccinated-children serum specimens was assembled, and the reciprocal 50% plaque-reduction neutralizing antibody titers (PRNT(50 were measured against Nakayama vaccine strain, CJN GIII human brain isolate and TC2009-1 GI mosquito isolate. The seropositivity rate (PRNT(50 ≥ 1:10 and geometric mean titers (GMT against the TC2009-1 virus were the lowest among the three viruses. The protective threshold against the CJN and TC2009-1 viruses could only be achieved when the GMT against Nakayama virus was ≥ 1:20 or ≥ 1:80, respectively. Using undiluted vaccinees' sera, the enhancement of JEV infection in K562 cells was observed in some low or non-neutralizing serum specimens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our preliminary study has shown that neutralizing antibodies, elicited by the mouse brain-derived and formalin-inactivated JEV Nakayama vaccine among a limited number of vaccinees, have reduced neutralizing capacity against circulating GI virus, but more detailed studies are needed to address the potential impact on the future vaccine policy.

  11. Forced expiratory indices in normal black Southern African children aged 6-19 years

    OpenAIRE

    Shamssain, M H

    1991-01-01

    Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory ratio (FEV1/FVC x 100), forced mid expiratory flow (FMF), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were measured in 2000 non-smoking black African schoolchildren aged 6-19 years from Umtata in the Republic of Transkei in Southern Africa. FVC, FEV1, FMF, and PEF were highly correlated with each other and all were highly correlated with age and standing height in both sexes. There was a significant negative corr...

  12. Comparative analysis of iron homeostasis in sub-Saharan African children with sickle cell disease and their unaffected siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma eGomez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential trace element subject to tight regulation to ensure adequate running of biological processes. In sub-Saharan Africa where hemoglobinopathies are common, iron homeostasis is likely to be impaired by these conditions. Here we assessed and compared key serum proteins associated with iron metabolism between sub-Saharan African children with sickle cell disease (SCD and their unaffected siblings. Complete blood counts and serum concentrations of four key proteins involved in iron regulation (ferritin, transferrin, sTfR and hepcidin were measured for 73 children with SCD and 68 healthy siblings in Benin, West Africa. We found significant differences in concentration of transferrin, sTfR and ferritin between the two groups. Hepcidin concentrations were found at unusually high concentrations but did not differ among the two groups. We found a significant negative correlation between hepcidin levels and both MCH and MCV in the SCD group and report that sTfR concentrations show a correlation with MCV and MHC in opposite directions in the two groups. These results highlight the unusually high levels of hepcidin in the Beninese population and the patterns of differential iron homeostasis taking place under sickle cell disease status. These results lay the foundation for a systematic evaluation of the underlying mechanisms deregulating iron homeostasis in populations with SCD or high prevalence of iron deficiency.

  13. The Multidimensional Media Influence Scale: confirmatory factor structure and relationship with body dissatisfaction among African American and Anglo American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kristen

    2009-06-01

    The Multidimensional Media Influence Scale (MMIS; Cusumano & Thompson, 2001). Media influence and body image in 8-11-year-old boys and girls: A preliminary report on the multidimensional media influence scale. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 29, 37-44) is a child-appropriate, 3-factor scale designed to assess perceived media influence on body image. It has been used in studies exploring the relationship between the entire scale as well as its subscales (awareness, internalization, and pressure) and variables related to body image. However, the 3-factor structure of the scale has never been confirmed via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), nor has the scale been evaluated with a racially diverse sample of children. This paper reports the results of CFAs establishing the multidimensionality of the scale and the unidimensionality of its subscales among a sample of 661 girls and boys aged 7-12 years, primarily African American and Anglo American. The pressure factor of the MMIS predicted the idealization of a thinner current (child) and future (adult) body both cross-sectionally and one year later for girls and for Anglo American children. PMID:19447694

  14. Comparisons of complementary feeding indicators among children aged 6-23 months in Anglophone and Francophone West African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Stunting, a consequence of suboptimal complementary feeding practices, continues to be a significant public health problem in West Africa. This paper aimed to compare rates of complementary feeding indicators among children aged 6-23 months between four Anglophone and seven Francophone West African countries. The data used for this study were the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys of the various countries, namely Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone (Anglophone countries), Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal (Francophone countries) conducted between 2006 and 2013. The analyses were limited to last-born children aged 6-23 months and covered 34 999 children: 12 623 in the Anglophone countries and 22 376 children in the Francophone countries. Complementary feeding indicators were examined using the method proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2008. Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among children aged 6-23 months in the Anglophone countries ranged from 55.3% (Liberia) to 72.6% (Ghana). The corresponding rates for the Francophone countries ranged from 29.7% (Mali) to 65.9% (Senegal). The average rate of minimum dietary diversity for the Anglophone countries was 32.0% while that of the Francophone countries was only 10.6%. While the minimum meal frequency rates ranged between 42.0% (Sierra Leone) and 55.3% (Nigeria) for the Anglophone countries, the corresponding rates for the Francophone countries ranged between 25.1% (Mali) and 52.4% (Niger). Both the Anglophone and the Francophone countries reported alarmingly low rates of minimum acceptable diet, with the two groups of countries averaging rates of 19.9% (Anglophone) and 5.5% (Francophone). The rates of all four complementary feeding indicators across all the 11 countries fell short of the WHO's requirement for optimal complementary feeding practices. Intervention studies using cluster-randomised controlled trials are needed in order to improve

  15. Energy, protein, and zinc nutriture of rural African children in relation to some anthropometric indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, E.L.; Gibson, R.S.; Osei-Opare, F.; Opare-Obisaw, C.; Thompson, L.U. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada) Univ. of Ghana, Legon (Ghana) Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1991-03-11

    Heights, weights, arm circumferences, and triceps skinfold thicknesses of 66 Malawian and 148 Ghanaian preschool children were measured during 3 seasons. Their seasonal energy, protein, Ca, Zn, dietary fiber and phytate intakes were estimated from 3-day weighed records, using analyzed and literature food composition values. Seasonal hair Zn concentrations were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analyses, The mean annual intakes for Malawian compared to Ghanaian children were higher for energy protein, and Zn. Cereals contributed a higher proportion of the total energy intake in the Malawian compared to the Ghanaian diets. A higher percentage of the Malawian children had height-for-age Z-scores below {minus}2SD, but a lower percentage had weight-for-height Z-scores below {minus}1SD compared to their Ghanaian counterparts. These differences may, in part be related to the high cereal intakes of the Malawian children.

  16. Hepcidin is the major predictor of erythrocyte iron incorporation in anemic African children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron supplementation strategies in the developing world remain controversial owing to fears of exacerbating prevalent infectious diseases. Understanding the conditions in which iron will be absorbed and incorporated into erythrocytes is therefore important. We studied Gambian children with either po...

  17. A phase 2b randomized, controlled trial of the efficacy of the GMZ2 malaria vaccine in African children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sirima, Sodiomon B; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Milligan, Paul;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: GMZ2 is a recombinant protein malaria vaccine, comprising two blood-stage antigens of Plasmodium falciparum, glutamate-rich protein and merozoite surface protein 3. We assessed efficacy of GMZ2 in children in Burkina Faso, Gabon, Ghana and Uganda. METHODS: Children 12-60months old were...... randomized to receive three injections of either 100μg GMZ2 adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide or a control vaccine (rabies) four weeks apart and were followed up for six months to measure the incidence of malaria defined as fever or history of fever and a parasite density ⩾5000/μL. RESULTS: A cohort of 1849...... children were randomized, 1735 received three doses of vaccine (868 GMZ2, 867 control-vaccine). There were 641 malaria episodes in the GMZ2/Alum group and 720 in the control group. In the ATP analysis, vaccine efficacy (VE), adjusted for age and site was 14% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.6%, 23%, p...

  18. Caregiver perceptions and motivation for disclosing or concealing the diagnosis of HIV infection to children receiving HIV care in Mbarara, Uganda: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Kiwanuka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disclosure of the diagnosis of HIV to HIV-infected children is challenging for caregivers. Despite current recommendations, data suggest that levels of disclosure of HIV status to HIV-infected children receiving care in resource-limited settings are very low. Few studies describe the disclosure process for children in these settings, particularly the motivators, antecedent goals, and immediate outcomes of disclosure to HIV-infected children. This study examined caregivers' perception of the disclosure concept prior to disclosure, their motivation towards or away from disclosure, and their short- and long-term intentions for disclosure to their HIV-infected children. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted with primary caregivers of 40 HIV-infected children (ages 5-15 years who were receiving HIV care but did not know their HIV status. RESULTS: Caregivers of HIV-infected children mainly perceived disclosure as a single event rather than a process of gradual delivery of information about the child's illness. They viewed disclosure as potentially beneficial both to children and themselves, as well as an opportunity to explain the parents' role in the transmission of HIV to the children. Caregivers desired to personally conduct the disclosure; however, most reported being over-whelmed with fear of negative outcomes and revealed a lack of self-efficacy towards managing the disclosure process. Consequently, most cope by deception to avoid or delay disclosure until they perceive their own readiness to disclose. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions for HIV disclosure should consider that caregivers may desire to be directly responsible for disclosure to children under their care. They, however, need to be empowered with practical skills to recognize opportunities to initiate the disclosure process early, as well as supported to manage it in a phased, developmentally appropriate manner. The potential role for peer counselors in the disclosure

  19. Factors associated with HIV/AIDS diagnostic disclosure to HIV infected children receiving HAART: a multi-center study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibhatu Biadgilign

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnostic disclosure of HIV/AIDS to a child is becoming an increasingly common issue in clinical practice. Nevertheless, some parents and health care professionals are reluctant to inform children about their HIV infection status. The objective of this study was to identify the proportion of children who have knowledge of their serostatus and factors associated with disclosure in HIV-infected children receiving HAART in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in five hospitals in Addis Ababa from February 18, 2008-April 28, 2008. The study populations were parents/caretakers and children living with HIV/AIDS who were receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART in selected hospitals in Addis Ababa. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were carried out using SPSS 12.0.1 statistical software. RESULTS: A total of 390 children/caretaker pairs were included in the study. Two hundred forty three children (62.3% were between 6-9 years of age. HIV/AIDS status was known by 68 (17.4% children, 93 (29% caretakers reported knowing the child's serostatus two years prior to our survey, 180 (46.2% respondents said that the child should be told about his/her HIV/AIDS status when he/she is older than 14 years of age. Children less than 9 years of age and those living with educated caregivers are less likely to know their results than their counterparts. Children referred from hospital's in-patient ward before attending the HIV clinic and private clinic were more likely to know their results than those from community clinic. CONCLUSION: The proportion of disclosure of HIV/AIDS diagnosis to HIV-infected children is low. Strengthening referral linkage and health education tailored to educated caregivers are recommended to increase the rate of disclosure.

  20. Benzodiazepine prescribing in children under 15 years of age receiving free medical care on the General Medical Services scheme in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, K

    2015-06-01

    To examine the prevalence and secular trends in benzodiazepine (BZD) prescribing in the Irish paediatric population. In addition, we examine coprescribing of antiepileptic, antipsychotic, antidepressant and psychostimulants in children receiving BZD drugs and compare BZD prescribing in Ireland to that in other European countries.

  1. Effects of Cross-Language Transfer on First-Language Phonological Awareness and Literacy Skills in Chinese Children Receiving English Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Xu, Fen; Nguyen, Thien-Kim; Hong, Guanglei; Wang, Yun

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation consists of two studies examining the effects of cross-language transfer on the development of phonological awareness and literacy skills among Chinese children who received different amounts of English instruction. Study 1 compared Chinese students in regular English programs (92 first graders and 93 third graders) with…

  2. Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Characteristics of a new Pediatric Formulation of Artemether-Lumefantrine in African Children with Uncomplicated Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria.

    OpenAIRE

    Djimdé, Abdoulaye A.; Tekete, Mamadou; Abdulla, Salim; Lyimo, John; Bassat, Quique; Mandomando, Inacio; Lefèvre, Gilbert; Borrmann, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of a new pediatric formulation of artemether-lumefantrine, dispersible tablet, were determined within the context of a multicenter, randomized, parallel-group study. In an exploratory approach, we compared a new pediatric formulation with the tablet formulation administered crushed in the treatment of African children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Patients were randomized to 3 different dosing groups (weights of 5 to

  3. Perceptions of overweight African women about acceptable body size of women and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Mvo

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Malnutrition, presenting as obesity in women and under-nutrition in children, is a prevalent problem in the squatter communities of Cape Town. Food habits are determined by a complex matrix of economic, social and cultural factors which need to be understood by health professionals prior to the implementation of strategies to improve the nutritional status of this community. This qualitative study is designed to explore the perceptions of overweight black women in Cape Town, with underweight infants, about the culturally acceptable body size for women and children.

  4. Efficacy of a Novel Sublingual Spray Formulation of Artemether in African Children with Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Bendel, Daryl; Rulisa, Stephen; Ansah, Patrick; Sirima, Sodiomon

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of sublingual artemether (ArTiMist) was investigated in two studies. In study 1, 31 children were randomized to sublingual artemether (n = 16) or intravenous (i.v.) quinine (n = 15). In study 2, 151 children were randomized to sublingual artemether (n = 77) or i.v. quinine (n = 74). For both studies, patients weighed between 5 and 15 kg and had either severe or complicated malaria based on WHO criteria, or they had uncomplicated malaria but were unable to tolerate oral medication...

  5. Witchcraft Branding and the Abuse of African Children in the UK: Causes, Effects and Professional Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedam, Prospera

    2014-01-01

    The branding of children as "witches", capable of harming others is a widespread practice in some countries in Africa and across the world. There is evidence of this within specific communities and faith groups; however, the extent to which this phenomenon occurs in England is unclear as is the response by childcare professionals,…

  6. Stunting may determine the severity of malaria-associated anemia in African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, H.; West, C.E.; Veenemans, J.; Beguin, Y.; Kok, F.J.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evidence from previous studies that malnourished children are protected against malaria is controversial. In individuals repeatedly exposed to malaria, immunity may develop first against severe disease, then against pyrogens, and last, against parasites. If this is true, this would sugges

  7. South African AIDS Orphans: Examining Assumptions around Vulnerability from the Perspective of Rural Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Patricia C.

    2006-01-01

    The article examines assumptions circulating in development or interventionist discourse concerning the vulnerabilities of AIDS orphans in South Africa. Ongoing ethnographic research, begun in March 2003, with 31 rural children and youth between the ages of 14 and 22, in Magangangozi, KwaZulu-Natal, points to the ways in which global terms may…

  8. The Divine Dreams of a Sample of South African Children: The Gateway to Their Spirituality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieter, Ferdinand J.; van der Walt, Johannes L.; Wolhuter, Charl C.

    2009-01-01

    As part of a research project on religion, spirituality and education, the authors attended to the role that children's divine dreams could play in religious education (RE). They contend that such dreams can indeed be used by RE teachers as the gateway to understanding the spirituality of their learners. They defend their claim by firstly…

  9. The VERB campaign's strategy for reaching African-American, Hispanic, Asian, and American Indian children and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhman, Marian; Berkowitz, Judy M; Wong, Faye L; Prosper, Erika; Gray, Michael; Prince, David; Yuen, Jeannie

    2008-06-01

    The VERB campaign promoted physical activity to U.S. children aged 9-13 years (tweens) by surrounding them with appealing messages that were associated with the VERB brand and tag line It's what you do! To maximize the impact of the campaign, VERB had a two-level strategy for its marketing. One level was designed to reach a general audience of tweens (i.e., most tweens who use mainstream media). The second level was designed specifically to reach four racial or ethnic audiences: African Americans, Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians as an augmentation to the first level. This article focuses on VERB's market segmentation strategy and reports how messages for the general audience were adapted to reach specific racial or ethnic segments of the U.S. population. Findings are reported from qualitative studies conducted with tweens and the parents of tweens from these ethnic groups, and the marketing strategies used to reach each ethnic group and the results of evaluations of those strategies are also described. PMID:18471600

  10. Genomewide Association Study of African Children Identifies Association of SCHIP1 and PDE8A with Facial Size and Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyama, Mange; Kimwaga, Emmanuel; Mathayo, Joshua; Larson, Jacinda R.; Liberton, Denise K.; Lukowiak, Ken; Riccardi, Sheri L.; Li, Mao; Williams, Trevor; Li, Hong; Jones, Kenneth L.; Klein, Ophir D.; Santorico, Stephanie A.; Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Spritz, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    The human face is a complex assemblage of highly variable yet clearly heritable anatomic structures that together make each of us unique, distinguishable, and recognizable. Relatively little is known about the genetic underpinnings of normal human facial variation. To address this, we carried out a large genomewide association study and two independent replication studies of Bantu African children and adolescents from Mwanza, Tanzania, a region that is both genetically and environmentally relatively homogeneous. We tested for genetic association of facial shape and size phenotypes derived from 3D imaging and automated landmarking of standard facial morphometric points. SNPs within genes SCHIP1 and PDE8A were associated with measures of facial size in both the GWAS and replication cohorts and passed a stringent genomewide significance threshold adjusted for multiple testing of 34 correlated traits. For both SCHIP1 and PDE8A, we demonstrated clear expression in the developing mouse face by both whole-mount in situ hybridization and RNA-seq, supporting their involvement in facial morphogenesis. Ten additional loci demonstrated suggestive association with various measures of facial shape. Our findings, which differ from those in previous studies of European-derived whites, augment understanding of the genetic basis of normal facial development, and provide insights relevant to both human disease and forensics. PMID:27560698

  11. Current smoking behaviour among rural South African children: Ellisras Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monyeki Kotsedi D

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of tobacco products is the major cause of chronic diseases morbidity and mortality. Most smokers start the smoking habits from childhood and adolescent stages. Method This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 1654 subjects (854 boys and 800 girls, aged 11 to 18 years, who were part of the Ellisras Longitudinal Study completed the questionnaire. Association between tobacco products use and habits, attitudes and beliefs were explored in this study. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association. Results The prevalence of tobacco product use increases with increasing (4.9 to 17.1% age among boys whereas girls do not smoke cigarette but only considerable number (1.0 to 4.1% use home made tobacco products (pipe and snuff among the Ellisras rural children. Parents and grand parents play a significant (about 50% role in influencing smoking behaviour among the Ellisras rural children. Seeing actors smoking on TV shows was positively associated (p Conclusion The usage of tobacco products was high among older boys. Girls did not smoke cigarette. This tobacco use behaviour mirrors the cultural norms and adult behaviour. The association of this tobacco used products with biological parameters will shed more light on the health of these children over time.

  12. Between Innocence and Cold-blooded Killing: Children as Soldiers in Two Contemporary African Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehan M.Anwer Deeb

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available When I began to translate the US Department reports on trafficking-in-Persons six years ago, I was horrified to learn that slavery still exists, and appalled by the fact that very young children are being kidnapped, stolen, mutilated, tricked into leaving their friends and families, and forced to bear arms in conflicts around the globe. A special feature of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries was the marked increase in children being made into soldiers or slave workers. This research does not deal with general child labor problems, but it deals with a more prevalent topic of concern in the international arena and a well-publicized issue that has obtained greater media coverage in recent years, children as soldiers, as preys and predators. They are not forced to pick crops or harvest cotton in the open air, they rather hold guns and witness the horrors of crossfire that would bring nightmares to grown men in a lifetime; they pick the harvest of fear and death. They endure the evils of being forced to become combatants long before their minds and bodies are prepared for the rigors and stresses of war. They are exposed to extreme violence which they have both experienced and inflicted upon others. They find themselves dragged in a psychotic war that physically, mentally and emotionally kills them.

  13. Measuring coverage in MNCH: population HIV-free survival among children under two years of age in four African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S A Stringer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Population-based evaluations of programs for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT are scarce. We measured PMTCT service coverage, regimen use, and HIV-free survival among children ≤24 mo of age in Cameroon, Côte D'Ivoire, South Africa, and Zambia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We randomly sampled households in 26 communities and offered participation if a child had been born to a woman living there during the prior 24 mo. We tested consenting mothers with rapid HIV antibody tests and tested the children of seropositive mothers with HIV DNA PCR or rapid antibody tests. Our primary outcome was 24-mo HIV-free survival, estimated with survival analysis. In an individual-level analysis, we evaluated the effectiveness of various PMTCT regimens. In a community-level analysis, we evaluated the relationship between HIV-free survival and community PMTCT coverage (the proportion of HIV-exposed infants in each community that received any PMTCT intervention during gestation or breastfeeding. We also compared our community coverage results to those of a contemporaneous study conducted in the facilities serving each sampled community. Of 7,985 surveyed children under 2 y of age, 1,014 (12.7% were HIV-exposed. Of these, 110 (10.9% were HIV-infected, 851 (83.9% were HIV-uninfected, and 53 (5.2% were dead. HIV-free survival at 24 mo of age among all HIV-exposed children was 79.7% (95% CI: 76.4, 82.6 overall, with the following country-level estimates: Cameroon (72.6%; 95% CI: 62.3, 80.5, South Africa (77.7%; 95% CI: 72.5, 82.1, Zambia (83.1%; 95% CI: 78.4, 86.8, and Côte D'Ivoire (84.4%; 95% CI: 70.0, 92.2. In adjusted analyses, the risk of death or HIV infection was non-significantly lower in children whose mothers received a more complex regimen of either two or three antiretroviral drugs compared to those receiving no prophylaxis (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.34, 1.06. Risk of death was not different for children whose

  14. Parent Mentoring and Child Anticipatory Guidance with Latino and African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Michaela L. Z.

    2009-01-01

    Poor health and developmental outcomes for children are linked to scarcity of economic resources, various barriers in the delivery of health services, and inadequate parenting. To mitigate such adverse effects and address the needs of 50 high-risk, low-income Latino and African American families receiving well-baby care at an urban primary care…

  15. High-level cross-resistance to didanosine observed in South African children failing an abacavir- or stavudine-based 1st-line regimen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Steegen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The knowledge-base of emerging drug resistance profiles in children exposed to abacavir-based antiretroviral regimens in South Africa is very limited. This study investigated the suitability of didanosine-based 2nd-line regimens for children in the context of antiretroviral drug resistance patterns emerging after 1st-line virologic failure. METHODS: A retrospective dataset of 354 antiretroviral drug resistant genotypes from children failing either abacavir (n = 81 or stavudine (n = 273 based 1st-line regimens, was analysed. Samples were sent to the HIV genotyping laboratory at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, for routine testing. Pol sequences were submitted to the Stanford HIV drug resistance database for genotypic predictions. RESULTS: Children were exposed to abacavir or stavudine-based 1st-line regimens for an average of 21 and 36 months, respectively. The frequency of reduced susceptibility to didanosine was substantial in the abacavir-exposed group (69.1%.This reduced susceptibility was commonly attributed to L74V/I (n = 44 and to a lesser extent K65R (n = 10 mutations. Didanosine resistance was observed in 43.2% of patients exposed to stavudine-based regimens. In contrast, most children remained susceptible to stavudine regardless of exposure to abacavir (77.8% or stavudine (74.7%. At least 80% of children remained susceptible to zidovudine irrespective of stavudine or abacavir-exposure. The presence of the K65R mutation was more common after abacavir pressure (12.3% vs 1.8%. CONCLUSION: Analysis revealed that didanosine-based 2nd-line regimens have limitations for South African children, given the high frequency of mutations that confer cross-resistance to didanosine; especially after abacavir-exposure. This data has influenced South African paediatric treatment guidelines, which now recommend zidovudine-based 2nd-line regimens.

  16. Association analysis of the FTO gene with obesity in children of Caucasian and African ancestry reveals a common tagging SNP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Struan F A Grant

    Full Text Available Recently an association was demonstrated between the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs9939609, within the FTO locus and obesity as a consequence of a genome wide association (GWA study of type 2 diabetes in adults. We examined the effects of two perfect surrogates for this SNP plus 11 other SNPs at this locus with respect to our childhood obesity cohort, consisting of both Caucasians and African Americans (AA. Utilizing data from our ongoing GWA study in our cohort of 418 Caucasian obese children (BMI>or=95th percentile, 2,270 Caucasian controls (BMI<95th percentile, 578 AA obese children and 1,424 AA controls, we investigated the association of the previously reported variation at the FTO locus with the childhood form of this disease in both ethnicities. The minor allele frequencies (MAF of rs8050136 and rs3751812 (perfect surrogates for rs9939609 i.e. both r(2 = 1 in the Caucasian cases were 0.448 and 0.443 respectively while they were 0.391 and 0.386 in Caucasian controls respectively, yielding for both an odds ratio (OR of 1.27 (95% CI 1.08-1.47; P = 0.0022. Furthermore, the MAFs of rs8050136 and rs3751812 in the AA cases were 0.449 and 0.115 respectively while they were 0.436 and 0.090 in AA controls respectively, yielding an OR of 1.05 (95% CI 0.91-1.21; P = 0.49 and of 1.31 (95% CI 1.050-1.643; P = 0.017 respectively. Investigating all 13 SNPs present on the Illumina HumanHap550 BeadChip in this region of linkage disequilibrium, rs3751812 was the only SNP conferring significant risk in AA. We have therefore replicated and refined the association in an AA cohort and distilled a tag-SNP, rs3751812, which captures the ancestral origin of the actual mutation. As such, variants in the FTO gene confer a similar magnitude of risk of obesity to children as to their adult counterparts and appear to have a global impact.

  17. A randomized controlled Phase Ib trial of the malaria vaccine candidate GMZ2 in African children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bélard, Sabine; Issifou, Saadou; Hounkpatin, Aurore B;

    2011-01-01

    GMZ2 is a fusion protein of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP3) and glutamate rich protein (GLURP) that mediates an immune response against the blood stage of the parasite. Two previous phase I clinical trials, one in naïve European adults and one in malaria-exposed Gabonese ...... adults showed that GMZ2 was well tolerated and immunogenic. Here, we present data on safety and immunogenicity of GMZ2 in one to five year old Gabonese children, a target population for future malaria vaccine efficacy trials....

  18. Moment-to-moment dynamics of ADHD behaviour in South African children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Anneke

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The behaviour of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is characterized by low predictability of responding. Low behavioural predictability is one way of operationalizing intra-individual ADHD-related variability. ADHD-related variability may be caused by inefficient behavioural selection mechanisms linked to reinforcement and extinction, as suggested by the recently published dynamic developmental theory (DDT of ADHD. DDT argues that ADHD is a basic neurobehavioural disorder, caused by dysfunctioning dopamine systems. For establishing ADHD as a neurobehavioural disorder, findings from studies conducted in Western countries should be replicated in other cultural populations. The present study replicated the study conducted in Norway, with children from the Limpopo province in the Republic of South Africa. Methods Boys and girls, aged 6–9 yr, from seven ethnic groups participated. Scores by teachers on the Disruptive Behavior Disorders rating scale defined participation in either ADHD-hyperactive/impulsive (-HI, ADHD-predominantly inattentive (-PI, or ADHD-combined (-C groups. Children below the 86th percentile were matched on gender and age and comprised the non-ADHD group. The children completed a computerized game-like task where mouse clicks on one of two squares on the screen resulted in delivery of a reinforcer according to a variable interval schedule of reinforcement. Reinforcers were cartoon pictures presented on the screen together with a sound. Predictability of response location and timing were measured in terms of explained variance. Results Overall, the results replicated findings from Norway. Specifically, the ADHD-C group showed significantly lower predictability of responding than the non-ADHD group, while the ADHD-HI and the ADHD-PI groups were in-between. In accordance with the previous study, response location, but not response timing, was a sensitive behavioural measure. There were no

  19. Iodine status of young Burkinabe children receiving small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements and iodised salt: a cluster-randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Sonja Y; Abbeddou, Souheila; Yakes Jimenez, Elizabeth; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Brown, Kenneth H

    2015-12-14

    The objective of the present study was to assess the impact of providing small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) on the I status of young Burkinabe children. In total, thirty-four communities were assigned to intervention (IC) or non-intervention cohorts (NIC). IC children were randomly assigned to receive 20 g lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)/d containing 90 µg I with 0 or 10 mg Zn from 9 to 18 months of age, and NIC children received no SQ-LNS. All the children were exposed to iodised salt through the national salt iodization programme. Spot urinary iodine (UI), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and total thyroxine (T4) in dried blood spots as well as plasma thyroglobulin (Tg) concentrations were assessed at 9 and 18 months of age among 123 IC and fifty-six NIC children. At baseline and at 18 months, UI, TSH and T4 did not differ between cohorts. Tg concentration was higher in the NIC v. IC at baseline, but this difference did not persist at 18 months of age. In both cohorts combined, the geometric mean of UI was 339·2 (95% CI 298·6, 385·2) µg/l, TSH 0·8 (95% CI 0·7, 0·8) mU/l, T4 118 (95 % CI 114, 122) nmol/l and Tg 26·0 (95% CI 24·3, 27·7) µg/l at 18 months of age. None of the children had elevated TSH at 18 months of age. Marginally more children in NIC (8·9%) had low T4 (15 ppm). A reduction of SQ-LNS I content could be considered in settings with similarly successful salt iodisation programmes.

  20. Iodine status of young Burkinabe children receiving small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements and iodised salt: a cluster-randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Sonja Y; Abbeddou, Souheila; Yakes Jimenez, Elizabeth; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Brown, Kenneth H

    2015-12-14

    The objective of the present study was to assess the impact of providing small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) on the I status of young Burkinabe children. In total, thirty-four communities were assigned to intervention (IC) or non-intervention cohorts (NIC). IC children were randomly assigned to receive 20 g lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)/d containing 90 µg I with 0 or 10 mg Zn from 9 to 18 months of age, and NIC children received no SQ-LNS. All the children were exposed to iodised salt through the national salt iodization programme. Spot urinary iodine (UI), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and total thyroxine (T4) in dried blood spots as well as plasma thyroglobulin (Tg) concentrations were assessed at 9 and 18 months of age among 123 IC and fifty-six NIC children. At baseline and at 18 months, UI, TSH and T4 did not differ between cohorts. Tg concentration was higher in the NIC v. IC at baseline, but this difference did not persist at 18 months of age. In both cohorts combined, the geometric mean of UI was 339·2 (95% CI 298·6, 385·2) µg/l, TSH 0·8 (95% CI 0·7, 0·8) mU/l, T4 118 (95 % CI 114, 122) nmol/l and Tg 26·0 (95% CI 24·3, 27·7) µg/l at 18 months of age. None of the children had elevated TSH at 18 months of age. Marginally more children in NIC (8·9%) had low T4 (15 ppm). A reduction of SQ-LNS I content could be considered in settings with similarly successful salt iodisation programmes. PMID:26411504

  1. Chronic hepatosplenomegaly in African school children: a common but neglected morbidity associated with schistosomiasis and malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona Wilson

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatosplenomegaly, which is known to have a complex aetiology, is common amongst children who reside in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Two of the more common infectious agents of hepatosplenomegaly amongst these children are malarial infections and schistosomiasis. The historical view of hepatosplenomegaly associated with schistosomiasis is that it is caused by gross periportal fibrosis and resulting portal hypertension. The introduction of ultrasound examinations into epidemiology studies, used in tandem with clinical examination, showed a dissociation within endemic communities between presentation with hepatosplenomegaly and ultrasound periportal fibrosis, while immuno-epidemiological studies indicate that rather than the pro-fibrotic Th2 response that is associated with periportal fibrosis, childhood hepatosplenomegaly without ultrasound-detectable fibrosis is associated with a pro-inflammatory response. Correlative analysis has shown that the pro-inflammatory response is also associated with chronic exposure to malarial infections and there is evidence of exacerbation of hepatosplenomegaly when co-exposure to malaria and schistosomiasis occurs. The common presentation with childhood hepatosplenomegaly in rural communities means that it is an important example of a multi-factorial disease and its association with severe and subtle morbidities underlies the need for well-designed public health strategies for tackling common infectious diseases in tandem rather than in isolation.

  2. High rates of virological failure and drug resistance in perinatally HIV-1-infected children and adolescents receiving lifelong antiretroviral therapy in routine clinics in Togo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounerou Salou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antiretroviral treatment (ART has been scaled up over the last decade but compared to adults, children living with HIV are less likely to receive ART. Moreover, children and adolescents are more vulnerable than adults to virological failure (VF and emergence of drug resistance. In this study we determined virological outcome in perinatally HIV-1-infected children and adolescents receiving ART in Togo. Methods: HIV viral load (VL testing was consecutively proposed to all children and adolescents who were on ART for at least 12 months when attending HIV healthcare services for their routine follow-up visit (June to September 2014. Plasma HIV-1 VL was measured using the m2000 RealTime HIV-1 assay (Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA. Genotypic drug resistance was done for all samples with VL>1000 copies/ml. Results and discussion: Among 283 perinatally HIV-1-infected children and adolescents included, 167 (59% were adolescents and 116 (41% were children. The median duration on ART was 48 months (interquartile range: 28 to 68 months. For 228 (80.6%, the current ART combination consisted of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs (zidovudine and lamivudine and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI (nevirapine or efavirenz. Only 28 (9.9% were on a protease inhibitor (PI-based regimen. VL was below the detection limit (i.e. 40 copies/ml for 102 (36%, between 40 and 1000 copies/ml for 35 (12.4% and above 1000 copies/ml for 146 (51.6%. Genotypic drug-resistance testing was successful for 125/146 (85.6%; 110/125 (88.0% were resistant to both NRTIs and NNRTIs, 1/125 (0.8% to NRTIs only, 4/125 (3.2% to NNRTIs only and three harboured viruses resistant to reverse transcriptase and PIs. Overall, 86% (108/125 of children and adolescents experiencing VF and successfully genotyped, corresponding thus to at least 38% of the study population, had either no effective ART or had only a single effective drug in

  3. Acute diarrhea in West African children: diverse enteric viruses and a novel parvovirus genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tung G; Vo, Nguyen P; Bonkoungou, Isidore J O; Kapoor, Amit; Barro, Nicolas; O'Ryan, Miguel; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Wang, Chunling; Delwart, Eric

    2012-10-01

    Parvoviruses cause a variety of mild to severe symptoms or asymptomatic infections in humans and animals. During a viral metagenomic analysis of feces from children with acute diarrhea in Burkina Faso, we identified in decreasing prevalence nucleic acids from anelloviruses, dependoviruses, sapoviruses, enteroviruses, bocaviruses, noroviruses, adenoviruses, parechoviruses, rotaviruses, cosavirus, astroviruses, and hepatitis B virus. Sequences from a highly divergent parvovirus, provisionally called bufavirus, were also detected whose NS1 and VP1 proteins showed parvoviruses. Four percent of the fecal samples were PCR positive for this new parvovirus, including a related bufavirus species showing only 72% identity in VP1. The high degree of genetic divergence of these related genomes from those of other parvoviruses indicates the presence of a proposed new Parvoviridae genus containing at least two species. Studies of the tropism and pathogenicity of these novel parvoviruses will be facilitated by the availability of their genome sequences.

  4. First results of phase 3 trial of RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine in African children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agnandji, Selidji Todagbe; Lell, Bertrand; Soulanoudjingar, Solange Solmeheim;

    2011-01-01

    An ongoing phase 3 study of the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of candidate malaria vaccine RTS,S/AS01 is being conducted in seven African countries.......An ongoing phase 3 study of the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of candidate malaria vaccine RTS,S/AS01 is being conducted in seven African countries....

  5. Community Violence, Interpartner Conflict, Parenting, and Social Support as Predictors of the Social Competence of African American Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravecz, Linda M.; Koblinsky, Sally A.; Randolph, Suzanne M.

    2008-01-01

    Adopting an ecological framework, this study examines the role of community violence exposure, interpartner conflict, positive parenting, and informal social support in predicting the social skills and behavior problems of low-income African American preschoolers. Participants were 184 African American mothers and female caregivers of Head Start…

  6. NIH Research: Children Research Volunteers Receive Care and Help Advance Knowledge | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hereditary illness found in fewer than 1,000 children worldwide. It used to be a death sentence for kids before they reached age 10. But thanks to her mother, who wouldn’t accept that scenario, at age ...

  7. THE USE OF SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE IN ACCELERATING SYMPTOM RELIEF IN ASTHMATIC AND HOUSE DUST MITE ALLERGIC CHILDREN RECEIVING HOUSE DUST MITE IMMUNOTHERAPY: DOUBLE BLIND RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anang Endaryanto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of superoxide dismutase (SOD in lung function (FEV1 reversibility and respiratory symptoms (drug scores, symptoms scores in asthmatic and house dust mite allergic children receiving house dust mites immunotherapy. Methods: Forty subjects aged 6–17 years old with asthma, tested positive for house dust mite allergy on skin prick test, and received immunotherapy were enrolled in this study. All subjects completed clinical based assessments and diary-based assessments for drug and symptom scores. Following a four-week baseline assessment, all subjects were randomized to receive SOD or placebo. Respiratory symptoms (drug and symptoms score and FEV1 were evaluated at the end of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th weeks after randomization. Drug score, symptoms score, and FEV1 reversibility test results were analyzed using a Paired t test and repeated measure of ANOVA. Results: There was a significant difference in drug scores, symptoms score, and FEV1 reversibility test outcomes between SOD and placebo. SOD group showed a significant decrease in all outcome measures compared to those in placebo group. Conclusions: The use of SOD as antioxidants is effective in accelerating symptom relief for children with asthma and house dust mite allergy receiving house dust mite immunotherapy.

  8. Sociocultural and Socioeconomic Influences on Type 2 Diabetes Risk in Overweight/Obese African-American and Latino-American Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Hasson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. It is unclear whether sociocultural and socioeconomic factors are directly linked to type 2 diabetes risk in overweight/obese ethnic minority children and adolescents. This study examines the relationships between sociocultural orientation, household social position, and type 2 diabetes risk in overweight/obese African-American (n=43 and Latino-American (n=113 children and adolescents. Methods. Sociocultural orientation was assessed using the Acculturation, Habits, and Interests Multicultural Scale for Adolescents (AHIMSA questionnaire. Household social position was calculated using the Hollingshead Two-Factor Index of Social Position. Insulin sensitivity (SI, acute insulin response (AIRG and disposition index (DI were derived from a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT. The relationships between AHIMSA subscales (i.e., integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization, household social position and FSIGT parameters were assessed using multiple linear regression. Results. For African-Americans, integration (integrating their family’s culture with those of mainstream white-American culture was positively associated with AIRG (β=0.27±0.09, r=0.48, P<0.01 and DI (β=0.28±0.09, r=0.55, P<0.01. For Latino-Americans, household social position was inversely associated with AIRG (β=-0.010±0.004, r=-0.19, P=0.02 and DI (β=-20.44±7.50, r=-0.27, P<0.01. Conclusions. Sociocultural orientation and household social position play distinct and opposing roles in shaping type 2 diabetes risk in African-American and Latino-American children and adolescents.

  9. Lp(a-cholesterol is associated with HDL-cholesterol in overweight and obese African American children and is not an independent risk factor for CVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Sushma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of Lipoprotein (a cholesterol {Lp(a-C}as an additional and/or independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD is not clear. We evaluated the associations between Lp(a-C and other CVD risk factors including plasma lipoprotein concentrations and body fatness in overweight and obese African American children. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was carried out using data from a sample of 121 African American children aged 9-11 years with Body Mass Index (BMI's greater than the 85th percentile. Body height, weight and waist circumference (WC were measured. Fasting plasma concentrations of Lp(a-C, Total cholesterol (TC, High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, Very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C, Intermediate density lipoprotein cholesterol (IDL-C, Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and Triacylglycerides (TAG were analyzed using the vertical auto profile (VAP cholesterol method. Results After adjusting for child age, gender, and pubertal status, Lp(a-C was positively associated with both HDL-C and TC, and negatively associated with VLDL-C and TAG. Including BMIz and WC as additional covariates did not alter the direction of the relationships between Lp(a-C and the other lipoproteins. Finally, after adjusting for the other plasma lipoproteins, Lp(a-C remained strongly associated with HDL-C, whereas the associations of Lp(a-C with the other lipoproteins were not significant when HDL-C was simultaneously included in the regression models. Conclusions Lp(a-C was positively associated with HDL-C and this association is not influenced by other lipoprotein subclasses or by the degree of obesity. We conclude that Lp(a cholesterol is not an independent risk factor for CVD in African American children.

  10. Measuring coverage in MNCH: challenges in monitoring the proportion of young children with pneumonia who receive antibiotic treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Campbell

    Full Text Available Pneumonia remains a major cause of child death globally, and improving antibiotic treatment rates is a key control strategy. Progress in improving the global coverage of antibiotic treatment is monitored through large household surveys such as the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS, which estimate antibiotic treatment rates of pneumonia based on two-week recall of pneumonia by caregivers. However, these survey tools identify children with reported symptoms of pneumonia, and because the prevalence of pneumonia over a two-week period in community settings is low, the majority of these children do not have true pneumonia and so do not provide an accurate denominator of pneumonia cases for monitoring antibiotic treatment rates. In this review, we show that the performance of survey tools could be improved by increasing the survey recall period or by improving either overall discriminative power or specificity. However, even at a test specificity of 95% (and a test sensitivity of 80%, the proportion of children with reported symptoms of pneumonia who truly have pneumonia is only 22% (the positive predictive value of the survey tool. Thus, although DHS and MICS survey data on rates of care seeking for children with reported symptoms of pneumonia and other childhood illnesses remain valid and important, DHS and MICS data are not able to give valid estimates of antibiotic treatment rates in children with pneumonia.

  11. A Study of Messages Received by Children Who Viewed an Episode of "The Harlem Globetrotters Popcorn Machine".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Research Service, Inc., New York, NY.

    A total of 687 children, aged 7 through 11, was interviewed in fall, 1974 to determine the extent to which the Harlem Globetrotters Popcorn Machine television programs communicated "pro-social" messages to its audience. Viewers of four different episodes of the Globetrotters were questioned about the program they had seen. Among the findings were:…

  12. The Development and Validation of an Auditory Perception Test in Spanish for Hispanic Children Receiving Reading Instruction in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, James A.; Michael, William B.

    1982-01-01

    A Spanish auditory perception test, La Prueba de Analisis Auditivo, was developed and administered to 158 Spanish-speaking Latino children, kindergarten through grade 3. Psychometric data for the test are presented, including its relationship to SOBER, a criterion-referenced Spanish reading measure. (Author/BW)

  13. A Qualitative Exploration of Therapeutic Relationships from the Perspective of Six Children Receiving Speech-Language Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Robert; Crowley, Niamh; Oliviera, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Although some studies have explored the adult therapeutic relationship in speech-language pathology, few, if any, have examined it with regard to children. This study aimed to explore the therapeutic relationship in pediatric speech and language therapy, focusing on the child's experience. Accordingly, the study was qualitative and involved the…

  14. Taking Action Together: A YMCA-based protocol to prevent Type-2 Diabetes in high-BMI inner-city African American children

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    Mitchell Rita A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Associated with a tripling in obesity since 1970, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in children has risen 9-10 fold. There is a critical need of protocols for trials to prevent T2DM in children. Methods/Design This protocol includes the theory, development, evaluation components and lessons learned from a novel YMCA-based T2DM prevention intervention designed specifically for high-BMI African American children from disadvantaged, inner-city neighborhoods of Oakland, California. The intervention was developed on the basis of: review of epidemiological and intervention studies of pediatric T2DM; a conceptual theory (social cognitive; a comprehensive examination of health promotion curricula designed for children; consultation with research, clinical experts and practitioners and; input from community partners. The intervention, Taking Action Together, included culturally sensitive and age-appropriate programming on: healthy eating; increasing physical activity and, improving self esteem. Discussion Evaluations completed to date suggest that Taking Action Together may be an effective intervention, and results warrant an expanded evaluation effort. This protocol could be used in other community settings to reduce the risk of children developing T2DM and related health consequences. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01039116.

  15. Patching the gaps towards the 90–90–90 targets: outcomes of Nigerian children receiving antiretroviral treatment who are co-infected with tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick D Chamla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nigeria has a high burden of children living with HIV and tuberculosis (TB. This article examines the magnitude of TB among children receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART, compares their ART outcomes with their non-TB counterparts and argues that addressing TB among children on ART is critical for achieving the 90–90–90 targets. Methods: This was a facility-based, retrospective analysis of medical records of children aged <15 years who were newly initiated on ART between 2011 and 2012. Structured tools were used to collect data. STATA software was used to perform descriptive, survival and multivariate analyses. Results: A total of 1142 children with a median age of 3.5 years from 20 selected facilities were followed for 24 months. Of these, 95.8% were assessed for TB at ART initiation and 14.7% had TB. Children on ART were more likely to have TB if they were aged 5 years or older (p<0.01 and had delayed ART initiation (p<0.05. The cotrimoxazole and isoniazid prophylaxes were provided to 87.9 and 0.8% of children, respectively. The rate of new TB cases was 3 (2.2–4.0 per 100 person-years at six months and declined to 0.2 (0.06–1.4 per 100 person-years at 24 months. TB infection [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR: 4.3; 2.3–7.9], malnutrition (aHR: 5.1; 2.6–9.8, delayed ART initiation (aHR: 3.2; 1.5–6.7 and age less than 1 year at ART initiation (aHR: 4.0; 1.4–12.0 were associated with death. Additionally, patients with TB (aHR: 1.3; 1.1–1.6 and children below the age of 1 at ART initiation (aHR: 2.9; 1.7–5.2 were more likely to be lost to follow-up (LFU. Conclusions: Children on ART with TB are less likely to survive and more likely to be LFU. These risks, along with low isoniazid uptake and delayed ART initiation, present a serious challenge to achieving the 90–90–90 targets and underscore an urgent need for inclusion of childhood TB/HIV in global plans and reporting mechanisms.

  16. Retention in care and outpatient costs for children receiving antiretroviral therapy in Zambia: a retrospective cohort analysis.

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    Callie A Scott

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are few published estimates of the cost of pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART in Africa. Our objective was to estimate the outpatient cost of providing ART to children remaining in care at six public sector clinics in Zambia during the first three years after ART initiation, stratified by service delivery site and time on treatment. METHODS: Data on resource utilization (drugs, diagnostics, outpatient visits, fixed costs and treatment outcomes (in care, died, lost to follow up were extracted from medical records for 1,334 children at six sites who initiated ART at 50% at four sites. At the two remaining sites, outpatient visits and fixed costs together accounted for >50% of outpatient costs. The distribution of costs is slightly skewed, with median costs 3% to 13% lower than average costs during the first year after ART initiation depending on site. CONCLUSIONS: Outpatient costs for children initiating ART in Zambia are low and comparable to reported outpatient costs for adults. Outpatient costs and retention in care vary widely by site, suggesting opportunities for efficiency gains. Taking advantage of such opportunities will help ensure that targets for pediatric treatment coverage can be met.

  17. A RUDMAN PER / PELJ 2016 (19 1 Abstract The African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights has worked as the continent's watchdog, under the ACHPR, for almost 30 years. Much has changed since the time of its inception. More institutions, set to ensure the implementation of the ACHPR, have been added. As the African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights became operational, a two-tiered human rights system was created. This article explores the inter-relationship between the ACHPR, the Protocol Establishing the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights and the Procedural Rules of these two institutions within the specific context of the African Commission's mandate to refer communications to the African Court. The aim is to offer a purposeful interpretation of the Procedural Rules governing referrals, guided by the understanding of the principle of complementarity in the preparatory works. The author argues that an appropriate interpretation of complementarity, within the context of referrals, becomes vital in alleviating one of the long-term plagues of the African, protective, human rights system, namely the lack of resources and human capital. It is suggested that the African Commission and the African Court can only be effective if they take proper cognisance of the principle of complementarity, in referring and receiving communications. Keywords African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights; African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights; African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights; referrals; complementarity; human rights; gross violations of human rights; individual communications. ………………………………………………………. The Commission as a Party before the Court – Reflections on the Complementarity Arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Rudman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights has worked as the continent's watchdog, under the ACHPR, for almost 30 years. Much has changed since the time of its inception. More institutions, set to ensure the implementation of the ACHPR, have been added. As the African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights became operational, a two-tiered human rights system was created. This article explores the inter-relationship between the ACHPR, the Protocol Establishing the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights and the Procedural Rules of these two institutions within the specific context of the African Commission's mandate to refer communications to the African Court. The aim is to offer a purposeful interpretation of the Procedural Rules governing referrals, guided by the understanding of the principle of complementarity in the preparatory works. The author argues that an appropriate interpretation of complementarity, within the context of referrals, becomes vital in alleviating one of the long-term plagues of the African, protective, human rights system, namely the lack of resources and human capital. It is suggested that the African Commission and the African Court can only be effective if they take proper cognisance of the principle of complementarity, in referring and receiving communications.

  18. Secondary Neoplasms in Children with Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Receiving C-MOPP and Radiotherapy: Presentation of Four Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Sevgi Gözdaşoğlu; İsmail Haluk Gökçora; Ömer Uluoğlu

    2016-01-01

    Patients who survive Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are at increased risk of secondary neoplasms (SNs). A wide variety of SNs have been reported, including leukemias, non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, and solid tumors, specifically breast and thyroid cancers. Herein we report subsequent neoplasms in four patients with HL receiving chemoradiotherapy. It is interesting that three SNs, fibrosarcoma, thyroid carcinoma, and retrobulbar meningioma, were observed in the radiation area in one of o...

  19. Exploratory study describing 6 month outcomes for young children with autism who receive treatment as usual in Italy

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    Muratori F

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Filippo Muratori,1,2 Antonio Narzisi1IDIA group 1Department of Developmental Neuroscience, IRCCS Stella Maris Foundation, Calambrone, Pisa, Italy; 2University of Pisa, Calambrone, Pisa, Italy Background: In the last few years, the results of different studies have confirmed, in different ways, the importance of early intervention for autism. This study aims to evaluate the role of early "as usual" interventions in the outcome of toddlers diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Method: Seventy children with ASD aged between 24 and 48 months were recruited at different centers in Italy. They were evaluated by blind researchers at baseline and after 6 months of using Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G, Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales, and Vineland Adaptive Behavior scales. Parents filled out the MacArthur Inventory, Social Communication Questionnaire, and Child Behavior Check List. All children were referred to community providers for available interventions. Results: At the endpoint, most of the children were still classified as having an ADOS-G classification of ASD. However, 21 (34.2% passed from autism to autism spectrum, and 3 (4.2% passed from autism spectrum to no spectrum. Treatment effects were obtained for cognitive functioning, language, adaptive behavior, and child behavior without differences between development-oriented and behavior-oriented interventions. Parent involvement was a mediator for the best clinical outcome. Baseline low impairments of communication, language comprehension, and gesture were predictors of positive outcome. Conclusion: Treatment as usual, composed of individual therapy plus school-supported inclusion, may be an effective intervention in ASD. Better initial levels of communication in child and parent involvement during treatment have an important role for a positive outcome. Keywords: autism, preschoolers, treatment as usual, early intervention

  20. Relationships between familial HIV/AIDS and symptoms of anxiety and depression: the mediating effect of bullying victimization in a prospective sample of South African children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Mark E; Cluver, Lucie D

    2015-04-01

    South African children and adolescents living in HIV/AIDS-affected families are at elevated risk of both symptoms of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Poverty and HIV/AIDS-related stigma are additional risk factors for these negative mental health outcomes. Community level factors, such as poverty and stigma, are difficult to change in the short term and identifying additional potentially malleable mechanisms linking familial HIV/AIDS with mental health is important from an intervention perspective. HIV/AIDS-affected children are also at increased risk of bullying victimization. This longitudinal study aimed to determine whether prospective relationships between familial HIV/AIDS and both anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms operate indirectly via bullying victimization. Adolescents (M = 13.45 years, 56.67 % female, n = 3,515) from high HIV-prevalent (>30 %) communities in South Africa were interviewed and followed-up one year later (n = 3,401, 96.70 % retention). Census enumeration areas were randomly selected from urban and rural sites in two provinces, and door-to-door sampling included all households with a resident child/adolescent. Familial HIV/AIDS at baseline assessment was not directly associated with mental health outcomes 1 year later. However, significant indirect effects operating via bullying victimization were obtained for both anxiety and depression scores. Importantly, these effects were independent of poverty, HIV/AIDS-related stigma, and baseline mental health, which highlight bullying victimization as a potential target for future intervention efforts. The implementation and rigorous evaluation of bullying prevention programs in South African communities may improve mental health outcomes for HIV/AIDS-affected children and adolescents and this should be a focus of future research and intervention.

  1. Relationships between familial HIV/AIDS and symptoms of anxiety and depression: the mediating effect of bullying victimization in a prospective sample of South African children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Mark E; Cluver, Lucie D

    2015-04-01

    South African children and adolescents living in HIV/AIDS-affected families are at elevated risk of both symptoms of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Poverty and HIV/AIDS-related stigma are additional risk factors for these negative mental health outcomes. Community level factors, such as poverty and stigma, are difficult to change in the short term and identifying additional potentially malleable mechanisms linking familial HIV/AIDS with mental health is important from an intervention perspective. HIV/AIDS-affected children are also at increased risk of bullying victimization. This longitudinal study aimed to determine whether prospective relationships between familial HIV/AIDS and both anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms operate indirectly via bullying victimization. Adolescents (M = 13.45 years, 56.67 % female, n = 3,515) from high HIV-prevalent (>30 %) communities in South Africa were interviewed and followed-up one year later (n = 3,401, 96.70 % retention). Census enumeration areas were randomly selected from urban and rural sites in two provinces, and door-to-door sampling included all households with a resident child/adolescent. Familial HIV/AIDS at baseline assessment was not directly associated with mental health outcomes 1 year later. However, significant indirect effects operating via bullying victimization were obtained for both anxiety and depression scores. Importantly, these effects were independent of poverty, HIV/AIDS-related stigma, and baseline mental health, which highlight bullying victimization as a potential target for future intervention efforts. The implementation and rigorous evaluation of bullying prevention programs in South African communities may improve mental health outcomes for HIV/AIDS-affected children and adolescents and this should be a focus of future research and intervention. PMID:24996836

  2. Effect of Age at Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation on Catch-up Growth Within the First 24 Months Among HIV-infected Children in the IeDEA West African Pediatric Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jesson, Julie; Koumakpaï, Sikiratou; Diagne, Ndeye R;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We described malnutrition and the effect of age at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation on catch-up growth over 24 months among HIV-infected children enrolled in the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate Aids West African paediatric cohort. METHODS: Malnutrition...

  3. Educating At-Risk Urban African American Children: The Effects of School Climate on Motivation and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenzel, L. Mickey; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines the mediating effects of student intrinsic motivation and teacher ratings of student academic engagement on the relation between school climate perceptions and student academic performance among 282 urban African American middle school students. Results provided support for the hypothesized model and suggest the…

  4. Parenting Practices among Low-Income Parents/Guardians of Academically Successful Fifth Grade African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Sanders, Tiffany; Mehta, Sejal; Behar-Horenstein, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Research investigating the relationship between parenting and academic achievement has provided conflicting results, particularly for low-income, culturally-diverse parents. Using resilience theory, the researchers conducted a case study with five low-income African American mothers. Findings suggest that educators can benefit from partnering with…

  5. Using Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Clinical Work with African American Children and Adolescents: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Courtney J.; Cottone, R. Rocco

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the literature on clinical work with African American youth with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is presented. The strengths and limitations of CBT in relation to this population are outlined. Although CBT shows promise in helping, research on the efficacy and effectiveness of CBT in this group is lacking. (Contains 3…

  6. Secondary Neoplasms in Children with Hodgkin's Lymphoma Receiving C-MOPP and Radiotherapy: Presentation of Four Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gözdaşoğlu, Sevgi; Pamir, Ali; Ünal, Emel; Gökçora, İsmail Haluk; Uluoğlu, Ömer; Ceyhan, Koray; Deda, Haluk; Işıkman, Erdoğan; Yavuz, Gülsan; Taçyıldız, Nurdan; Çavdar, Ayhan

    2016-03-01

    Patients who survive Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are at increased risk of secondary neoplasms (SNs). A wide variety of SNs have been reported, including leukemias, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and solid tumors, specifically breast and thyroid cancers. Herein we report subsequent neoplasms in four patients with HL receiving chemoradiotherapy. It is interesting that three SNs, fibrosarcoma, thyroid carcinoma, and retrobulbar meningioma, were observed in the radiation area in one of our patients. A hypopharyngeal epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor as an unusual secondary malignant neoplasm developed in another patient, while a benign thyroid nodule and invasive ductal breast carcinoma were observed at different times in the female patient. Follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland developed in one of our patients. PMID:26377258

  7. Secondary Neoplasms in Children with Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Receiving C-MOPP and Radiotherapy: Presentation of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Gözdaşoğlu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients who survive Hodgkin lymphoma (HL are at increased risk of secondary neoplasms (SNs. A wide variety of SNs have been reported, including leukemias, non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, and solid tumors, specifically breast and thyroid cancers. Herein we report subsequent neoplasms in four patients with HL receiving chemoradiotherapy. It is interesting that three SNs, fibrosarcoma, thyroid carcinoma, and retrobulbar meningioma, were observed in the radiation area in one of our patients. A hypopharyngeal epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor as an unusual secondary malignant neoplasm developed in another patient, while a benign thyroid nodule and invasive ductal breast carcinoma were observed at different times in the female patient. Follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland developed in one of our patients.

  8. Secondary Neoplasms in Children with Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Receiving C-MOPP and Radiotherapy: Presentation of Four Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gözdaşoğlu, Sevgi; Pamir, Ali; Ünal, Emel; Gökçora, İsmail Haluk; Uluoğlu, Ömer; Ceyhan, Koray; Deda, Haluk; Işıkman, Erdoğan; Yavuz, Gülsan; Taçyıldız, Nurdan; Çavdar, Ayhan

    2016-01-01

    Patients who survive Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are at increased risk of secondary neoplasms (SNs). A wide variety of SNs have been reported, including leukemias, non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, and solid tumors, specifically breast and thyroid cancers. Herein we report subsequent neoplasms in four patients with HL receiving chemoradiotherapy. It is interesting that three SNs, fibrosarcoma, thyroid carcinoma, and retrobulbar meningioma, were observed in the radiation area in one of our patients. A hypopharyngeal epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor as an unusual secondary malignant neoplasm developed in another patient, while a benign thyroid nodule and invasive ductal breast carcinoma were observed at different times in the female patient. Follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland developed in one of our patients. PMID:26377258

  9. Incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis by age in African, Asian and European children: Relevance for timing of rotavirus vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, A. Duncan; Madhi, Shabir A.; Cunliffe, Nigel A.; Vesikari, Timo; Phua, Kong Boo; Lim, Fong Seng; Nelson, E. Anthony S.; Lau, Yu-Lung; Huang, Li-Min; Karkada, Naveen; Debrus, Serge; Han, Htay Htay; Benninghoff, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Variability in rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) epidemiology can influence the optimal vaccination schedule. We evaluated regional trends in the age of RVGE episodes in low- to middle- versus high-income countries in three continents. We undertook a post-hoc analysis based on efficacy trials of a human rotavirus vaccine (HRV; Rotarix™, GSK Vaccines), in which 1348, 1641, and 5250 healthy infants received a placebo in Europe (NCT00140686), Africa (NCT00241644), and Asia (NCT00197210, NCT00329745). Incidence of any/severe RVGE by age at onset was evaluated by active surveillance over the first two years of life. Severity of RVGE episodes was assessed using the Vesikari-scale. The incidence of any RVGE in Africa was higher than in Europe during the first year of life (≤2.78% vs. ≤2.03% per month), but much lower during the second one (≤0.86% versus ≤2.00% per month). The incidence of severe RVGE in Africa was slightly lower than in Europe during the first year of life. Nevertheless, temporal profiles for the incidence of severe RVGE in Africa and Europe during the first (≤1.00% and ≤1.23% per month) and second (≤0.53% and ≤1.13% per month) years of life were similar to those of any RVGE. Any/severe RVGE incidences peaked at younger ages in Africa vs. Europe. In high-income Asian regions, severe RVGE incidence (≤0.31% per month) remained low during the study. The burden of any RVGE was higher earlier in life in children from low- to middle- compared with high-income countries. Differing rotavirus vaccine schedules are likely warranted to maximize protection in different settings. PMID:27260009

  10. Identifying phonological processing deficits in Northern Sotho-speaking children: The use of non-word repetition as a language assessment tool in the South African context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsenach, Carien

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic testing of speech/language skills in the African languages spoken in South Africa is a challenging task, as standardised language tests in the official languages of South Africa barely exist. Commercially available language tests are in English, and have been standardised in other parts of the world. Such tests are often translated into African languages, a practice that speech language therapists deem linguistically and culturally inappropriate. In response to the need for developing clinical language assessment instruments that could be used in South Africa, this article reports on data collected with a Northern Sotho non-word repetition task (NRT). Non-word repetition measures various aspects of phonological processing, including phonological working memory (PWM), and is used widely by speech language therapists, linguists, and educational psychologists in the Western world. The design of a novel Northern Sotho NRT is described, and it is argued that the task could be used successfully in the South African context to discriminate between children with weak and strong Northern Sotho phonological processing ability, regardless of the language of learning and teaching. The NRT was piloted with 120 third graders, and showed moderate to strong correlations with other measures of PWM, such as digit span and English non-word repetition. Furthermore, the task was positively associated with both word and fluent reading in Northern Sotho, and it reliably predicted reading outcomes in the tested population. Suggestions are made for improving the current version of the Northern Sotho NRT, whereafter it should be suitable to test learners from various age groups. PMID:27245134

  11. Identifying phonological processing deficits in Northern Sotho-speaking children: The use of non-word repetition as a language assessment tool in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carien Wilsenach

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic testing of speech/language skills in the African languages spoken in South Africa is a challenging task, as standardised language tests in the official languages of South Africa barely exist. Commercially available language tests are in English, and have been standardised in other parts of the world. Such tests are often translated into African languages, a practice that speech language therapists deem linguistically and culturally inappropriate. In response to the need for developing clinical language assessment instruments that could be used in South Africa, this article reports on data collected with a Northern Sotho non-word repetition task (NRT. Non-word repetition measures various aspects of phonological processing, including phonological working memory (PWM, and is used widely by speech language therapists, linguists, and educational psychologists in the Western world. The design of a novel Northern Sotho NRT is described, and it is argued that the task could be used successfully in the South African context to discriminate between children with weak and strong Northern Sotho phonological processing ability, regardless of the language of learning and teaching. The NRT was piloted with 120 third graders, and showed moderate to strong correlations with other measures of PWM, such as digit span and English non-word repetition. Furthermore, the task was positively associated with both word and fluent reading in Northern Sotho, and it reliably predicted reading outcomes in the tested population. Suggestions are made for improving the current version of the Northern Sotho NRT, whereafter it should be suitable to test learners from various age groups.

  12. Identifying phonological processing deficits in Northern Sotho-speaking children: The use of non-word repetition as a language assessment tool in the South African context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsenach, Carien

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic testing of speech/language skills in the African languages spoken in South Africa is a challenging task, as standardised language tests in the official languages of South Africa barely exist. Commercially available language tests are in English, and have been standardised in other parts of the world. Such tests are often translated into African languages, a practice that speech language therapists deem linguistically and culturally inappropriate. In response to the need for developing clinical language assessment instruments that could be used in South Africa, this article reports on data collected with a Northern Sotho non-word repetition task (NRT). Non-word repetition measures various aspects of phonological processing, including phonological working memory (PWM), and is used widely by speech language therapists, linguists, and educational psychologists in the Western world. The design of a novel Northern Sotho NRT is described, and it is argued that the task could be used successfully in the South African context to discriminate between children with weak and strong Northern Sotho phonological processing ability, regardless of the language of learning and teaching. The NRT was piloted with 120 third graders, and showed moderate to strong correlations with other measures of PWM, such as digit span and English non-word repetition. Furthermore, the task was positively associated with both word and fluent reading in Northern Sotho, and it reliably predicted reading outcomes in the tested population. Suggestions are made for improving the current version of the Northern Sotho NRT, whereafter it should be suitable to test learners from various age groups.

  13. Radio receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankov, V. N.; Barulin, L. G.; Zhodzishskii, M. I.; Malyshev, I. V.; Petrusinskii, V. V.

    The book is concerned with the design of microelectronic radio receivers and their components based on semiconductor and hybrid integrated circuits. Topics discussed include the hierarchical structure of radio receivers, the synthesis of structural schemes, the design of the principal functional units, and the design of radio receiver systems with digital signal processing. The discussion also covers the integrated circuits of multifunctional amplifiers, analog multipliers, charge-transfer devices, frequency filters, piezoelectronic devices, and microwave amplifiers, filters, and mixers.

  14. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease ... 13 to 17 years who ever received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, 2014 - Males # doses ... 240-453-2882 Office of Minority Health Resource Center Toll Free: 1-800-444-6472 / Fax: ...

  15. Association of Streptococcus pneumoniae common protein antigen (CPA) antibodies and pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected African children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditse, Z; Adrian, P V; Kuwanda, L; Madhi, S A

    2013-09-13

    Due to the high cost and limited serotype coverage of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV), pneumococcal common protein antigens (CPAs) are being investigated as potential vaccine candidates. CPAs are likely to be immunogenic in infants and could confer serotype-independent protection. There are limited data on natural antibody kinetics against CPAs in African populations. We aimed to determine the prevalence of naturally acquired antibody titres to 15 CPAs and explore their association to concurrent pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization in children aged 4-7 years with and without underlying HIV-infection and/or previous PCV-vaccination. A 15-plex Luminex assay was established to measure serum IgG titres against "cell-wall associated or surface-exposed" proteins (PspA, PspC, LytB, IgA1-proteinase, SP0082, PdB and PcsB), "membrane-associated" proteins (PsaA, SP0609, SP0749, PpmA, SlrA, StkP and SP2194) as well as the hypothetical protein, SP2027. Archived serum samples from HIV-uninfected (n=212) and HIV-infected (n=74) children were analyzed. Concurrent pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization was determined with standard microbiological methods. HIV-uninfected children had significantly higher antibody titres against PspA, PspC, PdB, SP0082, LytB, IgA1 proteinase and PcsB compared to HIV-infected children. In contrast, antibody titres against membrane associated proteins (PsaA, SP2027, PpmA and SlrA) were significantly lower in HIV-uninfected compared to HIV-infected children. Higher antibody titres against PdB, and PcsB were associated with the absence of pneumococcal colonization. There was no association between anti-CPA titres and PCV vaccination. In conclusion PdB and PcsB antigens are potential vaccine-candidates which may protect against pneumococcal colonization and consequently pneumococcal disease. PMID:23845819

  16. Direct contrast enhanced Venography MR in the study of central venous accesses in children receiving total parenteral nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. To present direct contrast enhanced Magnetic Resonance Venography, a recently developed method for the study of central venous accesses. Materials and methods. Six patients (4 males and 2 females; age range 15-18 Years) with severe intestinal failure treated with indwelling central Venous catheter since childhood were studied by MR-angiography. The examination was carried out with a 1.5 Philips Gyroscan Intera Magnet, sequences during the simultaneous injection of about 60 ml/limb paramagnetic contrast material, Gd DTPA, diluted with saline solution at a ratio of 1:12. The images were processed with maximum intensity coronal projections and compared with the phlebographic images obtained earlier. Results. In 4 cases the method demonstrated superior vena cava occlusion, in 2 cases inferior vena cava occlusion. The examination was well tolerated by all patients and image quality was very similar to that of the gold standard Study, conventional phlebography. Conclusions. We believe direct contrast-enhanced MR-venography to be a minimally invasive, panoramic and diagnostically reliable method, which should be considered the first choice in the study of central venous accesses of patients receiving total parental nutrition for the medical treatment of intestinal failure. The method does not expose the patients to ionizing radiation or require iodinated contrast material, and is relatively short with a room lime of about 30-40 minutes

  17. Fine motor skills in South African children with symptoms of ADHD: influence of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer Anneke; Sagvolden Terje

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Motor problems, often characterised as clumsiness or poor motor coordination, have been associated with ADHD in addition to the main symptom groups of inattention, impulsiveness, and overactivity. The problems addressed in this study were: (1) Are motor problems associated with ADHD symptoms, also in African cultures? (2) Are there differences in motor skills among the subtypes with ADHD symptoms? (3) Are there gender differences? (4) Is there an effect of age? (5) Are the...

  18. Are ethnic and gender specific equations needed to derive fat free mass from bioelectrical impedance in children of South asian, black african-Caribbean and white European origin? Results of the assessment of body composition in children study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M Nightingale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is a potentially valuable method for assessing lean mass and body fat levels in children from different ethnic groups. We examined the need for ethnic- and gender-specific equations for estimating fat free mass (FFM from BIA in children from different ethnic groups and examined their effects on the assessment of ethnic differences in body fat. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of children aged 8-10 years in London Primary schools including 325 South Asians, 250 black African-Caribbeans and 289 white Europeans with measurements of height, weight and arm-leg impedance (Z; Bodystat 1500. Total body water was estimated from deuterium dilution and converted to FFM. Multilevel models were used to derive three types of equation {A: FFM = linear combination(height+weight+Z; B: FFM = linear combination(height(2/Z; C: FFM = linear combination(height(2/Z+weight}. RESULTS: Ethnicity and gender were important predictors of FFM and improved model fit in all equations. The models of best fit were ethnicity and gender specific versions of equation A, followed by equation C; these provided accurate assessments of ethnic differences in FFM and FM. In contrast, the use of generic equations led to underestimation of both the negative South Asian-white European FFM difference and the positive black African-Caribbean-white European FFM difference (by 0.53 kg and by 0.73 kg respectively for equation A. The use of generic equations underestimated the positive South Asian-white European difference in fat mass (FM and overestimated the positive black African-Caribbean-white European difference in FM (by 4.7% and 10.1% respectively for equation A. Consistent results were observed when the equations were applied to a large external data set. CONCLUSIONS: Ethnic- and gender-specific equations for predicting FFM from BIA provide better estimates of ethnic differences in FFM and FM in children, while generic equations

  19. Children who screen positive for autism at 2.5 years and receive early intervention: a prospective naturalistic 2-year outcome study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spjut Jansson, Birgitta; Miniscalco, Carmela; Westerlund, Joakim; Kantzer, Anne-Katrin; Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous research has stressed the importance of early identification and intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders. Methods Children who had screened positive for autism at the age of 2.5 years in a general population screening and then received a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder were enrolled in an intervention program provided by Swedish habilitation services. The following interventions were available: a comprehensive intervention based on Applied Behavior Analysis – Intensive Learning (IL) – in two settings, which included home- and preschool-based (IL Regular) and only home-based (IL Modified) and eclectic interventions. Results There was considerable variability in terms of outcome, but intervention group status was not associated with any of the chosen outcome variables. Conclusion The main finding was that the type of intervention was not critical for outcome of adaptive or global functioning. The variability in outcome demonstrates the need for continuous assessments and evaluation of the child’s function and behavior throughout the intervention period. PMID:27621636

  20. Children who screen positive for autism at 2.5 years and receive early intervention: a prospective naturalistic 2-year outcome study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spjut Jansson B

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Birgitta Spjut Jansson,1–3 Carmela Miniscalco,1,4 Joakim Westerlund,1,5 Anne-Katrin Kantzer,1,6 Elisabeth Fernell,1 Christopher Gillberg1 1Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Habilitation, 3Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, 4Division of Speech and Language Pathology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 5Department of Psychology, University of Stockholm, Stockholm, 6Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, NU Hospital Organization, Trollhättan, Sweden Background: Previous research has stressed the importance of early identification and intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders. Methods: Children who had screened positive for autism at the age of 2.5 years in a general population screening and then received a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder were enrolled in an intervention program provided by Swedish habilitation services. The following interventions were available: a comprehensive intervention based on Applied Behavior Analysis – Intensive Learning (IL – in two settings, which included home- and preschool-based (IL Regular and only home-based (IL Modified and eclectic interventions.Results: There was considerable variability in terms of outcome, but intervention group status was not associated with any of the chosen outcome variables. Conclusion: The main finding was that the type of intervention was not critical for outcome of adaptive or global functioning. The variability in outcome demonstrates the need for continuous assessments and evaluation of the child’s function and behavior throughout the intervention period. Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, preschool children, early intervention, ABA, cognitive function, follow-up

  1. Child and Parent Perceptions of Relational Aggression within Urban Predominantly African American Children's Friendships: Examining Patterns of Concordance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing research documents the negative short- and long-term effects of relational aggression on children's behavior and social-emotional functioning. Although parents likely play an important role in the way children learn to cope with and attempt to resolve relational aggression, there is little research on this issue. The present study…

  2. Child Care Changes, Home Environment Quality, and the Social Competence of African American Children at Age 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratsch-Hines, Mary E.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Recent work has demonstrated that the changes young children experience in their child care settings before age 5 may be related to subsequent development, especially social development. Several of these studies have included samples of middle-class children, with almost no emphasis on understanding these processes for…

  3. Multi-micronutrient supplementation in HIV-infected South African children : effect on nutritional s tatus, diarrhoea and respiratory infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mda, S.

    2011-01-01

      Background: The nutritional status of HIV-infected children is reported to be poor. Diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections tend to be more common and severe in HIV-infected children than in uninfected ones. Deficiencies of micronutrients may result in poor growth and inc

  4. South African Families Raising Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Relationship between Family Routines, Cognitive Appraisal and Family Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlebusch, L.; Samuels, A. E.; Dada, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between family routines, cognitive appraisal of the impact of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) on the family and family quality of life (FQOL) in families raising children with ASD in South Africa. Methods: A sample of 180 families of young children with ASD who were…

  5. The Perspectives of African Immigrants in Sweden on Intercountry Child Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Armah, Collins

    2010-01-01

    The views of minority groups who speak on behalf of adopted children in Western countries like Sweden have relevance with regards to enriching the international adoption discourse; and to inform adoption policies in both sending and receiving countries. This study aimed at seeking the views of African immigrants in Sweden on intercountry adoption with the objective of bringing out the meanings they create on the major themes involved to enrich the international adoption debate and to inform p...

  6. The Challenges of Underweight and Overweight in South African Children: Are We Winning or Losing the Battle? A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Makama Andries Monyeki; Adedapo Awotidebe; Strydom, Gert L.; J. Hans de Ridder; Ramoteme Lesly Mamabolo; Kemper, Han C. G.

    2015-01-01

    Underweight and overweight are adverse effects of malnutrition and both are associated with negative health consequences in children and adolescents. In South Africa, the burden of economic and social disparity coexists with malnutrition in children. The purpose of this study was to review available South Africa studies regarding the comprehensive summary of prevalence of underweight and overweight and evaluates government policies in addressing undernutrition and overnutrition in South Afri...

  7. Study of the factors associated with dental caries in children who receive early dental care Estudo de fatores associados à cárie dental em crianças que recebem atendimento odontológico precoce

    OpenAIRE

    FRAIZ Fabian Calixto; Luiz Reynaldo de Figueiredo WALTER

    2001-01-01

    The present study investigated the factors associated with the development of dental caries in preschool children who receive regular dental care and follow-up. The research was carried out at the Baby Clinic, Londrina State University, and comprised two hundred preschool children, whose ages ranged from 24 to 48 months, as well as their mothers, who had already taken part in a dental program at the Baby Clinic during, at least, the previous twelve months. Regarding oral hygiene habits, there...

  8. Hypercholesterolemia is associated with the apolipoprotein C-III (APOC3 genotype in children receiving HAART: an eight-year retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Rocco

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in apolipoprotein genes have shown to be predictors of plasma lipid levels in adult cohorts receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Our objective was to confirm the association between the APOC3 genotype and plasma lipid levels in an HIV-1-infected pediatric cohort exposed to HAART. A total of 130 HIV-1-infected children/adolescents that attended a reference center in Argentina were selected for an 8-year longitudinal study with retrospective data collection. Longitudinal measurements of plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C were analyzed under linear or generalized linear mixed models. The contribution of the APOC3 genotype at sites -482, -455 and 3238 to plasma lipid levels prediction was tested after adjusting for potential confounders. Four major APOC3 haplotypes were observed for sites -482/-455/3238, with estimated frequencies of 0.60 (C/T/C, 0.14 (T/C/C, 0.11 (C/C/C, and 0.11 (T/C/G. The APOC3 genotype showed a significant effect only for the prediction of total cholesterol levels (p<0.0001. However, the magnitude of the differences observed was dependent on the drug combination (p = 0.0007 and the drug exposure duration at the time of the plasma lipid measurement (p = 0.0002. A lower risk of hypercholesterolemia was predicted for double and triple heterozygous individuals, mainly at the first few months after the initiation of Ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor-based regimens. We report for the first time a significant contribution of the genotype to total cholesterol levels in a pediatric cohort under HAART. The genetic determination of APOC3 might have an impact on a large portion of HIV-1-infected children at the time of choosing the treatment regimens or on the counter-measures against the adverse effects of drugs.

  9. An Analysis of Water Collection Labor among Women and Children in 24 Sub-Saharan African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Mitsuaki; Kim, Seung-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Background It is estimated that more than two-thirds of the population in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) must leave their home to collect water, putting them at risk for a variety of negative health outcomes. There is little research, however, quantifying who is most affected by long water collection times. Objectives This study aims to a) describe gender differences in water collection labor among both adults and children (water, disaggregated by urban and rural residence; and b) estimate the absolute number of adults and children affected by water collection times greater than 30 minutes in 24 SSA countries. Methods We analyzed data from the Demographic Health Survey (DHS) and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) (2005–2012) to describe water collection labor in 24 SSA countries. Results Among households spending more than 30 minutes collecting water, adult females were the primary collectors of water across all 24 countries, ranging from 46% in Liberia (17,412 HHs) to 90% in Cote d’Ivoire (224,808 HHs). Across all countries, female children were more likely to be responsible for water collection than male children (62% vs. 38%, respectively). Six countries had more than 100,000 households (HHs) where children were reported to be responsible for water collection (greater than 30 minutes): Burundi (181,702 HHs), Cameroon (154,453 HHs), Ethiopia (1,321,424 HHs), Mozambique (129,544 HHs), Niger (171,305 HHs), and Nigeria (1,045,647 HHs). Conclusion In the 24 SSA countries studied, an estimated 3.36 million children and 13.54 million adult females were responsible for water collection in households with collection times greater than 30 minutes. We suggest that accessibility to water, water collection by children, and gender ratios for water collection, especially when collection times are great, should be considered as key indicators for measuring progress in the water, sanitation and hygiene sector. PMID:27248494

  10. Pro- versus anti-inflammatory cytokine profile in African children with acute oro-facial noma (cancrum oris, noma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Reshma S; Enwonwu, Cyril O; Falkler, William A

    2005-01-01

    Fresh noma is a severe orofacial necrosis with an astonishingly rapid development. It is seen mainly in malnourished children less than 4 years old from developing countries. Cytokines play a central role in oral mucosal inflammation. We therefore studied the relevance of circulating cytokines to noma, and the key microorganisms associated with the lesion. Nigerian village children with acute noma (n=68) and their neighborhood village (n=63) as well as urban (n=45) counterparts of comparable age and free of overt infections were evaluated for serum cytokine levels by ELISA. Oral bacteria were studied by polymerase chain reaction. Evaluation of random cases of the village and noma children showed marked depletion (pnoma children than in the healthy urban children, but less so when compared to their neighborhood village counterparts. The increase in levels of the anti-inflammatory/regulatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-beta) was less marked relative to the pro-inflammatory cytokines. Bacteria observed at the highest frequencies in noma lesions were P. intermedia (83%), T. forsythensis (83%), P. gingivalis (50%), C. rectus (50%) and T. denticola (50%). We conclude that noma is an immunopathological response to potent bacterial factors resulting in uncontrolled production of cytokines and possibly other, still unknown, inflammatory mediators.

  11. An assessment of the dose received by children from CT examinations along with the quality control parameters from a conventional CT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2000, the UNSCEAR reported that CT constitutes 5% of all the medical x-ray examinations and it contributes 34% of the resultant collective dose worldwide. Children are more sensitive to the ionizing radiations than adults. So, routine quality control tests are expected to be carried out periodically on the CT scanners. The aim of this research was to estimate the effective doses received by the children below two years of age from routine CT examinations carried out at an educational imaging center in Tehran. It was also aimed to evaluate the quality control parameters of the mentioned CT scanner at the same time. Materials and Methods: In this study, the Computed Tomography Dose Index were measured at the central axis of the CT gantry in air and in the standard quality control phantoms of the head and body (as recommended by the FDA) using a pencil ionization chamber and LiF TLD pellets for a single scan. By using the measured Computed Tomography Dose Index values and the IrnPACT software, the effective doses were calculated for every routine CT examination protocol. In this study, the quality control parameters such as noise, CT number calibration, high and low contrast resolution and the flatness of the CT image were also evaluated. These parameters were also measured using standard procedures and test objects. Results: The effective dose estimated in this research ranged from 2.05 to 21.45 and 2.05 to 15.7 mSv for the female and male children, respectively. The measured values of the Computed Tomography Dose Index in the standard head and body phantoms were 20.6) 2.01 and 11.13 f 1.04 mGy1100 mAs, respectively. The high and low contrast resolution was estimated to be 0.8 mm and 1.0 rnm, respectively. Conclusion: The estimated values of the effective doses in this research were less than the values reported for the Netherlands, the USA, Germany and were comparable with the values reported in the UK. The measured Computed Tomography Dose Index values were 11

  12. Calcium Intake and Body Composition in African-American Children and Adolescents at Risk for Overweight and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances A. Tylavsky

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the role of calcium intake on body composition in 186 African-American adolescents at risk for overweight and obesity. The average weight of 89.8 kg ± 23.6 (SD had a mean BMI z score of 2.2. Females with a calcium intake of < 314 mg/day had higher percent fat mass compared to those with the highest calcium intakes that were ≥ 634 mg/day. Compared to those with a low calcium intake (< 365 mg/day, those with the highest calcium intake of > 701 mg/day had higher intake of thiamin, folate, cobalamin, vitamin D, phosphorus, iron, zinc.

  13. Young children's probability of dying before and after their mother's death: a rural South African population-based surveillance study.

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    Samuel J Clark

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is evidence that a young child's risk of dying increases following the mother's death, but little is known about the risk when the mother becomes very ill prior to her death. We hypothesized that children would be more likely to die during the period several months before their mother's death, as well as for several months after her death. Therefore we investigated the relationship between young children's likelihood of dying and the timing of their mother's death and, in particular, the existence of a critical period of increased risk. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data from a health and socio-demographic surveillance system in rural South Africa were collected on children 0-5 y of age from 1 January 1994 to 31 December 2008. Discrete time survival analysis was used to estimate children's probability of dying before and after their mother's death, accounting for moderators. 1,244 children (3% of sample died from 1994 to 2008. The probability of child death began to rise 6-11 mo prior to the mother's death and increased markedly during the 2 mo immediately before the month of her death (odds ratio [OR] 7.1 [95% CI 3.9-12.7], in the month of her death (OR 12.6 [6.2-25.3], and during the 2 mo following her death (OR 7.0 [3.2-15.6]. This increase in the probability of dying was more pronounced for children whose mothers died of AIDS or tuberculosis compared to other causes of death, but the pattern remained for causes unrelated to AIDS/tuberculosis. Infants aged 0-6 mo at the time of their mother's death were nine times more likely to die than children aged 2-5 y. The limitations of the study included the lack of knowledge about precisely when a very ill mother will die, a lack of information about child nutrition and care, and the diagnosis of AIDS deaths by verbal autopsy rather than serostatus. CONCLUSIONS: Young children in lower income settings are more likely to die not only after their mother's death but also in the months before

  14. Immune Activation and Viral Replication after Vaccination with an Influenza A H1N1 2009 Vaccine in HIV-Infected Children Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy

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    Nattawat Onlamoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunization with a pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 was recommended for HIV-infected patients. However, there is limited information concerning the impact of immunization with this vaccine on immune activation and HIV viral replication. In this study, 45 HIV-infected children and adolescents receiving antiretroviral therapy were immunized with a 2-dose series of nonadjuvated monovalent influenza A H1N1 2009 vaccine upon enrollment and approximately 1 month later. Immunogenicity was determined by haemagglutination inhibition assay. The level of immune activation was determined by identification of CD38 and HLA-DR on CD8+ T cells. Patients were divided into 2 groups which include patients who had an undetectable HIV viral load (HIV detectable group and patients who show virological failure (HIV nondetectable group. The results showed seroconversion rate of 55.2% in HIV nondetectable group, whereas 31.3% was found in HIV detectable group. Both groups of patients showed no major increase in immune activation after immunization. Interestingly, a decrease in the frequency of CD8+ T cells that coexpressed CD38 and HLA-DR was observed after immunization in both groups of patients. We suggested that immunization with influenza A H1N1 2009 vaccine can induce immune response to the pandemic virus without major impact on HIV viral replication and immune activation.

  15. Racial/Ethnic Socialization and Parental Involvement in Education as Predictors of Cognitive Ability and Achievement in African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Meeta; Harrell, Zaje A. T.; Johnson, Deborah J.

    2011-01-01

    Racial/ethnic socialization has not been studied in the context of other parenting behaviors such as parental involvement in education and its relationship to children's cognitive outcomes. The present study tested the impact of racial/ethnic socialization and parental involvement in education on cognitive ability and achievement in a sample of…

  16. Internalizing Symptoms and Affect of Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Comparative Study with an Urban African American Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Deanna E.; Merrell, Kenneth W.; Cobb, Harriet C.

    1999-01-01

    Self-reported internalizing symptoms of seriously emotionally disturbed (SED) and regular education students were compared using the Internalizing Symptoms Scale for Children. The SED group reported significantly higher levels of internalizing distress than the regular education group. Results are discussed in terms of future research needs and…

  17. The pharmacokinetics and acceptability of lopinavir/ritonavir minitab sprinkles, tablets, and syrups in african HIV-infected children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musiime, V.; Fillekes, Q.; Kekitiinwa, A.; Kendall, L.; Keishanyu, R.; Namuddu, R.; Young, N.; Opilo, W.; Lallemant, M.; Walker, A.S.; Burger, D.M.; Gibb, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) as first- and second-line therapy for young and older HIV-infected children, respectively. Available formulations have limitations making their widespread use complex. METHODS: An open-label comparative bioavailability (randomized crossove

  18. Overweight impairs efficacy of iron supplementation in iron-deficient South African children: a randomized controlled intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgartner, J.; Smuts, C.M.; Aeberli, I.; Malan, L.; Tjalsma, H.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many countries in the nutrition transition have high rates of iron deficiency (ID) and overweight (OW). ID is more common in OW children; this may be due to adiposity-related inflammation reducing iron absorption. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether weight status predicts response to oral

  19. African American families on autism diagnosis and treatment: the influence of culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Karen; Morris, Edith; Manning-Courtney, Patricia; Anthony, Jean; Shambley-Ebron, Donna

    2015-10-01

    Cultural factors such as health care access and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom interpretations have been proposed as impacting delayed diagnosis and treatment for African American children with ASD. A qualitative study of urban African American families caring for their child with autism was conducted with 24 family members and 28 ASD professionals. Cultural caring meant families protected their child from harm including potential or actual distrustful encounters, and took action for their child and community to optimize their child's health and address the knowledge deficits of ASD within their community. Families and professionals believed cultural influences delayed families' receiving and seeking appropriate health care for the African American child with ASD affecting timely autism diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Children, education and armed conflict: an analysis of the African reality seen 15 years after the Machel Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Mateos Martín

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available While sub-Saharan Africa in recent years has faced a marked decline in the number of armed conflicts, a number of countries continue to suffer the consequences of organized violence, especially some contexts such as the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Darfur region (western Sudan and Somalia, to name a few. As some institutions (UN or NGO or lead scholars have highlighted for several years, the main victim of violence is often civilians, mainly children and women. This article aims to analyze the impact of armed conflicts in Africa have in childhood and in such important areas as education. This object of study has in recent years an important reference as it has been the publication in 1996 of the so-called “Machel Report”. Fifteen years after the appearance of this document is of interest to a do a brief balance of some of the progress, gaps and main challenges of protecting children in armed conflict.

  1. The impact of aircraft noise exposure on South African children's reading comprehension: the moderating effect of home language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabi, Joseph; Cockcroft, Kate; Goldschagg, Paul; Greyling, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Given the limited studies conducted within the African continent, the purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of chronic aircraft noise exposure and the moderating effect of home language on the learners' reading comprehension. The sample comprised 437 (52%) senior primary learners exposed to high levels of aircraft noise (Experimental group) and 337 (48%) learners residing in a quieter area (Control group). Of these, 151 learners in the Experimental group spoke English as a first language (EFL) and 162 spoke English as a second language (ESL). In the Control group, the numbers were similarly divided (EFL n = 191; ESL n = 156). A univariate General Linear Model was used to investigate the effects of aircraft noise exposure and language on reading comprehension, while observing for the possible impact of intellectual ability, gender, and socioeconomic status on the results. A significant difference was observed between ESL and EFL learners in favor of the latter (F 1,419 = 21.95, P =.000). In addition a substantial and significant interaction effect was found between the experimental and control groups for the two language groups. For the EFL speakers there was a strong reduction in reading comprehension in the aircraft noise group. By contrast this difference was not significant for the ESL speakers. Implications of the findings and suggestions for further research are made in the article. PMID:23117540

  2. Bone marrow suppression and severe anaemia associated with persistent Plasmodium falciparum infection in African children with microscopically undetectable parasitaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, Marie; Goka, Bamenla Q; Akanmori, Bartholomew D;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severe anaemia can develop in the aftermath of Plasmodium falciparum malaria because of protracted bone marrow suppression, possibly due to residual subpatent parasites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood was collected from patients with recent malaria and negative malaria microscopy......, complete eradication of parasites may prevent subsequent development of anaemia. Severely anaemic children may benefit from antimalarial treatment if antigen tests are positive, even when no parasites can be demonstrated by microscopy....

  3. Predicting Non-African American Lesbian and Heterosexual Preadoptive Couples' Openness to Adopting an African American Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2009-01-01

    Despite increases in transracial adoption, African American children remain the least likely to be adopted. No research has examined the factors that predict prospective adopters' willingness to adopt an African American child. This study used multilevel modeling to examine predictors of willingness to adopt an African American child in a sample…

  4. No evidence of chromosome damage in children and adolescents with differentiated thyroid carcinoma after receiving {sup 131}I radiometabolic therapy, as evaluated by micronucleus assay and microarray analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federico, Giovanni; Fiore, Lisa; Massart, Francesco; Saggese, Giuseppe [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, Department of Pediatrics, Unit of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Pisa (Italy); Boni, Giuseppe; Lazzeri, Patrizia; Mariani, Giuliano [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, Unit of Nuclear Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Fabiani, Barbara; Verola, Carmela; Scarpato, Roberto [University of Pisa, Department of Biology, Unit of Genetics, Mutagenesis and Environmental Epidemiology, Pisa (Italy); Traino, Claudio [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, Health Physics Service, Pisa (Italy)

    2008-11-15

    As {sup 131}I therapy, used to achieve ablation of thyroid gland remnant, can cause chromosome damage in cultured peripheral lymphocytes especially, we investigated whether administration of radioiodine may induce early genome damage in peripheral T lymphocytes of adolescents with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). We studied 11 patients, aged 14.8 {+-} 3.1 years, who assumed {sup 131}I (range: 1.11-4.44 GBq) to ablate thyroid remnant. A blood sample for micronucleus assay and for evaluating expression of some genes involved in the DNA repair or the apoptosis pathways was obtained from each patient 1 h before (T{sub 0}) and 24 (T{sub 1}) and 48 h (T{sub 2}) post-radioiodine administration. Compared to T{sub 0}, we did not find any difference in the number of micronucleated cells at both T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} in any subject. Nine out of 11 patients had altered expression levels in a majority of the DNA repair and apoptosis genes at T{sub 1}, which decreased at T{sub 2}. We demonstrated for the first time that peripheral cells of DTC children and adolescents who received {sup 131}I at a mean dosage of 3.50 {+-} 0.37 GBq did not show chromosome damage within 48 h from the end of radiometabolic therapy. This may be due to a prompt activation of the cell machinery that maintains the integrity of the genome to prevent harmful double-strand breaks from progressing to chromosome mutations, either by repairing the lesions or by eliminating the most seriously damaged cells via apoptosis. (orig.)

  5. Understanding the Rise of African Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorem, Kaja Tvedten; Hansen, Michael Wendelboe; Jeppesen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    in the literature are identified and an integrative framework for analysing African enterprise development is developed. The framework is used to provide an overview of the received literature on African enterprise development, to identify voids and lacunas and to identify new research agendas. Findings: While...

  6. Young children's probability of dying before and after their mother's death: a rural South African population-based surveillance study.

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Samuel J.; Kathleen Kahn; Brian Houle; Adriane Arteche; Collinson, Mark A.; Tollman, Stephen M; Alan Stein

    2013-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Over the past few years, there has been enormous international effort to meet the target set by Millennium Development Goal 4—to reduce the under-five child mortality rate by two-thirds from the 1990 level by 2015. There has been some encouraging progress, and according to the latest figures from the World Health Organization, in 2011, just under 7 million children less than five years died, a fall of almost 3 million from a decade ago. However, such efforts must a...

  7. Episode-specific risk factors for progression of acute diarrhoea to persistent diarrhoea in west African children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S; Mølbak, Kare;

    2013-01-01

    the episode stopped or after 14 days with diarrhoea. Children who still had diarrhoea after 14 days (n = 40, 12.5% of episodes) were regarded as suffering from PD. Clinical signs, perceived by the mother, were recorded together with care-seeking behaviour and management actions. Tired and rapid breathing...... that these episodes initially were less acute. Use of oral rehydration salts did not have an impact on development of PD, whereas home medication tended to increase the risk of PD. Our study confirms the close association between systemic illness and PD as well as the importance of cryptosporidiosis as a cause of PD...

  8. Long-chain n-3 PUFA supplementation decreases physical activity during class time in iron-deficient South African school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smuts, Cornelius M; Greeff, Jani; Kvalsvig, Jane; Zimmermann, Michael B; Baumgartner, Jeannine

    2015-01-28

    Both Fe deficiency and poor n-3 fatty acid status have been associated with behavioural changes in children. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Fe and DHA+EPA supplementation, alone or in combination, on physical activity during school days and on teacher-rated behaviour in healthy Fe-deficient school children. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, children (n 98, 6-11 years) were randomly assigned to receive (1) Fe (50 mg) plus DHA (420 mg)+EPA (80 mg), (2) Fe plus placebo, (3) placebo plus DHA+EPA or (4) placebo plus placebo as oral supplements (4 d/week) for 8.5 months. Physical activity was measured during four school days at baseline and endpoint using accelerometers, and data were stratified into morning class time (08.00-10.29 hours), break time (10.30-11.00 hours) and after-break class time (11.01-12.00 hours) for analysis. Classroom behaviour was assessed at endpoint using Conners' Teacher Rating Scales. DHA+EPA supplementation decreased physical activity counts during morning class time, increased sedentary physical activity, and decreased light- and moderate-intensity physical activities. Consistently, DHA+EPA supplementation increased sedentary physical activity and decreased light-intensity physical activity during after-break class time. Even though there were no treatment effects found on teacher-rated behaviour, lower physical activity during morning class time was associated with lower levels of teacher-rated hyperactivity and oppositional behaviour at endpoint. Despite a positive association between Fe status and physical activity during break time at baseline, Fe supplementation did not affect physical activity during break time and class time. Our findings suggest that DHA+EPA supplementation may decrease physical activity levels during class time, and further indicate that accelerometry might be a useful tool to assess classroom behaviour in healthy children.

  9. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  10. Measles virus antibody responses in children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer edmonston-zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age, 9 months of age, or 9 and 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos;

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends administration of measles vaccine (MV) at age 9 months in low-income countries. We tested the measles virus antibody response at 4.5, 9, 18, and 24 months of age for children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer Edmonston-Zagreb MV at 4.5 and 9 months...... levels at 24 months of age. In addition, the response at both 9 and 24 months of age was inversely correlated with the antibody level at receipt of the first dose of MV, and the second dose of MV, received at 9 months of age, provided a significant boost in antibody level to children who had low antibody...... levels. In the group of 318 children who received MV at 9 months of age, with or without a second dose at 18 months of age, 99% (314) had protective levels at 24 months of age. The geometric mean titer at 24 months of age was significantly lower in the group that received MV at 4.5 and 9 months of age...

  11. Mandela’s Favourite African Folktales

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Concilio

    2014-01-01

    In this essay I would like to examine the selection of African tales that Nelson Mandela took care to leave as heritage to the future generations, not only to children, and not only to African children. The fact that a political leader, ex freedom fighter and political prisoner dedicated his time to the collection and editing of stories from all over the African continent to be addressed to new readers as simple entertainment or as educational tools clearly testifies to the great humanity, cu...

  12. Children who received PCV-10 vaccine from a two-dose vial without preservative are not more likely to develop injection site abscess compared with those who received pentavalent (DPT-HepB-Hib vaccine: a longitudinal multi-site study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemane Berhane

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The single dose pneumonia ten-valent vaccine has been widely used and is highly efficacious against selected strains Streptococcus pneumonia. A two-dose vial without preservative is being introduced in developing countries to reduce the cost of the vaccine. In routine settings improper immunization practice could result in microbial contamination leading to adverse events following immunization. OBJECTIVE: To monitor adverse events following immunization recommended for routine administration during infancy by comparing the rate of injection-site abscess between children who received PCV-10 vaccine and children who received the Pentavalent (DPT-HepB-Hib vaccine. METHODS: A longitudinal population-based multi-site observational study was conducted between September 2011 and October 2012. The study was conducted in four existing Health and Demographic Surveillance sites run by public universities of Abraminch, Haramaya, Gondar and Mekelle. Adverse events following Immunization were monitored by trained data collectors. Children were identified at the time of vaccination and followed at home at 48 hour and 7 day following immunization. Incidence of abscess and relative risk with the corresponding 95% Confidence Intervals were calculated to examine the risk difference in the comparison groups. RESULTS: A total of 55, 268 PCV and 37, 480 Pentavalent (DPT-HepB-Hib vaccinations were observed. A total of 19 adverse events following immunization, 10 abscesses and 9 deaths, were observed during the one year study period. The risk of developing abscess was not statistically different between children who received PCV-10 vaccine and those received Pentavalent (RR = 2.7, 95% CI 0.576-12.770, and between children who received the first aliquot of PCV and those received the second aliquot of PCV (RR = 1.72, 95% CI 0.485-6.091. CONCLUSION: No significant increase in the risk of injection site abscess was observed between the injection sites of PCV

  13. Literacy Practices in the Homes of African American Families and the Perceived Affects on the Language and Literacy Development of Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Delilah A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the tenacities, practices, and discourse of family-based literacy practices and their connection in African American families. It scrutinized the influence of the practices of African American families on the multiple contexts of literacy practices in their passageway across the school-community periphery.…

  14. Comparison of Role Perceptions of White and African American Foster Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasuti, John P.; York, Reginald; Sandell, Karen

    2004-01-01

    The number of U.S. children entering foster care is increasing faster than the number of available foster parents. Of particular concern are the growing number of African American children in foster care and the lack of African American foster parents to care for them. This study compares role perceptions of African American and white foster…

  15. Erratum to "Progress and Outcomes for Children with Autism Receiving Parent-Managed Intensive Interventions" [Research in Developmental Disabilities 22 (2001) 425-447].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibby, Peter; Eikeseth, Svein; Martin, Neil T.; Mudford, Oliver C.; Reeves, David

    2002-01-01

    This corrected article on parent-managed interventions with children with autism reports on analysis of data on 66 children. Findings generally indicated that, after 31.6 months of intervention, IQ scores had not changed but adaptive behavior scores had increased significantly (n=21). However, overall interventions did not reproduce results from…

  16. Bone marrow suppression and severe anaemia associated with persistent Plasmodium falciparum infection in African children with microscopically undetectable parasitaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriques Onike

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe anaemia can develop in the aftermath of Plasmodium falciparum malaria because of protracted bone marrow suppression, possibly due to residual subpatent parasites. Materials and methods Blood was collected from patients with recent malaria and negative malaria microscopy. Detection of the Plasmodium antigens, lactate dehydrogenase (Optimal®, aldolase and histidine rich protein 2 (Now malaria® were used to differentiate between patients with (1 no malaria, (2 recent cleared malaria, (3 persistent P. falciparum infection. Red cell distribution width (RDW, plasma levels of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR and erythropoietin (EPO were measured as markers of erythropoiesis. Interleukin (IL 10 and tumour necrosis factor (TNFα were used as inflammation markers. Results EPO was correlated with haemoglobin, irrespective of malaria (R = -0.36, P P. falciparum infection, but not recent malaria without residual parasites, was associated with bone marrow suppression i.e., low RDW (P Conclusion In the treatment of malaria, complete eradication of parasites may prevent subsequent development of anaemia. Severely anaemic children may benefit from antimalarial treatment if antigen tests are positive, even when no parasites can be demonstrated by microscopy.

  17. Evaluation of cosmetic appearance of herniotomy wound scars in African children: Comparison of tissue glue and subcuticular suturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademuyiwa A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the cosmetic appearance of herniotomy wound scars closed using either the tissue glue or subcuticular suturing technique. Materials and Methods: Prospective randomised control study; randomisation into tissue glue and suturing groups. Ethical clearance obtained. Cosmetic outcome were based on visual analogue scale by parents and Hollander wound evaluation scale by a Plastic Surgeon blinded to the wound closure method. Results: Fifty one wounds were evaluated, 26 in the tissue glue group and 25 in the suturing group. Parents′ evaluation using Visual Analogue scale (VAS showed that in the suturing group, 17 parents (68% gave a VAS of 8cm while six parents (24% gave a score of 7cm. Two parents (8% gave a score of 9cm. In the tissue glue group, 22 parents (84.6% scored the scar of their children as 8 or 9cm on the VAS while four parents (15.4% gave a score of 7cm. The median VAS was 8cm for both groups with a range of 7 to 9cm. The Chi- square test showed that the parents preferred tissue glue compared with subcuticular suturing (X2 = 7.90, P < 0.05. The Hollander Wound Evaluation Scale (HWES used by Plastic Surgeon showed 21 herniotomy wounds (84% had a score of 6 in the suturing group while four wounds (16% had a score of 5. In the tissue glue group, 19 wounds (73% had a score of 6, six wounds (23.1% had a score of 5 and a patient (3.8% had a score of 4. The median score is 6 for both groups. There was no statistically significant difference between both groups (X 2 = 1.481, P = 0.393. Conclusion: This study has shown that the cosmetic outcome of wound closure using the tissue glue technique and subcuticular suturing technique are similar.

  18. African dance

    OpenAIRE

    Mumberson, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The RE Open will be shown at the Mall Gallery London and the international section was judged by major practitioners and educators, print dealers and collectors, President of RE and Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum Dr Bren Unwin, John Purcell, Deborah Roslund, Colin Harrison, Dave Ferry, and Mark Hampson. Piece selected "African Dance" print.

  19. "African Connection."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Cathy; And Others

    This interdisciplinary unit provides students in grades kindergarten through seventh grade an opportunity to understand diversity through a study of Africa as a diverse continent. The project is designed to provide all elementary students with cultural enrichment by exposing them to African music, art, storytelling, and movement. This project can…

  20. My partner wants a child: A cross-sectional study of the determinants of the desire for children among mutually disclosed sero-discordant couples receiving care in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirembe Florence

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The percentages of couples in HIV sero-discordant relationships range from 5 to 31% in the various countries of Africa. Given the importance of procreation and the lack of assisted reproduction to avoid partner transmission, members of these couples are faced with a serious dilemma even after the challenge of disclosing their HIV status to their spouses. Identifying the determinants of the decision to have children among sero-discordant couples will help in setting reproductive intervention priorities in resource-poor countries. Methods We conducted a survey among 114 mutually disclosed sero-discordant couples (228 individuals receiving HIV care at four centres in Greater Kampala, between June and December 2007. The data we collected was classified according to whether the man or the woman was HIV-positive. We carried out multivariate logistic regression modelling to determine factors (age, gender, and the influences of relatives and of health workers, ART knowledge, and disclosure that are independently associated with a desire for children. Results The majority, 59%, of the participants, desired to have children. The belief that their partner wanted children was a major determinant of the desire to have children, irrespective of the HIV sero-status (adjusted odds ratio 24.0 (95% CI 9.15, 105.4. Among couples in which the woman was HIV-positive, young age and relatives' expectations for children were significantly associated with increased fertility desire, while among couples in which the man was positive; knowledge of ART effectiveness was associated with increased fertility desire. Availability of information on contraception was associated with decreased fertility desire. Conclusions The gender of the positive partner affects the factors associated with a desire for children. Interventions targeting sero-discordant couples should explore contraceptive choices, the cultural importance of children, and partner

  1. Perioperative respiratory adverse events in children with active upper respiratory tract infection who received general anesthesia through an orotracheal tube and inhalation agents

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, So Yeon; Kim, Jeong Min; Lee, Jae Hoon; Kang, Young Ran; Jeong, Seung Ho; Koo, Bon-Nyeo

    2013-01-01

    Background Active upper respiratory tract infection (URI), orotracheal intubation and use of inhalation anesthetics are known risk factors for perioperative respiratory adverse events (RAE). This study investigated the risk factors of perioperative RAE in children with these risk factors. Methods The records of 159 children who underwent general anesthesia with an orotracheal tube and inhalation were reviewed. These patients also had at least one of the following URI symptoms on the day of su...

  2. The Role of Stigma in Parental Help-Seeking for Perceived Child Behavior Problems in Urban, Low-Income African American Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Robert; Davis, Deborah Winders; Faye Jones, V; Keating, Adam; Wildman, Beth

    2015-12-01

    Significant numbers of children have diagnosable mental health problems, but only a small proportion of them receive appropriate services. Stigma has been associated with help-seeking for adult mental health problems and for Caucasian parents. The current study aims to understand factors, including stigma, associated with African American parents' help-seeking behavior related to perceived child behavior problems. Participants were a community sample of African American parents and/or legal guardians of children ages 3-8 years recruited from an urban primary care setting (N = 101). Variables included child behavior, stigma (self, friends/family, and public), object of stigma (parent or child), obstacles for engagement, intention to attend parenting classes, and demographics. Self-stigma was the strongest predictor of help-seeking among African American parents. The impact of self-stigma on parents' ratings of the likelihood of attending parenting classes increased when parents considered a situation in which their child's behavior was concerning to them. Findings support the need to consider parent stigma in the design of care models to ensure that children receive needed preventative and treatment services for behavioral/mental health problems in African American families. PMID:26370202

  3. Cooking and season as risk factors for acute lower respiratory infections in African children: a cross-sectional multi-country analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Buchner

    Full Text Available Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI are a leading cause of death among African children under five. A significant proportion of these are attributable to household air pollution from solid fuel use.We assessed the relationship between cooking practices and ALRI in pooled datasets of Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 2000 and 2011 in countries of sub-Saharan Africa. The impacts of main cooking fuel, cooking location and stove ventilation were examined in 18 (n = 56,437, 9 (n = 23,139 and 6 countries (n = 14,561 respectively. We used a causal diagram and multivariable logistic mixed models to assess the influence of covariates at individual, regional and national levels.Main cooking fuel had a statistically significant impact on ALRI risk (p<0.0001, with season acting as an effect modifier (p = 0.034. During the rainy season, relative to clean fuels, the odds of suffering from ALRI were raised for kerosene (OR 1.64; CI: 0.99, 2.71, coal and charcoal (OR 1.54; CI: 1.21, 1.97, wood (OR 1.20; CI: 0.95, 1.51 and lower-grade biomass fuels (OR 1.49; CI: 0.93, 2.35. In contrast, during the dry season the corresponding odds were reduced for kerosene (OR 1.23; CI: 0.77, 1.95, coal and charcoal (OR 1.35; CI: 1.06, 1.72 and lower-grade biomass fuels (OR 1.07; CI: 0.69, 1.66 but increased for wood (OR 1.32; CI: 1.04, 1.66. Cooking location also emerged as a season-dependent statistically significant (p = 0.0070 determinant of ALRI, in particular cooking indoors without a separate kitchen during the rainy season (OR 1.80; CI: 1.30, 2.50. Due to infrequent use in Africa we could, however, not demonstrate an effect of stove ventilation.We found differential and season-dependent risks for different types of solid fuels and kerosene as well as cooking location on child ALRI. Future household air pollution studies should consider potential effect modification of cooking fuel by season.

  4. A Comparison of the Cognitive Development of 3-6 Year-Old Children Who Receive Family-Supported Preschool Education, Institutional Education and No Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembat, Rengin; Kuday, Fatma Servet

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effects of Family Supported Preschool Education programs on the development of preschool children. By measuring the effects of family-supported preschool education on cognitive development, this study helps support alternative methods of making preschool education more widespread. The study uses the experimental…

  5. Immunogenicity and safety of monovalent RIVM meningococcal B OMP vesicle F91 vaccine administered to children that received hexavalent meningococcal B vaccine 2.5 years ago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafeber AB; Limpt CJP van; Berbers GAM; Labadie J; Kleijn ED de; Groot R de; Rumke HC; Alphen AJW van; Sophia Kinderziekenhuis /; LVO

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the results with respect to immunogenicity as well as reactogenicity of a monovalent P1.7h,4 OMV vaccine (MonoMen) used as booster vaccination in children previously vaccinated with a hexavalent MenB vaccine. The participants in this study were immunised in 1995-1996 with hexav

  6. Oral manifestations of HIV infection in children and adults receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy [HAART] in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamza, O.; Matee, M.I.N.; Simon, E.N.; Kikwilu, E.; Moshi, M.J.; Mugusi, F.; Mikx, F.H.M.; Verweij, P.E.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence and types of HIV-related oral lesions between children and adult Tanzanian patients on HAART with those not on HAART and to relate the occurrence of the lesions with anti-HIV drug regimen, clinical stage of HIV disease and CD4+

  7. Tensions in setting health care priorities for South Africa's children.

    OpenAIRE

    Landman, W A; Henley, L D

    1998-01-01

    The new South African constitution commits the government to guarantee "basic health services" for every child under 18. Primary health care for pregnant women and children under six and elements of essential primary health care have received priority. At present, there is little analysis of the moral considerations involved in making choices about more advanced or costly health care which may, arguably, also be "basic". This paper illustrates some of the tensions in setting priorities for a ...

  8. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  9. Validity of Measures Reflecting Visual Discrimination and Linguistic Constructs for a Sample of Second-Grade Hispanic Children Receiving Reading Instruction in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, James A.; Michael, William B.

    1984-01-01

    The concurrent and discriminant validity of La Prueba de Analisis Auditivo, a Spanish auditory perception test, and the validity of the perceptual deficit hypothesis and of hypotheses derived from verbal processing theory were evaluated in a sample of 114 second-grade Hispanic pupils receiving reading instruction in Spanish. (Author/BW)

  10. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  11. HIV Prevention Counseling Intervention Delivered During Routine Clinical Care Reduces HIV Risk Behavior in HIV-Infected South Africans Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy: The Izindlela Zokuphila/Options for Health Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jeffrey D.; Cornman, Deborah H.; Shuper, Paul A.; Christie, Sarah; Pillay, Sandy; Macdonald, Susan; Ngcobo, Ntombenhle; Amico, K. Rivet; Lalloo, Umesh; Friedland, Gerald; Fisher, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Context Sustainable interventions are needed to minimize HIV risk behavior among people living with HIV (PLWH) in South Africa on antiretroviral therapy (ART), a significant proportion of whom do not achieve viral suppression. Objective To determine whether a brief lay counselor delivered intervention implemented during routine care can reduce risky sex among PLWH on ART. Design Cluster randomized 16 HIV clinical care sites in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, to intervention or standard-of-care. Setting Publicly funded HIV clinical care sites. Patients 1891 PLWH on ART received the HIV prevention counseling intervention (n = 967) or standard-of-care counseling (n = 924). Intervention Lay counselors delivered a brief intervention using motivational interviewing strategies based on the Information—Motivation—Behavioral Skills (IMB) model during routine clinical care. Main Outcome Measures Number of sexual events without a condom in the past four weeks with partners of any HIV status, and with partners perceived to be HIV-negative or HIV-status unknown, assessed at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. Results Intervention participants reported significantly greater reductions in HIV risk behavior on both primary outcomes, compared to standard-of-care participants. Differences in STI incidence between arms were not observed. Conclusion Effective behavioral interventions, delivered by lay counselors within the clinical care setting, are consistent with the strategy of linking HIV care and HIV prevention and integrating biomedical and behavioral approaches to stemming the HIV epidemic. PMID:25230288

  12. The Africentric Home Environment Inventory: An Observational Measure of the Racial Socialization Features of the Home Environment for African American Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Randolph, Suzanne M.; O'Campo, Patricia J.

    2002-01-01

    Pilot tested the Africentric Home Environment Inventory (AHEI), an observational measure for racial socialization features of the home environment, collecting data during home visits with socioeconomically diverse, urban, African American families with preschoolers. There was a strong association between AHEI scores and family socioeconomic…

  13. Prostate cancer in men of African origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Kathleen F; Tay, Kae Jack; Moul, Judd W

    2016-02-01

    Men of African origin are disproportionately affected by prostate cancer: prostate cancer incidence is highest among men of African origin in the USA, prostate cancer mortality is highest among men of African origin in the Caribbean, and tumour stage and grade at diagnosis are highest among men in sub-Saharan Africa. Socioeconomic, educational, cultural, and genetic factors, as well as variations in care delivery and treatment selection, contribute to this cancer disparity. Emerging data on single-nucleotide-polymorphism patterns, epigenetic changes, and variations in fusion-gene products among men of African origin add to the understanding of genetic differences underlying this disease. On the diagnosis of prostate cancer, when all treatment options are available, men of African origin are more likely to choose radiation therapy or to receive no definitive treatment than white men. Among men of African origin undergoing surgery, increased rates of biochemical recurrence have been identified. Understanding differences in the cancer-survivorship experience and quality-of-life outcomes among men of African origin are critical to appropriately counsel patients and improve cultural sensitivity. Efforts to curtail prostate cancer screening will likely affect men of African origin disproportionately and widen the racial disparity of disease.

  14. An Investigation of African American Parents' Perception of School Leaders as It Relates to Parent Engagement and the African American Male Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Delvon Denise

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate African American parents' perception of school leaders as it relates to parent engagement and the African American male student. Specifically, this study addressed African American parents' perceptions of the quality of their child's education and the quality of communication they received from their…

  15. Predictors of treatment failure and time to detection and switching in HIV-infected Ethiopian children receiving first line anti-retroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacha Tigist

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of resistance to first line antiretroviral therapy (ART regimen leads to the need for more expensive and less tolerable second line drugs. Hence, it is essential to identify and address factors associated with an increased probability of first line ART regimen failure. The objective of this article is to report on the predictors of first line ART regimen failure, the detection rate of ART regime failure, and the delay in switching to second line ART drugs. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted from 2005 to 2011. All HIV infected children under the age of 15 who took first line ART for at least six months at the four major hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia were included. Data were collected, entered and analyzed using Epi info/ENA version 3.5.1 and SPSS version 16. The Cox proportional-hazard model was used to assess the predictors of first line ART failure. Results Data of 1186 children were analyzed. Five hundred seventy seven (48.8% were males with a mean age of 6.22 (SD = 3.10 years. Of the 167(14.1% children who had treatment failure, 70 (5.9% had only clinical failure, 79 (6.7% had only immunologic failure, and 18 (1.5% had both clinical and immunologic failure. Patients who had height for age in the third percentile or less at initiation of ART were found to have higher probability of ART treatment failure [Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR, 3.25 95% CI, 1.00-10.58]. Patients who were less than three years old [AHR, 1.85 95% CI, 1.24-2.76], chronic diarrhea after initiation of antiretroviral treatment [AHR, 3.44 95% CI, 1.37-8.62], ART drug substitution [AHR, 1.70 95% CI, 1.05-2.73] and base line CD4 count below 50 cells/mm3 [AHR, 2.30 95% CI, 1.28-4.14] were also found to be at higher risk of treatment failure. Of all the 167 first line ART failure cases, only 24 (14.4% were switched to second line ART with a mean delay of 24 (SD = 11.67 months. The remaining 143 (85.6% cases were diagnosed

  16. Phonological Awareness Skills in Young African American English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…

  17. The Role of the African Languages Research Institute in Addressing Language of Instruction Dilemmas in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesta Masuku

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The lexicographic work of the African Languages Research Institute (ALRI has played a significant role in attempting to avoid some of the dilemmas associated with using African languages as media of instruction in the Zimbabwean education system. Monolingual Shona and Ndebele dictionaries, biomedical reference works, dictionaries of musical, literary and linguistic terms as well as children's dictionaries constitute part of ALRI's contribution towards the goal of mainstreaming African languages in the education system. This article is an evaluation of the research activities taking place at ALRI. The aim of the article is to demonstrate that if they receive adequate attention through corpus planning, African languages possess the capacity to play an important role as media of instruction across the entire spectrum of the education curricula in Zimbabwe and elsewhere. The article concludes by observing that, if the efforts of ALRI are to succeed, there is need for the co-operation of all stakeholders in language practice.

    Keywords: DICTIONARIES, LEXICOGRAPHY, LEXICOGRAPHER, LEXICOGRAPHIC RESEARCH, INDIGENOUS AFRICAN LANGUAGES, AFRICAN LANGUAGES RESEARCH INSTITUTE (ALRI, EDUCATION, CURRICULUM, MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION, SHONA, NDEBELE, ZIMBABWE

    Opsomming: Die rol van die African Languages Research Institute by die hantering van onderrigtaaldilemmas in Zimbabwe. Die leksikografiese werk van die African Languages Research Institute (ALRI het 'n betekenisvolle rol gespeel om sommige van die dilemmas te probeer vermy wat gepaard gaan met die gebruik van Afrikatale as onderrigmedia in die Zimbabwiese opvoedingstelsel. Eentalige Sjona- en Ndebelewoordeboeke, biomediese naslaanwerke, woordeboeke van musiek-, letterkunde- en taalkundeterme sowel as woordeboeke vir kinders maak deel uit van ALRI se bydrae tot die doelwit om Afrikatale in die hoofstroom van die opvoedingstelsel te plaas. Hierdie artikel is 'n beoordeling van die

  18. Exploring Leadership through Spiritual Practices and African Moral Virtues: Portraits of African American Women Principals in Urban Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sharon Irene

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the influences of spirituality on decisions made by African American women principals at the elementary school level in schools where children of color and poverty exist in significant numbers and to gain an understanding of how African moral virtues were evidenced in the day to day professional…

  19. High-Level Cross-Resistance to Didanosine Observed in South African Children Failing an Abacavir- or Stavudine-Based 1st-Line Regimen

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Steegen; Leon Levin; Irene Ketseoglou; Michelle Bronze; Papathanasopoulos, Maria A.; Sergio Carmona; Wendy Stevens

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The knowledge-base of emerging drug resistance profiles in children exposed to abacavir-based antiretroviral regimens in South Africa is very limited. This study investigated the suitability of didanosine-based 2nd-line regimens for children in the context of antiretroviral drug resistance patterns emerging after 1st-line virologic failure. METHODS: A retrospective dataset of 354 antiretroviral drug resistant genotypes from children failing either abacavir (n = 81) or stavudine (n...

  20. The African School of Fundamental Physics and its Applications 2012 - English subtitles

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Video Productions

    2012-01-01

    Forty-nine students from 15 African countries plus one student from Iran are currently attending the African School of Physics (ASP) 2012. The school, which is in its second year, is a unique opportunity for young African students to receive training in cutting-edge physics research. Listen to their voices…

  1. Optimizing the interval between G-CSF therapy and F-18 FDG PET imaging in children and young adults receiving chemotherapy for sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trout, Andrew T.; Sharp, Susan E.; Gelfand, Michael J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Turpin, Brian K. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute, Division of Oncology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Zhang, Bin [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) speed recovery from chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression but the marrow stimulation they cause can interfere with interpretation of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET) exams. To assess the frequency of interfering G-CSF-induced bone marrow activity on FDG PET imaging in children and young adults with Ewing sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma and to define an interval between G-CSF administration and FDG PET imaging that limits marrow interference. Blinded, retrospective review of FDG PET exams performed in patients treated with long-acting G-CSF as part of their chemotherapeutic regimen. Exams were subjectively scored by two reviewers (R1 and R2) who assessed the level of marrow uptake of FDG and measured standardized uptake values in the marrow, liver, spleen and blood pool. FDG PET findings were correlated with time since G-CSF administration and with blood cell counts. Thirty-eight FDG PET exams performed in 17 patients were reviewed with 47.4% (18/38) of exams having marrow uptake of FDG sufficient to interfere with image interpretation. Primary predictors of marrow uptake of FDG were patient age (P = 0.0037) and time since G-CSF exposure (P = 0.0028 for subjective marrow uptake of FDG, P = 0.008 [R1] and P = 0.004 [R2] for measured maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax)). The median interval between G-CSF administration and PET imaging in cases with marrow activity considered normal or not likely to interfere was 19.5 days (range: 7-55 days). In pediatric and young adult patients with Ewing sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma, an interval of 20 days between administration of the long-acting form of G-CSF and FDG PET imaging should limit interference by stimulated marrow. (orig.)

  2. What parents of children who have received emergency care think about deferring consent in randomised trials of emergency treatments: postal survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrol Gamble

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate parents' views about deferred consent to inform management of trial disclosure after a child's death. METHODS: A postal questionnaire survey was sent to members of the Meningitis Research Foundation UK charity, whose child had suffered from bacterial meningitis or meningococcal septicaemia within the previous 5 years. Main outcome measures were acceptability of deferred consent; timing of requesting consent; and the management of disclosure of the trial after a child's death. RESULTS: 220 families were sent questionnaires of whom 63 (29% were bereaved. 68 families responded (31%, of whom 19 (28% were bereaved. The majority (67% was willing for their child to be involved in the trial without the trial being explained to them beforehand; 70% wanted to be informed about the trial as soon as their child's condition had stabilised. In the event of a child's death before the trial could be discussed the majority of bereaved parents (66% 12/18 anticipated wanting to be told about the trial at some time. This compared with 37% (18/49 of non-bereaved families (p = 0.06. Parents' free text responses indicated that the word 'trial' held strongly negative connotations. A few parents regarded gaps in the evidence base about emergency treatments as indicating staff lacked expertise to care for a critically ill child. Bereaved parents' free text responses indicated the importance of individualised management of disclosure about a trial following a child's death. DISCUSSION: Deferred consent is acceptable to the majority of respondents. Parents whose children had recovered differed in their views compared to bereaved parents. Most bereaved parents would want to be informed about the trial in the aftermath of a child's death, although a minority strongly opposed such disclosure. Distinction should be drawn between the views of bereaved and non-bereaved parents when considering the acceptability of different consent processes.

  3. 儿童髓母细胞瘤34例三维适形放射治疗的疗效分析%The follow-up of 34 children with medulloblastoma who received 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongfeng He; Siheng Ha; Changsheng Wang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In our investigation, we studied the patients with medulloblastoma who received 3-dimensional con- formal radiation therapy (3DCRT) and recorded their effects, side effects and failure reasons. Methods: From August 2001 to August 2007, 34 children with medulloblastoma were treated in our hospital. The age at diagnosis was 3-16 years old, and the mean age at diagnosis was 9.5 years old. Among all the patients, 16 cases were included in the high risk group and 18cases were included in the low risk group. All the patients were performed total resection or subtotal resection and no patientsreceived radiotherapy or chemotherapy before operation. All patients received 3DCRT within 3 weeks after resection. The dose of 30 Gy were given to the whole brain and whole spine, followed by 20-25 Gy boosted to the posterior brain fossa. The median fraction dose was 180 cGy. Every patient received the chemotherapy scheme of the Lomustine, Cisplatinum and Vincristine. Nobody received intrathecal chemotherapy. The tests of the complete blood count, blood biochemistry, hepatic and renal functions were required before every cycle of chemotherapy. Results: 5-year overall survival (OS) and 5-year disease free survival (DFS) were 71% and 62% respectively. The median follow-up time was 36.5 months. The 5-year OS of the high risk group was 71% compared to 62% of the low risk group. There were significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.01). There were 13 failure cases in all the patients. Of these 13 patients, 10 were dead and the other 3 were alive with tumor. The complete remission (CR) rate was 70.5% and the partial remission (PR) rate was 14%. Among the failure patients, there were 3 patients (8.8%) with the recurrences located in the brain of cribriform region. The 5-year OS of the patients with preoperative metastases was 12.5% (1/8), and which of the patients with residual tumor volume > 1.5 cm3 was 0% (0/5). Through the statistic analysis, it was found that both

  4. Developing Children's Awareness of the Human-Animal Bond: An Assessment of the Experiences and Benefits that Children Receive in the United Animal Nation's Humane Education Ambassador Readers (HEAR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Laura

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, the United Animal Nations (UAN) launched the Humane Education Ambassador Readers (HEAR), an innovation that focused on mitigation of animal suffering through education. In the HEAR program, adult volunteers read carefully selected story books to children in grades 3-6 in schools or other educational settings, and hold discussions with the…

  5. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  6. Musical therapy for children receiving venous transfusion in outpatient department%浅析音乐治疗在儿内科门诊静脉穿刺输液治疗患儿中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段建华; 张婧雯; 张倩丽

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过分析患儿在北京新世纪儿童医院儿内科门诊静脉穿刺输液治疗时接受音乐治疗前后行为及言语紧张度数据,积累音乐治疗在儿科静脉穿刺输液治疗中的应用经验.方法 北京新世纪儿童医院门诊接受静脉穿刺输液治疗同时接受音乐治疗的患儿23名,采取行为评价量表和家长问卷评价患儿接受音乐治疗前后的行为和语言指标.结果 在儿内科门诊静脉穿刺输液治疗时接受音乐治疗可以使患儿语言恐惧表达率和紧张性肢体动作出现率降低,差异有统计学意义.结论 音乐治疗可以减轻静脉穿刺输液治疗对儿童的不良情绪刺激.%Objective To share the experience of musical therapy for children who receive venous transfusion in outpatient department. Methods Behavior scales and parents questionnaire were developed to obtain data before and after musical therapy for children receiving venous transfusion. Results Musical therapy could significantly reduce fearful language expression and tonic limb action. Conclusion Musical therapy was effective in reducing anxiety and distress.

  7. Application of virtual reality to children receiving removal of baby teeth%虚拟现实技术在儿童乳牙拔除术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊晓菊; 毛靖

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of virtual reality as a distraction method on pain relief during baby teeth removal. Methods Totally. 120 children aged 5 - 12 years old who needed to have their baby teeth removed were recruited and divided into an observation group of 60 and a control group of 60 according to their order of treatment. Children in the control group received conventional treatment, while those in the observation group were asked to wear visual-aiding device of virtual reality system during the process of teeth removal. Results The observation group perceived less severe pain during the process of teeth removal than the control group (P<0. 01). Conclusion The application of virtual reality as a distraction method can effectively relieve pain during the process of baby teeth removal for children. However, the game imbedded in the virtual reality system is claimed by some children to be too simple, which makes development of varied games in catering to children in different age groups a necessity.%目的 探索虚拟现实技术分散注意力疗法缓解儿童乳牙拔除术中疼痛的效果.方法 将120例5~12岁需拔除乳牙的患儿纳入试验,按就诊先后顺序分配到观察组和对照组各60例.对照组患儿接受常规方法拔牙,观察组患儿在常规拔牙的基础上于拔牙前5 min使用虚拟现实系统直至拔牙结束.结果 观察组患儿拔牙时疼痛程度显著低于对照组(P<0.01).结论 虚拟现实技术分散注意力疗法能有效缓解患儿乳牙拔除术中的疼痛,但游戏方法稍显简单,应针对不同年龄患儿研发适合的游戏.

  8. Connective Complexity: African American Adolescents and the Relational Context of Kinship Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Attempts to address racial disproportionality in child welfare must include a focus on the benefits and challenges facing children in kinship care. African American children not only are overrepresented in the child welfare system, but also are placed disproportionately in kinship foster care. Using a sample of 18 African American adolescents ages…

  9. 我国流动人口子女平等受教育权的立法保障问题探讨%Discussion about Protection of Migrant Childrens' Equal Rights to Receive Education in Legislation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯罗妮娜

    2015-01-01

    There are many inequalities in enrolment conditions, education fees and sharing public education resources when comparing migrant children with residential children at present, which infringe the former's equal rights to receive education. As a constitutional right, kinds of social problems will arise if it is unrealized. By analyzing this problem, the article suggests from the aspect of legislative protection that the legislature record migration freedom into constitution, reform the household registration system, and enact education law and statutes aiming at protecting migrant children.%当前流动人口子女与城镇常住人口子女相比,在入学条件、费用负担、公共教育资源享用等方面存在着诸多不平等现象,平等受教育权受到严重侵害。平等受教育权是我国宪法规定的一项基本权利,而基本权利得不到实现容易导致诸多社会问题的产生。在对此问题的现状进行分析与探讨后,从立法保障层面提出了在宪法中增加“迁徙自由权”、改革户籍制度、制定专门保护流动人口子女的教育法规等建议。

  10. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't ...

  11. Development and Tracking of Body Mass Index from Preschool Age into Adolescence in Rural South African Children: Ellisras Longitudinal Growth and Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    K.D. Monyeki; Monyeki, Makama A.; Brits, S.J.; Kemper, H.C.G.; Makgae, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this observational prospective cohort study was to investigate the development and tracking of body mass index (BMI) of Ellisras rural children from preschool age into late adolescence from the Ellisras Longitudinal Growth and Health Study. Heights and weights of children were measured according to the standard procedures recommended by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry twice a year from 1996 to 2003. In total, 2,225 children—550 preschool and 1,...

  12. Abacavir, zidovudine, or stavudine as paediatric tablets for African HIV-infected children (CHAPAS-3): an open-label, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    V Mulenga; Musiime, V.; Kekitiinwa, A.; Cook, AD; G Abongomera; Kenny, J.; Chabala, C; Mirembe, G.; Asiimwe, A; Owen-Powell, E.; Burger, D.; McIlleron, H.; N. Klein; Chintu, C; Thomason, MJ

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background WHO 2013 guidelines recommend universal treatment for HIV-infected children younger than 5 years. No paediatric trials have compared nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Africa, where most HIV-infected children live. We aimed to compare stavudine, zidovudine, or abacavir as dual or triple fixed-dose-combination paediatric tablets with lamivudine and nevirapine or efavirenz. Methods In this open-label, parallel-gro...

  13. 哮喘患儿吸入糖皮质激素治疗5年后过敏原变化观察%Allergen sensitization changes in asthmatic children receiving inhaled corticosteroid therapy for five years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤正珍; 郑跃杰; 王和平; 宋萍; 刘晓莉; 刘萍; 白大明; 王莉

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解哮喘患儿吸入糖皮质激素(ICS)治疗5年后的过敏原变化情况.方法 对2003-2004年在深圳市儿童医院哮喘门诊登记且登记时均行皮肤点刺实验(SPT)并给予ICS治疗的133例哮喘患儿,进行现场回顾性调查.现场调查包括填写调查表和复查SPT.结果 133例哮喘患儿完成了5年前后的2次SPT检测,5年前121例(91%)SPT阳性,12例(9%)SPT阴性;5年后133例中119例 (89.5%)SPT检测阳性,14例(10.5%)SPT阴性,与5年前比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).5年后吸入性过敏原和食物过敏原的阳性率均无明显变化,但蟑螂和树花粉明显增加(P>0.05),牛奶、鸡蛋明显减少(P>0.05).结论 哮喘患儿5年后过敏率变化不大,吸入性过敏有所增加,食物过敏有减少趋势.屋尘螨和粉尘螨仍然是主要过敏原.ICS治疗与否对过敏情况无明显影响.%Objective To assess the allergen -sensitization changes in asthmatic children receiving inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy for 5 years. Methods . The retrospective study was carried out in 133 asthmatic children receiving treatment of ICS from 2003-2004 in Shenzhen Children' s Hospital. The patients were assessed by questionnaire and skin prick tests (SPT).Results Totally 133 patients finished the SPT before and after five years. The positive rate of SPT in 133 cases was 91% before five years,which was not significantly different(P > 0.05)from that of the patients (89.5%)af-ter five years . There was no significant increase in food and inhalant hypersensitivity (P > 0.05) ,but Cockroach and Tree-pollen increased obviously, and milk and eggs were reduced significantly.Conclusions Allergen sensitization changes in asthmatic children received inhaled corticosteroid therapy for five years are small.Inhalant allergens increase obviously, but the tendency of food hypersensitivity is reduced.Dermatophagoldes pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farina are still the main allergen.

  14. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, ... 46 per 100,000. • The suicide rate for African Americans ages 10-19 was 2.98 per ...

  15. Linguistic Imperialism: African Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Responds to an article on aspects of African language policy and discusses the following issues: multilingualism and monolingualism, proposed changes in language policy from the Organization for African Unity and South African initiatives, the language of literature, bilingual education, and whose interests English-language teaching is serving.…

  16. Cataloging the Pan-African Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Of all the honors and accolades bibliophile and noted authority on the Underground Railroad Charles Blockson has received, being bequeathed recently with some of Harriet Tubman's personal items by her great-niece is one of the most significant experiences of his life. A longtime collector of books and rare items by and about African-Americans,…

  17. Clinical epidemiology of bocavirus, rhinovirus, two polyomaviruses and four coronaviruses in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected South African children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C Nunes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advances in molecular diagnostics have implicated newly-discovered respiratory viruses in the pathogenesis of pneumonia. We aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of human bocavirus (hBoV, human rhinovirus (hRV, polyomavirus-WU (WUPyV and -KI (KIPyV and human coronaviruses (CoV-OC43, -NL63, -HKU1 and -229E among children hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI. METHODS: Multiplex real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was undertaken on archived nasopharyngeal aspirates from HIV-infected and -uninfected children (<2 years age hospitalized for LRTI, who had been previously investigated for respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza I-III, adenovirus and influenza A/B. RESULTS: At least one of these viruses were identified in 274 (53.0% of 517 and in 509 (54.0% of 943 LRTI-episodes in HIV-infected and -uninfected children, respectively. Human rhinovirus was the most prevalent in HIV-infected (31.7% and -uninfected children (32.0%, followed by CoV-OC43 (12.2% and hBoV (9.5% in HIV-infected; and by hBoV (13.3% and WUPyV (11.9% in HIV-uninfected children. Polyomavirus-KI (8.9% vs. 4.8%; p = 0.002 and CoV-OC43 (12.2% vs. 3.6%; p<0.001 were more prevalent in HIV-infected than -uninfected children. Combined with previously-tested viruses, respiratory viruses were identified in 60.9% of HIV-infected and 78.3% of HIV-uninfected children. The newly tested viruses were detected at high frequency in association with other respiratory viruses, including previously-investigated viruses (22.8% in HIV-infected and 28.5% in HIV-uninfected children. CONCLUSIONS: We established that combined with previously-investigated viruses, at least one respiratory virus was identified in the majority of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children hospitalized for LRTI. The high frequency of viral co-infections illustrates the complexities in attributing causality to specific viruses

  18. Low birth weight, very low birth weight and extremely low birth weight in African children aged between 0 and 5 years old: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchamo, M E; Prista, A; Leandro, C G

    2016-08-01

    Low birth weight (LBWAcademic Search Complete in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus and Scholar Google. Quantitatives studies that investigated the association between LBW, VLBW, ELBW with growth, neurodevelopmental outcome and mortality, published between 2008 and 2015 were included. African studies with humans were eligible for inclusion. From the total of 2205 articles, 12 articles were identified as relevant and were subsequently reviewed in full version. Significant associations were found between LBW, VLBW and ELBW with growth, neurodevelopmental outcome and mortality. Surviving VLBW and ELBW showed increased risk of death, growth retardation and delayed neurodevelopment. Post-neonatal interventions need to be carried out in order to minimize the short-term effects of VLBW and ELBW. PMID:27072315

  19. Are Ethnic and Gender Specific Equations Needed to Derive Fat Free Mass from Bioelectrical Impedance in Children of South Asian, Black African-Caribbean and White European Origin? Results of the Assessment of Body Composition in Children Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nightingale, Claire M; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Owen, Christopher G; Donin, Angela S.; Newton, Sian L.; Furness, Cheryl A.; Emma L Howard; Gillings, Rachel D.; Jonathan C K Wells; Cook, Derek G.; Whincup, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a potentially valuable method for assessing lean mass and body fat levels in children from different ethnic groups. We examined the need for ethnic- and gender-specific equations for estimating fat free mass (FFM) from BIA in children from different ethnic groups and examined their effects on the assessment of ethnic differences in body fat. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of children aged 8-10 years in London Primary schools including 325 ...

  20. Cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis: the African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldeyarbi, Hebatalla M; Abu El-Ezz, Nadia M T; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2016-07-01

    The present overview discusses the findings of cryptosporidiosis research conducted in Africa and highlights the currently available information on Cryptosporidium epidemiology, genetic diversity, and distribution on the African continent, particularly among vulnerable populations, including children. It also emphasizes the burden of cryptosporidiosis, which is underestimated due to the presence of many silent asymptomatic carriers.Cryptosporidiosis is recognized as one of the leading causes of childhood diarrhea in African countries. It has dramatic adverse effects on child growth and development and causes increased mortality on a continent where HIV, poverty, and lack of sanitation and infrastructure increase the risk of cryptosporidial waterborne infection. PMID:27126869

  1. Development and linear growth in diabetic children who receiving insulin pigment%强化胰岛素治疗后1型糖尿病儿童生长发育情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛莉; 陆卫平; 季峰; 吕述军

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To ascertain if there is difference between the development and linear growth of children diagnosed with diabetes who have been receiving insulin pigment and unaffected children. Methods:Retrospective analysis of 57 children with diabetes who were diagnosed from the ages of 6 to 10 years old (26 boys and 31 girls),record their height and weight until they reached their 18th birthday. Results: At the onset of diabetes,diabetic children were slightly taller than unaffected children. When they reached their finial height,they were slightly shorter than unaffectd people,however,there was no significant difference between the two groups both in these two periods. The onset of puberty was delayed significantly both in boys and girls. The median age of onset of puberty was 12.62(95%CI 11.54~12.50) years in diabetic boys versus 10.55(10.27~10.79) years in general-population boys and 11.13 (95%CI 10.8~11.46) years versus 9.2 (9.06~9.32) years in girls,with the menarche of diabetic girls starting at 14.15 (13.64~14.65) years versus 12.27 (12.16~12.39) years. All the children with diabetes were thinner than the general-population children when they were diagnosed [male BMI:(14.45 ± 1.35) kg/m2 versus (16.08 ± 0.59) kg/m2,t = -0.63,P 0.05;female BMI (23.95 ± 2.37) kg/m2 versus(20.30 ± 0.00) kg/m2,t = 8.60,P < 0.05]. Conclusion:The development of patients with diabetes who have been receiving insulin pigment were still adversely affected but the finial height haven't been affected significantly. All the children, especially girls,became fatter when they reached their finial height.%目的:调查接受胰岛素治疗、血糖控制良好的1型糖尿病患儿的生长发育与一般人群是否存在差异。方法:选取自1993年1月~2003年1月于本院首次确诊的1型糖尿病患儿57例(男26例,女31例,起病年龄6~10岁)。记录并进行回顾分析其自起病至成年的身高、体重以及青春启动年龄和女性患儿

  2. Eating Disorders in African American Girls: Implications for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…

  3. Nutritional zinc deficiency, immune capacity and malaria : a study on mediators of immunity to malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum in African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbugi, E.V.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis aimed at investigating the role of genetic and nutritional factors that affect the immune response to malaria in Tanzanian children. The introductory chapter (Chapter 1) reviews the importance of nutritional deficiencies, particularly of zinc, and presents the hypothesis that such defici

  4. Vitamin A supplementation in iodine-deficient African children decreases thyrotropin stimulation of the thyroid and reduces the goiter rate 1-3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Jooste, P.L.; Mabapa, N.S.; Schoeman, S.; Biebinger, R.; Mushaphi, L.F.; Mbhenyane, X.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Vitamin A (VA) deficiency (VAD) and iodine deficiency (ID) often coexist in children in Africa. VAD may affect thyroid function and the response to iodine prophylaxis. Objective: The aim was to investigate the effects of supplementation with iodine or VA alone, and in combination, in chi

  5. Confirmation of an Association Between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the VDR Gene With Respiratory Syncytial Virus Related Disease in South African Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kresfelder, T. L.; Janssen, R.; Bont, L.; Venter, M.

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants. Disease severity has been linked to host immune responses and polymorphisms in genes associated with innate immunity. A large-scale genetics study of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in children in

  6. Perturbation and proinflammatory type activation of Vd1+ gamma delta T cells in African children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, L; Kurtzhals, J A; Adabayeri, V;

    2001-01-01

    of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Ghanaian children and they can constitute 30 to 50% of all T cells shortly after initiation of antimalarial chemotherapy. The bulk of the gamma delta T cells involved in this perturbation expressed V delta 1 and had a highly activated phenotype. Analysis of the T...

  7. Prevalence of anaemia and its associated factors in African children at one and three years residing in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramoteme L. Mamabolo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study evaluated the prevalence of anaemia and its determinants in one- and three-year-old children from the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Methods: A prospective cohort study conducted in rural villages in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. At birth, a cohort of 219 children was followed until they were one and three years of age. Data collected included the children’s anthropometric measurements, blood for biochemical analysis (full blood count, ferritin, folate and vitamin B12 and socio-demographic status.Results: At one year, anaemia (Hb < 11 g/dL was present in 52% of the children, decreasing to 22% by the third year. Iron deficiency (ferritin < 12 µg/mL was common in these children (39% and 33% at one year and three years, respectively particularly in the presence of anaemia. Folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies (< 5 ng/mL and < 145 pg/mL, respectively were common at one year, with the children accumulating enough vitamin B12 by three years; however, folate deficiency levels remained fairly constant between the two time points.Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of anaemia in the study participants at one year and three years of age. Factors that increased the risk of anaemia at three years were: a mother with only a primary school education, anaemia at one year, male gender, overweight, and combined overweight and stunting. Protective factors against anaemia were having a younger mother who served as the main caregiver.

  8. What Teachers Perceive--Children Receive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algozzine, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Reports a study designed to ascertain the relationship between teacher perceived attractiveness and classroom interactions and suggests that "main effects" such as facial attractiveness of youngsters acts to determine individual potential for interactions with others. (MH)

  9. Are We Still Receiving a Colored Education? Education of Black Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Marjorie

    With the 1964 Civil Rights Act, school segregation was to come to an end, but it may be that black students are still receiving a "colored" education. There are inequities and prejudices in U.S. institutions, and these have tremendous influences on how African Americans are perceived and accepted. The nation's African American students are…

  10. Iron and a mixture of DHA and EPA supplementation, alone and in combination, affect bioactive lipid signalling and morbidity of iron deficient South African school children in a two-by-two randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, L; Baumgartner, J; Zandberg, L; Calder, P C; Smuts, C M

    2016-02-01

    We recently reported that iron supplementation increased respiratory morbidity in iron deficient South African children. This increase, however, was attenuated when iron was provided in combination with a mixture of DHA/EPA. To explore potential underlying mechanisms, we examined the effects of iron and DHA/EPA, alone and in combination, on plasma lipid-derived immune modulator concentrations and related gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). DHA/EPA decreased inflammatory 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and tended to increase anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA), while iron decreased 17-HDHA. However, in combination with iron, the anti-inflammatory effect of DHA/EPA was maintained. These biochemical changes may explain the prevention of iron-induced respiratory morbidity that we observed when iron was supplemented in combination with DHA/EPA during the 8.5 month randomised controlled trial and might lead to a safer approach of delivering iron supplementation. The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01092377.

  11. Low complexity MIMO receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Lin; Yu, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems can increase the spectral efficiency in wireless communications. However, the interference becomes the major drawback that leads to high computational complexity at both transmitter and receiver. In particular, the complexity of MIMO receivers can be prohibitively high. As an efficient mathematical tool to devise low complexity approaches that mitigate the interference in MIMO systems, lattice reduction (LR) has been widely studied and employed over the last decade. The co-authors of this book are world's leading experts on MIMO receivers, and here they share the key findings of their research over years. They detail a range of key techniques for receiver design as multiple transmitted and received signals are available. The authors first introduce the principle of signal detection and the LR in mathematical aspects. They then move on to discuss the use of LR in low complexity MIMO receiver design with respect to different aspects, including uncoded MIMO detection...

  12. Influence of Adiposity on Insulin Resistance and Glycemia Markers Among U.K. Children of South Asian, Black African-Caribbean, and White European Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Claire M Nightingale; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Owen, Christopher G; Jonathan C K Wells; Sattar, Naveed; Cook, Derek G.; Whincup, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Ethnic differences in type 2 diabetes risk between South Asians and white Europeans originate before adult life and are not fully explained by higher adiposity levels in South Asians. Although metabolic sensitivity to adiposity may differ between ethnic groups, this has been little studied in childhood. We have therefore examined the associations among adiposity, insulin resistance, and glycemia markers in children of different ethnic origins. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Cross-secti...

  13. The relationship between quality of child-caregiver attachment, self-evaluation and cognitive development in a group of preschool South African children / Marichelle van Deventer

    OpenAIRE

    Van Deventer, Marichelle

    2008-01-01

    Attachment theory is a fast growing field which contribute considerably to the understanding of the quality of the child-caregiver relationship and its influence in the shaping of the child. The attachment system utilizes cognitive components (Internal Working Models (IWM's)) of the attachment figure, the self and the environment, during the child's interaction with the primary caregiver. These models permit successful navigation of a child's environment, influence the way children construe t...

  14. Delphi Accounts Receivable Module

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...

  15. Percepción y expectativas de cuidadoras de niños con gran discapacidad: Sobre la atención sanitaria recibida Perception and expectations of mothers with seriously disable children on received sanitary attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Cruz-Escobosa

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: (1 Conocer la percepción que tienen las cuidadoras principales de niños con Gran Discapacidad respecto a la atención recibida dentro del Sistema Sanitario Público de Andalucía. (2 Identificar propuestas de mejora para la atención integral tanto de los niños, como de sus cuidadoras. Metodología: estudio cualitativo mediante Grupo Focal con madres/padres de niños y niñas diagnosticados de patologías crónicas que generan gran dependencia con edades comprendidas entre 4 y 12 años. Resultados: las repercusiones de la enfermedad de sus hijos en sus familias y en ellas supusieron un impacto total. Expresan una falta de apoyo familiar efectivo y de tiempo para su autocuidado. Perciben un trato y una atención mejorable por parte de algunos de los profesionales de Atención Especializada. En el Centro de Salud ven muy positivo el trato de los profesionales, la accesibilidad, las facilidades que encuentran ante cualquier problema que les surge y ahora el plan de atención a cuidadoras de grandes discapacitados. Conclusiones: es necesario tener en cuenta la visión de las madres en el tratamiento de la enfermedad de sus hijos. Asumirla por los profesionales como una información valiosa va a producir una mejora en la calidad prestada. Valoran que se les informe con claridad y no técnicamente. Cualquier intervención del sistema socio-sanitario debe abarcar al paciente, a la cuidadora y a la familia, aumentar las prestaciones ofrecidas, especialmente el tratamiento rehabilitador y facilitar recursos para minimizar la sobrecarga económica y emocional.Objectives: (1 To know the perception which they have the main nursemaids of children with seriously disabilities about the attention received within the Public System Sanitary of Andalusia, identifying strong and weak points. (2 To as much identify proposals of improvement for the integral attention of the children, as of its nursemaids. Methodology: qualitative study by means of Focal

  16. Analysis on detection results of trace elements in 2 963 children receiving physical examination in Chengdu city%成都市2963例体检儿童微量元素检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 甘春玉; 李文胜; 沈川; 柳晓琴; 石华

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解成都地区0 ~14岁儿童体内微量元素的含量,分析其异常的原因,探讨干预措施及纠正方法.方法:原子吸收光谱法检测2 963例正常儿童全血微量元素(铜、锌、钙、镁、铁、铅、镉)含量,比较年龄、性别对微量元素异常的影响.结果:成都地区正常体检儿童血锌、钙、铁和铅的异常率相对较高,血铅有随年龄增加异常率增加的趋势,血铁及血钙5岁以下组与5岁以上组异常率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),各微量元素测定结果无性别差异.结论:儿童微量元素含量与生理周期及喂养习惯有密切关系,婴儿期应注意补铁,幼儿期侧重补钙,良好的生活环境及个人卫生习惯可以预防铅中毒的发生.%Objective: To understand the contents of trace elements in 0 - 14 years old children in Chengdu city, analyze the causes of abnormal trace elements contents, and explore the interventional measures and correction methods.Methods: Atomic absorption spec-trometry was used to detect the contents of copper, zinc, calcium, magnesium, iron, lead, and cadmium in whole blood of 2 963 normal children, the effects of age and gender on abnormal trace elements.Results: The abnormal rates of blood zinc, calcium, iron, and lead in children receiving physical examination in Chengdu city were relatively high, the abnormal rate of blood lead showed an increasing trend with age, there were statistically significant differences in abnormal rates of blood iron and calcium between under 5 years old group and more than 5 years old group ( P < 0.05 ) , there was no gender difference in detection results of trace elements.Conclusion: The contents of trace elements in children are correlated with physiological cycle and feeding habits.Iron supplementation during infant period should be paid more attention, and calcium supplementation should be focused on during toddle period.Good living environment and personal health habits can

  17. RRH: envenoming syndrome due to 200 stings from Africanized honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Almeida Rosa da Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Envenoming syndrome from Africanized bee stings is a toxic syndrome caused by the inoculation of large amounts of venom from multiple bee stings, generally more than five hundred. The incidence of severe toxicity from Africanized bee stings is rare but deadly. This report reveals that because of the small volume of distribution, having fewer stings does not exempt a patient from experiencing an unfavorable outcome, particularly in children, elderly people or underweight people.

  18. Chronic Pain in Older African American Grandparent Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Staja Q

    2016-06-01

    African American grandparent caregiving is increasing, and evidence shows that grandparent caregiving influences health and its management. As older adults age, their potential of experiencing chronic pain increases, and this is profound given that physiological research shows that African Americans, aside from aging, may have a predisposition for developing chronic pain. Research shows older African Americans experience significant chronic pain, but few have discussed the implications of managing chronic pain in older African Americans who have added parental responsibility. Many older African Americans receive home healthcare services and there is a unique role for home healthcare clinicians in caring for this vulnerable population. This article discusses the impact of pain on caregiving, challenges in pain management, and practice and policy implications to assist home healthcare clinicians maintain the safety and protection of both the older grandparent and grandchildren. PMID:27243429

  19. African Oral Traditions: Riddles Among The Haya of Northwestern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishengoma, Johnson M.

    2005-05-01

    This study argues for the integration of African oral traditions and other elements of traditional learning into the modern school curriculum. It thus contributes to supporting the increased relevance of education to local communities. In particular, using the example of riddles collected from one of the main ethnic groups in Northwestern Tanzania, the Haya people, the present study challenges the views of those social and cultural anthropologists who hold that African riddles have no substantially meaningful educational value. Instead, it is maintained that riddles make an important contribution to children's full participation in the social, cultural, political, and economic life of African communities, especially by fostering critical thinking and transmitting indigenous knowledge.

  20. In vitro selection of Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 for expression of variant surface antigens associated with severe malaria in African children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staalsoe, Trine; Nielsen, Morten A; Vestergaard, Lasse S;

    2003-01-01

    ) in older semi-immune children. Establishment of the genetic mechanism underlying changes in VSA expression in response to in vitro selective pressure is now possible because of the availability of the entire genomic sequence of the P. falciparum clone 3D7. As a first step towards direct molecular...... identification of VSASM-encoding genes in 3D7, we report here a method of enforcing expression of VSASM-like antigens in this parasite clone by a novel selection method using plasma from semi-immune children with low VSAUM-specific, but high VSASM-specific, IgG reactivity. In addition to the resulting increase...... in VSA-specific IgG recognition, VSASM-expressing 3D7(3D7-Dodowa1) showed reduced adhesion to CD36. Finally, levels of IgG specific for the VSA expressed by 3D7-Dodowa1 were uniformly higher than those of IgG with specificity for VSA expressed by the unselected 3D7 in plasma samples from geographically...

  1. HIV Infection and the Epidemiology of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD in South African Adults and Older Children Prior to the Introduction of a Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Meiring

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is the commonest cause of bacteremic pneumonia among HIV-infected persons. As more countries with high HIV prevalence are implementing infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV programs, we aimed to describe the baseline clinical characteristics of adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD in the pre-PCV era in South Africa in order to interpret potential indirect effects following vaccine use.National, active, laboratory-based surveillance for IPD was conducted in South Africa from 1 January 2003 through 31 December 2008. At 25 enhanced surveillance (ES hospital sites, clinical data, including HIV serostatus, were collected from IPD patients ≥ 5 years of age. We compared the clinical characteristics of individuals with IPD in those HIV-infected and -uninfected using multivariable analysis. PCV was introduced into the routine South African Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI in 2009.In South Africa, from 2003-2008, 17 604 cases of IPD occurred amongst persons ≥ 5 years of age, with an average incidence of 7 cases per 100 000 person-years. Against a national HIV-prevalence of 18%, 89% (4190/4734 of IPD patients from ES sites were HIV-infected. IPD incidence in HIV-infected individuals is 43 times higher than in HIV-uninfected persons (52 per 100 000 vs. 1.2 per 100 000, with a peak in the HIV-infected elderly population of 237 per 100 000 persons. Most HIV-infected individuals presented with bacteremia (74%, 3 091/4 190. HIV-uninfected individuals were older; and had more chronic conditions (excluding HIV than HIV-infected persons (39% (210/544 vs. 19% (790/4190, p<0.001. During the pre-PCV immunization era in South Africa, 71% of serotypes amongst HIV-infected persons were covered by PCV13 vs. 73% amongst HIV-uninfected persons, p = 0.4, OR 0.9 (CI 0.7-1.1.Seventy to eighty-five percent of adult IPD in the pre-PCV era were vaccine serotypes and 93% of cases had recognized risk factors (including HIV-infection for

  2. Different methodological approaches to the assessment of in vivo efficacy of three artemisinin-based combination antimalarial treatments for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in African children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongo Issaka

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of different methods for assessing the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination antimalarial treatments (ACTs will result in different estimates being reported, with implications for changes in treatment policy. Methods Data from different in vivo studies of ACT treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria were combined in a single database. Efficacy at day 28 corrected by PCR genotyping was estimated using four methods. In the first two methods, failure rates were calculated as proportions with either (1a reinfections excluded from the analysis (standard WHO per-protocol analysis or (1b reinfections considered as treatment successes. In the second two methods, failure rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier product limit formula using either (2a WHO (2001 definitions of failure, or (2b failure defined using parasitological criteria only. Results Data analysed represented 2926 patients from 17 studies in nine African countries. Three ACTs were studied: artesunate-amodiaquine (AS+AQ, N = 1702, artesunate-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS+SP, N = 706 and artemether-lumefantrine (AL, N = 518. Using method (1a, the day 28 failure rates ranged from 0% to 39.3% for AS+AQ treatment, from 1.0% to 33.3% for AS+SP treatment and from 0% to 3.3% for AL treatment. The median [range] difference in point estimates between method 1a (reference and the others were: (i method 1b = 1.3% [0 to24.8], (ii method 2a = 1.1% [0 to21.5], and (iii method 2b = 0% [-38 to19.3]. The standard per-protocol method (1a tended to overestimate the risk of failure when compared to alternative methods using the same endpoint definitions (methods 1b and 2a. It either overestimated or underestimated the risk when endpoints based on parasitological rather than clinical criteria were applied. The standard method was also associated with a 34% reduction in the number of patients evaluated compared to the number of patients enrolled. Only 2% of the sample size

  3. The efficacy and safety of a new fixed-dose combination of amodiaquine and artesunate in young African children with acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiechel Jean

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artesunate (AS plus amodiaquine (AQ is one artemisinin-based combination (ACT recommended by the WHO for treating Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Fixed-dose AS/AQ is new, but its safety and efficacy are hitherto untested. Methods A randomized, open-label trial was conducted comparing the efficacy (non-inferiority design and safety of fixed (F dose AS (25 mg/AQ (67.5 mg to loose (L AS (50 mg + AQ (153 mg in 750, P. falciparum-infected children from Burkina Faso aged 6 months to 5 years. Dosing was by age. Primary efficacy endpoint was Day (D 28, PCR-corrected, parasitological cure rate. Recipients of rescue treatment were counted as failures and new infections as cured. Documented, common toxicity criteria (CTC graded adverse events (AEs defined safety. Results Recruited and evaluable children numbered 750 (375/arm and 682 (90.9%, respectively. There were 8 (AS/AQ and 6 (AS+AQ early treatment failures and one D7 failure (AS+AQ. Sixteen (AS/AQ and 12 (AS+AQ patients had recurrent parasitaemia (PCR new infections 10 and 6, respectively. Fourteen patients per arm required rescue treatment for vomiting/spitting out study drugs. Efficacy rates were 92.1% in both arms: AS/AQ = 315/342 (95% CI: 88.7–94.7 vs. AS+AQ = 313/340 (95% CI: 88.6–94.7. Non-inferiority was demonstrated at two-sided α = 0.05: Δ (AS+AQ – AS/AQ = 0.0% (95% CI: -4.1% to 4.0%. D28, Kaplan Meier PCR-corrected cure rates (all randomized children were similar: 93.7% (AS/AQ vs. 93.2% (AS+AQ Δ = -0.5 (95% CI -4.2 to 3.0%. By D2, both arms had rapid parasite (F & L, 97.8% aparasitaemic and fever (97.2% [F], 96.0% [L] afebrile clearances. Both treatments were well tolerated. Drug-induced vomiting numbered 8/375 (2.1% and 6/375 (1.6% in the fixed and loose arms, respectively (p = 0.59. One patient developed asymptomatic, CTC grade 4 hepatitis (AST 1052, ALT 936. Technical difficulties precluded the assessment and risk of neutropaenia for all patients. Conclusion

  4. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...

  5. African Literature as Celebration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achebe, Chinua

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Igbo tradition of "Mbari," a communal creative enterprise that celebrates the world and the life lived in it through art. Contrasts the cooperative, social dimension of pre-colonial African culture with the exclusion and denial of European colonialism, and sees new African literature again celebrating human presence and dignity. (AF)

  6. Empowering African States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China helps bring lasting peace and stability to Africa African think tanks expressed a high opinion of China’s role in helping build African peace and security at the first meeting of the China-Africa Think Tanks Forum. The

  7. Positive association between dietary iron intake and iron status in HIV-infected children in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Herculina S; Balk, Lisanne J; Viljoen, Michelle; Meyers, Tammy M

    2013-01-01

    Anemia is a common complication of pediatric HIV infection and is associated with suboptimal cognitive performance and growth failure. Routine iron supplementation is not provided to South African HIV-infected children. We hypothesized that dietary iron intake without supplementation is sufficient to protect against iron deficiency (ID) in HIV-infected children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. In this prospective study, the difference between dietary intakes of iron-deficient children (soluble transferrin receptor >9.4 mg/L) and iron-sufficient children after 18 months on highly active antiretroviral therapy was examined. The association between iron intake and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was also assessed. Longitudinal data collected for 18 months from 58 HIV-infected African children were assessed by generalized estimation equations, with adjustment for demographic information, dietary intakes, growth parameters, and CD4%. After adjustment for covariates, the longitudinal association between dietary iron intake and Hb concentration remained significant. This association shows that for every 1-mg increase in iron intake per day, Hb increases by 1.1 g/L (P Children with animal protein intakes greater than >20 g/d had significantly lower odds for ID at 18 months than did children with lower intakes (odds ratio, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.21-0.77). Dietary iron intake was insufficient to protect against ID, pointing to a need for low-dose iron supplementation for iron-deficient HIV-infected children and interventions to increase the consumption of animal protein.

  8. Prevention of nutritional rickets in Nigerian children with dietary calcium supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Fischer, Philip R; Isichei, Christian O; Zoakah, Ayuba I; Pettifor, John M

    2012-05-01

    Nutritional rickets in Nigerian children usually results from dietary calcium insufficiency. Typical dietary calcium intakes in African children are about 200mg daily (approximately 20-28% of US RDAs for age). We sought to determine if rickets could be prevented with supplemental calcium or with an indigenous food rich in calcium. We enrolled Nigerian children aged 12 to 18months from three urban communities. Two communities were assigned calcium, either as calcium carbonate (400mg) or ground fish (529±109mg) daily, while children in all three communities received vitamin A (2500IU) daily as placebo. Serum markers of mineral homeostasis and forearm bone density (pDEXA) were measured and radiographs were obtained at enrollment and after 18months of supplementation. The overall prevalence of radiographic rickets at baseline was 1.2% and of vitamin D deficiency [serum 25(OH)DRickets developed in 1, 1, and 2 children assigned to the calcium tablet, ground fish, and control groups, respectively (approximate incidence 6.4/1000 children/year between 1 and 3years of age). Children who developed rickets in the calcium-supplemented groups had less than 50% adherence. Compared with the group that received no calcium supplementation, the groups that received calcium had a greater increase in areal bone density of the distal and proximal 1/3 radius and ulna over time (Prickets.

  9. Ceramic Solar Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Solar receiver uses ceramic honeycomb matrix to absorb heat from Sun and transfer it to working fluid at temperatures of 1,095 degrees and 1,650 degrees C. Drives gas turbine engine or provides heat for industrial processes.

  10. Study of the factors associated with dental caries in children who receive early dental care Estudo de fatores associados à cárie dental em crianças que recebem atendimento odontológico precoce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Calixto FRAIZ

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the factors associated with the development of dental caries in preschool children who receive regular dental care and follow-up. The research was carried out at the Baby Clinic, Londrina State University, and comprised two hundred preschool children, whose ages ranged from 24 to 48 months, as well as their mothers, who had already taken part in a dental program at the Baby Clinic during, at least, the previous twelve months. Regarding oral hygiene habits, there was no significant difference between the preschool children who presented with caries and those who did not present with caries. However, the presence of visible bacterial plaque on the upper incisors was strongly associated with the presence of dental caries. Other factors associated with the presence of caries were: period of formal education of the father or of both parents equal or inferior to 8 years, high sugar consumption and bottle-feeding during sleep. In the studied population, the dietary pattern is still the main cause of carious lesions. In addition, the presence of visible bacterial plaque on the labial surface of the upper incisors must be considered as an important clinical sign, often associated with inadequate patterns of diet and oral hygiene.Esta pesquisa estudou os fatores associados com o desenvolvimento de cárie dentária em pré-escolares que recebem acompanhamento e intervenção odontológica. O estudo abrangeu 200 crianças, de 24 a 48 meses de idade, que participavam do programa da Bebê-Clínica (Universidade Estadual de Londrina havia pelo menos 12 meses. A comparação entre as crianças com cárie e sem cárie não apresentou diferenças estatisticamente significantes com relação aos hábitos de higiene bucal. No entanto, a presença de placa visível nos incisivos superiores esteve fortemente associada com a presença de cárie dentária. Outros fatores relacionados à presença de cárie foram a educação formal

  11. Time Spent With Children and Working Parents’ Willingness to Medicate ADHD-Like Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bora Pajo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available How much time parents spend with their children is likely to influence their judgments of children’s behaviors and the behaviors themselves. In the diagnosis of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, parents are key informants and decide whether their children should receive medication. This exploratory study investigates the relationship between working parents’ willingness to medicate ADHD-like behaviors and the time they can spend with their children during a regular workday. The participants (409 parents of 5- to 17- year-old children reporting having no child with emotional or behavioral problems and 87 reporting having such a child were drawn from a population-based telephone survey of parents stratified by race and ethnicity in two urban Florida counties. Path analysis models, controlling for selected sociodemographic and household variables, showed that spending more time with one’s children during a regular workday and self-identifying as African American were negatively related to willingness to medicate among parents of children with problems. Among parents reporting no children with problems, only the number of children in the household and the parent-type household showed relationships to willingness to medicate, while mothers were more likely than fathers to spend more time with children. These observed relationships were of moderate effect but underscore the importance to initiate studies using valid measures of quantity and quality of parental time spent with ADHD children, and to query parents on these points when assessing the information they provide to clinicians.

  12. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  13. Violence, homelessness, and HIV risk among crack-using African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Lam, Wendy K K; Zule, William; Hall, Grace; Middlesteadt, Rachel; Edwards, Jessica

    2003-01-01

    This study compares the characteristics of out-of-treatment, homeless, crack-using African-American women with those who are not homeless to determine what risks and protective factors differentiate the two groups. From 1999 to 2001, 683 out-of-treatment, African-American crack-using women (of whom 219 were categorized as homeless) were interviewed and serologically tested. Risk factors that were examined include adverse childhood experiences, psychological distress, physical health, violence and victimization, drug use, and risky sex behaviors. Protective factors that were examined include marital status, education, public assistance, and the responsibility of caring for children. Overall, both groups of women started crack use in their mid-twenties and started drug use with alcohol in their teenage years, though differed significantly on each risk factor examined. Logistic regression analysis found that variables associated with increased odds of being homeless are physical abuse before age 18, crack runs greater than 24 hours, income less than dollars 500 in the last 30 days, depression, and current cigarette smoking. Protective factors found are marital status, living with children under 18, having had a physical in the past year, and receiving money from welfare in the last 30 days. Being sexually assaulted in the past 90 days was marginally associated with homelessness in the model. These findings, specific to crack-using African-American women, suggest that not only do these women overall report painful histories and currently stressful lives, but homeless women are more likely than women who are not homeless to have experienced childhood abuse and are more involved with drug use. Interventions designed for these women need to consider gender, cultural, and contextual issues that not only incorporate aspects of risk reduction related to violence, alcohol use, and comorbid conditions, but also linkages that will address housing issues, education, and skills

  14. The effect of retinyl palmitate added to iron-fortified maize porridge on erythrocyte incorporation of iron in African children with vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsson, Lena; Adou, Pierre; Zeder, Christophe; Walczyk, Thomas; Hurrell, Richard

    2003-08-01

    Retinyl palmitate added to Fe-fortified maize bread has been reported to enhance Fe absorption in adult Venezuelan subjects but not in Western Europeans. It is not known to what extent these results were influenced by differences in vitamin A status of the study subjects. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of retinyl palmitate added to Fe-fortified maize porridge on erythrocyte incorporation of Fe in children with vitamin A deficiency, before and after vitamin A supplementation. Erythrocyte incorporation of Fe-stable isotopes was measured 14 d after intake of maize porridge (2.0 mg Fe added as ferrous sulfate) with and without added retinyl palmitate (3.5 micromol; 3300 IU). The study was repeated 3 weeks after vitamin A supplementation (intake of a single dose of 210 micromol retinyl palmitate; 'vitamin A capsule'). Vitamin A status was evaluated by the modified relative dose-response (MRDR) technique. Retinyl palmitate added to the test meal reduced the geometric mean erythrocyte incorporation of Fe at baseline from 4.0 to 2.6 % (P=0.008, n 13; paired t test). At 3 weeks after vitamin A supplementation, geometric mean erythrocyte incorporation was 1.9 and 2.3 % respectively from the test meal with and without added retinyl palmitate (P=0.283). Mean dehydroretinol:retinol molar ratios were 0.156 and 0.125 before and after intake of the single dose of 210 micromol retinyl palmitate; 'vitamin A capsule' (P=0.15). In conclusion, retinyl palmitate added to the labelled test meals significantly decreased erythrocyte incorporation of Fe in children with vitamin A deficiency at baseline but had no statistically significant effect 3 weeks after vitamin A supplementation. The difference in response to retinyl palmitate added to Fe-fortified maize porridge on erythrocyte incorporation of Fe before and after intake of the vitamin A capsule indicates, indirectly, changes in vitamin A status not measurable by the MRDR technique. The lack of

  15. African American Diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. With regard to all historic migrations (forced and voluntary, the African Union defined the African diaspora as "[consisting] of people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union." Its constitutive act declares that it shall "invite and encourage the full participation of the African diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union." Keywords: literature concepts, African American abstracts

  16. Perceptions of Mate Selection for Marriage among African American, College-Educated, Single Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Rochelle

    2009-01-01

    This ethnographic study researched the perceptions of mate selection for marriage and the decisions of college-educated, African American mothers who bore children while single. Twenty-five senior-level African American students who attended a college in New York City participated in the study. There has been a significant change in the family…

  17. African American English and Spelling: How Do Second Graders Spell Dialect-Sensitive Features of Words?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton-Terry, Nicole; Connor, Carol

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the spelling skills of African American second graders who produced African American English (AAE) features in speech. The children (N = 92), who varied in spoken AAE use and word reading skills, were asked to spell words that contained phonological and morphological dialect-sensitive (DS) features that can vary between AAE and…

  18. Taking Boys out of the Hood: Exile as a Parenting Strategy for African American Male Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.; Van Brakle, Mischelle; St. Vil, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that inner-city neighborhood effects are correlated with school dropout, substance abuse, crime, violence, homicide, HIV risk related behaviors, and incarceration for adolescent African American males. Parents of adolescent African American males face many challenges as they try to keep their children safe in high-risk…

  19. The Importance of Visibility: Students' and Teachers' Criteria for Selecting African American Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Erika Swarts

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that African American children do not always relate to the literature available in their classrooms. The study examined fifth-grade students' responses to African American literature to determine the criteria students use to select books. Students' selection criteria were then compared with teachers' selection…

  20. Central solar energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, M. Kevin

    1983-01-01

    An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

  1. Wideband CMOS receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Luis

    2015-01-01

    This book demonstrates how to design a wideband receiver operating in current mode, in which the noise and non-linearity are reduced, implemented in a low cost single chip, using standard CMOS technology.  The authors present a solution to remove the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) block and connect directly the mixer’s output to a passive second-order continuous-time Σ∆ analog to digital converter (ADC), which operates in current-mode. These techniques enable the reduction of area, power consumption, and cost in modern CMOS receivers.

  2. African Peacekeepers in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    peacekeeping operations in the region. It is important to add that the international community has frequently tried to facilitate the deployment of African armed forces with aid and training. From this reality, the following study goes beyond the current literature by focusing on the international factors...... behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...

  3. Reading the African context

    OpenAIRE

    Musonda Bwalya

    2012-01-01

    There is so much alienation, pain and suffering in our today�s world. In this vein, African Christianity, a voice amongst many voices, should seek to be a transformational religion for the whole of life, affecting all facets of human life towards a fuller life of all in Africa. This article sought to highlight and point to some of the major societal challenges in the African context which African Christianity, as a life-affirming religion, should continue to embrace, re-embrace and engag...

  4. Developments and Microbiological applications in African foods: Emphasis on Nigerian Wara cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Raheem, Bamidele

    2006-01-01

    African indigenous foods have received limited research. Most of these indigenous foods are fermented and they form part of the rich nutritional culture of many groups in African countries. The industrialization and commercialisation of these indigenous African fermented foods should be preceded by a thorough scientific knowledge of their processing which can be vital in the elimination of hunger and poverty. This study highlighted emerging developments and the microbiology of cereal-based an...

  5. Capitalism and African business cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars and practitioners once commonly linked 'African culture' to a distinctive 'African capitalism', at odds with genuine capitalism and the demands of modern business. Yet contemporary African business cultures reveal that a capitalist ethos has taken hold within both state and society. The success and visibility of an emergent, and celebrated, class of African big business reveals that business and profit are culturally acceptable. Existing theories of African capitalism are ill-equippe...

  6. Incidencia de bacteriemia asociada a catéter en niños hospitalizados que reciben nutrición parenteral Blood-stream catheter related infection in inpatient children receiving parenteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vaquero Sosa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones relacionadas con el catéter son la complicación más grave en los pacientes portadores de un catéter venoso central. Se considera que la nutrición parenteral (NP constituye un factor de riesgo de desarrollar una infección relacionada con el catéter (IRCat. Material y métodos: para conocer la tasa de infección y poder establecer estrategias de prevención de la infección nosocomial, se revisaron todas las historias de los 120 pacientes que recibieron NP a lo largo de 2008. Todas las historias de los pacientes con un episodio fiebre y hemocultivo positivo fueron consideradas. La tasa de infección se definió como número de episodios por cada 1000 días de NP. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 48 hemocultivos positivos. La tasa global de bacteriemia asociada a catéter fue de 37,8/1000 días de NP. La incidencia fue significativamente mayor en lactantes menores de 2 años de edad. Los gérmenes que se encontraron con mayor frecuencia fueron Estafilococo coagulasa negativo (56,8%, seguidos de bacilos Gram (20,8%, Staph aureus (12,5% y los hongos (12,5%. No encontramos diferencias en la tasa de infección cuando ajustamos por la enfermedad de base o la duración de la NP. Conclusiones: La tasa de infección en niños con NP en el hospital es considerablemente elevada. La NP parece constituir un factor de riesgo de desarrollar IRCat. Es necesario establecer políticas adecuadas y continuadas para conseguir disminuir la tasa de infección nosocomial.Blood-stream catheter related infection is the most severe complication in patients carrying a central venous catheter. Parenteral nutrition (PN use seems to be a risk factor for developing a catheter-related infection (CRI. Material & methods: In order to know the incidence of CRI in children to further implement policies to reduce nosocomial infection, we review all charts of children (1 month to 17 years who received parenteral nutrition while in hospital. All episodes of fever

  7. Women and the social construction of gender in African development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalu, A C

    1996-01-01

    Because a footnote of Marxism teaches that capitalism must first destroy primitive cultures that lack a dynamic social change mechanism and then rejuvenate them as modern industrialized states, the economic and cultural bases of social relationships in developing countries have been deemed irrelevant. In a similar way, Western feminist paradigms fail to acknowledge epistemological differences from those of African women. This article explores these contradictions and analyzes social change mechanisms within the Igbo culture in Africa that were stunted by colonialism. The first topic considered is the relationship of African literature (using Toni Morrison's "Beloved" as a point of reference) with sustainable African development and African women. The remainder of the article is devoted to an examination of the role of women in light of precolonial and colonial literary traditions. It is noted that continued use of Western feudal and capitalist terms for self-identification alienates Africans from Africa's problems. Traditional African thought assigned women the power to feed the family and to serve as protectors of children and society, and ancestral wisdom directed how societies responded to threats, took charge of their world, and resolved conflict. Problems faced by contemporary African researchers are shown to center on the dilemma faced by those who wish to design a program that analyzes the content of African development and provides contemporary solutions without completely deriving the program completely from contemporary thought. It is, thus, concluded that redefinition of the African development agenda must involve recognition of the essential role of African women as a change agent and a rearticulation of the male role within traditional thought. PMID:12292424

  8. Zero-power receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocato, Robert W.

    2016-10-04

    An unpowered signal receiver and a method for signal reception detects and responds to very weak signals using pyroelectric devices as impedance transformers and/or demodulators. In some embodiments, surface acoustic wave devices (SAW) are also used. Illustrative embodiments include satellite and long distance terrestrial communications applications.

  9. Olympus beacon receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergaard, Jens

    1988-01-01

    A medium-size Beacon Receiving System for reception and processing of the B1 (20 GHz) and B2 (30 GHz) beacons from Olympus has been developed. Integration of B1 and B2 receiving equipment into one system using one antenna and a common computer for control and data processing provides the advantages of a compact configuration and synchronization of the two receiver chains. Range for co-polar signal attenuation meaurement is about 30 dB for both beacons, increasing to 40 dB for B2 if the receivers are synchronized to B1. The accuracy is better than 0.5 dB. Cross-polarization discriminations of the order of 10 to 30 dB may be determined with an accuracy of 1 to 2 dB. A number of radiometers for complementary measurements of atmospheric attenuation of 13 to 30 GHz has also been constructed. A small multi-frequency system for operation around 22 GHz and 31 GHz is presently under development.

  10. Multicenter Study of Human Papillomavirus and the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: Knowledge and Attitudes among People of African Descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Blackman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare knowledge and attitudes of human papillomavirus (HPV and the vaccine between different cultures of African descent. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of 555 African-Americans and Afro-Caribbeans residing in the US and the Bahamas (BHM was conducted. Results. General knowledge about HPV and the HPV vaccine differed between the two countries significantly. Bahamian respondents were less likely to have higher numbers of correct knowledge answers when compared to Americans (Adjusted Odds Ratio [Adj. OR] 0.47, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.30–0.75. Older age, regardless of location, was also associated with answering fewer questions correctly (Adj. OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.40–0.92. Attitudes related to HPV vaccination were similar between the US and BHM, but nearly 80% of BHM respondents felt that children should not be able to receive the vaccine without parental consent compared to 57% of American respondents. Conclusions. Grave lack of knowledge, safety and cost concerns, and influence of parental restrictions may negatively impact vaccine uptake among African-American and Afro-Caribbean persons. Interventions to increase the vaccine uptake in the Caribbean must include medical provider and parental involvement. Effective strategies for education and increasing vaccine uptake in BHM are crucial for decreasing cervical cancer burden in the Caribbean.

  11. Vaccination coverage and timeliness in three South African areas: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders David

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Timely vaccination is important to induce adequate protective immunity. We measured vaccination timeliness and vaccination coverage in three geographical areas in South Africa. Methods This study used vaccination information from a community-based cluster-randomized trial promoting exclusive breastfeeding in three South African sites (Paarl in the Western Cape Province, and Umlazi and Rietvlei in KwaZulu-Natal between 2006 and 2008. Five interview visits were carried out between birth and up to 2 years of age (median follow-up time 18 months, and 1137 children were included in the analysis. We used Kaplan-Meier time-to-event analysis to describe vaccination coverage and timeliness in line with the Expanded Program on Immunization for the first eight vaccines. This included Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG, four oral polio vaccines and 3 doses of the pentavalent vaccine which protects against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type B. Results The proportion receiving all these eight recommended vaccines were 94% in Paarl (95% confidence interval [CI] 91-96, 62% in Rietvlei (95%CI 54-68 and 88% in Umlazi (95%CI 84-91. Slightly fewer children received all vaccines within the recommended time periods. The situation was worst for the last pentavalent- and oral polio vaccines. The hazard ratio for incomplete vaccination was 7.2 (95%CI 4.7-11 for Rietvlei compared to Paarl. Conclusions There were large differences between the different South African sites in terms of vaccination coverage and timeliness, with the poorer areas of Rietvlei performing worse than the better-off areas in Paarl. The vaccination coverage was lower for the vaccines given at an older age. There is a need for continued efforts to improve vaccination coverage and timeliness, in particular in rural areas. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00397150

  12. African Financial Sectors and the European Debt Crisis : Will Trouble Blow across the Sahara?

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    The exposure of African financial sectors to global risks, including the likely fall-out of the on-going European debt crisis, continues to be limited. African financial sectors have received much recognition for their steady growth performance and resilience during and after the 2008 global financial crisis. Many of the transmission channels for global risks and financial contagion to fin...

  13. Estimating bioenergy potentials of common African agricultural residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Kádár, Zsófia; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    Asking a bioenergy researcher about the composition of wheat straw, he would know it by heart. But if enquiring about typical African biomasses – it would be another case. Until now, biomasses common to African countries have not received the same scientific attention as biomasses from Europe......, North America or Brazil. For that reason, it is difficult to estimate bioenergy potentials in the African region. As a part of an on‐going research collaboration investigating production of 2g biofuels in Ghana, this study have analysed 13 common African agricultural residues: yam peelings, cassava...... peelings, cassava stalks, plantain peelings, plantain trunks, plantain leaves, cocoa husks, cocoa pods, maize cobs, maize stalks, rice straw, groundnut straw and oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB). This was done to establish detailed compositional mass balances, enabling estimations of accurate bioenergy...

  14. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset among African American Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.

    2010-01-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship…

  15. The Origins of African-American Family Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Steven

    1994-01-01

    Uses the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series to trace race differences in African American family structure between 1880 and 1980. Confirms a long-standing high incidence rate of single parenthood and children residing without their parents. Data also show blacks have had a consistently higher percentage of extended households than have whites.…

  16. Psychopathology in African Unaccompanied Refugee Minors in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Julia; Karnik, Niranjan; Voelkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Steiner, Hans

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of a range of psychopathology among African unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) in Austria. Additionally, the predictive value of war exposure on PTSD symptoms was examined. Forty-one URMs were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents, the Youth Self-Report, the UCLA…

  17. Intellectual Disability in the Context of a South African Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromberg, Jennifer; Zwane, Esther; Manga, Prashiela; Venter, Andre; Rosen, Eric; Christianson, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    Childhood disabilities, including intellectual disabilities (ID), are thought to occur in 5-17% of children in developing countries around the world. In order to identify and describe the childhood disabilities occurring in a rural South African population, as well as the context in which they occur, a study was carried out in the Bushbuckridge…

  18. Dental Care Issues for African Immigrant Families of Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeng, Cecilia S.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines dental health issues for African immigrant families of preschoolers living in the United States. The study was done within the framework of narrative inquiry and ethnographic impressionism. Through personal interviews and questionnaire completion, 125 parents of children ages 3 to 5 answered questions about ways in which…

  19. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  20. Pressure difference receiving ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2007-01-01

    of such pressure difference receiving ears have been hampered by lack of suitable experimental methods. In this review, we review the methods for collecting reliable data on the binaural directional cues at the eardrums, on how the eardrum vibrations depend on the direction of sound incidence, and on how sound...... waves behave in the air spaces leading to the interior surfaces of eardrums. A linear mathematical model with well-defined inputs is used for exploring how the directionality varies with the binaural directional cues and the amplitude and phase gain of the sound pathway to the inner surface...

  1. Adaptive antennas and receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Weiner, Melvin M

    2005-01-01

    In our modern age of remote sensing, wireless communication, and the nearly endless list of other antenna-based applications, complex problems require increasingly sophisticated solutions. Conventional antenna systems are no longer suited to high-noise or low-signal applications such as intrusion detection. Detailing highly effective approaches to non-Gaussian weak signal detection, Adaptive Antennas and Receivers provides an authoritative introduction to state-of-the-art research on the modeling, testing, and application of these technologies.Edited by innovative researcher and eminent expert

  2. Effect on longitudinal growth and anemia of zinc or multiple micronutrients added to vitamin A: a randomized controlled trial in children aged 6-24 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luabeya Kany-Kany A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of zinc or multiple micronutrient supplementations in African children are uncertain. African children may differ from other populations of children in developing countries because of differences in the prevalence of zinc deficiency, low birth weight and preterm delivery, recurrent or chronic infections such as HIV, or the quality of complementary diets and genetic polymorphisms affecting iron metabolism. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether adding zinc or multiple micronutrients to vitamin A supplementation improves longitudinal growth or reduces prevalence of anemia in children aged 6-24 months. Methods Randomized, controlled double-blinded trial of prophylactic micronutrient supplementation to children aged 6-24 months. Children in three cohorts - 32 HIV-infected children, 154 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers, and 187 uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers - were separately randomly assigned to receive daily vitamin A (VA [n = 124], vitamin A plus zinc (VAZ [n = 123], or multiple micronutrients that included vitamin A and zinc (MM [n = 126]. Results Among all children there were no significant differences between intervention arms in length-for-age Z scores (LAZ changes over 18 months. Among stunted children (LAZ below -2 [n = 62], those receiving MM had a 0.7 Z-score improvement in LAZ versus declines of 0.3 in VAZ and 0.2 in VA (P = 0.029 when comparing effects of treatment over time. In the 154 HIV-uninfected children, MM ameliorated the effect of repeated diarrhea on growth. Among those experiencing more than six episodes, those receiving MM had no decline in LAZ compared to 0.5 and 0.6 Z-score declines in children receiving VAZ and VA respectively (P = 0.06 for treatment by time interaction. After 12 months, there was 24% reduction in proportion of children with anemia (hemoglobin below 11 g/dL in MM arm (P = 0.001, 11% in VAZ (P = 0.131 and 18% in VA (P = 0

  3. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  4. African Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Jarita C; Medupe, R. Thebe; Current Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy research in Africa

    2008-01-01

    Astronomy is the science of studying the sky using telescopes and light collectors such as photographic plates or CCD detectors. However, people have always studied the sky and continue to study the sky without the aid of instruments this is the realm of cultural astronomy. This is the first scholarly collection of articles focused on the cultural astronomy of Africans. It weaves together astronomy, anthropology, and Africa. The volume includes African myths and legends about the sky, alignments to celestial bodies found at archaeological sites and at places of worship, rock art with celestial imagery, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions including ethnomathematics and the creation of calendars. Authors include astronomers Kim Malville, Johnson Urama, and Thebe Medupe; archaeologist Felix Chami, and geographer Michael Bonine, and many new authors. As an emerging subfield of cultural astronomy, African cultural astronomy researchers are focused on training students specifically for do...

  5. Temperament Styles of Children from South Africa and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas; Pretorius, Jenny D.; Lee, Dong Hun

    2008-01-01

    Four bipolar temperament qualities (i.e. extroversion-introversion, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling and organized-flexible) of 800 South African children, ages 9-10, 11-12, 13-14 and 15-17, first are described and then compared to temperament qualities of 800 US children of the same ages. South African children do not differ in their…

  6. Advancement of Children's Rights in Africa: A Social Justice Framework for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Jace

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations Convention on Children's Rights and the subsequent African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child together with the Bill of Children's Rights and numerous other policies and regulations in many African countries have set the precedent for children's rights to be respected and implemented across the African…

  7. Severe Anemia in Malawian Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calis, J.C.J.; Kamija, S.P.; Faragher, E.B.; Brabin, B.J.; Bates, I.; Cuevas, L.E.; Haan, de R.J.; Phiri, A.I.; Malange, P.; Khoka, M.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Lieshout, L.; Beld, M.G.H.M.; Teo, Y.Y.; Rockett, K.A.; Richardson, A.; Kwiatkowski, D.P.; Molyneux, M.E.; Hensbroek, van M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Background Severe anemia is a major cause of sickness and death in African children, yet the causes of anemia in this population have been inadequately studied. Methods We conducted a case¿control study of 381 preschool children with severe anemia (hemoglobin concentration,

  8. African names for American plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.

    2015-01-01

    African slaves brought plant knowledge to the New World, sometimes applying it to related plants they found there and sometimes bringing Old World plants with them. By tracing the linguistic parallels between names for plants in African languages and in communities descended from African slaves, pie

  9. The Struggles over African Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  10. A qualitative study of motivators and barriers to healthy eating in pregnancy for low-income, overweight, African-American mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Naomi R; Klotz, Alicia A; Herring, Sharon J

    2013-09-01

    Poor diet quality is common among low-income, overweight, African-American mothers, placing them at high risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. We sought to better understand the contextual factors that may influence low-income African-American mothers' diet quality during pregnancy. In 2011, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 21 overweight/obese, pregnant African Americans in Philadelphia, PA, all of whom received Medicaid and were eligible for the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Two readers independently coded the interview transcripts to identify recurrent themes. We identified 10 themes around motivators and barriers to healthy eating in pregnancy. Mothers believed that consuming healthy foods, like fruits and vegetables, would lead to healthy babies and limit the physical discomforts of pregnancy. However, more often than not, mothers chose foods that were high in fats and sugars because of taste, cost, and convenience. In addition, mothers had several misconceptions about the definition of healthy (eg, "juice is good for baby"), which led to overconsumption. Many mothers feared they might "starve" their babies if they did not get enough to eat, promoting persistent snacking and larger portions. Living in multigenerational households and sharing resources also limited the mothers' control over food choices and made consuming healthy foods especially difficult. Despite the good intentions of low-income African-American mothers to improve diet quality during pregnancy, multiple factors worked together as barriers to healthy eating. Interventions that emphasize tasty and affordable healthy food substitutes, address misconceptions, and counsel mothers about true energy needs in pregnancy may improve low-income, African-American, overweight/obese mothers' diet quality. PMID:23871106

  11. Chronic hepatosplenomegaly in African achool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Shona; Vennervald, Birgitte J; Dunne, David W.

    2011-01-01

    hepatosplenomegaly in rural communities means that it is an important example of a multi-factorial disease and its association with severe and subtle morbidities underlies the need for well-designed public health strategies for tackling common infectious diseases in tandem rather than in isolation....

  12. Children's Literature as a Pathway of Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Ebony Joy

    2014-01-01

    Visionaries like W. E. B. Du Bois opened the door to possibility and opportunity for the next generations of African American artists. Among those who benefited from and contributed to this legacy are award-winning African American authors and illustrators who created works that celebrate Black children, equality, and diversity. These artists…

  13. GNSS Software Receiver for UAVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Daniel Madelung; Jakobsen, Jakob; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik;

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the current activities of GPS/GNSS Software receiver development at DTU Space. GNSS Software receivers have received a great deal of attention in the last two decades and numerous implementations have already been presented. DTU Space has just recently started development of ...... of our own GNSS software-receiver targeted for mini UAV applications, and we will in in this paper present our current progress and briefly discuss the benefits of Software Receivers in relation to our research interests....

  14. CERN apprentice receives award

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Another CERN apprentice has received an award for the quality of his work. Stéphane Küng (centre), at the UIG ceremony last November, presided over by Geneva State Councillor Pierre-François Unger, Head of the Department of Economics and Health. Electronics technician Stéphane Küng was honoured in November by the Social Foundation of the Union Industrielle Genevoise (UIG) as one of Geneva’s eight best apprentices in the field of mechatronics. The 20-year-old Genevan obtained his Federal apprentice’s certificate (Certificat fédéral de capacité - CFC) in June 2007, achieving excellent marks in his written tests at the Centre d’Enseignement Professionnel Technique et Artisanal (CEPTA). Like more than 200 youngsters before him, Stéphane Küng spent part of his four-year sandwich course working at CERN, where he followed many practical training courses and gained valuable hands-on experience in various technical groups and labs. "It’ always very gr...

  15. African Women Writing Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Browdy de Hernandez; Pauline Dongala; Omotayo; Jolaosho; Anne Serafin

    2011-01-01

    AFRICAN Women Writing Resistance is the first transnational anthology to focus on women's strategies of resistance to the challenges they face in Africa today.The anthology brings together personal narratives,testimony,interviews,short stories,poetry,performance scripts,folktales and lyrics.

  16. African Women Writing Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer; Browdy; de; Hernandez; Pauline; Dongala; Omotayo; Jolaosho; Anne; Serafin

    2011-01-01

    An Anthology of Contemporary Voices AFRICAN Women Writing Resistance is the first transnational anthology to focus on women’s strategies of resistance to the challenges they face in Africa today.The anthology brings together personal narratives,testimony,interviews, short stories,po-

  17. Deepening African Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chinese President Hu Jintao has just embarked on his state visits to eight African countries that will take him to both the northern and southern tips of the continent. This is his first trip abroad this year, and also his third visit to Africa

  18. East African institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja

    For the past decade security in East Africa has gained focus internationally. However there is a growing ambition among African states to handle such issues by themselves, sometimes through regional institutions. This has been supported by many Western states but potential risks are often forgotten....

  19. African tick bite fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jakob Aaquist; Thybo, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The incident of spotted fever imported to Denmark is unknown. We present a classic case of African Tick Bite Fever (ATBF) to highlight a disease, which frequently infects wildlife enthusiasts and hunters on vacation in South Africa. ATBF has a good prognosis and is easily treated with doxycyclin...

  20. West African Antislavery Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    In the context of liberalization of West African political regimes, the upsurge of audacious political entrepreneurs who want to end chattel slavery in their nation-state, resulted in the legal criminalisation of slavery in both Mauritania (2007) and Niger (2003) and in a proposal to revise the...... cultures (or ‘mentalities’) go hand in hand....

  1. An Online Evaluation of a Website Featuring a Brief Electronic Media E-Health Educational Intervention to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Physical Activity among African American Mothers and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    African-American youth experience disproportionate rates of childhood obesity compared to their White counterparts. Culturally tailored electronic media solutions hold the potential to overcome health literacy and health communication barriers. This study aimed to identify the impact of exposure to a new website portal…

  2. Mothers' Academic Gender Stereotypes and Education-Related Beliefs about Sons and Daughters in African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Dana; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Okeke-Adeyanju, Ndidi

    2010-01-01

    The role of African American mothers' academic gender stereotype endorsement in shaping achievement-related expectations for and perceptions of their own children was examined. Mothers (N = 334) of 7th and 8th graders completed measures of expectations for their children's future educational attainment, perceptions of their children's academic…

  3. Aspects of size and geography of an African cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Nwagwu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, data on web links collected from 15 African countries, three with the highest Internet penetration in each of North, West, Central, East, and South regions were used to study the number and origins of links to Africa. The sample has a ratio of one Internet user per 12 persons. Altogether, all African countries generated a total of 124,047,702 Web pages and 30,546,967 inlinks to the pages, an average of about 0.25 links per page. But the sample constituted which 28% of all the countries in the region generated 98,629,700 pages and 21,272,500 inlinks, an average of about 0.21 inlinks per page. South Africa ranked highest in web pages and web links per population and also received the highest number of inlinks from other African countries and the G8. However, Kenya linked other African countries more than the others did. Population size does not relate to number of web pages, self-inlinks, and inlinks or penetration, but relates positively with number of Internet users. Among others, a major step in boosting use of Internet resources in Africa will be in developing policies that will encourage African countries to use information developed by other African countries.

  4. Female genital mutilation in African and African American women's literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Marinšek

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.

  5. Antecedents and Consequences of Psychiatric Disorders in African-American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Run; Ge, Xiaojia; Brody, Gene H.; Simons, Ronald L.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2008-01-01

    This study included three waves of data, collected from approximately 890 African-American children and their families. Antecedents and consequences of psychiatric disorders among this population were examined. Children's temperament, pubertal timing, and experience of stressful life events were tested as antecedents of psychiatric disorders.…

  6. African American Preschoolers' Social and Emotional Competence at School: The Influence of Teachers and Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Marisha L.; Strickland, Jennifer; Keenan, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Children learn social and emotional competence through socialization. Research has focused on the role of parents, however teachers also play an important part. This study examined the social and emotional competence of preschool African American children and the role teachers and mothers played in supporting these competencies. Teachers who…

  7. Impact of Technology on the Academic Self-Efficacy and Career Selection of African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    With the continuing debate of the use and impact of technology on young children, this article examines the impact on technology on the academic self-efficacy and career intentions of African American students. The results from this study may be applicable to teaching, implementation, and use of technology with young children.

  8. Mandela’s Favourite African Folktales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Concilio

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I would like to examine the selection of African tales that Nelson Mandela took care to leave as heritage to the future generations, not only to children, and not only to African children. The fact that a political leader, ex freedom fighter and political prisoner dedicated his time to the collection and editing of stories from all over the African continent to be addressed to new readers as simple entertainment or as educational tools clearly testifies to the great humanity, culture, and open mindedness of one of the most important men of our times. In his most recent autobiographical writing Conversations With Myself, Mandela claimed his double affiliation to both his own indigenous culture as well as to western culture. Moreover, he recalled with affection a dear pastime of his childhood:After supper we would listen enthralled to my mother and sometimes my aunt telling us stories, legends, myths and fables which have come down from countless generations, and all of which tended to stimulate the imagination and contained some valuable moral lesson. (p. 10Thus, it is not surprising that such a charismatic public figure, as Mandela has been, was also interested in- and worried about- the future survival of a cluster of traditional folktales with their lively, specific and “valuable moral lesson”. It is my intention to verify if there might be a dialogue between the western tradition of folktales where animals are protagonists and speak as anthropomorphic figures and the facets of the African traditions and cultures from which Mandela draws inspiration. Among the critical tools on this topic, Tess Cosslett’s Talking Animals in British Children’s Fiction (2006 seems to provide a useful starting point, together with the latest studies in the volume Dall’ABC a Harry Potter (2011, among others. Moreover, aspects of “orature” will be discussed with reference to the stories chosen by Nelson Mandela. Finally, an attempt will

  9. Sample views of African post-graduate students regarding English and the African languages as media of education in African schools in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abram L. Mawasha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although African post-graduates recognise the importance of African languages in the education of African children in South Africa, most of them are of the opinion that English should not only be taught as a language from grade 1, but should also be preferred as the main language of instruction for African children from the outset of schooling. In the ensuing pilot study which involved 50 post-graduates, 68% expressed this opinion as against the rest who preferred a variety of other options. The study comments on the implications of these findings for the new democratic language in education policy. Hoewel die belangrikheid van Afrikatale in die onderwys van leerlinge wie se huistale dit is, deur nagraadse studente wat ook Afrikatale praat, er ken word, me en die meeste van hulle dat Engels nie slegs as 'n taal onderrig moet word van graad 1 af nie, maar ook verkies behoort te word as die hooftaa/ van onderrig vir sulke leerlinge van die begin van hul skoolloopbaan af In die /oodsstudie wat onderneem is onder 50 nagraadse studente, het 68% hierdie mening uitgespreek Hierdie studie behandel die implikasies van hierdie bevindinge vir die nuwe demokratiese taal-in-onderwysbeleid

  10. Leukocyte transcript alterations in West-African girls following a booster vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orntoft, Nikolaj W; Thorsen, Kasper; Benn, Christine S;

    2013-01-01

    Background. Observational studies from low-income countries have shown that the vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (DTP) is associated with excess female mortality due to infectious diseases. Methods. To investigate possible changes in gene expression after DTP vaccination, we...... identified a group of nine comparable West African girls, from a biobank of 356 children, who were due to receive DTP booster vaccine at age 18 months. As a pilot experiment we extracted RNA from blood samples before, and 6 weeks after, vaccination to analyze the coding transcriptome in leukocytes using...... expression microarrays, and ended up with information from eight girls. The data was further analyzed using dedicated array pathway and network software. We aimed to study whether DTP vaccination introduced a systematic alteration in the immune system in girls. Results. We found very few transcripts to alter...

  11. Improved prognosis of Epstein-Barr virus associated childhood Hodgkin's lymphoma: study of 47 South African cases

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, M.; Essop, M; Close, P; Hartley, P.; Pallesen, G; Sinclair-Smith, C

    2000-01-01

    Aim—To study the distribution of Hodgkin's lymphoma in South African children and report the incidence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as regards age, race, sex, and histological subtype; to investigate whether EBV is relevant to survival.

  12. RELATIONS OF SELF-APPRAISAL AND MOOD CHANGES WITH VOLUNTARY PHYSICAL ACTIVITY CHANGES IN AFRICAN AMERICAN PREADOLESCENTS IN AN AFTER-SCHOOL CARE INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Annesi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing prevalence of overweight in preadolescents that predicts physical problems over the lifespan. Physical inactivity has been implicated as an associated factor, with African American youth being at an increased risk. Based on social cognitive theory, and proposed correlates of physical activity in youth, changes over 12 weeks in measures of self-appraisal (general self, physical appearance, physical self-concept, exercise barriers self-efficacy and mood (tension, vigor, and their relations with voluntary physical activity changes, were assessed within an after-school care physical activity intervention. Participants were volunteers recruited from children already registered for a 12-week segment of YMCA after-school care. The treatment group consisted of 146 African American preadolescents with the control group comprised of 123 African American preadolescents who were scheduled to receive the program during the next sequence that it was offered. Results indicated the intervention group reported significantly more positive self-appraisals, reduced tension, and enhanced vigor. Bivariate and multiple regression analyses indicated that when each of the 4 self-appraisal and 2 mood factors were simultaneously entered into a regression equation, 36% of the variance in voluntary physical activity was explained. Findings support the treatment's association with theoretically based correlates of physical activity in the present sample, and suggest directions for physical activity interventions for youth

  13. Leadership in the African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Masango

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The Western world has always viewed the African continent as plagued by corruption; dictatorship; military coups; rebellious leaders; greediness; misuse of power; and incompetent, politically unstable leaders - in effect, suspicious leaders who undermine their own democracies. This paper analyzes African leadership and its impact by concentrating on three historical eras, namely; the African Religious era; the Christian era, and the era of Globalization. These affected African leadership. In addition, many brilliant minds left the continent in search of greener pastures. A review of these three eras will help us understand how leadership shifted from African values into Western concepts. The role of missionaries lead African people to live with both an African and a Western concept of life. In spite of the above problems, our past leaders did their best in addressing the difficulties they faced during the three eras. African concepts of leadership were often regarded as barbaric and uncultured. Structures were evaluated by Western standards. Due to globalisation, African leaders, through programmes like NEPAD, are going back to basics, drawing on African concepts of unity among its leadership. Effectiveness or life-giving leadership is emerging and empowering villagers/communities in the continent. This type of leadership is innovative and has brought new hope for the continent.

  14. Relationship between Receipt of a Social Protection Grant for a Child and Second Pregnancy Rates among South African Women: A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Rosenberg

    Full Text Available Social protection programs issuing cash grants to caregivers of young children may influence fertility. Grant-related income could foster economic independence and/or increase access to job prospects, education, and health services, resulting in lower pregnancy rates. In the other direction, these programs may motivate family expansion in order to receive larger grants. Here, we estimate the net effect of these countervailing mechanisms among rural South African women.We constructed a retrospective cohort of 4845 women who first became eligible for the Child Support Grant with the birth of their first child between 1998 and 2008, with data originally collected by the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. We fit Cox regression models to estimate the hazard of second pregnancy in women who reported grant receipt after birth of first child, relative to non-recipients. As a secondary analysis to explore the potential for grant loss to incentivize second pregnancy, we exploited a natural experiment created by a 2003 expansion of the program's age eligibility criterion from age seven to nine. We compared second pregnancy rates between (i women with children age seven or eight in 2002 (recently aged out of grant eligibility to (ii women with children age seven or eight in 2003 (remained grant-eligible.The adjusted hazard ratio for the association between grant exposure and second pregnancy was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.58, 0.75. Women with first children who aged out of grant eligibility in 2002 had similar second pregnancy rates to women with first children who remained grant-eligible in 2003 [IRR (95% CI: 0.9 (0.5, 1.4].Across both primary and secondary analyses, we found no evidence that the Child Support Grant incentivizes pregnancy. In harmony with South African population policy, receipt of the Child Support Grant may result in longer spacing between pregnancies.

  15. The content of African diets is adequate to achieve optimal efficacy with fixed-dose artemether-lumefantrine: a review of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagara Issaka

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A fixed-dose combination of artemether-lumefantrine (AL, Coartem® has shown high efficacy, good tolerability and cost-effectiveness in adults and children with uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Lumefantrine bioavailability is enhanced by food, particularly fat. As the fat content of sub-Saharan African meals is approximately a third that of Western countries, it raises the question of whether fat consumption by African patients is sufficient for good efficacy. Data from healthy volunteers have indicated that drinking 36 mL soya milk (containing only 1.2 g of fat results in 90% of the lumefantrine absorption obtained with 500 mL milk (16 g fat. African diets are typically based on a carbohydrate staple (starchy root vegetables, fruit [plantain] or cereals supplemented by soups, relishes and sauces derived from vegetables, pulses, nuts or fish. The most important sources of dietary fat in African countries are oil crops (e.g. peanuts, soya beans and cooking oils as red palm, peanut, coconut and sesame oils. Total fat intake in the majority of subSaharan countries is estimated to be in the range 30–60 g/person/day across the whole population (average 43 g/person/day. Breast-feeding of infants up to two years of age is standard, with one study estimating a fat intake of 15–30 g fat/day from breast milk up to the age of 18 months. Weaning foods typically contain low levels of fat, and the transition from breast milk to complete weaning is associated with a marked reduction in dietary fat. Nevertheless, fat intake >10 g/day has been reported in young children post-weaning. A randomized trial in Uganda reported no difference in the efficacy of AL between patients receiving supervised meals with a fixed fat content (~23 g fat or taking AL unsupervised, suggesting that fat intake at home was sufficient for optimal efficacy. Moreover, randomized trials in African children aged 5–59 months have shown similar high cure

  16. African American Women’s Perceptions and Experiences about Breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia S Obeng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There are health benefits to breastfeeding for both mothers and their children. The preventive health effects of breastfeeding continue into adulthood, lowering rate of various chronic illnesses. African American women, especially of lower socioeconomic status, are less likely to breastfeed in comparison to their racial and ethnic counterparts. The purpose of this study was to explore how African American women experience breastfeeding in the early stages of postpartum care. Two focus groups (N=20, 10 in each group were conducted with African American mothers. Results revealed that participants felt that there were health benefits to breastfeeding, and organizations such as WIC provided support. However, participants stated that lack of information, negative perceptions, and unforeseen circumstances were barriers to breastfeeding. This study proposes support and interventions for this group to increase breastfeeding among this population.

  17. Steps to African Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The development of Africa is vital to the world’s sustainable development.However,African countries still face key challenges in achieving the meaningful expansion of their economies.At the High-Level Symposium on China-Africa Investment Cooperation in Xiamen,southeast China’s Fujian Province,held from September 8 to 10,Chen Deming,Minister of Commerce of China,elaborates on these challenges and sees

  18. Retention of HIV-Infected Children in the First 12 Months of Anti-Retroviral Therapy and Predictors of Attrition in Resource Limited Settings: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christiana; McFarland, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Current UNAIDS goals aimed to end the AIDS epidemic set out to ensure that 90% of all people living with HIV know their status, 90% initiate and continue life-long anti-retroviral therapy (ART), and 90% achieve viral load suppression. In 2014 there were an estimated 2.6 million children under 15 years of age living with HIV, of which only one-third were receiving ART. Little literature exists describing retention of HIV-infected children in the first year on ART. We conducted a systematic search for English language publications reporting on retention of children with median age at ART initiation less than ten years in resource limited settings. The proportion of children retained in care on ART and predictors of attrition were identified. Twelve studies documented retention at one year ranging from 71–95% amongst 31877 African children. Among the 5558 children not retained, 4082 (73%) were reported as lost to follow up (LFU) and 1476 (27%) were confirmed to have died. No studies confirmed the outcomes of children LFU. Predictors of attrition included younger age, shorter duration of time on ART, and severe immunosuppression. In conclusion, significant attrition occurs in children in the first 12 months after ART initiation, the majority attributed to LFU, although true outcomes of children labeled as LFU are unknown. Focused efforts to ensure retention and minimize early mortality are needed as universal ART for children is scaled up. PMID:27280404

  19. Advanced solar thermal receiver technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudirka, A. A.; Leibowitz, L. P.

    1980-01-01

    Development of advanced receiver technology for solar thermal receivers designed for electric power generation or for industrial applications, such as fuels and chemical production or industrial process heat, is described. The development of this technology is focused on receivers that operate from 1000 F to 3000 F and above. Development strategy is mapped in terms of application requirements, and the related system and technical requirements. Receiver performance requirements and current development efforts are covered for five classes of receiver applications: high temperature, advanced Brayton, Stirling, and Rankine cycle engines, and fuels and chemicals.

  20. Reflux solar receiver design considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diver, R. B.

    Reflux heat-pipe and pool-boiler receivers are being developed to improve upon the performance and life of directly-illuminated tube receiver technology used in previous successful demonstrations of dish-Stirling systems. The design of a reflux receiver involves engineering tradeoffs. In this paper, on-sun performance measurements of the Sandia pool-boiler receiver are compared with results from the reflux receiver thermal analysis model, AEETES. Flux and performance implications of various design options are analyzed and discussed.

  1. Diversity among African pygmies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Rozzi, Fernando V; Sardi, Marina L

    2010-01-01

    Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D) landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies) were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression) and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies.

  2. Diversity among African pygmies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando V Ramírez Rozzi

    Full Text Available Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies.

  3. Biofuels: The African experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo, L.A.; Nkolo, M. [German Agency for Technical Cooperation GTZ, Delegation Regionale des Eaux et Forets, Bertoua (Cameroon)

    2009-07-01

    In July 2006, the African Non-Petroleum Producers Association was formed in Senegal, Africa to develop alternative energy sources. It involved 13 of Africa's poorest nations, who joined forces to become global suppliers of biofuels, and some have set mandatory mixing of ethanol into gasoline. Although several biofuel production projects have been launched in western Africa, many of the new projects and plantations have not yet reached maturity due to the time lag between plantation and full-scale production, which is about 6 years. Major projects that could be producing significant quantities of biofuels in the next few years are not yet reflected in production statistics. Although ethanol is not yet being produced in large quantities in Africa, short-term opportunities exist. Countries in the South African Development Community are using molasses from the sugar can industry to produce ethanol. Biodiesel is also not currently produced on a significant scale in western Africa, but several other countries are gaining experience with cotton and palm oil resources, and Jatropha. Biomass residue also represents a large potential for all African countries involved in timber production. Unlike biodiesel production, land use conflicts are not an issue with biomass residue production.

  4. RFI receiver. [deep space network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, R.

    1980-01-01

    An S-band radio frequency interference (RFI) receiver to analyze and identify sources of RFI problems in the Deep Space Network DSN tracking stations is described. The RFI receiver is a constant gain, double conversion, open loop receiver with dual sine/cosine channel outputs, providing a total of 20 MHZ monitoring capability. This receiver is computer controlled using a MODCOMP II miniprocessor. The RFI receiver has been designed to operate at a 150 Kelvin system noise temperature accomplished by cascading two low noise field effect transistor (FET) amplifiers for the receiver front-end. The first stage low noise FET amplifier is mounted at the feed horn to minimize any cable losses to achieve a lower system noise temperature. The receiver is tunable over the frequency range of 2150 to 2450 MHz in both sine/cosine output channels with a resolution of 100 kHz.

  5. Evaluation of the Factor Structure of the Obstacles to Engagement Scale with Low-income African American Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Winders Davis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Parenting anticipatory guidance is one way to promote optimal child health and development and minimize disparities between children from lower socio-economic status families and their higher income peers. However, low rates of attendance at and completion of parenting programs has been demonstrated. Understanding barriers to participation has important implications. The Obstacles to Engagement Scale (OES has been used in some populations, but it has not been evaluated for use with low-income African American samples. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the factor structure of the OES with a sample of low-income, African American parents.Method: Parents or legal guardians with children aged 3-8 years completed a survey in the waiting room of a primary care pediatric academic practice in an urban location in the southern United States of America (N = 114. Almost 87% had < 12th grade education and 93% of the children received Medicaid services. The OES was one measure from a larger study and only participants with complete data on the OES were included in the exploratory factor analysis (EFA.Results: The EFA did not support the previous 4-factor solution (intervention demands, personal or family stressors or obstacles, relevance of or trust in intervention, and time and scheduling demands. Instead, a 3-factor statistical solution emerged, but not all items held together conceptually.Conclusions: The current study supports the necessity for evaluating study instruments for use with specific populations. Larger samples are needed to disentangle the effects of educational and poverty status from race and ethnicity and to develop and validate instruments that are appropriate for the study population.

  6. Institution Building for African Regionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Khadiagala, Gilbert M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1960s, African states have embraced regional integration as a vital mechanism for political cooperation and for pooling resources to overcome problems of small and fragmented economies. In building meaningful institutions for regionalism, however, Africans have faced the challenges of reconciling the diversities of culture, geography, and politics. As a result, African regional institutions are characterized by multiple and competing mandates and weak institutionalization. This stud...

  7. Genetic moderation of child maltreatment effects on depression and internalizing symptoms by serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), norepinephrine transporter (NET), and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) genes in African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A

    2014-11-01

    Genetic moderation of the effects of child maltreatment on depression and internalizing symptoms was investigated in a sample of low-income maltreated and nonmaltreated African American children (N = 1,096). Lifetime child maltreatment experiences were independently coded from Child Protective Services records and maternal report. Child depression and internalizing problems were assessed in the context of a summer research camp by self-report on the Children's Depression Inventory and adult counselor report on the Teacher Report Form. DNA was obtained from buccal cell or saliva samples and genotyped for polymorphisms of the following genes: serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), norepinephrine transporter, and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1. Analyses of covariance with age and gender as covariates were conducted, with maltreatment status and respective polymorphism as main effects and their Gene × Environment (G × E) interactions. Maltreatment consistently was associated with higher Children's Depression Inventory and Teacher Report Form symptoms. The results for child self-report symptoms indicated a G × E interaction for BDNF and maltreatment. In addition, BDNF and triallelic 5-HTTLPR interacted with child maltreatment in a G × G × E interaction. Analyses for counselor report of child anxiety/depression symptoms on the Teacher Report Form indicated moderation of child maltreatment effects by triallelic 5-HTTLPR. These effects were elaborated based on variation in developmental timing of maltreatment experiences. Norepinephrine transporter was found to further moderate the G × E interaction of 5-HTTLPR and maltreatment status, revealing a G × G × E interaction. This G × G × E was extended by consideration of variation in maltreatment subtype experiences. Finally, G × G × E effects were observed for the co-action of BDNF and the corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1

  8. African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Apr 18, ... of getting those diseases are even higher for African-Americans. The good news is, African-Americans can ...

  9. Exploring Maternal and Child Effects of Comorbid Anxiety Disorders among African American Mothers with Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Rhonda C; Tervo-Clemmens, Brenden

    2013-01-01

    Comorbid depression and anxiety disorders are commonly experienced in mothers. Both maternal depression and anxiety as well as their comorbidity has been shown to increase psychopathology in children, however, there is limited research focusing on African American families. The aim of this study is to examine whether comorbid anxiety disorders are associated with maternal depression severity, kinship support, and child behavioral problems in a sample of African American mothers with depressio...

  10. Solar advanced internal film receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a Solar Central Internal Film Receiver, the heat absorbing fluid (a molten nitrate salt) flows in a thin film down over the non illuminated side of an absorber panel. Since the molten salt working fluid is not contained in complicated tube manifolds, the receiver design is simples than a conventional tube type-receiver resulting in a lower cost and a more reliable receiver. The Internal Film Receiver can be considered as an alternative to the Direct Absorption Receiver, in the event that the current problems of the last one can not be solved. It also describes here the test facility which will be used for its solar test, and the test plans foreseen. (Author) 17 refs

  11. English South African children’s literature and the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Jenkins

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Historical studies of nature conservation and literary criticism of fiction concerned with the natural environment provide some pointers for the study of South African children’s literature in English. This kind of literature, in turn, has a contribution to make to studies of South African social history and literature. There are English-language stories, poems and picture books for children which reflect human interaction with nature in South Africa since early in the nineteenth century: from hunting, through domestication of the wilds, the development of scientific agriculture, and the changing roles of nature reserves, to modern ecological concern for the entire environment. Until late in the twentieth century the literature usually endorsed the assumption held by whites that they had exclusive ownership of the land and wildlife. In recent years English-language children’s writers and translators of indigenous folktales for children have begun to explore traditional beliefs about and practices in conservation.

  12. The African Diaspora, Civil Society and African Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opoku-Mensah, Paul Yaw

    This paper, a work-in-progress, makes a contribution to the discussions on the appropriate modalities for incorporating the African diaspora in the African integration project.  It argues that the most appropriate entry points for incorporating the African diaspora into the integration project...... might not, necessarily, be in the formal political structures, although this is important. To the contrary, the most effective and sustainable might be within civil society---that is the links between the peoples and organizations of Africa and the diaspora. Using the case of the African academy-- as an...... institution of civil society--- the paper outlines a conceptual framework for incorporating the diaspora into the African integration project....

  13. National survey of paediatric audiological services for diagnosis and intervention in the South African private health care sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam E. Meyer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A national survey of early hearing detection and intervention services was undertaken to describe the current status of diagnostic and intervention services in the South African private health care sector.Methods: All private hospitals with obstetric units (n = 166 were surveyed telephonically. The data was integrated with data collected from self-administered questionnaires subsequently distributed nationally to private audiology practices providing hearing screening at the respective hospitals reporting hearing screening services (n = 87. Data was analysed descriptively to yield national percentages and frequency distributions.Results: Average reported age at diagnosis was 11 months. Most participants (74% indicated that less than 20% of infants fitted with hearing aids received amplification before the age of 6 months. Most (64% participants indicated that the average period between confirmed diagnosis and hearing aid fitting was 1 month, on par with international benchmarks. Only 16%–23% of participants included all diagnostic procedures recommended by the Health Professions Council of South Africa’s 2007 position statement for minimum diagnostic test batteries for infants and young children.Conclusions: Diagnosis of hearing loss, hearing aid fitting and audiological intervention is delayed significantly in the South African private health care sector. Improved services should include integrated systematic hospital-based screening as part of birthing packages with diagnostic referral to specialist paediatric audiologists for accurate assessment and management of patients in a timely manner.

  14. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset Among African American Adolescent Males

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.

    2009-01-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship between child maltreatment (i.e., neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other/mixed abuse) and the likelihood of a delinquency petition using a...

  15. Community initiative projects of the East African Whale Shark Trust.

    OpenAIRE

    Njonjo, N.

    2007-01-01

    The East African Whale Shark Trust (EAWST) in Kenya was established to increase awareness and conservation of the whale shark. This is to be achieved by various research and education campaigns, with the education initiatives being designed specifically to target different stakeholders. Programs aimed at fishermen will focus on alternative fishing techniques, ecotourism and socio-economic aspects, while school children, people recently completing high school and tourists will be exposed to re...

  16. African Conservation Tillage Network Website

    OpenAIRE

    African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT)

    2009-01-01

    Metadata only record Maintained by the African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT), this website provides information on Conservation Agriculture in an African context and gathered by stakeholders (NGOs) native to the continent. Resources on projects, practices, reports, and training courses are provided.

  17. African Diaspora Associations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vammen, Ida Marie; Trans, Lars Ove

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically on their...

  18. Booster for African Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China’s investment is fueling African growth SINCE 2000,driven by the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation,China’s foreign direct investment(FDI) in Africa has been growing rapidly.In the face of the global financial crisis,which led to global FDI flows falling,China’s investment in Africa has been on a steady, upbeat rise without any interruption.In 2009,China’s direct investment in Africa reached $1.44 billion,of which nonfinancial direct investment soared by 55.4 percent from the previous year.Africa

  19. Understanding the Rise of African Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorem, Kaja Tvedten; Jeppesen, Søren; Hansen, Michael W.

    In light of recent enthusiasm over the African private sector, this paper reviews the existing empirical literature on successful African enterprises and proposes an analytical framework for understanding African firm success. Overall, it is argued that we need to develop an understanding...... of African firm strategy and performance that takes into account the specificities of the African business environment and African firm capabilities. The paper starts by juxtaposing the widespread pessimistic view of African business with more recent, optimistic studies on African firms’ performance....... The latter suggests that profound improvements in African business performance are indeed under way: with the private sector playing a more important role as an engine of growth, with the rise of a capable African entrepreneurial class, and with the emergence of dynamic and competitive African enterprises...

  20. Endocarditis - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valve infection - children; Staphylococcus aureus - endocarditis - children; Enterococcus - endocarditis- children; Streptococcus viridians - endocarditis - children; Candida - endocarditis - children; Bacterial endocarditis - children; Infective ...

  1. Strategic repositioning of Safripol in the South African polymer industry / W.A. du Plessis

    OpenAIRE

    Du Plessis, Willem Adriaan

    2010-01-01

    Safripol is a South African polymer company producing mainly high density polyethylene and polypropylene for the South African market. Safripol used to be part of a global chemical company Dow Chemicals. Dow Chemical's divested in South Africa in 2006 and Safripol lost all the advantages of being part of a global corporate enterprise. The company is faced with a unique situation in that it is receiving monomer from Sasol, which is also its main competitor in the polymer market. The price o...

  2. The relationship between burnout and cognition in a South African metal manufacturing company / Carla Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador, Carla marisa Rosa

    2005-01-01

    Employees in South African organisations are faced with increasing work pressures as economic and business factors (such as globalisation) lead to extensive restructuring, cost cutting and initiatives to continuously improve organisational processes. These conditions are conducive to the occurrence of burnout in the South African private sector. Burnout has been extensively researched in areas such as health services and law enforcement, however, the subject has received less f...

  3. The African Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network:The Ghana Antenna Conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Copley, C J; Loots, A; Bangani, S; Cloete, K; Combrinck, L; Gioio, S; Ludick, J; Nicolson, G; Pollak, A W; Pretorius, P; Quick, J F H; Taylor, G; Ebrahim, F; Humphreys, C; Maake, K; Maganane, R; Majinjiva, R; Mapunda, A; Manzini, M; Mogakwe, N; Moseki, A; Qwabe, N; Royi, N; Rosie, K; Smith, J; Schietekat, S; Toruvanda, O; Tong, C; van Niekerk, B; Walbrugh, W; Zeeman, W

    2016-01-01

    The African Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (AVN) is a pan-African project that will develop Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observing capability in several countries across the African continent, either by conversion of existing telecommunications antennas into radio telescopes, or by building new ones. This paper focuses on the conversion of the Nkutunse satellite communication station (near Accra, Ghana), specifically the early mechanical and infrastructure upgrades, together with the development of a custom ambient receiver and digital backend. The paper concludes with what remains to be done, before the station can be commissioned as an operational VLBI station.

  4. Stability of heterodyne terahertz receivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, J.W.; Baselmans, J.J.A.; Baryshev, A.; Schieder, R.; Hajenius, M.; Gao, J.R.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Voronov, B.; Gol'tsman, G.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the stability of heterodyne terahertz receivers based on small volume NbN phonon cooled hot electron bolometers (HEBs). The stability of these receivers can be broken down in two parts: the intrinsic stability of the HEB mixer and the stability of the local oscillator (LO) s

  5. A partitioned central solar receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Else of solar energy as substitute for conventional fuels at a competitive cost requires efficient conversion from solar radiation to usable forms of energy. In solar thermal or thermochemical applications, high efficiency usually re- quires high temperature and high concentration of incoming radiation. The main form of energy loss from high temperature solar central receivers is thermal emission ('re radiation'), at an effective temperature close to the maximum receiver temperature. This loss is reduced if the aperture is divided into segments, most of which are maintained at lower temperatures. A two-stage partitioned receiver demonstrating this concept is under construction at the Weizman Solar Tower. The high-temperature stage is the DIAPR (Directly Irradiated Annular Pressurized Receiver). The low-temperature stage is made of tubular cavity receivers of simpler design. Preliminary optical and thermal design of the partitioned receiver is presented. For the design exit temperature of 1500 K, the aperture size of the partitioned receiver is about 60% of the equivalent single-stage receiver, indicating a significant increase of conversion efficiency. The exit temperature of the low-temperature stage is around 1100 K, allowing simpler design and inexpensive construction. (authors)

  6. Noise Stability of SIS Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, J. W.; Chattopadhyay, G.; Thielman, M.; Phillips, T. G.; Schieder, R.

    2000-05-01

    There is a strong interest in the submillimeter astronomy community to increase the IF bandwidth of SIS receivers in order to better facilitate broad spectral linewidth and continuum observations of extragalactic sources. However, with an increase in receiver IF bandwidth there is a decrease in the mixer stability. This in turn effects the integration efficiency and quality of the measurement. In order to better understand the noise mechanisms responsible for reducing the receiver stability, we employed a technique first described by D.W. Allan and later elaborated upon by Schieder et al. In this paper we address a variety of factors that degrade the noise stability of SIS receivers. The goal of this exercise is to make recommendations aimed at maximizing SIS receiver stability.

  7. Children and Poverty in South Africa: The Right to Social Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Plessis, Pierre; Conley, Lloyd

    2007-01-01

    Poverty is one of the major threats to the realization of children's rights worldwide and in South Africa. Currently, 66% of South African children live in severe poverty. This places all other rights at risk; the rights guaranteed by the South African Constitution and by the UN Convention. Poverty and inequality in South Africa continue to…

  8. A Children's Pidgin: The Case of a Spontaneous Pidgin for Two. Sociolinguistic Working Paper Number 64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Perry

    The study of the spontaneous generation of a pidgin by two children, five and six years old, to accommodate their communication needs when neither had fully acquired his native language, is described. The children were an African native of a Swahili-speaking family and an American child living in the African village. The new language created was a…

  9. Job-hopping amongst African Black senior management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanyile C.C. Nzukuma

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The study focuses on understanding labour turnover trends amongst African Black senior managers in South Africa. There is a perception that turnover amongst African Black senior managers is higher than average. There is also a perception that African Black senior managers are only motivated by financial rewards when considering job change.Research purpose: The study focused on understanding why African Black senior managers have a propensity to change jobs and how organisations can resolve the trend.Motivation for the study: To develop a better understanding of the push and pull factors for African Black senior managers in organisations.Research design, approach and method: The research was conducted in two phases, namely as part of a qualitative study and a quantitative study: Creswell (2003 refers to this approach as triangulation. The target population was African Black senior managers on the database of a large Human Resources Consultancy, The South African Rewards Association and the Association of Black Actuaries and Investment Professionals (ABSIP (n = 2600. A total of 208 usable responses were received.Main findings: The main findings and contribution to the field of study was that African Black senior managers do not trust organisations with their career development. They would rather take control of their own career development by moving from organisation to organisation to build their repertoire of skills and competence. They want to be in charge of their careers. This finding has profound implications for organisations employing African Black managers in the senior cadre.Practical/managerial implications: Managers of African Black senior managers need to create attractive employee value propositions that address the main findings. Contribution/value-add: The research shows that African Black senior managers generally seek corporate environments that encourage a sense of belonging and with a clear career growth plan.

  10. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures.

  11. Identification and Clinical Characterization of Children With Benign Ethnic Neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Michael V; Meier, Emily R; Hsieh, Matthew M

    2016-04-01

    Benign ethnic neutropenia (BEN) is an asymptomatic condition reported in adults of African and Middle Eastern descent. The clinical description in children is currently lacking. In our urban outpatient pediatric hematology clinic, the median neutrophil count of children with BEN was lower than previous reports in adults at 893×10 cells/L, but increased with older age. There was an equal male to female ratio and 24% of our BEN children reported ethnicities other than African or Middle Eastern. Children with BEN had a clinical course comparable with other healthy children including otherwise normal blood counts, except for mild anemia.

  12. Immune response to soluble exoantigens of Plasmodium falciparum may contribute to both pathogenesis and protection in clinical malaria: evidence from a longitudinal, prospective study of semi-immune African children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riley, E M; Jakobsen, P H; Allen, S J;

    1991-01-01

    IFN-gamma after in vitro activation with one of the soluble antigens (Ag7) were more likely to experience clinical manifestations of malaria infection (fever and malaise) than were children whose cells did not produce IFN-gamma. It is possible that exoantigen-induced IFN-gamma may exacerbate the LPS......-like effects of these antigens. However, serum antibodies to another antigen (Ag2) were more prevalent in children with asymptomatic infections or low parasitemia than in children with fever and higher parasitemia (confirmed clinical malaria), suggesting that these antibodies may contribute to the development......Some soluble exoantigens of Plasmodium have lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-like properties and are believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of acute malaria. We have studied cellular and humoral immune responses to several purified exoantigens of Plasmodium falciparum in a cohort of children...

  13. Customizable Digital Receivers for Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Delwyn; Heavey, Brandon; Sadowy, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Compact, highly customizable digital receivers are being developed for the system described in 'Radar Interferometer for Topographic Mapping of Glaciers and Ice Sheets' (NPO-43962), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 7 (August 2007), page 72. The receivers are required to operate in unison, sampling radar returns received by the antenna elements in a digital beam-forming (DBF) mode. The design of these receivers could also be adapted to commercial radar systems. At the time of reporting the information for this article, there were no commercially available digital receivers capable of satisfying all of the operational requirements and compact enough to be mounted directly on the antenna elements. A provided figure depicts the overall system of which the digital receivers are parts. Each digital receiver includes an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a demultiplexer (DMUX), and a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The ADC effects 10-bit band-pass sampling of input signals having frequencies up to 3.5 GHz. The input samples are demultiplexed at a user-selectable rate of 1:2 or 1:4, then buffered in part of the FPGA that functions as a first-in/first-out (FIFO) memory. Another part of the FPGA serves as a controller for the ADC, DMUX, and FIFO memory and as an interface between (1) the rest of the receiver and (2) a front-panel data port (FPDP) bus, which is an industry-standard parallel data bus that has a high data-rate capability and multichannel configuration suitable for DBF. Still other parts of the FPGA in each receiver perform signal-processing functions. The digital receivers can be configured to operate in a stand-alone mode, or in a multichannel mode as needed for DBF. The customizability of the receiver makes it applicable to a broad range of system architectures. The capability for operation of receivers in either a stand-alone or a DBF mode enables the use of the receivers in an unprecedentedly wide variety of radar systems.

  14. [The African Charter on the Rights of the Child. The member states of the Organization of African Unity must ratify without further delay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diongue, A

    1994-12-01

    In July 1990, the Organization of African Unity (OUA) adopted the African Charter of the Rights and Welfare of the Child. It includes a Preamble, two relative parts on the Rights and Respects of the Child, and 47 articles. It defines "child" as a complete human being less than 18 years old. It recognizes the child's unique and privileged place in African society and that African children need protection and special care. It also recognizes that the child has freedom of expression, association, peaceful assembly, thought, religion, and conscience. It aims to protect the private life of the child and safeguard the child against all forms of economic exploitation and against work that is hazardous, interferes with the child's education, or compromises his/her health or physical, social, mental, spiritual, and moral development. It also calls for protection against abuse and bad treatment, negative social and cultural practices, all forms of exploitation or sexual abuse, and illegal drug use. It also aims to prevent the sale, trading, kidnapping, and begging of children. It calls for the creation of an African expert committee on the rights and well-being of the child. Its mission is to promote and protect the rights consecrated by the Charter, to practice applying these rights, and to interpret the disposition of the Charter as required of party states, OUA institutions, or all other institutions recognized by OUA or by a member state. The Charter goes into effect 30 days after OUA or 15 member states ratify it. As of August 24, 1994, only four states had ratified it. Member states have taken it upon themselves to take all necessary measures to adopt the Charter. The delay of African states in this affair is incomprehensible. Eleven years separate the adoption of the Declaration on the Rights and Welfare of the African Child and this Charter. Must the African child wait as long to see the Charter become law? PMID:12288686

  15. Jean Ping, a Legendary Figure In Sino-African Contacts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang; Ruimin

    2013-01-01

    <正>Jean Ping completed his term of office as Chairman of the Commission of the African Union in2012,and,this year,made his sixth visit to China at the invitation of the CPAFFC to receive its honorary title of Friendship Ambassador.He was born in Gabon in 1942.His father,Cheng Zhiping,was a wellknown local timber merchant from Wenzhou,Zhejiang Province who emigrated to Gabon in the 1930s,married

  16. Minority mothers' perceptions of children's body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study is to investigate African-American and Hispanic mothers' perceptions of their children's body size using a scale with child figure silhouettes and compare those perceptions with their children's actual body mass index. A set of child figure silhouettes was developed depic...

  17. Court stories in selected African short narratives

    OpenAIRE

    E. Yewah

    1994-01-01

    This article attempts to cross-examine African Literature and African costumary, Islamic and inherited colonial laws. It opens a new topic in the study of African literature by showing how legal discourses are inscribed in certain African narratives and how these discourses link the narratives to the overall context of their production.

  18. 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop was held from 10 May to 18 June 2002 at Hangzhou Regional Center for Small Hydro Power(HRC). Attended altogether 9 participants from 5 African countries, i.e. Burundi, Nigeria, South African, Tanzania and Tunisia. This is the second training workshop on SHP that HRC conducted for African countries.

  19. Assimilation Differences among Africans in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo

    1997-01-01

    Census data (1990) indicate that male African immigrants earn more than their Caribbean-born counterparts or native-born African Americans, but controlling for relevant earnings-related endowments erases the African advantage and elevates Caribbean earnings above those of the other groups. Also, African (but not Caribbean) university degree…

  20. Children's parasympathetic reactivity to specific emotions moderates response to intervention for early-onset aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Greenberg, Mark; Bierman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Following theories that individual differences in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) denote differential sensitivity to environmental influences, this study examines whether differences in RSA reactivity to specific emotional challenges predict differential response to intervention. We present data from a randomized clinical trial of a targeted intervention for early onset aggression. In collaboration with a high-risk urban school district, 207 kindergarten children (73% African American, 66% male), identified by their teachers as having high levels of aggressive and disruptive behavior, were recruited. All children received a universal social-emotional curriculum. One hundred children were randomly assigned to an additional intervention consisting of weekly peer-based social skills training. Complete RSA data were available for 139 of the children. Teacher-reported externalizing symptoms and emotion regulation in 1st grade (post intervention) were examined controlling for baseline levels. First-grade peer nominations of aggressive behavior, controlling for baseline nominations, were also examined as outcomes. No effect of resting RSA was found. However, greater reactivity to anger was associated with higher externalizing symptoms and lower emotion regulation skills in 1st grade relative to low reactive children. Lower reactivity to fear was associated with greater improvement over time, an effect that was enhanced in the targeted intervention condition. Results suggest that measures of affective reactivity may provide insight into children's capacity to benefit from different types of interventions.