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Sample records for african animal trypanosomiasis

  1. Programme for the control of African animal trypanosomiasis and related development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finelle, P.

    1980-01-01

    After a statement on the problems raised by African animal trypanosomiasis and its control, and the development of currently affected areas, the Programme is outlined describing the methodology for tsetse and trypanosomiasis control operations and the basic approach for implementation of related development. The activities carried out during the five-year preliminary phase are summarized. The operational phase of the Programme is now being launched. The possible use of the sterile male technique is mentioned marginally. No details of research programmes envisaged are presented. A series of Preliminary Assistance Missions to Governments for the evaluation and preparation of control schemes, development strategies and projects is being mounted

  2. The FAO programme for the control of African animal trypanosomiasis and related development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hursey, B S [FAO, Rome (Italy)

    1990-04-01

    The FAO proposal for a long-term Programme for the Control of African Animal Trypanosomiasis and Related Development was presented to the World Food Conference in November 1974. A recommendation was adopted that the programme should be implemented as a matter of urgency and should receive high priority in the FAO programme of work and budget. Following recommendations of support by FAO statutory bodies the preparatory phase, which led to implementation of a large-scale programme, was launched in 1980.

  3. The FAO programme for the control of African animal trypanosomiasis and related development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hursey, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    The FAO proposal for a long-term Programme for the Control of African Animal Trypanosomiasis and Related Development was presented to the World Food Conference in November 1974. A recommendation was adopted that the programme should be implemented as a matter of urgency and should receive high priority in the FAO programme of work and budget. Following recommendations of support by FAO statutory bodies the preparatory phase, which led to implementation of a large-scale programme, was launched in 1980

  4. The history of African trypanosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steverding Dietmar

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The prehistory of African trypanosomiasis indicates that the disease may have been an important selective factor in the evolution of hominids. Ancient history and medieval history reveal that African trypanosomiasis affected the lives of people living in sub-Saharan African at all times. Modern history of African trypanosomiasis revolves around the identification of the causative agents and the mode of transmission of the infection, and the development of drugs for treatment and methods for control of the disease. From the recent history of sleeping sickness we can learn that the disease can be controlled but probably not be eradicated. Current history of human African trypanosomiasis has shown that the production of anti-sleeping sickness drugs is not always guaranteed, and therefore, new, better and cheaper drugs are urgently required.

  5. Animal trypanosomiasis in Africa: Aetiology and Epidemiology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four major elements were identifed as important in the epizootiology of African animal trypanosomiasis namely the trypanosome, the tsetse fy the mammalian host and the environmental factors. It was concluded that the phenomenon of high rate of resistance referred to as trypanosotolerance has genetic correspondence.

  6. Epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis

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    Franco JR

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Jose R Franco,1 Pere P Simarro,1 Abdoulaye Diarra,2 Jean G Jannin1 1World Health Organization, Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, Innovative and Intensified Disease Management, Geneva, Switzerland; 2World Health Organization, Inter Country Support Team for Central Africa, Regional Office for Africa, Libreville, Gabon Abstract: Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, or sleeping sickness, is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, which is a chronic form of the disease present in western and central Africa, and by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, which is an acute disease located in eastern and southern Africa. The rhodesiense form is a zoonosis, with the occasional infection of humans, but in the gambiense form, the human being is regarded as the main reservoir that plays a key role in the transmission cycle of the disease. The gambiense form currently assumes that 98% of the cases are declared; the Democratic Republic of the Congo is the most affected country, with more than 75% of the gambiense cases declared. The epidemiology of the disease is mediated by the interaction of the parasite (trypanosome with the vectors (tsetse flies, as well as with the human and animal hosts within a particular environment. Related to these interactions, the disease is confined in spatially limited areas called “foci”, which are located in Sub-Saharan Africa, mainly in remote rural areas. The risk of contracting HAT is, therefore, determined by the possibility of contact of a human being with an infected tsetse fly. Epidemics of HAT were described at the beginning of the 20th century; intensive activities have been set up to confront the disease, and it was under control in the 1960s, with fewer than 5,000 cases reported in the whole continent. The disease resurged at the end of the 1990s, but renewed efforts from endemic countries, cooperation agencies, and nongovernmental organizations led by the World Health Organization succeeded to raise awareness and

  7. The role of domestic animals in the epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis in Ngorongoro conservation area, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Juan P; Nyingilili, Hamisi S; Mbata, Geofrey H; Malele, Imna I

    2015-10-06

    Trypanosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by the trypanosome parasite and transmitted by the tsetse fly vector. In Sub-saharan Africa, both the human and animal variants of the disease are a great obstacle towards agriculture, development, and health. In order to better understand and therefore combat Trypanosomiasis, characterizing disease hotspots across species is critical. In this study, 193 samples from cattle, sheep, and goats were collected from eight sites. Samples were taken from animals belonging mostly to Maasai herdsmen in the Ngorongoro Crater Conservation Area (NCA) and analysed for the presence of trypanosomiasis infection using PCR techniques. Those that tested positive for T. brucei parasite were further tested using SRA LAMP technique to check for T. brucei rhodesiense, the human infective subspecies of parasite. Our study found a high incidence of Trypanosoma brucei infections across species. Of animals tested, 47 % of cattle, 91.7 % of sheep, and 60.8 % of goats were infected. Most of the infections were of the T. brucei species. We also identified sheep and goats as carriers of the T. brucei rhodesiense subspecies, which causes acute human trypanosomiasis. Together, these results point toward the need for stricter control strategies in the area to prevent disease outbreak.

  8. Cost analysis of options for management of African Animal Trypanosomiasis using interventions targeted at cattle in Tororo District; south-eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhanguzi, Dennis; Okello, Walter O; Kabasa, John D; Waiswa, Charles; Welburn, Susan C; Shaw, Alexandra P M

    2015-07-22

    Tsetse-transmitted African trypanosomes cause both nagana (African animal Trypanosomiasis-AAT) and sleeping sickness (human African Trypanosomiasis - HAT) across Sub-Saharan Africa. Vector control and chemotherapy are the contemporary methods of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control in this region. In most African countries, including Uganda, veterinary services have been decentralised and privatised. As a result, livestock keepers meet the costs of most of these services. To be sustainable, AAT control programs need to tailor tsetse control to the inelastic budgets of resource-poor small scale farmers. To guide the process of tsetse and AAT control toolkit selection, that now, more than ever before, needs to optimise resources, the costs of different tsetse and trypanosomiasis control options need to be determined. A detailed costing of the restricted application protocol (RAP) for African trypanosomiasis control in Tororo District was undertaken between June 2012 and December 2013. A full cost calculation approach was used; including all overheads, delivery costs, depreciation and netting out transfer payments to calculate the economic (societal) cost of the intervention. Calculations were undertaken in Microsoft Excel without incorporating probabilistic elements. The cost of delivering RAP to the project was US$ 6.89 per animal per year while that of 4 doses of a curative trypanocide per animal per year was US$ 5.69. However, effective tsetse control does not require the application of RAP to all animals. Protecting cattle from trypanosome infections by spraying 25%, 50% or 75% of all cattle in a village costs US$ 1.72, 3.45 and 5.17 per animal per year respectively. Alternatively, a year of a single dose of curative or prophylactic trypanocide treatment plus 50% RAP would cost US$ 4.87 and US$ 5.23 per animal per year. Pyrethroid insecticides and trypanocides cost 22.4 and 39.1% of the cost of RAP and chemotherapy respectively. Cost analyses of low cost tsetse

  9. Improvements on restricted insecticide application protocol for control of Human and Animal African Trypanosomiasis in eastern Uganda.

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    Dennis Muhanguzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: African trypanosomes constrain livestock and human health in Sub-Saharan Africa, and aggravate poverty and hunger of these otherwise largely livestock-keeping communities. To solve this, there is need to develop and use effective and cheap tsetse control methods. To this end, we aimed at determining the smallest proportion of a cattle herd that needs to be sprayed on the legs, bellies and ears (RAP for effective Human and Animal African Trypanosomiasis (HAT/AAT control. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Cattle in 20 villages were ear-tagged and injected with two doses of diminazene diaceturate (DA forty days apart, and randomly allocated to one of five treatment regimens namely; no treatment, 25%, 50%, 75% monthly RAP and every 3 month Albendazole drench. Cattle trypanosome re-infection rate was determined by molecular techniques. ArcMap V10.3 was used to map apparent tsetse density (FTD from trap catches. The effect of graded RAP on incidence risk ratios and trypanosome prevalence was determined using Poisson and logistic random effect models in R and STATA V12.1 respectively. Incidence was estimated at 9.8/100 years in RAP regimens, significantly lower compared to 25.7/100 years in the non-RAP regimens (incidence rate ratio: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.22-0.65; P<0.001. Likewise, trypanosome prevalence after one year of follow up was significantly lower in RAP animals than in non-RAP animals (4% vs 15%, OR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.08-0.44; P<0.001. Contrary to our expectation, level of protection did not increase with increasing proportion of animals treated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Reduction in RAP coverage did not significantly affect efficacy of treatment. This is envisaged to improve RAP adaptability to low income livestock keepers but needs further evaluation in different tsetse challenge, HAT/AAT transmission rates and management systems before adopting it for routine tsetse control programs.

  10. Conflict and human African trypanosomiasis.

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    Berrang-Ford, Lea; Lundine, Jamie; Breau, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) has reemerged in sub-Saharan Africa as a disease of major public health importance. The success of HAT elimination in sub-Saharan Africa is subject to the feasibility of controlling, eliminating, or mitigating the determinants of incidence in affected countries. Conflict has been widely recognized and cited as a contributing factor to the resurgence of HAT in many countries, as well as to continuing HAT incidence in politically unstable and resource-poor regions. Despite extensive anecdotal and qualitative recognition of the role of conflict, there has been no quantitative research of this topic at the population level in affected African countries. We characterize the qualitative and quantitative associations between HAT incidence and conflict-related processes in HAT-affected African countries over the past 30 years. HAT and conflict-related data were collected for 35 affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa for the years 1976-2004. Descriptive and univariate inferential statistics, as well as negative binomial regression modeling, are used to assess the associations between HAT and conflict. A space-time scan statistic is used to identify significant incidence clusters. Clusters of HAT incidence over the past 30 years have predominantly coincided with periods of conflict or socio-political instability. HAT cases occurred significantly more often in countries and during years with conflict, high political terror, and internationalized civil war. The results indicate a lag period between the start of conflict events and a peak in incidence of approximately 10 years. We recommend explicit consideration and quantification of socio-political measures such as conflict and terror indices in GIS (Geographic Information Systems)-based risk assessments for HAT policy and intervention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Integrated cost-benefit analysis of tsetse control and herd productivity to inform control programs for animal African trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Anne; Holt, Hannah R; Oumarou, Farikou; Chilongo, Kalinga; Gilbert, William; Fauron, Albane; Mumba, Chisoni; Guitian, Javier

    2018-03-07

    Animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT) and its tsetse vector are responsible for annual losses estimated in billions of US dollars ($). Recent years have seen the implementation of a series of multinational interventions. However, actors of AAT control face complex resource allocation decisions due to the geographical range of AAT, diversity of ecological and livestock systems, and range of control methods available. The study presented here integrates an existing tsetse abundance model with a bio-economic herd model that captures local production characteristics as well as heterogeneities in AAT incidence and breed. These models were used to predict the impact of tsetse elimination on the net value of cattle production in the districts of Mambwe, in Zambia, and Faro et Déo in Cameroon. The net value of cattle production under the current situation was used as a baseline, and compared with alternative publicly funded control programmes. In Zambia, the current baseline is AAT control implemented privately by cattle owners (Scenario Z0). In Cameroon, the baseline (Scenario C0) is a small-scale publicly funded tsetse control programme and privately funded control at farm level. The model was run for 10 years, using a discount rate of 5%. Compared to Scenario C0, benefit-cost ratios (BCR) of 4.5 (4.4-4.7) for Scenario C1 (tsetse suppression using insecticide treatment of cattle (ITC) and traps + maintenance with ITC barrier), and 3.8 (3.6-4.0) for Scenario C2 (tsetse suppression using ITC and traps + maintenance with barrier of targets), were estimated in Cameroon. For Zambia, the benefit-cost ratio calculated for Scenarios Z1 (targets, ITC barrier), Z2 (targets, barrier traps), Z3 (aerial spraying, ITC barrier), and Z4 (aerial spraying, barrier traps) were 2.3 (1.8 - 2.7), 2.0 (1.6-2.4), 2.8 (2.3-3.3) and 2.5 (2.0-2.9), respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that the profitability of the projects is relatively resistant to variations in the costs of the

  12. Knowledge and prevalence of Human African Trypanosomiasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge and prevalence of Human African Trypanosomiasis among residents of Kachia grazing reserve, Kachia local government area, Kaduna state, ... Knowledge of HAT was scored 0-5 and categorized good (3-5) and poor (0-2) based on score, predisposition to risk of HAT as exposure to ≥two risk factors and, ...

  13. Immunophenotypic lymphocyte profiles in human african trypanosomiasis.

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    Caroline Boda

    Full Text Available Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT is a deadly vector-born disease caused by an extracellular parasite, the trypanosome. Little is known about the cellular immune responses elicited by this parasite in humans. We used multiparameter flow cytometry to characterize leukocyte immunophenotypes in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 33 HAT patients and 27 healthy controls identified during a screening campaign in Angola and Gabon. We evaluated the subsets and activation markers of B and T lymphocytes. Patients had a higher percentage of CD19+ B lymphocytes and activated B lymphocytes in the blood than did controls, but lacked activated CD4+ T lymphocytes (CD25+. Patients displayed no increase in the percentage of activated CD8+ T cells (HLA-DR+, CD69+ or CD25+, but memory CD8 T-cell levels (CD8+CD45RA2 were significantly lower in patients than in controls, as were effector CD8 T-cell levels (CD8+CD45RA+CD62L2. No relationship was found between these blood immunophenotypes and disease severity (stage 1 vs 2. However, CD19+ B-cell levels in the CSF increased with disease severity. The patterns of T and B cell activation in HAT patients suggest that immunomodulatory mechanisms may operate during infection. Determinations of CD19+ B-cell levels in the CSF could improve disease staging.

  14. Immunology and immunopathology of African trypanosomiasis

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    Philippe Vincendeau

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Major modifications of immune system have been observed in African trypanosomiasis. These immune reactions do not lead to protection and are also involved in immunopathology disorders. The major surface component (variable surface glycoprotein,VSG is associated with escape to immune reactions, cytokine network dysfunctions and autoantibody production. Most of our knowledge result from experimental trypanosomiasis. Innate resistance elements have been characterised. In infected mice, VSG preferentially stimulates a Th 1-cell subset. A response of gd and CD8 T cells to trypanosome antigens was observed in trypanotolerant cattle. An increase in CD5 B cells, responsible for most serum IgM and production of autoantibodies has been noted in infected cattle. Macrophages play important roles in trypanosomiasis, in synergy with antibodies (phagocytosis and by secreting various molecules (radicals, cytokines, prostaglandins,.... Trypanosomes are highly sensitive to TNF-alpha, reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates. TNF-alpha is also involved in cachexia. IFN-gamma acts as a parasite growth factor. These various elements contribute to immunosuppression. Trypanosomes have learnt to use immune mechanisms to its own profit. Recent data show the importance of alternative macrophage activation, including arginase induction. L-ornithine produced by host arginase is essential to parasite growth. All these data reflect the deep insight into the immune system realised by trypanosomes and might suggest interference therapeutic approaches.Modificações importantes no sistema imune são observadas na tripanosomíase Africana. Essas reações imunológicas não protegem e estão envolvidas em distúrbios imunopatológicos. O principal componente de superfície (glicoproteína variante de superfície, VSG está associado à evasão das respostas imune, às disfunções da rede de citocinas e à produção de autoanticorpos. Muitos de nossos conhecimentos resultam

  15. Secondary immunodeficiencies associated with African trypanosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, R.J.; Hudson, K.M.; Faghihi Shirazi, M.; May, D.

    1980-01-01

    Infection with various species of African trypanosomes have been shown to depress immune responses in experimental animals, in domestic cattle and in man. The mechanisms underlying this immunodepression are currently the subject of much research, and are now known to be diverse and complex. Mechanisms positively identified are: (1) the polyclonal activation of B-lymphocytes, leading eventually to clonal exhaustion, and (2) the excessive stimulation of cells with suppressor properties. Other putative mechanisms under investigation include the development of auto-antibodies cytotoxic for autologous lymphocytes, the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids and the activation of complement. All these investigations rely heavily on the use of radioisotopes and/or whole-body ionizing irradiation. (author)

  16. Effect of Tetracycline on Late-stage African trypanosomiasis in Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Tetracycline on Late-stage African trypanosomiasis in Rats. T.O. Johnson, J.T. Ekanem. Abstract. The effect of tetracycline on late stage African trypanosomiasis was examined in an in vivo experiment using rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Infected rats were treated on the 5th day of infection with ...

  17. Research priorities for Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a review and analysis of the research landscape for three diseases - Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis - that disproportionately afflict poor and remote populations with limited access to health services. It represents the work of the disease reference group on Chagas Disease, Human African Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis (DRG3) which was established to identify key research priorities through review of research evidence and input from stakeholders' consultations. The diseases, which are caused by related protozoan parasites, are described in terms of their epidemiology and diseases burden, clinical forms and pathogenesis, HIV coinfection, diagnosis, drugs and drug resistance, vaccines, vector control, and health-care interventions. Priority areas for research are identified based on criteria such as public health relevance, benefit and impact on poor populations and equity, and feasibility. The priorities are found in the areas of diagnostics, drugs, vector control, asymptomatic infection, economic analysis of treatment and vector control methods, and in some specific issues such as surveillance methods or transmission-blocking vaccines for particular diseases. This report will be useful to researchers, policy and decision-makers, funding bodies, implementation organizations, and civil society. This is one of ten disease and thematic reference group reports that have come out of the TDR Think Tank, all of which have contributed to the development of the Global Report for Research on Infectious Diseases of Poverty, available at: www.who.int/tdr/stewardship/global_report/en/index.html.

  18. Nanobody conjugated PLGA nanoparticles for active targeting of African Trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, José L; Unciti-Broceta, Juan D; Maceira, José; Del Castillo, Teresa; Hernández-Quero, José; Magez, Stefan; Soriano, Miguel; García-Salcedo, José A

    2015-01-10

    Targeted delivery of therapeutics is an alternative approach for the selective treatment of infectious diseases. The surface of African trypanosomes, the causative agents of African trypanosomiasis, is covered by a surface coat consisting of a single variant surface glycoprotein, termed VSG. This coat is recycled by endocytosis at a very high speed, making the trypanosome surface an excellent target for the delivery of trypanocidal drugs. Here, we report the design of a drug nanocarrier based on poly ethylen glycol (PEG) covalently attached (PEGylated) to poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) to generate PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles. This nanocarrier was coupled to a single domain heavy chain antibody fragment (nanobody) that specifically recognizes the surface of the protozoan pathogen Trypanosoma brucei. Nanoparticles were loaded with pentamidine, the first-line drug for T. b. gambiense acute infection. An in vitro effectiveness assay showed a 7-fold decrease in the half-inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the formulation relative to free drug. Furthermore, in vivo therapy using a murine model of African trypanosomiasis demonstrated that the formulation cured all infected mice at a 10-fold lower dose than the minimal full curative dose of free pentamidine and 60% of mice at a 100-fold lower dose. This nanocarrier has been designed with components approved for use in humans and loaded with a drug that is currently in use to treat the disease. Moreover, this flexible nanobody-based system can be adapted to load any compound, opening a range of new potential therapies with application to other diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Diagnostic Accuracy of Molecular Amplification Tests for Human African Trypanosomiasis-Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugasa, Claire M.; Adams, Emily R.; Boer, Kimberly R.; Dyserinck, Heleen C.; Büscher, Philippe; Schallig, Henk D. H. F.; Leeflang, Mariska M. G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A range of molecular amplification techniques have been developed for the diagnosis of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT); however, careful evaluation of these tests must precede implementation to ensure their high clinical accuracy. Here, we investigated the diagnostic accuracy of

  20. Nanobodies As Tools to Understand, Diagnose, and Treat African Trypanosomiasis

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    Benoit Stijlemans

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available African trypanosomes are strictly extracellular protozoan parasites that cause diseases in humans and livestock and significantly affect the economic development of sub-Saharan Africa. Due to an elaborate and efficient (vector–parasite–host interplay, required to complete their life cycle/transmission, trypanosomes have evolved efficient immune escape mechanisms that manipulate the entire host immune response. So far, not a single field applicable vaccine exists, and chemotherapy is the only strategy available to treat the disease. Current therapies, however, exhibit high drug toxicity and an increased drug resistance is being reported. In addition, diagnosis is often hampered due to the inadequacy of current diagnostic procedures. In the context of tackling the shortcomings of current treatment and diagnostic approaches, nanobodies (Nbs, derived from the heavy chain-only antibodies of camels and llamas might represent unmet advantages compared to conventional tools. Indeed, the combination of their small size, high stability, high affinity, and specificity for their target and tailorability represents a unique advantage, which is reflected by their broad use in basic and clinical research to date. In this article, we will review and discuss (i diagnostic and therapeutic applications of Nbs that are being evaluated in the context of African trypanosomiasis, (ii summarize new strategies that are being developed to optimize their potency for advancing their use, and (iii document on unexpected properties of Nbs, such as inherent trypanolytic activities, that besides opening new therapeutic avenues, might offer new insight in hidden biological activities of conventional antibodies.

  1. Studies on the pathogenesis and immunology of African trypanosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assoku, R.K.G.

    1981-01-01

    Within the past few years evidence has accumulated which indicates that at least some of the African trypanosomes are capable of generating potent, biologically active factors or 'toxins'. The importance of these trypanosome-derived biological factors is not firmly established, yet when acting together they may account for some of the lesions observed and for the deaths of trypanosome-infected individuals. One group of factors generated by autolysing trypanosomes includes the phospholipases, lysophospholipases and free fatty acids. Both T. congolense and T. brucei, on autolysis for 8-24 h at 20 0 C, greatly increase their phospholipase activity which reaches 40-times the level in fresh organisms by 24 h. The phospholipase, acting on trypanosome phosphatidylcholine, yields great quantities of free fatty acids and lysophosphatidylcholine, the latter being further degraded by lysophospholipase to yield more free fatty acids. It is suggested that the free fatty acids generated in this way are of major significance in the pathogenesis of African trypanosomiasis. (author)

  2. The detection and treatment of human African trypanosomiasis

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    Bouteille B

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bernard Bouteille,1 Alain Buguet21Laboratory of Parasitology, Dupuytren University Hospital of Limoges, France; 2Polyclinic Marie-Louise Poto-Djembo, Pointe-Noire, CongoAbstract: Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT is caused by the injection of Trypanosoma brucei (T. b. gambiense or T. b. rhodesiense by Glossina, the tsetse fly. Three historical eras followed the exclusive clinical approach of the 19th century. At the turn of the century, the “initial research” era was initiated because of the dramatic spread of HAT throughout intertropical Africa, and scientists discovered the agent and its vector. Two entities, recurrent fever and sleeping sickness, were then considered a continuum between hemolymphatic stage 1 and meningoencephalitic stage 2. Treatments were developed. Soon after World War I, specific services and mobile teams were created, initiating the “epidemiological” era, during which populations were visited, screened, and treated. As a result, by 1960, annual new cases were rare. New mass screening and staging tools were then developed in a third, “modern” era, especially to counter a new epidemic wave. Currently, diagnosis still relies on microscopic detection of trypanosomes without (wet and thick blood films or with concentration techniques (capillary tube centrifugation, miniature anion-exchange centrifugation technique. Staging is a vital step.Stage 1 patients are treated on site with pentamidine or suramin. However, stage 2 patients are treated in specialized facilities, using drugs that are highly toxic and/or that require complex administration procedures (melarsoprol, eflornithine, or nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy. Suramin and melarsoprol are the only medications active against Rhodesian HAT. Staging still relies on cerebrospinal fluid examination for trypanosome detection and white blood cell counts: stage 1, absence of trypanosomes, white blood cell counts ≤ 5/µL; stage 2, presence of

  3. Determinants of Human African Trypanosomiasis Elimination via Paratransgenesis.

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    Jennifer A Gilbert

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, transmitted by tsetse flies, has historically infected hundreds of thousands of individuals annually in sub-Saharan Africa. Over the last decade, concerted control efforts have reduced reported cases to below 10,000 annually, bringing complete elimination within reach. A potential technology to eliminate HAT involves rendering the flies resistant to trypanosome infection. This approach can be achieved through the introduction of transgenic Sodalis symbiotic bacteria that have been modified to produce a trypanocide, and propagated via Wolbachia symbionts, which confer a reproductive advantage to the paratransgenic tsetse. However, the population dynamics of these symbionts within tsetse flies have not yet been evaluated. Specifically, the key factors that determine the effectiveness of paratransgenesis have yet to be quantified. To identify the impact of these determinants on T.b. gambiense and T.b. rhodesiense transmission, we developed a mathematical model of trypanosome transmission that incorporates tsetse and symbiont population dynamics. We found that fecundity and mortality penalties associated with Wolbachia or recombinant Sodalis colonization, probabilities of vertical transmission, and tsetse migration rates are fundamental to the feasibility of HAT elimination. For example, we determined that HAT elimination could be sustained over 25 years when Wolbachia colonization minimally impacted fecundity or mortality, and when the probability of recombinant Sodalis vertical transmission exceeded 99.9%. We also found that for a narrow range of recombinant Sodalis vertical transmission probability (99.9-90.6% for T.b. gambiense and 99.9-85.8% for T.b. rhodesiense, cumulative HAT incidence was reduced between 30% and 1% for T.b. gambiense and between 21% and 3% for T.b. rhodesiense, although elimination was not predicted. Our findings indicate that fitness and mortality penalties associated with paratransgenic

  4. Bayesian geostatistical analysis and prediction of Rhodesian human African trypanosomiasis.

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    Nicola A Wardrop

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The persistent spread of Rhodesian human African trypanosomiasis (HAT in Uganda in recent years has increased concerns of a potential overlap with the Gambian form of the disease. Recent research has aimed to increase the evidence base for targeting control measures by focusing on the environmental and climatic factors that control the spatial distribution of the disease.One recent study used simple logistic regression methods to explore the relationship between prevalence of Rhodesian HAT and several social, environmental and climatic variables in two of the most recently affected districts of Uganda, and suggested the disease had spread into the study area due to the movement of infected, untreated livestock. Here we extend this study to account for spatial autocorrelation, incorporate uncertainty in input data and model parameters and undertake predictive mapping for risk of high HAT prevalence in future.Using a spatial analysis in which a generalised linear geostatistical model is used in a Bayesian framework to account explicitly for spatial autocorrelation and incorporate uncertainty in input data and model parameters we are able to demonstrate a more rigorous analytical approach, potentially resulting in more accurate parameter and significance estimates and increased predictive accuracy, thereby allowing an assessment of the validity of the livestock movement hypothesis given more robust parameter estimation and appropriate assessment of covariate effects.Analysis strongly supports the theory that Rhodesian HAT was imported to the study area via the movement of untreated, infected livestock from endemic areas. The confounding effect of health care accessibility on the spatial distribution of Rhodesian HAT and the linkages between the disease's distribution and minimum land surface temperature have also been confirmed via the application of these methods.Predictive mapping indicates an increased risk of high HAT prevalence in the future

  5. Characterisation of the wildlife reservoir community for human and animal trypanosomiasis in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.

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    Neil E Anderson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal and human trypanosomiasis are constraints to both animal and human health in Sub-Saharan Africa, but there is little recent evidence as to how these parasites circulate in wild hosts in natural ecosystems. The Luangwa Valley in Zambia supports high densities of tsetse flies (Glossina species and is recognised as an historical sleeping sickness focus. The objective of this study was to characterise the nature of the reservoir community for trypanosomiasis in the absence of influence from domesticated hosts.A cross-sectional survey of trypanosome prevalence in wildlife hosts was conducted in the Luangwa Valley from 2005 to 2007. Samples were collected from 418 animals and were examined for the presence of Trypanosoma brucei s.l., T. b. rhodesiense, Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax using molecular diagnostic techniques. The overall prevalence of infection in all species was 13.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.71-17.57%. Infection was significantly more likely to be detected in waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus (Odds ratio [OR]=10.5, 95% CI: 2.36-46.71, lion (Panthera leo (OR=5.3, 95% CI: 1.40-19.69, greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros (OR=4.7, 95% CI: 1.41-15.41 and bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus (OR=4.5, 95% CI: 1.51-13.56. Bushbucks are important hosts for T. brucei s.l. while the Bovidae appear the most important for T. congolense. The epidemiology of T. vivax was less clear, but parasites were detected most frequently in waterbuck. Human infective T. b. rhodesiense were identified for the first time in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer and T. brucei s.l. in leopard (Panthera pardus. Variation in infection rates was demonstrated at species level rather than at family or sub-family level. A number of significant risk factors interact to influence infection rates in wildlife including taxonomy, habitat and blood meal preference.Trypanosoma parasites circulate within a wide and diverse host community in this bio

  6. Substituted 2-Phenyl-Imidazopyridines: A New Class of Drug Leads for Human African Trypanosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatipaka, Hari Babu; Gillespie, J. Robert; Chatterjee, Arnab K.; Norcross, Neil R.; Hulverson, Matthew A.; Ranade, Ranae M.; Nagendar, Pendem; Creason, Sharon A.; McQueen, Joshua; Duster, Nicole A.; Nagle, Advait; Supek, Frantisek; Molteni, Valentina; Wenzler, Tanja; Brun, Reto; Glynne, Richard; Buckner, Frederick S.; Gelb, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    A phenotypic screen of a compound library for antiparasitic activity on Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis, led to the identification of substituted 2-(3-aminophenyl) oxazolopyridines as a starting point for hit-to-lead medicinal chemistry. A total of 110 analogues were prepared, which led to the identification of 64, a substituted 2-(3-aminophenyl) imidazopyridine. This compound showed antiparasitic activity in vitro with an EC50 of 2 nM and displayed reasonable drug-like properties when tested in a number of in vitro assays. The compound was orally bioavailable and displayed good plasma and brain exposure in mice. Compound 64 cured mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei when dosed orally down to 2.5 mg/kg. Given its potent anti-parasitic properties and its ease of synthesis, compound 64 represents a new lead for the development of drugs to treat human African trypanosomiasis. PMID:24354316

  7. Genome sequence of the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans ): Vector of African trypanosomiasis

    KAUST Repository

    Watanabe, Junichi

    2014-04-24

    Tsetse flies are the sole vectors of human African trypanosomiasis throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Both sexes of adult tsetse feed exclusively on blood and contribute to disease transmission. Notable differences between tsetse and other disease vectors include obligate microbial symbioses, viviparous reproduction, and lactation. Here, we describe the sequence and annotation of the 366-megabase Glossina morsitans morsitans genome. Analysis of the genome and the 12,308 predicted protein-encoding genes led to multiple discoveries, including chromosomal integrations of bacterial (Wolbachia) genome sequences, a family of lactation-specific proteins, reduced complement of host pathogen recognition proteins, and reduced olfaction/chemosensory associated genes. These genome data provide a foundation for research into trypanosomiasis prevention and yield important insights with broad implications for multiple aspects of tsetse biology.

  8. Genome sequence of the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans ): Vector of African trypanosomiasis

    KAUST Repository

    Watanabe, Junichi; Hattori, Masahira; Berriman, Matthew; Lehane, Michael J.; Hall, Neil; Solano, Philippe; Aksoy, Serap; Hide, Winston; Touré , Yé ya Tié moko; Attardo, Geoffrey M.; Darby, Alistair Charles; Toyoda, Atsushi; Hertz-Fowler, Christiane; Larkin, Denis M.; Cotton, James A.; Sanders, Mandy J.; Swain, Martin T.; Quail, Michael A.; Inoue, Noboru; Ravel, Sophie; Taylor, Todd Duane; Srivastava, Tulika P.; Sharma, Vineet Kumar; Warren, Wesley C.; Wilson, Richard K.; Suzuki, Yutaka; Lawson, Daniel; Hughes, Daniel Seth Toney; Megy, Karyn; Masiga, Daniel K.; Mireji, Paul Odhiambo; Hansen, Immo Alex; Van Den Abbeele, Jan; Benoit, Joshua B.; Bourtzis, Kostas; Obiero, George F O; Robertson, Hugh M.; Jones, Jeffery W.; Zhou, Jingjiang; Field, Linda M.; Friedrich, Markus; Nyanjom, Steven R G; Telleria, Erich Loza; Caljon, Guy; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro; Ooi, Cherpheng; Rose, Clair; Price, David P.; Haines, Lee Rafuse; Christoffels, Alan G.; Sim, Cheolho; Pham, Daphne Q D; Denlinger, David L.; Geiser, Dawn L.; Omedo, Irene A.; Winzerling, Joy J.; Peyton, Justin T.; Marucha, Kevin K.; Jonas, Mario; Meuti, Megan E.; Rawlings, Neil David; Zhang, Qirui; Macharia, Rosaline Wanjiru; Michalkova, Veronika; Dashti, Zahra Jalali Sefid; Baumann, Aaron A.; Gä de, Gerd; Marco, Heather G.; Caers, Jelle; Schoofs, Liliane; Riehle, Michael A.; Hu, Wanqi; Tu, Zhijian; Tarone, Aaron M.; Malacrida, Anna Rodolfa; Kibet, Caleb K.; Scolari, Francesca; Koekemoer, J. J. O.; Willis, Judith H.; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Falchetto, Marco; Scott, Maxwell J.; Fu, Shuhua; Sze, Singhoi; Luiz, Thiago; Weiss, Brian L.; Walshe, Deirdre P.; Wang, Jingwen; Wamalwa, Mark; Mwangi, Sarah; Ramphul, Urvashi N.; Snyder, Anna K.; Brelsfoard, Corey L.; Thomas, Gavin H.; Tsiamis, George; Arensburger, Peter; Rio, Rita V M; Macdonald, Sandy J.; Panji, Sumir; Kruger, Adele F.; Benkahla, Alia; Balyeidhusa, Apollo Simon Peter; Msangi, Atway R.; Okoro, Chinyere K.; Stephens, Dawn; Stanley, Eleanor J.; Mpondo, Feziwe; Wamwiri, Florence N.; Mramba, Furaha; Siwo, Geoffrey H.; Githinji, George; Harkins, Gordon William; Murilla, Grace Adira; Lehvä slaiho, Heikki; Malele, Imna I.; Auma, Joanna Eseri; Kinyua, Johnson K.; Ouma, Johnson O.; Okedi, Loyce M A; Manga, Lucien; Aslett, Martin A.; Koffi, Mathurin; Gaunt, Michael W.; Makgamathe, Mmule; Mulder, Nicola Jane; Manangwa, Oliver; Abila, Patrick P.; Wincker, Patrick; Gregory, Richard I.; Bateta, Rosemary; Sakate, Ryuichi; Ommeh, Sheila; Lehane, Stella M.; Imanishi, Tadashi; Osamor, Victor Chukwudi; Kawahara, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Tsetse flies are the sole vectors of human African trypanosomiasis throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Both sexes of adult tsetse feed exclusively on blood and contribute to disease transmission. Notable differences between tsetse and other disease vectors include obligate microbial symbioses, viviparous reproduction, and lactation. Here, we describe the sequence and annotation of the 366-megabase Glossina morsitans morsitans genome. Analysis of the genome and the 12,308 predicted protein-encoding genes led to multiple discoveries, including chromosomal integrations of bacterial (Wolbachia) genome sequences, a family of lactation-specific proteins, reduced complement of host pathogen recognition proteins, and reduced olfaction/chemosensory associated genes. These genome data provide a foundation for research into trypanosomiasis prevention and yield important insights with broad implications for multiple aspects of tsetse biology.

  9. Spatial predictions of Rhodesian Human African Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness prevalence in Kaberamaido and Dokolo, two newly affected districts of Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola A Batchelor

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The continued northwards spread of Rhodesian sleeping sickness or Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT within Uganda is raising concerns of overlap with the Gambian form of the disease. Disease convergence would result in compromised diagnosis and treatment for HAT. Spatial determinants for HAT are poorly understood across small areas. This study examines the relationships between Rhodesian HAT and several environmental, climatic and social factors in two newly affected districts, Kaberamaido and Dokolo. A one-step logistic regression analysis of HAT prevalence and a two-step logistic regression method permitted separate analysis of both HAT occurrence and HAT prevalence. Both the occurrence and prevalence of HAT were negatively correlated with distance to the closest livestock market in all models. The significance of distance to the closest livestock market strongly indicates that HAT may have been introduced to this previously unaffected area via the movement of infected, untreated livestock from endemic areas. This illustrates the importance of the animal reservoir in disease transmission, and highlights the need for trypanosomiasis control in livestock and the stringent implementation of regulations requiring the treatment of cattle prior to sale at livestock markets to prevent any further spread of Rhodesian HAT within Uganda.

  10. Specific Cell Targeting Therapy Bypasses Drug Resistance Mechanisms in African Trypanosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D Unciti-Broceta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available African trypanosomiasis is a deadly neglected disease caused by the extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Current therapies are characterized by high drug toxicity and increasing drug resistance mainly associated with loss-of-function mutations in the transporters involved in drug import. The introduction of new antiparasitic drugs into therapeutic use is a slow and expensive process. In contrast, specific targeting of existing drugs could represent a more rapid and cost-effective approach for neglected disease treatment, impacting through reduced systemic toxicity and circumventing resistance acquired through impaired compound uptake. We have generated nanoparticles of chitosan loaded with the trypanocidal drug pentamidine and coated by a single domain nanobody that specifically targets the surface of African trypanosomes. Once loaded into this nanocarrier, pentamidine enters trypanosomes through endocytosis instead of via classical cell surface transporters. The curative dose of pentamidine-loaded nanobody-chitosan nanoparticles was 100-fold lower than pentamidine alone in a murine model of acute African trypanosomiasis. Crucially, this new formulation displayed undiminished in vitro and in vivo activity against a trypanosome cell line resistant to pentamidine as a result of mutations in the surface transporter aquaglyceroporin 2. We conclude that this new drug delivery system increases drug efficacy and has the ability to overcome resistance to some anti-protozoal drugs.

  11. Influence of source and quantity of protein on the development of immunity and resistance to African trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, J D; Yang, S P; Diffley, P

    1986-01-01

    Although it is well documented that severe protein deprivation inhibits the development of the immune response and exacerbates certain infections, little has been done to study the effects of native diets on endemic diseases or immunity. Therefore, protein-restricted diets were formulated for mice to mimic the sources and amounts measured in human diets of the Batouri region of Cameroon, endemic for African trypanosomiasis. Weanling C57BL/6 female mice were fed a diet that contained 73% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of protein. The sources of protein were all plant (cornmeal), all animal (casein), or a ratio that reflected the native diet (2.2 parts plant to 1 part animal protein). Diets were isocaloric on a weight basis, equal in lipids, and adequate in vitamins and minerals. Control mice were fed laboratory chow or two times the RDA of animal protein (casein). Mice fed only cornmeal or the native diets consumed as much food but did not gain as much weight as mice fed only animal protein, indicating the poorer quality of protein in their diets. Upon infection with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, however, significantly higher numbers of these mice controlled the first peak of parasitemia and survived the infection as compared with mice fed the other three diets. Since all mice developed patent infections and the parasite growth rate was unaffected by diet, innate immune factors were ruled out as the cause for the higher level of resistance to the parasite. To determine whether diet affected the development of the immune system, weanling mice were maintained on diets for 30 days before immunization with sheep erythrocytes or trinitrophenylated Ficoll. Mice fed only plant protein or native diets elicited higher direct plaque-forming-cell responses to both the T-cell-dependent and T-cell-independent antigens. Since variant-specific immunity which controls levels of African trypanosomes in the blood is a T-cell-independent humoral immunoglobulin M response

  12. Factors influencing passive surveillance for T. b. rhodesiense human african trypanosomiasis in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acup, Christine; Bardosh, Kevin Louis; Picozzi, Kim; Waiswa, Charles; Welburn, Susan Christina

    2017-01-01

    Sleeping sickness or Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a neglected tropical disease of public health importance across much of Sub-Saharan Africa. In Uganda, chronic T. b. gambiense HAT (gHAT) and acute T. b. rhodesiense HAT (rHAT) occur in two large but discrete geographical foci. Both forms are difficult to diagnose, expensive to treat and ultimately fatal in the absence of treatment. The area affected by zoonotic rHAT has been steadily expanding, placing a high burden on local health systems. HAT is a disease of neglected populations and is notorious for being under-reported. Here we examine the factors that influence passive rHAT surveillance within the district health system in four Ugandan districts into which the disease had recently been introduced, focusing on staff knowledge, infrastructure and data management. A mixed methods study was undertaken between 2011 and 2013 in Dokolo, Kaberamaido, Soroti and Serere districts to explore health facility capacity and clinical service provision, diagnostic capacity, HAT knowledge and case reporting. Structured interviews were undertaken with 86 medical personnel, including clinicians, nurses, midwives and technicians across 65 HC-II and HC-III medical facilities, where the health infrastructure was also directly observed. Eleven semi-structured interviews were undertaken with medical staff in each of the three designated HAT treatment facilities (Dokolo, Lwala and Serere HC-IV) in the area. HAT treatment centre case records, collected between 2009 and 2012, were analyzed. Most medical staff in HC-II and HC-III facilities had been made aware of HAT from radio broadcasts, newspapers and by word of mouth, suggestive of a lack of formal training. Key knowledge as regards the causative agent, clinical signs and that HAT drugs are provided free of charge was lower amongst HC-II than HC-III staff. Many respondents did not know whether HAT was endemic in their district. In rHAT specialist treatment centres, staff

  13. Socio-economic and cultural determinants of human african trypanosomiasis at the Kenya - Uganda transboundary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Jemeli Rutto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kenya and Uganda have reported different Human African Trypanosomiasis incidences in the past more than three decades, with the latter recording more cases. This cross-sectional study assessed the demographic characteristics, tsetse and trypanosomiasis control practices, socio-economic and cultural risk factors influencing Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (T.b.r. infection in Teso and Busia Districts, Western Kenya and Tororo and Busia Districts, Southeast Uganda. A conceptual framework was postulated to explain interactions of various socio-economic, cultural and tsetse control factors that predispose individuals and populations to HAT. METHODS: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted between April and October 2008. Four administrative districts reporting T.b.r and lying adjacent to each other at the international boundary of Kenya and Uganda were purposely selected. Household data collection was carried out in two villages that had experienced HAT and one other village that had no reported HAT case from 1977 to 2008 in each district. A structured questionnaire was administered to 384 randomly selected household heads or their representatives in each country. The percent of respondents giving a specific answer was reported. Secondary data was also obtained on socio-economic and political issues in both countries. RESULTS: Inadequate knowledge on the disease cycle and intervention measures contributed considerable barriers to HAT, and more so in Uganda than in Kenya. Gender-associated socio-cultural practices greatly predisposed individuals to HAT. Pesticides-based crop husbandry in the 1970's reportedly reduced vector population while vegetation of coffee and banana's and livestock husbandry directly increased occurrence of HAT. Livestock husbandry practices in the villages were strong predictors of HAT incidence. The residents in Kenya (6.7% applied chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapeutic controls against trypanosomiasis to a

  14. African Trypanosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    sedimentation rate and immunoglobulins, especially IgM. The CSF contains increased protein and mononuclear cells (about 5% of which are plasma cells...confined to rural areas, in dense vegetation along streams and lakes (T. b. gambiense) (Fig 3.2), or wooded areas of the savanna (T. b. rhodesiense...Flagellum extends posteriorly along outer border of undulating membrane . Giemsa x1300 Figure 3.4 Long slender form and short stumpy form of

  15. Hsp70/J-protein machinery from Glossina morsitans morsitans, vector of African trypanosomiasis.

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    Stephen J Bentley

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies (Glossina spp. are the sole vectors of the protozoan parasites of the genus Trypanosoma, the causative agents of African Trypanosomiasis. Species of Glossina differ in vector competence and Glossina morsitans morsitans is associated with transmission of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, which causes an acute and often fatal form of African Trypanosomiasis. Heat shock proteins are evolutionarily conserved proteins that play critical roles in proteostasis. The activity of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 is regulated by interactions with its J-protein (Hsp40 co-chaperones. Inhibition of these interactions are emerging as potential therapeutic targets. The assembly and annotation of the G. m. morsitans genome provided a platform to identify and characterize the Hsp70s and J-proteins, and carry out an evolutionary comparison to its well-studied eukaryotic counterparts, Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens, as well as Stomoxys calcitrans, a comparator species. In our study, we identified 9 putative Hsp70 proteins and 37 putative J-proteins in G. m. morsitans. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three evolutionarily distinct groups of Hsp70s, with a closer relationship to orthologues from its blood-feeding dipteran relative Stomoxys calcitrans. G. m. morsitans also lacked the high number of heat inducible Hsp70s found in D. melanogaster. The potential localisations, functions, domain organisations and Hsp70/J-protein partnerships were also identified. A greater understanding of the heat shock 70 (Hsp70 and J-protein (Hsp40 families in G. m. morsitans could enhance our understanding of the cell biology of the tsetse fly.

  16. Development of a nanoparticulate formulation of diminazene to treat African trypanosomiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroubi, Maya; Betbeder, Didier [EA 4483, IFR 114 IMPRT, Faculte de Medecine, Pole recherche, Departement de Physiologie, 1 place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Daulouede, Sylvie; Mossalayi, Djavad; Vincendeau, Philippe [Laboratoire de Parasitologie, Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, 146 rue Leo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France); Karembe, Hamadi [CEVA Sante Animale, ZI la Ballastiere, BP 126, 33501 Libourne (France); Jallouli, Youssef [Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite de Lille 2, 3 rue du Professeur Laguesse, 59006 Lille (France); Howsam, Mike, E-mail: dbetbeder@aol.com [Centre Universitaire de Mesure et d' Analyse, Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite de Lille 2, 3 rue du Professeur Laguesse, 59006 Lille (France)

    2010-12-17

    There is a real need to develop new therapeutic strategies for African trypanosomiasis infections. In our study, we developed a new drug delivery system of diminazene (DMZ), a trypanocidal drug registered for veterinary use. This drug candidate presents a limited efficacy, a poor affinity for brain tissue and instability. The development of colloidal formulations based on a porous cationic nanoparticle with an oily core ({sub 70}DGNP{sup +}), has potentially two advantages: stabilization of the drug and potential targeting of the parasite. We analyzed two processes of drug loading: in process (DMZ was added during the preparation of {sub 70}DGNP{sup +} at 80 deg. C) and post-loading (DMZ was mixed with a {sub 70}DGNP{sup +} solution at room temperature). Poor stability of the drug was observed using the in process technique. When using the post-loading technique over 80% drug entrapment efficiency was obtained at a ratio of DMZ:phospholipids (wt:wt) < 5%. Moreover, DMZ loaded into {sub 70}DGNP{sup +} was found to be protected against oxidation and was stable for at least six months at 4 deg. C. Finally, in vitro tests on T.b. brucei showed an increased efficacy of DMZ loaded in {sub 70}DGNP{sup +}.

  17. Metabolomics Identifies Multiple Candidate Biomarkers to Diagnose and Stage Human African Trypanosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M Vincent

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Treatment for human African trypanosomiasis is dependent on the species of trypanosome causing the disease and the stage of the disease (stage 1 defined by parasites being present in blood and lymphatics whilst for stage 2, parasites are found beyond the blood-brain barrier in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Currently, staging relies upon detecting the very low number of parasites or elevated white blood cell numbers in CSF. Improved staging is desirable, as is the elimination of the need for lumbar puncture. Here we use metabolomics to probe samples of CSF, plasma and urine from 40 Angolan patients infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, at different disease stages. Urine samples provided no robust markers indicative of infection or stage of infection due to inherent variability in urine concentrations. Biomarkers in CSF were able to distinguish patients at stage 1 or advanced stage 2 with absolute specificity. Eleven metabolites clearly distinguished the stage in most patients and two of these (neopterin and 5-hydroxytryptophan showed 100% specificity and sensitivity between our stage 1 and advanced stage 2 samples. Neopterin is an inflammatory biomarker previously shown in CSF of stage 2 but not stage 1 patients. 5-hydroxytryptophan is an important metabolite in the serotonin synthetic pathway, the key pathway in determining somnolence, thus offering a possible link to the eponymous symptoms of "sleeping sickness". Plasma also yielded several biomarkers clearly indicative of the presence (87% sensitivity and 95% specificity and stage of disease (92% sensitivity and 81% specificity. A logistic regression model including these metabolites showed clear separation of patients being either at stage 1 or advanced stage 2 or indeed diseased (both stages versus control.

  18. Melarsoprol cyclodextrin inclusion complexes as promising oral candidates for the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Rodgers

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, or sleeping sickness, results from infection with the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei (T. b. gambiense or T. b. rhodesiense and is invariably fatal if untreated. There are 60 million people at risk from the disease throughout sub-Saharan Africa. The infection progresses from the haemolymphatic stage where parasites invade the blood, lymphatics and peripheral organs, to the late encephalitic stage where they enter the central nervous system (CNS to cause serious neurological disease. The trivalent arsenical drug melarsoprol (Arsobal is the only currently available treatment for CNS-stage T. b. rhodesiense infection. However, it must be administered intravenously due to the presence of propylene glycol solvent and is associated with numerous adverse reactions. A severe post-treatment reactive encephalopathy occurs in about 10% of treated patients, half of whom die. Thus melarsoprol kills 5% of all patients receiving it. Cyclodextrins have been used to improve the solubility and reduce the toxicity of a wide variety of drugs. We therefore investigated two melarsoprol cyclodextrin inclusion complexes; melarsoprol hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and melarsoprol randomly-methylated-β-cyclodextrin. We found that these compounds retain trypanocidal properties in vitro and cure CNS-stage murine infections when delivered orally, once per day for 7-days, at a dosage of 0.05 mmol/kg. No overt signs of toxicity were detected. Parasite load within the brain was rapidly reduced following treatment onset and magnetic resonance imaging showed restoration of normal blood-brain barrier integrity on completion of chemotherapy. These findings strongly suggest that complexed melarsoprol could be employed as an oral treatment for CNS-stage HAT, delivering considerable improvements over current parenteral chemotherapy.

  19. Embracing the Open-Source Movement for the Management of Spatial Data: A Case Study of African Trypanosomiasis in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Shaun A; Messina, Joseph P

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen an explosion in the availability of spatial data not only for researchers, but the public alike. As the quantity of data increases, the ability to effectively navigate and understand the data becomes more challenging. Here we detail a conceptual model for a spatially explicit database management system that addresses the issues raised with the growing data management problem. We demonstrate utility with a case study in disease ecology: to develop a multi-scale predictive model of African Trypanosomiasis in Kenya. International collaborations and varying technical expertise necessitate a modular open-source software solution. Finally, we address three recurring problems with data management: scalability, reliability, and security.

  20. Urea Derivatives of 2-Aryl-benzothiazol-5-amines: A New Class of Potential Drugs for Human African Trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Donald A; Gillespie, J Robert; McQueen, Joshua; Hulverson, Matthew A; Ranade, Ranae M; Creason, Sharon A; Herbst, Zackary M; Gelb, Michael H; Buckner, Frederick S; Tidwell, Richard R

    2017-02-09

    A previous publication from this lab (Patrick, et al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2016, 24 , 2451 - 2465 ) explored the antitrypanosomal activities of novel derivatives of 2-(2-benzamido)ethyl-4-phenylthiazole (1), which had been identified as a hit against Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis. While a number of these compounds, particularly the urea analogues, were quite potent, these molecules as a whole exhibited poor metabolic stability. The present work describes the synthesis of 65 new analogues arising from medicinal chemistry optimization at different sites on the molecule. The most promising compounds were the urea derivatives of 2-aryl-benzothiazol-5-amines. One such analogue, (S)-2-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-5-(3-fluoro-N-pyrrolidylamido)benzothiazole (57) was chosen for in vivo efficacy studies based upon in vitro activity, metabolic stability, and brain penetration. This compound attained 5/5 cures in murine models of both early and late stage human African trypanosomiasis, representing a new lead for the development of drugs to combat this neglected disease.

  1. Human African trypanosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: disease distribution and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbala, Crispin; Simarro, Pere P; Cecchi, Giuliano; Paone, Massimo; Franco, José R; Kande Betu Ku Mesu, Victor; Makabuza, Jacquies; Diarra, Abdoulaye; Chansy, Shampa; Priotto, Gerardo; Mattioli, Raffaele C; Jannin, Jean G

    2015-06-06

    For the past three decades, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has been the country reporting the highest number of cases of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). In 2012, DRC continued to bear the heaviest burden of gambiense HAT, accounting for 84 % of all cases reported at the continental level (i.e., 5,968/7,106). This paper reviews the status of sleeping sickness in DRC between 2000 and 2012, with a focus on spatio-temporal patterns. Epidemiological trends at the national and provincial level are presented. The number of HAT cases reported yearly from DRC decreased by 65 % from 2000 to 2012, i.e., from 16,951 to 5,968. At the provincial level a more complex picture emerges. Whilst HAT control in the Equateur province has had a spectacular impact on the number of cases (97 % reduction), the disease has proved more difficult to tackle in other provinces, most notably in Bandundu and Kasai, where, despite substantial progress, HAT remains entrenched. HAT prevalence presents its highest values in the northern part of the Province Orientale, where a number of constraints hinder surveillance and control. Significant coordinated efforts by the National Sleeping Sickness Control Programme and the World Health Organization in data collection, reporting, management and mapping, culminating in the Atlas of HAT, have enabled HAT distribution and risk in DRC to be known with more accuracy than ever before. Over 18,000 locations of epidemiological interest have been geo-referenced (average accuracy ≈ 1.7 km), corresponding to 93.6 % of reported cases (period 2000-2012). The population at risk of contracting sleeping sickness has been calculated for two five-year periods (2003-2007 and 2008-2012), resulting in estimates of 33 and 37 million people respectively. The progressive decrease in HAT cases reported since 2000 in DRC is likely to reflect a real decline in disease incidence. If this result is to be sustained, and if further progress is to be made

  2. Molecular Evidence of a Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Sylvatic Cycle in the Human African Trypanosomiasis Foci of Equatorial Guinea

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    Carlos eCordon-Obras

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gambiense trypanosomiasis is considered an anthroponotic disease. Consequently, control programs are generally aimed at stopping transmission of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (T. b. gambiense by detecting and treating human cases. However, the persistence of numerous foci despite efforts to eliminate this disease questions this strategy as unique tool to pursue the eradication. The role of animals as a reservoir of T. b. gambiense is still controversial, but could partly explain maintenance of the infection at hypo-endemic levels. In the present study, we evaluated the presence of T. b. gambiense in wild animals in Equatorial Guinea. The infection rate ranged from 0.8% in the insular focus of Luba to more than 12% in Mbini, a focus with a constant trickle of human cases. The parasite was detected in a wide range of animal species including four species never described previously as putative reservoirs. Our study comes to reinforce the hypothesis that animals may play a role in the persistence of T. b. gambiense transmission, being particularly relevant in low transmission settings. Under these conditions the integration of sustained vector control and medical interventions should be considered to achieve the elimination of Gambiense trypanosomiasis.

  3. Clinical and pathological aspects of human African trypanosomiasis (T. b. gambiense) with particular reference to reactive arsenical encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, L; Adams, H; Merouze, F; Dago, A

    1986-01-01

    Fourteen of 330 patients treated with melarsoprol (Mel B) for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) developed a severe reactive arsenical encephalopathy (RAE). Six of these cases were fatal and postmortem examination was performed on 5 patients. Symptoms of "sleeping sickness" were compared with symptoms after treatment with arsenicals and the subsequent onset of RAE. There are 3 characteristic syndromes of RAE: convulsive status associated with acute cerebral edema, rapidly progressive coma without convulsions, and acute nonlethal mental disturbances without neurological signs. Three subjects revealed hypoxic brain damage with acute cerebral edema, and multiple hemorrhages of brain stem in those comatose. The pathology of the underlying HAT (chronic perivascular inflammation and plasma cytic infiltration of the brain) and the pathology of the RAE (characterized by acute vasculitis) are distinct. RAE occurs in the first as well as in the second stage (CNS involvement) of trypanosomiasis but the reason for this is unclear; an exclusive toxicity of the drug, or a Herxheimer reaction are possible but seem unlikely. Both clinical and laboratory findings point rather to a drug-related, delayed immune response.

  4. Key indicators for the monitoring and evaluation of control programmes of human African trypanosomiasis due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, B; Legros, D; Lee, E

    1998-06-01

    Very little research has been devoted to the design of epidemiological tools for the monitoring and evaluation of National Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) Control Programmes and daily management decisions are made in the absence of accurate knowledge of the situation. This paper identifies key indicators necessary to make decisions in the field and constantly adjust control activities to changing situations. Examples are derived from the Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) HAT Control Programme in Adjumani, Uganda. Based on the principles of quality assurance, the focus is placed on process indicators. A conceptual framework derived from a system view/planning cycle perspective is also described for the construction of indicators. Finally, some specific challenging aspects of the epidemiology of HAT are presented and the limitations of the interpretation of the indicators discussed.

  5. Expression of interferon-inducible chemokines and sleep/wake changes during early encephalitis in experimental African trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laperchia, Claudia; Tesoriero, Chiara; Seke-Etet, Paul F; La Verde, Valentina; Colavito, Valeria; Grassi-Zucconi, Gigliola; Rodgers, Jean; Montague, Paul; Kennedy, Peter G E; Bentivoglio, Marina

    2017-08-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei, leads to neuroinflammation and characteristic sleep/wake alterations. The relationship between the onset of these alterations and the development of neuroinflammation is of high translational relevance, but remains unclear. This study investigates the expression of interferon (IFN)-γ and IFN-inducible chemokine genes in the brain, and the levels of CXCL10 in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid prior to and during the encephalitic stage of trypanosome infection, and correlates these with sleep/wake changes in a rat model of the disease. The expression of genes encoding IFN-γ, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 was assessed in the brain of rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei and matched controls using semi-quantitative end-point RT-PCR. Levels of CXCL10 in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid were determined using ELISA. Sleep/wake states were monitored by telemetric recording. Using immunohistochemistry, parasites were found in the brain parenchyma at 14 days post-infection (dpi), but not at 6 dpi. Ifn-γ, Cxcl9, Cxcl10 and Cxcl11 mRNA levels showed moderate upregulation by 14 dpi followed by further increase between 14 and 21 dpi. CXCL10 concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid increased between 14 and 21 dpi, preceded by a rise in the serum CXCL10 level between 6 and 14 dpi. Sleep/wake pattern fragmentation was evident at 14 dpi, especially in the phase of wake predominance, with intrusion of sleep episodes into wakefulness. The results show a modest increase in Cxcl9 and Cxcl11 transcripts in the brain and the emergence of sleep/wake cycle fragmentation in the initial encephalitic stage, followed by increases in Ifn-γ and IFN-dependent chemokine transcripts in the brain and of CXCL10 in the cerebrospinal fluid. The latter parameter and sleep/wake alterations could provide combined humoral and functional biomarkers of the early encephalitic stage in African trypanosomiasis.

  6. Expression of interferon-inducible chemokines and sleep/wake changes during early encephalitis in experimental African trypanosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Laperchia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei, leads to neuroinflammation and characteristic sleep/wake alterations. The relationship between the onset of these alterations and the development of neuroinflammation is of high translational relevance, but remains unclear. This study investigates the expression of interferon (IFN-γ and IFN-inducible chemokine genes in the brain, and the levels of CXCL10 in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid prior to and during the encephalitic stage of trypanosome infection, and correlates these with sleep/wake changes in a rat model of the disease.The expression of genes encoding IFN-γ, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 was assessed in the brain of rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei and matched controls using semi-quantitative end-point RT-PCR. Levels of CXCL10 in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid were determined using ELISA. Sleep/wake states were monitored by telemetric recording. Using immunohistochemistry, parasites were found in the brain parenchyma at 14 days post-infection (dpi, but not at 6 dpi. Ifn-γ, Cxcl9, Cxcl10 and Cxcl11 mRNA levels showed moderate upregulation by 14 dpi followed by further increase between 14 and 21 dpi. CXCL10 concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid increased between 14 and 21 dpi, preceded by a rise in the serum CXCL10 level between 6 and 14 dpi. Sleep/wake pattern fragmentation was evident at 14 dpi, especially in the phase of wake predominance, with intrusion of sleep episodes into wakefulness.The results show a modest increase in Cxcl9 and Cxcl11 transcripts in the brain and the emergence of sleep/wake cycle fragmentation in the initial encephalitic stage, followed by increases in Ifn-γ and IFN-dependent chemokine transcripts in the brain and of CXCL10 in the cerebrospinal fluid. The latter parameter and sleep/wake alterations could provide combined humoral and functional biomarkers of the early encephalitic stage in African

  7. Monitoring the use of nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy (NECT in the treatment of second stage gambiense human African trypanosomiasis

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    Franco JR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Jose R Franco,1 Pere P Simarro,1 Abdoulaye Diarra,2 Jose A Ruiz-Postigo,3 Mireille Samo,1 Jean G Jannin11World Health Organization, Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, Innovative and Intensified Disease Management, Geneva, Switzerland; 2World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa, Brazzaville, Congo; 3World Health Organization, Communicable Disease Control, Control of Tropical Diseases and Zoonoses Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, Cairo, EgyptAbstract: After inclusion of the nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy (NECT in the Model List of Essential Medicines for the treatment of second-stage gambiense human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, the World Health Organization, in collaboration with National Sleeping Sickness Control Programs and nongovernmental organizations set up a pharmacovigilance system to assess the safety and efficacy of NECT during its routine use. Data were collected for 1735 patients treated with NECT in nine disease endemic countries during 2010–2011. At least one adverse event (AE was described in 1043 patients (60.1% and a total of 3060 AE were reported. Serious adverse events (SAE were reported for 19 patients (1.1% of treated, leading to nine deaths (case fatality rate of 0.5%. The most frequent AE were gastrointestinal disorders (vomiting/nausea and abdominal pain, followed by headache, musculoskeletal pains, and vertigo. The most frequent SAE and cause of death were convulsions, fever, and coma that were considered as reactive encephalopathy. Two hundred and sixty-two children below 15 years old were treated. The characteristics of AE were similar to adults, but the major AE were less frequent in children with only one SAE and no deaths registered in this group. Gastrointestinal problems (vomiting and abdominal pain were more frequent than in adults, but musculoskeletal pains, vertigo, asthenia, neuropsychiatric troubles (headaches, seizures, tremors, hallucinations, insomnia were less

  8. Genetically Distinct Glossina fuscipes fuscipes Populations in the Lake Kyoga Region of Uganda and Its Relevance for Human African Trypanosomiasis

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    Richard Echodu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies (Glossina spp. are the sole vectors of Trypanosoma brucei—the agent of human (HAT and animal (AAT trypanosomiasis. Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Gff is the main vector species in Uganda—the only country where the two forms of HAT disease (rhodesiense and gambiense occur, with gambiense limited to the northwest. Gff populations cluster in three genetically distinct groups in northern, southern, and western Uganda, respectively, with a contact zone present in central Uganda. Understanding the dynamics of this contact zone is epidemiologically important as the merger of the two diseases is a major health concern. We used mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA data from Gff samples in the contact zone to understand its spatial extent and temporal stability. We show that this zone is relatively narrow, extending through central Uganda along major rivers with south to north introgression but displaying no sex-biased dispersal. Lack of obvious vicariant barriers suggests that either environmental conditions or reciprocal competitive exclusion could explain the patterns of genetic differentiation observed. Lack of admixture between northern and southern populations may prevent the sympatry of the two forms of HAT disease, although continued control efforts are needed to prevent the recolonization of tsetse-free regions by neighboring populations.

  9. Safety, pharmacokinetic, and efficacy studies of oral DB868 in a first stage vervet monkey model of human African trypanosomiasis.

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    John K Thuita

    Full Text Available There are no oral drugs for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness. A successful oral drug would have the potential to reduce or eliminate the need for patient hospitalization, thus reducing healthcare costs of HAT. The development of oral medications is a key objective of the Consortium for Parasitic Drug Development (CPDD. In this study, we investigated the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of a new orally administered CPDD diamidine prodrug, 2,5-bis[5-(N-methoxyamidino-2-pyridyl]furan (DB868; CPD-007-10, in the vervet monkey model of first stage HAT. DB868 was well tolerated at a dose up to 30 mg/kg/day for 10 days, a cumulative dose of 300 mg/kg. Mean plasma levels of biomarkers indicative of liver injury (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase were not significantly altered by drug administration. In addition, no kidney-mediated alterations in creatinine and urea concentrations were detected. Pharmacokinetic analysis of plasma confirmed that DB868 was orally available and was converted to the active compound DB829 in both uninfected and infected monkeys. Treatment of infected monkeys with DB868 began 7 days post-infection. In the infected monkeys, DB829 attained a median C(max (dosing regimen that was 12-fold (3 mg/kg/day for 7 days, 15-fold (10 mg/kg/day for 7 days, and 31-fold (20 mg/kg/day for 5 days greater than the IC50 (14 nmol/L against T. b. rhodesiense STIB900. DB868 cured all infected monkeys, even at the lowest dose tested. In conclusion, oral DB868 cured monkeys with first stage HAT at a cumulative dose 14-fold lower than the maximum tolerated dose and should be considered a lead preclinical candidate in efforts to develop a safe, short course (5-7 days, oral regimen for first stage HAT.

  10. Pharmacology of DB844, an orally active aza analogue of pafuramidine, in a monkey model of second stage human African trypanosomiasis.

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    John K Thuita

    Full Text Available Novel drugs to treat human African trypanosomiasis (HAT are still urgently needed despite the recent addition of nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy (NECT to WHO Model Lists of Essential Medicines against second stage HAT, where parasites have invaded the central nervous system (CNS. The pharmacology of a potential orally available lead compound, N-methoxy-6-{5-[4-(N-methoxyamidino phenyl]-furan-2-yl}-nicotinamidine (DB844, was evaluated in a vervet monkey model of second stage HAT, following promising results in mice. DB844 was administered orally to vervet monkeys, beginning 28 days post infection (DPI with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense KETRI 2537. DB844 was absorbed and converted to the active metabolite 6-[5-(4-phenylamidinophenyl-furanyl-2-yl]-nicotinamide (DB820, exhibiting plasma C(max values of 430 and 190 nM for DB844 and DB820, respectively, after the 14th dose at 6 mg/kg qd. A 100-fold reduction in blood trypanosome counts was observed within 24 h of the third dose and, at the end of treatment evaluation performed four days post the last drug dose, trypanosomes were not detected in the blood or cerebrospinal fluid of any monkey. However, some animals relapsed during the 300 days of post treatment monitoring, resulting in a cure rate of 3/8 (37.5% and 3/7 (42.9% for the 5 mg/kg×10 days and the 6 mg/kg×14 days dose regimens respectively. These DB844 efficacy data were an improvement compared with pentamidine and pafuramidine both of which were previously shown to be non-curative in this model of CNS stage HAT. These data show that synthesis of novel diamidines with improved activity against CNS-stage HAT was possible.

  11. Estimating the economic and social consequences for patients diagnosed with human African trypanosomiasis in Muchinga, Lusaka and Eastern Provinces of Zambia (2004–2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Mwiinde, Allan Mayaba; Simuunza, Martin; Namangala, Boniface; Chama-Chiliba, Chitalu Miriam; Machila, Noreen; Anderson, Neil; Shaw, Alexandra; Welburn, Susan C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Acute human African trypanosomiasis (rHAT) caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense is associated with high mortality and is fatal if left untreated. Only a few studies have examined the psychological, social and economic impacts of rHAT. In this study, mixed qualitative and quantitative research methods were used to evaluate the socio-economic impacts of rHAT in Mambwe, Rufunsa, Mpika and Chama Districts of Zambia. Methods Individuals diagnosed with rHAT from 2004 to 2014 were tra...

  12. African trypanosomiasis with special reference to Egyptian Trypanosoma evansi: is it a neglected zoonosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M M; Khater, Mai Kh A; Morsy, Tosson A

    2014-12-01

    Trypanosomes (including humans) are blood and sometimes tissue parasites of the order Kinetoplastida, family Trypanosomatidae, genus Trypanosoma, principally transmitted by biting insects where most of them undergo a biological cycle. They are divided into Stercoraria with the posterior station inoculation, including T. cruzi, both an extra- and intracellular parasite that causes Chagas disease, a major human disease affecting 15 million people and threatening 100 million people in Latin America, and the Salivaria with the anterior station inoculation, mainly African livestock pathogenic trypanosomes, including the agents of sleeping sickness, a major human disease affecting around half a million people and threatening 60 million people in Africa. Now, T. evansi was reported in man is it required to investigate its zoonotic potential?

  13. A combined CXCL10, CXCL8 and H-FABP panel for the staging of human African trypanosomiasis patients.

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    Alexandre Hainard

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, also known as sleeping sickness, is a parasitic tropical disease. It progresses from the first, haemolymphatic stage to a neurological second stage due to invasion of parasites into the central nervous system (CNS. As treatment depends on the stage of disease, there is a critical need for tools that efficiently discriminate the two stages of HAT. We hypothesized that markers of brain damage discovered by proteomic strategies and inflammation-related proteins could individually or in combination indicate the CNS invasion by the parasite.Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF originated from parasitologically confirmed Trypanosoma brucei gambiense patients. Patients were staged on the basis of CSF white blood cell (WBC count and presence of parasites in CSF. One hundred samples were analysed: 21 from stage 1 (no trypanosomes in CSF and 5 WBC/microL patients. The concentration of H-FABP, GSTP-1 and S100beta in CSF was measured by ELISA. The levels of thirteen inflammation-related proteins (IL-1ra, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, G-CSF, VEGF, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, CCL2, CCL4, CXCL8 and CXCL10 were determined by bead suspension arrays.CXCL10 most accurately distinguished stage 1 and stage 2 patients, with a sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 100%. Rule Induction Like (RIL analysis defined a panel characterized by CXCL10, CXCL8 and H-FABP that improved the detection of stage 2 patients to 97% sensitivity and 100% specificity.This study highlights the value of CXCL10 as a single biomarker for staging T. b. gambiense-infected HAT patients. Further combination of CXCL10 with H-FABP and CXCL8 results in a panel that efficiently rules in stage 2 HAT patients. As these molecules could potentially be markers of other CNS infections and disorders, these results should be validated in a larger multi-centric cohort including other inflammatory diseases such as cerebral malaria and active tuberculosis.

  14. Diagnostic Accuracy and Feasibility of Serological Tests on Filter Paper Samples for Outbreak Detection of T.b. gambiense Human African Trypanosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasker, Epco; Lutumba, Pascal; Mumba, Dieudonné; Lejon, Veerle; Büscher, Phillipe; Kande, Victor; Muyembe, Jean Jacques; Menten, Joris; Robays, Jo; Boelaert, Marleen

    2010-01-01

    Control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) in the Democratic Republic of Congo is based on mass population screening by mobile teams; a costly and labor-intensive approach. We hypothesized that blood samples collected on filter paper by village health workers and processed in a central laboratory might be a cost-effective alternative. We estimated sensitivity and specificity of micro-card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis (micro-CATT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)/T.b. gambiense on filter paper samples compared with parasitology-based case classification and used the results in a Monte Carlo simulation of a lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) approach. Micro-CATT and ELISA/T.b. gambiense showed acceptable sensitivity (92.7% [95% CI 87.4–98.0%] and 82.2% [95% CI 75.3–90.4%]) and very high specificity (99.4% [95% CI 99.0–99.9%] and 99.8% [95% CI 99.5–100%]), respectively. Conditional on high sample size per lot (≥ 60%), both tests could reliably distinguish a 2% from a zero prevalence at village level. Alternatively, these tests could be used to identify individual HAT suspects for subsequent confirmation. PMID:20682885

  15. Estimating the economic and social consequences for patients diagnosed with human African trypanosomiasis in Muchinga, Lusaka and Eastern Provinces of Zambia (2004-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwiinde, Allan Mayaba; Simuunza, Martin; Namangala, Boniface; Chama-Chiliba, Chitalu Miriam; Machila, Noreen; Anderson, Neil; Shaw, Alexandra; Welburn, Susan C

    2017-10-10

    Acute human African trypanosomiasis (rHAT) caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense is associated with high mortality and is fatal if left untreated. Only a few studies have examined the psychological, social and economic impacts of rHAT. In this study, mixed qualitative and quantitative research methods were used to evaluate the socio-economic impacts of rHAT in Mambwe, Rufunsa, Mpika and Chama Districts of Zambia. Individuals diagnosed with rHAT from 2004 to 2014 were traced using hospital records and discussions with communities. Either they, or their families, were interviewed using a structured questionnaire and focus group discussions were conducted with affected communities. The burden of the disease was investigated using disability adjusted life years (DALYs), with and without discounting and age-weighting. The impact of long-term disabilities on the rHAT burden was also investigated. Sixty four cases were identified in the study. The majority were identified in second stage, and the mortality rate was high (12.5%). The total number of DALYs was 285 without discounting or age-weighting. When long-term disabilities were included this estimate increased by 50% to 462. The proportion of years lived with disability (YLD) increased from 6.4% to 37% of the undiscounted and un-age-weighted DALY total. When a more active surveillance method was applied in 2013-2014 the cases identified increased dramatically, suggesting a high level of under-reporting. Similarly, the proportion of females increased substantially, indicating that passive surveillance may be especially failing this group. An average of 4.9 months of productive time was lost per patient as a consequence of infection. The health consequences included pain, amnesia and physical disability. The social consequences included stigma, dropping out of education, loss of friends and self-esteem. Results obtained from focus group discussions revealed misconceptions among community members which could be

  16. Archives: South African Journal of Animal Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 185 ... Archives: South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home > Archives: South African Journal of Animal Science. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue ...

  17. African Trypanosomiasis-Associated Anemia: The Contribution of the Interplay between Parasites and the Mononuclear Phagocyte System

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    Benoit Stijlemans

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available African trypanosomosis (AT is a chronically debilitating parasitic disease of medical and economic importance for the development of sub-Saharan Africa. The trypanosomes that cause this disease are extracellular protozoan parasites that have developed efficient immune escape mechanisms to manipulate the entire host immune response to allow parasite survival and transmission. During the early stage of infection, a profound pro-inflammatory type 1 activation of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS, involving classically activated macrophages (i.e., M1, is required for initial parasite control. Yet, the persistence of this M1-type MPS activation in trypanosusceptible animals causes immunopathology with anemia as the most prominent pathological feature. By contrast, in trypanotolerant animals, there is an induction of IL-10 that promotes the induction of alternatively activated macrophages (M2 and collectively dampens tissue damage. A comparative gene expression analysis between M1 and M2 cells identified galectin-3 (Gal-3 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF as novel M1-promoting factors, possibly acting synergistically and in concert with TNF-α during anemia development. While Gal-3 enhances erythrophagocytosis, MIF promotes both myeloid cell recruitment and iron retention within the MPS, thereby depriving iron for erythropoiesis. Hence, the enhanced erythrophagocytosis and suppressed erythropoiesis lead to anemia. Moreover, a thorough investigation using MIF-deficient mice revealed that the underlying mechanisms in AT-associated anemia development in trypanosusceptible and tolerant animals are quite distinct. In trypanosusceptible animals, anemia resembles anemia of inflammation, while in trypanotolerant animals’ hemodilution, mainly caused by hepatosplenomegaly, is an additional factor contributing to anemia. In this review, we give an overview of how trypanosome- and host-derived factors can contribute to trypanosomosis

  18. South African Journal of Animal Science

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    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 2 (1974) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. South African Journal of Animal Science: Submissions

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    The South African Society for Animal Science (SASAS) welcomes the submission ... aspects of their products and their relationship to the social or physical environment. ... experimental data that have been analysed using statistical methods.

  20. South African Journal of Animal Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Journal of Animal Science is a peer-reviewed journal for publication of original scientific research articles and reviews in the field of animal science. The journal is published both electronically and in paper format. The scope of the journal includes reports of research dealing with farm livestock species ...

  1. High-throughput screening platform for natural product-based drug discovery against 3 neglected tropical diseases: human African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annang, F; Pérez-Moreno, G; García-Hernández, R; Cordon-Obras, C; Martín, J; Tormo, J R; Rodríguez, L; de Pedro, N; Gómez-Pérez, V; Valente, M; Reyes, F; Genilloud, O; Vicente, F; Castanys, S; Ruiz-Pérez, L M; Navarro, M; Gamarro, F; González-Pacanowska, D

    2015-01-01

    African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease are 3 neglected tropical diseases for which current therapeutic interventions are inadequate or toxic. There is an urgent need to find new lead compounds against these diseases. Most drug discovery strategies rely on high-throughput screening (HTS) of synthetic chemical libraries using phenotypic and target-based approaches. Combinatorial chemistry libraries contain hundreds of thousands of compounds; however, they lack the structural diversity required to find entirely novel chemotypes. Natural products, in contrast, are a highly underexplored pool of unique chemical diversity that can serve as excellent templates for the synthesis of novel, biologically active molecules. We report here a validated HTS platform for the screening of microbial extracts against the 3 diseases. We have used this platform in a pilot project to screen a subset (5976) of microbial extracts from the MEDINA Natural Products library. Tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that 48 extracts contain potentially new compounds that are currently undergoing de-replication for future isolation and characterization. Known active components included actinomycin D, bafilomycin B1, chromomycin A3, echinomycin, hygrolidin, and nonactins, among others. The report here is, to our knowledge, the first HTS of microbial natural product extracts against the above-mentioned kinetoplastid parasites. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  2. [Human African trypanosomiasis in Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso: optimization of epidemiologic surveillance strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambiré, R; Lingué, K; Courtin, F; Sidibé, I; Kiendrébéogo, D; N'gouan, K E; Blé, L; Kaba, D; Koffi, M; Solano, P; Bucheton, B; Jamonneau, V

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this paper was to describe recent data from Burkina Faso and Côte d'Ivoire on Human African Trypanosomosis medical monitoring in order to (i) update the disease situation in these two countries that have been sharing important migratory, economic and epidemiological links for more than a century and (ii) to define the future strategic plans to achieve the goal of a sustainable control/elimination process. Results of active and passive surveillance indicate that all sleeping sickness patients diagnosed these last years in Burkina Faso were imported cases from Côte d'Ivoire. Nevertheless the re-introduction of the parasite is effective and the risk of a resumption of transmission exists. In Côte d'Ivoire, few cases are still diagnosed in several historical foci and the fear exists that the disease could reemerge in these foci or spread to other areas. In order to achieve a sustainable elimination of sleeping sickness in these two countries, control entities have to adapt their strategy to the different epidemiological contexts. At the exception of specific cases, the current disease prevalence no longer justifies the use of expensive medical surveys by exhaustive screening of the population. New disease control strategies, based on the exchange of epidemiological information between the two countries and integrated to the regular national health systems are required to target priority intervention areas. Follow-up in time of both treated patients and serological suspects that are potential asymptomatic carriers of parasite is also important. In parallel, researchers need to better characterize the respective roles of the human and animal reservoir in the maintenance of transmission and evaluate the different control strategies taken by National Control Programs in term of cost/effectiveness to help optimize them.

  3. The socio-economic burden of human African trypanosomiasis and the coping strategies of households in the South Western Kenya foci.

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    Salome A Bukachi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT, a disease caused by protozoan parasites transmitted by tsetse flies, is an important neglected tropical disease endemic in remote regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Although the determination of the burden of HAT has been based on incidence, mortality and morbidity rates, the true burden of HAT goes beyond these metrics. This study sought to establish the socio-economic burden that households with HAT faced and the coping strategies they employed to deal with the increased burden.A mixed methods approach was used and data were obtained through: review of hospital records; structured interviews (152; key informant interviews (11; case narratives (12 and focus group discussions (15 with participants drawn from sleeping sickness patients in the south western HAT foci in Kenya. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics while qualitative data was analysed based on emerging themes.Socio-economic impacts included, disruption of daily activities, food insecurity, neglect of homestead, poor academic performance/school drop-outs and death. Delayed diagnosis of HAT caused 93% of the affected households to experience an increase in financial expenditure (ranging from US$ 60-170 in seeking treatment. Out of these, 81.5% experienced difficulties in raising money for treatment resorting to various ways of raising it. The coping strategies employed to deal with the increased financial expenditure included: sale of agricultural produce (64%; seeking assistance from family and friends (54%; sale/lease of family assets (22%; seeking credit (22% and use of personal savings (17%.Coping strategies outlined in this study impacted negatively on the affected households leading to further food insecurity and impoverishment. Calculation of the true burden of disease needs to go beyond incidence, mortality and morbidity rates to capture socio-economic variables entailed in seeking treatment and coping strategies of HAT

  4. Chemotherapy of second stage human African trypanosomiasis: comparison between the parenteral diamidine DB829 and its oral prodrug DB868 in vervet monkeys.

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    John K Thuita

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness ranks among the most neglected tropical diseases based on limited availability of drugs that are safe and efficacious, particularly against the second stage (central nervous system [CNS] of infection. In response to this largely unmet need for new treatments, the Consortium for Parasitic Drug Development developed novel parenteral diamidines and corresponding oral prodrugs that have shown cure of a murine model of second stage HAT. As a rationale for selection of one of these compounds for further development, the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of intramuscular (IM active diamidine 2,5-bis(5-amidino-2-pyridylfuran (DB829; CPD-0802 and oral prodrug2,5-bis[5-(N-methoxyamidino-2-pyridyl]furan (DB868 were compared in the vervet monkey model of second stage HAT. Treatment was initiated 28 days post-infection of monkeys with T. b. rhodesiense KETRI 2537. Results showed that IM DB829 at 5 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days, 5 mg/kg/day every other day for 5 doses, or 2.5 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days cured all monkeys (5/5. Oral DB868 was less successful, with no cures (0/2 at 3 mg/kg/day for 10 days and cure rates of 1/4 at 10 mg/kg/day for 10 days and 20 mg/kg/day for 10 days; in total, only 2/10 monkeys were cured with DB868 dose regimens. The geometric mean plasma Cmax of IM DB829 at 5 mg/kg following the last of 5 doses was 25-fold greater than that after 10 daily oral doses of DB868 at 20 mg/kg. These data suggest that the active diamidine DB829, administered IM, should be considered for further development as a potential new treatment for second stage HAT.

  5. An exploratory GIS-based method to identify and characterise landscapes with an elevated epidemiological risk of Rhodesian human African trypanosomiasis

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    Wardrop Nicola A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Specific land cover types and activities have been correlated with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense distributions, indicating the importance of landscape for epidemiological risk. However, methods proposed to identify specific areas with elevated epidemiological risk (i.e. where transmission is more likely to occur tend to be costly and time consuming. This paper proposes an exploratory spatial analysis using geo-referenced human African trypanosomiasis (HAT cases and matched controls from Serere hospital, Uganda (December 1998 to November 2002 to identify areas with an elevated epidemiological risk of HAT. Methods Buffers 3 km from each case and control were used to represent areas in which village inhabitants would carry out their daily activities. It was hypothesised that the selection of areas where several case village buffers overlapped would enable the identification of locations with increased risk of HAT transmission, as these areas were more likely to be frequented by HAT cases in several surrounding villages. The landscape within these overlap areas should more closely relate to the environment in which transmission occurs as opposed to using the full buffer areas. The analysis was carried out for each of four annual periods, for both cases and controls, using a series of threshold values (number of overlapping buffers, including a threshold of one, which represented the benchmark (e.g. use of the full buffer area as opposed to the overlap areas. Results A greater proportion of the overlap areas for cases consisted of seasonally flooding grassland and lake fringe swamp, than the control overlap areas, correlating well with the preferred habitat of the predominant tsetse species within the study area (Glossina fuscipes fuscipes. The use of overlap areas also resulted in a greater difference between case and control landscapes, when compared with the benchmark (using the full buffer area. Conclusions These results

  6. Chagas Disease (American trypanosomiasis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sheets/detail/chagas-disease-(american-trypanosomiasis)","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... capacities, focusing on: strengthening world epidemiological surveillance and information systems; preventing transmission by blood transfusion and organ ...

  7. Improving the Quality of Host Country Ethical Oversight of International Research: The Use of a Collaborative 'Pre-Review' Mechanism for a Study of Fexinidazole for Human African Trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Carl H; Ardiot, Chantal; Blesson, Séverine; Bonnin, Yves; Bompart, Francois; Colonna, Pierre; Dhai, Ames; Ecuru, Julius; Edielu, Andrew; Hervé, Christian; Hirsch, François; Kouyaté, Bocar; Mamzer-Bruneel, Marie-France; Maoundé, Dionko; Martinent, Eric; Ntsiba, Honoré; Pelé, Gérard; Quéva, Gilles; Reinmund, Marie-Christine; Sarr, Samba Cor; Sepou, Abdoulaye; Tarral, Antoine; Tetimian, Djetodjide; Valverde, Olaf; Van Nieuwenhove, Simon; Strub-Wourgaft, Nathalie

    2015-12-01

    Developing countries face numerous barriers to conducting effective and efficient ethics reviews of international collaborative research. In addition to potentially overlooking important scientific and ethical considerations, inadequate or insufficiently trained ethics committees may insist on unwarranted changes to protocols that can impair a study's scientific or ethical validity. Moreover, poorly functioning review systems can impose substantial delays on the commencement of research, which needlessly undermine the development of new interventions for urgent medical needs. In response to these concerns, the Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative (DNDi), an independent nonprofit organization founded by a coalition of public sector and international organizations, developed a mechanism to facilitate more effective and efficient host country ethics review for a study of the use of fexinidazole for the treatment of late stage African Trypanosomiasis (HAT). The project involved the implementation of a novel 'pre-review' process of ethical oversight, conducted by an ad hoc committee of ethics committee representatives from African and European countries, in collaboration with internationally recognized scientific experts. This article examines the process and outcomes of this collaborative process. © 2014 The Authors. Developing World Bioethics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Cerebral trypanosomiasis and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes Apio Claudio Martins

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A 36 year-old black female, complaining of headache of one month's duration presented with nausea, vomiting, somnolence, short memory problems, loss of weight, and no fever history. Smoker, intravenous drugs abuser, promiscuous lifestyle. Physical examination: left homonimous hemianopsia, left hemiparesis, no papilledema, diffuse hyperreflexia, slowness of movements. Brain CT scan: tumor-like lesion in the splenium of the corpus calosum, measuring 3.5 x 1.4 cm, with heterogeneous enhancing pattern, sugesting a primary CNS tumor. Due to the possibility of CNS infection, a lumbar puncture disclosed an opening pressure of 380 mmH(20; 11 white cells (lymphocytes; glucose 18 mg/dl (serum glucose 73 mg/dl; proteins 139 mg/dl; presence of Trypanosoma parasites. Serum Elisa-HIV tests turned out to be positive. Treatment with benznidazole dramatically improved clinical and radiographic picture, but the patient died 6 weeks later because of respiratory failure. T. cruzi infection of the CNS is a rare disease, but we have an increasing number of cases in HIV immunecompromised patients. Diagnosis by direct observation of CSF is uncommon, and most of the cases are diagnosed by pathological examination. It is a highly lethal disease, even when properly diagnosed and treated. This article intends to include cerebral trypanosomiasis in the differential diagnosis of intracranial space-occupying lesions, especially in immunecompromised patients from endemic regions.

  9. Control of cattle trypanosomiasis in coastal savannah of Ghana Part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field studies on the control of animal trypanosomiasis were undertaken in the Coastal Savanna of Ghana to det-ermine the importance of the disease in livestock production. The methodologies adopted were participatory ru-ral appraisal, geographical information systems, and entomological or parasitological evaluation.

  10. Report of the workshop on strategic planning of area-wide tsetse and trypanosomiasis control in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis is a disease unique to Africa affecting both humans and animals. This disease occurs in about 10 million km 2 in 37 sub-Saharan countries corresponding approximately to one-third of Africa's total land area, and threatens an estimated 50 million people, 48 million cattle and a countless population of other domestic animal species. Trypanosomiasis has a severe impact on African agriculture; estimated annual losses in cattle production alone are in the range of 1.0-1.2 billion dollars. To this, we have to add the indirect negative effects engendered by trypanosomiasis on total crop production. The disease influences where people decide to live, how they manage their livestock and the intensity of crop agriculture. The combined effects result in changes in land use, environment and affect human welfare and increase the vulnerability of agricultural activity. FAO has identified the reinforcement of agriculture as a key element in the fight against poverty and the improvement of food security in developing countries. The need to reduce poverty is particularly felt in tsetse infested areas of sub-Saharan Africa. In this region half of the population suffers from food insecurity. Approximately 85% of the poor are located in rural areas and more than 80% of the population depends on agricultural production for their livelihood. In order to respond to the need in the fight against tsetse and trypanosomiasis (T and T) in people as well as livestock, the Programme Against African Trypanosomiasis (PAAT) was endorsed in November 1997 by the FAO Conference. The Programme seeks to combine the forces of FAO, IAEA, OAU/IBAR and WHO in order to: promote and co-ordinate international alliances and efforts assisting in harmonised interventions against T and T; effectively combat the disease in Africa; and delineate the polity framework, strategies and guiding pest management principles. This workshop was primarily concerned with the development of

  11. African animal trypanosomosis and tsetse control partnership ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/apra.v2i4.36352 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access · FAQ's · News · AJOL jobs · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Contact ...

  12. Farming: Animals or machines? | Mitchell | Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intensive farming industry, where nonhuman animals are treated as machines in a production process, is abhorrent to many people, and more traditional farming may seem more acceptable ethically. Nowadays, one finds products on the market with labels such as organic and green, which suggest more humane ...

  13. Mastitis en kuddebestuur | Smith | South African Journal of Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 2 (1975) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Mastitis en kuddebestuur. A Smith, H.G.J. Coetzee ...

  14. The African Elephant as a Game Ranch Animal

    OpenAIRE

    G. de Graaff

    1992-01-01

    The Wildlife Group of the South African Veterinary Association (SAVA) was constituted in the beginning of the 1970s by a number of persons interested in theoretical and practical aspects of wildlife {sensu lato), wildlife diseases, and the handling of game and wild animals {^ensit stricto}.

  15. The African Elephant as a Game Ranch Animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. de Graaff

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available The Wildlife Group of the South African Veterinary Association (SAVA was constituted in the beginning of the 1970s by a number of persons interested in theoretical and practical aspects of wildlife {sensu lato, wildlife diseases, and the handling of game and wild animals {^ensit stricto}.

  16. Socioeconomic benefit to individuals of achieving 2020 targets for four neglected tropical diseases controlled/eliminated by innovative and intensified disease management: Human African trypanosomiasis, leprosy, visceral leishmaniasis, Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Edeltraud J; Redekop, William K; Luyendijk, Marianne; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Niessen, Louis; Stolk, Wilma A; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Rijnsburger, Adriana J; Bakker, Roel; Hontelez, Jan A C; Richardus, Jan H; Jacobson, Julie; Le Rutte, Epke A; de Vlas, Sake J; Severens, Johan L

    2018-03-01

    The control or elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has targets defined by the WHO for 2020, reinforced by the 2012 London Declaration. We estimated the economic impact to individuals of meeting these targets for human African trypanosomiasis, leprosy, visceral leishmaniasis and Chagas disease, NTDs controlled or eliminated by innovative and intensified disease management (IDM). A systematic literature review identified information on productivity loss and out-of-pocket payments (OPPs) related to these NTDs, which were combined with projections of the number of people suffering from each NTD, country and year for 2011-2020 and 2021-2030. The ideal scenario in which the WHO's 2020 targets are met was compared with a counterfactual scenario that assumed the situation of 1990 stayed unaltered. Economic benefit equaled the difference between the two scenarios. Values are reported in 2005 US$, purchasing power parity-adjusted, discounted at 3% per annum from 2010. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were used to quantify the degree of uncertainty around the base-case impact estimate. The total global productivity gained for the four IDM-NTDs was I$ 23.1 (I$ 15.9 -I$ 34.0) billion in 2011-2020 and I$ 35.9 (I$ 25.0 -I$ 51.9) billion in 2021-2030 (2.5th and 97.5th percentiles in brackets), corresponding to US$ 10.7 billion (US$ 7.4 -US$ 15.7) and US$ 16.6 billion (US$ 11.6 -US$ 24.0). Reduction in OPPs was I$ 14 billion (US$ 6.7 billion) and I$ 18 billion (US$ 10.4 billion) for the same periods. We faced important limitations to our work, such as finding no OPPs for leprosy. We had to combine limited data from various sources, heterogeneous background, and of variable quality. Nevertheless, based on conservative assumptions and subsequent uncertainty analyses, we estimate that the benefits of achieving the targets are considerable. Under plausible scenarios, the economic benefits far exceed the necessary investments by endemic country governments and their

  17. Population mobility and trypanosomiasis in Africa*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, R. Mansell

    1963-01-01

    Population mobility has long been established as a feature of life in Africa south of the Sahara. Even though it appears to be a factor in the spread of sleeping-sickness there do not seem to have been serious epidemics until the latter part of the nineteenth century and the early decades of the twentieth century. Various types of population movement of the present day and their possible relevance to trypanosomiasis are discussed. Density of population and settlement patterns are also important. Some of the changes in these which are relevant to trypanosomiasis are outlined and the need for more detailed information on these and on population mobility is emphasized. PMID:13986384

  18. South African Journal of Animal Science - Vol 30, No 2 (2000)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science - Vol 30, No 2 (2000) ... Relationship between performance measurements and sale price of Dorper rams in the Northern Cape ... Factors affecting goat production in a communal farming system in the ...

  19. South African Journal of Animal Science: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Papers dealing with production aspects of animal products and sociological aspects of ... that they are scientific by nature and have been carried out in a systematic way. ... Our mission is to advance animal science and promote viable animal ...

  20. Animal Production and Health Newsletter. No. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This newsletter contains brief reports of the five FAO/IAEA Research Coordination Meetings held in the first half of 1991, focussing on improving animal reproduction research and animal disease diagnosis in Asia through the application of immunoassay techniques, improving the productivity of indiginous African livestock using radioimmunoassay and related techniques, improving the diagnosis and control of trypanosomiasis and other vector-borne diseases of African livestock using immunoassay methods, and an inter-regional network for improving the productivity of camelids. The FAO/IAEA International Symposium on ''Nuclear and Related Techniques in Animal Production and Health'' is summarily described (the Symposium Proceedings should be published in October, 1991), and applications are invited for a new coordinated research programme on the development of supplementation strategies for milk-producing animals in tropical and subtropical environments

  1. New animal vaccines could keep more African farmers in business ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-06-24

    Jun 24, 2013 ... Canadian and African scientists are developing new vaccines to combat ... Potter says CBPP was once rampant in North America, Europe, the UK, and ... on a variety of viral diseases affecting sheep, goats, pigs, and cattle: ...

  2. Comparative mild, moderate and severe effects of Trypanosomiasis and Ancylostomiasis on the Haemogram of Local dog breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Akpu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the haematological parameters and assess the comparatively mild, moderate and severe effects of trypanosomiasis and ancylostomiasis on local dog breeds. Methods: Diagnosis of trypanosomiasis was based on clinical signs and presence of Trypanosoma congolense in wet mount of infected animals. Diagnosis of ancylostomiasis was based on clinical signs and presence of Ancylostoma caninum eggs in fecal samples. Fecal samples were examined using modified McMaster technique. Haematological parameters assessed were packed cell volume (PCV, haemoglobin concentration (HbC, total leucocyte counts and differential leucocyte counts. Results: The severity of anaemia produced was graded into mild, moderate and severe. The infected dogs with mild trypanosomiasis and ancylostomiasis had slightly elevated temperatures. Other symptoms observed included dullness, depression, muscular weakness and pale mucous membranes. The infected dogs with mild ancylostomiasis also showed anorexia. The mean PCV and HbC values for mild infections with T. congolense and A. caninum were significantly (P < 0.05 lower than those of normal dogs. The mean total WBC counts for both mild trypanosomiasis and ancylostomiasis were within the normal range when compared with the values for normal dogs. In all the cases of trypanosomiasis and ancylostomiasis, the total differential counts of monocytes were significantly (P < 0.05 lower than the normal values. There were obvious clinical signs such as pyrexia, anaemia, enlarged lymph nodes, subcutaneous oedema and occasional ophthalmitis for most of the dogs with severe trypanosomiasis. The mean PCV and HbC values of severe trypanosomiasis and ancylostomiasis were significantly lower than the normal values and also lower than all other cases of the disease condition. Anaemia was associated with both disease conditions but more severe in acute cases of trypanosomiasis. Conclusions: This study shows that dogs in this area are

  3. Live animal and carcass characteristics of South African indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sex, age and pre-slaughter conditioning on live animal, carcass dimensions and carcass composition were evaluated. The goats were large with live weight, carcass weight and carcass dimensions in the range of the large breeds of southern Africa. They had a high lean and low fat content. Intact males were ...

  4. South African Journal of Animal Science - Vol 30 (2000)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production response of lambing ewes receiving supplementary feed while grazing wheat stubble · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... An evaluation of the Daisy II-220 technique for determining in vitro digestibility of animal feeds in comparison with the Minson & McLeod technique · EMAIL FREE FULL ...

  5. Animal models for human genetic diseases | Sharif | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of human genetic diseases can be greatly aided by animal models because of their similarity to humans in terms of genetics. In addition to understand diverse aspects of basic biology, model organisms are extensively used in applied research in agriculture, industry, and also in medicine, where they are used to ...

  6. Co-occurring mycotoxins in animal feeds | Mngadi | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycotoxin contamination of feeds results in economic loss and transmission of toxins in the food chain. Animal feeds, the raw ingredients used in their manufacture, namely, maize, wheat, sunflower seeds, cottonseeds, bagasse, wheaten bran, gluten feed and pet foods from South Africa were surveyed for contaminating ...

  7. Fibre digestion in the hyrax | Eloff | South African Journal of Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 1 (1983) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected ...

  8. South African Journal of Animal Science - Vol 14, No 2 (1984)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. ... The effect of temperature, moisture level and treatment period · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ... Assessment of different selection criteria for reproduction rate in Dormer and S.A. Mutton Merino sheep. 1. Birth type and ...

  9. Simulation of Spread of African Swine Fever, Including the Effects of Residues from Dead Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette; Bøtner, Anette

    2016-01-01

    To study the spread of African swine fever (ASF) within a pig unit and the impact of unit size on ASF spread, a simulation model was created. In the model, an animal can be in one of the following stages: susceptible, latent, subclinical, clinical, or recovered. Animals can be infectious during...... the subclinical stage and are fully infectious during the clinical stage. ASF virus (ASFV) infection through residues of dead animals in the slurries was also modeled in an exponentially fading-out pattern. Low and high transmission rates for ASFV were tested in the model. Robustness analysis was carried out...... in order to study the impact of uncertain parameters on model predictions. The results showed that the disease may fade out within the pig unit without a major outbreak. Furthermore, they showed that spread of ASFV is dependent on the infectiousness of subclinical animals and the residues of dead animals...

  10. Inside the "African cattle complex": animal burials in the holocene central Sahara.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savino di Lernia

    Full Text Available Cattle pastoralism is an important trait of African cultures. Ethnographic studies describe the central role played by domestic cattle within many societies, highlighting its social and ideological value well beyond its mere function as 'walking larder'. Historical depth of this African legacy has been repeatedly assessed in an archaeological perspective, mostly emphasizing a continental vision. Nevertheless, in-depth site-specific studies, with a few exceptions, are lacking. Despite the long tradition of a multi-disciplinary approach to the analysis of pastoral systems in Africa, rarely do early and middle Holocene archaeological contexts feature in the same area the combination of settlement, ceremonial and rock art features so as to be multi-dimensionally explored: the Messak plateau in the Libyan central Sahara represents an outstanding exception. Known for its rich Pleistocene occupation and abundant Holocene rock art, the region, through our research, has also shown to preserve the material evidence of a complex ritual dated to the Middle Pastoral (6080-5120 BP or 5200-3800 BC. This was centred on the frequent deposition in stone monuments of disarticulated animal remains, mostly cattle. Animal burials are known also from other African contexts, but regional extent of the phenomenon, state of preservation of monuments, and associated rock art make the Messak case unique. GIS analysis, excavation data, radiocarbon dating, zooarchaeological and isotopic (Sr, C, O analyses of animal remains, and botanical information are used to explore this highly formalized ritual and the lifeways of a pastoral community in the Holocene Sahara.

  11. Entomological patterns in the human African trypanosomiasis focus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1149: 91.85%) found in all biotopes; G. fuscipes fuscipes (85: 6.79%) and G. caliginea (17: 1.36%) found in water spots and landing stages. They are infected by three subgenera of trypanosomes and only G. palpalis palpalis is infected by ...

  12. Human African Trypanosomiasis and challenges to its control in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was poor capacity for most of the health facilities in the diagnosis, treatment and control of HAT. In both districts, communities were knowledgeable of the tsetse identity (82.4%) and had experienced tsetse bites (94%). The majority (91.4%) of the community members knew that they were at risk of acquiring HAT.

  13. Transmission of human African trypanosomiasis in the Komo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to update transmission features of sleeping sickness in that focus, we have conducted epidemiological and entomological surveys in March-April 2008. Methods: Epidemiological investigation relied on a casecontrol study using a quantitative and qualitative methodology (a structured questionnaire). Cases were ...

  14. Staphylococcus aureus in Animals and Food: Methicillin Resistance, Prevalence and Population Structure. A Review in the African Continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lozano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The interest about Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA in livestock, and domestic and wild animals has significantly increased. The spread of different clonal complexes related to livestock animals, mainly CC398, and the recent description of the new mecC gene, make it necessary to know more about the epidemiology and population structure of this microorganism all over the world. Nowadays, there are several descriptions about the presence of S. aureus and/or MRSA in different animal species (dogs, sheep, donkeys, bats, pigs, and monkeys, and in food of animal origin in African countries. In this continent, there is a high diversity of ethnicities, cultures or religions, as well as a high number of wild animal species and close contact between humans and animals, which can have a relevant impact in the epidemiology of this microorganism. This review shows that some clonal lineages associated with humans (CC1, CC15, CC72, CC80, CC101, and CC152 and animals (CC398, CC130 and CC133 are present in this continent in animal isolates, although the mecC gene has not been detected yet. However, available studies are limited to a few countries, very often with incomplete information, and many more studies are necessary to cover a larger number of African countries.

  15. Travelers' Health: Trypanosomiasis, American (Chagas Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stamaril clinics Disease Directory Resources Resources for Travelers Adventure Travel Animal Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Evite ... Minute Travel Long-Term Travel Mass Gatherings Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers ...

  16. Fate of trypanocidal drugs in cattle (chemotherapy of trypanosomiasis). Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This document is the final report of a project to determine the fate of tryponocidal drugs in cattle. Drugs are still the primary agent in the struggle against trypanosomiasis although there is little data on their pharmacokinetics, residue levels, bioavailability rates, etc. This project aimed to provide such information for the three drugs Diminazene aceturate (Berenil), Isometamidium chloride (Samorin) and Homidium bromide (Ethidium). Figs and tabs

  17. Indicators for wild animal offtake: methods and case study for African mammals and birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Ingram

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Unsustainable exploitation of wild animals is one of the greatest threats to biodiversity and to millions of people depending on wild meat for food and income. The international conservation and development community has committed to implementing plans for sustainable use of natural resources and has requested development of monitoring systems of bushmeat offtake and trade. Although offtake monitoring systems and indicators for marine species are more developed, information on harvesting terrestrial species is limited. Building on approaches developed to monitor exploitation of fisheries and population trends, we have proposed two novel indicators for harvested terrestrial species: the mean body mass indicator (MBMI assessing whether hunters are relying increasingly on smaller species over time, as a measure of defaunation, by tracking body mass composition of harvested species within samples across various sites and dates; and the offtake pressure indicator (OPI as a measure of harvesting pressure on groups of wild animals within a region by combining multiple time series of the number of harvested individuals across species. We applied these two indicators to recently compiled data for West and Central African mammals and birds. Our exploratory analyses show that the MBMI of harvested mammals decreased but that of birds rose between 1966/1975 and 2010. For both mammals and birds the OPI increased substantially during the observed time period. Given our results, time-series data and information collated from multiple sources are useful to investigate trends in body mass of hunted species and offtake volumes. In the absence of comprehensive monitoring systems, we suggest that the two indicators developed in our study are adequate proxies of wildlife offtake, which together with additional data can inform conservation policies and actions at regional and global scales.

  18. The prevalence of African animal trypanosomoses and tsetse presence in Western Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seck, M.T.; Bouyer, J.; Sall, B.; Bengaly, Z.; Vreysen, M.J.B.

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, the Government of Senegal initiated a tsetse eradication campaign in the Niayes and La Petite Côte aiming at the removal of African Animal Trypanosomosis (AAT), which is one of the main constraints to the development of more effective cattle production systems. The target area has particular meteorological and ecological characteristics that provide great potential for animal production, but it is unfortunately still infested by the riverine tsetse species Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank (Diptera: Glossinidae). The tsetse project in Senegal has adopted an area- wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approach that targets the entire tsetse population within a delimited area. During the first phase of the programme, a feasibility study was conducted that included the collection of entomological, veterinary, population genetics, environmental and socio-economic baseline data. This paper presents the parasitological and serological prevalence data of AAT in cattle residing inside and outside the tsetse-infested areas of the target zone prior to the control effort. At the herd level, a mean parasitological prevalence of 2.4 % was observed, whereas a serological prevalence of 28.7 %, 4.4 %, and 0.3 % was obtained for Trypanosoma vivax, T. congolense and T. brucei brucei, respectively. The observed infection risk was 3 times higher for T. congolense and T. vivax in the tsetse-infested than in the assumed tsetse-free areas. Moreover, AAT prevalence decreased significantly with distance from the nearest tsetse captured which indicated that cyclical transmission of the parasites by tsetse was predominant over mechanical transmission by numerous other biting flies present. The importance of these results for the development of a control strategy for the planned AW-IPM campaign is discussed. (Authors) [fr

  19. Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli in husbandry animals: the African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, C A; Zarazaga, M; Ben Sallem, R; Jouini, A; Ben Slama, K; Torres, C

    2017-05-01

    In the last few years, different surveillances have been published in Africa, especially in northern countries, regarding antimicrobial resistance among husbandry animals. Information is still scarce, but the available data show a worrying picture. Although the highest resistance rates have been described against tetracycline, penicillins and sulphonamides, prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes and extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) are being increasingly reported. Among ESBLs, the CTX-M-1 group was dominant in most African surveys. Within this group, CTX-M-15 was the main variant both in animals and humans, except in Tunisia where CTX-M-1 was more frequently detected among Escherichia coli from poultry. Certain bla CTX -M-15 -harbouring clones (ST131/B2 or ST405/D) are mainly identified in humans, but they have also been reported in livestock species from Tanzania, Nigeria or Tunisia. Moreover, several reports suggest an inter-host circulation of specific plasmids (e.g. bla CTX -M-1 -carrying IncI1/ST3 in Tunisia, IncY- and Inc-untypeable replicons co-harbouring qnrS1 and bla CTX -M-15 in Tanzania and the worldwide distributed bla CTX -M-15 -carrying IncF-type plasmids). International trade of poultry meat seems to have contributed to the spread of other ESBL variants, such as CTX-M-14, and clones. Furthermore, first descriptions of OXA-48- and OXA-181-producing E. coli have been recently documented in cattle from Egypt, and the emergent plasmid-mediated colistin resistance mcr-1 gene has been also identified in chickens from Algeria, Tunisia and South Africa. These data reflect the urgent need of a larger regulation in the use of veterinary drugs and the implementation of surveillance programmes in order to decelerate the advance of antimicrobial resistance in this continent. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Control of breathing in African lungfish (Protopterus dolloi): A comparison of aquatic and cocooned (terrestrialized) animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, S.F.; Euverman, R.; Wang, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    in terrestrialized fish consisted of multiple bouts of inspiration and expiration in rapid succession, the mean frequency of pulmonary breathing events was unaltered in the terrestrialized fish (16.7 ± 1.4 h-1 versus 20.1 ± 4.9 h-1 in the aquatic and terrestrialized fish, respectively). Hypoxia ( 20 mmHg) increased...... the frequency of breathing events by 16 and 23 h-1 in the aquatic and terrestrialized fish, respectively. Hyperoxia ( 550 mmHg) decreased breathing event frequency by 10 and 15 h-1 in the aquatic and terrestrialized animals. Aquatic hypercapnia ( 37.5 mmHg) increased pulmonary breathing frequency (from 15......African lungfish, Protopterus dolloi exhibited constant rates of O2 consumption before (0.95 ± 0.07 mmol kg-1 h-1), during (1.21 ± 0.32 mmol kg-1 h-1) and after (1.14 ± 0.14 mmol kg-1 h-1) extended periods (1-2 months) of terrestrialization while cocooned. Although a breathing event...

  1. Synergistic effects of fire and elephants on arboreal animals in an African savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Robert M; Kimuyu, Duncan M; Sensenig, Ryan L; Palmer, Todd M; Riginos, Corinna; Veblen, Kari E; Young, Truman P

    2015-11-01

    Disturbance is a crucial determinant of animal abundance, distribution and community structure in many ecosystems, but the ways in which multiple disturbance types interact remain poorly understood. The effects of multiple-disturbance interactions can be additive, subadditive or super-additive (synergistic). Synergistic effects in particular can accelerate ecological change; thus, characterizing such synergies, the conditions under which they arise, and how long they persist has been identified as a major goal of ecology. We factorially manipulated two principal sources of disturbance in African savannas, fire and elephants, and measured their independent and interactive effects on the numerically dominant vertebrate (the arboreal gekkonid lizard Lygodactylus keniensis) and invertebrate (a guild of symbiotic Acacia ants) animal species in a semi-arid Kenyan savanna. Elephant exclusion alone (minus fire) had negligible effects on gecko density. Fire alone (minus elephants) had negligible effects on gecko density after 4 months, but increased gecko density twofold after 16 months, likely because the decay of fire-damaged woody biomass created refuges and nest sites for geckos. In the presence of elephants, fire increased gecko density nearly threefold within 4 months of the experimental burn; this occurred because fire increased the incidence of elephant damage to trees, which in turn improved microhabitat quality for geckos. However, this synergistic positive effect of fire and elephants attenuated over the ensuing year, such that only the main effect of fire was evident after 16 months. Fire also altered the structure of symbiotic plant-ant assemblages occupying the dominant tree species (Acacia drepanolobium); this influenced gecko habitat selection but did not explain the synergistic effect of fire and elephants. However, fire-driven shifts in plant-ant occupancy may have indirectly mediated this effect by increasing trees' susceptibility to elephant damage. Our

  2. African Journal of Neurological Sciences - 2009 Vol. 28 No 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HISTOIRE DU FOYER DE LA TRYPANOSOMOSE HUMAINE AFRICAINE DE NOLA EN REPUBLIQUE. CENTRAFRICAINE, DE 1971 à 2004. HISTORY OF HUMAN AFRICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS OF NOLA IN CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC,. FROM 1971 TO 2004. MBELESSO Pascal 1. KOONA-KOONA Joseph Adonis ...

  3. Control of cattle trypanosomiasis in coastal savannah of Ghana Part I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Triangulation design of mixed-mode research on control of trypanosomiasis involving Participatory Rural Appr-aisal (PRA), surveys, parasitological studies and satellite ... The research focussed on farmer's production objectives, use of Berenil® to control trypanosomiasis, and satellite mapping of areas at risk of diseases for ...

  4. South African Journal of Animal Science - Vol 47, No 6 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Processing of South African biltong – A review · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE ... Carcass and meat quality of Boer and indigenous goats of South Africa under ... pods as feed additive on egg antioxidants, chemical composition and ...

  5. South African Journal of Animal Science - Vol 34, No 4 (2004)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A genetic analysis of epistaxis as associated with EIPH in the Southern African Thoroughbred · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. H Weideman, SJ Schoeman, GF Jordaan, 265-273 ...

  6. Immunogenicity of two adjuvant formulations of an inactivated African horse sickness vaccine in guinea-pigs and target animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Federico Ronchi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Monovalent, inactivated and adjuvanted vaccines against African horse sickness, prepared with serotypes 5 and 9, were tested on guinea-pigs to select the formulation that offered the greatest immunity. The final formulation of the vaccines took into account the immune response in the guinea-pig and the inflammatory properties of two types of adjuvant previously tested on target animals. A pilot study was subsequently conducted on horses using a vaccine prepared with serotype 9. The vaccine stimulated neutralising antibodies from the first administration and, after the booster dose, 28 days later; high antibody levels were recorded for at least 10 months. The guinea-pig appears to be a useful laboratory model for the evaluation of the antigenic properties of African horse sickness vaccines.

  7. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  8. Integrating global animal health, public health and tropical animal health issues into the veterinary curriculum: a South African/African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, G E; Coetzer, J A W; Terblanche, H M

    2009-08-01

    The globalisation of trade and food, the increased volume and speed of international travel, climate change, and the related escalation of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases mean that countries are now more interconnected and interdependent than ever before. Africa is beleaguered by a range of endemic infectious and parasitic tropical diseases which, due to its diverse wildlife populations and indigenous livestock, can serve as a reservoir of high-impact or transboundary diseases and play a role in the emergence of disease, particularly at the wildlife, domestic animal and human interfaces. It is therefore essential to integrate animal and public health issues into the veterinary curriculum. Veterinary training in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa has focused on producing veterinarians to serve the livestock sector although socio-economic changes and privatisation of Veterinary Services have caused curriculum adjustments, as have globalisation and the increased risk of the spread of transboundary diseases. In South Africa, undergraduate veterinary training is more clinically oriented than in other regions. Animal and public health issues are covered in the curriculum, although their global relevance is not emphasised. The authors describe the undergraduate veterinary curriculum and summarise post-graduate programmes in South Africa. They also discuss a more comprehensive core-elective approach to the current curriculum and the need to adapt to new challenges facing the profession. Finally, they examine the potential use of innovative technology in undergraduate and post-graduate training and professional development, the importance of regional and international collaboration and the accreditation and recognition of veterinary training.

  9. An outbreak of bovine trypanosomiasis in the Blue Nile State, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Ichiro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper, we report an outbreak of bovine trypanosomiasis in Kurmuk District, Blue Nile State, Sudan that involved an infection with four Trypanosoma species in cattle. The outbreak occurred in June 2010 when indigenous cattle, mainly Kenana and Fulani breed types, crossed the national Sudanese border to Ethiopia and returned. A veterinarian was notified of massive deaths in the cattle populations that recently came from Ethiopia. All animals involved in the outbreak were from the nomadic Fulani group and resident local cattle were not infected and no death has been reported among them. A total of 210 blood samples were collected from the ear vein of cattle. A few samples were also collected from other domestic animals species. Parasitological examinations including hematocrit centrifugation techniques (HCT and Giemsa-stained thin blood films were carried out. ITS1-PCR, which provides a multi-species-specific diagnosis in a single PCR, was performed. Findings Parasitological examinations revealed that 43% (91/210 of the affected cattle population was infected with two morphologically distinct trypanosomes. Seventy animals (33.3% were infected with T. vivax and twenty one (10% with T. congolense. In contrast, ITS1-PCR was able to identify four Trypanosoma species namely T. vivax, T. congolense, T. simiae and T. brucei in 56.7% (80/141. T. brucei showed the highest prevalence of 36.9% (52/141 and the lowest 19% (27/141 was displayed by T. congolense. Furthermore, and because ITS1-PCR could not differentiate between T. brucei subspecies, serum resistance-associated (SRA gene based PCR was used to detect the human T. brucei rhodesiense in T. brucei positive samples. None of the samples was shown positive for T. b. rhodesiense. The identity of the 400 bp PCR product originating from T. simiae, was further confirmed by sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic analysis. Conclusions The outbreak of bovine trypanosomiasis occurred

  10. Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  11. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  12. South African Journal of Animal Science - Vol 27, No 1 (1997)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical and essential amino acid composition of South African Mutton Merino lamb carcasses · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Halothane genotype and pork production. 1 Growth, carcass and meat quality characteristics · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  13. 42 CFR 71.56 - African rodents and other animals that may carry the monkeypox virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the monkeypox virus. 71.56 Section 71.56 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... and other animals that may carry the monkeypox virus. (a) What actions are prohibited? What animals... transmitting or carrying the monkeypox virus. Such products include, but are not limited to, fully taxidermied...

  14. Animal production off grassland. | J.E. | African Journal of Range ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Veld rehabilitation is considered an overwhelming priority in the sweetveld. The limiting factors in the sourveld are poor veld management and lack of economic motivation. Research in the sourveld should be appointed to promote improved grazing management and animal production. Keywords: animal production; current ...

  15. An out-break and observations on Trypanosomiasis in Fresian cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine trypanosomiasis has clinical features characterized by anorexia, emaciation, ... The present study deals with the observations on naturally occurring ... and chronic conditions, low working capacity and high mortality in acute cases.

  16. South African Journal of Animal Science - Vol 1, No 1 (1971)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impressions of animal production in South Africa with particular reference to biological research · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. I.W. McDonald, 165-167 ...

  17. 2013 Annual Report: Project to combat the Tsetse Fly and Trypanosomiasis in the Niayes Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    The period 2009-2010 was a transition phase, used to analyze the basic data collected, in particular those relating to entomology and parasitology, in order to define a control strategy. An entomological and parasitological follow-up aimed at understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of the system before the struggle has thus been put in place. Similarly, socio-economic studies have continued with the finalization of the survey and test reports produced by certain breeders. On the basis of the results of the feasibility study which confirmed the presence of Glossina palpalis gambiensis on the Dakar-Thies-Kayar triangle and the disease it transmits (trypanosomiasis) and Isolated from the area in relation to other tsetse infested areas, the fighting phase started in 2010 in block I (Kayar) and then in 2012 in block II (Sebikotane, Diacsaw Peulh, Pout) with the deployment of impregnated traps Deltamethrin and livestock ''on'' treatment. Entomological controls (monthly measurements of apparent densities) showed a significant decrease in tsetse populations in the target areas.The phase of elimination of tsetse flies began in 2011 in the Kayar area with weekly releases of sterile males to the soil. Operational air releases began in 2013 with cardboard boxes. They will continue in 2014 with an automatic machine specially designed by a Mexican company specializing in the release of fruit flies.On the parasitological level, sick animals are detected and treated, in order to reduce the prevalence of the disease. (Author)

  18. Dietary management, husbandry, and body weights of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) during successful pregnancies at Disney's Animal Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kathleen; Kerr, Katherine; Wanty, Rachel; Amaral, Bryan; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Valdes, Eduardo

    2016-11-01

    Successful pregnancy in African elephants is influenced by biological and environmental factors. For managed elephants many of these factors are set directly or indirectly by their human care takers, including nutrition and husbandry. While African elephants often struggle to conceive and produce healthy offspring under human care, Disney's Animal Kingdom (DAK) has effectively managed six gestations to fruition in three cows. Despite differences between mothers in terms of BW and growth curves during gravidity, each pregnancy successfully resulted in the birth of a healthy calf. Body weight (BW) gain during pregnancy ranged from 245 to 558 kg. Obesity in elephants is associated with increased occurrence of dystocia and mortality of the fetus and mother, hence understanding normal weight gains is an integral concept. Diet (dry matter basis) included high levels of fiber throughout pregnancies (60-70% neutral detergent fiber), vitamin E supplementation (116-214 mg/kg diet of alpha-tocopherol), as well as low levels of starch (2.5-5.1%) and crude fat (1.9-2.4%). Caretaker directed exercise during pregnancy at DAK served to prevent ventral edema, and increase muscle tone to prepare cows for parturition. Demonstrating techniques for effective care of pregnant females, as well as normal growth curves and fluctuations under ex situ conditions are necessary for future positive outcomes. Ensuring reproductive success through proper husbandry and nutrition are a key to long-term conservation of elephants. Zoo Biol. 35:574-578, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. 2010 Annual Report: Project to combat the Tsetse Fly and Trypanosomiasis in the Niayes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    Several control campaigns were carried out in the 70-80 years in the Niayes area to rid it of the only tsetse species that lives there, Glossina palpalis gambiensis.The tsetse or tsetse fly is responsible for trypanosomiasis in animals and sleeping sickness in humans. Untreated, disease leads to death. After a 15 - year respite following the aforementioned control campaigns, the presence of the vector and the disease it transmits has again been detected in the area thanks to studies carried out in 1999 with FAO support.To solve the problem in a sustainable way, the Ministry of Livestock set up a new program in 2006, with the support of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), based on the use of the Sterile Insect.This program is coordinated by the Department of Veterinary Services (DSV) in partnership with the Senegalese Institute of Agricultural Research (ISRA) for the research component and the Ecological Monitoring Center (CSE) for the Geographic Information System (GIS). The Center for International Cooperation in Agronomic Research for Development (CIRAD) provides scientific support to the project. The environmental study started in 2010 with the implementation of the protocol on the environmental impact assessment and the preparation of the dossier of the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). During the phase of control preparation, currently underway, a suppression device was tested on a small area in Kayar, and experimental releases of sterile males were set up at two sites to assess their survival and competitiveness, after having set up a transport system running the irradiated pupae of the CIRDES insectarium (Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso) to that of Senegalese Institute for Agricultural Research (ISRA). (Author)

  20. American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Detailed FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I prevent infection? What is Chagas disease? Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi , which is transmitted to animals and people by insect vectors that are found only in the Americas (mainly, ...

  1. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense trypanosomiasis in Terego county, northern Uganda, 1996: a lot quality assurance sampling survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutin, Yvan J F; Legros, Dominique; Owini, Vincent; Brown, Vincent; Lee, Evan; Mbulamberi, Dawson; Paquet, Christophe

    2004-04-01

    We estimated the pre-intervention prevalence of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (Tbg) trypanosomiasis using the lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) methods in 14 parishes of Terego County in northern Uganda. A total of 826 participants were included in the survey sample in 1996. The prevalence of laboratory confirmed Tbg trypanosomiasis adjusted for parish population sizes was 2.2% (95% confidence interval =1.1-3.2). This estimate was consistent with the 1.1% period prevalence calculated on the basis of cases identified through passive and active screening in 1996-1999. Ranking of parishes in four categories according to LQAS analysis of the 1996 survey predicted the prevalences observed during the first round of active screening in the population in 1997-1998 (P LQAS were validated by the results of the population screening, suggesting that these survey methods may be useful in the pre-intervention phase of sleeping sickness control programs.

  2. Intestinal Bacterial Communities of Trypanosome-Infected and Uninfected Glossina palpalis palpalis from Three Human African Trypanomiasis Foci in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Jacob

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Glossina sp. the tsetse fly that transmits trypanosomes causing the Human or the Animal African Trypanosomiasis (HAT or AAT can harbor symbiotic bacteria that are known to play a crucial role in the fly's vector competence. We hypothesized that other bacteria could be present, and that some of them could also influence the fly's vector competence. In this context the objectives of our work were: (a to characterize the bacteria that compose the G. palpalis palpalis midgut bacteriome, (b to evidence possible bacterial community differences between trypanosome-infected and non-infected fly individuals from a given AAT and HAT focus or from different foci using barcoded Illumina sequencing of the hypervariable V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Forty G. p. palpalis flies, either infected by Trypanosoma congolense or uninfected were sampled from three trypanosomiasis foci in Cameroon. A total of 143 OTUs were detected in the midgut samples. Most taxa were identified at the genus level, nearly 50% at the species level; they belonged to 83 genera principally within the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. Prominent representatives included Wigglesworthia (the fly's obligate symbiont, Serratia, and Enterobacter hormaechei. Wolbachia was identified for the first time in G. p. palpalis. The average number of bacterial species per tsetse sample was not significantly different regarding the fly infection status, and the hierarchical analysis based on the differences in bacterial community structure did not provide a clear clustering between infected and non-infected flies. Finally, the most important result was the evidence of the overall very large diversity of intestinal bacteria which, except for Wigglesworthia, were unevenly distributed over the sampled flies regardless of their geographic origin and their trypanosome infection status.

  3. Trypanosomiasis of camels (Camelus dromedarius in Algeria: First report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Bennoune

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Camel trypanosomosis is a life-threatening disease in the camel species and responsible for severe economic losses either in milk or meat productions. This study was carried out on the south-east area of Algeria on 100 camels of various ages and either sex from two herds. Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed higher levels of trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma evansi, an elongated parasite with a kinetoplast and a single nucleus located in its half-length and one flagellum with great heterogeneity. This first investigation reveals higher infection rate than those observed in other countries using blood smears, the trypanosomosis attack has reached an alarming level and the occurrence of trypanosomosis at this high level on blood smears is like "the tree that hides the forest" and make up a serious and potential danger both on animal and public health. Therefore, radical preventive and offensive drastic measures must be taken against this menacing disease at the critical points to prevent the economic losses and to avoid possible human transmission.

  4. Animal urine as painting materials in African rock art revealed by cluster ToF-SIMS mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazel, Vincent; Richardin, Pascale; Touboul, David; Brunelle, Alain; Richard, Caroline; Laval, Eric; Walter, Philippe; Laprévote, Olivier

    2010-08-01

    The rock art site at the village of Songo in Mali is a very important Dogon ritual place where, since the end of the nineteenth century until today, takes place the ceremony of circumcision. During these ceremonies, paintings are performed on the walls of the shelter with mainly three colors: red, black and white. Ethnological literature mentions the use of animal urine of different species such as birds, lizards or snakes as a white pigment. Urine of these animals is mainly composed of uric acid or urate salts. In this article, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is used to compare uric acid, snake urine and a sample of a white pigment of a Dogon painting coming from the rock art site of Songo. ToF-SIMS measurements in both positive and negative ion modes on reference compounds and snake urine proved useful for the study of uric acid and urate salts. This method enables to identify unambiguously these compounds owing to the detection in negative ion mode of the ion corresponding to the deprotonated molecule ([M-H](-) at m/z 167.01) and its fragment ions. Moreover, the mass spectra obtained in positive ion mode permit to differentiate uric acid and urate salts on the basis of specific ions. Applying this method to the Dogon white pigments sample, we show that the sample is entirely composed of uric acid. This proves for the first time, that animal urine was used as a pigment by the Dogon. The presence of uric acid instead of urate salts as normally expected in animal urine could be explained by the preparation of the pigment for its application on the stone. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. History of Animals using Isotope Records (HAIR): a 6-year dietary history of one family of African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E; Wittemyer, George; Ehleringer, James R; Remien, Christopher H; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2009-05-19

    The dietary and movement history of individual animals can be studied using stable isotope records in animal tissues, providing insight into long-term ecological dynamics and a species niche. We provide a 6-year history of elephant diet by examining tail hair collected from 4 elephants in the same social family unit in northern Kenya. Sequential measurements of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen isotope rations in hair provide a weekly record of diet and water resources. Carbon isotope ratios were well correlated with satellite-based measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of the region occupied by the elephants as recorded by the global positioning system (GPS) movement record; the absolute amount of C(4) grass consumption is well correlated with the maximum value of NDVI during individual wet seasons. Changes in hydrogen isotope ratios coincided very closely in time with seasonal fluctuations in rainfall and NDVI whereas diet shifts to relatively high proportions of grass lagged seasonal increases in NDVI by approximately 2 weeks. The peak probability of conception in the population occurred approximately 3 weeks after peak grazing. Spatial and temporal patterns of resource use show that the only period of pure browsing by the focal elephants was located in an over-grazed, communally managed region outside the protected area. The ability to extract time-specific longitudinal records on animal diets, and therefore the ecological history of an organism and its environment, provides an avenue for understanding the impact of climate dynamics and land-use change on animal foraging behavior and habitat relations.

  6. American Trypanosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    infected reduviid bugs, including Triatoma sp, Panstron- gylus sp, and Rhodnius sp (Figs 2.9 & 2.10). These large bugs (sometimes called kissing or...cause abor- tion of the fetus or its premature delivery by the infected mother . Congenitally acquired infection may be asymptom- atic or it may

  7. [Socio-entomologic survey in human trypanosomiasis focus of Yamba (Peoples Republic of Congo)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouteux, J P; Malonga, J R

    1985-01-01

    A study carried out at villagers level in a focus infected by human trypanosomiasis (Yamba, Bouenza region, Congo, Mikengue ethnic group) revealed that modern medicin is recognized by them as the sole possibility to treat the sleeping sickness. The witch doctor, if he cannot transmit the sickness, is perfectly able to aggravate it. He is considered as the responsible for any fatal issue. Tsetse flies are charged of transmitting the sickness as well as other biting insects (black flies, ceratopogonidae). The elders give an historical role to pigs in spreading the sickness. Villagers seem very determined to assume themselves fighting against the tsetse fly by trapping, but impregnation of traps by an insecticide got some problems (technical know-how, equipment) which have been solved by a new model of trap designed by the ORSTOM Center in Brazzaville.

  8. Importance of the horse and financial impact of equine trypanosomiasis on cattle raising in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, S Andrea; Concepción, Juan Luis; Nava, Mayerly; Molinari, Jesús

    2013-11-01

    In Venezuela, horses are indispensable for extensive cattle raising, and extensive cattle raising prevails in all regions. This determines the numerical relationship between horses and cattle (r = 0.93) to be relatively constant nationwide. At regional level, the average extension of cattle ranches varies greatly. However, in relation to the area covered by pastures, the numbers of horses (r = 0.95) and cattle (r = 0.93) are relatively uniform nationwide. Water buffalo occupy small fractions of the territory; therefore, their numbers are related to the area of pastures less strongly (r = 0.56). There is no information on the numerical relationship between the numbers of horses and water buffalo. In the Llanos region of the country, equine trypanosomiasis is responsible for a high mortality in horses, causing considerable financial losses to cattle ranches. So far, such losses have not been assessed. For this region, in 2008, it can be calculated that: (1) with no treatment, losses owing to horse mortality caused by this hemoparasitosis would have amounted to US$7,486,000; (2) the diagnosis and treatment of affected horses would have required an investment of US$805,000; and (3) in terms of horses saved, this investment would have resulted in benefit of US$6,232,000. Therefore, for every monetary unit invested, there would be a benefit 7.75 times greater, this ratio being applicable to any year and all regions of the country. It follows that the profitability of investing in the diagnosis and treatment of equine trypanosomiasis is guaranteed.

  9. PREVALENCE OF AMERICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS AND LEISHMANIASES IN DOMESTIC DOGS IN A RURAL AREA OF THE MUNICIPALITY OF SÃO JOÃO DO PIAUÍ, PIAUÍ STATE, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEREZ, Taliha Dias; FIGUEIREDO, Fabiano Borges; JUNIOR, Artur Augusto Mendes VELHO; SILVA, Valmir Laurentino; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; BRAZIL, Reginaldo Peçanha; COURA, José Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Chagas disease and the leishmaniases are endemic zoonoses of great importance to public health in the state of Piauí, Brazil. The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is a major reservoir, host of Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. in both urban and rural areas, playing an important role in the transmission of these parasites. The present study evaluated the prevalence of both infectious diseases in dogs of a rural area in the municipality of São João do Piauí, Piauí State. One hundred twenty-nine blood samples were collected for serological assessment: for the leishmaniases, 49 (38%) animals tested positive by the Dual-Path Platform technology (DPP), nine (6%) by the Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), and 19 (14.7%) by the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody test (IFA); while for American Trypanosomiasis, 36 (28%) dogs were reagent by ELISA and 21 by IFA. Of the 129 dogs sampled, 76 were submitted to xenodiagnosis, bone marrow aspiration and skin biopsy to perform parasitological tests whose results showed only one (2.3%) positive skin sample for Trypanosoma caninum and one positive xenodiagnosis for T. cruzi, both results confirmed by molecular assays. Three hundred triatomines of the species Triatoma brasiliensis and 552 phlebotomines - 509 (97%) of the species Lutzomyia longipalpis, were also captured. PMID:27828620

  10. An update of the tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae distribution and African animal trypanosomosis prevalence in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantel J. de Beer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An unpredicted outbreak of African animal trypanosomosis or nagana in 1990 in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal necessitated an emergency control programme, utilising the extensive cattledipping system in the area, as well as a reassessment of the tsetse and trypanosomosis problem in the province. Since 1990, sporadic blood sampling of cattle at the dip tanks in the naganainfested areas were undertaken to identify trypanosome species involved and to determine the infection prevalence in cattle. The distribution and species composition of the tsetse populations in the area were also investigated. From November 2005 to November 2007 selected dip tanks were surveyed for trypanosome infection prevalence. During April 2005 to August 2009 the distribution and abundance of tsetse populations were assessed with odour-baited H traps. The tsetse and trypanosome distribution maps were updated and potential correlations between tsetse apparent densities (ADs and the prevalence of trypanosomosis were assessed. Glossina brevipalpis Newstead and Glossina austeni Newstead were recorded in locations where they have not previously been collected. No significant correlation between tsetse relative abundance and nagana prevalence was found, which indicated complex interactions between tsetse fly presence and disease prevalence. This was epitomised by data that indicated that despite large differences in the ADs of G. austeni and G. brevipalpis, trypanosome infection prevalence was similar in all three districts in the area. This study clearly indicated that both tsetse species play significant roles in trypanosome transmission and that it will be essential that any control strategy, which aims at sustainable management of the disease, should target both species. Keywords: Tsetse distribution; Glossina brevipalpis; Glossina austeni; trypanosome infection prevalence

  11. Animal Research International: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Animal Research International: Advanced Search ... containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ... Journal of Biomedical Research, African Journal of Biotechnology, African Journal of Chemical Education ...

  12. Genetic recombination between human and animal parasites creates novel strains of human pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Gibson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic recombination between pathogens derived from humans and livestock has the potential to create novel pathogen strains, highlighted by the influenza pandemic H1N1/09, which was derived from a re-assortment of swine, avian and human influenza A viruses. Here we investigated whether genetic recombination between subspecies of the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, from humans and animals can generate new strains of human pathogen, T. b. rhodesiense (Tbr responsible for sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis, HAT in East Africa. The trait of human infectivity in Tbr is conferred by a single gene, SRA, which is potentially transferable to the animal pathogen Tbb by sexual reproduction. We tracked the inheritance of SRA in crosses of Tbr and Tbb set up by co-transmitting genetically-engineered fluorescent parental trypanosome lines through tsetse flies. SRA was readily transferred into new genetic backgrounds by sexual reproduction between Tbr and Tbb, thus creating new strains of the human pathogen, Tbr. There was no evidence of diminished growth or transmissibility of hybrid trypanosomes carrying SRA. Although expression of SRA is critical to survival of Tbr in the human host, we show that the gene exists as a single copy in a representative collection of Tbr strains. SRA was found on one homologue of chromosome IV in the majority of Tbr isolates examined, but some Ugandan Tbr had SRA on both homologues. The mobility of SRA by genetic recombination readily explains the observed genetic variability of Tbr in East Africa. We conclude that new strains of the human pathogen Tbr are being generated continuously by recombination with the much larger pool of animal-infective trypanosomes. Such novel recombinants present a risk for future outbreaks of HAT.

  13. Genetic recombination between human and animal parasites creates novel strains of human pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Wendy; Peacock, Lori; Ferris, Vanessa; Fischer, Katrin; Livingstone, Jennifer; Thomas, James; Bailey, Mick

    2015-03-01

    Genetic recombination between pathogens derived from humans and livestock has the potential to create novel pathogen strains, highlighted by the influenza pandemic H1N1/09, which was derived from a re-assortment of swine, avian and human influenza A viruses. Here we investigated whether genetic recombination between subspecies of the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, from humans and animals can generate new strains of human pathogen, T. b. rhodesiense (Tbr) responsible for sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis, HAT) in East Africa. The trait of human infectivity in Tbr is conferred by a single gene, SRA, which is potentially transferable to the animal pathogen Tbb by sexual reproduction. We tracked the inheritance of SRA in crosses of Tbr and Tbb set up by co-transmitting genetically-engineered fluorescent parental trypanosome lines through tsetse flies. SRA was readily transferred into new genetic backgrounds by sexual reproduction between Tbr and Tbb, thus creating new strains of the human pathogen, Tbr. There was no evidence of diminished growth or transmissibility of hybrid trypanosomes carrying SRA. Although expression of SRA is critical to survival of Tbr in the human host, we show that the gene exists as a single copy in a representative collection of Tbr strains. SRA was found on one homologue of chromosome IV in the majority of Tbr isolates examined, but some Ugandan Tbr had SRA on both homologues. The mobility of SRA by genetic recombination readily explains the observed genetic variability of Tbr in East Africa. We conclude that new strains of the human pathogen Tbr are being generated continuously by recombination with the much larger pool of animal-infective trypanosomes. Such novel recombinants present a risk for future outbreaks of HAT.

  14. Early invasion of brain parenchyma by African trypanosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Frevert

    Full Text Available Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is a vector-borne parasitic disease that has a major impact on human health and welfare in sub-Saharan countries. Based mostly on data from animal models, it is currently thought that trypanosome entry into the brain occurs by initial infection of the choroid plexus and the circumventricular organs followed days to weeks later by entry into the brain parenchyma. However, Trypanosoma brucei bloodstream forms rapidly cross human brain microvascular endothelial cells in vitro and appear to be able to enter the murine brain without inflicting cerebral injury. Using a murine model and intravital brain imaging, we show that bloodstream forms of T. b. brucei and T. b. rhodesiense enter the brain parenchyma within hours, before a significant level of microvascular inflammation is detectable. Extravascular bloodstream forms were viable as indicated by motility and cell division, and remained detectable for at least 3 days post infection suggesting the potential for parasite survival in the brain parenchyma. Vascular inflammation, as reflected by leukocyte recruitment and emigration from cortical microvessels, became apparent only with increasing parasitemia at later stages of the infection, but was not associated with neurological signs. Extravascular trypanosomes were predominantly associated with postcapillary venules suggesting that early brain infection occurs by parasite passage across the neuroimmunological blood brain barrier. Thus, trypanosomes can invade the murine brain parenchyma during the early stages of the disease before meningoencephalitis is fully established. Whether individual trypanosomes can act alone or require the interaction from a quorum of parasites remains to be shown. The significance of these findings for disease development is now testable.

  15. Inspired by African Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, June Rutledge

    1991-01-01

    Argues that African art helps children to learn vital art concepts and enlarges their understanding of the role of art in human culture. Outlines a unit on African art based on animals. Students created fabric designs and illustrated folktales and fables. Provides a list of free resources. (KM)

  16. Estudios sobre Trypanosomiasis americana en el Perú. Observaciones en el departamento de Ica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M Ayulo Robles

    1946-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemos comprobado la presencia de Triatomas en las ciudades de Ica y Nazca. Los Triatomas encontrados en esas localidades son de la especie del Triatoma Infestans. Las observaciones del contenido intestinal de los Triatomas capturados en ambas ciudades reveló que ellos no se encuentran infestados; lo que hace sospechar que estos insectos procedan de la Ciudad de Arequipa. Los exámenes de sangre en fresco, gota gruesa y frotis coloreados por el método de Giemsa en 174 personas y 32 animales, así como las pruebas de Desviación del Complemento (Reacción de GUERREIRO Y MACHADO e intradermo-reacción en las 174 personas, fueron negativas; lo que demuestra que actualmente no existe la Enfermedad de Chagas en el Departamento de Ica. Dada la presencia de Triatomas en Ica y Nazca y la existencia de la Enfermedad de Chagas en Vitor, Sihuas y Quishuarani del Departamento de Arequipa no se excluye la posibilidad de que posteriormente se haga presente la Trypanosomiasis americana, también, en esas zonas.

  17. Overview of the Diagnostic Methods Used in the Field for Human African Trypanosomiasis: What Could Change in the Next Years?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Bonnet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleeping sickness is a parasitic infection caused by two species of trypanosomes (Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and rhodesiense, transmitted by the tsetse fly. The disease eventually affects the central nervous system, resulting in severe neurological symptoms. Without treatment, death is inevitable. During the first stage of the disease, infected patients are mildly symptomatic and early detection of infection allows safer treatment (administered on an outpatient basis which can avoid death; routine screening of the exposed population is necessary, especially in areas of high endemicity. The current therapeutic treatment of this disease, especially in stage 2, can cause complications and requires a clinical surveillance for several days. A good stage diagnosis of the disease is the cornerstone for delivering the adequate treatment. The task faced by the medical personnel is further complicated by the lack of support from local health infrastructure, which is at best weak, but often nonexistent. Therefore it is crucial to look for new more efficient technics for the diagnosis of stage which are also best suited to use in the field, in areas not possessing high-level health facilities. This review, after an overview of the disease, summarizes the current diagnosis procedures and presents the advances in the field.

  18. Consultants' Group Meeting on Tsetse Genetics in Relation to Tsetse/Trypanosomiasis Control/Eradication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-07-01

    The FAO and IAEA have long recognized the need for methods for insect and pest control based upon approaches other than simply the widespread use of insecticides. Through the past several years the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has expended a considerable amount of effort in the development of a SIT programme applicable to tsetse. Such programmes have proved to be a highly successful component of the integrated control of tsetse flies. However, the pilot programmes undertaken to date have been applied to areas of limited size and future integrated control programmes for tsetse must cover much larger regions. The Consultants' Group was cognisant of the continued need for improvements in the cost effectiveness in the mass production of tsetse, particularly for SIT programmes. The Consultants' Goup recognized also that FAO/IAEA plays an important leadership role in the development of new technologies for the control of insect pest populations, and in the transfer of such technologies to assist in the improvement of agricultural production, particularly in developing countries. In addition to research on the development of methods for insect control (emphasizing application of the Sterile Insect Technique), the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has established and implemented five 'Co-ordinated Research Programmes' on tsetse and has, from time to time, convened groups of consultants to discuss and make recommendations on specific subjects. At least two such meetings (in July 1975 and November 1987) focused on genetic methods of insect control. The recent, rapid developments in molecular biology have stimulated interest in the application of genetic techniques to the problem of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control in Africa.

  19. Consultants' Group Meeting on Tsetse Genetics in Relation to Tsetse/Trypanosomiasis Control/Eradication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The FAO and IAEA have long recognized the need for methods for insect and pest control based upon approaches other than simply the widespread use of insecticides. Through the past several years the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has expended a considerable amount of effort in the development of a SIT programme applicable to tsetse. Such programmes have proved to be a highly successful component of the integrated control of tsetse flies. However, the pilot programmes undertaken to date have been applied to areas of limited size and future integrated control programmes for tsetse must cover much larger regions. The Consultants' Group was cognisant of the continued need for improvements in the cost effectiveness in the mass production of tsetse, particularly for SIT programmes. The Consultants' Goup recognized also that FAO/IAEA plays an important leadership role in the development of new technologies for the control of insect pest populations, and in the transfer of such technologies to assist in the improvement of agricultural production, particularly in developing countries. In addition to research on the development of methods for insect control (emphasizing application of the Sterile Insect Technique), the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has established and implemented five 'Co-ordinated Research Programmes' on tsetse and has, from time to time, convened groups of consultants to discuss and make recommendations on specific subjects. At least two such meetings (in July 1975 and November 1987) focused on genetic methods of insect control. The recent, rapid developments in molecular biology have stimulated interest in the application of genetic techniques to the problem of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control in Africa.

  20. Trypanosomiasis-induced megacolon illustrates how myenteric neurons modulate the risk for colon cancer in rats and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Kannen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosomiasis induces a remarkable myenteric neuronal degeneration leading to megacolon. Very little is known about the risk for colon cancer in chagasic megacolon patients. To clarify whether chagasic megacolon impacts on colon carcinogenesis, we investigated the risk for colon cancer in Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi infected patients and rats.Colon samples from T. cruzi-infected and uninfected patients and rats were histopathologically investigated with colon cancer biomarkers. An experimental model for chemical myenteric denervation was also performed to verify the myenteric neuronal effects on colon carcinogenesis. All experiments complied the guidelines and approval of ethical institutional review boards.No colon tumors were found in chagasic megacolon samples. A significant myenteric neuronal denervation was observed. Epithelial cell proliferation and hyperplasia were found increased in chagasic megacolon. Analyzing the argyrophilic nucleolar organiser regions within the cryptal bottom revealed reduced risk for colon cancer in Chagas' megacolon patients. T. cruzi-infected rats showed a significant myenteric neuronal denervation and decreased numbers of colon preneoplastic lesions. In chemical myenteric denervated rats preneoplastic lesions were reduced from the 2nd wk onward, which ensued having the colon myenteric denervation significantly induced.Our data suggest that the trypanosomiasis-related myenteric neuronal degeneration protects the colon tissue from carcinogenic events. Current findings highlight potential mechanisms in tropical diseases and cancer research.

  1. Constraints to estimating the prevalence of trypanosome infections in East African zebu cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Andrew P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In East Africa, animal trypanosomiasis is caused by many tsetse transmitted protozoan parasites including Trypanosoma vivax, T. congolense and subspecies of T. brucei s.l. (T. b. brucei and zoonotic human infective T. b. rhodesiense that may co-circulate in domestic and wild animals. Accurate species-specific prevalence measurements of these parasites in animal populations are complicated by mixed infections of trypanosomes within individual hosts, low parasite densities and difficulties in conducting field studies. Many Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR based diagnostic tools are available to characterise and quantify infection in animals. These are important for assessing the contribution of infections in animal reservoirs and the risk posed to humans from zoonotic trypanosome species. New matrices for DNA capture have simplified large scale field PCR analyses but few studies have examined the impact of these techniques on prevalence estimations. Results The Whatman FTA matrix has been evaluated using a random sample of 35 village zebu cattle from a population naturally exposed to trypanosome infection. Using a generic trypanosome-specific PCR, prevalence was systematically evaluated. Multiple PCR samples taken from single FTA cards demonstrated that a single punch from an FTA card is not sufficient to confirm the infectivity status of an individual animal as parasite DNA is unevenly distributed across the card. At low parasite densities in the host, this stochastic sampling effect results in underestimation of prevalence based on single punch PCR testing. Repeated testing increased the estimated prevalence of all Trypanosoma spp. from 9.7% to 86%. Using repeat testing, a very high prevalence of pathogenic trypanosomes was detected in these local village cattle: T. brucei (34.3%, T. congolense (42.9% and T. vivax (22.9%. Conclusions These results show that, despite the convenience of Whatman FTA cards and specific PCR based

  2. Constraints to estimating the prevalence of trypanosome infections in East African zebu cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Andrew P; Tosas, Olga; Tilley, Aimee; Picozzi, Kim; Coleman, Paul; Hide, Geoff; Welburn, Susan C

    2010-09-06

    In East Africa, animal trypanosomiasis is caused by many tsetse transmitted protozoan parasites including Trypanosoma vivax, T. congolense and subspecies of T. brucei s.l. (T. b. brucei and zoonotic human infective T. b. rhodesiense) that may co-circulate in domestic and wild animals. Accurate species-specific prevalence measurements of these parasites in animal populations are complicated by mixed infections of trypanosomes within individual hosts, low parasite densities and difficulties in conducting field studies. Many Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based diagnostic tools are available to characterise and quantify infection in animals. These are important for assessing the contribution of infections in animal reservoirs and the risk posed to humans from zoonotic trypanosome species. New matrices for DNA capture have simplified large scale field PCR analyses but few studies have examined the impact of these techniques on prevalence estimations. The Whatman FTA matrix has been evaluated using a random sample of 35 village zebu cattle from a population naturally exposed to trypanosome infection. Using a generic trypanosome-specific PCR, prevalence was systematically evaluated. Multiple PCR samples taken from single FTA cards demonstrated that a single punch from an FTA card is not sufficient to confirm the infectivity status of an individual animal as parasite DNA is unevenly distributed across the card. At low parasite densities in the host, this stochastic sampling effect results in underestimation of prevalence based on single punch PCR testing. Repeated testing increased the estimated prevalence of all Trypanosoma spp. from 9.7% to 86%. Using repeat testing, a very high prevalence of pathogenic trypanosomes was detected in these local village cattle: T. brucei (34.3%), T. congolense (42.9%) and T. vivax (22.9%). These results show that, despite the convenience of Whatman FTA cards and specific PCR based detection tools, the chronically low parasitaemias in

  3. A Multi-Host Agent-Based Model for a Zoonotic, Vector-Borne Disease. A Case Study on Trypanosomiasis in Eastern Province, Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Alderton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new agent-based model (ABM for investigating T. b. rhodesiense human African trypanosomiasis (rHAT disease dynamics, produced to aid a greater understanding of disease transmission, and essential for development of appropriate mitigation strategies.The ABM was developed to model rHAT incidence at a fine spatial scale along a 75 km transect in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. The method offers a complementary approach to traditional compartmentalised modelling techniques, permitting incorporation of fine scale demographic data such as ethnicity, age and gender into the simulation.Through identification of possible spatial, demographic and behavioural characteristics which may have differing implications for rHAT risk in the region, the ABM produced output that could not be readily generated by other techniques. On average there were 1.99 (S.E. 0.245 human infections and 1.83 (S.E. 0.183 cattle infections per 6 month period. The model output identified that the approximate incidence rate (per 1000 person-years was lower amongst cattle owning households (0.079, S.E. 0.017, than those without cattle (0.134, S.E. 0.017. Immigrant tribes (e.g. Bemba I.R. = 0.353, S.E.0.155 and school-age children (e.g. 5-10 year old I.R. = 0.239, S.E. 0.041 were the most at-risk for acquiring infection. These findings have the potential to aid the targeting of future mitigation strategies.ABMs provide an alternative way of thinking about HAT and NTDs more generally, offering a solution to the investigation of local-scale questions, and which generate results that can be easily disseminated to those affected. The ABM can be used as a tool for scenario testing at an appropriate spatial scale to allow the design of logistically feasible mitigation strategies suggested by model output. This is of particular importance where resources are limited and management strategies are often pushed to the local scale.

  4. [Human trypanosomiasis focus of Vavoua (Ivory Coast). A clinical, parasitological and sero-immunological survey (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvallet, G; Stanghellini, A; Saccharin, C; Vivant, J F

    1979-01-01

    Vavoua human trypanosomiasis focus, located 60 km north of Daloa (Ivory Coast Republic) is facing a period of hyperactivity. A medical survey has been conducted in 9 villages of this focus: 7.424 persons have been examined and 128 new cases diagnosed in the field after clinical and parasitological examinations. Indirect Fluorescence Antibody Test applied to dried blood blots, in the laboratory, revealed 266 immunological suspects to be reexamined. 185 suspects were reexamined, 104 of whom were diagnosed after tyrpanosomes had been found in blood or/and in gland juice. The microhaematocrit centrifuge technique gave good results. Most of the 232 new cases were in the classical first period (unaltered CSF). Authors are insisting on the importance of survey prospections allowing an early diagnosis of sleeping sickness and on the interest of an immunodiagnostic test in addition to classical techniques to diagnose asymptomatical forms.

  5. God’s World Is Not an Animal Farm—Or Is It? The Catachrestic Translation of Gender Equality in African Pentecostalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaan S. van Klinken

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Building on scholarly debates on Pentecostalism, gender and modernity in Africa, this article engages a postcolonial perspective to explore and discuss the ambivalent, even paradoxical nature of African Pentecostal gender discourse. It analyses the conceptualization of gender equality, in particular the attempt to reconcile the notions of ‘male–female equality’ and ‘male headship’, in a sermon series delivered by a prominent Zambian Pentecostal pastor, and argues that the appropriation and interruption of Western notions of gender equality in these sermons can be interpreted, in the words of Homi Bhabha, as a catachrestic postcolonial translation of modernity. Hence, the article critically discusses the Western ethnocentrism in some scholarly debates on gender and Pentecostalism in Africa, and points to some of the fundamental questions that Pentecostalism and its ambivalent gender discourse pose to gender-critical scholarship in the study of religion.

  6. Main: MPA5 [TP Atlas

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ion people suffer from African trypanosomiasis, sleeping sickness, caused by Tryp...rasitic protozoan trypanosomes. A half million people suffer from African trypanosomiasis, sleep

  7. African Journals Online: Swaziland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal publishes research papers, case studies, essays and review articles as well as first hand experiences in soil, plant, water and animal sciences, natural resources management, home economics and nutrition, and other related areas of relevance to the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region in ...

  8. Exploration of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis to Improve Animal Welfare by Means of Genetic Selection: Lessons from the South African Merino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schalk Cloete

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It is a difficult task to improve animal production by means of genetic selection, if the environment does not allow full expression of the animal’s genetic potential. This concept may well be the future for animal welfare, because it highlights the need to incorporate traits related to production and robustness, simultaneously, to reach sustainable breeding goals. This review explores the identification of potential genetic markers for robustness within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA, since this axis plays a vital role in the stress response. If genetic selection for superior HPAA responses to stress is possible, then it ought to be possible to breed robust and easily managed genotypes that might be able to adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions whilst expressing a high production potential. This approach is explored in this review by means of lessons learnt from research on Merino sheep, which were divergently selected for their multiple rearing ability. These two selection lines have shown marked differences in reproduction, production and welfare, which makes this breeding programme ideal to investigate potential genetic markers of robustness. The HPAA function is explored in detail to elucidate where such genetic markers are likely to be found.

  9. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    Detailed accounts of Research coordination Meetings on 'Support for rinderpest surveillance', 'Use of immunoassay for improved diagnosis of trypanosomiasis and monitoring of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control programmes in africa' and meetings related to milk and meat production are presented in this issue. Recent training activities and other meetings are also highlighted

  10. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    Detailed accounts of Research coordination Meetings on 'Support for rinderpest surveillance', 'Use of immunoassay for improved diagnosis of trypanosomiasis and monitoring of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control programmes in africa' and meetings related to milk and meat production are presented in this issue. Recent training activities and other meetings are also highlighted.

  11. African Anthropologist

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... It provides a forum for African and Africanist anthropologists to publish research reports, articles, book ... A Qualitative Exploration · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  12. African Journals Online: African Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 56 of 56 ... Research Review of the Institute of African Studies. Please note: As of 2013 the Research Review of the Institute of African Studies is now publishing under the title Contemporary Journal of African Studies. You can view the CJAS pages on AJOL here: http://www.ajol.info/index.php/contjas/index.

  13. Fluorine walk: The impact of fluorine in quinolone amides on their activity against African sleeping sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Michael; Erk, Christine; Fuß, Antje; Skaf, Joseph; Al-Momani, Ehab; Israel, Ina; Raschig, Martina; Güntzel, Paul; Samnick, Samuel; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2018-05-25

    Human African Trypanosomiasis, also known as African sleeping sickness, is caused by the parasitic protozoa of the genus Trypanosoma. If there is no pharmacological intervention, the parasites can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), inevitably leading to death of the patients. Previous investigation identified the quinolone amide GHQ168 as a promising lead compound having a nanomolar activity against T. b. brucei. Here, the role of a fluorine substitution at different positions was investigated in regard to toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and antitrypanosomal activity. This 'fluorine walk' led to new compounds with improved metabolic stability and consistent activity against T. b. brucei. The ability of the new quinolone amides to cross the BBB was confirmed using an 18 F-labelled quinolone amide derivative by means of ex vivo autoradiography of a murine brain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  15. South African Journal of Animal Science: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof V Muchenje Editor-in-Chief University of Fort Hare. University of Fort Hare. Faculty of Science and Agriculture. P. Bag X 1314, Alice, 5700, South Africa. Alternative email: vmuchenje@hotmail.com. Phone: +27 40 602 2059. Fax: +27 86 628 2967. Email: vmuchenje@ufh.ac.za ...

  16. African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Zoology, a peer-reviewed research journal, publishes original scientific contributions and critical reviews that focus principally on African fauna in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems. Research from other regions that advances practical and theoretical aspects of zoology will be considered. Rigorous ...

  17. A consumer perspective of the South African red meat classification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science ... The South African consumer market is characterised by socio-economic and ... the red meat knowledge, usage and perceptions regarding beef and sheep meat ... The paper also briefly reports on an in-store 'observational' research project that was ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  18. Comparative evaluation of the nested ITS PCR against the 18S PCR-RFLP in a survey of bovine trypanosomiasis in Kwale County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odongo, Steven; Delespaux, Vincent; Ngotho, Maina; Bekkele, Serkalem Mindaye; Magez, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    We compared the nested internal transcribed spacer (ITS) PCR and the 18S PCR-RFLP (restriction-fragment length polymorphism) pan-trypanosome assays in a cross-sectional survey of bovine trypanosomiasis in 358 cattle in Kwale County, Kenya. The prevalence of trypanosomiasis as determined by the nested ITS PCR was 19.6% (70/358) and by 18S PCR-RFLP was 16.8% (60/358). Of the pathogenic trypanosomes detected, the prevalence of Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax was greater than that of Trypanosoma simiae The nested ITS PCR detected 83 parasite events, whereas the 18S PCR-RFLP detected 64; however, overall frequencies of infections and the parasite events detected did not differ between the assays (χ(2) = 0.8, df = 1, p > 0.05 and χ(2) = 2.5, df = 1, p > 0.05, respectively). The kappa statistic (0.8) showed good agreement between the tests. The nested ITS PCR and the 18S PCR-RFLP had comparable sensitivity, although the nested ITS PCR was better at detecting mixed infections (χ(2) = 5.4, df = 1, p < 0.05). © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Strengthening African Union for African Integration: An African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... in the international state system and seek for African initiative in solving African problems. ... of the African Union by examining the efforts of African Leaders towards African integration, ...

  20. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  1. Animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Laz, Alak; Cholakova, Tanya Stefanova; Vrablova, Sofia; Arshad, Naverawaheed

    2016-01-01

    Animal experimentation is a crucial part of medical science. One of the ways to define it is any scientific experiment conducted for research purposes that cause any kind of pain or suffering to animals. Over the years, the new discovered drugs or treatments are first applied on animals to test their positive outcomes to be later used by humans. There is a debate about violating ethical considerations by exploiting animals for human benefits. However, different ethical theories have been made...

  2. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  3. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political

  4. SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR OF AFRICAN EQUIDAE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The social organisation of the two other African equids, Grevy's zebra and the wild ass, is completely different from the above. In these species there are no permanent bonds belween any two or more adult animals, which are found solitary or in a variety of different associalions: stallion groups, mare groups, groups of mares ...

  5. African Journals Online: Veterinary Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 15 of 15 ... African Journals Online: Veterinary Science ... Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ... Life Sciences, Chemistry, Mathematics & Physics, Earth Sciences ... The Nigerian Journal of Animal Science (NJAS) is an official ...

  6. Options for Tsetse Eradication in the Moist Savannah Zone of West Africa: Technical and Economic Feasibility, Phase 1 - GIS-Based Study. Programme Against African Trypanosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    This desk study was initiated with two objectives: - To examine the economic costs and benefits of a range of different sized tsetse eradication projects in the Moist Savannah Zone of West Africa (MSZ), and; - To test the hypothesis that larger tsetse control projects are more economically efficient than smaller projects in that region. The limited nature of the study precluded detailed examination of the socio-cultural and environmental issues relating to controlling trypanosomosis although these are briefly considered; nor did it aim to compare vector control with other methods of combating trypanosomosis such as the therapeutic or prophylactic use of drugs. However, by computing benefits over just 10 years an indirect comparison is made with the strategy that maintains that eradicating tsetse flies is not justified as, sooner or later, rapidly increasing population pressure will autonomously eradicate tsetse flies and hence trypanosomosis. This analysis suggests that such a strategy is not justified economically. As the basis of the economic evaluation was a study of projects in defined areas it was first necessary to iteratively examine the technical and economic issues relating to project selection and design. In this respect, the re-invasion issue was considered to be the major influence as it threatens both the sustainability and economic performance of tsetse eradication. Consequently, it was considered that the river basin was the smallest size of project that would optimise economic performance. This particular observation relates uniquely to the MSZ and may not apply to more southerly areas where fly distribution is more ubiquitous or to other parts of Africa. By basing the economic analysis on an evaluation of projects, albeit hypothetical, it was possible to use real data as the baseline database and the projects could be designed in response to actual tsetse and trypanosomosis scenarios. The group of study areas were chosen to be representative of the whole of the MSZ and not in response to any project that is being planned by any organisation or government. Consequently the studies must be regarded as hypothetical and are termed 'shadow' projects in the report. It was considered that the level 4 river basins were the most appropriate level in the MSZ and five study areas throughout the zone ranging from 13,000 sq km to 22,000 sq km were selected as the small shadow project areas. Adjacent pairs of small project areas formed the basis of two mediumsized project areas (170,000 and 187,000 sq km) and the whole zone (669,000 sq km) formed the large project. By examining these different project sizes it was hoped to test the hypothesis that larger projects are more economically efficient than smaller projects. (author)

  7. A Phase III Diagnostic Accuracy Study of a Rapid Diagnostic Test for Diagnosis of Second-Stage Human African Trypanosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Boelaert

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The high sensitivity of the HAT Sero K-SeT is in line with previously published estimates, though the sample of HAT cases in this study was small. The specificity estimate was very high and precise. This test, when negative, allows the clinician to rule out HAT in a clinical suspect in a hospital setting in this endemic region.

  8. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molomo, M; Mumba, T

    2014-04-01

    Livestock in Africa represent on average 30% of the agricultural gross domestic product (GDP) and about 10% of the national GDP. Up to 300 million people depend on livestock for their income and livelihood. Accordingly, livestock are considered to be important for the African continent. Despite this, little or no provision for animal welfare is made in the laws and regulations of most African countries. However, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS) Tool includes animal welfare as a critical competency in Veterinary Services, and most African countries have now conducted PVS appraisals. The development of a Regional Animal Welfare Strategy in Africa is also important because it will provide opportunities for full engagement by all relevant parties. Key elements in this process should include collaboration and coordination in information dissemination to all stakeholders, who should include all those in the value chain. The roles played by the OIE Member Delegates and Focal Points, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), in driving animal welfare policy in most African countries are notable. Without a level of understanding of animal welfare that is sufficient to support clear animal welfare policy development and implementation, problems may appear in the near future which could jeopardise the attainment of increased animal productivity and product quality. This may have negative implications for economic growth and for national and international trade.

  9. Accessibility perspectives on enabling South African sign language in the South African National Accessibility Portal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzee, L

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available and services. One such mechanism is by embedding animated Sign Language in Web pages. This paper analyses the effectiveness and appropriateness of using this approach by embedding South African Sign Language in the South African National Accessibility Portal...

  10. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest online library of ... AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans ... South African Medical Journal ... Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences.

  11. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...

  12. Fertility of the Small East African goat following pre-pubertal infection with Trypanosoma congolense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, H.B.; Gombe, S.

    1991-01-01

    Pre-pubertal male and female Small East African goats were infected with Trypanosoma congolense at 4-5 months of age. Changes in body weight and haemogram were monitored weekly. Progesterone and testosterone measurements were made three times weekly until the goats either reached puberty or 18 months of age. Onset of puberty was determined from observation of oestrus behaviour, mating or increase in libidio; this was confirmed by elevation in plasma progesterone or testosterone levels. Trypanosomiasis affected pre-pubertal goats by reducing body weight gain and delaying onset of puberty. Histological examination of the gonads showed pronounced pathological changes. These effects were reversed by treatment with isometamidium chloride (Samorin, May and Baker). It was concluded that early treatment of infected goats before serious gonadal damage could occur allowed full restoration of reproductive function. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  13. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  14. Animal magic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Writing a popular-science book about animal biophysics is hard work. Authors must read through hundreds of research papers as the subject is so multidisciplinary. On both counts of research and writing, Matin Durrani and Liz Kalaugher have done a good to excellent job with their book Furry Logic: the Physics of Animal Life

  15. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  16. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  17. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  18. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2015-01-01

    , indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...... bodies. By using animation as a learning tool we can explore the world of emotions and question beliefs, feelings and actions in order to express our voices and enhance our communication, and well-being, both, internally and with others. Animation can be the visual expression of the emotions in movement...

  19. Animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  20. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  1. African Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Studies and Regional Planning Bulletin African Environment is published in French and English, and for some issues, in Arabic. (only the issue below has been received by AJOL). Vol 10, No 3 (1999). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of ...

  2. African Journals Online: Central African Republic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Central African Republic. Home > African Journals Online: Central African Republic. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This ...

  3. The Silicon Trypanosome : A Test Case of Iterative Model Extension in Systems Biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achcar, Fiona; Fadda, Abeer; Haanstra, Jurgen R.; Kerkhoven, Eduard J.; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Leroux, Alejandro E.; Papamarkou, Theodore; Rojas, Federico; Bakker, Barbara M.; Barrett, Michael P.; Clayton, Christine; Girolami, Mark; Krauth-Siegel, R. Luise; Matthews, Keith R.; Breitling, Rainer; Poole, RK

    2014-01-01

    The African trypanosome, Ttypanosoma brucei, is a unicellular parasite causing African Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in animals). Due to some of its unique properties, it has emerged as a popular model organism in systems biology. A predictive quantitative model of

  4. Animal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    There are few trained veterinary radiation oncologists and the expense of facilities has limited the extent to which this modality is used. In recent years, a few cobalt teletherapy units and megavoltage x-ray units have been employed in larger veterinary institutions. In addition, some radiation oncologists of human medical institutions are interested and willing to cooperate with veterinarians in the treatment of animal tumors. Carefully designed studies of the response of animal tumors to new modalities serve two valuable purposes. First, these studies may lead to improved tumor control in companion animals. Second, these studies may have important implications to the improvement of therapy of human tumors. Much remains to be learned of animal tumor biology so that appropriate model systems can be described for such studies. Many of the latter studies can be sponsored by agencies interested in the improvement of cancer management

  5. Mentalizing animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Ethicists have tended to treat the psychology of attributing mental states to animals as an entirely separate issue from the moral importance of animals’ mental states. In this paper I bring these two issues together. I argue for two theses, one descriptive and one normative. The descriptive thesis...... holds that ordinary human agents use what are generally called phenomenal mental states (e.g., pain and other emotions) to assign moral considerability to animals. I examine recent empirical research on the attribution of phenomenal states and agential states (e.g., memory and intelligence) to argue...... that phenomenal mental states are the primary factor, psychologically, for judging an animal to be morally considerable. I further argue that, given the role of phenomenal states in assigning moral considerability, certain theories in animal ethics will meet significant psychological resistance. The normative...

  6. African Journals Online: African Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 56 ... Africa Development is the quarterly bilingual journal of CODESRIA. .... relationship in the family, workplace, schools and organisations. .... activities, and personalities driving the democracy and development agenda in the region; 4. Conflict .... with preference for the results of African and Africanist studies.

  7. Exploring the ethical basis of animal treatment in Malawi | Kayange ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper argues that the maltreatment/cruelty and destruction of animals common in Malawi is rooted in an African form of utilitarian ethics and a biased conception of animals that is promoted by Umunthu/Ubuntu ethical discourse. It explores the possibility of developing or discovering a moral ground for animal ethics ...

  8. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to the rest of the world. AJOL is ... African Journal of AIDS Research.

  9. Animated Reconstruction of Forensic Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Hala, Albert; Unver, Ertu

    1998-01-01

    An animated accident display in court can be significant evidentiary tool. Computer graphics animation reconstructions which can be shown in court are cost effective, save valuable time and illustrate complex and technical issues, are realistic and can prove or disprove arguments or theories with reference to the perplexing newtonian physics involved in many accidents: this technology may well revolutionise accident reconstruction, thus enabling prosecution and defence to be more effective in...

  10. Activities Report 2007 PATTEC-Mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This annual report is a summary of main activities undertaken in 2007 under the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis project. It results from the initiative of African governments in 2000 to eradicate tsetse flies and trypanosomiasis from infested areas in the African continent in order to mitigate poverty and improve food security in six countries (Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Mali, Burkina, Ghana). . areas An integrated approach of combating tsetse is used, from simples techniques such as trapping nets impregnate with insecticides and skin treatment of animals for suppression, and sterile insect technique for eradicating of the residual population of glossina.Methods and basic socio-epidemiological conducted in the field are presented

  11. Animal toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amdur, M.

    1996-12-31

    The chapter evaluates results of toxicological studies on experimental animals to investigate health effects of air pollutants and examines the animal data have predicted the response to human subject. Data are presented on the comparative toxicity of sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid. The animal data obtained by measurement of airway resistance in guinea pigs and of bronchial clearance of particles in donkeys predicted clearly that sulfuric acid was more irritant than sulfur dioxide. Data obtained on human subjects confirmed this prediction. These acute studies also correctly predicted the comparative toxicity of the two compounds in two year studies of monkeys. Such chronic studies are not possible in human subjects but it is a reasonable to assume that sulfuric acid would be more toxic than sulfur dioxide. Current findings in epidemiological studies certainly support this assumption.

  12. Animal evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes it possi......This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes...

  13. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  14. African Journals Online: Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 29 of 29 ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... African and international non-governmental organizations (NGOs); African and .... for scholars and practitioners in all spheres of biological sciences to publish ...

  15. Retraction | Simon | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Panthera leo) ina. West African national park”. African Zoology is publishing an Editorial Expression of Concern regarding the following article: “New records of a threatened lion population (Panthera leo) in a West African national park” by ...

  16. The improvement and application of genetic resources in animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 1 (1978) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Animal health management practices in zero grazing dairy units in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal health management practices in zero grazing dairy units in Arusha City, Tanzania. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... findings, majority (84.6%) of the cow's enclosures were of poor hygiene.

  18. Ethnobiological survey of plants and animals used for the treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethnobiological survey of plants and animals used for the treatment of acute respiratory ... African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines ... Methods: It is a descriptive exploratory study with a quantitative approach, ...

  19. Animal Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  20. Animal radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter presents historical x rays of a wide variety of animals taken within 5 years of the discovery of x radiation. Such photos were used as tests or as illustrations for radiographic publications. Numerous historical photographs are included. 10 refs

  1. Animal impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    The aspen ecosystem is rich in number and species of animals, especially in comparison to associated coniferous forest types. This natural species diversity and richness has been both increased and influenced by the introduction of domestic livestock. The high value of the aspen type as a forage resource for livestock and as forage and cover for wildlife makes the...

  2. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  3. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  4. POWERS OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL DEFENCE FORCE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-07-08

    Jul 8, 2005 ... lifeline of the South African energy, manufacturing, mining and retail sectors. ... approximately 25% of world animal protein supply, and a lack of ... and Fisheries (DAFF), Department of Transport, South African Maritime Safety ...... by the class and size of the vessel, and the overriding provisions of the safety ...

  5. Animal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.; Angerman, J.M.; Keenan, W.G.; Linsley, J.G.; Poole, C.M.; Sallese, A.; Simkins, R.C.; Tolle, D.

    1981-01-01

    The animal facilities in the Division are described. They consist of kennels, animal rooms, service areas, and technical areas (examining rooms, operating rooms, pathology labs, x-ray rooms, and 60 Co exposure facilities). The computer support facility is also described. The advent of the Conversational Monitor System at Argonne has launched a new effort to set up conversational computing and graphics software for users. The existing LS-11 data acquisition systems have been further enhanced and expanded. The divisional radiation facilities include a number of gamma, neutron, and x-ray radiation sources with accompanying areas for related equipment. There are five 60 Co irradiation facilities; a research reactor, Janus, is a source for fission-spectrum neutrons; two other neutron sources in the Chicago area are also available to the staff for cell biology studies. The electron microscope facilities are also described

  6. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  7. Inbreeding of the Bonsmara cattle breed | Mostert | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 30 (2000) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Oxidative stress biomarkers in West African Dwarf goats reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DAMLOLA

    2017-03-30

    Mar 30, 2017 ... 2Department of Animal Science, School of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology, North ... West African dwarf (WAD) goats are an extremely important livestock species in developing countries.

  9. Body measurement characteristics of the West African Dwarf (WAD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... 1Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Production and Health ... Two hundred and forty four (244) West African Dwarf (WAD) Goats ..... SAS Institute Inc. SAS Campus Drive. Carry. North. Carolina, U.S.A..

  10. Recent developments in poultry nutrition | Gous | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 11, No 2 (1981) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Oxidative stress biomarkers in West African Dwarf goats reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 47, No 3 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Anatomical and nutritional adaptations in African rodents | Perrin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 1 (1983) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. The Memory Box: a Documentary Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Screenings Culture Ireland Film Festival, Bucharest, Romania (July, 2009). Galway Film Fleadh, New Irish Short Animation Section, Ireland (July, 2008). Education Programme, Irish Film Institute (April, 2008). World Witness Film Festival, Limerick, Ireland (February, 2008). Junior Galway Film Fleadh, Ireland (November, 2007). Stranger Than Fiction Documentary Film Festival, Irish Film Institute. Winner of Best Irish Short Audience Award (September, 2007). Waterford African...

  14. African Solutions to African Problems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.; Schwartz, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    . The emergence of Déby’s Chad depends both on its ability to accomplish sub-imperial tasks encouraged by these actors, while obfuscating undemocratic governance and human rights abuses at home. Nonetheless, Déby’s role in regional security has helped him achieve a certain degree of agency in his relationship...... and maintain control of the state. These range from “liberal” desires to help control the region’s trouble spots in places like Mali, to clearly illiberal medaling in the domestic affairs of neighbors like the Central African Republic, with the fight against Boko Haram somewhere in the middle. This paper seeks...

  15. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to the rest of the ... Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics.

  16. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent collection of peer-reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically, scholarly information has flowed from North to South and from West to East. It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics.

  17. Trends in African philosophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    In the contention of Oladipo (2006), the debate on the idea of. African philosophy which has been divided into trends or schools, dates back to the 1960's and 70's, which constitute the modern epoch of African philosophy, when some African thinkers began to question the perspective that traditional African beliefs and.

  18. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African ... search for an article by title, author/s or keywords,; and find other information sources ... Southern African Business Review; The role played by the South African ... The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in ...

  19. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and ... Featured Country: South Africa, Featured Journal: Ergonomics SA ...

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  2. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  3. Activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory (Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 63, January 2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This article provides information on: • Animal Genetics: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to internal parasites in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Support to MSs for implementation of Global Plan of Action on animal genetic resources (AnGR); • Animal Health: Application of irradiation technology to develop a potential trypanosome vaccine; African swine fever; Study of pox diseases in Ethiopian camels; • Fellows/interns/consultants; • Field suppprt missions

  4. Animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ellen A

    2010-01-01

    As clinical studies reveal that chemotherapeutic agents may impair several different cognitive domains in humans, the development of preclinical animal models is critical to assess the degree of chemotherapy-induced learning and memory deficits and to understand the underlying neural mechanisms. In this chapter, the effects of various cancer chemotherapeutic agents in rodents on sensory processing, conditioned taste aversion, conditioned emotional response, passive avoidance, spatial learning, cued memory, discrimination learning, delayed-matching-to-sample, novel-object recognition, electrophysiological recordings and autoshaping is reviewed. It appears at first glance that the effects of the cancer chemotherapy agents in these many different models are inconsistent. However, a literature is emerging that reveals subtle or unique changes in sensory processing, acquisition, consolidation and retrieval that are dose- and time-dependent. As more studies examine cancer chemotherapeutic agents alone and in combination during repeated treatment regimens, the animal models will become more predictive tools for the assessment of these impairments and the underlying neural mechanisms. The eventual goal is to collect enough data to enable physicians to make informed choices about therapeutic regimens for their patients and discover new avenues of alternative or complementary therapies that reduce or eliminate chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits.

  5. Nuwe ontwikkelings in pluimveevoeding | Smith | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 17, No 4 (1987) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Nuwe ontwikkelings in pluimveevoeding.

  6. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  7. Factors Affecting Sustainable Animal Trypanosomosis Control in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    trypanosomiasis control in parts of Kaduna State within the sub- humid savannah ... livestock farmers in planning and implementation. Across ... help to ensure a better management of livestock in tsetse fly infested areas with minimal loses in .... market and administered by them. This drug ... Table 2 shows the analysis of.

  8. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  9. Field Investigation on the Prevalence of Trypanosomiasis in Camels in Relation to Sex, Age, Breed and Herd Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bhutto, J. A. Gadahi, G. Shah1, P. Dewani2 and A.G. Arijo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples were collected from 240 camels (183 male and 57 female of four breeds from six districts of Sindh. An overall infection was determined as 11.25%. Species of Trypanosoma was identified as Trypanosoma evansi. District wise infection was found to be 2.5, 7.5, 12.5, 15.00, 22.5 and 7.5% in Hyderabad, Mirpur Khas, Umerkot, Badin, Thatta and Larkana, respectively. A higher infection was found in females (15.79% as compared to males (9.84%. Highest (14.96% infection was noted in age group >7 years, followed by 8.57 and 4.65% in 3 to 7 years and less than to 3 years old camels, respectively. Four breeds of camels were surveyed and the highest infection rate was found in Sakrai breed (21.82%, followed by 16.67, 6.15 and 5.95% in Kharai, Sindhi and Dhati breeds respectively. When herd size was considered, infection rate was 1.67, 6.67, 15.00 and 21.67% in herds possessing 1 to 5, 6 to 10, 11 to 20 and more than 20 animals, respectively.

  10. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 9 CFR 96.2 - Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. 96.2 Section 96.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... spongiform encephalopathy. (a) Swine casings. The importation of swine casings that originated in or were...

  12. South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Medical Journal is published by the South African Medical Association, which represents ... G Watermeyer, S Thomson, 399-402 ... Assessing the value of Western Cape Provincial Government health administrative data and ...

  13. African Crop Science Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... The African Crop Science Journal, a quarterly publication, publishes original ... interactions, information science, environmental science and soil science.

  14. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research. Vol 14, No 3 (2017) ... Journal of Business and Administrative Studies. Vol 6, No 2 (2014) ... Vol 11 (2015): African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences Vol. 11, 2015. African ...

  15. South African Music Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAMUS: South African Music Studies is the official organ for the South African ... Shifty Records in Apartheid South Africa: Innovations in Independent Record ... Experiences of Belonging and Exclusion in the Production and Reception of ...

  16. Liberalism and African Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindima, Harvey

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the effect of liberalism on the African understanding of education, community, and religion. Describes ways in which the European intrusion, that is, colonial governments, schools, and churches, undermined traditional African life and thought. (DM)

  17. African Studies Monographs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Studies Monographs is a serial that promotes research and scholarship on the African perspective worldwide. This includes matters of philosophy, history, literature, arts and culture, environment, gender, politics, administration crisis management, etc.

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video) Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Chinese Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance French Translation of ...

  19. African Anthropologist: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The African Anthropologist is a biannual journal of the Pan African Anthropological Association. It provides a forum for African and Africanist anthropologists to publish articles, research reports, review articles, and book reviews. The views expressed in any published material are those of the authors and ...

  20. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent collection of peer-reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically ... African Research Review; The Roles of Information Communication Technologies in Education: Review Article with Emphasis to the Computer and Internet Ethiopian Journal ...

  1. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically, scholarly information has flowed from North to South and from West to East. It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with ...

  2. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. ... search for an article by title, author/s or keywords,; and find other information ... Southern African Business Review; Project Work by Students for First ... The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in ...

  3. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African ... search for an article by title, author/s or keywords,; and find other information ... Southern African Business Review; Effect of Globalization on Sovereignty of States ... The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in ...

  4. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African ... search for an article by title, author/s or keywords,; and find other information sources ... Southern African Business Review; Conflicts in Africa: Meaning, Causes, ... The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in ...

  5. African Journals Online: Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 167 ... African Journal of AIDS Research (AJAR) is a peer-reviewed ... The African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies is an international ... The Journal has been produced through the efforts of Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) and the African .... in basic and clinical medical sciences as well as dentistry.

  6. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation. Vol 17, No 4 (2017). African Health Sciences. Vol 6, No 1 (2015). Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics. Vol 5, No 2 (2017). Journal of Student Affairs in Africa. Vol 14, No 1 (2017). Annals of African Surgery. Vol 63, No 7-9 (2018).

  7. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically ... It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with ... Vol 15, No 1 (2018). SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS.

  8. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Applied Ecology. Vol 6, No 2 (2017). Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL ...

  9. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to ... African Journal of AIDS Research. Vol 35, No 2 (2017). Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal. Vol 34, No 1 (2018). Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review.

  10. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to

  11. Isotope and radiation research on animal diseases and their vectors. Proceedings series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    To solve the world-wide problems of famine, malnutrition and environmental pollution it is imperative that all techniques and resources for the protection of animals and plants be mobilized. N'gana (animal trypansomiasis) alone profoundly affects the socio-economic development of Africa. Its vector, the tsetse fly, is widespread and prevents agricultural development over much of this continent of 7 million square kilometres. To discuss these problems the symposium was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency from 7 to 11 May 1979. It was an integral part of the IAEA and FAO's effort to promote a greater awareness of the actual and potential application of nuclear techniques in the resolution of problems in the control of arthropod vectors of animal diseases and of animal pathogens, and in pesticide management. A total of 58 participants from 19 countries attended, and 37 papers were presented, which covered a variety of topics, including the sterile insect technique as applied to tsetse flies. Several papers were presented covering its various aspects such as mass rearing, sterility induction, ecology, behavior and computer modelling. Other topics emphasized were pathogenesis and immunology of vector-borne diseases such as trypanosomiasis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis and leishmaniasis. Also included were presentations of insect repellents and the biotransformation and degradation of labelled pesticides.

  12. Isotope and radiation research on animal diseases and their vectors. Proceedings series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    To solve the world-wide problems of famine, malnutrition and environmental pollution it is imperative that all techniques and resources for the protection of animals and plants be mobilized. N'gana (animal trypansomiasis) alone profoundly affects the socio-economic development of Africa. Its vector, the tsetse fly, is widespread and prevents agricultural development over much of this continent of 7 million square kilometres. To discuss these problems the symposium was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency from 7 to 11 May 1979. It was an integral part of the IAEA and FAO's effort to promote a greater awareness of the actual and potential application of nuclear techniques in the resolution of problems in the control of arthropod vectors of animal diseases and of animal pathogens, and in pesticide management. A total of 58 participants from 19 countries attended, and 37 papers were presented, which covered a variety of topics, including the sterile insect technique as applied to tsetse flies. Several papers were presented covering its various aspects such as mass rearing, sterility induction, ecology, behavior and computer modelling. Other topics emphasized were pathogenesis and immunology of vector-borne diseases such as trypanosomiasis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis and leishmaniasis. Also included were presentations of insect repellents and the biotransformation and degradation of labelled pesticides.

  13. BRIEF COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    AFRICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY MAY 2017 ISBN 1595-689X VOL18 No. 2 ... 40 of the animals were screened by parasitological means (hematocrit, buffy coat methods and thin and thick blood ... Trypanosomiasis was observed in the herd examined and laboratory examination.

  14. Comparative haematological changes in experimentally infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... However, disease such as animal trypanosomiasis possess a great risk to their ... The severity of the infection is influenced by a number of factors .... agrees with a similar work in which a significant fall in packed cell volume ... Heat production, body temperature and body posture in West. African dwarf goats ...

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  17. Strengthening African Union for African Integration: An African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    to secure African continent, speed up development process, and strengthen our survival ... Regional integration generally involves a somewhat complex web of cooperation ... networking of various government institutions to provide and shape.

  18. Learning Anime Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Troftgruben, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  19. Social motility in african trypanosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Oberholzer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available African trypanosomes are devastating human and animal pathogens that cause significant human mortality and limit economic development in sub-Saharan Africa. Studies of trypanosome biology generally consider these protozoan parasites as individual cells in suspension cultures or in animal models of infection. Here we report that the procyclic form of the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei engages in social behavior when cultivated on semisolid agarose surfaces. This behavior is characterized by trypanosomes assembling into multicellular communities that engage in polarized migrations across the agarose surface and cooperate to divert their movements in response to external signals. These cooperative movements are flagellum-mediated, since they do not occur in trypanin knockdown parasites that lack normal flagellum motility. We term this behavior social motility based on features shared with social motility and other types of surface-induced social behavior in bacteria. Social motility represents a novel and unexpected aspect of trypanosome biology and offers new paradigms for considering host-parasite interactions.

  20. AFRICAN SOLUTIONS TO AFRICA'S PROBLEMS? AFRICAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ilse van der Walt

    characterised by a volatile mix of conflict, instability and state weakness, and analysts ... to ensure peace, security and stability on the continent at national, ... half a dozen African economies have been growing at more than 6 per cent per year.

  1. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.

  2. Fat, Fiber and Cancer Risk in African Americans and Rural Africans

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Stephen J.D.; Li, Jia V.; Lahti, Leo; Ou, Junhai; Carbonero, Franck; Mohammed, Khaled; Posma, Joram M; Kinross, James; Wahl, Elaine; Ruder, Elizabeth; Vipperla, Kishore; Naidoo, Vasudevan; Mtshali, Lungile; Tims, Sebastian; Puylaert, Philippe G.B.; DeLany, James; Krasinskas, Alyssa; Benefiel, Ann C.; Kaseb, Hatem O.; Newton, Keith; Nicholson, Jeremy K.; de Vos, Willem M.; Gaskins, H. Rex; Zoetendal, Erwin G.

    2015-01-01

    Rates of colon cancer are much higher in African Americans (65:100,000) than in rural South Africans (<5:100,000). The higher rates are associated with higher animal protein and fat and lower fiber consumption, higher colonic secondary bile acids, lower colonic short chain fatty acid quantities and higher mucosal proliferative biomarkers of cancer risk in otherwise healthy middle aged volunteers. Here we investigate further the role of fat and fiber in this association. We performed two-week food exchanges in subjects from the same populations, where African Americans were fed a high-fiber, lowfat African-style diet, and rural Africans a high-fat low-fiber western-style diet under close supervision. In comparison to their usual diets, the food changes resulted in remarkable reciprocal changes in mucosal biomarkers of cancer risk and in aspects of the microbiota and metabolome known to affect cancer risk, best illustrated by increased saccharolytic fermentation and butyrogenesis and suppressed secondary bile acid synthesis in the African Americans. PMID:25919227

  3. African Journal of Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... The African (formerly South African) Journal of Marine Science provides an international forum for the publication of original scientific contributions or critical reviews, ...

  4. Unsustainable fuelwood extraction from South African savannas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution for Science, 260 Panama Street, Stanford, CA 94305, USA 4 Centre for African Ecology, School of Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg, Wits... Supplies in the Developing Countries (Forestry Paper No. 42) (Rome: Food and Agriculture Organisation) Dewees P A 1989 The woodfuel crisis reconsidered: observations on the dynamics of abundance and scarcity World Dev. 17 1159–72 Dovie D B K, Shackleton C M...

  5. South African red data book - fishes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Skelton, PH

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available . THREATS The IUCN World Conservation Strategy (1980) recognizes six broad catego- ries of threats to the survival of vertebrate species. These are habitat destruction or degradation, overexploitation, impacts of introduced - 11 - species, loss... South African estuaries over the past few decades (Begg 1978, 1984a,b). Habitat destruction through chemical means constitutes major world-wide threats to the survival of aquatic animals. Water pollution is a serious problem to aquatic systems around...

  6. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education; Establishing financial markets in Ethiopia: the environmental foundation, challenges and opportunities ... Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; Gender Relations in ... South African Actuarial Journal.

  7. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; Educational leadership and ... Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; Establishing financial markets in Ethiopia: the environmental foundation, challenges ... South African Actuarial Journal.

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance More in Antimicrobial ... Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated ...

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over ...

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  12. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States ...

  13. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa - Vol 59, No 1 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. ... Haematological, Carcass Characteristics And Meat Quality Of Intensively Managed West ... activities of the African Baobab (Adansonia digitata) fruit-pulp extract in commercial broilers ...

  14. Should we reject animal source foods to save the planet? A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 43, No 3 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Animal vaccines key to poor farm families' health and prosperity in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-10-29

    Oct 29, 2013 ... ... change, the grim reality is that today “about a billion people go to bed hungry every night. ... How new animal vaccines could keep more African farmers in business ... Building lasting solutions to reduce global hunger.

  16. The impact of animal source food products on human nutrition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 43, No 3 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Design of graphic and animation in game interface based on cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design of graphic and animation in game interface based on cultural value: verification. ... Abstract. No Abstract. Keywords: game interface; cultural value; hofstede; prototype; eye tracker ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  18. Animal Production and Health Newsletter. No. 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter contains brief reports of Research Coordination Meetings held between September and December 1992 and summaries of the status of other Coordinated Research Programmes (CRPs). Two new CRPs are announced, both to be based in the Africa region. One is to focus on food supplementation strategies to improve the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms, and the other will concentrate on the use of immunoassay methods to improve the diagnosis of trypanosomiasis. Applications for participation in these CRPs are included

  19. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reperant, L A; Brown, I H; Haenen, O L; de Jong, M D; Osterhaus, A D M E; Papa, A; Rimstad, E; Valarcher, J-F; Kuiken, T

    2016-07-01

    Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance. In total, 138 virus species reportedly capable of infecting companion animals were of concern for human and food production animal health: 59 of these viruses were infectious for human beings, 135 were infectious for food production mammals and birds, and 22 were infectious for food production fishes. Viruses of highest concern for human health included hantaviruses, Tahyna virus, rabies virus, West Nile virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, Aichi virus, European bat lyssavirus, hepatitis E virus, cowpox virus, G5 rotavirus, influenza A virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production mammals and birds included bluetongue virus, African swine fever virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus, porcine circovirus, classical swine fever virus, equine herpesvirus 9, peste des petits ruminants virus and equine infectious anaemia virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production fishes included cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Of particular concern as sources of zoonotic or food production animal viruses were domestic carnivores, rodents and food production animals kept as companion animals. The current list of viruses provides an objective

  20. [Herpesvirus detection in clinically healthy West African mud turtles (Pelusioscastaneus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, R E; Heckers, K O; Heynol, V; Weider, K; Behncke, H

    2015-01-01

    First description of a herpesvirus in West African mud turtles. A herpesvirus was detected in two clinically healthy West African mud turtles (Pelusios castaneus) by PCR during a quarantine exam. The animals had been imported from Togo, West Africa to Germany for the pet trade. Analysis of a portion of the genome of the detected virus showed that it is a previously unknown virus related to other chelonid herpesviruses. The virus was named pelomedusid herpesvirus 1. This case highlights the importance of testing for infectious agents during quarantine, even in clinically healthy animals.

  1. Seeing the animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes Lynning; Cornou, Cecile; Kornum, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the notion that the invisibility of the animalness of the animal constitutes a fundamental obstacle to change within current production systems. It is discussed whether housing animals in environments that resemble natural habitats could lead to a re-animalization...... of the animals, a higher appreciation of their moral significance, and thereby higher standards of animal welfare. The basic claim is that experiencing the animals in their evolutionary and environmental context would make it harder to objectify animals as mere bioreactors and production systems. It is argued...... that the historic objectification of animals within intensive animal production can only be reversed if animals are given the chance to express themselves as they are and not as we see them through the tunnel visions of economy and quantifiable welfare assessment parameters....

  2. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  3. Molluscan Population Of An African Arid Zone Lake | Idowu | Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The species composition, abundance and distribution of molluscs population together with some physico-chemical variables from five different stations in the littoral region of lake Alau, MaiduguriBorno state, were studied from October 2001 to September 2002. Three patterns of seasonal abundance were found, maximal ...

  4. South African Journal of Animal Science - Vol 36 (2006)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wet faeces produced by sheep fed dried spineless cactus pear cladodes in balanced diets · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. HO de Waal, DC Zeeman, WJ Combrinck, 10-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v36i5.4076 ...

  5. South African Journal of Animal Science: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  6. Live animal and carcass characteristics of South African indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lena Bosman

    1National Emergent Red Meat Producers' Organisation, P.O. Box 36461, .... using a visual image analyser (VIA, Kontron, Germany). ...... Organisation for Women in Science, now Organization for Women in Science for the Developing World.

  7. South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Family Practice(SAFP) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, which strives to ... The content of SAFP is designed to reflect and support further development of the broad ... Vol 60, No 2 (2018) ... of doctors and physiotherapists in the rehabilitation of people living with HIV · EMAIL ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The East African Medical Journal is intended for publication of papers on ... research on problems relevant to East Africa and other African countries will receive special ... Analysis of survival patterns of TB‐HIV co‐infected patients in relation to ...

  9. Annals of African Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of the Annals of African Surgery is to provide a medium for the exchange of current information between surgeons in the African region. The journal embraces surgery in all its aspects; basic science, clinical research, experimental research, surgical education. It will assist surgeons in the region to keep abreast of ...

  10. African Peacekeepers in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...

  11. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Historically, scholarly information has flowed from North to South and from West to East. It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with hundreds of journals from all ... Featured Country: Nigeria, Featured Journal: Nigeria Journal of Business Administration ...

  12. African Journals Online: Guernsey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Guernsey. Home > African Journals Online: Guernsey. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  13. African Journals Online: Grenada

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Grenada. Home > African Journals Online: Grenada. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  14. African Journals Online: India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: India. Home > African Journals Online: India. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Afghanistan ...

  15. African Journals Online: Barbados

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Barbados. Home > African Journals Online: Barbados. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  16. African Journals Online: Malta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Malta. Home > African Journals Online: Malta. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Afghanistan ...

  17. African Journals Online: Bahamas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Bahamas. Home > African Journals Online: Bahamas. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  18. African Journals Online: Liechtenstein

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Liechtenstein. Home > African Journals Online: Liechtenstein. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  19. African Journals Online: Vanuatu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Vanuatu. Home > African Journals Online: Vanuatu. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  20. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to the rest of the world. ... AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities; Human Rights under the Ethiopian Constitution: A Descriptive Overview

  1. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; Conflicts in Africa: Meaning, Causes, Impact and Solution African Research Review; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of countries? Southern African Business Review; The Rise of ...

  2. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent collection of peer-reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically, scholarly information ... Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; Advertising practice in Nigeria: Development, new trends, challenges and prospects. EJOTMAS: Ekpoma ...

  3. African Journals Online: Aruba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Aruba. Home > African Journals Online: Aruba. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Afghanistan ...

  4. African Journals Online: Kazakhstan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Kazakhstan. Home > African Journals Online: Kazakhstan. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  5. African Journals Online: Switzerland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Switzerland. Home > African Journals Online: Switzerland. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  6. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to the rest of the world. AJOL is a Non-Profit Organisation based ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Vol 4, No 1 (2012). International ...

  7. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to the rest of the world. AJOL is a Non-Profit Organisation ... Featured Country: Nigeria, Featured Journal: Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology ...

  8. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other ... search for an article by title, author/s or keywords,; and find other information ... Southern African Business Review; Income Tax Assignment under the ... Mizan Law Review; The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in ...

  9. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other ... search for an article by title, author/s or keywords,; and find other information ... Southern African Business Review; The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and ...

  10. Archives: African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 67 ... Archives: African Health Sciences. Journal Home > Archives: African Health Sciences. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 50 of 67 Items, 1 2 > >> ...

  11. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mizan Law Review; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of countries? ... African Journal of Biotechnology; The application of just administrative action in the South African environmental governance sphere: An analysis of some ...

  12. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of ... African Journal of Biotechnology; The application of just administrative action in the South African environmental governance sphere: An analysis of some ...

  13. Annals of African Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Annals of African Medicine is published by the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria and the Annals of African Medicine Society. The Journal is intended to serve as a medium for the publication of research findings in the broad field of Medicine in Africa and other developing countries, and ...

  14. African Journals Online: Andorra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Andorra. Home > African Journals Online: Andorra. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  15. African Journals Online: Ireland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Ireland. Home > African Journals Online: Ireland. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Afghanistan ...

  16. African Journals Online: Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 221 ... African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology ... The African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies is an international scientific journal ... d) Critical or analytical reviews in the area of theory, policy, or research in Dentistry. e) Reviews of recently published books or group of books which would be of ...

  17. African Journals Online: Belgium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Belgium. Home > African Journals Online: Belgium. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  18. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to ... Ergonomics SA. Vol 9, No 1 (2017). Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. Vol 14, No 5 (2017). Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences.

  19. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent collection of peer-reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. ... Continuing Medical Education; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of countries?

  20. Keeping African Masks Real

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  1. African Art Teaching Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Jacqueline

    Three different models for the teaching of African art are presented in this paper. A comparison of the differences between the approaches of Western art historians and African art historians informs the articulation of the three models--an approach for determining style, another for dealing with analysis, and a third for synthetic interpretation.…

  2. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent collection of peer-reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically, scholarly information has flowed ... Thought and Practice; Advertising practice in Nigeria: Development, new trends, challenges and prospects. EJOTMAS: Ekpoma Journal of ...

  3. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...

  4. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans ... Global Journal of Geological Sciences. Vol 16, No 1 (2018). Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences. Vol 7, No 1 (2017). Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics.

  5. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Oral Health. Vol 35, No 1-2 (2017). Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Vol 7, No 3 (2017). African Journal of Chemical Education. Vol 8, No 2 (2017): Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa. Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa.

  6. Archives: African Studies Monographs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Archives: African Studies Monographs. Journal Home > Archives: African Studies Monographs. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 5 of 5 Items. 2007. Vol 8 (2007) ...

  7. African Journals Online: Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 12 of 12 ... The African Crop Science Journal, a quarterly publication, publishes original ... by the African Health Journals Partnership Project that is funded by the US .... the role, development, management and improvement of higher education from an ... France, France, MEtropolitan, French Guiana, French Polynesia ...

  8. African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences is an open access, free online, internationally ... by the African Health Journals Partnership Project that is funded by the US National .... Homa Ahmadzia, Sarah Cigna, Imelda Namagembe, Charles Macri, France ... Workers (HEWs) delivering integrated community case management (iCCM) of ...

  9. Gene fusion analysis in the battle against the African endemic sleeping sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Trimpalis

    Full Text Available The protozoan Trypanosoma brucei causes African Trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness in humans, which can be lethal if untreated. Most available pharmacological treatments for the disease have severe side-effects. The purpose of this analysis was to detect novel protein-protein interactions (PPIs, vital for the parasite, which could lead to the development of drugs against this disease to block the specific interactions. In this work, the Domain Fusion Analysis (Rosetta Stone method was used to identify novel PPIs, by comparing T. brucei to 19 organisms covering all major lineages of the tree of life. Overall, 49 possible protein-protein interactions were detected, and classified based on (a statistical significance (BLAST e-value, domain length etc., (b their involvement in crucial metabolic pathways, and (c their evolutionary history, particularly focusing on whether a protein pair is split in T. brucei and fused in the human host. We also evaluated fusion events including hypothetical proteins, and suggest a possible molecular function or involvement in a certain biological process. This work has produced valuable results which could be further studied through structural biology or other experimental approaches so as to validate the protein-protein interactions proposed here. The evolutionary analysis of the proteins involved showed that, gene fusion or gene fission events can happen in all organisms, while some protein domains are more prone to fusion and fission events and present complex evolutionary patterns.

  10. Some tools for the analysis of ordinal data | Randall | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 23, No 2 (1993) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Human Rights and the African Renaissance | Acheampong | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the idea of African renaissance in relation to the teaching of human rights in African schools. It explores the connection between the African Renaissance and human rights, and whether there is a specific African concept of human rights. In the light of these discussions, the article sketches a perspective ...

  12. The African Diaspora in continental African struggles for freedom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In light of this realization, this article discusses the contributions of the African Diaspora towards continental African liberation from European colonial domination, with a view to theorizing the implications of this history on the criticism of African Renaissance literature. Focusing on Diasporan African agency in organizing ...

  13. Animal Production Research Advances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Production Research Advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to promote the production of all animal species utilized as food. The journal has an international scope and is intended for professionals in animal production and related sciences. We solicit contributions from animal production and ...

  14. Animal Bites: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Animal bites: First aid Animal bites: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff These guidelines can help you care for a minor animal bite, such ... 26, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-animal-bites/basics/ART-20056591 . Mayo ...

  15. Ian Ingram: Next Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015.......Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015....

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of ...

  17. First Aid: Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... last rabies vaccination, if known any recent unusual behavior by the animal the animal's location, if known if the animal ... Scratches First Aid: Cuts First Aid: Skin Infections Cat Scratch ... Safe Around Animals Cuts, Scratches, and Abrasions Rabies Cuts, Scratches, and ...

  18. Physics for Animation Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  19. African bees to control African elephants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollrath, Fritz; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2002-11-01

    Numbers of elephants have declined in Africa and Asia over the past 30 years while numbers of humans have increased, both substantially. Friction between these two keystone species is reaching levels which are worryingly high from an ecological as well as a political viewpoint. Ways and means must be found to keep the two apart, at least in areas sensitive to each species' survival. The aggressive African bee might be one such method. Here we demonstrate that African bees deter elephants from damaging the vegetation and trees which house their hives. We argue that bees can be employed profitably to protect not only selected trees, but also selected areas, from elephant damage.

  20. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  1. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine a...

  2. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  3. African palm ethno-medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruca, Marta; Blach-Overgaard, Anne; Balslev, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    -medicinal data on African palms, and investigate patterns of palm uses in traditional medicine; and highlight possible under-investigated areas. Materials and methods References were found through bibliographic searches using several sources including PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar and search engines...... in traditional medicine, with most of the uses related to fruit (and palm oil), root, seed and leaf. Palms were used in traditional medicine mostly without being mixed with other plants, and less commonly in mixtures, sometimes in mixture with products of animal origin. Future ethno-botanical surveys should...... were able to demonstrate the value of palms in traditional medicine, and provide recommendations for the areas that should be targeted in future ethno-botanical surveys....

  4. Animal experiments in radiotherapy. II. Large animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Probert, J C; Hughes, D B

    1975-03-01

    A review has been made of factors of importance when using large animals for organ or partial body irradiation research. The problem has been considered from the viewpoint of the clinician. The rabbit, cat, dog, pig and monkey have been examined in detail for suitability as laboratory animals. Dosimetric and volume features have been reviewed.

  5. Impressions of animal production in South Africa with particular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impressions of animal production in South Africa with particular reference to biological research. I.W. McDonald. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  6. African Journal on Conflict Resolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal on Conflict Resolution (AJCR) publishes the writings of a wide range of African and international authors in the field, but emphasis has deliberately been kept on African writers and the thinking emerging from African universities, colleges and organisations. Other websites assiciated with this Journal: ...

  7. African communalism and globalization | Etta | African Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Research Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 3 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  8. AFRICAN SOLUTIONS TO AFRICA'S PROBLEMS? AFRICAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ilse van der Walt

    foreign policy challenge from which most others will ultimately emanate.46 .... African politics easily degenerates into a life-and-death struggle over private ... material interest and power balancing dominate as “predictability based on a set of ..... Due to its proximity to conflict areas, civil society has been able to work at.

  9. Africans Consuming Hair, Africans Consumed by Hair

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... are anything to go by, Africans, it seems to us, are more amenable to flexible, ... to recognise and provide for the present absences and the absent presences of ... Beauty is as much a work of nature as it is the outcome of working on nature.

  10. African rainforests: past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Yadvinder; Adu-Bredu, Stephen; Asare, Rebecca A.; Lewis, Simon L.; Mayaux, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The rainforests are the great green heart of Africa, and present a unique combination of ecological, climatic and human interactions. In this synthesis paper, we review the past and present state processes of change in African rainforests, and explore the challenges and opportunities for maintaining a viable future for these biomes. We draw in particular on the insights and new analyses emerging from the Theme Issue on ‘African rainforests: past, present and future’ of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. A combination of features characterize the African rainforest biome, including a history of climate variation; forest expansion and retreat; a long history of human interaction with the biome; a relatively low plant species diversity but large tree biomass; a historically exceptionally high animal biomass that is now being severely hunted down; the dominance of selective logging; small-scale farming and bushmeat hunting as the major forms of direct human pressure; and, in Central Africa, the particular context of mineral- and oil-driven economies that have resulted in unusually low rates of deforestation and agricultural activity. We conclude by discussing how this combination of factors influences the prospects for African forests in the twenty-first century. PMID:23878339

  11. African rainforests: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Yadvinder; Adu-Bredu, Stephen; Asare, Rebecca A; Lewis, Simon L; Mayaux, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The rainforests are the great green heart of Africa, and present a unique combination of ecological, climatic and human interactions. In this synthesis paper, we review the past and present state processes of change in African rainforests, and explore the challenges and opportunities for maintaining a viable future for these biomes. We draw in particular on the insights and new analyses emerging from the Theme Issue on 'African rainforests: past, present and future' of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. A combination of features characterize the African rainforest biome, including a history of climate variation; forest expansion and retreat; a long history of human interaction with the biome; a relatively low plant species diversity but large tree biomass; a historically exceptionally high animal biomass that is now being severely hunted down; the dominance of selective logging; small-scale farming and bushmeat hunting as the major forms of direct human pressure; and, in Central Africa, the particular context of mineral- and oil-driven economies that have resulted in unusually low rates of deforestation and agricultural activity. We conclude by discussing how this combination of factors influences the prospects for African forests in the twenty-first century.

  12. Black versus Black: The Relationship among African, African American, and African Caribbean Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jennifer V.; Cothran, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Surveyed people of African descent regarding relationships among African, African-American, and African-Caribbean persons, focusing on contact and friendship, travel to countries of the diaspora, cross-cultural communication, thoughts and stereotypes, and education. Most respondents had contacts with the other groups, but groups had preconceived…

  13. RETHINKING THE ANIMATE, RE-ANIMATING THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ingold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Animism is often described as the imputation of life to inert objects. Such imputation is more typical of people in western societies who dream of finding life on other planets than of indigenous peoples to whom the label of animism has classically been applied. These peoples are united not in their beliefs but in a way of being that is alive and open to a world in continuous birth. In this animic ontology, beings do not propel themselves across a ready-made world but rather issue forth through a world-in-formation, along the lines of their relationships. To its inhabitants this weather-world, embracing both sky and earth, is a source of astonishment but not surprise. Re-animating the ‘western’ tradition of thought means recovering the sense of astonishment banished from offi cial science.

  14. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest online library of ... and find other information sources and more resources for researchers and journals. ... Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad.

  15. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest online library of ... and find other information sources and more resources for researchers and journals. ... Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence.

  16. Whither the African University

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sam

    reform. 1. Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, Addis Ababa University ..... reduce African universities to virtually vocational schools. The World ..... theories, established institutions, and widely held beliefs according to the cannons ...

  17. African Research Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    imports over exports leading to unfavourable balance of payments, low domestic ... on the subject examine the effect of FDI on economic growth and a few ..... Given that the data sample in this thesis covers the selected African countries,.

  18. The African oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Mark; Griffiths, Thalia

    1999-10-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Adding value to African hydrocarbons in a global energy market; North Africa; East Africa; West Africa; Central Africa; Southern Africa; Strategies for Africa; Outlook. (Author)

  19. A South African Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    ... subject-oriented terminography, translation-oriented terminography and linguistic .... The South African language policy promotes the equitable use of the offi- ... management, trade negotiations, provision of services, job security and institu-.

  20. adicating African Wars:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    countries, African decision makers nonetheless began to reconsider the role and place of military ..... challenged the war—fighting paradigm for armed forces or the 2003 Gulf ..... Carlisle: Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College. Evans ...

  1. African Research Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info .... that a person's behaviour is inspired by what he wants or needs at that ... (polytechnic lecturers) was based on the prediction of the coefficient of determination .... Purchasing & Supply. 57. 55.

  2. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by ... and eventually, in developing more effective treatments. Does glaucoma treatment differ? Although treatment varies for all individuals, ...

  3. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003-11-11

    Nov 11, 2003 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. ... Lecturer/Consultant Surgeon, Paediatric Surgery Unit, Department of Surgery, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, .... mind and the results obtained were however satisfying.

  4. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mizan Law Review; The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in Social Science: Reflection on Ontological, Epistemological and Methodological Perspectives Ethiopian Journal of ... South African Journal of Education; An approach to the neck mass ... Madagascar Conservation & Development.

  5. African Research Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info ... This study investigated the relationship between conflict management styles and teachers' productivity ... Key words: conflict, conflict management styles, teachers productivity, public secondary.

  6. Southern African Business Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Southern African Business Review is a refereed and accredited scientific journal of the College of Economic and Management Sciences of the .... The effects of extended water supply disruptions on the operations of SMEs · EMAIL FREE ...

  7. African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences is an open access, free online, internationally ... Ebola virus disease: assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of nursing ... and immune system modulation by aerobic versus resisted exercise training for elderly ...

  8. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013). International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Vol 5, No 3 (2013). International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Vol 30, No 1 (2018). South African Journal of Sports Medicine. Vol 66 (2014). Vulture News.

  9. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Featured Country: Ghana, Featured Journal: Journal of Business Research. Most recent issues on AJOL: Vol 13 (2017). African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences. Vol 7 (2017) ... Vol 6, No 2 (2014). Journal of ...

  10. African Health Sciences: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences is an internationally refereed, free access, journal publishing original articles on research, clinical practice, public health, policy, planning, ... Makerere University School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences

  11. African Journals Online: Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 27 of 27 ... African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences .... The Ghana Medical Journal is a peer-reviewed, open access journal ... The Journal of Business Research (JBR) is an International journal published by ...

  12. African Crop Science Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 2 (1993) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. African Crop Science Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Science: Reflection on Ontological, Epistemological and Methodological Perspectives Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; The Tuskegee Syphilis Study: Some Ethical Reflections Thought and Practice; Educational leadership and management: theory, policy and practice. South African Journal of Education ...

  15. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically, scholarly information has flowed from North to South and from West to East. It has also been difficult ... Featured Country: Egypt, Arab Rep. Featured Journal: Alexandria Journal of Medicine ...

  16. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent ... The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new ... Advertising practice in Nigeria: Development, new trends, challenges and prospects

  17. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent ... Continuing Medical Education; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's ... Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; Advertising practice in Nigeria: ...

  18. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent collection ... Continuing Medical Education; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's ... AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities; Advertising ...

  19. African Journals Online: Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 12 of 12 ... SAFERE: Southern African Feminist Review. SAFERE provides women with a writing platform which is feminist in content and ... The Zimbabwe Journal of Educational Research comprised of four sections: Scholarly articles ...

  20. Southern African Business Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 20, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Distemper outbreak and its effect on African wild dog conservation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); T. Kuiken (Thijs); A.M. Visee; S. Lema; A.R. Fitzjohn; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn December 2000, an infectious disease spread through a captive breeding group of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in Tanzania, killing 49 of 52 animals within 2 months. The causative agent was identified as Canine distemper virus (CDV) by means of histologic examination, virus

  2. the significance of infectious diseases in african game populations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the effects of African game diseases as it is only possible here, in view of lack of .... The latter is highly infectious and fatal for domestic poultry and was described .... tations of animals takes place with the'ingestion of muscle meat, containing ...

  3. Epiphytic seaweeds and invertebrates associated with South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seagrasses support a great diversity of epiphytic organisms. There are no detailed published accounts of algae and animals growing on seagrasses in South Africa. The seagrass Thalassodendron leptocaule (previously known Thalassodendron ciliatum) is unique among southern African seagrasses in that it occurs on ...

  4. Haematology and faecal parasitic load of West African Dwarf goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematology and faecal parasitic load of West African Dwarf goats fed Panicum maximum supplemented with wheat offal. ... Total White Blood Cell (TWBC), L and N. There was an increased post-trial hematological over pre-trial hematological parameters for PCV, N and M while a decrease was observed for L in animals ...

  5. Somatotropin physiology - a review | van der Walt | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 24, No 1 (1994) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Somatotropin physiology - a review. JG van der ...

  6. Why do elephants flap their ears? | Wright | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The blood flow in the ear of the African elephant Loxodonta africana was measured In anaesthetized animals using the dye dilution technique at the same time as the arterio-venous temperature difference. The calculated heat loss from the ear is shown to be a substantial proportion of the total metabolic heat-loss ...

  7. Verbruikersvraag na melk en melkprodukte | Jordaan | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 2 (1982) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Verbruikersvraag na melk en melkprodukte.

  8. African Philosophy and the Analytic Tradition | Eze | Philosophical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Could the 'analytic' approach take greater roots in the traditions of African Philosophy? In this contribution, I give an affirmative answer to the question. However, I also argue that the process requires a 'political will', as it involves a clear acknowledgement of the historical impetus animating the very idea—and contemporary ...

  9. Performance and Grazing Pattern of West African Dwarf Sheep to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty (60) West African Dwarf sheep managed semi intensively and grazing on natural pastures were used in a study to determine the performance and grazing pattern to seasonal forage supply and quality. The animals were allowed to graze for about 6 hours daily for four months each in the dry and wet seasons, ...

  10. A note on cryptorchidism in Angora goats | Skinner | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 2 (1972) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. A note on cryptorchidism in Angora goats.

  11. A note on cryptorchidism in Angora goats | Skinner | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 2 (1972) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected ...

  12. Scientific research: The planning process | Gous | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 40, No 5 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected ...

  13. Automatic collection of bovine blood samples | Hale | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (1974) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected ...

  14. Oxidative stress biomarkers in West African Dwarf goats reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oxidative stress biomarkers in West African Dwarf goats reared under intensive and semi-intensive production systems. ... Animals raised intensively were fed Megathyrsus maximus hay ad libitum, while those reared semi-intensively were allowed to graze freely in a fenced ... Keywords: bucks, immune response, season ...

  15. Protein digestion in ruminants | van der Walt | South African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 18, No 1 (1988) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected ...

  16. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation: Advanced Search ... education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., archive ((journal OR ... Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Anatomy Journal of Africa, Animal Production Research Advances .... Advanced filters ...

  17. Semen collection and preservation in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveiros, A.

    2002-01-01

    Stock improvement using quantitative and molecular genetics is an essential part of nowadays production of farm animals and fish. To achieve this in aquaculture, germplasm of both parental sexes should be obtained in a life-saving manner. In captivity, male African catfish,

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  20. Occupational Animal Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stave, Gregg M

    2018-02-16

    This review explores animal allergen exposure in research laboratories and other work settings, focusing on causes and prevention. (1) Consistent with the hygiene hypothesis, there is new evidence that early childhood exposure to pets produces changes in the gut microbiome that likely lead to a lower risk of allergy. (2) Anaphylaxis from laboratory animal bites occurs more frequently than suggested by prior literature. (3) Animal allergens represent an occupational hazard in a wide variety of work settings ranging from fields that work with animals to public settings like schools and public transportation where allergens are brought into or are present in the workplace. Exposure to animal allergens can result in allergy, asthma, and anaphylaxis. Animal allergy has been most studied in the research laboratory setting, where exposure reduction can prevent the development of allergy. Similar prevention approaches need to be considered for other animal work environments and in all settings where animal allergens are present.

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... produced material may be copied, reproduced, and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance ( ...

  2. Animal Science Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Researches carried out in the 'Animal Science Project' of the Agricultural Nuclear Energy Center, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, are described. Such researches comprise : immunology and animal nutrition. Tracer techniques are employed in this study. (M.A.) [pt

  3. "Name" that Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  4. Morris Animal Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yours Today » Give the Gift of Health to Animals This Holiday Season. Until December 31, your gift ... bizarre molecules. Learn More » A Tireless Advocate for Animals and Science. “If it has a heartbeat, I ...

  5. The African Credit Trap

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Andrianova; Badi H. Baltagi; Panicos O. Demetriades; David Fielding

    2010-01-01

    We put forward a plausible explanation of African financial underdevelopment in the form of a bad credit market equilibrium. Utilising an appropriately modified IO model of banking, we show that the root of the problem could be unchecked moral hazard (strategic loan defaults) or adverse selection (a lack of good projects). We provide empirical evidence from a large panel of African banks which suggests that loan defaults are a major factor inhibiting bank lending when the quality of regulatio...

  6. PROTECTIVE COLORATION IN ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    Leena Lakhani

    2017-01-01

    Animals have range of defensive markings which helps to the risk of predator detection (camouflage), warn predators of the prey’s unpalatability (aposematism) or fool a predator into mimicry, masquerade. Animals also use colors in advertising, signalling services such as cleaning to animals of other species, to signal sexual status to other members of the same species. Some animals use color to divert attacks by startle (dalmatic behaviour), surprising a predator e.g. with eyespots or other f...

  7. African American Diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Brown

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. With regard to all historic migrations (forced and voluntary, the African Union defined the African diaspora as "[consisting] of people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union." Its constitutive act declares that it shall "invite and encourage the full participation of the African diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union."

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... menu Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  10. Who likes circus animals?

    OpenAIRE

    Zanola, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Using a sample based on 268 questionnaires submitted to people attending the Acquatico Bellucci circus, Italy, this paper analyzes the circusgoers's preferences for circus animals. Results show that higher preferences for circus animals are related to frequency of consumption. However, differently from what commonly expected, more educated and younger people seem to be less sensitive to the claims of animal welfare organizations.

  11. Animal violence demystified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior

  12. Geoconservation - a southern African and African perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimold, Wolf Uwe

    1999-10-01

    In contrast to Europe, where geoconservation is actively pursued in most countries and where two international symposia on this subject have been staged in 1991 and 1996, geoconservation in Africa has indeed a very poor record. Considering the wealth of outstanding geological sites and the importance African stratigraphy has within the global geological record, pro-active geoconservation on this continent has not featured very prominently to date. In the interest of science, education and tourism, unique and typical geosites need to be identified, catalogued, and prioritised with the aim being their protection. Most African countries do not have vibrant non-governmental organisations such as a strong geological society, which could drive projects like geoconservation, or strong support from the private sector for environmental work. Here, a case is made for the role that established National Geological Surveys, some of which are already involved with retroactive environmental geological work, could play in the forefront of pro-active geoconservation and site protection.

  13. Animal models of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter aims to encourage scientists and others interested in the use of animal models of disease – specifically, in the study of dementia – to engage in ethical reflection. It opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. Three ethical approaches...... are here distinguished. These serve as points of orientation in the following discussion of four more specific ethical questions: Does animal species matter? How effective is disease modelling in delivering the benefits claimed for it? What can be done to minimize potential harm to animals in research? Who...... bears responsibility for the use of animals in disease models?...

  14. Animal welfare impact assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian

    2017-01-01

    aimed at dealing with wild animals. McCulloch and Reiss argue that this could be remedied by means of a “mandatory application of formal and systematic Animal Welfare Impact Assessment (AWIA)”. Optimistically, they consider that an AWIA could help to resolve controversies involving wild animals. The aim...... is a welfare issue. Furthermore, we argue that AWIA is unlikely to prevent serious moral disagreements over how to weigh concerns about wild animals against priorities in human health, the health of domestic and farm animals, and biodiversity, but that it may nonetheless serve to limit harms imposed......Control of wild animals may give rise to controversy, as is seen in the case of badger control to manage TB in cattle in the UK. However, it is striking that concerns about the potential suffering of the affected animals themselves are often given little attention or completely ignored in policies...

  15. Factors affecting sustainable animal trypanosomosis control in parts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the factors affecting sustainable trypanosomiasis control in parts of Kaduna State within the sub-humid savannah ecological zone of Nigeria. Focus group discussions were ... More awareness and preference for pour-on and aerial spraying were higher than the use of traps, target or screens. Rearing of ...

  16. Mandela’s Favourite African Folktales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Concilio

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I would like to examine the selection of African tales that Nelson Mandela took care to leave as heritage to the future generations, not only to children, and not only to African children. The fact that a political leader, ex freedom fighter and political prisoner dedicated his time to the collection and editing of stories from all over the African continent to be addressed to new readers as simple entertainment or as educational tools clearly testifies to the great humanity, culture, and open mindedness of one of the most important men of our times. In his most recent autobiographical writing Conversations With Myself, Mandela claimed his double affiliation to both his own indigenous culture as well as to western culture. Moreover, he recalled with affection a dear pastime of his childhood: After supper we would listen enthralled to my mother and sometimes my aunt telling us stories, legends, myths and fables which have come down from countless generations, and all of which tended to stimulate the imagination and contained some valuable moral lesson. (p. 10 Thus, it is not surprising that such a charismatic public figure, as Mandela has been, was also interested in- and worried about- the future survival of a cluster of traditional folktales with their lively, specific and “valuable moral lesson”. It is my intention to verify if there might be a dialogue between the western tradition of folktales where animals are protagonists and speak as anthropomorphic figures and the facets of the African traditions and cultures from which Mandela draws inspiration. Among the critical tools on this topic, Tess Cosslett’s Talking Animals in British Children’s Fiction (2006 seems to provide a useful starting point, together with the latest studies in the volume Dall’ABC a Harry Potter (2011, among others. Moreover, aspects of “orature” will be discussed with reference to the stories chosen by Nelson Mandela. Finally, an attempt

  17. Animals and nature: mapping storylines and metaphors in David Kramer’s narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Slabbert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the representation of animals and nature in selected lyrics from the oeuvre of singer, songwriter and producer David Kramer and considers his engagement with historical and contemporary discourses about human-animal and human-nature interaction in relation to ecological awareness within a South African context. I trace the socio-political commentary voiced through his depiction of animals in the folksongs he wrote during apartheid, especially in lyrics from the album “Baboondogs” (Kramer, 1986. Kramer also employs intertextual references to traditional South African folksongs and tales in his music. Furthermore, the social and environmental significance of Kramer’s representations of nature in a selection of his postapartheid lyrics is investigated. I argue that the pedagogical value of Kramer’s cultural commentary can contribute significantly to the challenge of teaching animal studies and ecocriticism in South African context.

  18. Management and care of African dormice (Graphiurus kelleni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastenmayer, Robin J; Moak, Hannah B; Jeffress, Erin J; Elkins, William R

    2010-03-01

    African dormice (Graphiurus spp.) are small nocturnal rodents that currently are uncommon in laboratory settings. Their use may increase as they have recently been shown to develop an infection with monkeypox virus and may prove to be a valuable animal model for infectious disease research. Because African dormice are not commercially available, an extensive breeding colony is required to produce the animals needed for research use. Husbandry modifications that increased the production of offspring were the use of a high-protein diet, increased cage enrichment, and decreased animal density. To optimize consumption of a high-protein diet, we tested the palatability of several high-protein foods in a series of preference trials. Dormice preferred wax worm larva, cottage cheese, roasted soy nuts, and canned chicken. Issues related to medical management of Graphiurus kelleni include potential complications from traumatic injury. The development of a program for the husbandry and care of African dormice at our institution typifies the experiences of many laboratory animal facilities that are asked to support the development of animal models using novel species.

  19. Towards an indigenous African bioethics | Behrens | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One way is for African bioethicists to begin to apply indigenous African philosophy, thought and values to ethical issues. This project is important (i) to restore dignity; (ii) because a bioethics grounded in indigenous ideas is more likely to be accepted by Africans; and (iii) because such ideas can enrich bioethical discourse.

  20. African Journals: An Evaluation of their Use in African Universities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of African published journals in two African universities was surveyed through the use of questionnaire, interviews, journal usage count and citation analysis. The survey reveals that African published journals are not popular with academics because of lack of bibliographic and physical access. For conclusion to be ...

  1. African Journal of Aquatic Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... The African Journal of Aquatic Science is an international journal devoted to the ... papers and short articles in all the aquatic science fields including limnology, ...

  2. South African Journal of Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Journal of Education (SAJE) publishes original research articles reporting on research ... professional scientist and which critically evaluate the research done in a specific field in education; ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  3. Mental Health and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  4. African Journal of Biotechnology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The African Journal of Biotechnology (AJB) (ISSN 1684-5315) provides rapid publication of .... Authors may still request (in advance) that the editorial board waive some of the handling fee ...

  5. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  6. African Studies Monographs: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The African Studies Monographs is a serial that promotes research and scholarship on the African perspective worldwide. This includes matters of philosophy, history, literature, arts and culture, environment, gender, politics, administration crisis management, etc.

  7. Animals as disgust elicitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain how and why nonhuman animals elicit disgust in human beings. I argue that animals elicit disgust in two ways. One is by triggering disease–protection mechanisms, and the other is by eliciting mortality salience, or thoughts of death. I discuss how these two types...... of disgust operate and defend their conceptual and theoretical coherence against common objections. I also outline an explanatory challenge for disgust researchers. Both types of disgust indicate that a wide variety of animals produce aversive and avoidant reactions in human beings. This seems somewhat odd......, given the prominence of animals in human lives. The challenge, then, is explaining how humans cope with the presence of animals. I propose, as a hypothesis for further exploration, that we cope with animals, and our disgust responses to them, by attributing mental states that mark them as inferior...

  8. Draught animals and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, N S

    1994-03-01

    In fifty developing countries, which contain half of the total human population of the world, there is a heavy dependence on draught animals as an energy source. These animals are used for agriculture operations in 52% of cultivated areas of the world, as well as for hauling 25 million carts. This situation is likely to continue for at least another fifty years. The work performed annually by these draught animals would require 20 million tons of petroleum, valued at US$6 billion, if it were performed by motorized vehicles. The poor working conditions of these animals often adversely affect their productivity. The application of improved technology and better management (i.e. through better feed and health services, and improved design of agricultural implements and carts) could considerably improve the welfare of these animals. Improved systems would generate sufficient benefits for the economy to justify the required investment. High priority should therefore be given to draught animal power in the economic development agenda.

  9. the composition of the milk of the african dwarf goat, springbok

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    portant, particularly the composition of the mother's milk. Ben-Shaul (1963) has given the composition of the milk of a large number of wild animals but those of the blue duiker. (CephaJophus monticola), springbok (Antidorcas morsupialis) and the African dwarf goat (Caprine spp.) were not included. These three animals are.

  10. Leadership in the African context

    OpenAIRE

    M. Masango

    2002-01-01

    The Western world has always viewed the African continent as plagued by corruption; dictatorship; military coups; rebellious leaders; greediness; misuse of power; and incompetent, politically unstable leaders - in effect, suspicious leaders who undermine their own democracies. This paper analyzes African leadership and its impact by concentrating on three historical eras, namely; the African Religious era; the Christian era, and the era of Globalization. These affected African leadership. In ...

  11. Lightning safety of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Chandima

    2012-11-01

    This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed.

  12. Our love for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruton, Roger

    2013-12-01

    Love does not necessarily benefit its object, and cost-free love may damage both object and subject. Our love of animals mobilises several distinct human concerns and should not be considered always as a virtue or always as a benefit to the animals themselves. We need to place this love in its full psychological, cultural, and moral context in order to assess what form it ought to take if animals are to benefit from it.

  13. ANIMALS IN RESOCIALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Czerw, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of relations between humans and animals have encouraged both scientists and members of other communities to popularize the knowledge in the field of animal-assisted therapy. Currently, animal-assisted therapy has been used not only in therapy, but also in resocialization. The increasing popularity of this form of supporting maladjusted people who are isolated from society or people with disabilities encouraged both practitioners and researchers to organize knowledge, thus reducin...

  14. African Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Jarita C; Medupe, R. Thebe; Current Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy research in Africa

    2008-01-01

    Astronomy is the science of studying the sky using telescopes and light collectors such as photographic plates or CCD detectors. However, people have always studied the sky and continue to study the sky without the aid of instruments this is the realm of cultural astronomy. This is the first scholarly collection of articles focused on the cultural astronomy of Africans. It weaves together astronomy, anthropology, and Africa. The volume includes African myths and legends about the sky, alignments to celestial bodies found at archaeological sites and at places of worship, rock art with celestial imagery, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions including ethnomathematics and the creation of calendars. Authors include astronomers Kim Malville, Johnson Urama, and Thebe Medupe; archaeologist Felix Chami, and geographer Michael Bonine, and many new authors. As an emerging subfield of cultural astronomy, African cultural astronomy researchers are focused on training students specifically for do...

  15. Parsing the Gulf between Africans and African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashly Nsangou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The rise in African immigrants to the US provides an opportunity to assess relations between Africans and African Americans in college. An online survey of 322 current and recently-graduated college students (including 45 Africans, 160 African Americans, and 117 whites assessed respondents’ experiences of racism in US high schools and colleges. Semi-structured interviews of 30 students (10 African, 10 African American and 10 white students supplemented these data. Even within a sociopolitical context of more visible racial intolerance, Black intra-racial cohesion was absent. Although more first- and second-generation Africans (73% felt that they had been judged while living in the US compared to African Americans (34% or whites (20%, for 70–80% of respondents, this had occurred only in high school. Despite experiencing these judgments, Africans’ identity related more to their focus on education than their race, reflected in a higher proportion who felt intense family pressure to attend college (65% compared to African Americans (37% and whites (39%. Interview data confirmed previous reports in the literature that African Americans lack a sense of connection to Africans, attributed to Africans’ purported sense of superiority and disregard for African Americans’ ongoing struggle to end oppression. These mixed-methods data suggest that intermingling in the college environment has not resulted in first- and second-generation Africans and African Americans sharing a common in-group, race-based identity. We discuss the implications of overlooking ethnic distinctions due to presumptions of racial homogeneity that deprive Black individuals of their uniqueness.

  16. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  17. Animal MRI Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Animal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Core develops and optimizes MRI methods for cardiovascular imaging of mice and rats. The Core provides imaging expertise,...

  18. CONTEMPORARY AFRICAN PHILOSOPHY: EMERGENT ISSUES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    another on meta-philosophical issues about African philosophy, their successors, in ... Key Words: African identity, hermeneutics and culture, ... Even the quest to overcome the hegemony of Western ..... African philosophers to rethink the principles, concepts, attitudes ... there is a certain openness to new possibilities at the.

  19. African Journal of International Affairs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of International Affairs (AJIA) is a bi-annual publication of CODESRIA, Dakar, Senegal. It offers a platform for analyses on contemporary issues in African International Affairs in relation to global developments as they affect Africa. AJIA welcomes contributions in English and in French from both African ...

  20. African names for American plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.

    2015-01-01

    African slaves brought plant knowledge to the New World, sometimes applying it to related plants they found there and sometimes bringing Old World plants with them. By tracing the linguistic parallels between names for plants in African languages and in communities descended from African slaves,

  1. African Journals Online: South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 96 ... African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation ... continent of Africa, to contribute to developing home-grown (African) methods ... Envisaged readers are academic researchers, teachers and students and practitioners in the ... that have relevance to the South African educational context.

  2. The Struggles over African Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  3. Proceedings: Onderstepoort Centenary Pan-African Veterinary Conference : foreword

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1908 a Pan-African Veterinary Conference formed part of the inauguration ceremony of the Onderstepoort Veterinary Laboratory. Attended by 18 delegates from 12 countries in southern Africa, including the four colonies and three protectorates forming British South Africa, Rhodesia, German South West Africa, Portuguese East Africa, Madagascar and the Belgian Congo, discussions focussed on the animal diseases of the region with the emphasis on trypanosomosis (nagana and East Coast fever. The successful meeting was followed by a series of similar conferences held in different African countries during the first half of the 20th Century.

  4. The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Reed, Floyd A.; Friedlaender, Françoise R.; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Awomoyi, Agnes A.; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T.; Kotze, Maritha J.; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H.; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B.; Omar, Sabah A.; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S.; Smith, Michael W.; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L.; Williams, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (~71%), European (~13%), and other African (~8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:19407144

  5. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  6. Animals in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Use of animals in middle school science classrooms is a curriculum component worthy of consideration, providing proper investigation and planning are addressed. A responsible approach to this action, including safety, must be adopted for success. In this month's column, the author provides some suggestions on incorporating animals into the…

  7. Urban Animals and Us

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    species. But instead of teaching animals like the parrot to mimic and understand people, the sound conducted by humans become translated into non-human message through the ‘BirdFlute’. 3) The experiment 'InterFed' explores power relationships through the device ‘PhotoTwin’ - that traps both animal...

  8. Plant or Animal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Frank; Matthews, Catherine E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities that use marine organisms with plant-like appearances to help students build classification skills and illustrate some of the less obvious differences between plants and animals. Compares mechanisms by which sessile plants and animals deal with common problems such as obtaining energy, defending themselves, successfully…

  9. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  10. Cocombustion of animal meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2001-01-01

    The electricity production companies are prepared to co-fire animal meal in their coal-fired power stations. Tests conducted at the Maasvlakte power station, Netherlands, demonstrate that adding animal meal to the coal has no negative influence on human beings, the environment, the plant or the fly ash quality

  11. Companion Animals. [Information Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Anti-Vivisection Society, Chicago, IL.

    This collection of articles reprinted from other National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) publications was compiled to educate the public on issues of importance to NAVS concerning companion animals. Topics covered include spaying and neutering, animal safety, pet theft, and the use of cats and dogs in research. The article on spaying and…

  12. Animal damage to birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Jordan; Francis M. Rushmore

    1969-01-01

    A relatively few animal species are responsible for most of the reported damage to the birches. White-tailed deer, yellow-bellied sapsuckers, porcupines, moose, and hares are the major animals involved. We will review reports of damage, discuss the underlying causes, and describe possible methods of control. For example, heavy deer browsing that eliminates birch...

  13. Animal damage management handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh C. Black

    1994-01-01

    This handbook treats animal damage management (ADM) in the West in relation to forest, range, and recreation resources; predator management is not addressed. It provides a comprehensive reference of safe, effective, and practical methods for managing animal damage on National Forest System lands. Supporting information is included in references after each chapter and...

  14. The Classroom Animal: Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David S.

    1985-01-01

    Points out that snails are interesting and easily-managed classroom animals. One advantage of this animal is that it requires no special attention over weekends or holidays. Background information, anatomy, reproduction, and feeding are discussed, along with suggestions for housing aquatic and/or land snails. (DH)

  15. Political Communication with Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue

  16. Indian draught animals power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Phaniraja

    Full Text Available With the modernization of agriculture, the use of mechanical power in agriculture has increased but draught animal power (DAP continues to be used on Indian farms due to small holdings and hill agriculture. More than 55% of the total cultivated area is still being managed by using draught animals as against about 20% by tractors. India possessed the finest breeds of draught animals. Bullocks, buffaloes and camels are the major draught animals for field operations. Horses, mules, donkeys, yak and mithun are the pack animals for transport. The quality of work from the draught animals depends upon the power developed by them. The design of traditional implements is based on long experience and these have served the purpose of the farmers. However there is plenty of scope to improve the design based on animal-machine-environment interaction so as to have more output and increased efficiency without jeopardizing animal health. [Vet World 2009; 2(10.000: 404-407

  17. Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grum, Charlotte; Svabo, Connie

    reading of a particular historical subject and to explore the messy constituents of the very categories of women and animals. In general she is occupied with how to animate and perform the intra-active entanglement of subjectivity and materiality.The “Becoming Sheep” project produced a variety of visual......-acting and becoming with the heath habitat, the other by-passing human and non-human animals, the changing weather and their fluctuating biological needs. She wanted to explore the discursive and material effects of a site specific human-nonhuman animal intra-action, to challenge the gendered and anthropocentric...... practice.Continuing explorations of how to undo authorship, activate multiple subject positions and animate the very resources through which we practice and continuously become, for this conference artist Charlotte Grum has invited Connie Svabo, Associate Professor in Performance-Design at Roskilde...

  18. Sketching with animation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    This book offers a contribution to the theory, method and techniques involved in the use of animation as a tool for temporal design sketching. Lifted from its traditional role as a genre of entertainment and art and reframed in the design domain, animation offers support during the early phases...... of exploring and assessing the potential of new and emerging digital technologies. This approach is relatively new and has been touched upon by few academic contributions in the past. Thus, the aim of the text is not to promote a claim that sketching with animation is an inherently new phenomenon. Instead......, the aim is to present a range of analytical arguments and experimental results that indicate the need for a systematic approach to realising the potential of animation within design sketching. This will establish the foundation for what we label animation-based sketching....

  19. Is animal experimentation fundamental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Acampora, Armando José; Rossi, Lucas Félix; Ely, Jorge Bins; de Vasconcellos, Zulmar Acciolli

    2009-01-01

    The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the physician-to-be. The technological arsenal which intends to mimic experimentation animals and thus fully replace their use many times does not prove to be compatible with the reality of the living animal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects concerning this topic, bringing up an issue which is complex and likely to arouse in-depth reflections.

  20. Animal ethics dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina; Algers, Anne

    2006-01-01

    ) the blind hens; (2) ANDi the genetically modified monkey; (3) euthanasia of a healthy dog; (4) animal slaughter; and (5) rehabilitation of seals. Special consideration has been given to enhancing the pedagogic value of the program. Students can control their learning by selecting a variety of ways......'Animal Ethics Dilemma' is a freely available computer-supported learning tool (www.animalethicsdilemma.net or www.aedilemma.net) which has been developed primarily for veterinary undergraduates but is applicable also to students in other fields of animal science. The objectives of the computer...... program are to promote students' understanding of the ethics related to animal use, to illustrate ethical dilemmas that arise in animal use, to broaden students' moral imagination, and to enable students to differentiate between types of ethical argument. The program comprises five case studies: (1...

  1. Changing Patterns of Emerging Zoonotic Diseases in Wildlife, Domestic Animals, and Humans Linked to Biodiversity Loss and Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, A Alonso

    2017-12-15

    The fundamental human threats to biodiversity including habitat destruction, globalization, and species loss have led to ecosystem disruptions altering infectious disease transmission patterns, the accumulation of toxic pollutants, and the invasion of alien species and pathogens. To top it all, the profound role of climate change on many ecological processes has affected the inability of many species to adapt to these relatively rapid changes. This special issue, "Zoonotic Disease Ecology: Effects on Humans, Domestic Animals and Wildlife," explores the complex interactions of emerging infectious diseases across taxa linked to many of these anthropogenic and environmental drivers. Selected emerging zoonoses including RNA viruses, Rift Valley fever, trypanosomiasis, Hanta virus infection, and other vector-borne diseases are discussed in detail. Also, coprophagous beetles are proposed as important vectors in the transmission and maintenance of infectious pathogens. An overview of the impacts of climate change in emerging disease ecology within the context of Brazil as a case study is provided. Animal Care and Use Committee requirements were investigated, concluding that ecology journals have low rates of explicit statements regarding the welfare and wellbing of wildlife during experimental studies. Most of the solutions to protect biodiversity and predicting and preventing the next epidemic in humans originating from wildlife are oriented towards the developed world and are less useful for biodiverse, low-income economies. We need the development of regional policies to address these issues at the local level.

  2. Principles of animal extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    Animal Extrapolation presents a comprehensive examination of the scientific issues involved in extrapolating results of animal experiments to human response. This text attempts to present a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of the host of biomedical and toxicological studies of interspecies extrapolation. Calabrese's work presents not only the conceptual basis of interspecies extrapolation, but also illustrates how these principles may be better used in selection of animal experimentation models and in the interpretation of animal experimental results. The book's theme centers around four types of extrapolation: (1) from average animal model to the average human; (2) from small animals to large ones; (3) from high-risk animal to the high risk human; and (4) from high doses of exposure to lower, more realistic, doses. Calabrese attacks the issues of interspecies extrapolation by dealing individually with the factors which contribute to interspecies variability: differences in absorption, intestinal flora, tissue distribution, metabolism, repair mechanisms, and excretion. From this foundation, Calabrese then discusses the heterogeneticity of these same factors in the human population in an attempt to evaluate the representativeness of various animal models in light of interindividual variations. In addition to discussing the question of suitable animal models for specific high-risk groups and specific toxicological endpoints, the author also examines extrapolation questions related to the use of short-term tests to predict long-term human carcinogenicity and birth defects. The book is comprehensive in scope and specific in detail; for those environmental health professions seeking to understand the toxicological models which underlay health risk assessments, Animal Extrapolation is a valuable information source.

  3. African Journals Online: Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 30 of 30 ... African Research Review (AFRREV) is a Peer Reviewed ... AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities ... in the world; the Journal also enhances exchange of ideas among scientists engaged in research ... This journal content is now open access and licensed under Creative Commons ...

  4. South African Gastroenterology Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fees for medical services: money and medicine. Carl Schulenburg. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  5. South African Gastroenterology Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBS - the beginning and the end: clinical review. Keith Pettengell. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sagr.v1i1.30693 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  6. South African Gastroenterology Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. The South African Gastroenterology Reviewis written by specialists in the field. Its aim is to publish articles pertinent to the practising Gastroenterologist in South Africa. It is distributed to a broad spectrum of clinicians who have an interest in clinical gastroenterology and hepatology. Other websites ...

  7. South African Actuarial Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Actuarial Journalis published by the Actuarial Society of South Africa (ASSA). It is issued free to members of ASSA and will also be made available to them on the Society's website for access via the Internet. The focus of SAAJ is on actuarial research–particularly, but not exclusively, on research of relevance to ...

  8. The African Family Physician

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    North America and Europe, and these serve us well up to a point. When a colleague ... Maybe we need a different set of principles to work by in the Afri- ... base the balance. ... The African Family Physician is dedicated to life-long learning and.

  9. African Journals Online: Portugal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  10. African Journals Online: Mozambique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This biannual, peer reviewed journal aims at providing space for sharing and debating issues of social, political and economic development not only for academic consumption, but also for policy considerations. Launched in 2011, the African Journal of Governance and Development has grown from strength to strength.

  11. South African Crime Quarterly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Crime Quarterly is an inter-disciplinary peer-reviewed journal that promotes professional discourse and the publication of research on the subjects of crime, criminal justice, crime prevention, and related matters including state and non-state responses to crime and violence. South Africa is the primary focus for ...

  12. Depression and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have insurance or can’t afford treatment, your community may have publicly-funded mental health centers or programs that charge you according to ... how he found healing in an African American community. Other Resources ... Institute of Mental Health Phone Number: 301-443-4513 Toll Free Number: ...

  13. African Journals Online: Tuvalu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  14. African Journals Online: Romania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  15. African Journals Online: Austria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  16. African Journals Online: Palau

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  17. African Journals Online: Comoros

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  18. African Journals Online: Myanmar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  19. African Journals Online: Lesotho

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  20. African Journals Online: Latvia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  1. African Journals Online: Bhutan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  2. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of countries? Southern African Business Review; The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in Social Science: Reflection on ...

  3. South African Airborne Operations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    makes them suitable for a number of different and demanding roles. ... financial constraints make it generally impossible for rebel groupings and even national ... followed their chief by successfully parachuting as well.2. During the ... More than 60 South African officers and a handful of other ranks did serve on secondment.

  4. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review; Effect of Globalization on Sovereignty of States Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence; The Influence of Motivation on Employees' Performance: A Study of Some Selected Firms in Anambra State AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and ...

  5. African Communalism and Globalization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    to man if we take the Bible account of creation into consideration. .... in his discussion on the role of traditional education as further quoted by Kigongo, ... the system of the community's teaching and learning, the child must learn to know ... high estimation of the community in African thought and practice, higher than that of.

  6. African Oral Tradition Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Doris

    1985-01-01

    Presents the basic principles of two systems for notating African music and dance: Labanotation (created to record and analyze movements) and Greenotation (created to notate musical instruments of Africa and to parallel Labanotation whereby both music and dance are incorporated into one integrated score). (KH)

  7. Conversations in African Philosophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    Conversational philosophy is articulated by Jonathan O. Chimakonam as the new wave of philosophical practice both in “place” and in “space”. This journal adopts and promotes this approach to philosophizing for African philosophy. Readers are encouraged to submit their conversational piece (maximum of 2000 words) ...

  8. African Journals Online: Senegal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa Development. Africa Development is the quarterly bilingual journal of CODESRIA. It is a social science journal whose major focus is on issues which are central to the development of society. Its principal objective is to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas among African scholars from a variety of intellectual ...

  9. South African Airborne Operations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa carried out numerous airborne operations during the latter part .... It was a lesson the French had learned and were learning in Indo-China and ..... South African government, concerned that the conflict would spill across their northern border, ...... the Super Frelon and it was an outstanding helicopter at sea level.

  10. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent collection of peer-reviewed, ... Featured Country: Ethiopia, Featured Journal: AFRREV STECH: An International Journal of Science and Technology ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences. Vol 38, No 2 ... Journal of Applied Biosciences.

  11. African Research Review: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Research Review publishes original research output in the areas of Arts, Education, Social Sciences, Pure and applied Sciences, Engineering and ... Final selection of papers for publication in the Journal will be based on paper originality, technical quality, use of language and overall contribution to knowledge.

  12. Archives: African Research Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 48 of 48 ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access ...

  13. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international ... Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; The application of just administrative action in the South African environmental governance sphere: An analysis of some ...

  14. African Journals Online: Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 221 ... International Journal of Basic, Applied and Innovative Research ... Regional headquarters of the Pan-African Gender and Peace Research Group. ... Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology and Faculty of Dentistry. Through excellence in education and research and clinical service, College of ...

  15. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities; Educational leadership and management: theory, policy and practice. South African Journal of Education; Book Review: Insurance in Ethiopia: Historical Development, Present Status and Future Challenges Journal of Business and Administrative Studies ...

  16. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; Educational leadership and management: theory, policy and practice. South African Journal of Education; An approach to the neck mass. Continuing Medical Education; Crime and Punishment in Igbo Customary Law: The Challenge of Nigerian Criminal Jurisprudence OGIRISI: ...

  17. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More about AJOL and the challenges we work to address. AJOL hosts ... Southern African Business Review; Income Tax Assignment under the Ethiopian Constitution: Issues to Worry About Mizan Law ... AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities; Effect of Globalization on Sovereignty of States Nnamdi ...

  18. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review; The Roles of Information Communication Technologies in Education: Review Article with Emphasis to the Computer and ... AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities; Book Review: Insurance in Ethiopia: Historical Development, Present Status and Future Challenges

  19. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of countries? Southern African Business Review; Income Tax Assignment under the Ethiopian Constitution: Issues to Worry About Mizan Law ...

  20. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paris, France, K. C. Takarinda, BSc, MSc, International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung ... Kenya and T. Galgalo, MSc, African Field Epidemiology Network. ... times more likely to develop active TB than those ... isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), intensified TB case ... The capital city, where this study took place, had a.