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Sample records for african american mothers

  1. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  2. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  3. African American Single Mothers Raising Sons: Implications for Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Ann L.; Greif, Geoffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Being raised by a single mother is one factor that has been suggested as contributing to the plight of African American males. Yet few studies have focused specifically on African American single mothers' experiences with raising sons. This qualitative study explored the following questions: (1) What are the experiences of African American single…

  4. African American teen mothers' perceptions of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayland, J; Rawlins, R

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the childbearing African American teens' perceptions of parenting based on their own experiences. Focus group discussions were held with 17 teens in their school setting for 50 minutes each week. Group discussions were audiotaped, tapes were transcribed, and then analyzed for common themes. The unmarried teens ranged in age from 15 to 18 years. Findings indicated that the teens depended on grandmothers to provide child care and for information about parenting. The teens identified parenting problems including crying, discipline, and conflicts dealing with grandmothers and the child's father. Teens wanted more information about breastfeeding and minor childhood diseases. The researchers identified that teens lacked information about their children's growth and development and safety issues. Findings have implications for nurses who care for childbearing teens and their children; and those involved in planning and implementing parent education programs for African American teen mothers and their families. Further research is indicated with larger samples of African American teens; and to explore the context of family relationships in which teen mothers and grandmothers share parenting for the teens' children.

  5. Family therapy with unmarried African American mothers and their adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, D; Liddle, H A

    2001-01-01

    Almost two-thirds of African American births are to unmarried mothers, and these single parents are among the most economically vulnerable in the United States. The effects of chronic stressors such as poverty can compromise the ability of these mothers to parent effectively, particularly during the developmental period of adolescence, typically a stressful phase of parenting. This article describes a multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) approach to working with African American adolescents who have drug and/or behavior problems. It is maintained that addressing the intrapersonal functioning of African American single mothers is vital if they are to re-establish the attachment bonds necessary for the maintenance of essential parental influence in the lives of their adolescents. Through systematic attention to the parent as an individual, leading to a balance between self-care and care for others, parental supervision is more easily achieved and relational impasses between parent and adolescent more equitably resolved.

  6. Sexual Health Discussions between African-American Mothers and Mothers of Latino Descent and Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Ashley; Ellis, Monica U.; Castellanos, Ted; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline Y.; Sneed, Carl D.

    2014-01-01

    We examined approaches used by African-American mothers and mothers of Latino descent for informal sex-related discussions with their children to inform sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV intervention development efforts. We recruited mothers (of children aged 12-15) from youth service agencies and a university in southern California.…

  7. Positive Parenting among African American Mothers with a Serious Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyserman, Daphna; Bybee, Deborah; Mowbray, Carol T.; MacFarlane, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Using a sample of African American mothers (N=202) diagnosed with mental illness, the effects of poverty; maternal education; social support; maternal and social stress; current mental health; and psychiatric history were examined for effects on positive parenting. Strongest predictors of parenting attitudes were stress and current mental health.…

  8. Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Offspring of African American Mothers with Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Rhonda C.; Diamond, Guy S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive research demonstrates the negative impact of maternal depression on their offspring. Unfortunately, few studies have been explored in African American families. This study examined emotional and behavioral functioning among children of African American mothers with depression. African American mothers (n = 63), with a past year diagnosis…

  9. Work Socialization and Adolescents' Work-Related Values in Single-Mother African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokawa, Teru; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined African American mothers' work socialization messages in relation to adolescents' work-related values. Moderation effects of mother-adolescent relation quality on the linkage between maternal socialization messages and adolescents' outcomes were also examined. Participants were 245 single African American mothers and their…

  10. The Intersectionality of African American Mothers in Counselor Education: A Phenomenological Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Natoya H.; Ziomek-Daigle, Jolie; Sewell, Cheryl; Crumb, Lonika; Appling, Brandee; Trepal, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Using phenomenological inquiry, this study explored the lived experiences and intersecting identities of 8 African American counselor educators who are mothers. Six themes were identified: race, professional strain, work-life balance, support, internalized success, and mothering pedagogy.

  11. The Intersectionality of African American Mothers in Counselor Education: A Phenomenological Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Natoya H.; Ziomek-Daigle, Jolie; Sewell, Cheryl; Crumb, Lonika; Appling, Brandee; Trepal, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Using phenomenological inquiry, this study explored the lived experiences and intersecting identities of 8 African American counselor educators who are mothers. Six themes were identified: race, professional strain, work-life balance, support, internalized success, and mothering pedagogy.

  12. Observed Gender Differences in African American Mother-Child Relationships and Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani; Murray, Carolyn B.; Telesford, James M.; Varner, Fatima A.; Richman, Scott B.

    2012-01-01

    African American mother-child dyads (N = 99) were observed interacting on a collaborative puzzle exercise. Raters blind to the purpose of the study rated the dyads on several mother and child behaviors. Mothers of daughters were rated as more empathetic, encouraging, warm, and accepting and less negative than mothers of sons. Male children were…

  13. Perceptions of Mate Selection for Marriage among African American, College-Educated, Single Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Rochelle

    2009-01-01

    This ethnographic study researched the perceptions of mate selection for marriage and the decisions of college-educated, African American mothers who bore children while single. Twenty-five senior-level African American students who attended a college in New York City participated in the study. There has been a significant change in the family…

  14. Demographics of African-American vs. European-Heritage Mothers of Newborns with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.

    2008-01-01

    Although important for public health policy, ethnic/racial disparities have rarely been examined among families of young children with Down syndrome. This study compared 144 African-American mothers with 726 European-heritage mothers of newborns with Down syndrome using official birth records in one American state from 1990 through 2002; outcome…

  15. Coparenting experiences in African American families: an examination of single mothers and their nonmarital coparents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Michelle; Jones, Deborah; Parent, Justin

    2014-03-01

    African American youth from single-mother homes continue to be overrepresented in statistics on risk behavior and delinquency, a trend that many be attributed to father-absence, socioeconomic disadvantage, and compromises in parenting more typical of single than two-parent families. Yet, this risk-focused perspective ignores a long-standing strength of the African American community, the involvement and potential protective impact of extended family members in childrearing. This study describes the experiences of 95 African American single mothers and their nonmarital coparents who participated in a study of African American single-mother families with an 11-16-year-old child. Specifically, the study examines: (a) the extent to which nonmarital coparents are involved in childrearing; (b) the relative levels of risk (i.e., depression, mother-coparent conflict) and protective (i.e., parenting) associated with maternal and coparent involvement; and (c) how similarly and/or differently coparent and mother variables operate with regard to youth externalizing problems. Findings reveal that a range of family members and other adults actively participate in childrearing in African American single-mother families, coparents do not differ from mothers on certain study variables (i.e., depression and mother-coparent conflict) but do for others (parenting), and coparent involvement is associated with youth adjustment in ways that are similar to our more established understanding of maternal involvement. The potential clinical implications of the findings are discussed and future research directions are highlighted.

  16. Buffers of Racial Discrimination: Links with Depression among Rural African American Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Erica C.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines racial discrimination as a predictor of depression in a sample of 414 rural, low-income African American mothers of young children. The potential moderating role of optimism and church-based social support was also examined. Mothers completed questionnaires when their child was 24 months old. Hierarchical regression…

  17. Predictors of Coparenting Relationship Quality in African American Single Mother Families: An Ecological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterrett, Emma; Jones, Deborah J.; Forehand, Rex; Garai, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Nonmarital coparents, or adults who assist mothers with childrearing, play a significant role in the lives of African American single mothers and their children. Yet relatively little research has examined correlates of the quality of the coparenting relationship in these families. Using a broad ecological framework, the current study examined…

  18. A Review of Childrearing in African American Single Mother Families: The Relevance of a Coparenting Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah J.; Zalot, Alecia A.; Foster, Sarah E.; Sterrett, Emma; Chester, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    Clinical research on African American single mother families has focused largely on mother-child dyads, with relatively less empirical attention to the roles of other adults or family members who often assist with childrearing. This narrow definition of "family" fails to take into account the extended family networks which often provide support…

  19. Linking Perceived Discrimination to Longitudinal Changes in African American Mothers' Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Murry, Velma McBride; Logan, Patricia; Luo, Zupei

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study was designed to test hypotheses, derived from a stress proliferation framework, regarding the association between perceived racial discrimination and changes in parenting among African American mothers in the rural South. A sample of 139 mothers and their children were interviewed 3 times at 1-year intervals. Mothers…

  20. How does violence exposure affect the psychological health and parenting of young African-American mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Stephanie J; Lewin, Amy; Horn, Ivor B; Valentine, Dawn; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy; Joseph, Jill G

    2010-02-01

    Urban, minority, adolescent mothers are particularly vulnerable to violence exposure, which may increase their children's developmental risk through maternal depression and negative parenting. The current study tests a conceptual model of the effects of community and contextual violence exposure on the mental health and parenting of young, African-American mothers living in Washington, DC. A path analysis revealed significant direct effects of witnessed and experienced violence on mothers' depressive symptoms and general aggression. Experiences of discrimination were also associated with increased depressive symptoms. Moreover, there were significant indirect effects of mothers' violence exposure on disciplinary practices through depression and aggression. These findings highlight the range of violence young African-American mothers are exposed to and how these experiences affect their mental health, particularly depressive symptoms, and thus disciplinary practices.

  1. African American mothers' self-described discipline strategies with young children in 1992 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCuyer, Elizabeth A; Christensen, Julie J; Kreher, Donna; Kearney, Margaret H; Kitzman, Harriet J

    2015-01-01

    In this qualitative descriptive study, 30 young, unmarried, low-income African American mothers in Memphis, TN, were interviewed in 2011-2012 about their discipline strategies with their 12- to 19-month-old children. Using content analyses, their strategies were described and compared with those from a similar sample in 1992. Findings suggest both continuity and change during that 20-year period. More mothers in 2011-2012 described the use of distraction and time out, suggesting a wider variety of strategies than were used in 1992. These findings may help clinicians to better understand disciplinary methods in young low-income African American mothers such as these in Memphis. Approaching mothers in a respectful and culturally sensitive manner will help them focus on effective, developmentally appropriate strategies consistent with their own parenting goals.

  2. Life stress, maternal optimism, and adolescent competence in single mother, African American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Zoe E; Larsen-Rife, Dannelle; Conger, Rand D; Widaman, Keith F; Cutrona, Carolyn E

    2010-08-01

    Although research demonstrates many negative family outcomes associated with single-parent households, little is known about processes that lead to positive outcomes for these families. Using 3 waves of longitudinal data, we examined how maternal dispositional optimism and life stressors are associated with parenting and child outcomes in 394 single mother African American families. Confirming prior research, we found that mothers' childhood adversities, current economic pressure, and internalizing problems were associated with lower levels of maternal warmth and child management and with lower child school competence. Extending previous studies, we found that maternal optimism was a positive resource, predicting lower levels of maternal internalizing symptoms and higher levels of effective child management and moderating the impact of economic stress on maternal internalizing problems. These findings highlight the need for further investigation of processes and resources that promote positive outcomes for African American mother-headed families and single mother families in general.

  3. Life Stress, Maternal Optimism, and Adolescent Competence in Single Mother, African American Families

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Although research demonstrates many negative family outcomes associated with single-parent households, little is known about processes that lead to positive outcomes for these families. Using 3 waves of longitudinal data, we examined how maternal dispositional optimism and life stressors are associated with parenting and child outcomes in 394 single mother African American families. Confirming prior research, we found that mothers' childhood adversities, current economic pressure, and interna...

  4. Young African-American multigenerational families in poverty: quality of mothering and grandmothering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase-Lansdale, P L; Brooks-Gunn, J; Zamsky, E S

    1994-04-01

    Parenting practices (problem-solving and disciplinary styles) in a sample of 99 young, low-income, African-American multigenerational families were examined, using home-based observations of grandmothers and young mothers (mean age at first birth: 18.3; range = 13.3 to 25.5), interacting separately with 3-year-old children. A risk and resilience approach was applied in studying African-American families' behavior in harsh social contexts, and included a consideration of the role of kin, shared child rearing between mothers and grandmothers, coresidence, and adolescent parenthood. Mothers and grandmothers did not differ in the mean level of the quality of their parenting practices. Similarly, few significant correlations in parenting quality across generations were evident, and these primarily involved negative dimensions of parenting between younger childbearers and grandmothers. No main effect of mothers' age at first birth on mothers' parenting was found. In contrast, there was a main effect of grandmother coresidence on both mothers' and grandmothers' parenting, which was negative. Moreover, the interaction between coresidence and mothers' age at first birth indicated that multigenerational families most likely to provide positive parenting were those where older mothers did not reside with the grandmother. Yet, in families with very young mothers, coresiding grandmothers showed higher quality of parenting than did non-coresiding grandmothers.

  5. Predictors of Parenting among African American Single Mothers: Personal and Contextual Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotchick, Beth A.; Dorsey, Shannon; Heller, Laurie

    2005-01-01

    Guided by family stress theory, relations among neighborhood stress, maternal psychological functioning, and parenting were examined among 123 low-income, urban-dwelling, African American single mothers. Using a longitudinal design, structural equation modeling was employed to test the hypothesis that neighborhood stress results in poorer…

  6. Mothers' and Fathers' Racial Socialization in African American Families: Implications for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Burton, Linda M.; Davis, Kelly D.; Dotterer, Aryn M.; Swanson, Dena P.

    2006-01-01

    Mothers' and fathers' cultural socialization and bias preparation with older (M=13.9 years) and younger (M=10.31 years) siblings were studied in 162 two-parent, African American families. Analyses examined whether parental warmth and offspring age and gender were linked to parental practices and whether parents' warmth, spouses' racial…

  7. Unemployment and Work Interruption among African American Single Mothers: Effects on Parenting and Adolescent Socioemotional Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoyd, Vonnie C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Using interview data from 241 single African American mothers and their seventh- and eighth-grade children, this study tested a model of how 2 economic stressors, maternal unemployment and work interruption, influenced adolescent socioemotional functioning. Found that current unemployment, but not past work interruption, contributed to depressive…

  8. Sexual Risk among African American Girls: Psychopathology and Mother-Daughter Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations among mental health problems, maternal monitoring and permissiveness, mother-daughter communication and attachment, and sexual behaviors among African American girls receiving outpatient psychiatric care. Youths with mental health problems report higher rates of HIV-risk behavior than do their peers, and…

  9. Low-Income, African American Adolescent Mothers and Their Toddlers Exhibit Similar Dietary Variety Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Mia A.; Hurley, Kristen M.; Quigg, Anna M.; Oberlander, Sarah E.; Black, Maureen M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between maternal and toddler dietary variety. Design: Longitudinal; maternal and toddler dietary data were collected at 13 months; anthropometry was collected at 13 and 24 months. Setting: Data were collected in homes. Participants: 109 primiparous, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and…

  10. Toddler Feeding: Expectations and Experiences of Low-Income African American Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodynski, Mildred A.; Brophy-Herb, Holly; Henry, Michelle; Smith, Katharine A.; Weatherspoon, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain maternal expectations and experiences with mealtimes and feeding of toddlers among low-income African American mothers in two mid- to large-size cities in the United States. Design: Qualitative focus group study. Setting: Two Early Head Start programme sites in a Midwestern state which serve low income families. Method:…

  11. Eating Behaviors among Early Adolescent African American Girls and Their Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Monique; Dancy, Barbara; Holm, Karyn; Wilbur, JoEllen; Fogg, Louis

    2013-01-01

    African American (AA) girls aged 10-12 living in urban communities designated as food deserts have a significantly greater prevalence of overweight and obesity than girls that age in the general population. The purpose of our study was (a) to examine the agreement in nutritional intake between AA girls aged 10-12 and their mothers and (b) to…

  12. African American Preschoolers' Social and Emotional Competence at School: The Influence of Teachers and Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Marisha L.; Strickland, Jennifer; Keenan, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Children learn social and emotional competence through socialization. Research has focused on the role of parents, however teachers also play an important part. This study examined the social and emotional competence of preschool African American children and the role teachers and mothers played in supporting these competencies. Teachers who…

  13. Unemployment and Work Interruption among African American Single Mothers: Effects on Parenting and Adolescent Socioemotional Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoyd, Vonnie C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Using interview data from 241 single African American mothers and their seventh- and eighth-grade children, this study tested a model of how 2 economic stressors, maternal unemployment and work interruption, influenced adolescent socioemotional functioning. Found that current unemployment, but not past work interruption, contributed to depressive…

  14. Mother-adolescent conflict in African American and European American families: the role of corporal punishment, adolescent aggression, and adolescents' hostile attributions of mothers' intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol; Lindsey, Eric W; Frabutt, James M; Chambers, Jessica Campbell

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined mothers' use of corporal punishment and adolescents' aggression as predictors of mother-youth conflict during early adolescence. Particular attention was given to the potential mediating role that adolescents' hostile attributions of intent (HAI) regarding mothers' behavior might play in connections between corporal punishment, youth aggression, and mother-adolescent conflict for European American (EA) and African American (AA) youth. Data were collected from 268 12- to 14-year-olds (154 European American; 114 African American; 133 girls; 135 boys) and their mothers over a period of 2 years. Questionnaires completed by both mothers and adolescents were used to assess maternal corporal punishment and adolescent aggression, and interviews concerning hypothetical situations were used to assess adolescent HAI in year one. In both year one and year two mother-adolescent conflict was observed in a laboratory interaction session. Data revealed that adolescent HAI mediated the link between maternal corporal punishment and mother-adolescent conflict for EA, but not AA youth. Adolescents' HAI mediated the link between adolescent aggression and mother-adolescent conflict for both EA and AA families.

  15. Socioeconomic Status, Parenting, and Externalizing Problems in African American Single-Mother Homes: A Person-Oriented Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Anton, Margaret T.; Jones, Deborah J.; Youngstrom, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    African American youth, particularly those from single-mother homes, are overrepresented in statistics on externalizing problems. The family is a central context in which to understand externalizing problems; however, reliance on variable-oriented approaches to the study of parenting, which originate from work with intact, middle-income, European American families, may obscure important information regarding variability in parenting styles among African American single mothers, and in turn, v...

  16. Protective Factors for Depression among African American Children of Predominantly Low-Income Mothers with Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Rhonda C; Waanders, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Maternal depression has a deleterious impact on child psychological outcomes, including depression symptoms. However, there is limited research on the protective factors for these children and even less for African Americans. The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of positive parenting skills on child depression and the potential protective effects of social skills and kinship support among African American children whose mothers are depressed and low-income. African American mothers (n = 77) with a past year diagnosis of a depressive disorder and one of their children (ages 8-14) completed self-report measures of positive parenting skills, social skills, kinship support, and depression in a cross-sectional design. Regression analyses demonstrated that there was a significant interaction effect of positive parenting skills and child social skills on child depression symptoms. Specifically, parent report of child social skills was negatively associated with child depression symptoms for children exposed to poorer parenting skills; however, this association was not significant for children exposed to more positive and involved parenting. Kinship support did not show a moderating effect, although greater maternal depression severity was correlated with more child-reported kinship support. The study findings have implications for developing interventions for families with maternal depression. In particular, parenting and child social skills are potential areas for intervention to prevent depression among African American youth.

  17. Breastfeeding and use of social media among first-time African American mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiodu, Ifeyinwa V; Waters, Catherine M; Dailey, Dawn E; Lee, Kathryn A; Lyndon, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    To describe the use of social media during the antepartum and postpartum periods among first-time African American mothers and their support persons. A qualitative critical ethnographic research design within the contexts of family life course development theory and Black feminist theory. Participants were recruited from community-based, public health, and home visiting programs. A purposive sample was recruited, consisting of 14 pregnant African American women and eight support persons. Pregnant and postpartum African American women and their support persons were interviewed separately during the antepartum and postpartum periods. Data were analyzed thematically. Participants frequently used social media for education and social support and searched the Internet for perinatal and parenting information. Most participants reported using at least one mobile application during their pregnancies and after giving birth. Social media were typically accessed through smartphones and/or computers using different websites and applications. Although participants gleaned considerable information about infant development from these applications, they had difficulty finding and recalling information about infant feeding. Social media are an important vehicle to disseminate infant feeding information; however, they are not currently being used to full potential. Our findings suggest that future interventions geared toward African American mothers and their support persons should include social media approaches. The way individuals gather, receive, and interpret information is dynamic. The increasing popularity and use of social media platforms offers the opportunity to create more innovative, targeted mobile health interventions for infant feeding and breastfeeding promotion. © 2015 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  18. HPV vaccine acceptance among African-American mothers and their daughters: an inquiry grounded in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith-Gyan, Kayoll V; Lechuga, Julia; Jenerette, Coretta M; Palmer, Mary H; Moore, Angelo D; Hamilton, Jill B

    2017-05-29

    Much of the research on African-Americans' HPV vaccine acceptance has largely focused on racial/ethnic differences related to cognitive, socio-economical, and structural factors that contribute to differences in HPV vaccine acceptance and completion. A growing body of literature suggest that cultural factors, such as mistrust of healthcare providers (HCPs) and the healthcare system, religion, and social norms related to appropriate sexual behaviors, also plays a prominent role in their HPV vaccine acceptance. However, these studies were limited in their use of theoretical approaches necessary to conceptualize and operationalize culture. To explore the influence of culture on African-American mothers' and daughters' HPV vaccine acceptance using the PEN-3, a culturally-centered conceptual framework. Grounded theory techniques were used to explore cultural factors that influenced the acceptance of the HPV vaccine among African-American mothers (n = 28) and their daughters (n = 34). Positive attitudes towards vaccination stemmed from beliefs that the HPV vaccine has cancer prevention benefits and that vaccinations in general protected against infectious diseases. Negative attitudes stemmed from beliefs that the HPV vaccine was too new, not effective, daughters were too young, and that vaccines were not a one-size-fits-all intervention. Majority of mothers and daughters indicated that their religious doctrine did not impede their HPV vaccination decisions. For a few mothers, religious beliefs could not be separated from their HPV vaccination decisions and ultimately deterred HPV vaccine acceptance. HCP recommendations were valued however mothers were often dissatisfied with the detail of information communicated. Support networks provided both positive and negative types of social support to mothers and daughters. The media highlighted the cancer prevention benefits of the HPV vaccine and unintentionally communicated negative information of the HPV vaccine

  19. The Relationship between Racial Identity and Perceived Significance of the Election of President Barack Obama among African American Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Marisa; Smith-Bynum, Mia

    2016-01-01

    African American women's racial identity is a major determinant for how they interpret the world around them, yet there is little research examining how specific aspects of racial identity are linked with attitudes about an event that has been highly significant for African-Americans: the election of President Barack Obama. The current study examined the relationship between African American mothers' racial identity and their perceived significance of the election of President Barack Obama as an indicator of reduced systemic and actual racism for African Americans, using a sample of 110 African American mothers residing in a Northeastern metropolitan area. Results revealed that racial centrality and assimilation positively predicted perceived significance of President Obama's election for diminishing racism. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  20. Stability of maternal depressive symptoms among urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Marcuse, Fatima; Oberlander, Sarah E; Papas, Mia A; McNary, Scot W; Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M

    2010-04-01

    Maternal depressive symptomatology is an important public health issue with negative consequences for both mothers and infants. This study examined prevalence and patterns of depressive symptoms among 181 urban, low-income, first-time, African American adolescent mothers recruited from urban hospitals following delivery. Follow-up evaluations were conducted at 6 (N=148; 82%) and 24 (N=147; 81%) month home visits. Depressive symptoms were measured with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Half of mothers (49%) had BDI scores >9 at baseline, with significant correlations between BDI scores across all visits (r=0.28-0.50). Depressive symptom trajectories analyzed using group-based trajectory modeling revealed three trajectories of depressive symptoms: Low (41%), Medium (45%), and High (14%). The high depressive symptom group reported lower self-esteem, more negative life events, and lower parenting satisfaction than the low and moderate depressive symptoms groups. Depressive symptoms were self-reported and not verified with a clinical interview. Findings are limited to urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and may not be generalizable to other populations. The high prevalence and relative stability of depressive symptoms through 2years of parenting suggest the need for early identification and treatment of maternal depressive symptoms. Brief screening for maternal depressive symptoms conducted during pediatric well-child visits is a feasible and effective method for identifying mothers with depressive symptoms, however, screening measures can not differentiate between high and low levels of depressive symptoms. Brief intervention may be an effective treatment for mothers with mild symptoms of depression; mothers with moderate to severe symptoms may require more intensive intervention. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mothers' Academic Gender Stereotypes and Education-Related Beliefs about Sons and Daughters in African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Dana; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Okeke-Adeyanju, Ndidi

    2010-01-01

    The role of African American mothers' academic gender stereotype endorsement in shaping achievement-related expectations for and perceptions of their own children was examined. Mothers (N = 334) of 7th and 8th graders completed measures of expectations for their children's future educational attainment, perceptions of their children's academic…

  2. In the Eye of the Beholder: Subjective and Observer Ratings of Middle-Class African American Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campione-Barr, Nicole; Smetana, Judith G.

    2004-01-01

    Middle-class African American mothers and adolescents (n=81) participated in a dyadic interaction task in early adolescence (M=13.06 years, SD=1.27) and then again 2 years later (M=15.01 years, SD=1.27). Following the task, mothers and adolescents rated their own and their partner's support and involvement in the task; observers rated videotaped…

  3. Resilience among African American adolescent mothers: predictors of positive parenting in early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Christine Reiner; Papas, Mia A; Black, Maureen M

    2002-01-01

    To use Nath et al.'s (1991) conceptual model of adolescent parenting to examine the relationship between resiliency factors measured shortly after delivery and maternal parenting behavior at 6 months. We recruited 181 first-time, adolescent African American mothers at delivery. Data on resiliency factors (maturity, self-esteem, and mother-grandmother relationships) were collected when infants were 1-4 weeks of age. Data on parental nurturance and parenting satisfaction were examined through observations and self-report at 6 months. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the longitudinal impact of resiliency factors on parental nurturance and parenting satisfaction. Maternal maturity, positive self-esteem, and positive adolescent mother-grandmother relationships (characterized by autonomy and mutuality) were associated with better parenting outcomes. Maternal parenting satisfaction was lowest when infants were temperamentally difficult and mothers and grandmothers had a confrontational relationship. Longitudinal associations between mother-grandmother relationships at delivery and parental behavior and satisfaction 6 months later may suggest an intergenerational transmission of parenting style. Recommendations are provided for intervention programs to enhance mother-grandmother relationships in contexts where adolescents are required to live with a guardian to receive government assistance.

  4. Differing first year mortality rates of term births to White, African-American, and Mexican-American US-born and foreign-born mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James W; Soskolne, Gayle R; Rankin, Kristin M; Bennett, Amanda C

    2013-12-01

    To determine whether maternal nativity (US-born versus foreign-born) is associated with the first year mortality rates of term births. Stratified and multivariable binomial regression analyses were performed on the 2003-2004 National Center for Health Statistics linked live birth-infant death cohort files. Only term (37-42 weeks) infants with non-Latina White, African-American, and Mexican-American mothers were studied. The infant mortality rate (mortality for non-LBW, term births to US-born (compared to foreign-born) for White, African-American, and Mexican-American mothers equaled 1.5 (1.3-1.7), 1.7 (1.5-2.1) and 1.6 (1.4-1.8), respectively. The IMR of term births to White, African-American, and Mexican-American mothers exceeds that of their counterparts with foreign-born mothers independent of traditional individual level risk factors.

  5. African American adolescent mothers' early caregiving involvement and childrens' behavior and academic performance at age 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlander, Sarah E; Black, Maureen M

    2011-01-01

    The United States continues to have the highest incidence of adolescent births among industrialized nations. This study used transactional and life span theories of development to examine whether caregiving patterns assessed over the first 24 months postpartum predicted children's behavior and academic achievement at 7 years. Participants included 120 primiparous, urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers who participated in a randomized controlled trial of home intervention. Group-based trajectories were used to examine the pattern of caregiving involvement over time. Two distinct, consistent trajectories of caregiving involvement were found: maternal and shared. Maternal caregiving involvement over the first 24 months postpartum predicted positive child behavior and academic achievement at 7 years. In keeping with both transactional and life span theories, findings suggest that adoption of the parent role may lead to positive long-term outcomes for children of adolescent mothers.

  6. Father participation in a community-doula home-visiting intervention with young, African American mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thullen, Matthew J; McMillin, Stephen Edward; Korfmacher, Jon; Humphries, Marisha L; Bellamy, Jennifer; Henson, Linda; Hans, Sydney

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the extent and nature of father participation in a perinatal, community-based doula home-visiting intervention that served young, African American mothers from low-income backgrounds and their infants. Home-visitor service records were used to assess the quantity, setting, and content of father-attended visits. Correlates of fathers' participation and thematic insights from mothers' and home-visitors' perspectives on how fathers perceived and interacted with the home-visiting program were analyzed to further characterize the nature of father participation. Although the community-doula home-visiting model does not include special outreach to increase father participation, almost half of the mothers had a doula visit at which their baby's father was present, many of which took place in medical settings. Mothers and doulas reported that fathers were generally positive about the doula, but expressed that fathers viewed the doula as a substitute provider of support that fathers seemed reticent to provide themselves. These results suggest that community doulas who visit pre- and postpartum in multiple settings have unique opportunities to have contact with fathers that traditional home visitors or early childhood specialists may not have.

  7. Assessment of infant feeding styles among low income African American mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Lisa M.; Bentley, Margaret E.; Carby-Shields, Kenitra; Borja, Judith B.; Goldman, Barbara D.

    2007-01-01

    This study’s goal was to provide a detailed description of feeding styles adopted by a sample of African-American women in feeding their infants in North Carolina, and to examine the correspondence between reported and observed feeding styles. Cross-sectional semi-structured interview and videotaped data were gathered in the homes of 20 participating low-income mothers of infants aged 3-20 months. Feeding styles were characterized through a tailored coding scheme (the Infant Feeding Styles Video Coding Scheme, IFSVCS) applied to both interview and video-taped data. We found that the most frequent feeding styles identified for both interviews and videotaped observations was restrictive, but that mothers were roughly equally divided among predominantly controlling (pressuring or restrictive) and less controlling (laissez-faire or indulgent) styles across methods. However, for over 2/3 of the sample, there was a lack of correspondence between interview and video-taped feeding styles. This unique characterization and comparison of observed and reported infant feeding styles provides additional insights into parental feeding approaches among mothers of infants at high risk of obesity, and highlights the need for further study of feeding style assessment and potential impact on infant weight outcomes. PMID:17336423

  8. Mothers' parenting and child sex differences in behavior problems among African American preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Melissa A; Scaramella, Laura V

    2013-10-01

    Sex differences in rates of behavior problems, including internalizing and externalizing problems, begin to emerge during early childhood. These sex differences may occur because mothers parent their sons and daughters differently, or because the impact of parenting on behavior problems is different for boys and girls. In this study, we examined whether associations between observations of mothers' positive and negative parenting and children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors vary as a function of child sex. The sample consisted of 137 African American low-income families with one sibling approximately 2 years old and the closest-aged older sibling who was approximately 4 years old. Results from fixed-effects within-family models indicate clear sex differences regardless of child age. Mothers were observed to use less positive parenting with sons than with daughters. Higher levels of observed negative parenting were linked to more externalizing behaviors for boys, whereas lower levels of positive parenting were linked to more externalizing behaviors for girls. No child sex differences emerged regarding associations between observed positive and negative parenting and internalizing behaviors.

  9. Psychometric properties of the Rosenberg self-esteem scale in African American single mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Jennifer; Hall, Lynne A

    2009-02-01

    The Rosenberg Self-Esteem (RSE) Scale is a commonly used measure of global self-esteem, an important element of mental health. The purpose of this cross sectional secondary analysis was to examine the psychometric properties of the scale in a sample of 98 African American single mothers. The RSE Scale showed adequate internal consistency with an alpha coefficient of .83. Two factors that accounted for a total of 54.7% of the variance were extracted. Self-esteem showed a strong negative relationship with both depressive symptoms and negative thinking. This study provides support for the internal consistency of the RSE Scale and partial support for its construct validity in this population. The RSE appears to represent a bidimensional construct of self-esteem for African American women, with the cultural influences of racial esteem and the rejection of negative stereotypes forming a separate and distinct aspect of this concept. The RSE Scale should be used and interpreted with caution in this population given these findings.

  10. Parenting among Low-Income, African American Single Mothers with Preschool-Age Children: Patterns, Predictors, and Developmental Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGroder, Sharon M.

    2000-01-01

    Examined dimensions and patterns of parenting among 193 low-income African American single mothers with preschoolers. Identified four parenting patterns (aggravated but nurturant, cognitively stimulating, patient and nurturant, and low nurturance). Found that maternal well-being and sociodemographic characteristics accounted for 93 percent of…

  11. Adaptive and Challenged Parenting among African American Mothers: Parenting Profiles Relate to Head Start Children's Aggression and Hyperactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Johanna L.; Mendez, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: This study used a within-group research design and person-centered analytic methods to identify multidimensional profiles of parenting styles, parenting practices, and related emotional factors in a sample of 274 African American mothers recruited from Head Start programs in the northeastern and southeastern United States.…

  12. The Psychosocial Adjustment of African American Youth from Single Mother Homes: The Relative Contribution of Parents and Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Charlene; Jones, Deborah J.; Zalot, Alecia; Sterrett, Emma

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relative roles of parents and peers in the psychosocial adjustment of African American youth (7-15 years old) from single mother homes (N = 242). Main effects of both positive parenting and peer relationship quality were found for youth depressive symptoms. In addition, a main effect of peer relationship quality and an…

  13. Emotional adjustment and distressed interpersonal relations among low-income African American mothers: moderating effects of demanding kin relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald D; Budescu, Mia

    2013-01-01

    Association of mothers' emotional adjustment and negative kin relations with distressed interpersonal relations was examined. Among 115 low-income African American mothers, relationship of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and demanding kin relations with psychological control and stressful interpersonal relations was assessed. Depressive symptoms and demanding kin relations were positively associated with mothers' use of psychological control in parenting. Interaction of self-esteem with demanding kin relations revealed that self-esteem was negatively associated with psychological control for mothers with high-demanding kin relations but not for mothers with low-demanding kin relations. Mothers' depressive symptoms and demanding kin relations were positively associated with their stressful interpersonal relations. Findings were discussed in terms of the need for research on the beneficial and detrimental aspects of families' social network.

  14. The birds, the bees, and the Bible: single African American mothers' perceptions of a faith-based sexuality educaton program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Judith Bacchus

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study examined single mothers' ideas on the development of a faith-based sexuality program. Twenty African American single mothers with adolescent children (11 to 13 years of age) who were of the same faith and members of one church, participated in two focus groups about how a faith-based sexuality program could be designed and implemented. The findings call attention to the need for research on the design of faith-based sexuality education programs for ethnic minority families headed by single mothers.

  15. Prenatal representations of coparenting among unmarried first-time African American mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin-Butler, Vikki T; Engert, Tina; Markievitz, Meredith; Swenson, Camielle; McHale, James

    2012-09-01

    Results of semistructured interviews with 45 pregnant unmarried first-time African American mothers indicated a wide range of expectancies concerning the coparenting relationship they would develop with others once their baby arrived. Most common coparenting systems projected by respondents involved maternal grandmothers and/or the babies' fathers, though other caregivers were explicitly anticipated in a smaller number of cases. Multiperson coparenting systems were the norm, and only 2 of 45 respondents anticipated that they would be entirely on their own with no coparental system whatsoever. Qualitative analyses of mothers' narratives about postbaby coparenting systems revealed five main constructions: having thought about and anticipating coparenting, positive in outlook; having thought about and anticipating coparenting, but with mild concerns (conflict, unreliability); having thought about coparenting and anticipating limited or no support; having thought about coparenting and anticipating significant conflict and nonsupport; and having not thought much about coparenting, being neither focused on nor worried about this issue. Illustrations of each of these types are provided, and directions for family science and practice are discussed.

  16. Exploring story grammar structure in the book reading interactions of African American mothers and their preschool children: a pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Yvette R; Rothstein, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to identify the book reading behaviors and book reading styles of middle class African American mothers engaged in a shared book reading activity with their preschool children. To this end, the mothers and their children were videotaped reading one of three books, Julius, Grandfather and I, or Somewhere in Africa. Both maternal and child behaviors were coded for the frequency of occurrence of story grammar elements contained in their stories and maternal behaviors were also coded for their use of narrative eliciting strategies. In addition, mothers were queried about the quality and quantity of book reading/story telling interactions in the home environment. The results suggest that there is a great deal of individual variation in how mothers use the story grammar elements and narrative eliciting strategies to engage their children in a shared book reading activity. Findings are discussed in terms of suggestions for additional research and practical applications are offered on ways to optimally engage African American preschool children and African American families from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds in shared book reading interactions.

  17. Infant Feeding Decision-Making and the Influences of Social Support Persons Among First-Time African American Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiodu, Ifeyinwa V; Waters, Catherine M; Dailey, Dawn E; Lyndon, Audrey

    2017-04-01

    Background While breast milk is considered the gold standard of infant feeding, a majority of African American mothers are not exclusively breastfeeding their newborn infants. Objective The overall goal of this critical ethnographic research study was to describe infant feeding perceptions and experiences of African American mothers and their support persons. Methods Twenty-two participants (14 pregnant women and eight support persons) were recruited from public health programs and community based organizations in northern California. Data were collected through field observations, demographic questionnaires, and multiple in-person interviews. Thematic analysis was used to identify key themes. Results Half of the mothers noted an intention to exclusively breastfeed during the antepartum period. However, few mothers exclusively breastfed during the postpartum period. Many participants expressed guilt and shame for not being able to accomplish their antepartum goals. Life experiences and stressors, lack of breastfeeding role models, limited experiences with breastfeeding and lactation, and changes to the family dynamic played a major role in the infant feeding decision making process and breastfeeding duration. Conclusions for Practice Our observations suggest that while exclusivity goals were not being met, a considerable proportion of African American women were breastfeeding. Future interventions geared towards this population should include social media interventions, messaging around combination feeding, and increased education for identified social support persons. Public health measures aimed at reducing the current infant feeding inequities would benefit by also incorporating more culturally inclusive messaging around breastfeeding and lactation.

  18. A seven-year investigation of marital expectations and marriage among urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlander, Sarah E; Agostini, Wendy R Miller; Houston, Avril Melissa; Black, Maureen M

    2010-02-01

    Welfare reform has targeted marriage promotion among low-income women. This study explores patterns of marital expectations and marriage among 181 urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and their mothers. Using PROC TRAJ to analyze developmental trajectories of adolescent mother-grandmother relationship quality over 24 months, we categorized relationships as either high or low support. We examined the effects of intergenerational marriage models and adolescent mother-grandmother relationship quality on marital expectations and marriage over the first 7 years postpartum. At 24 months, half (52%) of adolescent mothers expected to marry, but marital expectations did not predict marriage. Marital expectations were associated with concurrent involvement in a romantic relationship, not intergenerational marriage models or a supportive adolescent mother-grandmother relationship. After 7 years, 14% of adolescent mothers were married. Married mothers lived in families characterized by the joint effects of intergenerational marriage models and supportive adolescent mother-grandmother relationships. They were older and had more children than did single mothers, suggesting that they were in a family formation phase of life. Policies that promote the education and employment opportunities necessary to support a family are needed.

  19. Socioeconomic status, parenting, and externalizing problems in African American single-mother homes: A person-oriented approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Margaret T; Jones, Deborah J; Youngstrom, Eric A

    2015-06-01

    African American youth, particularly those from single-mother homes, are overrepresented in statistics on externalizing problems. The family is a central context in which to understand externalizing problems; however, reliance on variable-oriented approaches to the study of parenting, which originate from work with intact, middle-income, European American families, may obscure important information regarding variability in parenting styles among African American single mothers, and in turn, variability in youth outcomes as well. The current study demonstrated that within African American single-mother families: (a) a person-, rather than variable-, oriented approach to measuring parenting style may further elucidate variability; (b) socioeconomic status may provide 1 context within which to understanding variability in parenting style; and (c) 1 marker of socioeconomic status, income, and parenting style may each explain variability in youth externalizing problems; however, the interaction between income and parenting style was not significant. Findings have potential implications for better understanding the specific contexts in which externalizing problems may be most likely to occur within this at-risk and underserved group.

  20. Breastfeeding among high-risk inner-city African-American mothers: a risky choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Lydia M; Banks, Elizabeth C; North, Angela B

    2013-02-01

    This study identified barriers to breastfeeding among high-risk inner-city African-American mothers. We used audiotaped focus groups moderated by an experienced International Board Certified Lactation Consultant, with recruitment supported by the community partner MomsFirst™ (Cleveland Department of Public Health, Cleveland, OH). Institutional Review Board approval and written informed consent were obtained. Notes-based analysis was conducted with use of a prior analytic structure called Factors Influencing Beliefs (FIBs), redefined with inclusion/exclusion criteria to address breastfeeding issues. Three focus groups included 20 high-risk inner-city expectant and delivered mothers. Relevant FIBs domains were as follows: Risk Appraisal, Self Perception, Relationship Issues/Social Support, and Structural/Environmental Factors. Risk Appraisal themes included awareness of benefits, fear of pain, misconceptions, and lack of information. Self Perception themes included low self-efficacy with fear of social isolation and limited expression of positive self-esteem. Relationship Issues/Social Support themes included formula as a cultural norm, worries about breastfeeding in public, and challenging family relationships. Structural/Environmental Factors themes included negative postpartum hospital experiences and lack of support after going home. Several findings have been previously reported, such as fear of pain with breastfeeding, but we identified new themes, including self-esteem and self-efficacy, and new concerns, for example, that large breasts would suffocate a breastfeeding infant. The FIBs analytic framework, as modified for breastfeeding issues, creates a context for future analysis and comparison of related studies and may be a useful tool to improve understanding of barriers to breastfeeding among high-risk inner-city women.

  1. "So we would all help pitch in:" The family literacy practices of low-income African American mothers of preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Robin L; Hamilton, Megan-Brette; Coba-Rodriguez, Sarai

    2015-01-01

    The development of emergent literacy skills are important for the development of later literacy competencies and affect school readiness. Quantitative researchers document race- and social class-based disparities in emergent literacy competence between low-income African American and middle-income White children. Some researchers suggest that deficits in parenting practices account for limited literacy skills among low-income African American children. A small body of qualitative research on low-income African American families finds that despite economic challenges, some African American families were actively engaged in promoting child literacy development. Using qualitative interviews that emphasize family strengths, we add to this small body of research to highlight positive family practices obscured in many quantitative analyses that concentrate on family shortcomings. Specifically, we examine in-home literacy practices and child literacy development with a sample of low-income African American mothers (families) of preschoolers. Key findings include identification of various literacy activities promoting child literacy development and inclusion of multiple family members assisting in literacy activities. These findings add to substantive discussions of emergent literacy and resilience. Insights from the qualitative interviews also provide culturally-sensitive recommendations to childhood educators and speech-language pathologists (SLP) who work with low-income African American families and children. Reader should recognize that (1) there is not a 'right' phenotype and therefore not a right form of environmental input and (2) that context matters (at both the level of the cell and the individual organism). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Self Views of African American Youth are Related to the Gender Stereotypes and Academic Attributions of Their Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Stephanie; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rouland, Karmen

    2013-01-01

    We examined relations among African American mothers' (N = 392) stereotypes about gender differences in mathematics, science, and reading performance, parents' attributions about their children's academic successes and failures, and their seventh and eighth grade children's academic self-views (domain-specific ability attributions and self-concept). Parents' stereotypes about gender differences in abilities were related to their ability attributions for their children's successes and failures within academic domains. Mothers' attributions, in turn, were related to children's attributions, particularly among girls. Mothers' attributions of their children's successes to domain-specific ability were related to the self-concepts of daughters, and failure attributions were related to domain-specific self-concepts of sons. The influences of parents' beliefs on young adolescents' identity beliefs are discussed.

  3. African American and White Mothers' Substance Abuse, Depression, and Criminality as Risk Factors for School Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-McKeever, Chedgzsey; Gao, Weihua

    2010-01-01

    School social workers are often responsible for developing and implementing programs to prevent school suspension, particularly for African American students, who are overrepresented among all students suspended. This article uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey to examine the relative roles of maternal substance and alcohol abuse,…

  4. The Impact of Mother-Daughter and Father-Daughter Relationships on Drug Refusal Self-Efficacy among African American Adolescent Girls in Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Kimberly; Ashcraft, Amie; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2006-01-01

    This study yielded interesting findings on the effect of mother-daughter and father-daughter relationships on drug refusal self-efficacy for urban African American girls between the ages of 11 and 14. The questionnaire consisted of assessments on the quality of the girls mother and father relationships and their perceived ability to refuse drugs.…

  5. Psychosocial Adjustment of Low-Income African American Youth from Single Mother Homes: The Role of the Youth-Coparent Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterrett, Emma M.; Jones, Deborah J.; Kincaid, Carlye

    2009-01-01

    African American youth from single mother homes are at greater risk for internalizing and externalizing problems relative to their peers from two-parent homes. Although the predominance of psychosocial research on these youth has focused on maternal parenting and mother-child relationship quality, far less attention has been devoted to the quality…

  6. Cigarette Smoking among African American Youth from Single Mother Homes: Examining the Roles of Maternal Smoking and Positive Parenting within an Extended Family Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Sarah E.; Zalot, Alecia A.; Jones, Deborah J.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the main and interactive effects of three family context variables, maternal smoking, positive parenting behavior, and the quality of the mother's relationship with another adult or family member who assists with parenting (i.e., coparent), and adolescent smoking among African American youth from single mother homes. The…

  7. Psychosocial Adjustment of Low-Income African American Youth from Single Mother Homes: The Role of the Youth-Coparent Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterrett, Emma M.; Jones, Deborah J.; Kincaid, Carlye

    2009-01-01

    African American youth from single mother homes are at greater risk for internalizing and externalizing problems relative to their peers from two-parent homes. Although the predominance of psychosocial research on these youth has focused on maternal parenting and mother-child relationship quality, far less attention has been devoted to the quality…

  8. A Within-Group Analysis of African American Mothers' Authoritarian Attitudes, Limit-Setting and Children's Self-Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCuyer, Elizabeth A; Swanson, Dena Phillips

    2017-03-01

    Research suggests that higher levels of authoritarian parenting exist in African American (AA) families than in European American (EA) families, and that authoritarian attitudes may be associated with more positive outcomes in AA families than EA families. However, less is known about authoritarian attitudes and children's development within AA families. This within-group study of 50 African American mothers and their 3-year-old children examined associations between maternal authoritarian attitudes, observed maternal limit-setting strategies, and children's self-regulation during a limit-setting interaction. The findings indicate that while AA families may hold more authoritarian attitudes than EA families, the direction of effect of authoritarian attitudes on children's outcomes appears to be the same in both ethnic groups. In this sample, when examining AA authoritarian attitudes relative to those of other AA mothers, less or lower authoritarian attitudes were associated with authoritative limit-setting behavior (firm limits within the context of overall warmth and responsiveness) and better children's self-regulation.

  9. Postpartum Depression among African-American and Latina Mothers Living in Small Cities, Towns, and Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Miguel; Wallace, Gail; Goodwin, Glenda

    2016-10-19

    The presence of postpartum depression can lead to poor maternal-child attachment, failure to thrive, and even infant death. Postpartum depression affects 13-19 % of parturients. However, among racial and ethnic minority parturients, postpartum depression rates have been shown to reach up to 35-67 % (as reported by O'Hara and McCabe, Annu Rev Clin Psychol 9:379-407, 2013; Boury et al., Women Health. 39(3):19-34, 2004; Ramos-Marcuse et al.. J Affect Disord. 122(1-2):68-75, 2010; Lucero et al., J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 24(12):726-34, 2012). This is more concerning when considering the fact that these mothers are also hardest to reach because they are usually marginalized and displaced within mainstream US society. The current study assesses potential risk factors that contribute to postpartum depression among African-American and Latina mothers. We analyze data from 3317 Healthy Start participants living in small cities, towns, and rural areas in Pennsylvania using a logistic regression analysis controlling for known contributing risk factors, including maternal health, family life, social support, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, and community of residence. We use a multiple imputation multivariate analysis to account for the potential effects of missing data. The results show that the odds of a risk of postpartum depression is nearly 80 and 40 % greater for African-American (OR = 1.80, p < .001) and Latina mothers (OR = 1.41, p < .01), respectively, as compared to white mothers. While the higher risks of postpartum depression for Latinas is explained in part by socioeconomic status, community of residence, and immigrant status, the significantly higher risk among African-American mothers cannot be completely ameliorated by the controlled variables. Our study highlights the need for further research into the impact of social and environmental stressors on postpartum depression among racial and ethnic minority populations living in small cities

  10. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  11. African-American Biography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ron

    1995-01-01

    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  12. "We Txt 2 Sty Cnnectd": An African American Mother and Son Communicate: Digital Literacies, Meaning-Making, and Activity Theory Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tisha Y.

    2013-01-01

    This research demonstrated how an African American mother and son communicated via texting and instant messaging at home. Data from a 2007 larger ethnographic case study of a family's digital literacy practices were collected and analyzed. Situated within the framework of New Literacy Studies and multimodality, this research explored: (a) how and…

  13. Maternal Distress Explains the Relationship of Young African American Mothers' Violence Exposure with Their Preschoolers' Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Lewin, Amy; Rasmussen, Andrew; Horn, Ivor B.; Joseph, Jill G.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent mothers and their children are particularly susceptible to witnessing or directly experiencing violence. Such violence exposure predicts maternal distress, parenting, and child behavior problems. The current study examined how mothers' depressive symptoms, aggression, harsh disciplinary practices, and home environment independently…

  14. Racial Socialization Messages and the Quality of Mother/Child Interactions in African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frabutt, James M.; Walker, Angela M.; MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Examined linkage between mothers' provision of racial socialization messages and communication, warmth, negativity, child monitoring, and involvement. Found that mothers with moderate frequency of proactive responses to discrimination items exhibited the most positivity, were most involved, monitored their child's activities the most, and…

  15. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  16. Parenting among low-income, African American single mothers with preschool-age children: patterns, predictors, and developmental correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGroder, S M

    2000-01-01

    Dimensions and patterns of parenting were examined in a sample of 193 low-income African American single mothers with preschool-age children. Factor analyses yielded three dimensions: Aggravation, Nurturance, and Cognitive Stimulation. Cluster analysis yielded four patterns of parenting: Aggravated but Nurturant; Cognitively Stimulating; Patient and Nurturant; and Low Nurturance. Discriminant function analysis was used to predict membership in each of the four parenting clusters. Two composite functions emerged, the first representing maternal well-being (locus of control, depressive symptoms), the second representing sociodemographic characteristics (maternal education, duration on welfare, age at first birth), accounting for 93% of between-groups variability. Children's scores on measures of cognitive school readiness and personal maturity were significantly related to parenting pattern, even after controlling for significant predictors of parenting pattern; children's verbal ability was no longer related to parenting pattern once significant maternal characteristics were controlled. Findings are discussed in terms of contributions to the literature on parenting and in terms of implications for welfare policy and programs.

  17. African Americans in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains research and expository papers by African-American mathematicians on issues related to their involvement in the mathematical sciences. Little is known, taught, or written about African-American mathematicians. Information is lacking on their past and present contributions and on the qualitative and quantitative nature of their existence in and distribution throughout mathematics. This lack of information leads to a number of questions that have to date remained unanswered. This volume provides details and pointers to help answer some of these questions. Features: Research articles by distinguished African-American mathematicians. Accomplishments of African-American researchers in the mathematical sciences. Articles that explore issues important to the African-American community and to the mathematics community as a whole. Inspiration for African-American students who wish to pursue advancement in the mathematical sciences.

  18. Guilt Trips and Love Withdrawal: Does Mothers' Use of Psychological Control Predict Depressive Symptoms among African American Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani; Pikes, Crysta L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of maternal psychological control on the depressive symptoms of 152 lower socioeconomic status African American adolescents. After controlling for the effects of other parenting practices, psychological control had a strong positive relationship with girls' depressive symptoms, but none for boys, even though the 2…

  19. Grandmothers, fathers and depressive symptoms are associated with food insecurity among low income first-time African-American mothers in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraia, Barbara A.; Borja, Judith B.; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2009-01-01

    African Americans experience household food insecurity—the limited availability of nutritionally adequate and safe food, or ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways—at three times the rate of non-Hispanic whites. Thirty percent of all African American children live in food insecurity households. The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics associated with household food insecurity among a high risk postpartum population. 206 low-income, African-American mother-infant dyads were recruited through WIC clinics. The six-item USDA food security scale was used to classify households as food secure, marginally food secure or food insecure. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the association between selected maternal/household characteristics and household food security status. Fifty-three percent of households were food secure, 34% were marginally food secure and 13% were food insecure. Maternal education less than college (Relative Risk Ratio = 0.46, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.22, 0.98) was inversely associated with marginal food security. Depressive symptoms (RRR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.16) and having the baby’s father in the household (RRR = 3.46, 95% CI: 1.22, 9.82) were associated with household food insecurity, while having a grandmother in the household (RRR = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.80) was inversely associated with experiencing household food insecurity. Findings from this study suggest that young low-income African American families with only one child are particularly susceptible to experiencing household food insecurity. Intergenerational support and transfer of knowledge may be a key protective attribute among low-income African American households. PMID:19465186

  20. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...

  1. Association of Demanding Kin Relations With Psychological Distress and School Achievement Among Low-Income, African American Mothers and Adolescents: Moderating Effects of Family Routine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald D

    2016-12-01

    Association of demanding kin relations and family routine with adolescents' psychological distress and school achievement was assessed among 200 low-income, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations were significantly associated with adolescents' psychological distress. Family routine was significantly related to adolescents' school achievement. Demanding kin relations were negatively associated with school achievement for adolescents from families low in routine, but unrelated to achievement for adolescents in families high in routine. Additional research is needed on poor families and their social networks. © 2015 The Author. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2015 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  2. An African American Mother's Stories as T.M.I.: M.N.I., Ethics, and Vulnerability around Traumatic Narratives in Digital Literacy Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tisha Lewis Ellison Ph.D.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how an African American mother's affinity for digital tools relates to her telling of traumatic narratives, and how the very personal information contained in such narratives often problematizes the methodology of reporting qualitative research methods. These tensions include the concept of T.M.I. in qualitative research, as well as related ethical issues such as participant vulnerability, informed consent, and risks and benefits. This work addresses three key roles relevant to T.M.I.: that of the participant, the researcher, and the journal reviewer. It also provides researchers with various recommendations for conducting unconventional, agentic, and activist research.

  3. Self Views of African American Youth are Related to the Gender Stereotypes and Academic Attributions of Their Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Rowley, Stephanie; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rouland, Karmen

    2012-01-01

    We examined relations among African American mothers’ (N = 392) stereotypes about gender differences in mathematics, science, and reading performance, parents’ attributions about their children’s academic successes and failures, and their seventh and eighth grade children’s academic self-views (domain-specific ability attributions and self-concept). Parents’ stereotypes about gender differences in abilities were related to their ability attributions for their children’s successes and failures...

  4. Confirmatory factor analysis and measurement invariance of the Child Feeding Questionnaire in low-income Hispanic and African-American mothers with preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Angela; Vijayasiri, Ganga; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Schiffer, Linda A; Campbell, Richard T

    2015-07-01

    Validation work of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) in low-income minority samples suggests a need for further conceptual refinement of this instrument. Using confirmatory factor analysis, this study evaluated 5- and 6-factor models on a large sample of African-American and Hispanic mothers with preschool-age children (n = 962). The 5-factor model included: 'perceived responsibility', 'concern about child's weight', 'restriction', 'pressure to eat', and 'monitoring' and the 6-factor model also tested 'food as a reward'. Multi-group analysis assessed measurement invariance by race/ethnicity. In the 5-factor model, two low-loading items from 'restriction' and one low-variance item from 'perceived responsibility' were dropped to achieve fit. Only removal of the low-variance item was needed to achieve fit in the 6-factor model. Invariance analyses demonstrated differences in factor loadings. This finding suggests African-American and Hispanic mothers may vary in their interpretation of some CFQ items and use of cognitive interviews could enhance item interpretation. Our results also demonstrated that 'food as a reward' is a plausible construct among a low-income minority sample and adds to the evidence that this factor resonates conceptually with parents of preschoolers; however, further testing is needed to determine the validity of this factor with older age groups.

  5. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by ... and eventually, in developing more effective treatments. Does glaucoma treatment differ? Although treatment varies for all individuals, ...

  6. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  7. Narcolepsy in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Makoto; O'Hara, Ruth; Einen, Mali; Lin, Ling; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    Although narcolepsy affects 0.02-0.05% of individuals in various ethnic groups, clinical presentation in different ethnicities has never been fully characterized. Our goal was to study phenotypic expression across ethnicities in the United States. Cases of narcolepsy from 1992 to 2013 were identified from searches of the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Research database. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition diagnosis criteria for type 1 and type 2 narcolepsy were used for inclusion, but subjects were separated as with and without cataplexy for the purpose of data presentation. Information extracted included demographics, ethnicity and clinical data, HLA-DQB1*06:02, polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) data, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 level. 182 African-Americans, 839 Caucasians, 35 Asians, and 41 Latinos with narcolepsy. Sex ratio, PSG, and MSLT findings did not differ across ethnicities. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was higher and age of onset of sleepiness earlier in African Americans compared with other ethnicities. HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity was higher in African Americans (91.0%) versus others (76.6% in Caucasians, 80.0% in Asians, and 65.0% in Latinos). CSF hypocretin-1 level, obtained in 222 patients, was more frequently low (≤ 110 pg/ml) in African Americans (93.9%) versus Caucasians (61.5%), Asians (85.7%) and Latinos (75.0%). In subjects with low CSF hypocretin-1, African Americans (28.3%) were 4.5 fold more likely to be without cataplexy when compared with Caucasians (8.1%). Narcolepsy in African Americans is characterized by earlier symptom onset, higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, higher HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity, and low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 level in the absence of cataplexy. In African Americans, more subjects without cataplexy have type 1 narcolepsy. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  8. Self Views of African American Youth are Related to the Gender Stereotypes and Academic Attributions of Their Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Stephanie; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rouland, Karmen

    2012-01-01

    We examined relations among African American mothers’ (N = 392) stereotypes about gender differences in mathematics, science, and reading performance, parents’ attributions about their children’s academic successes and failures, and their seventh and eighth grade children’s academic self-views (domain-specific ability attributions and self-concept). Parents’ stereotypes about gender differences in abilities were related to their ability attributions for their children’s successes and failures within academic domains. Mothers’ attributions, in turn, were related to children’s attributions, particularly among girls. Mothers’ attributions of their children’s successes to domain-specific ability were related to the self-concepts of daughters, and failure attributions were related to domain-specific self-concepts of sons. The influences of parents’ beliefs on young adolescents’ identity beliefs are discussed. PMID:23878519

  9. Mental Health and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  10. Coccidioidomycosis in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddy, Barbara E.; Mayer, Anita P.; Ko, Marcia G.; Labonte, Helene R.; Borovansky, Jill A.; Boroff, Erika S.; Blair, Janis E.

    2011-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is caused by Coccidioides species, a fungus endemic to the desert regions of the southwestern United States, and is of particular concern for African Americans. We performed a PubMed search of the English-language medical literature on coccidioidomycosis in African Americans and summarized the pertinent literature. Search terms were coccidioidomycosis, Coccidioides, race, ethnicity, African, black, and Negro. The proceedings of the national and international coccidioidomycosis symposia were searched. All relevant articles and their cited references were reviewed; those with epidemiological, immunologic, clinical, and therapeutic data pertaining to coccidioidomycosis in African Americans were included in the review. Numerous studies documented an increased predilection for severe coccidioidal infections, coccidioidomycosis-related hospitalizations, and extrapulmonary dissemination in persons of African descent; however, most of the published studies are variably problematic. The immunologic mechanism for this predilection is unclear. The clinical features and treatment recommendations are summarized. Medical practitioners need to be alert to the possibility of coccidioidomycosis in persons with recent travel to or residence in an area where the disease is endemic. PMID:21193657

  11. African American Diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. With regard to all historic migrations (forced and voluntary, the African Union defined the African diaspora as "[consisting] of people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union." Its constitutive act declares that it shall "invite and encourage the full participation of the African diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union." Keywords: literature concepts, African American abstracts

  12. Teen motherhood and pregnancy prototypes: the role of social context in changing young African American mothers' risk images and contraceptive expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ashley B; Simons, Ronald L; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg

    2013-12-01

    Despite the declining rate of teen pregnancies in the United States, academic and public health experts have expressed concern over the still relatively high rate of rapid repeat pregnancies among adolescents, particularly among minority youth. Using a sample of over 300 African American female adolescents, the current study used insights from the prototype/willingness model of adolescent risk behavior to explore this risk. More specifically, it assessed the relationship between entry into unwed motherhood during mid-to-late adolescence and changes in prototypes of unmarried pregnant teens. Further, it explored the extent to which these changing prototypes accounted for young mothers' later contraceptive expectations. We tested the possibility that social images were affected not only by personal experience (the birth of a child) but also by the family and community context in which this experience took place. The findings show that the early entrance into teen motherhood was associated with a shift toward more favorable prototypes of unwed pregnant teens, but that this was only the case for young mothers in disadvantaged contexts. Given this, prototype changes helped to explain the link between teen motherhood and contraceptive expectations only for those in disadvantaged contexts. We discuss these findings in terms of their practical and theoretical implications.

  13. Assessment of interactions between PAH exposure and genetic polymorphisms on PAH-DNA adducts in African American, Dominican, and Caucasian mothers and newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Chanock, Stephen; Tang, Deliang; Li, Zhigang; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica P

    2008-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are widespread pollutants commonly found in air, food, and drinking water. Benzo[a]pyrene is a well-studied representative PAH found in air from fossil fuel combustion and a transplacental carcinogen experimentally. PAHs bind covalently to DNA to form DNA adducts, an indicator of DNA damage, and an informative biomarker of potential cancer risk. Associations between PAH-DNA adduct levels and both cancer risk and developmental deficits have been seen in previous experimental and epidemiologic studies. Several genes have been shown to play an important role in the metabolic activation or detoxification of PAHs, including the cytochrome P450 genes CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and the glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes GSTM1, and GSTT2. Genetic variation in these genes could influence susceptibility to adverse effects of PAHs in polluted air. Here, we have explored interactions between prenatal PAH exposure and 17 polymorphisms in these genes (rs2198843, rs1456432, rs4646903, rs4646421, rs2606345, rs7495708, rs2472299, rs162549, rs1056837, rs1056836, rs162560, rs10012, rs2617266, rs2719, rs1622002, rs140194, and gene deletion GSTM1-02) and haplotypes on PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood of 547 newborns and in maternal blood of 806 mothers from three different self-described ethnic groups: African Americans, Dominicans, and Caucasians. PAHs were measured by personal air monitoring of mothers during pregnancy. Significant interactions (p < 0.05) were observed between certain genetic polymorphisms and CYP1A1 haplotype and PAHs in mothers and their newborns in the three ethnic groups. However, with our limited sample size, the current findings are suggestive only, warranting further study.

  14. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  15. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  16. Why are Chinese Mothers More Controlling than American Mothers? “My Child is My Report Card”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Deng, Ciping

    2013-01-01

    Chinese parents exert more control over children than do American parents. The current research examined whether this is due in part to Chinese parents' feelings of worth being more contingent on children's performance. Twice over a year, 215 mothers and children (mean age = 12.86 years) in China and the United States (European and African Americans) reported on psychologically controlling parenting. Mothers also indicated the extent to which their worth is contingent on children's performance. Psychologically controlling parenting was higher among Chinese than American mothers, particularly European (vs. African) American mothers. Chinese (vs. American) mothers' feelings of worth were more contingent on children's performance, with this contributing to their heightened psychological control relative to American mothers. PMID:23581633

  17. Mother-Child Dyadic Synchrony in European American and African American Families during Early Adolescence: Relations with Self-Esteem and Prosocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Eric W.; Colwell, Malinda J.; Frabutt, James M.; Chambers, Jessica Campbell; MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Mother-child relationships characterized by dyadic synchrony, a mutually responsive and interconnected interaction style, have been consistently linked to children's psychosocial adjustment in early childhood, but it is unclear whether such interaction patterns remain conducive to positive outcomes in early adolescence. The aim of the present…

  18. Mother-Child Dyadic Synchrony in European American and African American Families during Early Adolescence: Relations with Self-Esteem and Prosocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Eric W.; Colwell, Malinda J.; Frabutt, James M.; Chambers, Jessica Campbell; MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Mother-child relationships characterized by dyadic synchrony, a mutually responsive and interconnected interaction style, have been consistently linked to children's psychosocial adjustment in early childhood, but it is unclear whether such interaction patterns remain conducive to positive outcomes in early adolescence. The aim of the present…

  19. Discipline behaviors of Chinese American and European American mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulei, Elaine; Zevenbergen, Andrea A; Jacobs, Sue C

    2006-09-01

    In any society, parenting beliefs are a reflection of that society's cultural values and traditions (J. U. Ogbu, 1981). Verbosity, a parenting behavior considered dysfunctional in European American culture, may not be problematic in Chinese culture. The authors recruited 31 Chinese American and 30 European American mothers and used questionnaires to measure parenting behaviors and child behavior problems. The Chinese American mothers also completed a questionnaire assessing their acculturation level. The Chinese American mothers had higher levels of verbosity than did the European American mothers; however, there were no differences between the groups in child behavior problems. The results also revealed higher levels of laxness in the Chinese American mothers compared to the European American mothers. Acculturation level did not predict verbosity or laxness levels. Results suggest that the effectiveness of a parenting style should be defined relative to cultural context.

  20. Parental Attachment, Self-Esteem, and Antisocial Behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbona, Consuelo; Power, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relation of mother and father attachment to self-esteem and self-reported involvement in antisocial behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American high school students. Findings indicated that adolescents from the 3 ethnic/racial groups did not differ greatly in their reported attachment. (Contains 70…

  1. Parental Attachment, Self-Esteem, and Antisocial Behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbona, Consuelo; Power, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relation of mother and father attachment to self-esteem and self-reported involvement in antisocial behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American high school students. Findings indicated that adolescents from the 3 ethnic/racial groups did not differ greatly in their reported attachment. (Contains 70…

  2. African American families' expectations and intentions for mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard; Dancy, Barbara L; Wiley, Tisha R A; Najdowski, Cynthia J; Perry, Sylvia P; Wallis, Jason; Mekawi, Yara; Knafl, Kathleen A

    2013-09-01

    A cross-sectional qualitative descriptive design was used to examine the links among expectations about, experiences with, and intentions toward mental health services. Individual face-to-face interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 32 African American youth/mothers dyads. Content analysis revealed that positive expectations were linked to positive experiences and intentions, that negative expectations were not consistently linked to negative experiences or intentions, nor were ambivalent expectations linked to ambivalent experiences or intentions. Youth were concerned about privacy breeches and mothers about the harmfulness of psychotropic medication. Addressing these concerns may promote African Americans' engagement in mental health services.

  3. African American Health PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but it’s still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 5/2/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/2/2017.

  4. African American Teaching and the Matriarchal Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes

    This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…

  5. Increasing Reading Engagement in African American Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husband, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written concerning the challenges many teachers face in engaging African American males in reading practices. While much of this extant scholarship focuses on African American males at the pre-adolescent stage of development and beyond, little has been written regarding increasing reading engagement in African American boys in P-5…

  6. Classic African American Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  7. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance Among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Family history of breast cancer  specifically mother or sister diagnosed with breast cancer  Not the same as genetic risk for breast cancer...treatment. Table 5 presents sociodemographic variables for the first 20 SIS participants. The majority of participants were African American, unmarried

  8. Early Pregnancy and Academic Achievement of African-American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Loretta Pinkard

    1992-01-01

    Case studies of 10 unmarried, African-American adolescent mothers at risk of dropping out of school are presented, revealing the stressful situations created by competing demands of school and home. Educational deficits that existed prior to pregnancy and their influence on contraceptive behavior and pregnancy resolution are noted. Intervention…

  9. Concepts of Healthful Food among Low-Income African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane; Keim, Kathryn; Koneman, Sylvia A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Describe beliefs about what makes foods healthful among low-income African American women. Methods: In one-on-one interviews, 28 low-income African American mothers viewed 30 pairs of familiar foods and explained which food in the pair was more healthful and why. Responses were grouped into codes describing concepts of food…

  10. Parental Involvement Promotes Rural African American Youths Self-Pride and Sexual Self-Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride Murry, V.; Brody, Gene H.; McNair, Lily D.; Luo, Zupei; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Wills, Thomas Ashby

    2005-01-01

    This study, an evaluation of the Strong African American Families Program, was designed to determine whether intervention-induced changes in targeted parenting behaviors were associated with young adolescents development of racial pride, self-esteem, and sexual identity. Participants were 332 African American mothers and their 11-year-old children…

  11. My Mother and Me: Why Tiger Mothers Motivate Asian Americans But Not European Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Alyssa S; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2014-06-01

    "Tiger Mother" Amy Chua provoked a culture clash with her claim that controlling parenting in Asian American (AA) contexts produces more successful children than permissive parenting in European American (EA) contexts. At the heart of this controversy is a difference in the normative models of self that guide behavior. Ideas and practices prevalent in AA contexts emphasize that the person is and should be interdependent with one's close others, especially one's mother. In contrast, EA contexts emphasize the person as independent, even from one's mother. We find that AA compared with EA high school students experience more interdependence with their mothers and pressure from them, but that the pressure does not strain their relationship with their mothers. Furthermore, following failure, AAs compared with EAs are more motivated by their mothers, and AAs are particularly motivated by pressure from their mothers when it conveys interdependence.

  12. African American girls and the challenges ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L

    2002-01-01

    The research on the psychosocial development of African American girls is limited. Information that is available focuses on teen pregnancy and health issues such as nutrition and physical activity. African American girls are facing challenges, including poverty, crime, poor self-esteem, and peer pressure. Despite some of the negative characteristics attributed to African American girls, many are achieving some success. Policy makers and service providers need to recognize the resiliency and unique needs of African American girls and develop services that ensure their needs are being fully met.

  13. Female genital mutilation in African and African American women's literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Marinšek

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.

  14. Cultural aspects of African American eating patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airhihenbuwa, C O; Kumanyika, S; Agurs, T D; Lowe, A; Saunders, D; Morssink, C B

    1996-09-01

    The high mortality from diet-related diseases among African Americans strongly suggests a need to adopt diets lower in total fat, saturated fat and salt and higher in fiber. However, such changes would be contrary to some traditional African American cultural practices. Focus group interviews were used to explore cultural aspects of eating patterns among low- and middle-income African Americans recruited from an urban community in Pennsylvania. In total, 21 males and 32 females, aged 13-65+ years were recruited using a networking technique. Participants identified eating practices commonly attributed to African Americans and felt that these were largely independent of socioeconomic status. They were uncertain about links between African American eating patterns and African origins but clear about influences of slavery and economic disadvantage. The perception that African American food patterns were characteristically adaptive to external conditions, suggest that, for effective dietary change in African American communities, changes in the food availability will need to precede or take place in parallel with changes recommended to individuals. Cultural attitudes about where and with whom food is eaten emerged as being equivalent in importance to attitudes about specific foods. These findings emphasize the importance of continued efforts to identify ways to increase the relevance of cultural context and meanings in dietary counseling so that health and nutrition interventions are anchored in values as perceived, in this case, by African Americans.

  15. Native American Languages as Heritage Mother Tongues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Teresa L.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines current efforts to revitalise, stabilise, and maintain Indigenous languages in the USA. Most Native American languages are no longer acquired as a first language by children. They are nonetheless languages of identity and heritage, and in this sense can and should be considered mother tongues. The article begins with a…

  16. Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

  17. Improving African American Achievement in Geometry Honors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, Adrian B.

    2010-01-01

    This case study evaluated the significance of implementing an enrichment mathematics course during the summer to rising African American ninth graders entitled, "Geometry Honors Preview." In the past, 60 to 70 percent of African American students in this school district had withdrawn from Geometry Honors by the second academic quarter. This study…

  18. A Mirror Image African American Student Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon Dawson, Candice

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…

  19. Hidden Education among African Americans during Slavery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundaker, Grey

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: Historical studies examine aspects of African American education in and out of school in detail (Woodson 1915, 1933, Bullock 1970, Anderson 1988, Morris 1982, Rachal 1986, Rose 1964, Webber 1978, Williams 2005). Scholars of African American literacy have noted ways that education intersects other arenas such as religion and…

  20. African American Teachers and Culturally Relevant Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Michele

    An overview is presented of research on African American teachers, addressing the large body of literature written by policy analysts, first-person narratives, and the sociological and anthropological literature. Policy research has identified the small number of African American teachers and has studied some reasons for this shortage and some of…

  1. Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Investigate Meaningful Prenatal Care Among African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nypaver, Cynthia F; Shambley-Ebron, Donna

    2016-11-01

    In the United States, African American babies die more than twice as often as White babies. The cause for this difference remains elusive, yet is likely complex with one factor being inadequate cultural care of pregnant African American women. The purpose of this study was to explore African American women's perspectives of meaningful prenatal care. Community-based participatory research was employed for this study using photovoice. The sample included 11 African American mothers in an urban community in Midwestern United States. Five themes were abstracted from the data: (1) Access to Care; (2) Soul Nourishment; (3) Companionship; (4) Help Me, Teach Me; and (5) The Future. Meaningful prenatal care is influenced by culture. African American women need physical, social, and soulful support to enhance meaningfulness of care during pregnancy. The findings support that meaningfulness of prenatal care for African American women may be enhanced by accessible and uniquely designed, culturally congruent models of prenatal care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. African Americans and the medical establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C

    1999-09-01

    The African American community's response to the AIDS epidemic has reflected the profound mistrust of the medical establishment which many African Americans feel. Among African Americans, the belief that the epidemic originated in a genocidal plot is widespread. It is thought that organized medicine has been significantly involved in this plot. If we look at African Americans' historical relationship to the medical establishment from the era of slavery to the recent past, the suspicious attitudes which make such beliefs possible can be seen as an intelligible response to a new disease which disproportionately affects African Americans. Successful medical and public health responses to the epidemic have depended and will continue to depend upon overcoming the historical legacy of suspicion and gaining the trust of the community.

  3. Middle-Class African American Families' Expectations for Adolescents' Behavioural Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddis, Christopher; Smetana, Judith

    2005-01-01

    Timetables for adolescents' behavioural autonomy were examined using a modified version of Feldman and Quatman's (1988) teen timetable measure with 73 middle-class African American middle adolescents (M age = 14.96 years, SD = 1.29) and their parents (73 mothers and 44 fathers), who were followed longitudinally for 3 years. African American…

  4. Discrimination Concerns and Expectations as Explanations for Gendered Socialization in African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Fatima; Mandara, Jelani

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination concerns and parental expectations were examined as mediators of the relations between gender and parenting practices among 796 African American mothers of 11- to 14-year-olds from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study. Mothers of sons had more concerns about racial discrimination impacting their adolescents' future,…

  5. Middle-Class African American Parents' Conceptions of Parenting in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith; Chuang, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Examined conceptions of parenting among middle-class African American parents of early adolescents. Found that parents strongly endorsed setting firm limits. Mothers rated limiting adolescents' behavior as more important than permitting or encouraging independence. Mothers of younger adolescent females viewed limits as more important than mothers…

  6. Discrimination Concerns and Expectations as Explanations for Gendered Socialization in African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Fatima; Mandara, Jelani

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination concerns and parental expectations were examined as mediators of the relations between gender and parenting practices among 796 African American mothers of 11- to 14-year-olds from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study. Mothers of sons had more concerns about racial discrimination impacting their adolescents' future,…

  7. Workplace discrimination predicting racial/ethnic socialization across African American, Latino, and Chinese families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelskamp, Carolin; Hughes, Diane L

    2014-10-01

    Informed by Kohn and Schooler's (1969) occupational socialization framework, this study examined linkages between racial/ethnic minority mothers' perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination in the workplace and adolescents' accounts of racial/ethnic socialization in the home. Data were collected from 100 mother-early adolescent dyads who participated in a longitudinal study of urban adolescents' development in the Northeastern United States, including African American, Latino, and Chinese families. Mothers and adolescents completed surveys separately. We found that when mothers reported more frequent institutional discrimination at work, adolescents reported more frequent preparation for bias messages at home, across racial/ethnic groups. Mothers' experiences of interpersonal prejudice at work were associated with more frequent cultural socialization messages among African American and Latino families. Chinese youth reported fewer cultural socialization messages when mothers perceived more frequent interpersonal prejudice at work. Findings are discussed in the context of minority groups' distinct social histories and economic status in the United States.

  8. African names for American plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.

    2015-01-01

    African slaves brought plant knowledge to the New World, sometimes applying it to related plants they found there and sometimes bringing Old World plants with them. By tracing the linguistic parallels between names for plants in African languages and in communities descended from African slaves, pie

  9. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Catherine C; Falchi, Lorenzo; Weinberg, J Brice; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Lanasa, Mark C

    2012-11-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent leukemia in the United States with almost 4390 attributable deaths per year. Epidemiologic data compiled by the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program identifies important differences in incidence and survival for African Americans with CLL. Although the incidence of CLL is lower among African Americans than among Caucasians (4.6 and 6.2 per 100 000 men, respectively), age-adjusted survival is inferior. African American patients with CLL are almost twice as likely to die from a CLL-related complication in the first 5 years after diagnosis as are Caucasian patients with CLL. The biologic basis for these observations is almost entirely unexplored, and a comprehensive clinical analysis of African American patients with CLL is lacking. This is the subject of the present review.

  10. The roles of respect for parental authority and parenting practices in parent-child conflict among African American, Latino, and European American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Sara Villanueva; Graber, Julia A; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2008-02-01

    In this study, the authors examined whether parent-child conflict during the middle childhood years varied among families characterized as having different cultural traditions regarding issues of respect for parental authority and parenting practices. The sample included 133 African American, European American, and Latina girls (M age = 8.41 years) and their mothers. African American and Latina girls showed significantly more respect for parental authority than did European American girls. Furthermore, African American and Latina mothers reported significantly more intense arguments when respect was low than did European American mothers. Higher levels of discipline and better communication by mothers were both associated with reports of lower frequency of conflict; ethnicity did not moderate this association. Thus, respect for authority was most salient to group differences in conflict.

  11. Revisiting safe sleep recommendations for African-American infants: why current counseling is insufficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, Laura M; Blake, Sarah C; Gazmararian, Julie A; Woodruff, Whitney; Thompson, Winifred W; Dalmida, Safiya George

    2015-03-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children be placed in the supine position on firm bedding and not bed share with parents or other children. Health professionals increasingly understand that many African-American parents do not follow these recommendations, but little research exists on provider reactions to this non-compliance. This study was intended to better understand how low-income, African-American mothers understand and act upon safe sleep recommendations for newborns and how providers counsel these mothers. We conducted focus groups with 60 African-American, low-income, first-time mothers and telephone interviews with 20 providers serving these populations to explore provider counseling and patient decision making. The large majority of mothers reported understanding, but not following, the safe-sleeping recommendations. Key reasons for non-compliance included perceived safety, convenience, quality of infant sleep and conflicting information from family members. Mothers often take measures intended to mitigate risk associated with noncompliance, instead increasing SIDS risk. Providers recognize that many mothers are non-compliant and attribute non-compliance largely to cultural and familial influence. However, few provider attempts are made to mitigate SIDS risks from non-compliant behaviors. We suggest that counseling strategies should be adapted to: (1) provide greater detailed rationale for SIDS prevention recommendations; and (2) incorporate or acknowledge familial and cultural preferences. Ignoring the reasons for sleep decisions by African-American parents may perpetuate ongoing racial/ethnic disparities in SIDS.

  12. Adolescent Sexuality and Culture: South African Mothers` Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been a practice in African societies for adolescents to be educated about ... parents and children report that they do not talk to each other about sex (George & ... sought to investigate the influence of culture in mothers' expected role of ...

  13. School Counseling for African American Adolescents: The Alfred Adler Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Marty

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…

  14. School Counseling for African American Adolescents: The Alfred Adler Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Marty

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…

  15. Research with African Americans: Lessons Learned about Recruiting African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Angela D.; Huang, Hsin-Hsin; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The authors briefly explore literature related to recruiting African American research participants, reflect on their experiences conducting body image research with a sample of African American college women in an earlier study (S. Kashubeck-West et al., 2008), and discuss some methodological and cultural challenges that they encountered during…

  16. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Tesia Denis

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest…

  17. Prevalence of Stuttering in African American Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Adele; Yairi, Ehud; Duff, Melissa C.; Zhang, Jie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors sought to determine the prevalence of stuttering in African American (AA) 2- to 5-year-olds as compared with same-age European Americans (EAs). Method: A total of 3,164 children participated: 2,223 AAs and 941 EAs. Data were collected using a 3-pronged approach that included investigators' individual…

  18. African-American Women in History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ron

    1994-01-01

    Describes two reference books suitable for middle/junior high school library media centers that present information about African-American women and suggests activities for Afro-American History Month. Library media skills objectives, social studies and art objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, activities and procedures,…

  19. Prevalence of Stuttering in African American Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Adele; Yairi, Ehud; Duff, Melissa C.; Zhang, Jie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors sought to determine the prevalence of stuttering in African American (AA) 2- to 5-year-olds as compared with same-age European Americans (EAs). Method: A total of 3,164 children participated: 2,223 AAs and 941 EAs. Data were collected using a 3-pronged approach that included investigators' individual…

  20. Home Literacy Environment of African American Head Start Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janese Daniels

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have documented culturally specific family literacy practices in which low-income families engage, which are often a function of the context in which the family is currently embedded.  These practices are well documented in ethnographic literature. Although this evidence exists, its utility is limited due to small sample sizes and lack of quantitative documentation on their contribution to children’s language and literacy development.  This study attempted to quantify those culturally specific family literacy practices.  51 low-income African-American mother-child dyads participated.  The contribution of multiple literacy practices was examined in relation to child language and literacy outcomes.  Most low-income African-American families engaged in multiple literacy practices.  Recommended areas for future research directions are discussed.

  1. Home Literacy Environment of African American Head Start Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janese Daniels

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Researchers have documented culturally specific family literacy practices in which low-income families engage, which are often a function of the context in which the family is currently embedded.  These practices are well documented in ethnographic literature. Although this evidence exists, its utility is limited due to small sample sizes and lack of quantitative documentation on their contribution to children’s language and literacy development.  This study attempted to quantify those culturally specific family literacy practices.  51 low-income African-American mother-child dyads participated.  The contribution of multiple literacy practices was examined in relation to child language and literacy outcomes.  Most low-income African-American families engaged in multiple literacy practices.  Recommended areas for future research directions are discussed.

  2. Bessie Coleman, First African American Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    1921-01-01

    Born on January 26, 1892 in Atlanta, Texas to a family of sharecroppers, Bessie Coleman grew up in poverty. Her father abandoned the family when she was nine, and her elder brothers soon left as well, leaving her mother with the four youngest of her thirteen children. While taking care of her younger sisters, Bessie completed all eight available years of primary education, excelling in math. She enrolled at the Colored Agricultural and Normal University in Langston, Oklahoma in 1910, but lack of funds forced her to leave after only one term. Five years later, she left the South and moved to Chicago to join two of her brothers, Walter and John, where she worked as a beautician for several years. An avid reader, she learned about World War I pilots in the newspaper and became intrigued by the prospect of flying. As a black woman, she had no chance of acceptance at any American pilot school, so she moved to France in 1919 and enrolled at the Ecole d'Aviation des Freres Caudon at Le Crotoy. After returning briefly to the United States, she spent one more term in France practicing more advanced flying before finally settling back in her birth country. She did exhibition flying and gave lectures across the country from 1922 to 1926. While flying, she refused to perform unless the audiences were desegregated. She was test flying a new plane on April 30, 1926 when it malfunctioned, killing both her and the mechanic who was piloting it. Her career as the world's first African American pilot inspired many who followed.

  3. Cues used for distinguishing African American and European American voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Erik R.; Lass, Norman J.

    2005-04-01

    Past studies have shown that listeners can distinguish most African American and European American voices, but how they do so is poorly understood. Three experiments were designed to investigate this problem. Recordings of African American and European American college students performing various reading tasks were used as the basis for stimuli in all three. In the first experiment, stimuli were subjected to monotonization, lowpass filtering at 660 Hz, and no modification. In the second, stimuli featuring certain ethnically diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were subjected to monotonization, conversion of vowels to schwa, or no modification. In the third, stimuli featuring diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were modified so that the intonation of paired African American and European American speakers was swapped. In all three experiments, African American and European American listeners in North Carolina and European American listeners in West Virginia identified the ethnicity of the speaker of each stimulus. Vowel quality emerged as the most consistent cue for identifications. However, listeners accessed other cues differently for male and female speakers. Breathiness was correlated with identifications of male speakers but not of female speakers. F0-related factors proved more important for female speakers than for male speakers. [Work supported by NSF.

  4. An Online Evaluation of a Website Featuring a Brief Electronic Media E-Health Educational Intervention to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Physical Activity among African American Mothers and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    African-American youth experience disproportionate rates of childhood obesity compared to their White counterparts. Culturally tailored electronic media solutions hold the potential to overcome health literacy and health communication barriers. This study aimed to identify the impact of exposure to a new website portal…

  5. An Online Evaluation of a Website Featuring a Brief Electronic Media E-Health Educational Intervention to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Physical Activity among African American Mothers and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    African-American youth experience disproportionate rates of childhood obesity compared to their White counterparts. Culturally tailored electronic media solutions hold the potential to overcome health literacy and health communication barriers. This study aimed to identify the impact of exposure to a new website portal…

  6. Immigrant Parents' Involvement in American Schools: Perspectives from Korean Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Soomin; Wang, X. Christine

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate Korean immigrant mothers' perspectives on their involvement in American schools. In-depth interviews were conducted with six mothers. The findings indicated that the Korean mothers confronted difficulties while contacting teachers and participating in school activities. These difficulties included…

  7. Developing suicide prevention programs for African American youth in African American churches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molock, Sherry Davis; Matlin, Samantha; Barksdale, Crystal; Puri, Rupa; Lyles, Joseph

    2008-06-01

    Suicide prevention programs for African American youth in African American churches may have broad appeal because: (1) the Black Church has a strong history of helping community members, regardless of church membership; (2) African Americans have the highest level of public and private religiousness; and (3) the church can help shape religious and cultural norms about mental health and help-seeking. The proposed gatekeeper model trains lay helpers and clergy to recognize the risk and protective factors for depression and suicide, to make referrals to the appropriate community mental health resources, and to deliver a community education curriculum. Potential barriers and suggestions for how to overcome these barriers are discussed.

  8. Mothers' Self-Reported Emotional Expression in Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camras, Linda; Kolmodin, Karen; Chen, Yinghe

    2008-01-01

    This study compared Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American mothers' self-reported emotional expression within the family. Mothers of 3-year-old European American (n = 40), Chinese American (n = 39) and Mainland Chinese (n = 36) children (n = 20 girls per group) completed the Self-Expressiveness in the Family Questionnaire (SEFQ),…

  9. Where should my baby sleep: a qualitative study of African American infant sleep location decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Brandi L; Oden, Rosalind P; Ajao, Taiwo I; Moon, Rachel Y

    2010-10-01

    African American infants are of higher risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and accidental suffocation than other infants and are up to 4 times more likely to bedshare with their parents. To investigate, using qualitative methods, factors influencing African American parents' decisions regarding infant sleep location (room location and sleep surface). Eighty-three mothers participated in focus groups or individual interviews. Questions probed reasons for infant sleep location decisions and influences on decision making. Most of the mothers in this study slept in the same room as their infant. Reasons for roomsharing included space, convenience, and safety. Mothers largely decided on infant sleep surface because of space for/availability of crib, comfort, convenience, and safety. Both roomsharing and bedsharing were often chosen to make feeding and checking on the infant more convenient. Mothers who chose not to bedshare cited privacy, concern that the infant would become attached to the parents' bed, and fears about suffocation. Mothers who chose to bedshare often cited the ability to maintain vigilance while asleep. Low-income mothers also used bedsharing as a defense against environmental dangers. African American mothers in this study viewed both roomsharing and bedsharing as strategies to keep their infants safe. Efforts to encourage roomsharing without bed-sharing must address parental concerns about space for/ availability of a crib, convenience, infant and parent comfort, and infant safety.

  10. Family eating and physical activity practices among African American, Filipino American, and Hispanic American families: Implications for developing obesity prevention programs

    OpenAIRE

    Luz Sobong Porter

    2017-01-01

    Overweight and obesity among children and adults is well-documented as an escalating problem. The purpose of this study is to determine the blood pressure, self-esteem, and eating and physical activity practices among African Americans, Filipino Americans, and Hispanic Americans; and project implications for development of childhood obesity prevention programs. This descriptive study was conducted in a convenience sample of 110 mothers recruited in health clinics and community centers located...

  11. Barriers to Hospice Use among African Americans: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Karla T.; Bickel-Swenson, Denise; Stephens, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    The present review was undertaken to explore recent evidence in the professional literature pertaining to use of hospice services by African Americans. The article addresses the research methods that have been used to study African American hospice use, obstacles to African American participation in hospice that have been identified, and…

  12. 77 FR 5375 - National African American History Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8776 of January 31, 2012 National African American History Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The story of African Americans is a story of... for the better. During National African American History Month, we celebrate the rich legacy...

  13. Registers in the Academic Writing of African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrquin, Anna F.

    2006-01-01

    The study examines the development of the registers of academic writing by African American college-level students through style and grammar: indirection inherent in the oral culture of the African American community and the paratactic functions of "because." Discourse analysis of 74 samples of academic writing by 20 African American undergraduate…

  14. Seeing African Americans as Competent Parents: Implications for Family Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla

    2011-01-01

    One of the primary roles of parents is to guide and socialize children to make meaningful life choices. African American parents, in particular, have the additional tasks of preparing their children to thrive in an environment that has historically been hostile toward African Americans. Yet, many African American parents are often depicted as…

  15. Representing African American Women in U.S. History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…

  16. African American Acculturation and Black Racial Identity: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Liu, William M.; Ledesma-Jones, Shannon; Nevitt, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among African Americans. One hundred eighty-seven African American students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS). Acculturation was associated with three of the five AAAS subscales: Dissonance, Immersion, and…

  17. HIV/AIDS among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among African Americans Format: Select One File [163K] ...

  18. African American Homeschooling Practices: Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazama, Ama

    2016-01-01

    Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…

  19. Examining School Engagement of African American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Selcuk; Jackson, Lisa R.

    This study investigated the impact of behavioral and affective factors on 688 African American high school students' academic performance, examining the relationship between school engagement, educational expectations, self-esteem, and school achievement; noting differences between males and females; and discussing whether behavioral and affective…

  20. Heart Truth for African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE HEART TRUTH ® FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN: AN ACTION PLAN When you hear the term “heart disease,” what’s your first reaction? ... That’s a man’s disease.” But here’s The Heart Truth ® : Heart disease is the #1 killer of women ...

  1. African American Women Counselors, Wellness, and Spirituality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.

    2011-01-01

    Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…

  2. Violent Behaviors among African-American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Darhyl

    1995-01-01

    Explores the development of behaviors by using Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, with emphasis on adolescents. Examines factors, such as identity versus identity diffusion, that may be contributing to increasing acts of violence by African American adolescents. Other factors are examined that may contribute to increased violence.…

  3. African American Vernacular English and Rap Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡波

    2015-01-01

    African American Vernacular English (AAVE) is the language spoken by almost 20 milion speakers al over the world. It is also used frequently in rap lyrics. Studying the origin and grammar rules of AAVE is a very important topic in today's English Language and English Teaching Studies.

  4. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Mack McKinney (left), chief, Programs Resources Management, and Delores Abraham (right), with the Astronaut office, flank one of the posters decorating the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. McKinney is chairperson for the event.

  5. The African American Public Policy Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Robert; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reviews actions of the 102nd Congress of particular interest to African Americans, including the (1) Domestic Marshall Plan House Resolution; (2) Unemployment Benefits extension; (3) Job Training Partnership Act; (4) Workplace Fairness Act; (5) Family and Medical Leave Act; and (6) Civil Rights Act of 1991. (SLD)

  6. Expository Writing Patterns of African American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Arnetha F.

    1996-01-01

    Shares information about how four African American vernacular English speakers have successfully used their language abilities--the language of their everyday lives--within the context of their expository writing. Discusses principles that have guided one teacher in her work with language diverse students. (TB)

  7. Phonetic Transcription of African American Vernacular English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Karen E.; Meredith, Linette Hinton

    2001-01-01

    This article summarizes African American Vernacular English (AAVE) phonological features from the perspective of phonetic transcription. Relevant International Phonetic Alphabet symbols and diacritics are discussed, as well as the importance of transcription detail when differentiating dialect variation from phonological delay or disorder. A chart…

  8. Obesity in inner-city African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, C L; Houston, C A

    1996-12-01

    Obesity, a risk factor for chronic diseases, has a high prevalence in African Americans and low-income individuals. However, little is known about perceptions of overweight, attempts to lose weight, and strategies used to lose weight among African Americans in inner cities. A 1990 cross-sectional telephone survey (n = 1445) of north St Louis and central Kansas City, USA. Obesity was common (44%) in this sample of inner-city African Americans. The obese perceived themselves as overweight (70%) and were trying to lose weight (66%). The majority of the obese (68%) were both dieting and exercising to lose weight. Smoking prevalence was not higher among the obese or those trying to lose weight. Many of the obese had received medical advice recently on low-fat diets (51%) and had been advised to lose weight (40%). Factors independently associated with perception, attempts to lose weight and medical advice differed, but included degree of obesity. These results corroborate US national data that obesity is a public health problem in this population and that obese inner-city African Americans perceive themselves as overweight and are trying to lose weight, especially as degree of obesity increases. It also appears that smoking is not being used as a weight loss strategy and that the obese, as a group, are receiving some medical advice on low-fat diets. This information is critical for designing culturally sensitive weight-control programmes.

  9. Encyclopedia of African-American Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Wilson, Faustine C., Ed.; And Others

    This encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference tool for researchers, teachers, scholars, students, and laypersons who need information under a single cover on significant issues, policies, historical events, laws, theories, organizations, institutions, and people incident to the education of African Americans. This population is unique in that its…

  10. African-American Axioms and Maxims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Itibari M.

    1998-01-01

    Examines and describes 30 African-American centered quotation and motivational books, all but one of which were published between 1993 and 1997. The books articulate a diversity of genres and themes. Annotations are divided into: (1) general quotation; (2) daily words and meditation/motivation sources; (3) religion and theology; and (4)…

  11. The concept of motherhood among three generations of African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquier, Katherine Ferrell

    2011-06-01

    To provide an understanding of the experiences of three generations of African American women in the transition to motherhood. Hermeneutic phenomenology from an Afrocentric feminist perspective is the methodological approach used in this study. Using the snowball technique, a purposive sample of 18 African American women from three generations who were mostly middle class, partnered, and educated was recruited. Individual open-ended interviews were used to identify information-rich cases that would provide an in-depth understanding of the phenomenon. Generation 1 included seven women, between the ages of 65 and 83 years, who became mothers between 1950 and 1970, prior to the Civil Rights Movement. Generation 2 included five women, between the ages of 51 and 58 years, who became mothers between 1971 and 1990, after the Civil Rights Movement. There were six women in Generation 3, between the ages of 30 and 41 years, who became mothers between 1991 and 2003. Three constitutive patterns and their associated themes were identified. The first pattern, It Took Me a Minute, had three themes: Finding Out, Realizing What Mothers Do, and Way Tricked! The second pattern, Preserving Our Home, had four themes: Mothering Within the isms: Racism, Classism, and Sexism, I Did the Best I Could, Mothers and Others, and Spiritual Mothers. Eat the Meat, Throw Away the Bone, the third pattern, had two themes: The Ways in Which We Learn and Someone Who Looks Like Me. The results of this study reveal some consistency with current descriptions of maternal identity and becoming a mother and add to our understanding of the complexities that racism, classism, and sexism play in the lives of African American mothers and their families. The data from this study also suggest that future development of theoretical frameworks and analytical tools, used to assess the effects of stress and other psychosocial factors on health, need to be grounded in a historic understanding of the African American

  12. Differential effects of the classroom on African American and non-African American's mathematics achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenke, Katerina; Nguyen, Tutrang; Watts, Tyler W; Sarama, Julie H; Clements, Douglas H

    2017-08-01

    We examined whether African American students differentially responded to dimensions of the observed classroom-learning environment compared with non-African American students. Further, we examined whether these dimensions of the classroom mediated treatment effects of a preschool mathematics intervention targeted at students from low-income families. Three observed dimensions of the classroom (teacher expectations and developmental appropriateness; teacher confidence and enthusiasm; and support for mathematical discourse) were evaluated in a sample of 1,238 preschool students in 101 classrooms. Using multigroup multilevel mediation where African American students were compared to non-African American students, we found that teachers in the intervention condition had higher ratings on the observed dimensions of the classroom compared with teachers in the control condition. Further, ratings on teacher expectations and developmental appropriateness had larger associations with the achievement of African American students than for non-African Americans. Findings suggest that students within the same classroom may react differently to that learning environment and that classroom learning environments could be structured in ways that are beneficial for students who need the most support.

  13. Predicting Non-African American Lesbian and Heterosexual Preadoptive Couples' Openness to Adopting an African American Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2009-01-01

    Despite increases in transracial adoption, African American children remain the least likely to be adopted. No research has examined the factors that predict prospective adopters' willingness to adopt an African American child. This study used multilevel modeling to examine predictors of willingness to adopt an African American child in a sample…

  14. Educating African American Males: Contexts for Consideration, Possibilities for Practice. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 383

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. Christopher, II, Ed.; Dancy, T. Elon, II, Ed.; Davis, James Earl, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This book's predecessor, "Black Sons to Mothers: Compliments, Critiques, and Challenges for Cultural Workers in Education" (Peter Lang, 2000), sparked a decade of meaningful scholarship on the educational experiences and academic outcomes of African American males. "Black Sons to Mothers" proffered seminal contributions to the academic literature…

  15. Longitudinal Development of Family Decision Making: Defining Healthy Behavioral Autonomy for Middle-Class African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; Campione-Barr, Nicole; Daddis, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    The development of decision-making autonomy was examined in 76 middle-class African American early adolescents (M=13 years) and their mothers, who were followed longitudinally for 5 years. Adolescent decision-making autonomy over conventional, prudential, multifaceted, and personal issues increased over time but at different rates. Mothers viewed…

  16. Family Support and Colorectal Cancer Screening among Urban African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Northouse, Laurel; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2012-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death among African Americans. Less than 50% of African Americans have had CRC screening. This study examined the relationships between family support and influence, cultural identity, CRC beliefs, and a screening informed decision among 129 urban African Americans. Family support (p < .01) significantly predicted CRC beliefs and CRC beliefs significantly predicted informed decision (p < .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely assess family support and CRC beliefs with African Americans patients. This may improve patient-provider shared decision-making satisfaction and CRC screening adherence among African American patients.

  17. African-American women and abortion: a neglected history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, L J

    1992-01-01

    The history of African-American women's efforts to control their fertility is largely unknown. From slavery to the present, the growth rate of the African-American population has been cut in half. Demographers and historians frequently attribute this change to external factors such as poverty, disease, and coerced birth control, rather than the deliberate agency of African-American women. This essay assembles a brief historical record of the ways African-American women have sought to control their fertility through the use of abortion and birth control. It also examines the activism of African-American women in the establishment of family planning clinics and in defense of abortion rights.

  18. Longitudinal Links between Contextual Risks, Parenting, and Youth Outcomes in Rural African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooyeon; Brody, Gene H.; Murry, Velma McBride

    2003-01-01

    Collected longitudinal data from rural, African American, single mother-headed families with young adolescents to examine longitudinal links between contextual risks, parenting, and youth outcome. Accumulated risks related to lower levels of the competence-promoting parenting practices that were linked directly with youth outcomes via youth…

  19. Nonstandard Maternal Work Schedules: Implications for African American Children's Early Language Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Erika C.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Crouter, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, observed maternal positive engagement and perception of work-family spillover were examined as mediators of the association between maternal nonstandard work schedules and children's expressive language outcomes in 231 African American families living in rural households. Mothers reported their work schedules when their child was 24…

  20. An Analysis of Adult-Child Conversation Patterns in Diverse African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolson, Timothy F. J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines familial conversation patterns of African American families during evening meals, using a social interaction analysis. Found that family size had a pervasive impact on familial interaction, and that although mothers were the clear focus of mealtime interactions, the increased number of children necessitated that fathers take a more direct…

  1. Parenting Practices and Child Adjustment in Different Types of Households: A Study of African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Chen, Yi-Fu; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene; Cutrona, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    This article uses a sample of 867 African American households to investigate differences in parenting practices and child outcomes by type of household. Results indicate that mothers provide similar levels of parenting regardless of family structure. Secondary caregivers, however, show a great deal of variation in quality of parenting. Fathers and…

  2. Family and Religious Antecedents of Civic Involvement in Middle Class African American Late Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; Metzger, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    We examined family and religiousspiritual antecedents and correlates of current and intended civic involvement in 76 middle class African American late adolescents (M = 18.43 years) who had been followed longitudinally for 3 years. Adolescents' spirituality/religiosity and mothers' current involvement influenced the overall ratings and more…

  3. Adolescent-Parent Conflict in Middle-Class African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Cheryl; Smetana, Judith

    1999-01-01

    Examined conflicts between middle-class African American preadolescents/early adolescents and their parents. Found that conflicts were relatively frequent, of low intensity, and occurred over issues such as the adolescent's room, chores, activity choices, and homework. Early adolescents rated conflicts as more intense than preadolescents. Mothers'…

  4. African American Late Adolescents' Relationships with Parents: Developmental Transitions and Longitudinal Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; Metzger, Aaron; Campione-Barr, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    Five-year longitudinal patterns and the influence of developmental transitions on 76 middle-class African American late adolescents' (M18.43 years) relationships with parents were examined. Late adolescents were closer to mothers than to fathers. Controlling for age, late adolescent females who had left home reported less negative relationships…

  5. Nutritional Beliefs and Food Practices of Mexican-American Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Shirley

    In the locale of Hanford, California, this 1968 nutritional study was made to explore and evaluate the nutritional beliefs and food practices of Mexican American mothers among low-income agricultural working families. Some 35 mothers whose children attended the Hanford Child Day-Care Center were interviewed at home to determine family…

  6. The Reflection of Race and Law in African American Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schneck

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the law has been crucial in defining and delineating the dimensions of African American experience both in slavery and in freedom, the encounter with the American legal system and its representatives has left a strong imprint on African American cultural and literary memory and expression. The article sketches out a few aspects and features which characterize the reflection of law and race in African American culture and literature.

  7. Managing the hair and skin of African American pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W; Burns, C

    1999-01-01

    In Africa, the ancestral home of most African Americans, hair is viewed as the epitome of beauty. However, when Africans were brought to America as slaves, they were unable to care for their hair and skin adequately and were exposed to the predominant white culture, which valued straight hair and light skin. As a result, many African Americans lost self-esteem because of the characteristics of their hair and skin. In this article we examine the anatomic and physiologic features of African American hair and skin and typical African American hair and skin care practices. Common African American hair and skin disorders and their management are discussed. The goal of this article is to help primary care providers understand the special hair and skin care required for African American children (as well as other dark-skinned patients). With good patient education, understanding one's own hair and skin characteristics can also support positive self-esteem.

  8. Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies: WMS-R norms for African American elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, John A; Ivnik, Robert J; Smith, Glenn E; Ferman, Tanis J; Willis, Floyd B; Petersen, Ronald C; Graff-Radford, Neill R

    2005-06-01

    Norms for African American elders on the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) were derived from a sample of 309 community-dwelling individuals participating in Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies (MOAANS). Normative estimates are provided for traditional WMS-R subtest scores and for supplemental procedures to evaluate forgetting rates and recognition memory. Tables are provided to convert raw WMS-R subtest and supplemental scores to age-corrected scaled scores. These may be further adjusted for years of education, if desired, by applying regression-based corrections. We anticipate that these data will enhance the diagnostic utility and clinical interpretation of WMS-R performance in older African Americans.

  9. The Lived Experience of African American Caregivers Caring for Adult African American Patients With Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Heather

    2016-04-01

    Assistance from informal caregivers such as family members, friends, or neighbors is crucial to adequately managing the complex care of heart failure (HF) patients. This study examined the lived experience of African American caregivers caring for African American patients with HF. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 10 participants who were formally interviewed. The interviews, analyzed using Colaizzi's steps, revealed six themes: layers of support, realization of self-neglect, experiencing the "blues," connecting with healthcare providers, unmet financial needs, and perception of nonadherence. The information regarding the experience of African American caregivers of HF patients obtained through this research will inform the delivery of culturally competent support to caregivers, thereby improving quality of life for both the HF patients and their caregivers.

  10. The Awakening of Self-consciousness of the African American Women-an Analysis of Dee in Everyday Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENG Zhao-niao

    2011-01-01

    Alice Walker is one of the prominent American writers in American women's literature and black literature in 1950s-1960s.Everyday Use is regarded as Alice Walker's best-written short story.The prevailing opinion among the critics about this story is that Dee is the traitor of black American's cultural heritage,and the mother and Maggie are the hope of true value of the African Americans' tradition and heritage; however,after considering the historical and cultural background of the story,we may safely come to the conclusion that Dee actually took the first step toward the awakening of self-consciousness of the African Americans women.

  11. Can Faith and Hospice Coexist: Is the African American Church the Key to Increased Hospice Utilization for African Americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Apollo; March, Alice L; Kimball, Jan

    2017-01-01

    African Americans are twice as likely as Caucasian Americans to choose aggressive hospital treatment when death is imminent. Repeat hospitalizations are traumatic for patients and drain patient and health system resources. Hospice care is a specialized alternative that vastly improves patient quality of life at end-of-life. This study was conducted to determine if hospices partnering with African American churches to disseminate hospice education materials could increase utilization of hospice services by African Americans. Members of two African American churches (N = 34) participated in focus group discussions to elicit beliefs about hospice care. Focus group transcripts were coded and comments were grouped according to theme. Six themes were identified. Lack of knowledge about hospice services and spiritual beliefs emerged as the top two contributing factors for underutilization of hospice services. Study findings support partnerships between hospices and African American churches to provide hospice education to the African American community. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. 77 FR 33595 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... piece of American culture, music offers a vibrant soundtrack to the story of our people and our Union... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8832 of June 1, 2012 African-American Music... universal truths of our shared humanity. African-American musicians have left an indelible mark on...

  13. Phonological Awareness Skills in Young African American English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…

  14. Phonological Awareness Skills in Young African American English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…

  15. 76 FR 32851 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ...-American Music Appreciation Month, we honor the rich musical traditions of African-American musicians and their gifts to our country and our world. From the cadenced hums of spirituals to the melodies of rhythm... and equality for all. Today, African-American musicians continue to create new musical genres...

  16. Discrimination, Mastery, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…

  17. Modalities of Infant-Mother Interaction in Japanese, Japanese American Immigrant, and European American Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Bakeman, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Cultural variation in relations and moment-to-moment contingencies of infant-mother person-oriented and object-oriented interactions were compared in 118 Japanese, Japanese American immigrant, and European American dyads with 5.5-month-olds. Infant and mother person-oriented behaviors were related in all cultural groups, but infant and mother…

  18. Parent-Adolescent Conflict in African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Olivenne D; McHale, Susan M

    2016-10-01

    Parent-adolescent conflict is frequent in families and has implications for youth adjustment and family relationships. Drawing on a family systems perspective, we examined mothers', fathers', and two adolescent-aged siblings' (50.5 % females) reports of parent-adolescent conflict in 187 African American families. Using latent profile analysis in the context of an ethnic homogeneous design, we identified three family types based on levels of and differences between parent and youth conflict reports: low conflict, father high conflict, and younger sibling high conflict. Compared to low conflict families, youth in younger sibling high conflict families reported more depressive symptoms and risky behaviors. The results for parents' acceptance revealed that, in comparison to low conflict families, older siblings in father high conflict families reported lower acceptance from mothers, and mothers in these families reported lower acceptance of their children; further, older siblings in younger sibling high conflict families reported less acceptance from fathers, and fathers in these families reported less acceptance of their children. Results underscore the significance of levels of and both differences between and direction of differences in parents' and youth's reports of their "shared" experiences, as well as the importance of examining the larger family contexts of dyadic parent-relationships.

  19. The landscape of recombination in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinch, Anjali G; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D; Chen, Gary K; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Akylbekova, Ermeg L; Aldrich, Melinda C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L; Diver, W Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue A; Isaacs, William; John, Esther M; Kao, W H Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A; Kolonel, Laurence N; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H; Millikan, Robert C; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J; Press, Michael F; Psaty, Bruce M; Reiner, Alex P; Rich, Stephen S; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rotter, Jerome I; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Schwartz, Ann G; Signorello, Lisa B; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S; Thun, Michael J; Tucker, Margaret A; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K; Witte, John S; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Henderson, Brian E; Taylor, Herman A; Price, Alkes L; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J; Haiman, Christopher A; Wilson, James G; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R

    2011-07-20

    Recombination, together with mutation, gives rise to genetic variation in populations. Here we leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P value < 10(-245)). We identify a 17-base-pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of PRDM9 alleles common in West Africans and rare in Europeans. Sites of this motif are predicted to be risk loci for disease-causing genomic rearrangements in individuals carrying these alleles. More generally, this map provides a resource for research in human genetic variation and evolution.

  20. Differences in African-American Maternal Self-Efficacy Regarding Practices Impacting Risk for Sudden Infant Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Anita; Oden, Rosalind; Joyner, Brandi; He, Jianping; McCarter, Robert; Moon, Rachel Y

    2016-04-01

    Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and other sleep-related deaths, including accidental suffocation, account for ~4000 US deaths annually. Parents may have higher self-efficacy with regards to preventing accidental suffocation than SIDS. The objective of this study was to assess self-efficacy in African-American mothers with regards to safe sleep practices and risk for SIDS and accidental suffocation. As part of randomized clinical trial in African-American mothers of newborn infants, mothers completed a baseline survey about knowledge of and attitudes towards safe sleep recommendations, current intent, self-efficacy, and demographics. Tabular and adjusted, regression-based analyses of these cross-sectional data evaluated the impact of the message target (SIDS risk reduction vs. suffocation prevention) on perceived self-efficacy. 1194 mothers were interviewed. Mean infant age was 1.5 days. 90.8 % of mothers planned to place their infant supine, 96.7 % stated that their infant would sleep in the same room, 3.6 % planned to bedshare with the infant, and 72.9 % intended to have soft bedding in the crib. Mothers were more likely to believe that prone placement (70.9 vs. 50.5 %, p prevention of accidental suffocation in African-Americans, regardless of sociodemographics. Healthcare professionals should discuss both SIDS risk reduction and prevention of accidental suffocation when advising African-American parents about safe sleep practices.

  1. Transgenerational Consequences of Racial Discrimination for African American Health

    OpenAIRE

    Goosby, Bridget J.; Heidbrink, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Disparities in African American health remain pervasive and persist transgenerationally. There is a growing consensus that both structural and interpersonal racial discrimination are key mechanisms affecting African American health. The Biopsychosocial Model of Racism as a Stressor posits that the persistent stress of experiencing discrimination take a physical toll on the health of African Americans and is ultimately manifested in the onset of illness. However, the degree to which the health...

  2. Development of an empirical typology of African American family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani; Murray, Carolyn B

    2002-09-01

    This study empirically identified types of African American families. Adolescents (N = 111) were assessed on family functioning. With cluster analytic methods, 3 types of families were identified. The cohesive-authoritative type was above average on parental education and income, averaged about 2 children, exhibited a high quality of family functioning and high self-esteem in adolescents. The conflictive-authoritarian type had average parental education and income, an average of 2.7 children, exhibited controlling and rigid discipline, and placed a high emphasis on achievement. The defensive-neglectful type was predominately headed by single mothers with below average education and income and averaged about 3 children. Such families displayed chaotic family processes, and adolescents tended to suffer from low self-esteem. The typology exhibited good reliability. The implications of the typology are discussed.

  3. African American women and breastfeeding: an integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Becky S; Grassley, Jane S

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a review of literature regarding factors that influence breastfeeding intentions, initiation, and duration in the African American population. Research related to health disparities experienced by African Americans in the United States, as well as research regarding the protective benefits of breastfeeding for those specific health disparities, are also presented. Community and institutional interventions and promotional campaigns aimed at increasing initiation and duration of breastfeeding in the African American population are discussed. Future research regarding African American women's breastfeeding experiences using Black feminist thought as a theoretical foundation is recommended.

  4. Black and Blue: Depression and African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowden, Keith O; Thompson Adams, Linda; Wiley, Dana

    2016-10-01

    Depression is a common mental disorder affecting individuals. Although many strides have been made in the area of depression, little is known about depression in special populations, especially African American men. African American men often differ in their presentation of depression and are often misdiagnosed. African American men are at greater risk for depression, but they are less likely to participate in mental health care. This article explores depression in African American by looking at environmental factors, sigma, role, and other unique to this populations, such as John Henryism. Interventions to encourage early screening and participation in care are also discussed.

  5. Critical social theory and the domination of African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S P

    1995-01-01

    This historical reconstruction of the experiences of African American women in America from slavery to the present exposes the prevailing and enduring system of White male domination. From White men having control of their reproductive choices, to conspiracy to withhold the right to vote, African American women were victims of both sexism and racism. Later, as a result of the myth conceived by White sociologists of the super African American woman, further divisiveness became apparent in the African American home. As African American women took advantage of educational opportunities only to find that there was a dearth of similarly educated African American males to marry, increasing numbers of African American men were reported as parties to violent acts, drugs or illness. All of these variables are conjectured as impacting on the African American woman's experience. Lastly, data were presented depicting the increasing trend of African American women marrying White men, and the emergence of a more diverse workforce. It was concluded that economics serve as a catalyst for this change in human relations.

  6. Bullying and victimization among African American adolescents: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albdour, Maha; Krouse, Helene J

    2014-05-01

    Bullying among African American adolescents. This article reviews the current literature on bullying and victimization among African American adolescents. It highlights bullying and violence disparity among African American adolescents, associated risk and protective factors, and effects of bullying on adolescent health. Twenty-three English language peer-reviewed articles from CINAHL, Pubmed, and Psyc-INFO databases. African American adolescents have higher rates of bullying and victimization compared to other adolescent populations. This review found strong associations among bullying involvement, substance abuse, and family factors. Bullying also had a significant impact on adolescent health, particularly psychological symptoms and school performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Significant interactions between maternal PAH exposure and haplotypes in candidate genes on B[a]P-DNA adducts in a NYC cohort of non-smoking African-American and Dominican mothers and newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Shoba; Perera, Frederica; Zhang, Bingzhi; Chanock, Stephen; Wang, Shuang; Tang, Deliang

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are a class of chemicals common in the environment. Certain PAH are carcinogenic, although the degree to which genetic variation influences susceptibility to carcinogenic PAH remains unclear. Also unknown is the influence of genetic variation on the procarcinogenic effect of in utero exposures to PAH. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a well-studied PAH that is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Within our New York City-based cohort, we explored interactions between maternal exposure to airborne PAH during pregnancy and maternal and newborn haplotypes (and in one case, a single-nucleotide polymorphism) in key B[a]P metabolism genes on B[a]P-DNA adducts in paired cord blood samples. The study subjects included non-smoking African-American (n = 132) and Dominican (n = 235) women with available data on maternal PAH exposure, paired cord adducts and genetic data who resided in the Washington Heights, Central Harlem and South Bronx neighborhoods of New York City. We selected seven maternal and newborn genes related to B[a]P metabolism, detoxification and repair for our analyses: CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, GSTM3, GSTT2, NQO1 and XRCC1. We found significant interactions between maternal PAH exposure and haplotype on cord B[a]P-DNA adducts in the following genes: maternal CYP1B1, XRCC1 and GSTM3, and newborn CYP1A2 and XRCC1 in African-Americans; and maternal XRCC1 and newborn NQO1 in Dominicans. These novel findings highlight differences in maternal and newborn genetic contributions to B[a]P-DNA adduct formation, as well as ethnic differences in gene-environment interactions, and have the potential to identify at-risk subpopulations who are susceptible to the carcinogenic potential of B[a]P.

  8. Raising Cultural Awareness of Second Grade African American Students Using Mexican American Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Sandra Lyniece

    2009-01-01

    An increase in the Mexican American population within the predominantly African American community and school was the basis of this qualitative study. The purpose of the study was to introduce African American second grade students to authentic Mexican and Mexican American children's literature. Interactive read-alouds of nonfiction and realistic…

  9. Raising Cultural Awareness of Second Grade African American Students Using Mexican American Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Sandra Lyniece

    2009-01-01

    An increase in the Mexican American population within the predominantly African American community and school was the basis of this qualitative study. The purpose of the study was to introduce African American second grade students to authentic Mexican and Mexican American children's literature. Interactive read-alouds of nonfiction and realistic…

  10. Active surveillance of prostate cancer in African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Jonathan L; Feibus, Allison H; Maddox, Michael M; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Moparty, Krishnarao; Thomas, Raju; Sartor, Oliver

    2014-12-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is a treatment strategy for prostate cancer (PCa) whereby patients diagnosed with PCa undergo ongoing characterization of their disease with the intent of avoiding radical treatment. Previously, AS has been demonstrated to be a reasonable option for men with low-risk PCa, but existing cohorts largely consist of Caucasian Americans. Because African Americans have a greater incidence, more aggressive, and potentially more lethal PCa than Caucasian Americans, it is unclear if AS is appropriate for African Americans. We performed a review of the available literature on AS with a focus on African Americans.

  11. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Baharian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance.

  12. Asthma Management Disparities: A Photovoice Investigation with African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Agnew, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice…

  13. Social Achievement Goals: Validation among Rural African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martin H.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Shim, Sungok Serena; Hart, Caroline O.

    2013-01-01

    Little extant research attempts to understand why rural African Americans engage in social relationships with peers in school. This is somewhat surprising as rural students' peer interactions often affect their scholastic desires, and peers can alter African Americans' academic performance. Hence, the current study examined both the presence and…

  14. Their Own Story: Literature for African-American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlinn, Jeanne

    1994-01-01

    Notes that too few books reflect the contemporary experiences of African American children. Suggests that African American literature that is available is school libraries is often limited to folktales or focused on problems of poverty and racism. Appends a 39-item annotated bibliography. (RS)

  15. Perceived Racism and Encouragement among African American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming

    2012-01-01

    Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…

  16. 76 FR 6519 - National African American History Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ..., 2011 National African American History Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... February 4, 2011 Part II The President Proclamation 8627--National African American History Month, 2011 #0..., there is no progress.'' Progress in America has not come easily, but has resulted from the...

  17. Parenting African American Children in the Context of Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Angela W.; Smyke, Anna T.; Middleton, Melissa; Black, Corey L.

    2015-01-01

    The legacy of slavery in the United States has impacted generations of African Americans, especially parents who must prepare their children to face the challenges associated with being a person of color in this country. The authors explore aspects of racism, White privilege, racial socialization, and African American parents' fears as they equip…

  18. African American Homeschooling and the Question of Curricular Cultural Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey

    2013-01-01

    Homeschooling, and academic interest in this phenomenon, have increased tremendously over the last decade. The surge of African American involvement in the homeschool movement has also become noticeable. However, there continues to be a general paucity of research on the motivations of African American parents that choose homeschooling. In order…

  19. Beyond Statistics: African American Male Persistence in Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Manuel Dewayne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study that consists of six African American male participants is to examine, describe, and analyze African American male persistence factors at a community college in the midwest of the United States. The study uses qualitative content analysis as a research method that provides a systematic and objective means…

  20. General Dissociation Scale and Hypnotizability with African American College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Marty; Hitchcock, Kim

    The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of the General Dissociation Scale with African American college students, and provide additional data on how to assess hypnotizability with these students. Two-hundred and two undergraduate African American college students participated in this study. Students completed the HGSHS:A, a measure…

  1. Support Needs of Overweight African American Women for Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine social support needs of obese and overweight African American women for weight loss. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with overweight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results: Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD = 12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in…

  2. Sleeping Beauty Redefined: African American Girls in Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusimo, Patricia S.

    This paper examines the interests, perceptions, and participation of 16 African American girls in a program designed to improve girls' persistence in science, mathematics, and technology (SMT). The girls are among 33 African American and 73 total original participants in "Rural and Urban Images: Voices of Girls in Science, Mathematics, and…

  3. Perceived Racism and Encouragement among African American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming

    2012-01-01

    Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…

  4. Parenting African American Children in the Context of Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Angela W.; Smyke, Anna T.; Middleton, Melissa; Black, Corey L.

    2015-01-01

    The legacy of slavery in the United States has impacted generations of African Americans, especially parents who must prepare their children to face the challenges associated with being a person of color in this country. The authors explore aspects of racism, White privilege, racial socialization, and African American parents' fears as they equip…

  5. EPEC-O - Plenary AA - Cancer & the African American Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the many factors that lead to inequalities in cancer care outcomes for African Americans.

  6. EPEC-O for African Americans - Module 16 AA - Spirituality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sixteenth module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the importance of spirituality in the lived experience of most African Americans, and how they utilize spirituality and religion to cope with serious stressors such as life-threatening illness.

  7. African American Youth Unemployment: Current Trends and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Herbert M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines African American employment trends compared with increases or decreases in economic growth and Federal welfare spending during the 1970s and 1980s, focusing primarily on unemployment and labor force participation rates among African American youth. Studies the impact of structural unemployment, racial discrimination, and immigration on…

  8. African American English: Implications for School Counseling Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Barto, Heather H.; Booker, Beverly L.; Smith, Kim V.; Barna, Jennifer; Maiden, Brian S.; Zegley, Linda; Felder, Monique T.

    2009-01-01

    African American English (AAE) refers to the systematic, rule-governed linguistic patterns of found among African Americans. This article provides an overview of AAE. More specifically, the article enumerates the historical underpinnings associated with AAE, identifies a representative set of AAE characteristics, reviews relevant research, and…

  9. Support Needs of Overweight African American Women for Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine social support needs of obese and overweight African American women for weight loss. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with overweight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results: Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD = 12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in…

  10. Academic Achievement and the Third Grade African American Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shropshire, Delia F. B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent teaching style relates to third grade African American male academic achievement. The problem in this study addressed the factors affecting the academic achievement of the African American third grade male. This problem led the researcher to investigate the teaching styles of the…

  11. Perceived Racism as a Predictor of Paranoia among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Dennis R.; Penn, David L.; Cassisi, Jeffrey; Michael, Chris; Wood, Terry; Wanner, Jill; Adams, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Recent theoretical models suggest that perceived racism acts as a stressor for African Americans and may be associated with a variety of negative psychological consequences, notably paranoia. Paranoia among African Americans is believed to reflect the lower end of the paranoia continuum based on experiences with racism. Thus, it may be beneficial…

  12. Interaction of African American Learners Online: An Adult Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…

  13. Culturally Competent Counseling for Religious and Spiritual African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Day-Vines, Norma L.

    2008-01-01

    Religion and spirituality are deeply rooted in traditional African American culture. Data suggest that African American adolescents maintain higher baseline rates of religious activities and beliefs than their peers (Bachman, Johnston, & O'Malley, 2005; Smith, Faris, Denton, & Regnerus, 2003). Recognizing these data, this article examines…

  14. Indigenous Systems within the African-American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbley, Aretha Faye; Rouson, Leon

    2011-01-01

    For the African-American family, life ain't been no crystal stair. The African-American family has trotted for over 400 years through a wilderness of racism, poverty, discrimination of all kinds, crossing seas of monsters and forests of demons. Yet, despite the numerous obstacles and attacks that society has mounted against it since slavery, the…

  15. Enriching Inclusive Learning: African Americans in Historic Costume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratute, Ashley; Marcketti, Sara B.

    2009-01-01

    Educating students to embrace diversity and value all people is a core value of educators in family and consumer sciences (FCS). For instructors in FCS, integrating the contributions of African Americans--particularly in textiles and clothing--can be an inclusive learning opportunity. The authors compiled resources on African Americans and…

  16. Teaching African-American History in the Age of Obama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    When the author proposed a spring course on major topics in African-American history, drawing a large enrollment was her chief concern. She had previously taught the course under a different title at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, a campus with a sizable African-American presence among students and faculty members. She now teaches…

  17. The Struggle of African American Students in the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubenga, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    The long road of slavery from generation to generation has left a legacy in the mind of African American students that has impacted their achievements in schools. In this project, the struggle of African American students in the public school education will be analyzed from the historical standpoint of view and its impact on their achievements.…

  18. Higher Education and the Early Education of African American Ministers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The education of African American ministers in the United States has been little researched. Numerous books address the profession of ministry and the education of Blacks in general, but most do not specifically address issues pertaining to the professional education of Black ministers. The majority of the hurdles African Americans faced were…

  19. Stalling Out: The Relative Progress of African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Billy J.

    The socioeconomic progress of African Americans appears to be in a stalled state. This study analyzes the progress of African Americans toward parity with Whites over a 15- to 20-year period in the following areas: (1) employment; (2) economic development; (3) education; (4) health; (5) housing; and (6) political empowerment. For individual…

  20. Poverty, safety net programs, and African Americans' mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Lonnie R

    2014-11-01

    African Americans' poverty and deep-poverty rates are higher than those of Whites, and African Americans' poverty spells last longer. Furthermore, nonpoor African Americans are especially likely to slip into poverty, and over the course of a lifetime, very many African Americans will experience poverty. Accordingly, African Americans are disproportionately likely to be assisted by safety net programs providing income support and health and social assistance. When mental health-related outcomes are assessed, U.S.-focused and international studies of safety net programs sometimes find that adults and children show a decline in symptoms of mental illness after participating. All things being equal, these improvements can disproportionately benefit African Americans' mental health. Safety net programs' mental health-related impact should be routinely assessed when evaluating the programs' economic and social outcomes and the impact they have on African Americans' mental health. Policy research of this kind can help us to understand whether these very large interventions show society-wide mental health-related improvement in the disproportionately large number of African Americans who participate in them.

  1. Self-Esteem and Anger among African-American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryujin, Donald H.; Abitia, Fred B.

    Self-esteem may be an issue for certain minority groups more than others. In particular, given their long and difficult history, this issue may be of more relevance to minorities of African-American descent. To assess whether renewed signs of racism at a college were negatively affecting the self-esteem of African-American students the Race…

  2. Academic Achievement and the Third Grade African American Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shropshire, Delia F. B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent teaching style relates to third grade African American male academic achievement. The problem in this study addressed the factors affecting the academic achievement of the African American third grade male. This problem led the researcher to investigate the teaching styles of the…

  3. Components of School Engagement among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Rogers-Sirin, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    This study examined how various components of school engagement contribute to the academic performance of African American adolescents. The sample consisted of 499 African American adolescents in Grades 9 to 11. We investigated how adolescents' gender, grade, cognitive functioning, and parental education affect their school engagement and whether…

  4. African-American Press Coverage of Clarence Thomas Nomination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearn-Banks, Kathleen

    1994-01-01

    Examines pressures facing the African American press by focusing on its coverage of the 1991 nomination of Clarence Thomas to the United States Supreme Court. Discusses the dilemma these newspapers faced in choosing between supporting African Americans and supporting civil rights, with their mixed coverage of the story reflecting this dilemma. (SR)

  5. Training African-American residents in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green-McKenzie, Judith

    2004-03-01

    Bellevue Hospital, the oldest public hospital in the United States and a lineal descendant of an infirmary for slaves, accepted its first African-American resident, Dr. Ubert Conrad Vincent, in 1918. This occurred at a time when many medical centers were not accepting African-American residents. At the end of WWII, one-third of the accredited medical schools still barred African Americans. However, Bellevue Hospital continued to train African-American residents. Between the 1920s and 1940s four African Americans matriculated at Bellevue Hospital. There were six in the 1950s, four in the 1960s, and 25 in the 1970s. By the 1980s, 40 African Americans matriculated, and between 1990 and 1995, 61 matriculated. Despite its historic first, Bellevue lagged slightly behind the national average. While the number of African-American residents occupying U.S. residency slots increased from 2.8% in 1978 to 6.5% in 1996, African Americans comprised 3.6% of residency slots at Bellevue between 1985-1995. Currently, only 7% of practicing physicians and 5% in faculty positions are latino, African-American, and Native American. Increasing the number of under-represented minority (URM) physicians is important to the United States, as URM physicians are more likely to serve the poor and uninsured, therefore improving the overall healthcare of the underprivileged. A study by the Association of American Medical Colleges indicated that minority medical school graduates were five times more likely to report that they planned to serve minority populations than other graduates. In their position paper, the American College of Physicians expressed the belief that increasing the number of URM physicians will help reduce healthcare disparities that can hurt minority populations and lead to poor health outcomes. The Supreme Court acknowledged the importance of racial diversity by upholding the University of Michigan affirmative action admissions policy in its June 2003 ruling. URM physicians are

  6. Perceived value in food selection when dining out: comparison of African Americans and Euro-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Debra M; Philipp, Steven F

    2007-06-01

    This descriptive study compares African Americans' and Euro-Americans' perceived value of food selection pertaining to cost, portion size, and meal satisfaction when eating away from home. A stratified sample was drawn from a southern U.S. metropolitan area (N= 1,011; 486 African American, 525 Euro-American). Analysis showed no difference between African-American and Euro-American adults by sex or how often they dined out. These two groups significantly differed across years of education, age, and answering 14 of 18 rated statements on value perceptions. African-Americans' value perceptions were influenced more by lower cost foods and larger portion sizes than those of Euro-Americans. For meal satisfaction, African Americans were more likely to agree with statements that indicate preferring foods high in energy and low in essential micronutrient density. This study supports the need for more investigation.

  7. Horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism-collectivism: a comparison of African Americans and European Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarraju, Meera; Cokley, Kevin O

    2008-10-01

    The current study examined ethnic differences in horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism among 96 African American and 149 European American college students. Participants completed the 32-item Singelis et al. (1995) Individualism/Collectivism Scale. Multivariate analyses of variance results yielded a main effect for ethnicity, with African Americans being significantly higher on horizontal individualism and European Americans being higher on horizontal collectivism and vertical individualism. A moderated multiple regression analysis indicated that ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between individualism and collectivism. Individualism and collectivism were significantly and positively associated among African Americans, but not associated among European Americans. In addition, collectivism was related to grade point average for African Americans but not for European Americans. Contrary to the prevailing view of individualism-collectivism being unipolar, orthogonal dimensions, results provide support for individualism-collectivism to be considered as unipolar, related dimensions for African Americans.

  8. African Americans,hypertension and the renin angiotensin system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandra; F; Williams; Susanne; B; Nicholas; Nosratola; D; Vaziri; Keith; C; Norris

    2014-01-01

    African Americans have exceptionally high rates of hypertension and hypertension related complications. It is commonly reported that the blood pressure lowering efficacy of renin angiotensin system(RAS) inhibitors is attenuated in African Americans due to a greater likelihood of having a low renin profile. Therefore these agents are often not recommended as initial therapy in African Americans with hypertension. However, the high prevalence of comorbid conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease makes treatment with RAS inhibitors more compelling. Despite lower circulating renin levels and a less significant fall in blood pressure in response to RAS inhibitors in African Americans, numerous clinical trials support the efficacy of RAS inhibitors to improve clinical outcomes in this population, especially in those with hypertension and risk factors for cardiovascular and related diseases. Here, we discuss the rationale of RAS blockade as part of a comprehensive approach to attenuate the high rates of premature morbidity and mortality associated with hypertension among African Americans.

  9. African American Male Achievement: Using a Tenet of Critical Theory to Explain the African American Male Achievement Disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2011-01-01

    Although African Americans continue to demonstrate a desire for education, Black male enrollment and completion rates in higher education are dismal when compared to other ethnic groups. Researchers and scholars have noted various theories and philosophies responsible for the academic disengagement of African American men in higher education. This…

  10. African American Male Achievement: Using a Tenet of Critical Theory to Explain the African American Male Achievement Disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2011-01-01

    Although African Americans continue to demonstrate a desire for education, Black male enrollment and completion rates in higher education are dismal when compared to other ethnic groups. Researchers and scholars have noted various theories and philosophies responsible for the academic disengagement of African American men in higher education. This…

  11. Why Are Chinese Mothers More Controlling than American Mothers? "My Child Is My Report Card"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Deng, Ciping

    2014-01-01

    Chinese parents exert more control over children than do American parents. The current research examined whether this is due in part to Chinese parents' feelings of worth being more contingent on children's performance. Twice over a year, 215 mothers and children (M[subscript age] = 12.86 years) in China and the United States (European and African…

  12. Why Are Chinese Mothers More Controlling than American Mothers? "My Child Is My Report Card"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Deng, Ciping

    2014-01-01

    Chinese parents exert more control over children than do American parents. The current research examined whether this is due in part to Chinese parents' feelings of worth being more contingent on children's performance. Twice over a year, 215 mothers and children (M[subscript age] = 12.86 years) in China and the United States (European and African…

  13. A registry of adult African American twins: the Carolina African American Twin Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Keith E

    2013-02-01

    Twin studies have seldom addressed ethnicity as one of the possible factors that create unique combinations of genetic and environmental influences. The major objective of the Carolina African American Twin Study of Aging is to identify the proportion of the genetic and environmental sources of individual variation in measures of health and behavioral factors in a sample of adult African Americans. Drawn from birth records from the State of North Carolina, this in-person study used public records to identify a cohort of twins between 22 and 92 years of age (X = 49.82 yrs, SD = 14.62), 39.7% of which were men. Members of non-intact twin pairs and siblings were also recruited to explore alternative models to the classic twin design. To date, the project has contributed to knowledge about blood pressure, forced expiratory volume, chronic illness, body mass index, and waist-hip ratio memory, personality, social, and demographic factors, mortality, and mental health.

  14. Thinking 3 Rather than 2 + 1: How a Coparenting Framework Can Transform Infant Mental Health Efforts with Unmarried African American Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin-Butler, Vikki T.; McKay, Katherine; Gallardo, Gypsy; Salman-Engin, Selin; Little, Tara; McHale, James P.

    2015-01-01

    More than half of poor African American infants are born into "fragile families" and nearly half grow up in single-mother families with little or no father involvement. However, most prenatal interventions fail to help unmarried mothers talk and plan together with their baby's father, especially when fathers are nonresidential. This…

  15. Thinking 3 Rather than 2 + 1: How a Coparenting Framework Can Transform Infant Mental Health Efforts with Unmarried African American Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin-Butler, Vikki T.; McKay, Katherine; Gallardo, Gypsy; Salman-Engin, Selin; Little, Tara; McHale, James P.

    2015-01-01

    More than half of poor African American infants are born into "fragile families" and nearly half grow up in single-mother families with little or no father involvement. However, most prenatal interventions fail to help unmarried mothers talk and plan together with their baby's father, especially when fathers are nonresidential. This…

  16. Exploring the Link between Self-Construal and Distress among African American and Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Michael S.; Skillman, Gemma D.

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated ethnicity, self-construal, and distress among African American and Asian American college students. African American students expressed more salient independent self-construals, whereas Asian American students expressed more salient interdependent self-construals. As hypothesized, among African American participants,…

  17. Parenting Practices and Obesity in Low-Income African-American Preschoolers. Contractor and Cooperator Report No. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott W.

    2005-01-01

    This study developed and administered a questionnaire to identify feeding practices among low-income African-American mothers and eating behaviors in their preschool children that are associated with childhood obesity. The findings do not appear to implicate feeding practices to childhood obesity in this sample of preschoolers. However, before…

  18. Parenting Practices among Low-Income Parents/Guardians of Academically Successful Fifth Grade African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Sanders, Tiffany; Mehta, Sejal; Behar-Horenstein, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Research investigating the relationship between parenting and academic achievement has provided conflicting results, particularly for low-income, culturally-diverse parents. Using resilience theory, the researchers conducted a case study with five low-income African American mothers. Findings suggest that educators can benefit from partnering with…

  19. African American teens and the neo-juvenile justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L

    2002-01-01

    African American youth continue to be overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. As a result of the current political environment and the perceived increase in crime among young people, the nation has moved away from rehabilitation and toward harsher treatment of delinquents. The African American community must encourage policy makers and community leaders to continue to address the disproportionate representation of African American youth in the system. Current policing and prosecutorial policies must also be examined and challenged to end the perception of an unjust system.

  20. HPV vaccine use among African American girls: qualitative formative research using a participatory social marketing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Pamela C; Williams, Elizabeth A; Khabele, Dineo; Dean, Candace; Bond, Brea; Sanderson, Maureen

    2014-03-01

    To generate recommendations for framing messages to promote HPV vaccination, specifically for African American adolescents and their parents who have not yet made a decision about the vaccine (the "Undecided" market segment). Focus groups and interviews were conducted with African American girls ages 11-18 (N=34) and their mothers (N=31), broken into market segments based on daughter's vaccination status and mother's intent to vaccinate. Findings suggested that the HPV vaccine should be presented to "Undecided" mothers and adolescents as a routine vaccine (just like other vaccines) that helps prevent cancer. Within the "Undecided" segment, we identified two sub-segments based on barriers to HPV vaccination and degree of reluctance. The "Undecided/Ready If Offered" segment would easily accept HPV vaccine if given the opportunity, with basic information and a healthcare provider recommendation. The "Undecided/Skeptical" segment would need more in-depth information to allay concerns about vaccine safety, mistrust of drug companies, and recommended age. Some mothers and girls had the erroneous perception that girls do not need the vaccine until they become sexually active. African American adolescents and their mothers overwhelmingly thought campaigns should target both girls and boys for HPV vaccination. In addition, campaigns and messages may need to be tailored for pre-teens (ages 9-12) versus teens (ages 13-18) and their parents. Findings pointed to the need to "normalize" the perception of HPV vaccine as just another routine vaccine (e.g., part of pre-teen vaccine package). Findings can inform social marketing campaigns targeting Undecided or ethnically diverse families. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. African and Arab American Achievement Motivation: Effects of Minority Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Bernadette S.; Hillman, Stephen B.

    The association between ethnic group identification, attributional style, and the use of self-protective attributions with respect to self-esteem, academic achievement and motivation among ethnically diverse adolescents was examined. Participants in the study included 422 African American, 90 Arab American, and 194 European American high school…

  2. The English History of African American English. Language and Society Series; 28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poplack, Shana, Ed.

    Essays on the history of African American Vernacular English (AAVE) include: an introduction to the evolution of AAVE within the African American diaspora (Shana Poplack); "Rephrasing the Copula: Contraction and Zero in Early African American English" (James A. Walker); "Reconstructing the Source of Early African American English…

  3. African Americans and Hospice Care: A Narrative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Patrick J; Roscoe, Lori A

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that terminally ill African Americans' care is generally more expensive and of lower quality than that of comparable non-Hispanic white patients. Scholars argue that increasing hospice enrollment among African Americans will help improve end-of-life care for this population, yet few studies have examined the experiences of African American patients and their loved ones after accessing hospice care. In this article, we explore how African American patients and lay caregivers evaluated their hospice experiences. Drawing from 39 in-depth interviews with 26 participants, we use a modified version of Bute and Jensen's (2011) narrative typology to organize patients' and caregivers' stories into three general categories: narratives of satisfaction, narratives of regret, and narratives of ambivalence. Building from these categories, we discuss the implications of this research for understanding hospice experiences, promoting hospice access, and improving end-of-life care for marginalized populations.

  4. African American marriage in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinderhughes, Elaine B

    2002-01-01

    It is not possible to understand African American marriages fully without attention to the social, economic, racial, and historical factors that have stressed male-female relationships beyond those stresses experienced by majority couples. I propose that the societal projection process (Bowen, 1978) has entrapped African Americans in ways that have continually and severely strained their marital and couple relationships. These experiences, and the ways in which African Americans have responded to them, have created a vulnerability that is compounded by societal shifts and changes, and is manifest in the precipitous decline of marriages at a rate higher than that found in all other racial groups in the U.S. I will examine the state of African American marriages in this cultural context, with specific attention to the effects of the unequal sex ratio, socioeconomic conditions, and overstressed male-female relationships. I will then discuss implications and offer suggestions for therapists who work with this population.

  5. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Mack McKinney, chief, program resources management at NASA and chairperson for African-American History Month, presents a plaque to Bhetty Waldron at the kick-off ceremony of African-American History Month on Feb. 3 at the NASA Training Auditorium. The award was given in thanks for Waldron's portrayal of Dr. Mary McLeod Bethune and Zora Neal Hurston during the ceremony. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  6. Directory of Scholarships for African-American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This database lists scholarships specifically available to African American students and some available to minority students in general. Scholarships for undergraduates in general and specific fields and awards for graduate and professional students are listed. (SLD)

  7. Issues in Reconstructing Earlier African-American English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Walt

    2000-01-01

    Identifies the major issues that need to be confronted in resolving the controversy over the historical roots of African American Vernacular English. and discusses their implications for reconstruction. (Author/VWL)

  8. Assessing Stigma among African Americans Living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Deepa; Molina, Yamile; Lambert, Nina; Cohn, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In the present study, we validated a culturally adapted stigma scale designed to assess stigma among African Americans living with HIV. Methods We collected data on the scale using an audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) format. We validated the scale with a sample of 62 African American participants living with HIV. Results Findings demonstrated that stigma can be measured succinctly and effectively in a 14-item scale with two subscales measuring enacted and internalized stigma. Discussion We identified many advantages to using the scale, which demonstrated good psychometric properties when used with an audio computer assisted self-interview format and with an African American sample. We recommend this scale’s use in both clinical practice and research study of HIV-stigma reduction interventions with African American populations.

  9. 78 FR 34241 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... music they made-- songs of hurt and hardship, yearning and hope, and struggle for a better day. Those feelings speak to something common in all of us. With passion and creativity, African-American...

  10. Telephone surveys underestimate cigarette smoking among African-Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope eLandrine

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study tested the hypothesis that data from random digit-dial telephone surveys underestimate the prevalence of cigarette smoking among African-American adults. Method. A novel, community-sampling method was used to obtain a statewide, random sample of N= 2118 California (CA African-American/Black adults, surveyed door-to-door. This Black community sample was compared to the Blacks in the CA Health Interview Survey (N = 2315, a statewide, random digit-dial telephone-survey conducted simultaneously. Results. Smoking prevalence was significantly higher among community (33% than among telephone-survey (19% Blacks, even after controlling for sample-differences in demographics.Conclusions. Telephone surveys underestimate smoking among African-Americans and probably underestimate other health risk behaviors as well. Alternative methods are needed to obtain accurate data on African-American health behaviors and on the magnitude of racial disparities in them.

  11. Use and Misuse of Speech Diagnostics for African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, John

    2015-01-01

    Many African American students have been tested using speech pathology diagnostics that are ill suited to their distinctive linguistic circumstances. Slave descendants of African origin share a unique linguistic heritage in contrast and comparison to every other immigrant group residing within America. In an effort to overcome the legacy of…

  12. Decline of African American Enlistment in the United States Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    be considered equal men. Racially motivated slander, bigotry, and condemnation of African Americans’ wartime service plagued the Army at the... workplace . The Vietnam Era Veterans’ Readjustment Assistance Act of 1974 was another program that assisted Vietnam Veterans in education and job placement...programs, which are now nearly extinct , gave priority to hiring of minorities and offering government contracts to African American businesses. Many

  13. Relativization Strategies in Earlier African American Vernacular English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tottie, Gunnel; Rey, Michel

    1997-01-01

    Examines the system of relative markers in early African American English as documented in the Ex-Slave Recordings. Found a higher incidence of zero marking in adverbial than in nonadverbial relatives. The lack of "wh"-relatives found, as well as this frequency of zero subject relatives, is interpreted as evidence that African American…

  14. Why Are Chinese Mothers More Controlling than American Mothers? "My Child Is My Report Card"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Deng, Ciping

    2014-01-01

    Chinese parents exert more control over children than do American parents. The current research examined whether this is due in part to Chinese parents' feelings of worth being more contingent on children's performance. Twice over a year, 215 mothers and children (M[subscript age] = 12.86 years) in China and the United States (European…

  15. Supportive/Conflictual Family Relations and Depressive Symptomatology: Teenage Mother and Grandmother Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Antonucci, Toni C.; Jackson, James S.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the influences of supportive and conflictual mother/daughter relationships on depressive symptoms expressed by African-American and White teenage mothers and grandmothers. Findings indicated that African-American teenage mothers were more likely than White mothers to report childrearing conflicts with grandmothers. Discusses implications…

  16. Adherence treatment factors in hypertensive African American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie N Fongwa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Marie N Fongwa1, Lorraines S Evangelista1, Ron D Hays2, David S Martins3, David Elashoff4, Marie J Cowan1, Donald E Morisky51University of California Los Angeles School of Nursing, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2University of California Los Angeles School of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3To Help Everyone Clinic Inc. Los Angeles, CA, USA; 4University of California Los Angeles Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 5University of California Los Angeles School of Public Health, CA, USABackground: Hypertension among African American women is of epidemic proportions. Nonadherence to treatment contributes to uncontrolled blood pressure in this population. Factors associated with adherence to treatment in African American women are unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with adherence to hypertension treatment in African American women.Methods: Five audio-taped focus groups were conducted with hypertensive African American women, 35 years and older receiving treatment for hypertension from an inner-city free clinic. All transcripts from the tapes were analyzed for content describing adherence to treatment factors.Findings: Factors associated with adherence to treatment in hypertensive African American women were in three main categories including: beliefs about hypertension, facilitators of adherence to treatment, and barriers to adherence to treatment.Implications: The study supports the need for education on managing hypertension and medication side effects, early screening for depression in hypertensive African Americans, development of culturally sensitive hypertension educational material, and formation of support groups for promoting adherence to treatment among African American women with hypertension.Keywords: adherence, African American, hypertension treatment factors

  17. Relativization strategies in Earlier African American Vernacular English

    OpenAIRE

    Tottie, Gunnel; Rey, Michel

    2017-01-01

    This article, which examines the system of relative markers in Early African American English as documented in the Ex-Slave Recordings (Bailey et al., 1991), is intended as a contribution to two areas of research: African American Vernacular English and the system of relativization in English. We found a significantly higher incidence of zero marking in adverbial relatives than in non-adverbial relatives. Among non-adverbial relatives, a variable rule analysis showed that non-humanness of the...

  18. Obesity and Pulmonary Function in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alem Mehari

    Full Text Available Obesity prevalence in United States (US adults exceeds 30% with highest prevalence being among blacks. Obesity is known to have significant effects on respiratory function and obese patients commonly report respiratory complaints requiring pulmonary function tests (PFTs. However, there is no large study showing the relationship between body mass index (BMI and PFTs in healthy African Americans (AA.To determine the effect of BMI on PFTs in AA patients who did not have evidence of underlying diseases of the respiratory system.We reviewed PFTs of 339 individuals sent for lung function testing who had normal spirometry and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO with wide range of BMI.Functional residual capacity (FRC and expiratory reserve volume (ERV decreased exponentially with increasing BMI, such that morbid obesity resulted in patients breathing near their residual volume (RV. However, the effects on the extremes of lung volumes, at total lung capacity (TLC and residual volume (RV were modest. There was a significant linear inverse relationship between BMI and DLCO, but the group means values remained within the normal ranges even for morbidly obese patients.We showed that BMI has significant effects on lung function in AA adults and the greatest effects were on FRC and ERV, which occurred at BMI values < 30 kg/m2. These physiological effects of weight gain should be considered when interpreting PFTs and their effects on respiratory symptoms even in the absence of disease and may also exaggerate existing lung diseases.

  19. Illness beliefs in African Americans with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Stephanie; Allen, Wilfred; Franklin, Mary; Peters, Rosalind M

    2014-02-01

    Guided by Leventhal's common sense model of illness representations, this study examined the relationship between hypertension beliefs and self-care behaviors necessary for blood pressure (BP) control in a sample of 111 community-dwelling African Americans with hypertension. Participants completed the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire, BP Self-Care Scale, and a demographic data sheet, and had BP measured. Analyses revealed that beliefs about the causes of hypertension differed by gender and educational level. Stress-related causal attributions accounted for 34.7% of the variance in hypertension beliefs. Participants who believed stress or external factors caused hypertension were less likely to engage in healthy self-care behaviors (e.g., keeping doctor visits, eating low-salt, low-fat diets). Results suggest that patients who are nonadherent with hypertension self-care recommendations may hold hypertension beliefs that are not consistent with the medically endorsed views of this disease. To more effectively treat and control BP, providers should assess patients' hypertension beliefs.

  20. Developing culturally sensitive cancer genetics communication aids for African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baty, Bonnie Jeanne; Kinney, Anita Yeomans; Ellis, Sara Marie

    2003-04-15

    The goal of this project was to develop educational materials to communicate genetic health information in a culturally sensitive manner. These materials were designed to communicate information about cancer risk, genetic testing options, and health management options in an African American kindred with a known BRCA1 mutation. Educational materials were pilot-tested in four African American focus groups varying in socioeconomic status and gender. The audiotaped focus groups consisted of presentation of the educational materials, followed by a feedback session led by an African American facilitator. Qualitative analysis of the focus group transcripts identified important themes and the educational materials were revised in response to the participants' suggestions. The products included a booklet and a flip chart for use in educational sessions. Focus group participants recommended a substantial reduction in technical detail, and recommended that information be personalized and made relevant to the lives of the target population. Other critical themes included the importance of building trust in the medical system and avoiding words and images that have strong negative associations in the African American community. Strategies that were successful included nontechnical images to explain genetic concepts, clip art images to energize and personalize word slides, vibrant color, identifiably African American figures, and the development of themes relevant to many African Americans. The use of these materials in an ongoing study offering BRCA1 counseling and testing to a large, rural Louisiana-based kindred will provide additional feedback about the effectiveness of the culturally tailored genetic education and counseling materials.

  1. Cultural barriers to African American participation in anxiety disorders research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Monnica T; Beckmann-Mendez, Diana A; Turkheimer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are understudied, underdiagnosed, and undertreated in African Americans. Research focused on the phenomenology, etiology, and treatment of anxiety in African Americans has been hampered by lack of inclusion of this population in clinical research studies. The reason for exclusion is not well understood, although cultural mistrust has been hypothesized as a major barrier to research participation. This article reviews the relevant literature to date and examines the experience of 6 African American adults who participated in a larger clinical assessment study about anxiety. Drawing upon in-depth semistructured interviews about their subjective experiences, we examined participant perspectives about the assessment process, opinions about African American perception of anxiety studies, and participant-generated ideas about how to improve African American participation. Based on a qualitative analysis of responses, feelings of mistrust emerged as a dominant theme. Concerns fell under 6 categories, including not wanting to speak for others, confidentiality, self and group presentation concerns, repercussions of disclosure, potential covert purposes of the study, and the desire to confide only in close others. Suggestions for increasing African American participation are discussed, including assurances of confidentiality, adequate compensation, and a comfortable study environment.

  2. Clozapine underutilization and discontinuation in African Americans due to leucopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Deanna L; Kreyenbuhl, Julie; Dixon, Lisa; Love, Raymond C; Medoff, Deborah; Conley, Robert R

    2007-09-01

    Clozapine use has been notably lower in African American patients than in Caucasians. It has been suggested that lower normal ranges for white blood cell (WBC) counts in African Americans, known as benign ethnic neutropenia, may account partially for the disparity. We examined the rates of leucopenia and agranulocytosis as reasons for discontinuation of clozapine in a sample of 1875 patients with schizophrenia treated in the State of Maryland. Between 1989 and 1999, 5.3% (31/588) of African Americans and 2.4% (31/1287) of Caucasians discontinued clozapine treatment due to leucopenia (chi square = 10.35, df = 1, P = 0.001). No African American patients developed agranulocytosis while 8 Caucasian patients (0.62%) developed this blood dyscrasia. Discontinuations due to leucopenia occurred throughout treatment. Discontinuations due to agranulocytosis occurred primarily in the first 18 weeks (7/8; 87.5% patients with agranulocytosis). It is likely that African Americans had clozapine discontinued unnecessarily due to benign ethnic neutropenia. We concur with recent recommendations to acknowledge differences in WBC values in African Americans and to modify prescribing guidelines or formally acknowledge benign ethnic leucopenia like in other countries in order to facilitate greater use of clozapine in these patients.

  3. Nonstandard Maternal Work Schedules: Implications for African American Children's Early Language Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Erika C; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Crouter, Ann C

    2013-01-01

    In this study, observed maternal positive engagement and perception of work-family spillover were examined as mediators of the association between maternal nonstandard work schedules and children's expressive language outcomes in 231 African American families living in rural households. Mothers reported their work schedules when their child was 24 months of age and children's expressive language development was assessed during a picture book task at 24 months and with a standardized assessment at 36 months. After controlling for family demographics, child, and maternal characteristics, maternal employment in nonstandard schedules at the 24 month timepoint was associated with lower expressive language ability among African American children concurrently and at 36 months of age. Importantly, the negative association between nonstandard schedules and children's expressive language ability at 24 months of age was mediated by maternal positive engagement and negative work-family spillover, while at 36 months of age, the association was mediated only by negative work-family spillover. These findings suggest complex links between mothers' work environments and African American children's developmental outcomes.

  4. African Self-Consciousness and Health-Promoting Behaviors among African American College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Shawn N.; Chambers, John W., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated three models of relationships between African self-consciousness, health consciousness, and health-promoting behaviors among African American college students. The models included the mediator model, moderator model, and independent model. Surveys of 80 students supported the independent model, suggesting that African…

  5. Crossing Cultures in Marriage: Implications for Counseling African American/African Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durodoye, Beth A.; Coker, Angela D.

    2008-01-01

    A wealth of literature exists regarding intermarriage between White and ethnic minority couples. Noticeably lacking, however, is information considering within-group diversity amongst Black couples. This paper will focus on cultural dynamics that may operate with African American and African couples residing in the United States. Through an…

  6. The Influence of the African American Father on Level of Self-Efficacy, Career Achievement, and Aspirations of His African American Daughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, April E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate the influence of perceived and desired paternal involvement of the African American father on his African American daughter. The research problem is how father involvement may influence self-efficacy, career achievements, and aspirations of African American females. This study sought to…

  7. Cultural Dysthymia: An Unrecognized Disorder among African Americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontress, Clemmont E.; Woodland, Calvin E.; Epp, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Many African Americans experience low-grade depression, referred to as dysthymia in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). After more than 250 years of enslavement, prejudice, and discrimination, dysthymia is reflected in chronic low-grade sadness, anger, hostility,…

  8. Cultural Enrichment: Connecting African American Elementary Children to Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Deborah L.

    2011-01-01

    A large, growing number of mis-educated American citizens are being produced by America's public schools. Many of these students are being funneled into the penal system shortly after dropping out of high school. This phenomenon is especially prevalent among African American male students, many of whom have withdrawn academically years prior…

  9. An analysis of African American Vernacular English in Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Chen-yang

    2014-01-01

    AAVE is a form of American English spoken primarily by African Americans. Although an AAVE speaker's dialect may exhibit regional variation, there are still many salient features. The relationship between Black Music and Standard American Eng-lish is a reflection of the special situation of the mutual influence and infiltration of the African-American sub-culture and the main-stream American culture. African-American sub-culture is shaped under pressure from the main-stream culture, and af-fected the latter to so great an extent that African-American sub-culture has been identified as one of the most important feature of American culture. The origin and development of Black Music are closely related to the cultural life of the Blacks. Because of its innate cultural connotation and the musical feature such as lively rhythm, fast talking, omission of pronunciation, full of ob-scene language and rhyme, all the features mentioned above help to have a great effect on the development of the AAVE.

  10. Vital Signs: The State of African Americans in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Theodore L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Presents a statistical record of the progress of African Americans in institutions of higher education in the United States. Statistics include trends in black enrollment, library resources in historically black colleges, leading foundation grants, blacks in business schools, and comparative analysis of Asian Americans and blacks in higher…

  11. Sources of greater fetal vulnerability to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyunok; Perera, Frederica P

    2012-02-01

    This study attempted to clarify the household and mother's lifestyle factors that contribute to the greater fetal vulnerability of African-American individuals to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Non-smoking pregnant women with no known risks of adverse birth outcome were monitored for their personal exposure to airborne PAH. Birth outcomes were collected from the hospital medical record. Modification of the airborne PAH effects was statistically examined. In linear regression analyses, modification of PAH effect by demographic, socioeconomic and behavioural traits on birth weight and fetal growth ratio were respectively tested, adjusting for the gestational age, gender, parity, delivery season, maternal body mass index and weight gained during the present pregnancy. Maternal obesity exacerbated the airborne PAH risk by -491 g per 25th to 80th percentile unit exposure (95% CI -197 to -786 g; pfood items posed an independent risk on the reduced birth weight among African Americans.

  12. Characteristics and correlates of sibling relationships in two-parent African American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M; Whiteman, Shawn D; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Crouter, Ann C

    2007-06-01

    The authors studied sibling relationships of African American youths and family and youth characteristics linked to sibling dynamics. Participants were fathers, mothers, and 2 siblings (M = 14.04 and M = 10.34 years of age) from 172 working-middle class 2-parent families. Cluster analyses of data collected in home interviews revealed 3 sibling relationship types: positive, negative, and distant. Parent education was lower, parent religiosity higher, and parent-child relationships more positive in the positive group; maternal discrimination experiences were higher in the negative group; youth ethnic identity was stronger in the positive group; and youth depression and risky behavior were higher in the negative group. The findings target sociocultural factors to consider in interventions for African American families.

  13. Family eating and physical activity practices among African American, Filipino American, and Hispanic American families: Implications for developing obesity prevention programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Sobong Porter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity among children and adults is well-documented as an escalating problem. The purpose of this study is to determine the blood pressure, self-esteem, and eating and physical activity practices among African Americans, Filipino Americans, and Hispanic Americans; and project implications for development of childhood obesity prevention programs. This descriptive study was conducted in a convenience sample of 110 mothers recruited in health clinics and community centers located in Southeast Florida: 19% African Americans, 26% Filipino Americans, and 55% Hispanic Americans. The data, collected via self-administered questionnaires and a guided interview (Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire, Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale, Background Information Questionnaire, were analyzed via descriptive and inferential statistics with findings significant at p < .05. Results revealed differences and similarities in eating and activity practices between Filipinos and Blacks or Hispanics. Blood pressure and self-esteem did not differ by ethnicity; however, overweight mothers tended to have overweight children. The results point clearly to the importance of the mothers’ role modeling in eating and physical activity practices of families, reflecting the influence of mothers’ behaviors in children’s healthy behaviors, albeit family health. Given that mothers own physical exercise and eating habits could influence their children’s physical activity levels and food choices, a parental advice strategy could be disseminated directly to parents by health professionals. Study findings may raise public awareness of the increasing prevalence and consequences of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, particularly among vulnerable ethnic groups. The findings provide a database for nurse practitioners and other health service providers for the development of culturally sensitive focused public health education programs to prevent

  14. Racial Discrimination, John Henryism, and Depression Among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Darrell L; Neighbors, Harold W; Geronimus, Arline T; Jackson, James S

    2016-06-01

    Evidence from previous studies indicates that racial discrimination is significantly associated with depression and that African Americans with higher levels of socioeconomic status (SES) report greater exposure to racial discrimination compared to those with lower SES levels. Coping strategies could alter the relationship between racial discrimination and depression among African Americans. This study first examined whether greater levels of SES were associated with increased reports of racial discrimination and ratings of John Henryism, a measure of high-effort coping, among African Americans. Second, we examined whether high-effort coping moderated the relationship between racial discrimination and depression. Data were drawn from the National Survey of American Life Reinterview (n = 2,137). Analyses indicated that greater levels of education were positively associated with racial discrimination (p racial discrimination were positively related to depression (p discrimination and depression was altered by the effects of John Henryism.

  15. African-American college student attitudes toward physics and their effect on achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Carl Timothy

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting the attitudes that African-American college students have towards introductory college physics. The population targeted for this study consisted of African-American males and females enrolled in introductory college physics classes at an urban public historical black college or university (HBCU) located in the southeastern United States. Nine of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Scales, modified for physics, were used to analyze the attitudes of the 135 participants enrolled in an introductory college physics class. The nine scales used to measure the students' attitudes were Attitude Toward Success in Physics Scale (AS), The Physics as a Male Domain Scale (MD), The Mother Scale (M), The Father Scale (F), The Teacher Scale (T), The Confidence in Learning Physics Scale (C), The Physics Anxiety Scale (A), The Effectance Motivation Scale in Physics (E), and The Physics Usefulness Scale (U). Hypothesis I states that there is a significant difference in the domain scores of African-American college students in the Fennema-Sherman Math Attitudes Scales adapted for physics. It was found using a repeated measures ANOVA that there was a significant difference between the attitudes of African-Americans on the nine attitude scales of the Fennema-Sherman Math Attitude Scales, F(8,992) = 43.09, p .05. Hypothesis III states that there is a statistically significant relationship between attitude towards physics and achievement for African-American students. The students with good attitudes toward physics would have a higher level of achievement. The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that there was a significant relationship between a good attitude toward physics and achievement in the class. The result of the analysis implied that 18.9% of the grade could be explained by the domain scales.

  16. Cancer Perceptions of South African Mothers and Daughters: Implications for Health Promotion Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Simon, Christian; Ahmed, Rashid

    2010-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. A major reason why women do not obtain cancer screening procedures relates to the high levels of fear associated with cancer. In this study, we explored South African mothers’ and daughters’ reaction to the word “cancer” specifically. The study sample included 157 randomly selected mother and adolescent daughter pairs from an urban community in Cape Town, South Africa. Mothers and their adolescent daughters had very similar responses to ...

  17. What influences African American end-of-life preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicher, Camille P; Meeker, Mary Ann

    2012-02-01

    The U.S. population is aging and increasingly culturally diverse. The challenges of an aging population desiring a good end to their lives combined with soaring costs for medical care serve as a mandate for providers to be aware of both patient preferences and other factors influencing decision-making at the end of life. Systematic review of published research studies examining African American preferences related to end-of-life care and decision-making. There are well documented differences in preferences for end-of-life care and utilization of services between non-Hispanic Whites and African Americans. African Americans do not use advance care planning (ACP) documents or hospice to the same extent as non-Hispanic Whites, and, even after controlling for income and access, the difference is significant. Many African Americans choose aggressive life-sustaining treatment at the end of life, even if that treatment seems likely to confer great burden with little chance of benefit. The reasons for this are multi-faceted and include knowledge of and access to services, historical mistrust of the health care system, and spiritual beliefs. African American end-of-life choices are influenced by knowledge of and access to services as well as by shared cultural beliefs in the role of family and others in decision-making, mistrust toward the health care system, and the importance of spirituality.

  18. Psoriasis in African-Americans: a caregivers' survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Amy J; Vachiramon, Vasanop; Guzmán-Sánchez, Daniela Araucaria; Camacho, Fabian

    2012-04-01

    Psoriasis is a common skin disease in Caucasians but less common in African-Americans. Our aim is to evaluate caregiver opinions regarding the clinical presentations and treatment of psoriasis in African-Americans compared to Caucasians. A survey was sent to 29 dermatologists who are opinion leaders in the field of psoriasis. The survey included a number of questions regarding the characteristics of the patients seen in their practice. A total of 29 surveys were completed and returned. All of the dermatologists use the extent of disease as a criterion to determine the severity of the disease. Other criteria include scale, thickness, erythema, associated general symptoms, and dyspigmentation. About 66% of the respondents reported the different manifestations of disease, such as more dyspigmentation, thicker plaques, and less erythema in African-Americans. The most common first-line treatments for mild to moderate disease were highpotency topical steroids (68%) followed by topical vitamin D analogues (41%). For moderate to severe disease, the most commonly used first-line treatments were high-potency topical steroids (54%) and phototherapy (46%). The clinical manifestations of psoriasis in African-Americans are not exactly the same as in Caucasians. Physicians should be aware of the difference in clinical manifestations in African-Americans. Further research and large-scale studies are necessary to elucidate the differences in the clinical presentation, natural course of the disease, and the criteria used for the evaluation of severity among ethnic groups.

  19. Informal learning in SME majors for African American female undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezella McPherson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as the framework to better understand their opportunities to engage in free-choice science learning. The article demonstrates that African American women have access to cultural capital and informal science learning inside and outside of home and school environments in P-16 settings. In primary and secondary schools, African American girls acquire cultural capital and access to free-choice science learning in the home environment, museums, science fairs, student organizations and clubs. However, in high school African American female teenagers have fewer informal science learning opportunities like those such as those provided in primary school settings. In college, cultural capital is transmitted through informal science learning that consisted of involvement in student organizations, research projects, seminars, and conferences. These experiences contributed to their engagement and persistence in SME fields in K-16 settings. This research adds to cultural capital and informal science learning research by allowing scholars to better understand how African American women have opportunities to learn about the hidden curriculum of science through informal science settings throughout the educational pipeline.

  20. Why Is There an Overrepresentation of African Americans in Special Education Classes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keulen, Jean E. van

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how cultural differences contribute to overrepresentation of African Americans in special education, examining European American cultural expectations that clash with those of African Americans. Factors contributing to overrepresentation include cultural discontinuity and prejudicial practices among African American students and European…

  1. Selecting renal replacement therapies: what do African American and non-African American patients and their families think others should know? A mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DePasquale Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known regarding the types of information African American and non-African American patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD and their families need to inform renal replacement therapy (RRT decisions. Methods In 20 structured group interviews, we elicited views of African American and non-African American patients with CKD and their families about factors that should be addressed in educational materials informing patients’ RRT selection decisions. We asked participants to select factors from a list and obtained their open-ended feedback. Results Ten groups of patients (5 African American, 5 non-African American; total 68 individuals and ten groups of family members (5 African American, 5 non-African American; total 62 individuals participated. Patients and families had a range (none to extensive of experiences with various RRTs. Patients identified morbidity or mortality, autonomy, treatment delivery, and symptoms as important factors to address. Family members identified similar factors but also cited the effects of RRT decisions on patients’ psychological well-being and finances. Views of African American and non-African American participants were largely similar. Conclusions Educational resources addressing the influence of RRT selection on patients’ morbidity and mortality, autonomy, treatment delivery, and symptoms could help patients and their families select RRT options closely aligned with their values. Including information about the influence of RRT selection on patients’ personal relationships and finances could enhance resources’ cultural relevance for African Americans.

  2. Cognitive test performance among nondemented elderly African Americans and whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manly, J J; Jacobs, D M; Sano, M; Bell, K; Merchant, C A; Small, S A; Stern, Y

    1998-05-01

    We examined the neuropsychological test performance of a randomly selected community sample of English-speaking non-Hispanic African American and white elders in northern Manhattan. All participants were diagnosed as nondemented by a neurologist, whose assessment was made independent of neuropsychological test scores. African American elders obtained significantly lower scores on measures of verbal and nonverbal learning and memory, abstract reasoning, language, and visuospatial skill than whites. After using a stratified random sampling technique to match groups on years of education, many of the discrepancies became nonsignificant; however, significant ethnic group differences on measures of figure memory, verbal abstraction, category fluency, and visuospatial skill remained. Discrepancies in test performance of education-matched African Americans and whites could not be accounted for by occupational attainment or history of medical conditions such as hypertension and diabetes. These findings emphasize the importance of using culturally appropriate norms when evaluating ethnically diverse elderly for dementia.

  3. Sexual health communication within religious African-American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Terrinieka T; Pichon, Latrice C; Campbell, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    While research suggests youth prefer parents and family members to serve as the primary sources of sexual health information, fear and discomfort around discussing sex with their parents may leave youth misinformed and underinformed. This study explored sexual heath communication within religious African-American families. Thirty adolescents participated in four focus groups, and 19 adults and 30 adolescents participated in six focus groups, at two predominantly African-American Christian churches in Flint, MI. All data were analyzed inductively using a constant comparison approach. Nearly all participants reported attending church weekly. Three themes emerged and are described: initiating sex talks, using mistakes as teaching tools, and clarifying prevention messages. Participants highlighted the need for religious parents to offer both religious and practical guidance to adolescents about sexual health. Findings from this study may be used to inform future sexual health promotion interventions for religious African-American families.

  4. African American parents' HPV vaccination intent and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders Thompson, Vetta L; Arnold, Lauren D; Notaro, Sheri R

    2012-02-01

    This study describes attitudes and social and environmental factors that affect African American parents' intent to vaccinate their daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV). Thirty African American parents of daughters aged nine to 17 years and no history of HPV infection completed semi-structured interviews. Interviews addressed factors that influenced intent to vaccinate, perception of community norms related to vaccination, vaccination scenarios involving place of vaccination, and vaccination prior to or after the child's initiation of sexual activity. A recurring theme was the influence of physician recommendation on African American parents' intent to obtain HPV vaccination for their daughters. Most parents reported that they could overcome barriers to vaccination, except vaccine costs and lack of insurance. While religious beliefs were important to parents, they reported that they would not interfere with vaccination decisions; fears of early sexuality due to vaccination were limited. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. Culturally Conscientious Pain Measurement in Older African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Staja Q; Herr, Keela A; Tripp-Reimer, Toni

    2016-10-01

    Despite considerable pain disparities across the care continuum, pain is an understudied health problem in older ethnic minority groups, such as African Americans. Quality pain measurement is a core task in pain management and a mechanism by which pain disparities may be reduced. Pain measurement includes the methods (e.g., assessment approaches, tools) and metrics that researchers and clinicians use to understand the characteristics of pain. However, there are significant issues and gaps that negatively affect pain measurement in older African Americans. Of concern is insufficient representation in pain research, which impedes the testing and refinement of many standardized self-report, behavioral and surrogate report, physiological, and composite measures of pain. The purposes for this article are to discuss the status of pain measurement and factors that affect our knowledge on pain measurement in older African Americans, and to provide guidance for culturally conscientious pain measurement using the available literature.

  6. Assessment of religious and spiritual capital in African American communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Cheryl L; Schulz, Emily; Williams, Beverly; Clark, Eddie M; Wang, Min Qi; Southward, Penny L

    2012-12-01

    African American faith communities are an important source of social capital. The present study adapted a theory-based social capital instrument to result in religious (e.g., from organized worship) and spiritual (e.g., from relationship with higher power) capital measures. Data from a national sample of 803 African Americans suggest the instruments have high internal reliability and are distinct from general religiosity. Measurement models confirmed factor structures. Religious capital was positively associated with self-rated health status. Religious and spiritual capital were negatively associated with depressive symptoms, but these associations largely became nonsignificant in multivariate models that controlled for demographic characteristics. An exception is for spiritual capital in the form of community participation, which retained a negative association with depressive symptoms. These instruments may have applied value for health promotion research and practice in African American communities.

  7. Case-control assessment of diet and lung cancer risk in African Americans and Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillow, P C; Hursting, S D; Duphorne, C M; Jiang, H; Honn, S E; Chang, S; Spitz, M R

    1997-01-01

    In this case-control study we determined whether dietary differences underlie some of the ethnic and sex differences in US lung cancer rates. We examined the relationship between diet and lung cancer development in 137 lung cancer cases (93 African Americans and 44 Mexican Americans) and 187 controls (78 African Americans and 109 Mexican Americans). Cases reported a higher daily mean total fat intake (p fruits (p = 0.02). Ethnic differences in diet were also observed: Mexican Americans consumed less total fat (p fruits (p lung cancer risk (p fruit consumption and lung cancer risk (p = 0.05). In conclusion, our findings support the hypothesis that diet, particularly high fat consumption and low fruit and vegetable consumption, contributes (independent of cigarette smoking) to the excess lung cancer risk in African-American men, who have the highest lung cancer rates in the United States.

  8. Recruiting African Americans into Research on Cognitive Aging

    OpenAIRE

    McDOUGALL, GRAHAM J.; Holston, Ezra C.; Wilke, Pat

    2001-01-01

    A total of 218 adults with an average age of seventy-eight years participated in a study of memory performance in community elders. A computer-generated random zip code list of adults ≥70 years of age was purchased and a four-phase telephone-screening plan was adopted. During the second year, the sampling plan had to be changed, with a convenience-sampling plan being adopted to recruit adequate numbers of African-American subjects. Fifty-seven percent of the African-American subjects (N = 55)...

  9. How Black Mothers Participate in the Development of Manhood and Masculinity: What Do We Know about Black Mothers and Their Sons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson Bush, V.

    2004-01-01

    An analysis was carried out on the body of literature exploring African-American mother-son relationship. The analysis suggested that African-American mothers play an important role in the healthy development of manhood and masculinity and challenged notions about considering mothering as a gender or biological assignment rather than as an act…

  10. Chinese-American and European-American Mothers and Infants: Cultural Influences in the First Three Months of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchner, Joan F.

    This study explores cultural influences in the first three months of life by comparing the daily experiences of first generation Chinese-American and European-American infants whose parents were born in the United States. The study focused on 10 Chinese-American and 10 European-American families whose mothers were recruited during the third…

  11. Alexa Irene Canady: the first African-American woman neurosurgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Shearwood

    2008-04-01

    The advances of the civil rights movement in the mid-20th century made it possible for many African Americans to have the opportunity to enter the distinguished field of neurosurgery, beginning in 1953 with Clarence S. Greene, Sr. This report details the career and exploits of the first African-American woman neurosurgeon, Alexa Irene Canady, MD. A comprehensive review of pertinent modern and historical records spanning the past century was performed. Born on November 7, 1950, in Lansing, MI, Canady received her MD from the University of Michigan in 1975, graduating with distinction and being elected into the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Society. Training in neurosurgery under Dr. Shelley Chou from 1976-1981 at the University of Minnesota, she became the program's first female graduate. Following residency, she trained as a pediatric neurosurgery fellow at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. In 1984, Canady became the first African-American woman certified by the American Board of Neurological Surgery. She subsequently continued a long, distinguished career in pediatric neurosurgery, first at Henry Ford and later as chief of neurosurgery at Children's Hospital of Michigan before retiring in 2001. Among her many accolades, she was named 1993 Woman of the Year by the American Woman's Medical Association. Canady's diligence, perseverance and commitment enabled her to overcome tremendous odds to become the first African-American woman neurosurgeon, trained at the University of Minnesota. A true pioneer, her achievements have inspired many, opening the door for subsequent women and African Americans to enhance the field of neurosurgery.

  12. Association of Substance Use Disorders With Childhood Trauma but not African Genetic Heritage in an African American Cohort

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuan, Nicole P; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Ducci, Francesca; Goldman, Lynn R; Yuan, Qiaoping; Shen, Pei-Hong; Goldman, David; Roy, Alec

    2009-01-01

    ... to environmental risk factors, including poverty and trauma. Method: The authors used 186 ancestry-informative markers to measure African ancestry in 407 addicts and 457 comparison subjects self-identified as African Americans...

  13. Beauty and Body Image Concerns Among African American College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Germine H.; Norwood, Carolette; Taylor, Desire S.; Martinez, Mercedes; McClain, Shannon; Jones, Bianca; Holman, Andrea; Chapman-Hilliard, Collette

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined body image concerns among African American women. In recent years, there has been an attempt to include ethnic minority samples in body image studies (e.g., Grabe & Hyde, 2006; Hrabosky & Grilo, 2007; Lovejoy, 2001) but few specifically examine unique issues pertaining to beauty and body image for African American college age women. A total of 31 African American women participated in one of five focus groups on the campus of a large Southwestern University to examine beauty and body image. Data were analyzed using a thematic approach and several themes were identified. The majority of themes pertained to issues related to hair, skin tone, body type, and message sources. Themes included: sacrifice, ignorance/racial microaggressions, and validation and invalidation by others, thick/toned/curvy as optimal, hypersexualization, and being thin is for White women. Findings of the current study suggest a reconceptualization of body image for African American women where relevant characteristics such as hair and skin tone are given more priority over traditional body image concerns often associated with European American women. PMID:26778866

  14. African American Women and Obesity Through the Prism of Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox-Kazimierczuk, Francoise; Geller, Karly; Sellers, Sherrill; Taliaferro Baszile, Denise; Smith-Shockley, Meredith

    2017-08-01

    There are minimal studies focusing on African American women and obesity, and there are even fewer studies examining obesity through a critical race theoretical framework. African American obesity research has largely focused on individual and community interventions, which have not been sufficient to reverse the obesity epidemic. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between race and body mass index (BMI) for African American women. Previously collected data from the National Survey of American Life Self-Administered Questionnaire, 2001-2003 (NSAL-SAQ) was analyzed for this study. The NSAL-SAQ dedicated a section to the exploration of group and personal identity, along with having anthropometric data and health habit questions to be able to conduct analyses for associations between the racial identity dimensions and obesity. Multiple linear regression was used to examine the constructs of racial identity on BMI comparing standardized coefficients (β) and R(2)adj values. Results indicated participants ascribing more to the stereotype of "Blacks giving up easily" (β = 0.527, p = .000) showed an increased BMI. Additionally, the negative stereotype of "Blacks being violent" (β = 0.663, p = .000) and "Blacks being lazy" (β = 0.506, p = .001) was associated with an increased BMI. Based on these finds high negative racial regard is associated with increased weight. This study contributes uniquely to the scientific literature, focusing on the construct of racial identity and obesity in African American women.

  15. Beauty and Body Image Concerns Among African American College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Germine H; Norwood, Carolette; Taylor, Desire S; Martinez, Mercedes; McClain, Shannon; Jones, Bianca; Holman, Andrea; Chapman-Hilliard, Collette

    2015-12-01

    The current study examined body image concerns among African American women. In recent years, there has been an attempt to include ethnic minority samples in body image studies (e.g., Grabe & Hyde, 2006; Hrabosky & Grilo, 2007; Lovejoy, 2001) but few specifically examine unique issues pertaining to beauty and body image for African American college age women. A total of 31 African American women participated in one of five focus groups on the campus of a large Southwestern University to examine beauty and body image. Data were analyzed using a thematic approach and several themes were identified. The majority of themes pertained to issues related to hair, skin tone, body type, and message sources. Themes included: sacrifice, ignorance/racial microaggressions, and validation and invalidation by others, thick/toned/curvy as optimal, hypersexualization, and being thin is for White women. Findings of the current study suggest a reconceptualization of body image for African American women where relevant characteristics such as hair and skin tone are given more priority over traditional body image concerns often associated with European American women.

  16. Psychodynamics of Coping and Survival of the African-American Female in a Changing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Carlene

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes the sociopsychological factors that account for increased stressors and dysfunctionality in contemporary African American women. Discusses the importance of African American family life values in combating dehumanization. (FMW)

  17. Slaves No More: The Caring Power of African-American Female Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sernak, Kathleen S.

    2004-01-01

    In this article the author examines the historical significance of the cultural aspect of race on African American females' leadership values and styles that encourage caring in schools. The author focuses her study by asking: What aspects of their (African American female leaders) cultural backgrounds as Africans and as African Americans…

  18. Effects of Ethnically Diverse Photographic Stimuli on Preference and Discourse Tasks in African American and Caucasian American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Dagenais, Paul A.; Evans, Kelli J.; Camp, Travis J.; Ferguson, Neina N.

    2013-01-01

    This study determined whether using photographic stimuli displaying different ethnicity (African American vs. Caucasian American) influenced preference, word count, and number of content units produced by African American or Caucasian American participants. Six photograph pairs depicting common scenes were developed, differing only by model…

  19. Understanding Facilitators and Barriers to the Selection of Dietetics as a major by African American students.

    OpenAIRE

    Felton, Teena M

    2007-01-01

    Understanding Facilitators And Barriers To The Selection of Dietetics As A Major By African-American Students Teena M. Felton (ABSTRACT) Less than 5% of registered dietitians are African-American individuals. Little has been done to investigate reasons for the paucity of African-American professionals in the dietetics field. The specific aim of this study was, therefore, to explore facilitators and barriers to the selection of dietetics as a major by African-American students. ...

  20. CDC Vital Signs–African American Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-02

    This podcast is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but it’s still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 5/2/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/2/2017.

  1. Neighborhood effects on use of African-American Vernacular English

    OpenAIRE

    Rickford, JR; Duncan, GJ; Gennetian, LA; Gou, RY; Greene, R.; Katz, LF; Kessler, RC; Kling, JR; Sanbonmatsu, L; Sanchez-Ordoñez, AE; Sciandra, M; Thomas, E.; Ludwig, J.; McLanahan, SS

    2015-01-01

    African-American Vernacular English (AAVE) is systematic, rooted in history, and important as an identity marker and expressive resource for its speakers. In these respects, it resembles other vernacular or nonstandard varieties, like Cockney or Appalachian English. But like them, AAVE can trigger discrimination in the workplace, housing market, and schools. Understanding what shapes the relative use of AAVE vs. Standard American English (SAE) is important for policy and scientific reasons. T...

  2. W.E.B. Du Bois: Role Model and Mentor for African American Undergraduate Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Larry L.

    2001-01-01

    With the dearth of African American men in academe, African American college men have few opportunities to be mentored by those who can best help them make sense of their experience. Du Bois' writings give voice to much of the African American college experience and provide concrete examples of how to think, act, and persevere in the U.S.…

  3. What's So "Powerful" about African American Children's Literature?: Let's Ask the Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefflin, Bena R.

    2003-01-01

    Outlines what educators and academics describe as the "power" of children's literature and multicultural children's literature, which includes African American children's literature. Explores what four African American third-graders have to say about the "power" of six African American children's books. Concludes with the patterns and implications…

  4. Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

  5. Aspects of the Student Engagement of African American Men in Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romney, Paulette B.

    2012-01-01

    High attrition rates of African American college students' is a continuing concern of higher education administrators. This is particularly true of African American men attending community college. African American men consistently experience low levels of scholastic achievement as a result of entering college underprepared, with academic deficits…

  6. "Eyes in the back of Your Head": Moral Themes in African American Narratives of Racial Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Janie Victoria

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes African-Americans narratives of interracial conflict. Concludes that issues of power and authority are imbedded in interracial interpersonal relationships. Explores themes of justice and care in the psychological development of African Americans and in the transmission of race-related morals and values in African-American culture. (DK)

  7. A Case Study of the Development of African American Women Executives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks Greaux, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Even in an era when the country elected an African American man as President of the United States, there is still a paucity of African American women executives within Fortune 500 companies. Although more African American women have joined the ranks of corporate management over the last two decades, the numbers, when compared to those of White…

  8. Nuances of Error: Considerations Relevant to African American Vernacular English and Learning to Read

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton-Lilly, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the presence of African American Vernacular English patterns in the reading of one child over a 20-week period. In this paper, I present insights from linguists about African American Vernacular English, list linguistic patterns characteristic of African American Vernacular English speakers, examine the relationship between the…

  9. Orienting African American Male Adolescents toward Meaningful Literacy Exchanges with Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, Alfred W.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from a sociohistorical understanding of the roles of texts for African American males and data from a recent survey of teens' meaningful experiences with texts, the author provides a general understanding of the roles of texts among African American males and African American male adolescents' meaningful relationships with texts. These…

  10. African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

  11. Connecting Social Disorganization Theory to African-American Outcomes to Explain the Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madyun, Na'im H.

    2011-01-01

    African-American student achievement outcomes have been and continue to be a critical concern for education researchers. Much of the framing of African-American student outcomes centers on what is known as achievement gaps that exist between African-American and White students. Unfortunately, these gaps have remained roughly the same since the…

  12. Environmental Attitudes and Information Sources among African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E. Bun

    2008-01-01

    The author examined the environmental attitudes of African American college students by using the 15-item New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) Scale. The author also attempted to determine their everyday environmental behaviors such as recycling and conservation and investigated major information sources for local, national, and international…

  13. Environmental Attitudes and Information Sources among African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E. Bun

    2008-01-01

    The author examined the environmental attitudes of African American college students by using the 15-item New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) Scale. The author also attempted to determine their everyday environmental behaviors such as recycling and conservation and investigated major information sources for local, national, and international…

  14. Substance Abuse: Implications for Counseling African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Jay C.

    1994-01-01

    Examines factors--such as unemployment, economic deprivation, racism, issues pertaining to gender roles--and their contribution to substance abuse in African American men. Specifically reviews the use of alcohol, opiates, crack, and cocaine. Argues that a biopsychosocial model offers the best framework in conceptualizing substance abuse and…

  15. African American Families Under Fire: Ethnographic Views of Family Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, Beth; Klingner, Janette K.; Hart, Juliet

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the discrepancy between school personnel's negative stereotyping of African American families and the family information gleaned by ethnographic research. Using findings from a 3-year ethnographic study of the special education placement process in a culturally diverse urban school district, we describe the general…

  16. Improving the Diets of African-Americans: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Delores C. S.

    1998-01-01

    Investigated African Americans' dietary patterns in light of national nutrition recommendations. Questionnaires and focus groups indicated that most respondents rated their diets good or excellent, but most had unhealthy eating habits. Most had recently tried to lower fat intake. Milk, whole grains, vegetables, and water were the most difficult…

  17. Factors in the Academic Success of African American College Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ralph Edward

    The most prevalent factors in the academic success of African American male undergraduate students at the University of South Carolina were studied. Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) mathematics and verbal scores and high school rank were the independent, cognitive variables; and self-esteem, academic self-concept, religiosity, African…

  18. African American Accounting Majors and the 150-hr Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Quinton; Hill, Cecil L.; Wright, Carl

    2010-01-01

    The study provides information on African American accounting majors' views regarding 150-hr issues. The authors collected data from 152 students at two schools. Students at one school supported the requirement while those at the other school did not. However, students believed that the 150-hr requirement enhances the quality of certified public…

  19. Alternatives to Suspending African American High School Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. KIRIAKIDIS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research site was one high school in the southern United States where African American males were suspended at greater rates than their counterparts. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the perspectives of high school administrators and teachers regarding alternatives to suspending African American males in one southern high school within a public school district. Guided by the social learning theory, the research question focused on the suspensions of these students. Data were collected through in-depth, semi structured, face-to-face interviews with a purposive sample of 6 high school teachers and 2 administrators, and coded and analyzed for emergent themes. The findings revealed that African American high school males might benefit from education programs such as character education programs to develop social, academic, and discipline skills. The findings of this study may be used for professional development for teachers and administrators regarding strategies to reduce suspensions of African American high school males, which might facilitate their graduation from high school and subsequent entry into higher education or the workforce.lications to display the level of psychological strain and workplace stressors among nurses as part of the postmodern organizational problems. Classification-JEL: A23

  20. African American Male College Athletes' Narratives on Education and Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, John N.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents narrative case study vignettes of three elite African American male football athletes at a major historically White institution of higher education with a big-time athletics department. More specifically, I draw from critical race theory to garner insight into their secondary schooling background, what education means to them,…

  1. Fostering Healthy Lifestyles in the African American Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murimi, Mary; Chrisman, Matthew S.; McAllister, Tiffany; McDonald, Olevia D.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 8.3% of the U.S. population (25.8 million people) is affected by type 2 diabetes. The burden of diabetes is disproportionately greater in the African American community. Compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian adults, the risk of diagnosed type 2 diabetes was 77% higher among non-Hispanic Blacks, who are 27% more likely to die of…

  2. Eating Disorders in African American Girls: Implications for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…

  3. NGOMA: Celebrate the Dream with African-American Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinson, Sabrina A.

    2008-01-01

    How can everyone celebrate the most powerful dream (Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s) in America's history, which paved the way for civil rights, equality, and social justice? How can everyone heighten students' awareness of these civil and social issues? An increased use of African-American literature is one effective way. In this article,…

  4. Exploring the Sexuality of African American Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganá, Luciana; White, Theresa; Bruzzone, Daniel E.; Bruzzone, Cristine E.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To identify sexually-related themes of the sexuality of older African American women. Study Design Mixed method. Place and Duration of Study Department of Psychology, California State University Northridge, between July 2009 and June 2011. Methodology We included 13 African American older women (57 to 82 years of age), 11 of whom self-identified as heterosexual, one as bisexual, and one as lesbian. We used a semi-structured interview protocol through which we explored some aspects of the respondents’ sexuality (assessed at a superficial level, to be as tactful as possible). Moreover, we collected information on demographics and self-rated physical health. Two co-authors served as coders, and used content analysis to identify the most salient sexuality themes. Results Emerging themes were (in order from most to least endorsed): having sexual desire (often unfulfilled); engaging in less sexual activity in older age; experiencing changes in one’s sexual life as a function of absence of a spouse; and exercising control over how one’s sexual life is conducted. Motivated by the paucity of our sexuality data, we have also provided suggestions to scholars interested in conducting more in-depth further research on this topic with older African American women. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the common notion that older women are asexual is a myth, while lack of a suitable sexual partner is a problem reported by many African American older women who would otherwise enjoy sexual interaction. PMID:25632380

  5. Social Cognitive Predictors of Dietary Behavior among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Torrance T.; Resinicow, Ken; Latimer-Sport, Markita; Walker, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined the extent to which social cognitive theory is involved in dietary behavior changes among a sample of African Americans in Georgia. Purpose: We examined whether outcome expectations, barriers, and self-efficacy mediate changes in fruit and vegetable intake behavior. Methods: To accomplish this, we used change scores…

  6. HIV among African American Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among African American Gay and Bisexual Men Format: ...

  7. African American Homeschooling and the Quest for a Quality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey

    2015-01-01

    Academic interest in homeschooling has increased over the last decade, as what was once perceived as a marginal development, has, in fact, turned into a significant and growing phenomenon. There has been, in recent years, a noticeable surge in African American involvement in the homeschooling movement as well. However, there continues to be a…

  8. Allostatic Load and Health Status of African Americans and Whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuster, Patricia A.; Kim-Dorner, Su Jong; Remaley, Alan T.; Poth, Merrily

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare health risks in 84 healthy African American and 45 white men and women after calculating allostatic load (AL) from biologic, psychosocial, and behavioral measures. Methods: Participants (18-45 years) ranging in weight from normal to obese and without hypertension or diabetes. Fitness, body fat, CRP, mood, social support,…

  9. Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

  10. African American Child-Women: Nutrition Theory Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpade, Medha

    2006-01-01

    Past research indicates a significantly higher prevalence of early sexual maturation in African American (AA) girls, which is associated with a number of psychological and behavioral problems as well as with health problems such as childhood obesity and diabetes. Both nutrition and body image perceptions have never before been empirically…

  11. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset among African American Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.

    2010-01-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship…

  12. Reasons for African American Student Attrition from School Psychology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Sherrie L.; Truscott, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological study used a series of three in-depth interviews with seven African American participants, for a total of 21 interviews, to explore their experiences in the specialist and doctoral level school psychology programs they left prior to obtaining a professional entry-level degree. The study's purpose was to investigate what…

  13. Family Influences on the Career Development of African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Elaine Roundtree

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how families influence the career education and career awareness of African American students in grades K-3. Existing literature indicated that scholars have focused their attention on the career education of college level students and counselors working with students in high schools; however, research…

  14. African American Women and Eating Disturbances: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Shannon K.

    2003-01-01

    Data from 18 studies were reviewed to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and eating disturbances, focusing on the relationship between African American and white women. Although white women had more risk of eating disturbances, the effect size was small. White women had slightly more risk for all eating disturbances combined. African…

  15. African American Child-Women: Nutrition Theory Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpade, Medha

    2006-01-01

    Past research indicates a significantly higher prevalence of early sexual maturation in African American (AA) girls, which is associated with a number of psychological and behavioral problems as well as with health problems such as childhood obesity and diabetes. Both nutrition and body image perceptions have never before been empirically…

  16. Gender Role Orientation and Anxiety Symptoms among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palapattu, Anuradha G.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2006-01-01

    The present study evaluated gender role theory as an explanation for the observed gender differences in anxiety symptoms among adolescents. Specifically, the relation between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity), self-esteem, and anxiety symptoms was examined in a community sample of 114 African Americans aged 14 to…

  17. African American Women's Sexual Objectification Experiences: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Laurel B.; Robinson, Dawn; Dispenza, Franco; Nazari, Negar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…

  18. The Role of Religiosity in African American Preadolescent Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Khiela J.; Lochman, John E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of parent and preadolescent religiosity in aggression among African American preadolescents with moderate to high aggression. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to determine (a) which aspects of parent and preadolescent religiosity (i.e., church attendance, private religious activities, and intrinsic…

  19. Eating Disorders in African American Girls: Implications for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…

  20. Madness or Elitism? African Americans Who Reject HBCUs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancy, Theodis E., II

    2005-01-01

    The author conducted focus groups with seven Black male college-aged students who either attend or attended predominantly White institutions (PWI) in the South. The author believes that it is important to pay close attention to the attitudes of African Americans enrolled in PWIs and HBCUs. Both students and educators should recognize the…

  1. Young African American Boys Narrating Identities in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Justine M.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to bring the voices of African American boys front and center in science education research in an effort to strengthen our understandings of their experiences of school and science. Using an interpretivist perspective within a narrative inquiry approach, I focus on the student and science-student identities two African…

  2. Culturally Responsive Collegiate Mathematics Education: Implications for African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author utilizes the culturally congruent work of Gay (2010) and Ladson-Billings (2009) to highlight culturally responsive teaching as a viable option for African American students in higher education mathematics spaces. He offers translations of Gay and Ladson-Billings' work to Africana mathematics and argues that these…

  3. Childhood Maltreatment, PTSD, and Suicidal Behavior among African American Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Martie P.; Kaslow, Nadine J.; Lane, Danielle Bradshaw; Kingree, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates how childhood maltreatment and current post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) predict nonfatal suicide attempts among 335 African American women. PTSD in combination with any of the maltreatments of childhood increased the risk of suicide attempts. Suggests that interventions designed to reduce suicidal behavior should focus on women…

  4. Gender Role Orientation and Anxiety Symptoms among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palapattu, Anuradha G.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2006-01-01

    The present study evaluated gender role theory as an explanation for the observed gender differences in anxiety symptoms among adolescents. Specifically, the relation between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity), self-esteem, and anxiety symptoms was examined in a community sample of 114 African Americans aged 14 to…

  5. Exploration of the Lived Experiences of Illiterate African American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, LaTonya Michell

    2009-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the stories of illiterate African American adults to determine the factors that led to their illiteracy. Narrative techniques were utilized to discern themes from narrative accounts of eight participants. The participants were enrolled in one of two adult basic education programs referred to as ABE I and ABE…

  6. Substance Abuse in Rural African-American Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Marvin P.; Williams, Mary M.

    More research into illicit substance abuse in rural African-American communities is needed. The existing literature indicates that patterns of use for licit substances (alcohol and cigarettes) are either similar for rural Blacks and Whites or lower for Blacks. However, the negative health and social consequences of smoking and abusive drinking are…

  7. Developmental Origins of Perfectionism among African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Keith C.; Trotter, Reid; Reinke, Wendy M.; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    The present study used a person-centered latent variable approach to classify types of perfectionism among 6th-grade African American children living in an urban setting. In particular, the authors were interested in determining whether an adaptive subtype could be found and validated against external criteria. The authors also attempted to…

  8. Developmental Trajectories of Maladaptive Perfectionism among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Keith C.; Wang, Kenneth; Trotter, Reid; Reinke, Wendy M.; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the developmental trajectories of maladaptive perfectionism over a 7-year period among African American youth living in an urban setting (N = 547). In particular, the study attempted to determine whether two maladaptive aspects of perfectionism (socially prescribed and self-critical) changed over time and could be distinguished…

  9. Wellness and Coping Activities of African American Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kathy M.

    1997-01-01

    Examined physical, emotional, cognitive, and spiritual wellness activities of African American mental health counselors and behaviors they used to cope with racism. Counselors used a wide variety of wellness strategies, although counselors in school settings were less likely to engage in occupational wellness activities. Confrontation was the most…

  10. African American Women's Self Esteem Workshop: Yalom Meets Karenga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Denise; Murry, Sherri

    Yalom's group theory and Karenga's Afrocentric paradigm are integrated in a workshop for African American women via the topical themes of each workshop session, the developmental approach from a semistructured group to a process-oriented group, and the process of training a practicum student. A six-week, semi-structured self-esteem workshop was…

  11. Teaching and Learning African American History in a Multiracial Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikkatur, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The author explores the challenges of teaching and learning African American history, a history fraught with uncomfortable implications about contemporary race relations and race-based inequalities. Drawing on various theories of anti-oppressive education, and using data from an ethnographic study conducted in one history classroom, the author…

  12. Physical Education and Academic Performance in Urban African American Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to examine urban African American girls' participation in physical education and its association with academic performance. One hundred eighty four participants completed questionnaires assessing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and learning engagement in physical education while their academic performance was based…

  13. Cultural Identification and Academic Achievement among African American Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Miles Anthony; Hudley, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between intercultural perceptions, identity, and academic achievement among African American males. Specifically, this study investigated the relationship of academic achievement, cultural mistrust, oppositional cultural attitudes, ethnic identity development and educational outcome expectations and value,…

  14. The Origins of African-American Family Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Steven

    1994-01-01

    Uses the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series to trace race differences in African American family structure between 1880 and 1980. Confirms a long-standing high incidence rate of single parenthood and children residing without their parents. Data also show blacks have had a consistently higher percentage of extended households than have whites.…

  15. Factors Predicting Communal Attitudes among African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattis, Jacqueline S.; Hearn, Kimberly D.; Jagers, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Studied the direct effects of demographic variables, religiosity, psychosocial stress variables, and sociostructural variables on the communal attitudes of 171 African American adult men, aged 17 to 79 years. Age and educational attainment were not significantly associated with communalism. Relational stress, financial stress, and stress resulting…

  16. Meetings with Elaine, an African and Native American Woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Melanie Merola

    2006-01-01

    The author, a Caucasian doctoral student of clinical psychology, examined her ongoing interaction with Elaine, an adult woman of African and Native American descent. Incidents of learning during the interaction process are reviewed and qualitative and quantitative assessments are provided to examine the effectiveness of such interactions in a…

  17. African American College Students: Literacy of Depression and Help Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansbury, Kim L.; Wimsatt, Maureen; Simpson, Gaynell Marie; Martin, Fayetta; Nelson, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Depression is a serious public health concern in the United States affecting almost 18.8 million adults. It is a common mental disorder in college students, with estimates of 1 in 4 "experiencing an episode by age 24." African American college students are at an elevated risk for depression due to racism, stress, sleep deprivation, and lack of…

  18. Strategies for Preventing Disproportionate Exclusions of African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Tary J.; Vincent, Claudia G.

    2011-01-01

    The authors studied changes in disproportionate exclusion of African American students, compared with their White peers, in relation to implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support using data from 46 schools. They measured (a) exclusion through suspension and expulsion data collected with the Schoolwide Information System; (b) Schoolwide…

  19. Mnemopoetics. Memory and Slavery in African American Drama

    OpenAIRE

    Bada, Valérie

    2008-01-01

    Through the close reading and socio-historical analysis of 8 African American plays from 1939 to 1996, Bada seeks to unravel the fluctuating patterns in the shaping of the theatrical memory of slavery ("a mnemopoetics of slavery") long after its abolition.

  20. Physical Education and Academic Performance in Urban African American Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to examine urban African American girls' participation in physical education and its association with academic performance. One hundred eighty four participants completed questionnaires assessing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and learning engagement in physical education while their academic performance was based…

  1. African American Vernacular English and Dialect Awareness in English Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Riki

    This paper examines the importance of teaching about non-standard dialect awareness in English departments, focusing on African American Vernacular English (AAVE). The paper asserts that it is the job of teachers to present students with appropriate knowledge about language and to raise awareness of nonstandard dialects, rather than perpetuate…

  2. Variability in Negation in African American Vernacular English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, Tracey

    1994-01-01

    Provides a framework to describe the variability between negative auxiliaries in predicative constructions based on a quantitative analysis of data collected on African American vernacular English. Results indicate that, with the possible exception of the negative present variation, the alternations all belong to one underlying system. (56…

  3. Mathematics Achievement and African-American Students in Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethington, Corinna A.; Wilson, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    Designed to examine the effect of various factors on the mathematics achievement of African-American students attending urban schools, this study analyzed the importance of seven constructs that are believed to either directly or indirectly impact student success. Based on factors identified by research as essential to mathematics achievement, all…

  4. Immersion and Identity: Experiences of an African American Preschool Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Ruanda Garth; Reyes, Sharon Adelman

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the benefits and challenges of a Spanish language immersion preschool from the perspective of a non-Spanish speaking African American family. Data explored include the decision to enroll, reactions from peers and family, home-school communication issues, language development, and family involvement. In addition,…

  5. Developmental Trajectories of Maladaptive Perfectionism among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Keith C.; Wang, Kenneth; Trotter, Reid; Reinke, Wendy M.; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the developmental trajectories of maladaptive perfectionism over a 7-year period among African American youth living in an urban setting (N = 547). In particular, the study attempted to determine whether two maladaptive aspects of perfectionism (socially prescribed and self-critical) changed over time and could be distinguished…

  6. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Madam , The project entitled INCREASING BREAST CANCER SURVEILLANCE AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN BREAST CANCER SURVIVORS includes activities involving human...B b- d § fr. Thomisonwill Work e .y .With’Dra) Vdldf naTir, W and y Bo • rganif Janidorf on data a"_`l- ssi reatihfiutfor pres~entatidns and publi

  7. Kin networks and poverty among African Americans: past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cribbs, Julie E; Farber, Naomi B

    2008-01-01

    Trends in social welfare policy and programs place increasing expectations on families to provide members with various forms of material and socioemotional support. The historic ability of kin networks of many African Americans to provide such support has been compromised by long-term community and family poverty. The potential mismatch between the expectations of social welfare systems for kin support and the actual functional capacities of kin networks places African Americans living in poverty at great risk of chronic poverty and its long-term multiple consequences. This article reviews historical and contemporary research on the structure and function of African American kin networks. On the basis of evidence of functional decline, the authors argue that social workers must re-examine the a priori assumption of viable kin networks as a reliable source of resilience among African Americans living in poverty. Social workers must focus assessment at all levels of practice on a variety of aspects of kin networks to make accurate judgments about not only the availability of resources, but also the perceived costs and benefits of participation in exchange for resources.

  8. A Longitudinal Study of Household Change on African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Tracey E.; Rowley, Stephanie; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Vansadia, Preeti; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of household change on adolescent development. We study household composition change and its effect on development, as measured by both internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors, in a sample of urban African American adolescents. Household change was defined based on the movement in or out of the…

  9. Albert Sidney Beckham: The First African American School Psychologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Scott L., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Albert Sidney Beckham was the first African American to hold the title school psychologist. This article examines the life and professional career of Beckham in the context of his contributions to the field of school psychology. It explores his graduate education, the founding of Howard University's Psychological Laboratory and his research and…

  10. Knowledge and Attitudes about Colon Cancer Screening among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…

  11. 78 FR 8347 - National African American History Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... generations of African Americans, free and slave, who risked everything to realize their God-given rights. We listen to the echoes of speeches and struggle that made our Nation stronger, and we hear again the... me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim February 2013...

  12. African American Preschool Children's Physical Activity Levels in Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…

  13. African American Accounting Majors and the 150-hr Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Quinton; Hill, Cecil L.; Wright, Carl

    2010-01-01

    The study provides information on African American accounting majors' views regarding 150-hr issues. The authors collected data from 152 students at two schools. Students at one school supported the requirement while those at the other school did not. However, students believed that the 150-hr requirement enhances the quality of certified public…

  14. "Brown," Political Economy, and the Scientific Education of African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, William F., IV

    2004-01-01

    The goals of this chapter are threefold. The first goal is to examine the scientific attainment of African Americans in the post-"Brown" era. The term scientific attainment is used here to describe more broadly mathematics and scientific achievement as measured in trend studies, academic coursework, and degrees. A second, related goal is to…

  15. Relationship of Pain and Ancestry in African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, John A.; Qi, Lihong; Garcia, Lorena; Younger, Jarred W.; Seldin, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Background African Americans are reported to be more sensitive to pain than European Americans. Pain sensitivity has been shown to be genetically linked in animal models and is likely to be in humans. Methods 11,239 self-identified African American post menopausal women enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative had percentage African ancestry determined by ancestry informative markers, “Pain Construct” measurements and covariate information. They answered 5 questions about specific types and location of pain, such as joint, neck, low back, headache, and urinary. They also answered 2 questions which were used to derive a “Pain Construct”, a measure of general pain scored on a scale of 1 to 100. Associations were tested in linear regression models adjusting for age, self-reported medical conditions, neighborhood socio-economic status, education, and depression. Results In the unadjusted model of the 5 specific types of pain measures, greater pain perception was associated with a higher proportion of African ancestry. However, some of the specific types of pain measures were no longer associated with African ancestry after adjustment for other study covariates. The Pain Construct was statistically significantly associated with African ancestry in both the unadjusted [Beta = −0.132, 95% confidence interval (C I) = −099 – −0.164; r = −0.075, 95% CI −0.056 – −0.093] and the adjusted models (Beta = −0.069 95% CI = −0.04 – 0.10). Conclusions Greater African ancestry was associated with higher levels of self-reported pain although this accounted for only a minor fraction of the overall variation in the Pain Construct. PMID:25752262

  16. Relationship of pain and ancestry in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, J A; Qi, L; Garcia, L; Younger, J W; Seldin, M F

    2015-05-01

    African Americans are reported to be more sensitive to pain than European Americans. Pain sensitivity has been shown to be genetically linked in animal models and is likely to be in humans. Exactly, 11,239 self-identified African American post-menopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative had percentage African ancestry determined by ancestry informative markers, "Pain Construct" measurements and covariate information. They answered five questions about specific types and location of pain, such as joint, neck, low back, headache and urinary. They also answered two questions which were used to derive a "Pain Construct", a measure of general pain scored on a scale of 1-100. Associations were tested in linear regression models adjusting for age, self-reported medical conditions, neighbourhood socio-economic status, education and depression. In the unadjusted model of the five specific types of pain measures, greater pain perception was associated with a higher proportion of African ancestry. However, some of the specific types of pain measures were no longer associated with African ancestry after adjustment for other study covariates. The Pain Construct was statistically significantly associated with African ancestry in both the unadjusted [β = -0.132, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -099 to -0.164; r = -0.075, 95% CI -0.056 to -0.093] and the adjusted models (β = -0.069 95% CI = -0.04 to -0.10). Greater African ancestry was associated with higher levels of self-reported pain, although this accounted for only a minor fraction of the overall variation in the Pain Construct. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  17. Kill Them Before They Grow. Misdiagnosis of African American Boys in American Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael

    This book contends that the American public education system has made "black male" synonymous with "disabled" through the creation of the labels "Behavior Disorders" and "Emotional Disorders." These labels, which say that African American boys cannot behave without special treatment, juvenile probation, and,…

  18. African American and European American Students' Peer Groups during Early Adolescence: Structure, Status, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Travis; Karimpour, Ramin; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on a sample of 382 African American (206 female) and 264 European American (132 female) students in diverse fourth and fifth grade classrooms, this study investigated three questions concerning the connections between peer groups and academic achievement during early adolescence: (a) How is group structure (i.e., hierarchy and cohesion)…

  19. Kill Them Before They Grow. Misdiagnosis of African American Boys in American Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael

    This book contends that the American public education system has made "black male" synonymous with "disabled" through the creation of the labels "Behavior Disorders" and "Emotional Disorders." These labels, which say that African American boys cannot behave without special treatment, juvenile probation, and,…

  20. African American and European American College Students' Expectations for Self and for Future Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines self-expectations, expectations for future partners, and comparative expectations (self versus partner) held by college students. African Americans had higher self-expectations regarding future income, professional success, and educational achievement than European Americans. No differences emerged in expectations for future partners'…

  1. Factors that Influence Career Choice among Native American and African American High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett-Smith, Keisha K.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for research in the area of career choice of minority students in the United States. This descriptive study examined the factors that may influence Native American and African American high school students' career choices. These factors include such variables as parental educational level, family composition, and potential grade…

  2. Predictors of African American and European American Adolescents' Endorsement of Race-Conscious Social Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Julie Milligan; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2011-01-01

    To examine the predictors of adolescents' evaluations of affirmative action and school desegregation policies, African American and European American students (ns = 94 and 116, respectively; aged 14 to 17 years) attending a racially diverse high school in the Midwestern United States completed measures of (a) implicit racial attitudes, (b)…

  3. Consequences of Learning about Historical Racism among European American and African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Julie M.; Bigler, Rebecca S.; Levy, Sheri R.

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge about racism is a critical component of educational curricula and contemporary race relations. To examine children's responses to learning about racism, European American (Study 1; N = 48) and African American (Study 2; N = 69) elementary-aged children (ages 6-11) received history lessons that included information about racism…

  4. African American and European American College Students' Expectations for Self and for Future Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines self-expectations, expectations for future partners, and comparative expectations (self versus partner) held by college students. African Americans had higher self-expectations regarding future income, professional success, and educational achievement than European Americans. No differences emerged in expectations for future partners'…

  5. A Qualitative Study to Understand Nativity Differences in Breastfeeding Behaviors Among Middle-Class African American and African-Born Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiyi, Camille; Peacock, Nadine; Hebert-Beirne, Jennifer; Handler, Arden

    2016-10-01

    Objective To explore nativity differences and the role of attitudes, social norms, and behavioral control perceptions surrounding breastfeeding initiation and duration among middle-class African-American (AA) and African-born (AB) mothers in the US. Methods Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 20 middle-class AA and AB mothers in central Ohio from December 2012 to February 2013. Interview questions were developed based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Interviews were analyzed for salient themes by TPB constructs. Differences in themes were examined by nativity status. Results All study participants had initiated breastfeeding or bottle-feeding with expressed breast milk, noting the benefits it conferred as well as the persuasive encouragement they received from others. Persistent encouragement was often cited as a factor for sustaining breastfeeding. More AA mothers had discontinued breastfeeding by the time of the interview, which was often attributed to health, lactation, and work challenges. Inconsistent support from health providers, dissuasive remarks from others, ambivalent breastfeeding attitudes, and diminished family support led some mothers to begin formula supplementation. Analysis of maternal narratives revealed nativity differences across sources of encouragement. Specifically, important sources of encouragement were health providers for AA mothers and family, friends, partners and culture for AB mothers. Only AB mothers expressed concerns about difficulty they encountered with breastfeeding due to the lack of proximal family support. Conclusions Findings reveal that both groups of mothers may be susceptible to unsupportive breastfeeding norms in the US and also highlight the need for intervention in health care settings and workplaces to improve AA women's breastfeeding rates.

  6. Successful African American women in science: A narrative inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Cailisha L.

    This study used narrative inquiry as a methodology to explore the lived experiences of five African American women in science across the academic spectrum, from doctoral candidate to full professor. The research questions guiding the inquiry included one overarching question and three sub-questions: What are the lifestories of successful African American women in science?; a) How do successful African American women in science define themselves?; b) What have been the facilitators and barriers encountered by successful African American women in science?; and c) What have been the systems of support for African American women in science? The study was theoretically positioned within the frameworks of Critical Race Theory and Black Feminist Thought. The two theories were used to guide all aspects of the study including methodology, data collection, and analysis. Data included eleven 40-60 minute semi-structured interview transcripts as well as the participants' Curriculum Vitae. The study design and data analysis were built upon Clandinin and Connelly's (2000) and Clandinin's (2006) model of narrative inquiry which explores narratives as a means to understand experience. Analysis and interpretation created three dominant narratives: Scientific Beginnings, An Unexpected Journey, and Lift as You Climb. Each narrative set explores multiple stories that describe storylines which aligned with the participants' goals of who they were and who they were becoming as scientists; and, storylines of tension which ran counter to the women's goals and aspirations. Barriers and support systems are revealed, as well as the meanings the participants made of their experiences and how it affected their lives.

  7. Multiple loci associated with renal function in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Shriner

    Full Text Available The incidence of chronic kidney disease varies by ethnic group in the USA, with African Americans displaying a two-fold higher rate than European Americans. One of the two defining variables underlying staging of chronic kidney disease is the glomerular filtration rate. Meta-analysis in individuals of European ancestry has identified 23 genetic loci associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. We conducted a follow-up study of these 23 genetic loci using a population-based sample of 1,018 unrelated admixed African Americans. We included in our follow-up study two variants in APOL1 associated with end-stage kidney disease discovered by admixture mapping in admixed African Americans. To address confounding due to admixture, we estimated local ancestry at each marker and global ancestry. We performed regression analysis stratified by local ancestry and combined the resulting regression estimates across ancestry strata using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effects model. We found that 11 of the 24 loci were significantly associated with eGFR in our sample. The effect size estimates were not significantly different between the subgroups of individuals with two copies of African ancestry vs. two copies of European ancestry for any of the 11 loci. In contrast, allele frequencies were significantly different at 10 of the 11 loci. Collectively, the 11 loci, including four secondary signals revealed by conditional analyses, explained 14.2% of the phenotypic variance in eGFR, in contrast to the 1.4% explained by the 24 loci in individuals of European ancestry. Our findings provide insight into the genetic basis of variation in renal function among admixed African Americans.

  8. African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gandy, M.D., a cardiologist and chief medical marketing officer with the Piedmont Heart Institute in Atlanta and a volunteer with the American Heart Association. High blood pressure , obesity and diabetes are the ...

  9. Psychosocial Keys to African American Achievement? Examining the Relationship between Achievement and Psychosocial Variables in High Achieving African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Dante D.; Roberson, Cyrell C. B.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2017-01-01

    Grit, growth mindset, ethnic identity, and other group orientation are four psychosocial variables that have been associated with academic achievement in adolescent populations. In a sample of 105 high achieving African American high school students (cumulative grade point average [GPA] > 3.0), we examined whether these four psychosocial…

  10. Race consciousness and the health of African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Rosalyn J

    2003-01-01

    The historical experience of African Americans in our country has been shaped by the institution of slavery, dehumanization of blacks, segregation, pursuit of civil rights, and racism in contemporary American society. Disparities in health care provide compelling evidence that issues of race or skin color for the descendants of slaves and other ethnic minorities persist in the 21st century. Nurses providing care for African Americans must bridge the racial divide and incorporate culturally relevant content in the health history. As an integral aspect of their professional growth as culturally competent health care providers, they must incorporate the idea of "race consciousness" which is described as an awareness of the historical journey of the group, knowledge of disparities in health care for the people, and a self appraisal of one's attitudes and biases toward the group.

  11. Extended family and friendship support and suicidality among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ann W; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M; Taylor, Harry Owen; Lincoln, Karen D; Mitchell, Uchechi A

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between informal social support from extended family and friends and suicidality among African Americans. Logistic regression analysis was based on a nationally representative sample of African Americans from the National Survey of American Life (N = 3263). Subjective closeness and frequency of contact with extended family and friends and negative family interaction were examined in relation to lifetime suicide ideation and attempts. Subjective closeness to family and frequency of contact with friends were negatively associated with suicide ideation and attempts. Subjective closeness to friends and negative family interaction were positively associated with suicide ideation and attempts. Significant interactions between social support and negative interaction showed that social support buffers against the harmful effects of negative interaction on suicidality. Findings are discussed in relation to the functions of positive and negative social ties in suicidality.

  12. African-Americans and Clinical Trials Research: Recommendations for Client Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon E. Moore

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available African-Americans have, without their knowledge and consent, been used as human guinea pigs in scientific and medical experiments by private and governmental organizations. As a result many African-Americans approach the health care industry with caution and apprehension. African-Americans are admonished to remember the atrocities they once experienced and to approach participation in clinical studies with skepticism. This paper presents an historical overview of conspiracy theories, discusses various health issues that affect African-Americans, identifies for whom participation in clinical trials could prove beneficial, and recommends methods that can be used to attract African-American clients as active participants in clinical studies.

  13. Cumulative Psychosocial and Medical Risk as Predictors of Early Infant Development and Parenting Stress in an African-American Preterm Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelaria, Margo A.; O'Connell, Melissa A.; Teti, Douglas M.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined predictive linkages between cumulative psychosocial and medical risk, assessed neonatally, and infant development and parenting stress at 4 months of infant corrected age. Predominantly low-income, African-American mothers and their preterm infants served as participants. Cumulative psychosocial risk predicted early…

  14. 美籍华人母亲的美国梦--评《喜福会》中母亲的幻想破灭%Chinese-American mothers' American dreams -- On mothers' illusion and disillusion in the Joy luck club

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彤; 梁东妮

    2004-01-01

    The Joy Luck Club centers on Chinese-American mothers' American dreams and shows readers how Chinese-Americans, especially the youth, live a life while confronting the contradictions of a weak motherland culture and a strong American culture through depicting four Chinese-American mothers' illusion and disillusion.

  15. Attrition biases in a study of Euro-American and African-American marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oggins, Jean

    2004-06-01

    Based on survey data from 174 Euro-American and 199 African-American newlywed couples, this study analyzed attrition biases by comparing first-year responses of couples who stayed in the study into its third year (133 Euro-American and 115 African-American couples) with responses from the initial sample. Stayers--who were more likely than leavers to be better educated, wealthier, and Euro-American--tended to report happier, more affirming, more communicative marriages. For stayers, compared to a random subsample of the original sample, first-year marital happiness also correlated significantly less strongly with first-year reports of receiving affirmation from a spouse, having an unsupportive spouse, and engaging in marital conflict. Further, race differences in predictors of happiness for the initial sample were not evident among stayers, perhaps due to smaller variances in reported marital happiness and frequency of conflict for African-American stayers compared to African Americans in the original sample. Methodological implications for cross-cultural longitudinal studies are discussed.

  16. The Relation of Maternal Birth Weight to African-American and Non-Latina White Twin Pregnancy Outcomes: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, Sarah; Chihara, Izumi; Rankin, Kristin M; Collins, James W

    2016-07-28

    Objectives The authors investigated the association between maternal birth weight and adverse birth outcome as measured by rates of low birth weight (<2500 g, LBW), preterm birth (<37 weeks, PTB), and small for gestational age (weight <10th percentile for gestational age, SGA) among African American and White twin pregnancies. Methods Stratified and multivariable regression analyses were performed on the Illinois transgenerational dataset of non-Latina African American and non-Latina White twin pairs (born 1989-1991) and their mothers (born 1956-1976). Results Former LBW (n = 104) and non-LBW (n = 742) African American mothers had LBW rates in both twins of 76 and 56 %, respectively; RR (95 % CI) = 1.4 (1.2-1.6). Former LBW (n = 105) and non-LBW (n = 2136) White mothers had LBW rates in both twins of 41 and 34 %, respectively; RR = 1.2 (0.9-1.5). In multivariable regression models, the adjusted (controlling for maternal age, education, marital status, parity, prenatal care usage, and cigarette smoking) RR of LBW in both twins among former LBW (compared to non-LBW) African American and White mothers equaled 1.4 (1.2-1.6) and 1.2 (0.9-1.5), respectively. Maternal LBW was associated with a modestly increased risk of PTB but not SGA among African American twin pregnancies: adjusted RR = 1.3 (1.1-1.4) and 1.1 (0.8-1.5), respectively. Conclusions In African American twin pregnancies, maternal LBW is a risk factor for LBW in both twins. Further research is needed to determine whether a similar generational association occurs among non-Latina White twin pregnancies.

  17. Cross-cultural Differences in Preferred Forms of Address: Implications for Work with African American Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wanda Lott Collins; Moore, Sharon E.

    2004-01-01

    Using an individual’s last name indicates respect and contributes to positive interaction with African American clients and adults of African descent. This paper discusses the importance of using social titles as a proper form of address during, and sometimes after, the initial professional relationship. Two case vignettes will highlight potential difficulties that non-African American practitioners may experience when using first names with African Americans within the profess...

  18. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and inherited risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Catherine C.; Rassenti, Laura Z.; Falchi, Lorenzo; Slager, Susan L.; Strom, Sara S.; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Weinberg, J. Brice; Kipps, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is significantly lower in African Americans than whites, but overall survival is inferior. The biologic basis for these observations remains unexplored. We hypothesized that germline genetic predispositions differ between African Americans and whites with CLL and yield inferior clinical outcomes among African Americans. We examined a discovery cohort of 42 African American CLL patients ascertained at Duke University and found that the risk allele frequency of most single nucleotide polymorphisms known to confer risk of development for CLL is significantly lower among African Americans than whites. We then confirmed our results in a distinct cohort of 68 African American patients ascertained by the CLL Research Consortium. These results provide the first evidence supporting differential genetic risk for CLL between African Americans compared with whites. A fuller understanding of differential genetic risk may improve prognostication and therapeutic decision making for all CLL patients. PMID:22745306

  19. Exploring the Relationships between Racial/Cultural Identity and Ego Identity among African Americans and Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miville, Marie L.; Koonce, Danel; Darlington, Pat; Whitlock, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Relationships between collective identity and ego identity were examined among 229 African American and Mexican American university students. Participants completed scales measuring racial or cultural identity and ego identity. Regression analyses indicated that ego identity was significantly related to racial identity for African Americans and…

  20. Physical Activities and Sedentary Pursuits in African American and Caucasian Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.; Felton, Gwen M.; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Trost, Stewart G.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure…

  1. Digital expression among urban, low-income African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christina M; Staiano, Amanda E; Calvert, Sandra L

    2011-01-01

    Digital production is a means through which African American adolescents communicate and express their experiences with peers. This study examined the content and the form of the digital productions of 24 urban, low-income African American adolescents who attended a summer academic program. The content of student digital productions focused on academic experiences and friendships. Their production styles revealed that youth used perceptually salient production features, such as rapid scene changes and loud rap music. The results suggest that when placed in a supportive, academic environment and provided with digital production resources, students who traditionally face barriers due to cultural and economic inequalities digitally express to their peers an interest in academics and positive peer relationships, and that these youth communicate their experiences through a shared production style that reflects their broader cultural experiences.

  2. Competing Claims: Religious Affiliation and African Americans' Intolerance of Homosexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledet, Richard

    2016-09-15

    Literature on religion and political intolerance indicates competing expectations about how Black Protestant church affiliation affects African Americans' attitudes about civil liberties. On the one hand, Black Protestant theology emphasizes personal freedom and social justice, factors generally linked to more tolerant attitudes. On the other hand, Black Protestants tend to be conservative on family and social issues, factors often linked to intolerance of gays and lesbians. Data from the General Social Survey are used to examine the influence of religious group identification, as well as other relevant aspects of religiosity, on political intolerance among African Americans. Results indicate that although other aspects of religion (beliefs and behaviors) help explain variation in political intolerance, Black Protestant church affiliation has no relationship with attitudes about the civil liberties of homosexuals. However, additional tests show that Black Protestant church affiliation significantly predicts intolerance of other target groups (atheists and racists).

  3. Academic Growth Trajectories and Family Relationships among African American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterer, Aryn M; Lowe, Katie; McHale, Susan M

    2014-12-01

    This study explored trajectories of African American youths' academic functioning and assessed whether changes in parent-adolescent relationships were associated with changes in youths' academic functioning. The data were drawn from a three-year longitudinal study of gender socialization and development in two-parent African American families and included 197 families. Findings revealed gender differences in achievement trajectories and indicated that boys not only had lower levels of academic achievement compared to girls, but also experienced steeper declines in school self-esteem during adolescence. Changes in parent-adolescent relationship quality were linked to changes in academic functioning: Increases in conflict were related to decreases in GPA, school bonding, and school self-esteem and increases in warmth were related to increases in school bonding and school self-esteem.

  4. The business of preventing African-American infant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates-Williams, J; Jackson, M N; Jenkins-Monroe, V; Williams, L R

    1992-09-01

    African-American women are twice as likely as women from other ethnic groups to have babies with low birth weights and to experience the loss of infant death. The problem is so endemic in black communities in Alameda County, California, that numerous programs have been developed over the past decade to reduce maternal risk factors and eliminate barriers to prenatal care. Despite these efforts, African-American ethnicity continues to be a major risk factor for infant mortality for reasons that are poorly understood. We take a critical look at 3 types of studies characteristic of infant mortality research: epidemiologic, studies that advocate prenatal care, and ethnomedical (cultural). We argue that the assumptions informing this research restrict the thinking about infant mortality and the political issues involved in how prevention programs are developed and structured. The persistent focus on maternal behavioral characteristics limits more in-depth analysis of the micropolitics of perinatal bureaucracies established in response to this ongoing crisis.

  5. Physicians' cultural competency as perceived by African American patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulou, Georgia; Falzarano, Pamela; Arfken, Cynthia; Rosenberg, David

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the association between African American patients' perceptions of physician cultural competency and patient satisfaction with the visit, independent of other factors, including physician and patient race concordance. African American participants were surveyed at urban clinics. Cultural competency (Perceived Cultural Competency scale) was based on the 3-factor model that includes patients' perception of (1) physicians' cultural knowledge, (2) physicians' cultural awareness, and (3) physicians' cultural skill. The results confirmed that patients' perceptions of physician cultural competency are independently associated with satisfaction with the visit. These results further validate use of the Perceived Cultural Competency scale as a tool to measure patients' perceptions of physicians' cultural competency.

  6. African-American Literature and "Post-Racial" America. Or, You Know, Not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Jacqueline A.

    2011-01-01

    In 1983, when the author began graduate school at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville as the only black student in the Graduate English School, it offered no graduate-level African-American Literature course. Today an undergraduate student at the University of Virginia can major in African-American and African Studies and take courses…

  7. Fighting through Resistance: Challenges Faced by African American Women Principals in Predominately White School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alicia D.

    2013-01-01

    African American women represented a growing proportion within the field of education in attaining leadership roles as school principals. As the numbers continued to rise slowly, African American women principals found themselves leading in diverse or even predominately White school settings. Leading in such settings encouraged African American…

  8. Neighborhood Racial Composition, Racial Discrimination, and Depressive Symptoms in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F.; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2014-01-01

    While evidence indicates that experienced racial discrimination is associated with increased depressive symptoms for African Americans, there is little research investigating predictors of experienced racial discrimination. This paper examines neighborhood racial composition and sociodemographic factors as antecedents to experienced racial discrimination and resultant levels of depressive symptoms among African American adults. The sample included 505 socioeconomically-diverse African America...

  9. Pragmatic Features in Original Narratives Written by African American Students at Three Grade Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, Jessica M.; Anderson, Michele A.; Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Nelson, Nickola W.

    2015-01-01

    African American English has a rich oral tradition, with identifiable features across all 5 systems of language--phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. This is an investigation of the extent to which pragmatic features of African American oral storytelling traditions are apparent in the written stories of African American…

  10. Pragmatic Features in Original Narratives Written by African American Students at Three Grade Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, Jessica M.; Anderson, Michele A.; Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Nelson, Nickola W.

    2015-01-01

    African American English has a rich oral tradition, with identifiable features across all 5 systems of language--phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. This is an investigation of the extent to which pragmatic features of African American oral storytelling traditions are apparent in the written stories of African American…

  11. Untapped Talent and Unlimited Potential: African American Students and the Science Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Melody L.

    2005-01-01

    Historically, lack of access to educational opportunities has been a constant and unfortunate reality for many African Americans. As a result of tracking and ability grouping many African American students lack the necessary accoutrement for persistence in the sciences. Some critical factors for the persistence and success of African American…

  12. Exploring the Experience of African Immigrant Mothers Providing Reproductive Health Education to Their Daughters Aged 10 to 14 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbemenu, Kafuli; Devido, Jessica; Terry, Martha Ann; Hannan, Margaret; Kitutu, Julius; Doswell, Willa

    2016-12-12

    Adolescents have disproportionate rates of unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections when compared with all other age groups. Mothers are gatekeepers and providers of reproductive health education, which can prevent teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Reproductive health education provided by African immigrant mothers is influenced by cultural experiences and cultural contexts that are not well understood and have not been studied. This study sought to describe the experience of African mothers living in the United States providing reproductive health education to their daughters aged 10 to 14 years. A qualitative descriptive design was used. Twenty African immigrant mothers were interviewed in a community setting. Qualitative content analysis approach was used for analysis. Three main themes emerged: (1) mothers' reproductive health education in their country of origin, (2) mothers' reproductive health communication with their daughters, and (3) changes due to the move to the United States. Mothers believed daughters were too young for reproductive health education, leading to conversations with limited content that were frequently triggered by daughters' exposure to reproductive health education outside the home. African immigrant mothers may benefit from culturally congruent discussions with health care providers about the reproductive health information they give their daughters. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. The Underrepresentation of African Americans in Army Combat Arms Branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    Henry Barnard, Military Schools and Courses of Instruction in the Science and Art of War, in France, Prussia, Austria, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland ...problem exists, it hides that fact that African Americans are underrepresented in the flag officer ranks. Unfortunately, this issue requires significant...Prussia, Austria, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland , Sardinia, England, and the United States. Rev. Ed. New York: Greenwood Press, 1969. Berger, Peter L

  14. Mentorship: Strategically Leveling the Playing Field for African American Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-10

    voice2001/010608/survey.htm (accessed December 18, 2008). 2 Molefi Kete Asante, 100 Greatest African Americans (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2002), 41-43. 3...Clinician-Scientist,” Clinical and Investigative Medicine 21, no. 6 (December 1998): 279-282, http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/201/300/cdn_medical_association/ cim/vol-21/issue-6/0279.htm (accessed December 29, 2008).

  15. Promoting Physical Activity Among Overweight Young African American Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools.  Created: 1/15/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  16. Rethinking Parental Engagement: Perceptions of Single African American Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tracey L.

    2016-01-01

    Federal law stresses shared accountability between schools and parents for high student achievement. Yet, there is minimal regulation regarding what parental engagement programs must actually look like. As a result many school districts fail to consider nontraditional constructs of parental engagement that honor the available cultural capital,…

  17. Parental depression, family functioning and obesity among African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melvin; Young, LaShun; Davis, Sheila P; Moll, George

    2008-01-01

    Obesity has reached an epidemic level in America (National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] 1999), and this epidemic is more acute for African Americans than for other groups of Americans. In this study, 44 parent-child dyads completed measurements of height, depression, and body fat composition. In addition, parents completed a demographic questionnaire, and instruments, which measured family functioning, parental psychopathology, child behavior, and cardiovascular risks. Several models emerged for predicting childhood and parental body mass index, parental depression, and child behavioral problems. Findings indicated a role for parental depression in childhood obesity. These findings are discussed in light of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory, and the family's role in childhood obesity.

  18. Infant Feeding Practices: Perceptions of Native American Mothers and Health Paraprofessionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodynski, Mildred A; Calcatera, Mary; Carpenter, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain infant feeding practices and to explore the feasibility of an in-home feeding intervention with Native American Indian (NAI) mothers in six Native American communities in the United States (US). Design: Qualitative focus group study. Setting: Six Native American communities in the Midwest region of the United States.…

  19. African American eighth-grade female students' perceptions and experiences as learners of science literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crim, Sharan R.

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress (2000) reports an achievement gap between male and female students and majority and minority students in science literacy. Rutherford and Algren (2000) describe a scientifically literate person as one who is aware that science, mathematics, and technology are interdependent human enterprises with strengths and limitations; understands key concepts and principles of science; is familiar with the natural world and recognizes both its diversity and unity; and uses scientific knowledge and scientific ways of thinking for individual and social purposes. The purpose of this qualitative case study research was to investigate African American eighth grade female students' perceptions and experiences as learners of science literacy. A social learning theory (Bandura, 1986) and constructivist theory (Vygotsky, 1977) served as a guide for the researcher. Two questions were explored: (1) What are African American eighth grade female students' perceptions and experiences as learners of science literacy? (2) In what ways do the perceptions and experiences of African American eighth grade female students influence their learning of science literacy? Purposeful sampling (Merriam, 1998) was used with four African American eighth grade female students selected as participants for the study. Data collection and analysis occurred between February and August in a single year. Data sources included an open-ended questionnaire, two in-depth interviews with each participant (Seidman, 1991); classroom observations, participant reflective journals, student artifacts, and a researcher's log. Data were analyzed through the constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967), and richly descriptive participant portraits and qualitative case studies (Merriam, 1998) were used to report the findings. Three themes emerged from the study that positively affected the perceptions and experiences of African American eighth grade female students as

  20. The nature of culturally responsive pedagogy in two urban African American middle school science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondima, Michelle Harris

    This ethnographic in nature study explores how two middle school science teachers who have classes populated by urban African Americans teach their students and how their students perceive their teaching. Since urban African American students continue to perform lower than desired on measures of science achievement, there is an urgent need to understand what pedagogical methodologies assist and hinder urban African American students in achieving higher levels of success in science. A pedagogical methodology that theorists posit assists subordinated school populations is culturally responsive pedagogy. Culturally responsive pedagogy is defined as a teaching methodology concerned with preparing students to question inequality, racism, and injustice. Teachers who use culturally responsive pedagogy respect the culture students bring to the class, and require that the teachers willingly do whatever is necessary to educate students (Nieto, 2000). The teacher participants were two female African Americans who were identified by their school supervisors as being highly effective with urban African American students. The researcher presented the teachers in separate case studies conducted over a data collection period of nine months. Data were collected by participant observation, interviews, and artifact collection. Data were analyzed by application of grounded theory techniques. Findings of the teachers' (and the students') beliefs about pedagogy that both assisted and hindered the students' performance in science were reported in a rich and nuanced storytelling manner based on multiple perspectives (teachers', students', and the researcher's). Pedagogical methodologies that the teachers used that assisted their students were the use of cultural metaphors and images in science and applications of motivational techniques that encouraged a nurturing relationship between the teacher and her students. Pedagogical methodologies that hindered students varied by teacher

  1. The oral histories of six African American males in their ecology of Advanced Placement Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Katrina Bassam

    The major purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the past in order to understand the complex phenomenon of students engaging in science (Newman, Ridenour, Newman, & DeMarco, 2003) specifically through the oral histories of six self-identified African American males enrolled in a high school Advanced Placement Biology class and the oral histories about events that followed during their post high school experiences. To elucidate an understanding of this phenomenon, this research explored the ecology of African American males' descriptions of their school science, their peer school science community, their lived experiences during and after graduation, and their meso-community (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). Many minority and low-income students are less likely to enroll in rigorous courses during high school (Education Trust, 2006). This study is of utmost importance because capturing the informants' oral histories may improve rigorous science education. Many African American male students are attending urban schools with an ever growing achievement gap among their White counterparts (Norman, Ault, Bentz, & Meskimen, 2001); therefore, they are disengaging in science. As a result, African American males are underrepresented in both science careers and achievements in science (Atwater, 2000; National Science Foundation, 1994). The six oral histories highlighted the ecological factors that affected African American males regarding (1) the impact of their relationship with their mothers, (2) the understanding of personal responsibility, (3) the notion of a scientist, (4) the issue of gender being more of an obstacle than race, (5) the understanding that education is valuable, (6) the interactions and influence of relationships with others on their decisions, (7) the development of integrity through the participation in sports, (8) the ecological neighborhood environment influences an image, (9) the enrollment of Advanced Placement Biology course helped the transition

  2. The "invisible caregiver": multicaregiving among diabetic African-American grandmothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthron, Dana L; Bailey, Donald E; Anderson, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    To explore the multicaregiving roles African-American grandmothers assume while self-managing their diabetes. This longitudinal, qualitative pilot study explored the challenges of self-managing diabetes among six African-American caregiving grandmothers. Data were collected at 5 times points across 18 months. Content analysis, guided by the Adaptive Leadership framework, was conducted using data matrices to facilitate within-case and cross-case analyses. Although participants initially stated they cared only for grandchildren, all had additional caregiving responsibilities. Four themes emerged which illustrated how African-American caregiving grandmothers put the care of dependent children, extended family and community before themselves. Using the Adaptive Leadership framework, technical and adaptive challenges arising from multicaregiving were described as barriers to diabetes self-management. When assisting these women to self-manage their diabetes, clinicians must assess challenges arising from multicaregiving. This might require developing collaborative work relationships with the client to develop meaningful and attainable goals. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Social class and heart disease mortality among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Elizabeth; Williams, Carol R; Moore, Latetia; Chen, Fangfei

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine variation in heart disease death rates by the social class of decedents. The term, "social class" refers to a complex set of phenomena such as control over economic resources, social status, and power relative to others in society. The target population for this study was African-American adults aged 35-74 years old who resided in the United States during the years 1996-1997. As a proxy for social class, we examined 5 levels of educational attainment: 0-8 years of school completed (Social Class I), 9-11 years of school completed (Social Class II), high school graduate/12 years of school completed (Social Class III), some college completed (Social Class IV), and college degree completed (Social Class V). Older age, male gender, and lower social class were all independently associated with higher heart disease death rates. For all ages, more disadvantaged social classes had a higher risk of heart disease mortality. The highest relative risks were found for Social Classes I and II among the younger age groups. Many of the "prerequisites" for the "heart healthy lifestyle" are predicated on the benefits of a privileged social class position. For African Americans, there are the additional stressors of segregation, exclusion, and discrimination to overcome, as well as the cumulative physiological toll of lifetime resistance to various forms of racism. For many African Americans in disadvantaged social class positions, the obstacles to reducing the risk for heart disease are very difficult to overcome.

  4. Green education: Where are African American elementary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Debra T.

    Problems resulting from pollution and the destruction of Earth's natural environments have prompted initiatives to educate individuals on the importance of participating in environmental education related activities. These activities are generally constructed to help individuals become aware of how their activity, or the lack thereof, could affect the state of the natural environment in the near and distant futures. This knowledge and activity are especially critical for the nation's youth - as they are the future caretakers of Earth. Present efforts, however, depict that, even though there are visible efforts that cater to children, there is little presence of African American elementary school students. Some have assumed that the lack of role models was a contributing factor, while others have asserted that African Americans were too consumed with problems of everyday survival and have little time to be concerned with environmental issues. There was little research and evidence, though, to substantiate those suppositions. This study utilized qualitative case study interviews to gather authentic data from parents of African American elementary school-aged children (ages 6-10) regarding their views about the natural environment and participation in environmentally related activities. Results of this study helped to support and alleviate some assumptions and laid a foundation for further studies on the topic.

  5. Message Received: African American Women and Breast Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, Susan Racine; Williams-Parry, Kester F; Casper, Erica; Thomas, Stephen B

    2017-09-01

    African American women are more likely than other women to be diagnosed with breast cancer at a young age, to be diagnosed at a late stage, and to die from the disease. Yet we see evidence of irregular screening and follow-up. Previous research on psychosocial factors influencing decisions to screen reveals barriers: fear, fatalistic perceptions of cancer, inaccurate perceptions of risk, and associations with stigma. The current qualitative research with, largely, insured African American women ( n = 26), health navigators ( n = 6), and community stakeholders ( n = 24) indicates both positive and negative factors influencing decision making. The women in our sample believe in the value of early detection and are motivated to screen in response to encouragement from health providers. However, they also report several factors that contribute to their decisions to delay or not screen. These include (1) perceptions that the health community itself is confused about the need for screening, (2) perceptions that White women are the priority population for breast cancer, (3) family roles that prohibit self-care and encourage secrecy, and (4) fear of diagnosis. Participants report not feeling included in national-level health promotion campaigns. It is argued that African American women, in particular, may benefit from more nuanced health information about their risk.

  6. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset Among African American Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E

    2010-05-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship between child maltreatment (i.e., neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other/mixed abuse) and the likelihood of a delinquency petition using a sample of African American males (N = 2,335) born before 1990. Multivariable logistic regression models compared those with a delinquency-based juvenile justice petition to those without. Results indicate that African American males with a history of neglect, physical abuse, or other/mixed abuse were more likely to be involved in the juvenile justice system than those without any child maltreatment. Additionally, multiple maltreatment reports, a prior history of mental health treatment, victimization, and having a parent who did not complete high school also increased the likelihood of a delinquency petition. Implications for intervention and prevention are discussed.

  7. Epigenetic Markers of Renal Function in African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha M. Bomotti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is an increasing concern in the United States due to its rapidly rising prevalence, particularly among African Americans. Epigenetic DNA methylation markers are becoming important biomarkers of chronic diseases such as CKD. To better understand how these methylation markers play a role in kidney function, we measured 26,428 DNA methylation sites in 972 African Americans from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA study. We then evaluated (1 whether epigenetic markers are associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, (2 whether the significantly associated markers are also associated with traditional risk factors and/or novel biomarkers for eGFR, and (3 how much additional variation in eGFR is explained by epigenetic markers beyond established risk factors and biomarkers. The majority of methylation markers most significantly associated with eGFR (24 out of the top 30 appeared to function, at least in part, through pathways related to aging, inflammation, or cholesterol. However, six epigenetic markers were still able to significantly predict eGFR after adjustment for other risk factors. This work shows that epigenetic markers may offer valuable new insight into the complex pathophysiology of CKD in African Americans.

  8. Lactose intolerance and health disparities among African Americans and Hispanic Americans: an updated consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rahn K; Fileti, Cecelia Pozo; Keith, Jeanette; Tropez-Sims, Susanne; Price, Winston; Allison-Ottey, Sharon Denise

    2013-01-01

    Dairy foods contribute nine essential nutrients to the diet including calcium, potassium and vitamin D; nutrients identified by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans as being "of public health concern" within the U.S. population. Milk and milk product intake is associated with better diet quality and has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases or conditions including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and osteoporosis. Some research also indicates dairy food intake may be linked to reduced body fat, when accompanied by energy-restriction. On average, both African Americans and Hispanic Americans consume less than the recommended levels of dairy foods, and perceived or actual lactose intolerance can be a primary reason for limiting or avoiding dairy intake. True lactose intolerance prevalence is not known because healthcare providers do not routinely measure for it, and no standardized assessment method exists. Avoiding dairy may lead to shortfalls of essential nutrients and increased susceptibility to chronic disease. This updated Consensus Statement aims to provide the most current information about lactose intolerance and health, with specific relevance to the African American and Hispanic American communities. Topics covered include diagnostic considerations, actual and recommended dairy food intake and levels of consumption of key dairy nutrients among African Americans and Hispanic Americans; prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance among various racial/ethnic groups; the association between dairy food intake, lactose intolerance and chronic disease; and research-based management recommendations for those with lactose intolerance.

  9. Men of the Cloth: African-American Clergy's Knowledge and Experience in Providing Pastoral Care to African-American Elders with Late-Life Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansbury, Kim L.

    2011-01-01

    African-American clergy's ability to recognize late-life depression and their capacity to provide support with this illness have been neglected in the literature. Using a mental health literacy framework, the purpose of this research was to explore African-American clergy's knowledge of and treatments for late-life depression. In-depth interviews…

  10. Reading, Interpreting, and Teaching African American History: Examining How African American History Influences the Curricular and Pedagogical Decisions of Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, LaGarrett Jarriel

    2012-01-01

    African American history and how it is taught in classroom spaces have been a point of contention with activists, historians, and educators for decades. In it current form, African American history narratives often are ambiguous and truncated, leaving students with a disjointed construction about U.S. history. Additionally, the pedagogical…

  11. Effect of Hurricane Katrina on Low Birth Weight and Preterm Deliveries in African American Women in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau-Kuang Chen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Using three modeling techniques (GLR, GEP, and GM, the effect of Hurricane Katrina on low birth weight and preterm delivery babies for African American women is examined in Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. The study results indicate that risk factors associated with low birth weight and preterm delivery for American African women include unemployment and percent of mothers between the ages of 15-19. Among White women, ages 15-19, risk factors included poverty rate, median household income, and total birth rate. The GMs performed accurate predictions with increasing low birth weight and preterm delivery trends for African American women in the Gulf Coast states and other U.S. states, and decreasing low birth weight and preterm delivery trends for their White counterparts in the same state locations. Data presented between 2007-2010 show low birth weight and preterm delivery for White women as a decreasing tendency while adverse birth outcomes for African American women exhibited a monotonically increasing trend. The empirical findings suggest that health disparities will continue to exist in the foreseeable future, if no effective intervention is taken. The models identify risk factors that contribute to adverse birth outcomes and offer some insight into strategies and programs to address and ameliorate these effects.

  12. Sharing memories and telling stories: American and Chinese mothers and their 3-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Leichtman, M D; Davies, K I

    2000-05-01

    American and Chinese mothers were asked to talk with their 3-year-old children at home about two shared past events and a story (41 mother-child dyads). Results revealed between-culture variation in the content and style of mother-child conversations when sharing memories and telling stories. American mothers and children showed a high-elaborative, independently oriented conversational style in which they co-constructed their memories and stories by elaborating on each other's responses and focusing on the child's personal predilections and opinions. In contrast, Chinese Mother-child dyads employed a low-elaborative, interdependently oriented conversational style where mothers frequently posed and repeated factual questions and showed great concern with moral rules and behavioural standards with their children. Findings suggest that children's early social-linguistic environments shape autobiographical remembering and contribute to cultural differences in the age and content of earliest childhood memories.

  13. Racial/ethnic socialization and parental involvement in education as predictors of cognitive ability and achievement in African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Meeta; Harrell, Zaje A T; Johnson, Deborah J

    2011-05-01

    Racial/ethnic socialization has not been studied in the context of other parenting behaviors such as parental involvement in education and its relationship to children's cognitive outcomes. The present study tested the impact of racial/ethnic socialization and parental involvement in education on cognitive ability and achievement in a sample of African American youth. Two dimensions of racial/ethnic socialization, cultural exposure (i.e., exposure to diverse cultures) and cultural socialization (i.e., in-group pride), were examined in a sample of 92 African American mother-child dyads, of which 50% were female. Maternal reports of involvement during their child's 5th grade year were examined as a moderator in the relationship between racial/ethnic socialization and cognitive ability and achievement. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that mothers' reports of cultural exposure messages measured in 4th grade predicted children's scores on 5th grade assessments of passage comprehension. There was also a significant interaction indicating that greater cultural exposure and more parental involvement in education predicted better reading passage comprehension scores over time. The implications for assessing dimensions relevant to cognitive ability and achievement in African American children are discussed.

  14. Stereotypes and ethnocentrism: diverging interethnic perceptions of African American and white American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, C M; Park, B; Ryan, C S; Brauer, M; Kraus, S

    1995-09-01

    Much recent work on stereotyping has dealt with groups that are either artificially created or that do not have an extensive history of conflict. The authors attempted to overcome this limitation by examining issues of perceived variability and ethnocentrism among samples of White American and African American youth. The goals were both to examine theoretical issues in stereotyping and to describe the current state of ethnic interrelations among young people. Four studies are reported. Throughout, the samples of African Americans demonstrate interethnic judgments that are consistent with existing work on stereotyping and ethnocentrism. White American students, however, reported judgements that replicate neither the out-group homogeneity effect nor ethnocentrism. Alternative explanations for this difference are considered, and the discussion focuses on differing views concerning the role of ethnic identity and diversity in our society.

  15. Mild test anxiety influences neurocognitive performance among African Americans and European Americans: identifying interfering and facilitating sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thames, April D; Panos, Stella E; Arentoft, Alyssa; Byrd, Desiree A; Hinkin, Charles H; Arbid, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined ethnic/racial differences in test-related anxiety and its relationship to neurocognitive performance in a community sample of African American (n = 40) and European American (n = 36) adults. The authors hypothesized the following: (a) Test-anxiety related to negative performance evaluation would be associated with lower neurocognitive performance, whereas anxiety unrelated to negative evaluation would be associated with higher neurocognitive performance. (b) African American participants would report higher levels of anxiety about negative performance evaluation than European Americans. (c) European Americans would report higher levels of anxiety unrelated to negative performance evaluation. The first two hypotheses were supported: Ethnic/racial differences in test-taking anxiety emerged such that African Americans reported significantly higher levels of negative performance evaluation, which was associated with lower cognitive performance. The third hypothesis was not supported: African Americans and European Americans reported similar levels of test-anxiety unrelated to negative evaluation.

  16. Playing spades: The rich resources of African American young men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schademan, Alfred R.

    Research has shown that African American young men as a demographic group occupy the lowest levels of academic performance in both science and mathematics. In spite of this educational problem, little research has been conducted on the knowledge related to these disciplines that these young men learn and develop through everyday cultural practices. Such knowledge is needed in order to: (1) combat the deficit views that many teachers currently hold of African American young men, and (2) inform teachers interested in implementing pedagogies in their classrooms that draw upon the knowledge of African American young men. To add to our knowledge in this field, this study examines the resources that African American young men learn, use, and develop through a card game called Spades. Specifically, the study identifies and analyzes the models and model-based reasoning that the players use in order to win games. The study focuses upon modeling as it is central to both science and mathematics. To imbed player models and reasoning in context, the study employs a syncretic theoretical framework that examines how Spades has changed over time and how it is currently played in a high school setting. The qualitative study uses ethnographic methods combined with play-by-play analyses to reconstruct games and examine player strategies and reasoning that guide their decisions. The study found that the players operate from a number of different models while playing the game. Specifically, the players consider multiple variables and factors, as well as their mathematical relationships, to predict future occurrences and then play cards accordingly. Further, the players use a number of resources to win games including changing the game to maintain a competitive edge, counting cards, selectively memorizing cards played, assessing risk, bluffing, reading partners as well as opponents, reneging, estimating probabilities, and predicting outcomes. The player models and resources bear

  17. Cardiometabolic Risk among African-American Women: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Susan J.; Oster, Robert A.; Floyd, Natalie A.; Ovalle, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the associations of the Homeostatic Model of Assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-ir), acanthosis nigricans, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) with two of the commonly used definitions of the metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III {ATP III} and International Diabetes Federation {IDF}) among reproductive age healthy free living African-American women. Methods A pilot study with a cross-sectional design examined 33 African-American women aged 20 to 46 (mean 31.24, +/- 7.25), for the presence of metabolic syndrome determined by ATP III and IDF criteria, insulin resistance (HOMA-ir and/or acanthosis nigricans), degree of inflammation (hs-CRP) and presence of dysfibrinolysis (PAI-1). Results HOMA-ir identified insulin resistance in 27 (81.8%) of the women, whereas the presence of acanthosis nigricans indicated that 16 (48 %) of these women manifested insulin resistance. Metabolic syndrome was found in 7 women (21.2 %) by ATP III or 9 (27.3 %) by IDF criteria. Bivariate correlations showed associations between HOMA-ir and waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), acanthosis nigricans, the ATP III and IDF definitions for metabolic syndrome. PAI-1 was significantly correlated with waist circumference, BMI, fasting glucose, HOMA-ir, and ATP III. Both HOMA-ir and PAI-1 were significantly and negatively correlated with HDL-C. hs-CRP was significantly correlated with BMI and 2-hour post glucose. Conclusion Both dysfibrinolysis (PAI-1 levels) and insulin resistance (HOMA-ir) when individually regressed on the ATP III definition of metabolic syndrome explained 32 % and 29% of the respective variance. The addition of HOMA-ir measurement may significantly improve early recognition of cardiometabolic risk among reproductive age African-American women who have not yet met the criteria for the ATP III or IDF definitions of the metabolic syndrome. Likewise, acanthosis nigricans is potentially a

  18. Theoretical Factors Affecting Parental Roles in Children's Mathematical Learning in American and Chinese-Born Mothers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jessica H Hunt; Bi Ying Hu

    2011-01-01

    ...; and (h) parent as monitor/motivator. The authors argue that similarities and differences between American and Chinese-born mothers regarding their parental roles can be explained through the context of parental views of the importance...

  19. Low-Income Central American Immigrant Mothers' Goals and Their Children's Classroom Competencies in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, Nicole Marie; Harden, Brenda Jones; Gonzalez, Maritza

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Unlike other Latino groups, there is little information about the early socialization of children from Central American (CA) immigrant families. This study examined CA immigrant mothers' short-term goals and the implications of these goals for children's behavior in preschool. A total of 47 low-income mothers described their…

  20. Parent Reading Belief Inventory: Reliability and Validity with a Sample of Mexican American Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Barbara L.; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Lawrence, Frank R.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of the current study was to (a) evaluate the internal consistency of the 7 scales of the Parent Reading Belief Inventory (PRBI), (b) assess the factor structure, and (c) examine concurrent validity in a sample of Mexican American mothers from low-income homes. Two hundred and seventy-four mothers of preschool…

  1. Seasonal Changes in Sleep Duration in African American and African College Students Living In Washington, D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Volkov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Duration of nocturnal melatonin secretion, a marker of “biological night” that relates to sleep duration, is longer in winter than in summer in patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD, but not in healthy controls. In this study of African and African American college students, we hypothesized that students who met criteria for winter SAD or subsyndromal SAD (S-SAD would report sleeping longer in winter than in summer. In addition, based on our previous observation that Africans report more “problems” with change in seasons than African Americans, we expected that the seasonal changes in sleep duration would be greater in African students than in African American students. Based on Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ responses, African American and African college students in Washington, D.C. (N = 575 were grouped into a winter SAD/S-SAD group or a no winter diagnosis group, and winter and summer sleep length were determined. We conducted a 2 (season × 2 (sex × 2 (ethnicity × 2 (winter diagnosis group ANCOVA on reported sleep duration, controlling for age. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that African and African American students with winter SAD/S-SAD report sleeping longer in the summer than in the winter. No differences in seasonality of sleep were found between African and African American students. Students with winter SAD or S-SAD may need to sacrifice sleep duration in the winter, when their academic functioning/efficiency may be impaired by syndromal or subsyndromal depression, in order to meet seasonally increased academic demands.

  2. Mentoring African American Expatriates: Providing The Bridge To Success Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria C. Crawley

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Employment predictions continue to forecast increasing racial diversity in the American workforce as firms face global competition and strive to grasp the challenges of a global business landscape.  As American multinational corporations use expatriate assignments; supplemented by flexipatriates and inpatriates to meet customer preferences in the global marketplace, growing racial diversity may generate more expatriates of color.  Global human resource management research has focused on issues such as adjustment and cross-cultural development and recently mentoring as critical factors for expatriate success.  A growing body of mentoring research details the career experiences of employees with diverse backgrounds, yet few studies center on the experiences of the African American expatriate.  This article aims to examine African Americans mentoring opportunities in a global environment, with a focus on understanding the role mentoring plays for this particular population group. This work is intended to contribute to the increasing literature on global mentoring and will help to influence the thinking of multinational corporations’ response to the increasing diversity of their global workforce.

  3. Fear of Crime among African-American Males in Two American Cities: A Multivariate Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Keith D.; Wright, Earl II; Wingren, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    Examines the distribution of fear of crime and the influence of selected predictors of fear of crime among African American males from two large U.S. cities. Survey data indicated that about three-quarters of the respondents did not view fear of crime as problematic in their communities. Results supported a relationship between fear of crime, age,…

  4. The African American Male Librarian: Motivational Factors in Choosing a Career in Library and Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Kendrick, Kaetrena D.

    2009-01-01

    A recent American Library Association (ALA) report has shown that less than 1% of credentialed librarians are African American males. This article discusses possible reasons for this dearth; and, in an effort to inform future LIS recruiting and marketing campaigns, the included study attempted to discover which factors lead African American males…

  5. The Relationship between Maladaptive Eating Behaviors and Racial Identity among African American Women in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Kelci C.; Levesque, Maurice J.; Fischer, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Research on eating disorders has shown that European American women suffer from eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction more than African American women. However, recent meta-analyses suggest these differences may be decreasing and that some African American women may be particularly susceptible to body dissatisfaction and eating disorder…

  6. Digital History: Using the Internet to Enhance African American Studies in the Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuerell, Scott; Jaeger, Matt

    2015-01-01

    The authors discuss how high school students participated in a unit in which they learned about African American history in a 1:1 computer classroom--in particular, how they were able to use digital history to learn about a variety of African American leaders who are not frequently covered in the traditional American History textbook. In addition,…

  7. Digital History: Using the Internet to Enhance African American Studies in the Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuerell, Scott; Jaeger, Matt

    2015-01-01

    The authors discuss how high school students participated in a unit in which they learned about African American history in a 1:1 computer classroom--in particular, how they were able to use digital history to learn about a variety of African American leaders who are not frequently covered in the traditional American History textbook. In addition,…

  8. Predictors of Academic Achievement for African American Males at a Predominantly White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jarvis M.

    2013-01-01

    African American male college students are graduating at rates lower than their White male college counterparts. This epidemic is a result of the historical implications of institutional racism within American society. Despite these barriers, there are African American males that achieve academically and graduate college. This phenomenological…

  9. Fostering African-American Improvement in Total Health (FAITH!): An Application of the American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7™ among Midwestern African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, LaPrincess C; Balls-Berry, Joyce E; Dean, Patrick; Lackore, Kandace; Jenkins, Sarah; Hayes, Sharonne N

    2017-04-01

    African-Americans have a strikingly low prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health metrics of the American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7 (LS7). This study was conducted to assess the impact of a community-based cardiovascular disease prevention intervention on the knowledge and achievement of cardiovascular health metrics among a marginalized African-American community. Adult congregants (n = 37, 70 % women) from three African-American churches in Rochester, MN, participated in the Fostering African-American Improvement in Total Health (FAITH!) program, a theory-based, culturally-tailored, 16-week education series incorporating the American Heart Association's LS7 framework. Feasibility testing included assessments of participant recruitment, program attendance, and retention. We classified participants according to definitions of ideal, intermediate, and poor cardiovascular health based on cardiac risk factors and health behaviors and calculated an LS7 score (range 0 to 14) at baseline and post-intervention. Knowledge of cardiac risk factors was assessed by questionnaire. Main outcome measures were changes in cardiovascular health knowledge and cardiovascular health components related to LS7 from baseline to post-intervention. Psychosocial measures included socioeconomic status, outlook on life, self-reported health, self-efficacy, and family support. Thirty-six out of 37 recruited participants completed the entire program including health assessments. Participants attended 63.5 % of the education series and attendance at each session was, on average, 62 % of those enrolled. There was a statistically significant improvement in cardiovascular health knowledge (p program is a feasible, community intervention promoting ideal cardiovascular health that has the potential to improve cardiovascular health literacy and LS7 among African-Americans.

  10. Internet and Mobile Technology Use Among Urban African American Parents: Survey Study of a Clinical Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Leandra; Shabazz, Kanya

    2014-01-01

    Background There is considerable potential for mobile technologies to empower pediatric patients and families by improving their communication with health professionals. National surveys suggest minority parents frequently communicate via mobile technology, but it is uncertain how amenable they are to receiving health care information in this format. Although the low cost and far reach characteristics of mobile health (mHealth) technology makes it advantageous for communication with minority parents, data on acceptance are needed. Objective The objective of the study was to determine utilization of mobile and Internet technology by African American parents in an urban, underserved population, and to assess their interest in receiving health information via text messaging or other technologies (eg, social media and the Internet). Methods A survey was administered to parents of children aged 1-12 years covered by public insurance receiving care at 3 pediatric primary care centers in Washington, DC. Results The African American sample (N=302) was composed of primarily single (75.8%, 229/302) mothers. Almost half had more than a high school education (47.7%, 144/302) and incomes above US $25,000 per year (43.0%, 130/302). Most (97.0%, 293/302) reported owning a cell phone, of which 91.1% (275/302) used it to text and 78.5% (237/302) used it to access the Internet. Most had service plans with unlimited text and data, but 26.5% (80/302) experienced service interruptions in the previous year. Home Internet access was more prevalent among those with higher income (86.2%, 112/130), but it was still relatively pervasive among lower income families (66.9%, 83/124). In adjusted logistic regression models, African American mothers with income greater than US $25,000 annually were 4 times as likely to own a tablet computer than their lower income counterparts. Of the participants, 80.8% (244/302) used social networking, primarily Facebook, and 74.2% (224/302) were interested in

  11. The Relationships Between Religiosity and Youth Internalizing Symptoms in African American Parent-Adolescent Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, Alyssa L; McKee, Laura G; Garcia, Randi L; Jones, Deborah J

    2017-06-05

    African American (AA) adolescents face a greater risk of internalizing symptoms, including symptoms of both depression and anxiety, compared with other racial groups; yet, relatively less is known about the variables that contribute to internalizing symptoms. With the aim of advancing this work, this study examined factors that may buffer against such symptoms (maternal warmth, religiosity), as well as those that may confer additional risk (maternal psychopathology). One hundred ninety-three AA single mothers and their adolescent youth reported on religiosity, maternal warmth and depressive symptoms, and youth internalizing symptoms. Dyadic structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of mother and adolescent religiosity, maternal warmth, maternal depressive symptoms, and adolescent age on youth internalizing symptoms as reported by both the mother and the adolescent. Consistent with hypotheses, maternal depressive symptoms were significantly associated with youth internalizing symptoms (as reported by the adolescent). Further, the impact of maternal religiosity on self-reported youth internalizing symptoms and its subscales was moderated by adolescent age. Specifically, maternal religiosity was associated with fewer self-reported internalizing symptoms in young adolescents, whereas the effect waned in older youth. Possible predictive coprocesses such as maternal influence on adolescent religious choices and identity formation are explored in the context of adolescent internalizing symptomatology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Maternal resources, parenting, and dietary patterns among rural African American children in single-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E Juanita; McBride Murry, Velma; Brody, Gene; Parker, Veronica

    2002-01-01

    A correlation study was designed to test the hypothesis that maternal education, perceived family resources, and the importance of family routines would be related to children's dietary patterns. Additionally, the study examined the hypothesis that dietary patterns would be associated with children's cognitive and physical abilities. The sample for this study included 159 African American single-mother families with a 6- to 9-year-old child living in rural areas, most of whom lived in poverty. Children's eating patterns were assessed using a self-report questionnaire administered to the mother in an interview format. Children's cognitive ability was measured by several subscales from the Woodcock Johnson Psycho-Educational Instrument and the Harter Perceived Competence Scale for children. For male children, the mother's higher education was related to more adequate eating patterns at home, and more perceived family resources were related to the likelihood of taking vitamin supplements. For female children, greater milk intake was positively related to cognitive outcomes, including applied problem, passage comprehension, calculation, synonym identification, antonym identification, and quantitative concept scores. Milk intake was clearly related to more optimal cognitive development. The results of this study support the literature related to the importance of nutrition for cognitive and physical abilities in children.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA diversity in the African American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Derek C; Shrestha, Sadeep; Wiener, Howard W; Makowsky, Robert; Kurundkar, Ashish; Wilson, Craig M; Aissani, Brahim

    2015-06-01

    Genetic polymorphism along mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defines population-specific signatures called mtDNA haplogroups. Estimation of mtDNA haplogroup distribution may be prone to errors, notably if the study sample is not drawn from a multicenter cohort. Here, we report on mtDNA diversity in a sample of African American individuals (n = 343) enrolled in a multicenter cohort. Sequencing of the hypervariable regions I and II of the D-loop control region showed that the most common mitochondrial variants are 73G, 146C, 150T, 152C, 189G, 16278T, and 16311C. In agreement with the published data, we observed 17 common mtDNA haplogroups: L0, L1, L1b, L1c, L2, L2a, L2b, L2c, L2e, L3, L3b, L3d, L3e, L3f, L3h, L3x, and L4. The most commonly observed haplogroup is L2a (19.8%), followed by L1b (10.2%). Overall, the observed mtDNA haplogroup distribution in our study is similar to those published for the African American and the African populations.

  14. Elder abuse and neglect in African American families: informing practice based on ecological and cultural frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsford, Sheena R; Parra-Cardona, José Rubén; Schiamberg, Larry; Post, Lori A

    2011-01-01

    Despite the rapid growth of the elderly African American population in the U.S., elder abuse and neglect in African American families continue to be underdeveloped areas of study. This article presents an ecological and culturally informed framework for the study of elder abuse in African American populations. The model was developed based on Bronfenbrenner's Human Ecological Theory. The model identifies risk factors associated with different systems that have an influence on the lives of African American families. Cultural protective factors also are identified in the model. The model is intended to provide an understanding of elder abuse and neglect in African American families by considering the influence of contextual factors such as the legacy of slavery, social exclusion, and structural segregation and racism. Specific suggestions for practice are proposed according to cultural strengths of African American communities as well as the ecological premises of the model.

  15. Acculturation and acculturative stress as indicators for suicide risk among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rheeda L

    2007-07-01

    The literature on African American suicide and the acculturation literature were examined to derive a possible explanation for increases in suicide deaths for African American men and apparent resilience for African American women. Historically, African Americans were believed to be unaffected by suicide because of protective factors (e.g., strong religious values and cohesive familial support systems) embedded in the culture. However, minority mental health investigators have found that acculturation sometimes leads to negative consequences for individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds. Accordingly, acculturation and acculturative phenomena are proposed as a model to shed light on African American male suicide as African Americans increasingly engage mainstream values, beliefs, and practices in the absence of traditional protective factors.

  16. Why African American women leave the academy: barriers to and opportunities for retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, S T

    1994-01-01

    African American women have participated in higher education for well over a century. Although the journey has been difficult, significant achievements have been made. Today, fewer African American women doctoral recipients are choosing academic employment, and many of those who enter the academy later leave for employment in business, industry and the professions where salaries are often more attractive. Furthermore, the present decline of African American faculty women is expected to become more severe as the growth of the academic labor market levels off. If we are to successfully retain the pool of African American faculty women it is important to discover the reasons why an increasing number are voluntarily leaving the academy. This article is based on a cross-sectional study of 384 African American academic women which examines the primary barriers to faculty retention and offer suggestions to help prevent the further loss of African American women scholars.

  17. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Child Feeding Questionnaire among low-income African American families of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Richard E; Nelson, Timothy D; Chamberlin, Leigh A; Valenzuela, Jessica M; Sherman, Susan N; Johnson, Susan L; Powers, Scott W

    2010-04-01

    This study examined the factor structure for three of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) subscales, a widely used measure of parental feeding practices, among 296 low-income parents of African American preschool children. Confirmatory factor analysis showed an overall poor fit among CFQ subscales; Restriction, Pressure to Eat, and Concern about Child Weight, (chi(2), (df=87=300.249, CFI=1.00, NNFI=1.07, RMSEA=.091). Additionally, Cronbach's Alpha coefficients for 2 of the three subscales were below acceptable recommendations (Restriction=0.69; Pressure to Eat=0.58). These results suggest further psychometric clarification is needed to understand commonly reported feeding practice constructs among low-income African American mothers of preschool aged children.

  18. Effect of African- and European-American maternal attitudes and limit-setting strategies on children's self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCuyer, Elizabeth A; Swanson, Dena P; Cole, Robert; Kitzman, Harriet

    2011-12-01

    The effect of maternal attitudes and limit-setting strategies on children's self-regulation (measured as committed compliance) was compared in 151 African-American (AA) and 108 European-American (EA) mothers and their 3-year-old children. There were no ethnic differences in children's compliance, however ethnicity moderated the relationship between maternal authoritarian attitudes and children's compliance. Higher authoritarian attitudes predicted less children's compliance in the EA sample, but greater compliance in the AA sample. Observational limit-setting data revealed that in both ethnic groups, maternal authoritarian attitudes influenced children's self-regulation through maternal use of lower-power (gentle) verbal strategies, fewer physical strategies, and judicious use of higher-power verbal strategies. The findings indicate that the meaning and purpose of authoritarian attitudes varies across these mothers' socio-cultural contexts.

  19. Experiences and perspectives of African American, Latina/o, Asian American, and European American psychology graduate students: A national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maton, Kenneth I; Wimms, Harriette E; Grant, Sheila K; Wittig, Michele A; Rogers, Margaret R; Vasquez, Melba J T

    2011-01-01

    A national, Web-based survey of 1,219 African American, Latina/o, Asian American, and European American psychology graduate students revealed both similarities and differences in experiences and perspectives. Mentoring was found to be the strongest predictor of satisfaction across groups. Academic supports and barriers, along with perceptions of diversity within the academic environment, were also important predictors of satisfaction. Students of color perceived less fairness of representation of their ethnic group within psychology than European American students, and a greater linkage between aspects of the graduate school experience and their ethnicity. Limitations of the study and implications for future research and action are discussed.

  20. Media and Cultural Influences in African-American Girls’ Eating Disorder Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Lakaii A.; Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate media and cultural influences in eating disorder development in African-American adolescent females. Method. Fifty-seven participants were recruited through churches and community organizations to complete a questionnaire. Results. Mainstream sociocultural identification was associated with more eating disorder behavior in African-American females; cultural ethnic identification was not significantly associated with eating disorder behavior in African-American female...

  1. Reaching an Underserved Wine Customer: Connecting with the African American Wine Consumer.

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, Rhonda; Sydnor, Sandra; Kang, Eunjoo

    2014-01-01

    Marketing strategies addressing underserved African American wine customers’ needs that also positively impact producers’ and retailers’ clientele was the impetus for this exploratory, qualitative paper. African Americans demonstrate a thirst to elevate their education about and be more involved in the wine industry as evidenced by the proliferation of African American wine-tasting groups designed to help educate and expose their membership to a variety of wines. Moreover, compared to the ave...

  2. African-Americans and Clinical Trials Research: Recommendations for Client Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Sharon E.; Wanda Lott Collins

    2002-01-01

    African-Americans have, without their knowledge and consent, been used as human guinea pigs in scientific and medical experiments by private and governmental organizations. As a result many African-Americans approach the health care industry with caution and apprehension. African-Americans are admonished to remember the atrocities they once experienced and to approach participation in clinical studies with skepticism. This paper presents an historical overview of conspiracy ...

  3. Religious socialization in African American families: the relative influence of parents, grandparents, and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Ian A; Goodwin, Lucas J; Kirkinis, Katherine; Mattis, Jacqueline S

    2014-12-01

    The family is the principal context for religious and spiritual socialization. Although religion remains a central force in the lives of most African Americans, research has failed to explore the role and impact of family on religious socialization within this population. This study addresses that gap in the literature by (1) exploring adults' perceptions of the influence of their parents, grandparents, and siblings on their religious and spiritual lives, and (2) examining the extent to which those perceptions are associated with subjective religiosity, subjective spirituality, religious importance, and commitment to religious socialization among a community sample of urban-residing African American adults in the Midwest and Northeast (N = 319). Findings revealed that, on average, parents, grandparents, and siblings positively influenced adults' religious commitment and values. However, mothers had the greatest positive influence on these outcomes. Religious commitment and values were differentially associated with family members as a function of the generation and gender of the family member. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  4. Paternal Hostility and Maternal Hostility in European American and African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ed Y; Reeb, Ben T; Martin, Monica J; Gibbons, Frederick X; Simons, Ronald L; Conger, Rand D

    2014-06-01

    The authors examined the hypothesized influence of maternal and paternal hostility on youth delinquency over time. The investigation addressed significant gaps in earlier research on parental hostility, including the neglect of father effects, especially in African American families. Using prospective, longitudinal data from community samples of European American (n = 422) and African American (n = 272) 2-parent families, the authors examined the independent effects of paternal and maternal hostility on youth delinquency. The results indicated that paternal hostility significantly predicted relative increases in youth delinquent behaviors above and beyond the effects of maternal hostility; conversely, maternal hostility did not predict youth delinquency after controlling for paternal hostility. Multiple-group analyses yielded similar results for both ethnic groups and for boys and girls. These results underscore the importance of including both parents in research on diverse families. Neglecting fathers provides an incomplete account of parenting in relation to youth development.

  5. The Acculturation of Parenting Cognitions: A Comparison of South Korean, Korean Immigrant, and European American Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Linda R; Kwak, Keumjoo; Putnick, Diane L; Chung, Hyun Jin; Bornstein, Marc H

    2015-10-01

    A three-culture comparison - native South Korean, Korean immigrants to the United States, and native European American mothers - of two types of parenting cognitions - attributions and self-perceptions - was undertaken to explore cultural contributions to parenting cognitions and their adaptability among immigrant mothers. Attributions and self-perceptions of parenting were chosen because they influence parenting behavior and children's development and vary cross-culturally. One hundred seventy-nine mothers of 20-month-old children participated: 73 South Korean, 50 Korean immigrant, and 56 European American. Korean mothers differed from European American mothers on four of the five types of attributions studied and on all four self-perceptions of parenting, and these differences were largely consistent with the distinct cultural values of South Korea and the United States. Generally, Korean immigrant mothers' attributions for parenting more closely resembled those of mothers in the United States, whereas their self-perceptions of parenting more closely resembled those of mothers in South Korea. This study provides insight into similarities and differences in cultural models of parenting, and information about the acculturation of parenting cognitions among immigrants from South Korea.

  6. Mexican-American mothers' socialization strategies: effects of education, acculturation, and health locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, J H; Power, T G; Olvera-Ezzell, N

    1993-04-01

    The present study examined maternal education, acculturation, and health locus of control beliefs in relation to parenting strategies that promote the internalization of healthy eating habits in Mexican-American children. Eighty low-income Mexican-American mothers and their 4- to 8-year-old children participated in the study. Mother-child interactions during dinner were observed, and mothers were interviewed about the socialization strategies they used to influence their children's food consumption. Results indicated that mothers with more external health locus of control beliefs were less likely to use socialization techniques associated with internalization. Acculturation was negatively related to the use of internalization techniques, with less traditional mothers using more directive strategies. Education did not predict maternal behavior after controlling for health locus of control beliefs.

  7. Durable Effects of Concentrated Disadvantage on Verbal Ability among African-American Children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robert J. Sampson; Patrick Sharkey; Stephen W. Raudenbush

    2008-01-01

    .... African-American children are exposed in such disproportionate numbers to concentrated disadvantage that white and Latino children cannot be reliably compared, calling into question traditional...

  8. Relationship between social support, self-esteem and codependency in the African American female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D L; Barber, K R

    1997-01-01

    Increasing numbers of minorities are seeking mental health assistance. Inclusion of cultural considerations is important for increasing sensitivity to those whose life experiences differ. For African Americans, therapy is better facilitated if one operates from a cultural specific frame of reference. African American women attending a women's support group were surveyed. Questionnaires querying dimensions on family relationships, self-esteem and dependency were utilized. Results indicated a relationship between social support, self-esteem and codependency in African American females. Social support and self-esteem were inversely associated with codependency. This study provides insight for mental health professionals in counseling African American females.

  9. Media and cultural influences in african-american girls' eating disorder risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lakaii A; Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate media and cultural influences in eating disorder development in African-American adolescent females. Method. Fifty-seven participants were recruited through churches and community organizations to complete a questionnaire. Results. Mainstream sociocultural identification was associated with more eating disorder behavior in African-American females; cultural ethnic identification was not significantly associated with eating disorder behavior in African-American females, mainstream sociocultural identification, cultural ethnic identification, and body dissatisfaction significantly predicted eating disorder behavior; and cultural ethnic identification was positively correlated with mainstream sociocultural identification. This study provides support for the importance of eating disorder prevention interventions that focus specifically on African-American girls.

  10. African American Vernacular English: a study of the representation of black speech in popular TV series

    OpenAIRE

    Costas Domínguez, Joana

    2016-01-01

    Traballo Fin de Grao en Lingua e Literatura Inglesas. Curso 2015-2016 African American Vernacular English or AAVE is a variety of American English often spoken by African Americans in urban or Southern regions. The fact that a large number of people speak this variety has led African American Vernacular English to before almost a half-century an important topic of discussion among both; linguists and the public. Linguists maintain that there is nothing “wrong” or “incorrect” about African ...

  11. Variation in Vowel Duration Among Southern African American English Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Yolanda Feimster; Jacewicz, Ewa; Fox, Robert Allen

    2015-08-01

    Atypical duration of speech segments can signal a speech disorder. In this study, we examined variation in vowel duration in African American English (AAE) relative to White American English (WAE) speakers living in the same dialect region in the South to characterize the nature of systematic variation between the 2 groups. The goal was to establish whether segmental durations in minority populations differ from the well-established patterns in mainstream populations. Participants were 32 AAE and 32 WAE speakers differing in age who, in their childhood, attended either segregated (older speakers) or integrated (younger speakers) public schools. Speech materials consisted of 14 vowels produced in hVd-frame. AAE vowels were significantly longer than WAE vowels. Vowel duration did not differ as a function of age. The temporal tense-lax contrast was minimized for AAE relative to WAE. Vowels produced by females were significantly longer than vowels produced by males for both AAE and WAE. African American speakers should be expected to produce longer vowels relative to White speakers in a common geographic area. These longer durations are not deviant but represent a typical feature of AAE. This finding has clinical importance in guiding assessments of speech disorders in AAE speakers.

  12. Characterizing the learning styles and testing the science-related attitudes of African American middle school students: Implications for the underrepresentation of African Americans in the sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perine, Donald Ray

    African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans and women are underrepresented among the population of scientists and science teachers in the United States. Specifically, the shortage of African Americans teaching math and science at all levels of the educational process and going into the many science-related fields is manifested throughout the entire educational and career structure of our society. This shortage exists when compared to the total population of African Americans in this country, the population of African American students, and to society's demand for more math and science teachers and professionals of all races. One suggestion to address this problem is to update curricular and instructional programs to accommodate the learning styles of African Americans from elementary to graduate school. There is little in the published literature to help us understand the learning styles of African American middle school students and how they compare to African American adults who pursue science careers. There is also little published data to help inform us about the relationship between learning styles of African American middle school students and their attitudes toward science. The author used a learning styles inventory instrument to identify the learning style preferences of the African American students and adults. The preferences identified describe how African American students and African American adult science professionals prefer to function, learn, concentrate, and perform in their educational and work activities in the areas of: (a) immediate environment, (b) emotionality, (c) sociological needs, and (d) physical needs. The learning style preferences for the students and adults were not significantly different in key areas of preference. A Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) was used to measure seven distinct science-related attitudes of the middle school students. A comparison of the profile of the mean scores for the students in this study

  13. Sequential screening for psychosocial and behavioural risk during pregnancy in a population of urban African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, M; Gantz, M G; El-Khorazaty, M N; El-Mohandes, A A E

    2013-10-01

    Screening for psychosocial and behavioural risks, such as depression, intimate partner violence, and smoking, during pregnancy is considered to be state of the art in prenatal care. This prospective longitudinal analysis examines the added benefit of repeated screening, compared with a single screening, in identifying such risks during pregnancy. Data were collected as part of a randomised controlled trial to address intimate partner violence, depression, smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure in African American women. Prenatal care sites in the District of Columbia serving mainly women of minority background. A cohort of 1044 African American pregnant women in the District of Columbia. Mothers were classified by their initial response (acknowledgement of risks), and these data were updated during pregnancy. Risks were considered new if they were not previously reported. Standard hypothesis tests and logistic regression were used to predict the acknowledgment of any new risk(s) during pregnancy. New risks: psychosocial variables to understand what factors might help identify the acknowledgement of additional risk(s). Repeated screening identified more mothers acknowledging risk over time. Reported smoking increased by 11%, environmental tobacco smoke exposure increased by 19%, intimate partner violence increased by 9%, and depression increased by 20%. The psychosocial variables collected at the baseline that were entered into the logistic regression model included relationship status, education, Medicaid, illicit drug use, and alcohol use during pregnancy. Among these, only education less than high school was associated with the acknowledgement of new risk in the bivariate analyses, and significantly predicted the identification of new risks (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.01-1.90). It is difficult to predict early on who will acknowledge new risks over the course of pregnancy, and thus all women should be screened repeatedly to allow for the identification of risks

  14. Atrial Fibrillation and Colonic Neoplasia in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Nouraie

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC and atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF share several risk factors including increasing age and obesity. However, the association between CRC and AF has not been thoroughly examined, especially in African Americans. In this study we aimed to assess the prevalence of AF and its risk factors in colorectal neoplasia in an African American.We reviewed records of 527 African American patients diagnosed with CRC and 1008 patients diagnosed with benign colonic lesions at Howard University Hospital from January 2000 to December 2012. A control group of 731 hospitalized patients without any cancer or colonic lesion were randomly selected from the same time and age range, excluding patients who had diagnosis of both CRC and/or adenoma. The presence or absence of AF was based upon ICD-9 code documentation. The prevalence of AF in these three groups was compared by multivariate logistic regression.The prevalence of AF was highest among CRC patients (10% followed by adenoma patients (7.2% then the control group (5.4%, P for trend = 0.002. In the three groups of participants, older age (P<0.008 and heart failure (P<0.001 were significantly associated with higher risk of AF. After adjusting for these risk factors, CRC (OR: 1.4(95%CI:0.9-2.2, P = 0.2 and adenoma (OR: 1.1(95%CI:0.7-1.6, P = 0.7 were not significantly associated AF compared to control group.AF is highly prevalent among CRC patients; 1 in 10 patients had AF in our study. The predictors of AF in CRC was similar to that in adenoma and other patients after adjustment for potential confounders suggesting that the increased AF risk in CRC is explained by higher prevalence of AF risk factors.

  15. Quality of Life and Outcomes in African Americans with CKD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Michael J.; Wang, Xuelei; Brooks, Deborah; Bruce, Marino; Charleston, Jeanne; Cleveland, William H.; Dowie, Donna; Faulkner, Marquetta; Gassman, Jennifer; Hiremath, Leena; Kendrick, Cindy; Kusek, John W.; Norris, Keith C.; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Greene, Tom; Lash, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Low health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has been associated with increased risk for hospitalization and death in ESRD. However, the relationship of HRQOL with outcomes in predialysis CKD is not well understood. We evaluated the association between HRQOL and renal and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in 1091 African Americans with hypertensive CKD enrolled in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) trial and cohort studies. Outcomes included CKD progression (doubling of serum creatinine/ESRD), CV events/CV death, and a composite of CKD progression or death from any cause (CKD progression/death). We assessed HRQOL, including mental health composite (MHC) and physical health composite (PHC), using the Short Form-36 survey. Cox regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between outcomes and five-point decrements in MHC and PHC scores using measurements at baseline, at the most recent annual visit (time-varying), or averaged from baseline to the most recent visit (cumulative). During approximately 10 years of follow-up, lower mean PHC score was associated with increased risk of CV events/CV death and CKD progression/death across all analytic approaches, but only time-varying and cumulative decrements were associated with CKD progression. Similarly, lower mean MHC score was associated with increased risk of CV events/CV death regardless of analytic approach, while only time-varying and cumulative decrements in mean MHC score was associated with CKD progression and CKD progression or death. In conclusion, lower HRQOL is associated with a range of adverse outcomes in African Americans with hypertensive CKD. PMID:24700865

  16. Keloids and ultrasound detected fibroids in young African American women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaker E Harmon

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Keloids and fibroids share a number of biologic and demographic similarities however there are no published reports of the association between them. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported keloids and ultrasound detected fibroids in a population of young African American women. STUDY DESIGN: The Study of Environment, Life-style & Fibroids (SELF, is a volunteer cohort of over 1600 African American women aged 23-34 years recruited in Detroit, Michigan. Enrollment occurred between December 2010 and December 2012. Data are available for the first 1196 participants. Participants self-reported a history of raised (hypertrophic scars or scars extending beyond the limits of the original injury (keloid and had an enrollment pelvic ultrasound examination to detect prevalent fibroids. Log linear regression was used to model the association between abnormal scars and prevalent fibroids controlling for possible covariates. Among women with fibroids, associations between particular fibroid characteristics (tumor location, size or number and scarring were assessed using chi-square and Mann Whitney U-tests. RESULTS: Both abnormal scarring (keloids, 9.0%; hypertrophic scars, 28.3% and fibroids (23.3% were common in this cohort. There was no indication [adjusted Risk Ratio (95% Confidence Interval: 0.7 (0.5-1.1] of an association between self-reported keloids and prevalent fibroids. Nor was there any association with hypertrophic scars. Specific characteristics of the prevalent fibroids were not associated with abnormal scarring. CONCLUSION: Despite similarly dysregulated extracellular matrices in keloids and fibroids, these conditions did not tend to co-occur in this young African American population.

  17. Introduction to Exporting American Dreams: Thurgood Marshall's African Journey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary L. Dudziak

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Thurgood Marshall became a living icon of civil rights when he argued Brown v. Board of Education before the Supreme Court in 1954. Six years later, he was at a crossroads. A rising generation of activists were making sit-ins and demonstrations rather than lawsuits the hallmark of the civil rights movement. What role, he wondered, could he now play? When in 1960 Kenyan independence leaders asked him to help write their constitution, Marshall threw himself into their cause. Here was a new arena in which law might serve as the tool with which to forge a just society. In Exporting American Dreams, Mary Dudziak recounts with poignancy and power the untold story of Marshall's journey to Africa. African Americans were enslaved when the U.S. constitution was written. In Kenya, Marshall could become something that had not existed in his own country: a black man helping to found a nation. He became friends with Kenyan leaders Tom Mboya and Jomo Kenyatta, serving as advisor to the Kenyans, who needed to demonstrate to Great Britain and to the world that they would treat minority races (whites and Asians fairly once Africans took power. He crafted a bill of rights, aiding constitutional negotiations that helped enable peaceful regime change, rather than violent resistance. Marshall's involvement with Kenya's foundation affirmed his faith in law, while also forcing him to understand how the struggle for justice could be compromised by the imperatives of sovereignty. Marshall's beliefs were most sorely tested later in the decade when he became a Supreme Court Justice, even as American cities erupted in flames and civil rights progress stalled. Kenya's first attempt at democracy faltered, but Marshall's African journey remained a cherished memory of a time and a place when all things seemed possible.

  18. Breast cancer fear in African American breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lynette M; Thomas, Sheila; Parker, Veronica; Mayo, Rachel; Wetsel, Margaret Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe breast cancer fear according to phase of survivorship, determine whether breast cancer fear levels differed among survivorship phases, and determine the relationship between fear and age in African-American breast cancer survivors. The study utilized secondary data analysis from the study, Inner Resources as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being in AABCS. A new subscale entitled, "Breast Cancer Fear" was adapted from the Psychological Well Being Subscale by Ferrell and Grant. There was no significant difference between fear and phase of survivorship. There was a significant positive relationship between age and fear.

  19. Violence exposure and teen dating violence among African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Beverly M; Chido, Lisa M; Preble, Kathleen M; Weisz, Arlene N; Yoon, Jina S; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Kernsmith, Poco; Lewandowski, Linda

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, and family with dating violence attitudes and behaviors among 175 urban African American youth. Age, gender, state support and experiences with neglect, school violence, and community violence were the most significant predictors of acceptance of dating violence. Experiences with community violence and age were important predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization. Findings highlight the importance of planning prevention programs that address variables affecting attitudes and behaviors of high-risk youth who have already been exposed to multiple types of violence.

  20. Developing culturally competent marriage and family therapists: treatment guidelines for non-African-American therapists working with African-American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Roy A; Perry, Benjamin J; Bedell, Tina M

    2002-04-01

    To serve African-American families effectively, marriage and family therapists need to develop a level of cultural competence. This content analysis of the relevant treatment literature was conducted to examine the most common expert recommendations for family therapy with African Americans. Fifteen specific guidelines were generated, including orient the family to therapy, do not assume familiarity, address issue of racism, intervene multi-systemically, do home visits, use problem-solving focus, involve religious leader, incorporate the father, and acknowledge strengths. Conceptual and empirical support for each guideline is discussed, and conclusions are made regarding culturally competent therapy with African-American families.