Full Text Available ... the African-American that we treat this as what it is -- an epidemic. Winston Dyer: My introduction ... being ignorant to prostate cancer -- and not knowing what it was -- that was my first, first, first- ...
Full Text Available ... runs higher. We really don't know. But I would strongly suggest to the African-American that ... then my dad four months later. And then I was told by doctors that I should be ...
Full Text Available ... Walker: The researchers don't know exactly why. It is suggested that maybe our diet, maybe our ... African-American that we treat this as what it is -- an epidemic. Winston Dyer: My introduction to ...
AFRICAN AMERICAN MEN AND PROSTATE CANCER: BE YOUR OWN ADVOCATE AND UNDERSTAND SCREENING By the National Cancer ... American men. For reasons that are still unknown, African American men are more likely to get prostate ...
... VIH En EspaÃ±ol Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among African American Gay and Bisexual Men Format: ...
Wade, Jay C.
Examines factors--such as unemployment, economic deprivation, racism, issues pertaining to gender roles--and their contribution to substance abuse in African American men. Specifically reviews the use of alcohol, opiates, crack, and cocaine. Argues that a biopsychosocial model offers the best framework in conceptualizing substance abuse and…
DePadilla, Lara; Elifson, Kirk; McCarty, Frances; Sterk, Claire
In this paper we explored associations of multiple domains with regular drinking and getting drunk among adult African American men. Questionnaire-based, computer-assisted interviews were conducted with 484 men in Atlanta, Georgia. Data analysis involved multivariate logistic regression analyses. Findings show that being older increased the odds of both drinking behaviors. Sensation seeking increased the odds of regular drinking and having experienced childhood sexual and physical abuse incre...
Full Text Available ... Americans have one of the highest incidences of prostate cancer in the world, and in this country the ... is -- an epidemic. Winston Dyer: My introduction to prostate cancer started with the death of my 46-year- ...
Full Text Available ... Americans have one of the highest incidences of prostate cancer in the world, and in this country ... is -- an epidemic. Winston Dyer: My introduction to prostate cancer started with the death of my 46- ...
Full Text Available Curtis Pettaway, M.D.: We know that black Americans have one of the highest incidences of prostate cancer in the world, and in this country ... have even suggested that our testosterone runs higher. We really don't know. But I would strongly ...
Full Text Available Curtis Pettaway, M.D.: We know that black Americans have one of the highest incidences of prostate cancer in the world, and in ... not go to the doctor's. Curtis Pettaway, M.D.: Those are the individuals where the message really ...
Seth, Puja; Murray, Colleen C.; Braxton, Nikia D.; DiClemente, Ralph J
Substance use is prevalent among African American men living in urban communities. The impact of substance use on the social, psychological, and physical health of African American men has important public health implications for families, communities, and society. Given the adverse consequences of alcohol and drug abuse within communities of color, this study evaluated the relationship between city stress, alcohol consumption, and drug use among African American men. Eighty heterosexual, Afr...
Saleh, Lena D; van den Berg, Jacob J; Chambers, Christopher S; Operario, Don
Previous research has suggested a need to understand the social-psychological factors contributing to HIV risk among African American men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted individual in-depth interviews with 34 adult African American MSM to examine their personal experiences about: (i) sources of social support, (ii) psychological responses to the presence or absence of social support and (iii) influences of social support on sexual behaviours. The majority of participants described limited positive encouragement and lack of emotional support from family, as well as few meaningful personal relationships. Feelings of isolation and mistrust about personal relationships led many participants to avoid emotional intimacy and seek physical intimacy through sexual encounters. Findings highlight a need for multilevel interventions that enhance social support networks and address the social-psychological, emotional and interpersonal factors that contribute to HIV risk among African American MSM. PMID:26588945
Marcell, Arik V; Jagers, Robert J; Mayden, Bronwyn; Mobley, Cynthia
Recent recommendations advocate involving young men in reproductive health programs. We know little about how young men perceive their reproductive health needs. For this study, 47 African American young men (mean age, 17.9 years) recruited from four community-based organizations completed a brief survey to explore life priorities and perceptions of health needs across 12 to 14, 15 to 19, and 20 to 25-year-olds. Participants' life priorities varied by age group with overall top categories, including education, economics, and family members. Health was listed as a salient life priority among older participants aged 15 to 25 years, though it was not highly ranked. Participants' top health concerns included sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS, with limited mention of other reproductive health concerns. Understanding where young men start from when thinking about reproductive health can better help us meet their needs. Future studies warrant examining how health needs change over time among a larger and more diverse sample of young men. PMID:19477738
Haren, Matthew T.; Banks, William A.; Perry, H.M.; Patrick, Ping; Malmstrom, Theodore K.; Miller, Douglas K.; Morley, John E.
There are few reported data on biochemical and functional correlates of androgen levels in African-American men. This study aimed at reporting physical and biochemical correlates of serum total testosterone (total T), bioavailable testosterone (BT) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEAS) levels in community-dwelling, African-American men aged 50–65 years. Home-based physical examinations and health status questionnaires were administered to randomly sampled men. Body composition (dual-ene...
Hankerson, Sidney H; Suite, Derek; Bailey, Rahn K
A decade has passed since the National Institute of Mental Health initiated its landmark Real Men Real Depression public education campaign. Despite increased awareness, depressed African American men continue to underutilize mental health treatment and have the highest all-cause mortality rates of any racial/ethnic group in the United States. We review a complex array of socio-cultural factors, including racism and discrimination, cultural mistrust, misdiagnosis and clinician bias, and informal support networks that contribute to treatment disparities. We identify clinical and community entry points to engage African American men. We provide specific recommendations for frontline mental health workers to increase depression treatment utilization for African American men. Providers who present treatment options within a frame of holistic health promotion may enhance treatment adherence. We encourage the use of multidisciplinary, community-based participatory research approaches to test our hypotheses and engage African American men in clinical research. PMID:25702724
Shenoy, Divya; Packianathan, Satyaseelan; Chen, Allen M.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan
Background In 2012, the United States Preventative Services Task Force issued new guidelines recommending that male U.S. residents, irrespective of race, no longer be screened for prostate cancer. In African American men, the incidence of prostate cancer is almost 60 % higher and the mortality rate is two to three times greater than in Caucasians. The purpose of this study is to reduce African American men's prostate cancer burden by demonstrating they need separate screening guidelines. Meth...
Davis, Erica C.; Reid, Sophia D.; Callender, Valerie D.; Sperling, Leonard C.
Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia is a scarring alopecia that is predominantly seen in African American women, but occurs less frequently in men. The authors present three cases of African American men with biopsy-proven central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia and detail the clinical presentation, histological findings, and treatment regimens. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia should be considered in the differential diagnosis when evaluating male patients with vertex hair loss...
Catherine E. Harnois
Studies of the general population have found strong generational differences in how women and men relate to feminism. But how well do these findings reflect feminism among African American men and women? The results of this study show that generational differences are very important for understanding feminism within the Black community. Also important are gender and involvement in the paid labor force. For African Americans of the baby bust generation, working in the paid labor force seem...
Williams, John K.; Wyatt, Gail E.; Rivkin, Inna; Ramamurthi, Hema Codathi; Li, Xiaomin; Liu, Honghu
While the HIV epidemic has disproportionately affected African American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), few HIV prevention interventions have focused on African American and Latino men who have sex with both men and women (MSMW). Even fewer interventions target HIV-positive African American and Latino MSM and MSMW with histories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), a population that may be vulnerable to high-risk sexual behaviors, having multiple sexual partners, and depression. The M...
Peters Ronald J
Full Text Available Abstract Background As part of qualitative research for developing a culturally sensitive and developmentally appropriate videotape-based HIV prevention intervention for heterosexual African- American men, six focus groups were conducted with thirty African-American men to determine their perceptions of AIDS as a threat to the African-American community, characteristics of past situations that have placed African Americans at risk for HIV infection, their personal high risk behaviors, and suggestions on how HIV intervention videotapes could be produced to achieve maximum levels of interest among African-American men in HIV training programs. Methods The groups took place at a low-income housing project in Houston, Texas, a major epicenter for HIV/AIDS. Each group was audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using theme and domain analysis. Results The results revealed that low-income African-American men perceive HIV/AIDS as a threat to their community and they have placed themselves at risk of HIV infection based on unsafe sex practices, substance abuse, and lack of knowledge. They also cite lack of income to purchase condoms as a barrier to safe sex practice. They believe that HIV training programs should address these risk factors and that videotapes developed for prevention should offer a sensationalized look at the effects of HIV/AIDS on affected persons. They further believe that programs should be held in African-American communities and should include condoms to facilitate reduction of risk behaviors. Conclusions The results indicate that the respondents taking part in this study believe that HIV and AIDS are continued threats to the African-American community because of sexual risk taking behavior, that is, failure to use condoms. Further, African-American men are having sex without condoms when having sex with women often when they are under the influence of alcohol or other mind-altering substances and they are having sex with men while
Rose, India D.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Spencer, S. Melinda; Annang, Lucy; Lindley, Lisa L.
The current study used a qualitative, phenomenological approach to investigate the health information-seeking practices of African American young men who have sex with men (AAYMSM). Forty-two self-identified AAYMSM, aged 18 to 21, residing in a Southeastern U.S. city participated in a qualitative focus group or face-to-face interview to examine…
Seth, Puja; Murray, Colleen C; Braxton, Nikia D; DiClemente, Ralph J
Substance use is prevalent among African American men living in urban communities. The impact of substance use on the social, psychological, and physical health of African American men has important public health implications for families, communities, and society. Given the adverse consequences of alcohol and drug abuse within communities of color, this study evaluated the relationship between city stress, alcohol consumption, and drug use among African American men. Eighty heterosexual, African American men, 18 to 29 years old, completed psychosocial risk assessments that assessed substance use and city stress. Multiple logistic regression analyses, controlling for age, indicated that participants reporting high levels of urban stress, relative to low levels of urban stress, were more likely to report a history of marijuana use (AOR = 5.19, p = .05), history of ecstasy and/or GHB use (AOR = 3.34, p = .04), having family/friends expressing strong concerns about their illicit drug use (AOR = 4.06, p = .02), and being unable to remember what happened the night before due to drinking (AOR = 4.98, p = .01). African American men living within the confines of a stressful urban environment are at increased risk for exposure to and utilization of illicit substances. Culturally competent public health interventions for substance use/abuse should address psychological factors, such as stress and neighborhood violence. PMID:22739803
Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.
This article examines the role of the African American uncle as a vital yet overlooked form of social support and social capital in the lives of adolescent African American male sons living in single-female-headed households. Research rarely examines the affective roles and functions of men in Black families; moreover, poor urban Black male youth…
Friedman, Daniela B; Hooker, Steven P; Wilcox, Sara; Burroughs, Ericka L; Rheaume, Carol E
African American men report poorer health than do White men and have significantly greater odds for developing chronic diseases partly because of limited physical activity. Understanding how to encourage healthy behaviors among African American men will be critical in the development of effective physical activity messages and programs. Guided by principles of cultural sensitivity and social marketing, this research examined middle-aged and older African American men's recommended strategies for promoting physical activity to African American men of their age. The authors report results from 49 interviews conducted with middle-aged (45-64 years) and older (65-84 years) African American men in South Carolina. Four groups of African American men were recruited: middle-aged active men (n = 17), middle-aged inactive men (n = 12), older active men (n = 10), older inactive men (n = 10). Themes related to marketing and recruitment strategies, message content, and spokesperson characteristics emerged and differed by age and physical activity level. Recommended marketing strategies included word of mouth; use of mass media; partnering with churches, businesses, and fraternities; strategic placement of messages; culturally appropriate message framing; and careful attention to selection of program spokespersons. Findings will help in the marketing, design, implementation, and evaluation of culturally appropriate interventions to encourage physical activity among middle-aged and older African American men in the South. PMID:22808914
Catherine E. Harnois
Full Text Available Studies of the general population have found strong generational differences in how women and men relate to feminism. But how well do these findings reflect feminism among African American men and women? The results of this study show that generational differences are very important for understanding feminism within the Black community. Also important are gender and involvement in the paid labor force. For African Americans of the baby bust generation, working in the paid labor force seems an especially important even in the development of gender-conscious identities.
Stephens, Torrance; Braithwaite, Harold; Johnson, Larry; Harris, Catrell; Katkowsky, Steven; Troutman, Adewale
Objective: To examine impact of CVD risk reduction intervention for African-American men in the Atlanta Empowerment Zone (AEZ) designed to target anger management. Design: Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test was employed as a non-parametric alternative to the t-test for independent samples. This test was employed because the data used in this analysis…
Yarhouse, Mark A.; Nowacki-Butzen, Stephanie; Brooks, D. Fredrica
The authors explored the experiences of African American men who identified as Christian and experienced same-sex attraction. Participants completed an online questionnaire addressing experiences of same-sex attraction; meaning attributed to their attractions; the sharing of their experiences with others; and perceptions regarding the intersection…
Hankerson, Sidney H.; Suite, Derek; Bailey, Rahn K.
A decade has passed since the National Institute of Mental Health initiated its landmark Real Men Real Depression public education campaign. Despite increased awareness, depressed African American men continue to underutilize mental health treatment and have the highest all-cause mortality rates of any racial/ethnic group in the United States. We review a complex array of socio-cultural factors, including racism and discrimination, cultural mistrust, misdiagnosis and clinician bias, and infor...
Frye, Victoria; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Henny, Kirk; Bond, Keosha; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Smith, Stephen; Koblin, Beryl A
In the United States, racial disparities in HIV/AIDS are stark. Although African Americans comprise an estimated 14% of the U.S. population, they made up 52% of new HIV cases among adults and adolescents diagnosed in 2009. Heterosexual transmission is now the second leading cause of HIV in the United States. African Americans made up a full two-thirds of all heterosexually acquired HIV/AIDS cases between 2005 and 2008. Few demonstrated efficacious HIV prevention interventions designed specifically for adult, African-American heterosexual men exist. Here, we describe the process used to design a theory-based HIV prevention intervention to increase condom use, reduce concurrent partnering, and increase HIV testing among heterosexually active African-American men living in high HIV prevalence areas of New York City. The intervention integrated empowerment, social identity, and rational choices theories and focused on four major content areas: HIV/AIDS testing and education; condom skills training; key relational and behavioral turning points; and masculinity and fatherhood. PMID:23016501
Moore, Nataka; Wright, Matara; Gipson, Jessica; Jordan, Greg; Harsh, Mohit; Reed, Daniel; Murray, Marcus; Keeter, Mary Kate; Murphy, Adam
The barbershop has been used to target African American (AA) men across age groups for health screenings, health interventions, and for research. However, few studies explore the sociodemographic characteristics of barbers and their clients. Additionally, few have evaluated the client's relative comfort with receiving health information and screenings in barbershops and other non-clinical settings. Lastly, it is unknown whether barbers feel capable of influencing health-decision making of AA men. AA male clients and barbers completed a self-administered survey in barbershops in predominantly AA neighborhoods throughout Chicago, Illinois. We assessed sociodemographic characteristics and attitudes towards receiving physical and mental health education and screenings in barbershops and other settings. Barbers were also surveyed regarding their most and least common clients by age group and their perceived ability to influence the decision-making of AA males by age group. AAs surveyed in barbershops have similar rates of high school completion, poverty and unemployment as the AA residents of their neighborhood. AA males prefer to receive health education and screening in clinician offices followed by barbershops and churches. Barbers reported serving males age 18-39 years of age most frequently while men 50 years and older were the least served group. Overall, barbers did not believe they could influence the decision-making of AA men and in the best case scenario, only 33 % felt they could influence young men 18-29 years old. Barbershops reach AA men that are representative of the demographics of the neighborhood where the barbershop is located. Barbers reach a small population of men over age 49 and feel incapable of influencing the decisions of AAs over age 39. Further studies are needed to assess other locales for accessing older AA men and to evaluate the feasibility of mental health interventions and screenings within the barbershop. PMID:26831485
Operario, Don; Smith, Carla Dillard; Arnold, Emily; Kegeles, Susan
African American men who have sex with men and women (MSMW), but who do not form a sexual identity around same-sex behavior, may experience risk for HIV infection and transmission. This paper reports cross-sectional survey findings on sexual behaviors and substance use of urban non-gay- or non-bisexual-identified African American MSMW (n = 68), who completed behavior assessment surveys using audio-computer assisted self-interviewing technology. Overall, 17.6% reported being HIV-positive. In the past 3 months, 70.6% had unprotected insertive sex with a female, 51.5% had unprotected insertive anal sex (UIAS) with a male, 33.8% had unprotected receptive anal sex (URAS) with a male, 25% had UIAS with a transgender female, and 10.3% had URAS with a transgender female. Findings indicated a bridging potential for HIV and sexually transmitted infections across groups, such that 38.2% reported concurrent unprotected sex with female and male partners and 17.6% reported concurrent unprotected sex with female and transgender female partners. In the past 3 months, 70.6% used alcohol before sex and 85% used drugs before sex. Men who used drugs before sex had a tenfold increased likelihood for unprotected sex with male partners, and men who injected drugs had a nearly fivefold increased likelihood for unprotected sex with a transgender female. Interventions to address sexual risk behaviors, especially partner concurrency, and substance use behavior for these men are warranted. PMID:19572194
Mashburn, Andrew J.; Peterson, John L.; Bakeman, Roger; Miller, Robin L.; Clark, Leslie F.
This study examined the influence of demographic characteristics, risk behaviors, knowledge, and psychosocial variables on HIV testing among a sample (n = 551) of young African-American men who have sex with men (MSM) from three cities--Atlanta (n = 241), Birmingham (n = 174), and Chicago (n = 136). Among the entire sample of young men, age,…
Nunn, Amy; Dickman, Samuel; Cornwall, Alexandra; Rosengard, Cynthia; Kwakwa, Helena; Kim, Daniel; James, George; Mayer, Kenneth H
African Americans face disproportionately higher risks of HIV infection. Concurrent sexual relationships, or sexual partnerships that overlap in time, are more common among African Americans than individuals of other races and may contribute to racial disparities in HIV infection. However, little is known about attitudes, norms and practices among individuals engaged in concurrent partnerships. Little is also known about the processes through which structural, behavioral, and social factors influence concurrent sexual relationships. We recruited 24 heterosexual African American men involved in concurrent sexual relationships from a public health clinic in Philadelphia. We conducted in-depth interviews exploring these men's sexual practices; social norms and individual attitudes about concurrency; perceived sexual health risks with main and non-main partners; and the social, structural, and behavioral factors contributing to concurrent sexual relationships. Twenty-two men reported having one main and one or more non-main partners; two reported having no main partners. Respondents generally perceived sexual relationships with non-main partners as riskier than relationships with main partners and used condoms far less frequently with main than non-main partners. Most participants commented that it is acceptable and often expected for men and women to engage in concurrent sexual relationships. Social factors influencing participants' concurrent partnerships included being unmarried and trusting neither main nor non-main partners. Structural factors influencing concurrent partnerships included economic dependence on one or more women, incarceration, unstable housing, and unemployment. Several men commented that individual behavioral factors such as alcohol and cocaine use contributed to their concurrent sexual partnerships. Future research and interventions related to sexual concurrency should address social and structural factors in addition to conventional HIV risk
Wilson, Patrick A
Understanding how ethnic, sexual, and masculine (ESM) identities form and possibly conflict among African-American men may be important to consider in explaining bisexual behavior in this population. It is proposed that the bisexual behavior among African-American who are primarily sexually attracted to other men may be a function of conflicting ESM identities. Comprehensively understanding the formation and conflict of ESM identities requires an examination of individuals, social contexts, and interactions between individuals and contexts. The current article presents a dynamic-ecological model of identity formation and conflict among ethnic minority men who have sex with men and uses the model to demonstrate how bisexual behavior among African-American men may be examined. PMID:18546068
Devlieger, Patrick J; Albrecht, Gary L; Hertz, Miram
During the past two decades, debate about disability definitions, concepts, models and policies has been led primarily by Western white middle class disability activists and scholars. This paper contributes to the discussion by examining how disability is conceived and disability culture is developed in a poor, African-American community. The recognition of disability as a defining identity and disability culture as a cohesive force is unusual in the African-American community, and we ask what conditions are necessary for such an identity and culture to develop. To address this question, in 1998 we began a 5 year ethnographic research project concerning young African-American men in the spinal cord injury unit of an inner city rehabilitation hospital in Chicago USA. Based on this research, we argue that there are three necessary conditions for a disability culture to emerge in a group of African-Americans who acquired their disability violently. First, is the perception of social alienation from family and fellow gang members. Second, is immersion in a supportive physical and social environment where disability meanings are produced, reinforced and passed on across generations. Third, is the development of personal narratives and metaphors that give meaning to disability, anchor behavioral changes and help to reconcile value conflicts. Our analysis allows us to understand a change in identity among these young men and the emergence of a shared disability culture represented through signs, symbols, language, rules and ceremonies. This analytical framework also permits us to re-examine disability culture in white society and in specific disability cultures such as deaf culture and to suggest that while there are similarities across groups, disability culture is not monolithic. PMID:17363124
Yamoah, Kosj; Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha; Spangler, Elaine; Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita M.; Malkowicz, Bruce; Lee, David I.; Kattan, Michael; Dicker, Adam P.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.
PURPOSE To explore whether disparities in outcomes exist between African-American (AA) and Caucasian (CS) men with low-grade prostate cancer (PCa) and similar Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment post-Surgery (CAPRA-S) features following prostatectomy (RP) METHODS The overall cohort consisted of 1,265 men (234 AA, and 1,031 CS) who met National comprehensive cancer network (NCCN) criteria for low-intermediate risk PCa and underwent RP between 1990 and 2012. We first evaluated whether clinical factors were associated with adverse pathologic outcomes and freedom from biochemical failure (FFbF) using the entire cohort. Next, we studied a subset of 705 men (112 AA, and 593 CS) who had pathologic Gleason score ≤6 (low-grade disease). Using this cohort, we determined whether race impacted FFbF in men with prostatectomy-proven low-grade disease and similar CAPRA-S score. RESULTS With a median follow up time of 27 months, the overall 7-year FFbF rate was 86% vs. 79% in CS and AA men, respectively (p=0.035). There was no significant difference in ≥1 adverse pathologic features between CS vs. AA men (27% vs. 31%; P =0.35) or CAPRA-S score (p=0.28). In the subset analysis of patients with low-grade disease, AA race was associated with worse FFbF outcomes (p=0.002). Furthermore, AA race was a significant predictor of FFbF in men with low-grade disease (HR 2.01, 95%CI 1.08–3.72; p=0.029). CONCLUSIONS AA race is a predictor of worse FFbF outcomes in men with low-grade disease after RP. These results suggest that a subset of AA men with low-grade disease may benefit from more aggressive treatment. PMID:25304288
Langford, Aisha T.; Griffith, Derek M.; Beasley, Derrick D.; Braxton, Effat Id-Deen
Background Despite disproportionate rates of cancer morbidity and mortality among African American men, few community-based efforts have been developed and sustained to educate African American men about cancer. The University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center implemented a series of breakfasts to improve cancer awareness, screening, and education among African American men. This article describes the rationale for and history of the community intervention. Community Context The 21 brea...
Zamboni, Brian D; Crawford, Isiaah
Minority stress, such as racism and gay bashing, may be associated with sexual problems, but this notion has not been examined in the literature. African-American gay/bisexual men face a unique challenge in managing a double minority status, putting them at high risk for stress and sexual problems. This investigation examined ten predictors of sexual problems among 174 African-American gay/bisexual men. Covarying for age, a forward multiple regression analysis showed that the measures of self-esteem, male gender role stress, HIV prevention self-efficacy, and lifetime experiences with racial discrimination significantly added to the prediction of sexual problems. Gay bashing, psychiatric symptoms, low life satisfaction, and low social support were significantly correlated with sexual problems, but did not add to the prediction of sexual problems in the regression analysis. Mediation analyses showed that stress predicted psychiatric symptoms, which then predicted sexual problems. Sexual problems were not significantly related to HIV status, racial/ethnic identity, or gay identity. The findings from this study showed a relationship between experiences with racial and sexual discrimination and sexual problems while also providing support for mediation to illustrate how stress might cause sexual problems. Addressing minority stress in therapy may help minimize and treat sexual difficulties among minority gay/bisexual men. PMID:17109233
Christiane M Robbins; Stanley Hooker; Kittles, Rick A.; John D. Carpten
The EphB2 gene has been implicated as a tumor suppressor gene somatically altered in both prostate cancer (PC) and colorectal cancer. We have previously shown an association between an EphB2 germline nonsense variant and risk of familial prostate cancer among African American Men (AAM). Here we set out to test the hypothesis that common variation within the EphB2 locus is associated with increased risk of sporadic PC in AAM. We genotyped a set of 341 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) enc...
Sauceda, John A; Paul, Jay P; Gregorich, Steven E; Choi, Kyung-Hee
The study of collectivism has implications for HIV prevention research, especially in studies that use a social networking or community mobilization approach. However, research on collectivism in race/ethnicity and sexual minority groups is limited. We psychometrically evaluated a brief version of the Individualism-Collectivism Interpersonal Assessment Inventory (ICIAI) in a chain-referral sample of 400 Latino, 393 Asian/Pacific Islander, and 403 African American men who have sex with men (MSM). Data were collected via a one-time survey on demographics, the ICIAI, acculturation, and ethnicity identity. We conducted a multiple groups confirmatory factor analysis to assess for measurement invariance across the three groups of MSM, as well as tested its reliability and validity. The ICIAI evidenced good psychometric properties and was invariant across all groups. We highlight implications for how this measure of collectivism can be applied toward the study of HIV prevention and in lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender communities. PMID:26829254
Thomas, Alvin; Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Kohn-Wood, Laura P
Aggression is an important correlate of violence, depression, coping, and suicide among emerging young African American males. Yet most researchers treat aggression deterministically, fail to address cultural factors, or consider the potential for individual characteristics to exert an intersectional influence on this psychosocial outcome. Addressing this gap, we consider the moderating effect of coping on the relationship between masculine and racial identity and aggressive ideation among African American males (N = 128) drawn from 2 large Midwestern universities. Using the phenomenological variant of ecological systems theory and person-centered methodology as a guide, hierarchical cluster analysis grouped participants into profile groups based on their responses to both a measure of racial identity and a measure of masculine identity. Results from the cluster analysis revealed 3 distinct identity clusters: Identity Ambivalent, Identity Appraising, and Identity Consolidated. Although these cluster groups did not differ with regard to coping, significant differences were observed between cluster groups in relation to aggressive ideation. Further, a full model with identity profile clusters, coping, and aggressive ideation indicates that cluster membership significantly moderates the relationship between coping and aggressive ideation. The implications of these data for intersecting identities of African American men, and the association of identity and outcomes related to risk for mental health and violence, are discussed. PMID:25090145
Buseh, Aaron G; Stevens, Patricia E; McManus, Patricia; Addison, Reverend Jim; Morgan, Sarah; Millon-Underwood, Sandra
Given the inordinate burden of HIV illness borne by African American men, investigations of HIV prevention and care in this population are urgently needed. In this qualitative study, a sample of 20 HIV-infected African American men participated in two focus groups in which they exchanged experiences and ideas about living with HIV. They shared details about how they were personally impacted by HIV, and together they constructed a perspective on the larger societal context in which the HIV infection rate among African American men continues unabated. The men focused on growing complacency about HIV/AIDS in the United States, underfunding of supports and services, stigmas operative in African American communities, and differential care based on race, gender, and diagnosis. They saw opportunity in personal strategies that help individual men infected with HIV to take a more empowered stance to deal with the disease and improve their health but looked for changes undertaken by African Americans at the community level to make a real difference in the epidemic. Their vision included enhanced support for HIV prevention and care from influential community institutions like Black churches, more open dialogue about drugs and sexual behavior, and capacity-building for families whose members are HIV-infected or at risk for HIV. PMID:16849084
Robinson, Beatrice E.; Galbraith, Jennifer S.; Lund, Sharon M.; Hamilton, Autumn R.; Shankle, Michael D.
We describe the process of adapting a community-level, evidence-based behavioral intervention (EBI), Community PROMISE, for HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men (AAMSM). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Map of the Adaptation Process (MAP) guided the adaptation process for this new target population by two…
Holden, Kisha B.; McGregor, Brian S.; Blanks, Starla H.; Mahaffey, Carlos
The social determinants unique to African-American men’s health contribute to limited access and utilization of health and mental health care services and can have a deleterious effect on their overall health and well-being. There is a need to examine the complex issues concerning African-American men’s help-seeking behaviors relative to mental health concerns. Current research estimates that African-American men are approximately 30% more likely to report having a mental illness compared to ...
Full Text Available Evaluation of cancer genomes in global context is of great interest in light of changing ethnic distribution of the world population. We focused our study on men of African ancestry because of their disproportionately higher rate of prostate cancer (CaP incidence and mortality. We present a systematic whole genome analyses, revealing alterations that differentiate African American (AA and Caucasian American (CA CaP genomes. We discovered a recurrent deletion on chromosome 3q13.31 centering on the LSAMP locus that was prevalent in tumors from AA men (cumulative analyses of 435 patients: whole genome sequence, 14; FISH evaluations, 101; and SNP array, 320 patients. Notably, carriers of this deletion experienced more rapid disease progression. In contrast, PTEN and ERG common driver alterations in CaP were significantly lower in AA prostate tumors compared to prostate tumors from CA. Moreover, the frequency of inter-chromosomal rearrangements was significantly higher in AA than CA tumors. These findings reveal differentially distributed somatic mutations in CaP across ancestral groups, which have implications for precision medicine strategies.
Powell, Wizdom; Adams, Leslie B; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Agyemang, Amma; Upton, Rachel D
Men's tendency to delay health help-seeking is largely attributed to masculinity, but findings scarcely focus on African American men who face additional race-related, help-seeking barriers. Building principally on reactance theory, we test a hypothesized model situating racial discrimination, masculinity norms salience (MNS), everyday racism (ERD), racial identity, sense of control (SOC), and depressive symptomatology as key barriers to African American men's health help-seeking. A total of 458 African American men were recruited primarily from US barbershops in the Western and Southern regions. The primary outcome was Barriers to Help-Seeking Scale (BHSS) scores. The hypothesized model was investigated with confirmatory factor and path analysis with tests for measurement invariance. Our model fit was excellent [Formula: see text] CFI = 0.99; TLI = 1.00; RMSEA = 0.00, and 90% CI [0.00, 0.07] and operated equivalently across different age, income, and education strata. Frequent ERD and higher MNS contributed to higher BHHS scores. The relationship between ERD exposure and BHHS scores was partially mediated by diminished SOC and greater depressive symptomatology. Interventions aimed at addressing African American men's health help-seeking should not only address masculinity norms but also threats to sense of control, and negative psychological sequelae induced by everyday racism. PMID:27337619
African Americans elders, like their non-African American counterparts, are not a homogeneous group; however an early characteristic placed on all African Americans is in their shared history in the United States. As members of multiple minority groups, older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people of African descent have survived racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and now ageism. This article describes a qualitative study grounded in Black feminist and minority stress theories that explored the issues of perceived social discrimination and alienation of 15 older African American lesbians and gay males whose lived experiences were captured using in-depth, face-to-face interviews. Several themes were identified in the study, including (a) Sense of Alienation in the African American Community, (b) Deliberate Concealment of Sexual Identity and Orientation, (c) Aversion to LGBT Labels, (d) Perceived Discrimination and Alienation From Organized Religion, (e) Feelings of Grief and Loss Related to Aging, (f) Isolation, and (g) Fear of Financial and Physical Dependence. The implication of the findings suggests that the ethos and needs of older African American lesbian women and gay men need to be addressed to eliminate potential barriers to successful aging for this cohort. PMID:24313257
Heard, Courtney Christian Charisse
The purpose of this study was to assess the sex-role egalitarian attitudes and gender role socialization experiences of African American men and women. A sequential mixed-methods design was employed to research this phenomenon. The Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale-Short Form BB (SRES-BB) was utilized to assess sex-role egalitarian attitudes (King…
Stroud, George H.
Some African American undergraduate men attending Predominately White Institutions (PWIs) are adversely affected by perception of institutional barriers, such as negative stereotypes, that may exist on campus. The awareness of the possibility of being stereotyped can have a negative impact on a student's academic performance. This phenomenon is…
Tucker, Tameka M.
Nationally published reports on death rates for substance abuse (drug-alcohol related), violence (homicide), and risky sexual behaviors (HIV/AIDS) among African-American men are deeply concerning. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between historical/developmental factors (masculine identity, racial identity, racism),…
Hanson, P; Aagaard, P; Magnusson, S Peter
OBJECTIVES: To investigate biomechanical properties of the Iliopsoas and Achilles tendons in young African American (AA) and Caucasian (CC) men, and attempt to clarify whether the difference in Achilles tendon ruptures between AA and CC can be explained by differences in material properties. METH...
Gusev, Alexander; Shi, Huwenbo; Kichaev, Gleb;
Although genome-wide association studies have identified over 100 risk loci that explain ∼33% of familial risk for prostate cancer (PrCa), their functional effects on risk remain largely unknown. Here we use genotype data from 59,089 men of European and African American ancestries combined with c...
Foster, Michael L; Arnold, Emily; Rebchook, Gregory; Kegeles, Susan M
Young black men who have sex with men account for 48% of 13-29-year-old HIV-positive men who have sex with men in the USA. It is important to develop an effective HIV prevention approach that is grounded in the context of young men's lives. Towards this goal, we conducted 31 interviews with 18-30-year-old men who have sex with men in the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Area. This paper examines the roles of religion and spirituality in men who have sex with men's lives, which is central in the lives of many African Americans. Six prominent themes emerged: (1) childhood participation in formal religious institutions, (2) the continued importance of spirituality among men who have sex with men, (3) homophobia and stigmatisation in traditional black churches, (4) tension between being a man who has sex with men and being a Christian, (5) religion and spirituality's impact on men's sense of personal empowerment and coping abilities and (6) treatment of others and building compassion. Findings suggest that integrating spiritual practice into HIV prevention may help programmes be more culturally grounded, thereby attracting more men and resonating with their experiences and values. In addition, faith-based HIV/AIDS ministries that support HIV-positive men who have sex with men may be particularly helpful. Finally, targeting pastors and other church leaders through anti-stigma curricula is crucial. PMID:21824017
... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...
Yang, Cui; Linas, Beth; Kirk, Gregory; Bollinger, Robert; Chang, Larry; Chander, Geetanjali; Siconolfi, Daniel; Braxton, Sharif; Rudolph, Abby; Latkin, Carl
Background Alcohol use is a risk factor for the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among African American men who have sex with men (MSM). Mobile phone-based ecological momentary assessments (EMA) could minimize bias due to retrospective recall and thus provide a better understanding of the social and structural context of alcohol use and its relationship with HIV-related risk behaviors in this population as well as other highly stigmatized populations. Objective We describe th...
Purpose: To compare the outcome of irradiated clinically localized prostate cancer in African-American and white patients. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective review of 1,201 men, 116 African-American and 1,085 white, with T1-T3, N0/NX, M0 prostate cancer receiving external radiation between 1987 and 1996. Pretreatment characteristics, treatment parameters, and outcome (relapse or rising prostate-specific antigen [PSA] levels, local recurrence, metastatic relapse, and survival) were compared between the groups using univariate and multivariate statistical methods. Results: There were no significant differences between African-American and white patients in T-stage, Gleason score, prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) level, and testosterone level. African-Americans had a significantly lower incidence of abnormal digital rectal findings and a proportionally higher incidence of obstructive urinary symptoms at presentation and tended to be somewhat younger. A major difference between the two groups was in the significantly higher PSA levels among African-Americans (median, 14 ng/ml) than among white patients (median, 9.5 ng/ml). This translated into a higher incidence of unfavorable disease according to our criteria (39% vs. 25%) among African-Americans and, thus, to the more frequent use of adjuvant androgen ablation and to somewhat higher radiation doses in these patients. With a median follow-up of 42 months the overall 6-year freedom from relapse for African-Americans was 63% compared to 61% for whites (p = 0.634). We found no significant differences in biochemical relapse rates between any subgroups of African-Americans and whites. Specifically, even patients who did not have androgen ablation, when stratified by PSA levels, had similar outcomes regardless of race. Likewise, local recurrence and metastasis rates were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions: Although African-American patients tend to have higher pretreatment PSA
Blocker, Deborah E; Romocki, LaHoma Smith; Thomas, Kamilah B; Jones, Belinda L; Jackson, Ethel Jean; Reid, LaVerne; Campbell, Marci K
African-American men have the highest prostate cancer rates worldwide, and innovative efforts are needed to increase cancer prevention and screening behaviors among this population. Formative research was conducted to assess attitudes and behaviors linked to prostate cancer prevention activities that could be used to develop a culturally relevant intervention for an African-American church-based population. Four gender-specific focus groups were conducted with 29 men and women at two African-American churches in central North Carolina. Three primary themes emerged from the focus group discussions: culturally and gender-influenced beliefs and barriers about cancer prevention and screening; barriers related to the healthcare system: and religious influences, including the importance of spiritual beliefs and church support. These discussions revealed the importance of the black family, the positive influence of spouses/partners on promoting cancer screening and healthy behaviors, the roles of faith and church leadership, and beliefs about God's will for good health. These findings also revealed that there are still major barriers and challenges to cancer prevention among African Americans, including continued mistrust of the medical community and negative attitudes toward specific screening tests. Findings provide important insights to consider in implementing successful prostate cancer prevention interventions designed for church-based audiences. PMID:16916126
Ward, Earlise; Mengesha, Maigenete
Depression is one of the most common mental disorders in the United States and affects an estimated 17 million people each year. Projections about depression have generated concern on both the domestic and global levels because of its impact on health outcomes and quality of life. We examined and summarized published research focusing on depression among African American men with the goal of identifying prevalence of depression, risk factors, treatment-seeking behaviors, and treatment-seeking...
Dale, Sannisha K; Bogart, Laura M; Galvan, Frank H; Wagner, Glenn J; Pantalone, David W; Klein, David J
In a sample of HIV-positive African-American men who have sex with men (MSM), we examined neighborhood factors that may contextualize perceived discrimination from three intersecting stigmatized characteristics: race, HIV status, and sexual orientation. HIV-positive African-American MSM (N = 162, mean age = 44, SD = 8) provided information on neighborhood-related stressors and discrimination experiences related to being Black, HIV-positive, or perceived as gay. Residential ZIP codes and US Census data were used to determine neighborhood poverty rates. Regressions, controlling for socio-demographics, indicated that (1) higher neighborhood poverty was significantly related to more frequent experiences with hate crimes (Gay-related: b = 1.15, SE = .43, p poverty and related stressors are associated with experiencing more discrimination and hate crimes. Interventions for this group should promote individual- and neighborhood-level socioeconomic empowerment and stigma reduction. PMID:26696119
Singh, Jasvinder A
Introduction The aim of this study was to examine the impact of gout on quality of life (QOL) and study differences by gender and race. Methods Ten race- and sex-stratified nominal groups were conducted, oversampling for African-Americans and women with gout. Patients presented, discussed, combined and rank-ordered their concerns. Results A total of 62 patients with mean age 65.1 years, 60% men, 64% African-American, participated in 10 nominal groups: African-American men (n = 23; 3 groups); ...
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...
Christiane M Robbins
Full Text Available The EphB2 gene has been implicated as a tumor suppressor gene somatically altered in both prostate cancer (PC and colorectal cancer. We have previously shown an association between an EphB2 germline nonsense variant and risk of familial prostate cancer among African American Men (AAM. Here we set out to test the hypothesis that common variation within the EphB2 locus is associated with increased risk of sporadic PC in AAM. We genotyped a set of 341 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs encompassing the EphB2 locus, including known and novel coding and noncoding variants, in 490 AA sporadic PC cases and 567 matched controls. Single marker-based logistical regression analyses revealed seven EphB2 SNPs showing statistically significant association with prostate cancer risk in our population. The most significant association was achieved for a novel synonymous coding SNP, TGen-624, (Odds Ratio (OR = 0.22; 95% Confidence Interval (CI 0.08-0.66, p = 1×10(-5. Two other SNPs also show significant associations toward a protective effect rs10465543 and rs12090415 (p = 1×10(-4, OR = 0.49 and 0.7, respectively. Two additional SNPs revealed trends towards an increase in risk of prostate cancer, rs4612601 and rs4263970 (p = 0.001, OR = 1.35 and 1.31, respectively. Furthermore, haplotype analysis revealed low levels of linkage disequilibrium within the region, with two blocks being associated with prostate cancer risk among our population. These data suggest that genetic variation at the EphB2 locus may increase risk of sporadic PC among AAM.
Griffith, Derek M; Wooley, Alana M; Allen, Julie Ober
This article examines determinants and patterns of African American men's dietary practices. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze data from nine exploratory focus groups conducted with 83 urban, middle-aged and older African American men from southeast Michigan. The men distinguished between healthy and unhealthy foods and "meals" versus other instances of eating. Eating patterns and content differed depending on the meal, work and family schedules, food availability, and whether it was a weekday or weekend. When eating alone or outside the home, men prioritized convenience and preferences for tasty, unhealthy foods. Men often reported skipping breakfast or lunch and grabbing snacks or fast food during the day. They emphasized sharing dinner with their spouses and families-usually a home-cooked, "healthy" meal. On weekends, spouses often cooked less and men snacked and dined out more frequently. Sunday dinners involving favorite, unhealthy comfort foods were the highlight of men's eating practices. African American men tended not to follow healthy eating recommendations because of their busy lives, reliance on spouses to prepare food, and preferences for unhealthy foods. These findings suggest that healthy eating interventions must consider how the contexts of African American men's lives shape their eating practices. PMID:22773618
Garett, Renee; Smith, Justin; Chiu, Jason; Young, Sean D
The recent increase in social media use allows these technologies to rapidly reach communities with higher HIV prevalence, such as African-American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). However, no studies have looked at HIV/AIDS stigma among social media users from African-American and Latino MSM communities, or the association between stigma and social media use among these groups. This study sought to assess the level of HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of social media-using African-American and Latino MSM from Los Angeles. A total of 112 (primarily African-American and Latino, n = 98, 88%) MSM Facebook users completed a survey on demographics, online social network use, and HIV/AIDS stigma. A composite stigma score was created by taking the cumulative score from a 15-item stigma questionnaire. Cumulative logistic models were used to assess the association between HIV/AIDS stigma and online social network use. In general, participants reported a low level of HIV/AIDS stigma (mean = 22.2/75, SD = 5.74). HIV/AIDS stigma composite score was significantly associated with increased time spent on online social networks each day (Adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 1.07, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.15). Among this diverse sample of MSM online social network users, findings suggest that HIV/AIDS stigma is associated with usage of social media. We discuss the implications of this work for future HIV prevention. PMID:26873022
Thomas, Alvin; Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Kohn-Wood, Laura P.
Aggression is an important correlate of violence, depression, coping, and suicide among emerging young African American males. Yet most researchers treat aggression deterministically, fail to address cultural factors, or consider the potential for individual characteristics to exert an intersectional influence on this psychosocial outcome. Addressing this gap, we consider the moderating effect of coping on the relationship between masculine and racial identity and aggressive ideation among Af...
Holt, Cheryl L.; Wynn, Theresa A.; Southward, Penny; Litaker, Mark S.; Jeames, Sanford; Schulz, Emily
One way of developing culturally relevant health communication in the African American church setting is to develop spiritually based interventions, in which the health message is framed by relevant spiritual themes and scripture. In this article we describe the development of a community health advisor (CHA)-led intervention aimed at increasing informed decision making (IDM) for prostate cancer screening among church-attending African American men. Full-color print educational booklets were ...
St Lawrence, Janet S; Kelly, Jeffrey A; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Owczarzak, Jill; Amirkhanian, Yuri A; Sitzler, Cheryl
Contemporary antiretroviral therapy (ART) can produce viral suppression of HIV, maintain health, and prevent onward HIV transmission from infected persons to their sexual partners, giving rise to the concept of treatment as prevention. Successful implementation of test-and-treat strategies rests on the early detection of HIV infection through voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) followed by entry and retention in care, ART initiation and adherence, and subsequent viral suppression. In the United States, African American men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of HIV and have high rates of undetected and untreated HIV infection. However, little research has examined racial minority MSM's views about HIV testing. In this study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 96 key informants knowledgeable about racial minority MSM as well as 100 African American MSM community members in Milwaukee, Cleveland, and Miami. Most men in the sample were aware of the availability of testing and knew testing locations, but many voiced great personal ambivalence about being tested, feared knowing their HIV status, expressed concern about stigma and loss of confidentiality, and held beliefs indicative of medical mistrust. Participants did not spontaneously cite benefits of being tested, risk reduction behavior changes made as a consequence of testing, nor the benefits of testing to get early medical care for HIV infection. There is a gap between the public health field's perception of testing benefits and the beliefs about testing held by racial minority MSM in this sample. To increase the desired outcomes from VCT for minority MSM, VCT promotion should address the concerns of African American MSM and underscore the benefits of early entry into medical care. PMID:26010312
... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...
... African American > Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.2 times the infant mortality rate ... birthweight as compared to non-Hispanic white infants. African Americans had almost twice the sudden infant death syndrome ...
... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't ...
African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of t...
African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, ... 46 per 100,000. • The suicide rate for African Americans ages 10-19 was 2.98 per ...
Gusev, Alexander; Shi, Huwenbo; Kichaev, Gleb; Pomerantz, Mark; Li, Fugen; Long, Henry W.; Ingles, Sue A.; Kittles, Rick A.; Strom, Sara S.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Nemesure, Barbara; Isaacs, William B.; Zheng, Wei; Pettaway, Curtis A.; Yeboah, Edward D.; Tettey, Yao; Biritwum, Richard B.; Adjei, Andrew A.; Tay, Evelyn; Truelove, Ann; Niwa, Shelley; Chokkalingam, Anand P.; John, Esther M.; Murphy, Adam B.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Carpten, John; Leske, M. Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hennis, Anslem J. M.; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Hsing, Ann W.; Chu, Lisa; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Klein, Eric A.; Witte, John S.; Casey, Graham; Kaggwa, Sam; Cook, Michael B.; Stram, Daniel O.; Blot, William J.; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Easton, Douglas; Kote-Jarai, ZSofia; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham G.; Southey, Melissa C.; Fitzgerald, Liesel M.; Gronberg, Henrik; Wiklund, Fredrik; Aly, Markus; Henderson, Brian E.; Schleutker, Johanna; Wahlfors, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo L. J.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Key, Tim J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Neal, David E.; Donovan, Jenny L.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stanford, Janet L.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; McDonnell, Shannon K.; Schaid, Daniel J.; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Luedeke, Manuel; Herkommer, Kathleen; Kibel, Adam S.; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Kluzniak, Wojciech; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Teerlink, Craig; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida K.; Arndt, Volker; Park, Jong Y.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Slavov, Chavdar; Kaneva, Radka; Mitev, Vanio; Batra, Jyotsna; Spurdle, Amanda; Clements, Judith A.; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Pandha, Hardev; Michael, Agnieszka; Paulo, Paula; Maia, Sofia; Kierzek, Andrzej; Cook, Margaret; Guy, Michelle; Govindasami, Koveela; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Sawyer, Emma J.; Wilkinson, Rosemary; Saunders, Edward J.; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Dadaev, Tokhir; Morgan, Angela; Fisher, Cyril; Hazel, Steve; Livni, Naomi; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Pedersen, John; Hopper, John L.; Adolfson, Jan; Stattin, Paer; Johansson, Jan-Erik; Cavalli-Bjoerkman, Carin; Karlsson, Ami; Broms, Michael; Auvinen, Anssi; Kujala, Paula; Maeaettaenen, Liisa; Murtola, Teemu; Taari, Kimmo; Weischer, Maren; Nielsen, Sune F.; Klarskov, Peter; Roder, Andreas; Iversen, Peter; Wallinder, Hans; Gustafsson, Sven; Cox, Angela; Brown, Paul; George, Anne; Marsden, Gemma; Lane, Athene; Davis, Michael; Zheng, Wei; Signorello, Lisa B.; Blot, William J.; Tillmans, Lori; Riska, Shaun; Wang, Liang; Rinckleb, Antje; Lubiski, Jan; Stegmaier, Christa; Pow-Sang, Julio; Park, Hyun; Radlein, Selina; Rincon, Maria; Haley, James; Zachariah, Babu; Kachakova, Darina; Popov, Elenko; Mitkova, Atanaska; Vlahova, Aleksandrina; Dikov, Tihomir; Christova, Svetlana; Heathcote, Peter; Wood, Glenn; Malone, Greg; Saunders, Pamela; Eckert, Allison; Yeadon, Trina; Kerr, Kris; Collins, Angus; Turner, Megan; Srinivasan, Srilakshmi; Kedda, Mary-Anne; Alexander, Kimberly; Omara, Tracy; Wu, Huihai; Henrique, Rui; Pinto, Pedro; Santos, Joana; Barros-Silva, Joao; Conti, David V.; Albanes, Demetrius; Berg, Christine; Berndt, Sonja I.; Campa, Daniele; Crawford, E. David; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Hoover, Robert; Hunter, David J.; Johansson, Mattias; Kraft, Peter; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindström, Sara; Navarro, Carmen; Overvad, Kim; Riboli, Elio; Siddiq, Afshan; Stevens, Victoria L.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vineis, Paolo; Yeager, Meredith; Trynka, Gosia; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Schumacher, Frederick R.; Price, Alkes L.; Freedman, Matthew L.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Pasaniuc, Bogdan
Although genome-wide association studies have identified over 100 risk loci that explain ∼33% of familial risk for prostate cancer (PrCa), their functional effects on risk remain largely unknown. Here we use genotype data from 59,089 men of European and African American ancestries combined with cell-type-specific epigenetic data to build a genomic atlas of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) heritability in PrCa. We find significant differences in heritability between variants in prostate-relevant epigenetic marks defined in normal versus tumour tissue as well as between tissue and cell lines. The majority of SNP heritability lies in regions marked by H3k27 acetylation in prostate adenoc7arcinoma cell line (LNCaP) or by DNaseI hypersensitive sites in cancer cell lines. We find a high degree of similarity between European and African American ancestries suggesting a similar genetic architecture from common variation underlying PrCa risk. Our findings showcase the power of integrating functional annotation with genetic data to understand the genetic basis of PrCa. PMID:27052111
Hampton, Melvin C; Halkitis, Perry N; Storholm, Erik D; Kupprat, Sandra A; Siconolfi, Daniel E; Jones, Donovan; Steen, Jeff T; Gillen, Sara; McCree, Donna Hubbard
HIV disproportionately affects African American men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. To inform this epidemiological pattern, we examined cross-sectional sexual behavior data in 509 African American MSM. Bivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the extent to which age, education,and sexual identity explain the likelihood of engaging in sex with a partner of a specific gender and the likelihood of engaging in unprotected sexual behaviors based on partner gender. Across all partner gender types,unprotected sexual behaviors were more likely to be reported by men with lower education. Younger, non-gay identified men were more likely to engage in unprotected sexual behaviors with transgender partners, while older, non-gay identified men were more likely to engage in unprotected sexual behaviors with women. African American MSM do not represent a monolithic group in their sexual behaviors, highlighting the need to target HIV prevention efforts to different subsets of African American MSM communities as appropriate. PMID:22298339
Holt, Cheryl L; Wynn, Theresa A; Southward, Penny; Litaker, Mark S; Jeames, Sanford; Schulz, Emily
One way of developing culturally relevant health communication in the African American church setting is to develop spiritually based interventions, in which the health message is framed by relevant spiritual themes and scripture. In this article we describe the development of a community health advisor(CHA)-led intervention aimed at increasing informed decision making (IDM) for prostate cancer screening among church-attending African American men. Full-color print educational booklets were developed and pilot tested with extensive community participation of church-attending African American men age-eligible for screening. The intervention development phase consisted of ideas solicited from an advisory panel of African American men (N = 10), who identified core content and developed the spiritual themes. In the intervention pilot testing phase, prototypes of the intervention materials were pilot tested for graphic appeal in two focus groups (N = 16), and content was tested for acceptability and comprehension using individual cognitive response interviews (N = 10). Recommendations were made for project branding and logo and for use of graphics of real people in the educational materials. Significant feedback was obtained from the focus groups, on the graphics, colors, fonts, continuity, titles, and booklet size/shape. The importance of working closely with the community when developing interventions is discussed, as well as the importance of pilot testing of educational materials. PMID:19731129
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Street-based heroin injectors represent an especially vulnerable population group subject to negative health outcomes and social stigma. Effective clinical treatment and public health intervention for this population requires an understanding of their cultural environment and experiences. Social science theory and methods offer tools to understand the reasons for economic and ethnic disparities that cause individual suffering and stress at the institutional level. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used a cross-methodological approach that incorporated quantitative, clinical, and ethnographic data collected by two contemporaneous long-term San Francisco studies, one epidemiological and one ethnographic, to explore the impact of ethnicity on street-based heroin-injecting men 45 years of age or older who were self-identified as either African American or white. We triangulated our ethnographic findings by statistically examining 14 relevant epidemiological variables stratified by median age and ethnicity. We observed significant differences in social practices between self-identified African Americans and whites in our ethnographic social network sample with respect to patterns of (1 drug consumption; (2 income generation; (3 social and institutional relationships; and (4 personal health and hygiene. African Americans and whites tended to experience different structural relationships to their shared condition of addiction and poverty. Specifically, this generation of San Francisco injectors grew up as the children of poor rural to urban immigrants in an era (the late 1960s through 1970s when industrial jobs disappeared and heroin became fashionable. This was also when violent segregated inner city youth gangs proliferated and the federal government initiated its "War on Drugs." African Americans had earlier and more negative contact with law enforcement but maintained long-term ties with their extended families. Most of the whites were expelled
Han, Chong-suk; Ayala, George; Paul, Jay; Boylan, Ross; Gregorich, Steven E.; Choi, Kyung-Hee
The deleterious effects of racism on a wide range of health outcomes, including HIV risk, is well documented among racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States. However, little is known about how men of color who have sex with men (MSM) cope with stress from racism and whether the coping strategies they employ buffer against the impact of racism on sexual risk for HIV transmission. We examined associations of stress and coping with racism with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in a sample of African American (n = 403), Asian/Pacific Islander (n = 393), and Latino (n = 400) MSM recruited in Los Angeles County, CA during 2008–2009. Almost two-thirds (65%) of the sample reported being stressed as a consequence of racism experienced within the gay community. Overall, 51% of the sample reported having UAI in the prior six months. After controlling for race/ethnicity, age, nativity, marital status, sexual orientation, education, HIV serostatus, and lifetime history of incarceration, the multivariate analysis found statistically significant main effects of stress from racism and avoidance coping on UAI; no statistically significant main effects of dismissal, education/confrontation, and social-support seeking were observed. None of the interactions of stress with the four coping measures were statistically significant. Although stress from racism within the gay community increased the likelihood of engaging in UAI among MSM of color, we found little evidence that coping responses to racism buffered stress from racism. Instead, avoidance coping appears to suggest an increase in UAI. PMID:25060122
Mutchler, Matt G.; McKay, Tara; Candelario, Norman; Liu, Honghu; Stackhouse, Bill; Bingham, Trista; Ayala, George
African American and Latino young men who have sex with men are at high risk for HIV infection. We administered brief intercept surveys (N=416) at 18 Black and Latino gay pride events in Los Angeles and New York in 2006 and 2007. Ordinal logistic regressions were used to model the effects of substance use during sex, peer connectedness, relationship status, and homelessness on condom use. Alcohol use, crystal use, homelessness, and having a primary relationship partner were negatively associa...
Cooper, R. Lyle; MacMaster, Samuel; Rasch, Randolph
Purpose: This study employed a static group comparison design with 106 men in residential treatment to examine the relationship of race to treatment retention. Methods: A retrospective analysis of retention, by race, including survival analysis, was undertaken. Results: Findings from the study indicated that (a) Caucasian men complete treatment…
Chiu, ChingChe J; Young, Sean D
High levels of HIV stigma are one of the main difficulties in engaging African-American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in HIV testing. The availability of home HIV test and the possibility of self-testing in private may improve uptake and counteract stigma. This paper sought to determine the correlates of requesting home HIV test kits among a sample of MSM social media users. The odds of participants requesting a test kit were significantly associated with using social networks to seek sexual partners (aOR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.07-6.06) and thinking it is easier to use social networks for seeking sexual partners (1.87, 1.2-3.12), uncertain HIV status (4.29, 1.37-14.4), and having sex under the influence of alcohol (2.46, 1.06-5.77). Participants who had not been tested for more than 6 months were more likely to request a test kit than those who were tested in the past 6 months (2.53, 1.02-6.37). Participants who frequently talked to others about having sex with men online were less likely to request a test kit (0.73, 0.56-0.92). By reaching people over social media and offering them access to test kits, we were able to reach at-risk individuals who were uncertain about their HIV status and had not been regularly tested. The findings of the study will help to inform future HIV testing interventions. PMID:26444956
Barengolts, Elena; Manickam, Buvana; Eisenberg, Yuval; Akbar, Arfana; Kukreja, Subhash; Ciubotaru, Irina
Objective This double blind, randomized, controlled trial evaluated 12 months high dose vitamin D2 supplementation for improving insulin sensitivity, secretion and glycemic status. Methods African American men with prediabetes (A1C 5.7 – 6.4%), hypovitaminosis D (25OHD 5 – 29 ng/ml), and prevalent medical problems were supplemented with vitamin D3 (400 IU/day) and then randomized to weekly placebo or vitamin D2 (50,000 IU). The primary outcome was the change in oral glucose insulin sensitivity (OGIS, from oral glucose tolerance test) after 12 months of treatment. Secondary outcomes included other glycemic indices, A1C and incident diabetes. Results Baseline characteristics were similar in vitamin D-supplemented (n = 87) and placebo (n = 86) subjects completing the trial with average concentrations 14.4 ng/ml, 362 and 6.1% for 25OHD, OGIS and A1C, respectively. After 12 months vitamin D-supplemented group had a change in serum 25OHD +35 vs +6 ng/ml for placebo, pvitamin D subgroup (31.6%) than placebo (8.3%) returned to normal glucose tolerance, but the difference did not reach significance (p=0.13). Conclusion The trial does not provide evidence that 12 months of high-dose D2 repletion improves clinically relevant glycemic outcomes in subjects with prediabetes and hypovitaminosis D (NCT01375660). PMID:25716637
Brooks, Ronald A.; Etzel, Mark A.; Hinojos, Ernesto; Henry, Charles L.; Perez, Mario
HIV-related stigma, discrimination, and homophobia impede community based efforts to combat HIV disease among Latino and African American gay and bisexual men. This commentary highlights ways to address these social biases in communities of color in Los Angeles from the perspectives of staff from HIV prevention programs. Information was collected from HIV prevention program staff participating in a two-day symposium. The outcomes from the symposium offer strategies for developing and implemen...
Han, Chong-suk; Ayala, George; Paul, Jay P; Boylan, Ross; Gregorich, Steven E; Choi, Kyung-Hee
The deleterious effects of racism on a wide range of health outcomes, including HIV risk, are well documented among racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States. However, little is known about how men of color who have sex with men (MSM) cope with stress from racism and whether the coping strategies they employ buffer against the impact of racism on sexual risk for HIV transmission. We examined associations of stress and coping with racism with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in a sample of African American (N = 403), Asian/Pacific Islander (N = 393), and Latino (N = 400) MSM recruited in Los Angeles County, CA during 2008-2009. Almost two-thirds (65 %) of the sample reported being stressed as a consequence of racism experienced within the gay community. Overall, 51 % of the sample reported having UAI in the prior 6 months. After controlling for race/ethnicity, age, nativity, marital status, sexual orientation, education, HIV serostatus, and lifetime history of incarceration, the multivariate analysis found statistically significant main effects of stress from racism and avoidance coping on UAI; no statistically significant main effects of dismissal, education/confrontation, and social-support seeking were observed. None of the interactions of stress with the four coping measures were statistically significant. Although stress from racism within the gay community increased the likelihood of engaging in UAI among MSM of color, we found little evidence that coping responses to racism buffered stress from racism. Instead, avoidance coping appears to suggest an increase in UAI. PMID:25060122
... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...
Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Vanchy, Priya; Baker, Tamara A.; Daley, Christine; Ndikum-Moffer, Florence; Greiner, K. Allen
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ranks colorectal cancer (CRC) as the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in the United States; African American (AA) men are at even greater risk. The present study was from a larger study that investigates the church's role as a social marketer of CRC risk and prevention messages, and…
Jemmott, John B; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; O'Leary, Ann; Icard, Larry D; Rutledge, Scott E; Stevens, Robin; Hsu, Janet; Stephens, Alisa J
We examined the efficacy and mediation of Being Responsible for Ourselves (BRO), an HIV/STI risk-reduction intervention for African American men who have sex with men (MSM), the population with the highest HIV-diagnosis rate in the US. We randomized African American MSM to one of two interventions: BRO HIV/STI risk-reduction, targeting condom use; or attention-matched control, targeting physical activity and healthy diet. The interventions were based on social cognitive theory, the reasoned-action approach, and qualitative research. Men reporting anal intercourse with other men in the past 90 days were eligible and completed pre-intervention, immediately post-intervention, and 6 and 12 months post-intervention surveys. Of 595 participants, 503 (85 %) completed the 12-month follow-up. Generalized-estimating-equations analysis indicated that, compared with the attention-matched control intervention, the BRO intervention did not increase consistent condom use averaged over the 6- and 12-month follow-ups, which was the primary outcome. Although BRO did not affect the proportion of condom-protected intercourse acts, unprotected sexual intercourse, multiple partners, or insertive anal intercourse, it did reduce receptive anal intercourse compared with the control, a behavior linked to incident HIV infection. Mediation analysis using the product-of-coefficients approach revealed that although BRO increased seven of nine theoretical constructs it was designed to affect, it increased only one of three theoretical constructs that predicted consistent condom use: condom-use impulse-control self-efficacy. Thus, BRO indirectly increased consistent condom use through condom-use impulse-control self-efficacy. In conclusion, although BRO increased several theoretical constructs, most of those constructs did not predict consistent condom use; hence, the intervention did not increase it. Theoretical constructs that interventions should target to increase African American MSM
... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease ... 13 to 17 years who ever received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, 2014 - Males # doses ... 240-453-2882 Office of Minority Health Resource Center Toll Free: 1-800-444-6472 / Fax: ...
... American > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans Among African Americans, chronic liver disease is a ... white women. At a glance – Cancer Rates for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100,000 – ...
Owens, Otis L; Friedman, Daniela B; Brandt, Heather M; Bernhardt, Jay M; Hébert, James R
African American (AA) men are significantly more likely to die of prostate cancer (PrCA) than other racial groups, and there is a critical need to identify strategies for providing information about PrCA screening and the importance of informed decision making (IDM). To assess whether a computer-based IDM intervention for PrCA screening would be appropriate for AA men, this formative evaluation study examined their (1) PrCA risk and screening knowledge; (2) decision-making processes for PrCA screening; (3) usage of, attitudes toward, and access to interactive communication technologies (ICTs); and (4) perceptions regarding a future, novel, computer-based PrCA education intervention. A purposive convenience sample of 39 AA men aged 37 to 66 years in the Southeastern United States was recruited through faith-based organizations to participate in one of six 90-minute focus groups and complete a 45-item descriptive survey. Participants were generally knowledgeable about PrCA. However, few engaged in IDM with their doctor and few were informed about the associated risks and uncertainties of PrCA screening. Most participants used ICTs on a daily basis for various purposes including health information seeking. Most participants were open to a novel, computer-based intervention if the system was easy to use and its animated avatars were culturally appropriate. Because study participants had low exposure to IDM for PrCA, but frequently used ICTs, IDM interventions using ICTs (e.g., computers) hold promise for AA men and should be explored for feasibility and effectiveness. These interventions should aim to increase PrCA screening knowledge and stress the importance of participating in IDM with doctors. PMID:25563381
... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Apr 18, ... of getting those diseases are even higher for African-Americans. The good news is, African-Americans can ...
Purpose: To identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with erectile dysfunction (ED) among African-American prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A cohort of African-American prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiation therapy was observed for the development of ED by use of the five-item Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) questionnaire. Final analysis included 27 cases (post-treatment SHIM score ≤7) and 52 control subjects (post-treatment SHIM score ≥16). A genome-wide association study was performed using approximately 909,000 SNPs genotyped on Affymetrix 6.0 arrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA). Results: We identified SNP rs2268363, located in the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene, as significantly associated with ED after correcting for multiple comparisons (unadjusted p = 5.46 x 10-8, Bonferroni p = 0.028). We identified four additional SNPs that tended toward a significant association with an unadjusted p value -6. Inference of population substructure showed that cases had a higher proportion of African ancestry than control subjects (77% vs. 60%, p = 0.005). A multivariate logistic regression model that incorporated estimated ancestry and four of the top-ranked SNPs was a more accurate classifier of ED than a model that included only clinical variables. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide association study to identify SNPs associated with adverse effects resulting from radiotherapy. It is important to note that the SNP that proved to be significantly associated with ED is located within a gene whose encoded product plays a role in male gonad development and function. Another key finding of this project is that the four SNPs most strongly associated with ED were specific to persons of African ancestry and would therefore not have been identified had a cohort of European ancestry been screened. This study demonstrates the
Sellers, R M; Kuperminc, G P; Damas, A
The present study provides a descriptive analysis of four areas of African American women student athletes' college life experiences: academic performance; alienation and abuse; perceived social advantage as the result of athletics; and life satisfaction. Multivariate comparisons were made between the four areas of college life experiences of 154 African American women student athletes and 793 White women student athletes, 250 African American women nonathletes, and 628 African American men student athletes from a national sample of 39 NCAA Division I universities. Overall, African American women student athletes are performing adequately academically, integrating socially within the university, perceiving some social advantage as the result of being athletes, and are fairly satisfied with their life. Their experiences seem most consistent with African American women nonathletes. Results are discussed in the context of potential policy recommendations as well as the need for more research on this particular population. PMID:9485580
Wagner, Glenn J; Bogart, Laura M; Klein, David J; Green, Harold D; Mutchler, Matt G; McDavitt, Bryce; Hilliard, Charles
We examined whether internalized HIV stigma and perceived HIV stigma from social network members (alters), including the most popular and most similar alter, predicted condomless intercourse with negative or unknown HIV status partners among 125 African American HIV-positive men. In a prospective, observational study, participants were administered surveys at baseline and months 6 and 12, with measures including sexual behavior, internalized HIV stigma, and an egocentric social network assessment that included several measures of perceived HIV stigma among alters. In longitudinal multivariable models comparing the relative predictive value of internalized stigma versus various measures of alter stigma, significant predictors of having had condomless intercourse included greater internalized HIV stigma (in all models), the perception that a popular (well-connected) alter or alter most like the participant agrees with an HIV stigma belief, and the interaction of network density with having any alter that agrees with a stigma belief. The interaction indicated that the protective effect of greater density (connectedness between alters) in terms of reduced risk behavior dissipated in the presence of perceived alter stigma. These findings call for interventions that help people living with HIV to cope with their diagnosis and reduce stigma, and inform the targets of social network-based and peer-driven HIV prevention interventions. PMID:26718361
... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease Diabetes Heart Disease Hepatitis HIV/AIDS Immunizations Infant Heath & Mortality Mental Health Obesity Organ and Tissue Donation Stroke Stay Connected ...
Walpole, MaryBeth; Chambers, Crystal Renee; Goss, Kathryn
This inquiry is an exploration of the educational trajectories of African American women community college students. We compare the persistence of African American women to African American men and to all women college students using the 1996/2001 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Survey and the 1993/2003 Baccalaureate and Beyond…
Eap, Sopagna; DeGarmo, David S.; Kawakami, Ayaka; Hara, Shelley N.; Hall, Gordon C.N.; Teten, Andra L.
Personality differences between Asian American (N = 320) and European American men (N = 242) and also among Asian American ethnic groups (Korean, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, and mixed Asian) are examined on the Big Five personality dimension. Personality structures for Asian Americans and European Americans closely replicate established norms. However, congruence is greater for European American and highly acculturated Asian American men than for low acculturated Asian American men. Similar ...
Han, Chong-suk; Ayala, George; Paul, Jay; Boylan, Ross; Gregorich, Steven E.; Choi, Kyung-Hee
The deleterious effects of racism on a wide range of health outcomes, including HIV risk, is well documented among racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States. However, little is known about how men of color who have sex with men (MSM) cope with stress from racism and whether the coping strategies they employ buffer against the impact of racism on sexual risk for HIV transmission. We examined associations of stress and coping with racism with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in a sam...
Full Text Available This qualitative study focuses on the perceived effects that Brother2Brother (B2B peer groups had on African American male college students in the Chicago area. Students’ perception of their educational and personal experiences, commitment to scholastic achievement, and integration into the campus environment were highlighted. Seven focus groups with members of B2B chapters yielded six themes: Academic Motivation, Personal Presentation, Validation of Emerging Skills, Personal Growth, Ethic of Collaboration, and Rewarded through Accountability. These themes demonstrated the importance of supporting the development of African American male collegians’ non-cognitive skills. Implications for educators and recommendations for higher education institutions are discussed.
Vitamin D insufficiency is more prevalent among African Americans than other Americans and, in North America, most young, healthy blacks do not achieve optimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations at any time of the year. This is primarily due to the fact that pigmentation reduces vitamin D...
Marital Status, Hypertension, Coronary Heart Disease, Diabetes, and Death among African American Women and Men: Incidence and Prevalence in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study Participants
Schwandt, Hilary M.; Coresh, Josef; Hindin, Michelle J.
Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, and African Americans disproportionately experience more cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, and diabetes. The literature documents a complex relationship between marital status and health, which varies by gender. We prospectively examine…
Phillips, Gregory; Peterson, James; Binson, Diane; Hidalgo, Julia; Magnus, Manya
Transgender persons and young men of color who have sex with men (YMSM of color) have been severely affected by HIV in the USA. Houses and balls in the USA have historically been a primary meeting ground for YMSM of color and transgender people, offering an opportunity for HIV prevention activities. Houses provide a familial structure for YMSM of color and transgender people, while balls provide them with events at which they can congregate for social support and entertainment. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using Scopus and PubMed, Internet websites, and HIV prevention and care resources for YMSM of color associated with a multisite evaluation. Houses and balls have been responsive to the HIV/AIDS epidemic and have developing networks that are critical in providing a social and familiar context for often-disenfranchised youth. The organizations have embraced the need for HIV prevention, and their methodology may be transferable to other prevention contexts. Future studies are needed to identify culturally appropriate and effective methods of integration of house/ball methods into HIV prevention services aimed at transgender persons and YMSM of color. PMID:21271403
Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Vanchy, Priya; Baker, Tamara A; Daley, Christine; Ndikum-Moffer, Florence; Greiner, K Allen
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ranks colorectal cancer (CRC) as the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in the United States; African American (AA) men are at even greater risk. The present study was from a larger study that investigates the church's role as a social marketer of CRC risk and prevention messages, and whether religiously targeted and tailored health promotion materials will influence screening outcome. We used an integrated theoretical approach to explore participants' perceptions of CRC risk and prevention and how promotion messages should be developed and socially marketed by the church. Six focus groups were conducted with men from predominately AA churches in the Midwest. Themes from focus group discussions showed participants lacked knowledge about CRC, feared cancer diagnosis, and feared the procedure for screening. Roles of masculinity and the mistrust of physicians were also emergent themes. Participants did perceive the church as a trusted marketer of CRC but believed that promotional materials should be cosponsored and codeveloped by reputable health organizations. Employing the church as a social marketer of CRC screening promotion materials may be useful in guiding health promotions and addressing barriers that are distinct among African American men. PMID:26424748
The Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium collaborates on epidemiologic studies to address the high burden of prostate cancer and to understand the causes of etiology and outcomes among men of African ancestry.
Kristina Kočan Šalamon
The paper interrogates cultural specifics of contemporary African American poetry and exhibits translation problems when translating this poetic work. African American writers have always included much of their cultural heritage in their writing and this is immediately noticed by a translator. The cultural elements, such as African American cuisine, attire and style in general, as well as spiritual and religious practices, often play a significant role for African American poets who are procl...
Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano
Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…
Day-Vines, Norma L.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl
Although there are various definitions of wellness, few conceptual definitions have addressed the contextual dimensions of wellness relative to African American counselors. The authors present an overview of generic models of wellness, discuss factors that both inhibit and promote wellness, offer some culture-specific models of wellness, and…
Bacon, Ellen; Banks, Joy; Young, Kathryn; Jackson, Francesina R.
The authors interviewed 27 teachers (16 African American and 11 European American) on instructional factors contributing to overidentification of behavior problems in African American boys. Interviews focused on teachers' perspectives of effective teachers, teacher-student relationships, and communication styles. Analysis of the interviews showed…
Jeffers, Adam R.
This project examines the early educational experiences of 6 young African American males (ages 18-25) who attended urban schools in San Diego, California. All 6 men were incarcerated for at least 1-year before participating in a pre-release program. The participants were part of a pre-release program in San Diego, California, which was selected…
Zakharia, Fouad; Basu, Analabha; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Go, Alan S.; Hlatky, Mark A.; Iribarren, Carlos; Knowles, Joshua W.; Li, Jun; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian; Sidney, Steven; Southwick, Audrey; Myers, Richard M.; Quertermous, Thomas; Risch, Neil
Abstract Background Accurate, high-throughput genotyping allows the fine characterization of genetic ancestry. Here we applied recently developed statistical and computational techniques to the question of African ancestry in African Americans by using data on more than 450,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 94 Africans of diverse geographic origins included in the...
Green, Kerry M.; Fothergill, Kate E.; Robertson, Judith A.; Zebrak, Katarzyna A.; Banda, Deliya R.; Ensminger, Margaret E.
Depression among African Americans residing in urban communities is a complex, major public health problem; however, few studies identify early life risk factors for depression among urban African American men and women. To better inform prevention programming, this study uses data from the Woodlawn Study, a well-defined community cohort of urban African Americans followed from age 6 to 42 years, to determine depression prevalence through midlife and identify childhood and adolescent risk fac...
Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.
Through the interpretation of labor department documents, journalism, and state discourses, I historicize the formation of both the construction of black "pathology" and the Asian "model minority" by analyzing the comparative racialization of African Americans and Asian Americans in the United States. Beginning with the Moynihan Report and journalistic reports about Asian Americans as "model minority," Black and Asian men were racialized together, as if "racially magnetized," in an attempt to...
Suggests that African-American women journalists have not been hampered by the sexist attitudes of men to the same degree that white women journalists have been. Presents six case studies of African-American women journalists (three from the nineteenth century and three from the twentieth) in support of this contention. (SR)
Nelson, Nancy J.
This article describes an education program initiated by African American prisoners in the Airway Heights Correction Center in Airway Heights, Washington. The purpose of the program was to help the inmates to make productive use of their time while incarcerated and to help lessen the high return rate of African American men to the prison. Although…
Muhammad, Crystal Gafford
Misinformation in the African American community regarding college costs, access, and the benefits of a college education abound. Counseling from a trustworthy, supportive school counselor can make a difference in stemming African American talent loss, especially among young Black men. Using the 1988 National Educational Longitudinal Survey, the…
Craig, Holly K.; Grogger, Jeffrey T.
Purpose: In this study, the authors examined the influences of selected social (gender, employment status, educational achievement level) and style variables (race of examiner, interview topic) on the production of African American English (AAE) by adults. Method: Participants were 50 African American men and women, ages 20-30 years. The authors…
Gates, Gary J.; Kastanis, Angel
An estimated 1,018,700 or 3.7 percent of African-American adults consider themselves lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT) and 34 percent of African-American same-sex couples are raising children. Currently, the estimated 84,000 African-American individuals in same-sex couples tend to live in areas where there are higher proportions of African-Americans. For example, a quarter of African-American same-sex couples live in Georgia, New York, North Carolina, and Maryland. The rep...
Timothy R. Rebbeck
Full Text Available Prostate cancer (CaP is the leading cancer among men of African descent in the USA, Caribbean, and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. The estimated number of CaP deaths in SSA during 2008 was more than five times that among African Americans and is expected to double in Africa by 2030. We summarize publicly available CaP data and collected data from the men of African descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate (MADCaP Consortium and the African Caribbean Cancer Consortium (AC3 to evaluate CaP incidence and mortality in men of African descent worldwide. CaP incidence and mortality are highest in men of African descent in the USA and the Caribbean. Tumor stage and grade were highest in SSA. We report a higher proportion of T1 stage prostate tumors in countries with greater percent gross domestic product spent on health care and physicians per 100,000 persons. We also observed that regions with a higher proportion of advanced tumors reported lower mortality rates. This finding suggests that CaP is underdiagnosed and/or underreported in SSA men. Nonetheless, CaP incidence and mortality represent a significant public health problem in men of African descent around the world.
Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David
The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…
The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the many factors that lead to inequalities in cancer care outcomes for African Americans.
Nash, Gary B.
Discusses five topics on African Americans that are essential to studying United States History in the years between 1760 and 1830: (1) African Americans in the Revolutionary War ; (2) the rise of free black communities; (3) early abolitionism; (4) the spread of slavery; and (5) black resistance to slavery. (CMK)
Wagstaff, Mark; Melton, Jerry; Lawless, Brenda; Combs, Linda
Data from the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) reveal that gains in performance for the African American student population of Region VII of the state's educational system were not keeping pace with the performance of African Americans in the rest of Texas. This study investigated practices in school districts in the region in which…
Full Text Available Major depression is a very common disabling disorder. Although the relationship between race and depression is complex, depression affects all races, all ethnic and geographic locations as well as all age groups. The prevalence of depression in African Americans is controversial, due to the paucity of research. The deficit in the knowledge and skills in treating depression in African Americans have not been adequately addressed so far. Inadequate and insufficient data on African Americans contributes to the problems of under diagnoses, misdiagnosis and under treatment of depression. This article will highlight the existing problem of depression in Afro American with a focus on diagnostic and treatment issues.
O’Neal, Catherine Walker; Wickrama, Kandauda (K.A.S.); Ralston, Penny A.; Ilich, Jasminka Z.; Harris, Cynthia M; Coccia, Catherine; Young-Clark, Iris; Lemacks, Jennifer
Purpose: The study applies the theory of planned behavior to explain the fruit and vegetable eating behaviors, a broad construct consisting of preparing, self-monitoring, and consuming fruits and vegetables, of older African Americans. Design and Methods: Structural equation modeling was used to examine the applicability of the theory of planned behavior with data from 211 older African American women and men (73% women, 26% men; median age range of 57–63 years) participating in a larger inte...
... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159464.html Parkinson's Rates Rising Among American Men Smoking is known ... MONDAY, June 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Rates of Parkinson's disease may be on the rise for U.S. ...
Tishkoff, Sarah A; Reed, Floyd A; Friedlaender, Françoise R; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Awomoyi, Agnes A; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T; Kotze, Maritha J.; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H.
Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic p...
Friedman, Daniela B.; Hooker, Steven P.; Wilcox, Sara; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Rheaume, Carol E.
African American men report poorer health than do White men and have significantly greater odds for developing chronic diseases partly because of limited physical activity. Understanding how to encourage healthy behaviors among African American men will be critical in the development of effective physical activity messages and programs. Guided by principles of cultural sensitivity and social marketing, this research examined middle-aged and older African American men’s recommended strategies ...
... imagined, African Americans have strengthened our Nation by leading reforms, overcoming obstacles, and... of African Americans to our Nation's history and identity. This year's theme, ``African Americans and... enslaved within rebellious areas, he also opened the door for African Americans to join the Union...
Murray, Tanda; Beaty, Terri H; Mathias, Rasika A; Rafaels, Nicholas; Grant, Audrey Virginia; Faruque, Mezbah U; Watson, Harold R; Ruczinski, Ingo; Dunston, Georgia M; Barnes, Kathleen C
Admixture is a potential source of confounding in genetic association studies, so it becomes important to detect and estimate admixture in a sample of unrelated individuals. Populations of African descent in the US and the Caribbean share similar historical backgrounds but the distributions of African admixture may differ. We selected 416 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate and compare admixture proportions using STRUCTURE in 906 unrelated African Americans (AAs) and 294 Barbadians (ACs) from a study of asthma. This analysis showed AAs on average were 72.5% African, 19.6% European and 8% Asian, while ACs were 77.4% African, 15.9% European, and 6.7% Asian which were significantly different. A principal components analysis based on these AIMs yielded one primary eigenvector that explained 54.04% of the variation and captured a gradient from West African to European admixture. This principal component was highly correlated with African vs. European ancestry as estimated by STRUCTURE (r(2)=0.992, r(2)=0.912, respectively). To investigate other African contributions to African American and Barbadian admixture, we performed PCA on approximately 14,000 (14k) genome-wide SNPs in AAs, ACs, Yorubans, Luhya and Maasai African groups, and estimated genetic distances (F(ST)). We found AAs and ACs were closest genetically (F(ST)=0.008), and both were closer to the Yorubans than the other East African populations. In our sample of individuals of African descent, approximately 400 well-defined AIMs were just as good for detecting substructure as approximately 14,000 random SNPs drawn from a genome-wide panel of markers. PMID:20717976
Ahaghotu, Chiledum; Tyler, Robert; Sartor, Oliver
In the United States, the incidence and mortality rates of many cancers, especially prostate cancer, are disproportionately high among African American men compared with Caucasian men. Recently, mortality rates for prostate cancer have declined more rapidly in African American versus Caucasian men, but prostate cancer is still the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in African American men in the United States. Compared with Caucasian men, prostate cancer occurs at younger ages, has a higher stage at diagnosis, and is more likely to progress after definitive treatments in African American men. Reasons for racial discrepancies in cancer are multifactorial and potentially include socioeconomic, cultural, nutritional, and biologic elements. In addition to improving access to novel therapies, clinical trial participation is essential to adequately establish the risks and benefits of treatments in African American populations. Considering the disproportionately high mortality rates noted in these groups, our understanding of the natural history and responses to therapies is limited. This review will explore African American underrepresentation in clinical trials with a focus on prostate cancer, and potentially effective strategies to engage African American communities in prostate cancer research. Solutions targeting physicians, investigators, the community, and health care systems are identified. Improvement of African American participation in prostate cancer clinical trials will benefit all stakeholders. PMID:26786562
Batai, Ken; Murphy, Adam B.; Nonn, Larisa; Kittles, Rick A.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer among men in the U.S. African American (AA) men have a higher incidence and mortality rate compared to European American (EA) men, but the cause of PCa disparities is still unclear. Epidemiologic studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency is associated with advanced stage and higher tumor grade and mortality, while its association with overall PCa risk is inconsistent. Vitamin D deficiency is also more common in AAs than EAs, and the differenc...
Parchment, Yvonne D
Men of the African diaspora are diagnosed with prostate cancer much later than Caucasians and the mortality rate is significantly higher in these groups than among Caucasians. This study investigates health beliefs surrounding prostate health in a sample of African American and Caribbean men and identifies reasons men have for delaying or avoiding prostate screenings. One hundred African American and Caribbean men recruited from three churches, aged 37-89, were surveyed about their health seeking behaviors and knowledge of prostate cancer. Forty-five of these men also attended a seminar on the importance of early detection. Eighty percent of the men revealed they were embarrassed to have digital rectal examinations. Sixty percent feared impotence and incontinence after treatment if diagnosed with cancer. Findings reveal that attention to cultural realities may assist healthcare professionals in planning culturally sensitive educational interventions in the community that may narrow the health disparities gap in this population. PMID:18399361
McKeever, Corliss; Koroloff, Nancy; Faddis, Collaine
More than 80% of African Americans in Oregon reside in the Portland metropolitan area; African Americans comprise 1.7% of the state's population. Although relatively small, the African American population in the state experiences substantial health disparities. The African American Health Coalition, Inc was developed to implement initiatives that would reduce these disparities and to promote increased communication and trust between the African American community and local institutions and or...
Peters, Rosalind M.; Aroian, Karen J.; Flack, John M.
A qualitative study was done to explore attitudes and beliefs of African Americans regarding hypertension-preventive self-care behaviors. Five focus groups, with 34 participants, were held using interview questions loosely based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Analysis revealed themes broadly consistent with the TPB, and also identified an overarching theme labeled “circle of culture.” The circle is a metaphor for ties that bind individuals within the larger African American communit...
Andel, van T.R.
African slaves brought plant knowledge to the New World, sometimes applying it to related plants they found there and sometimes bringing Old World plants with them. By tracing the linguistic parallels between names for plants in African languages and in communities descended from African slaves, pie
DeGruy, Joy; Kjellstrand, Jean M.; Briggs, Harold E.; Brennan, Eileen M.
African American adolescents must negotiate the transition to adulthood in a society that makes the achievement of positive cultural identity and self-respect difficult. Frequently, young men turn to violence in an attempt to achieve respect in their communities. This article explores factors that predict the use of violence among African American…
Crosby, Richard; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Yarber, William L.; Snow, Gregory; Troutman, Adewale
This study tested the research hypothesis that men’s errors using condoms would be associated with having multiple sex partners. Specifically, men engaging in sex with three or more women were compared to those having sex with two or fewer women. Recruitment (N=271) occurred in a publicly-funded STD clinic located in a metropolitan area of the Southern U.S. All men were clinically diagnosed with a STD. Men completed a self-reported questionnaire (using a three-month recall period). Those repo...
Wells, Tesia Denis
This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest…
While African literature appears to be firmly established in American colleges and universities, its expansion, and in some cases its continuance, is threatened by two factors: racialism and departmental conservatism. As demands for courses in black literature can be met by an increased supply of scholars in Afro-American literature, fewer schools…
Smith, Eva C.
African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…
Brennan, Troyen; Spettell, Claire; Villagra, Victor; Ofili, Elizabeth; McMahill-Walraven, Cheryl; Lowy, Elizabeth J.; Daniels, Pamela; Quarshie, Alexander; Mayberry, Robert
African Americans have a higher prevalence of hypertension and poorer cardiovascular and renal outcomes than white Americans. The objective of this study was to determine whether a telephonic nurse disease management (DM) program designed for African Americans is more effective than a home monitoring program alone to increase blood pressure (BP) control among African Americans enrolled in a national health plan.
Johnson, C. Douglas; Eby, Lillian T.
The objectives of the present study were to identify the factors related to career success of college educated, African American men and to explore the relative importance of human capital, social capital, individual differences, and demographic attributes in predicting career success. Using a sample of 247 African American males, we found some…
Zapolski, Tamika C B; Pedersen, Sarah L; McCarthy, Denis M; Smith, Gregory T
Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but also provides within-group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within-group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry. PMID:23477449
Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank
This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183
ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...
Kirkendoll, Kenya D.; Clark, Patricia C.; Grossniklaus, Daurice A.; Igho-Pemu, Priscilla; Mullis, Rebecca M.; Dunbar, Sandra B.
This study explores African American adults’ understanding of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and their motivations for making lifestyle changes. African Americans have a greater risk for components of MetS, such as hypertension.
O'Donnell, Lydia; Bonaparte, Beverly; Joseph, Heather; Agronick, Gail; Leow, Deborah McLean; Myint-U, Athi; Stueve, Ann
This article addresses the challenge of developing HIV prevention interventions that not only prove to be efficacious but also are designed from the outset to overcome obstacles to reaching priority populations. We describe how community input has informed development of Keep It Up (KIU), a community health screening and behavioral prevention program for young Black men. KIU embeds HIV prevention in a broader health promotion campaign, with the goal of reducing stigma and reaching a population that bears a disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS and other health problems-hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes, asthma, and obesity. Information from community partners, expert advisers, and focus groups was collected at key junctures and incorporated into four core components: social marketing, a computerized behavioral learning module, biological testing for HIV and other conditions, and a personalized health profile and risk reduction plan. A pilot with 116 participants provided evidence that the KIU model of integrating HIV prevention with other health screening is acceptable and has the potential to reach Black men at risk for HIV as well as other chronic health conditions. PMID:19670966
Full Text Available Can a man be a feminist? If so, what would it mean? I want to participate in a dialogue between women and men on how to accommodate women's moral concerns. I propose that the fundamental values of justice embodied in the South African constitutional democracy require men to be feminist. These values provide the best safeguard of the important interests and values of both women and men. Men who accept these values can support the main concerns of feminism. The implications of the argument in this article range from public issues to the most private aspects of marriage.
Ornelas, India J.; Amell, Jim; Tran, Anh N.; Royster, Michael; Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; Eng, Eugenia
In this study we used a participatory qualitative research approach—photovoice—to collect information about African American men’s perceptions of the factors that influenced their own health and the health of their communities. Photovoice was conducted as part of the “Men as Navigators (MAN) for Health” project, an evaluation of a male lay health advisor (LHA) intervention in central North Carolina. Twelve African American men living in both urban and rural communities took photographs and di...
Shelton, J. Nicole; Sellers, Robert M.
Investigated the stable and situational properties of African American racial identity using the Multidimensional Model of Racial Identity (MMRI). African American undergraduate students completed the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity, which assessed dimensions of the MMRI. African American racial identity had stable and situational…
Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Walker, Kristin M.; Hu, Xiangen; Watson, Andrea
The current work presents exploratory research findings concerning African American students' attitudes toward online learning. The Online Tutoring Attitudes Scale (OTAS; Graff, 2003) was administered to 124 African American students in a positive youth development program. Findings suggest that African American students' attitudes toward…
One of the primary roles of parents is to guide and socialize children to make meaningful life choices. African American parents, in particular, have the additional tasks of preparing their children to thrive in an environment that has historically been hostile toward African Americans. Yet, many African American parents are often depicted as…
The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from African Americans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…
Gantt, Ann L.; Greif, Geoffrey L.
Being raised by a single mother is one factor that has been suggested as contributing to the plight of African American males. Yet few studies have focused specifically on African American single mothers' experiences with raising sons. This qualitative study explored the following questions: (1) What are the experiences of African American single…
Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.
Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…
Ede, Fred O.; Panigrahi, Bhagaban; Calcich, Stephen E.
A survey of 171 African-American students found that 72% came from nonentrepreneurial family backgrounds; only 24.5% intended to start their own businesses, there were no gender differences in entrepreneurship attitudes, and seniors and those from entrepreneurial backgrounds were more favorable toward entrepreneurship. (SK)
Marion, Michelle S.; Range, Lillian M.
To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 African American female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious…
Cazers, Gunars; Curtner-Smith, Matthew
Purpose: The purpose was to reconstruct the historical and legendary contribution of one exemplary African American physical education teacher educator who lived and worked in the Deep South prior to and immediately following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education court case. The following questions guided data collection and analysis: To what…
Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…
The EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans is a free comprehensive multimedia curricula for health professionals caring for persons with cancer and their families.
African American Vernacular English (AAVE) is the language spoken by almost 20 milion speakers al over the world. It is also used frequently in rap lyrics. Studying the origin and grammar rules of AAVE is a very important topic in today's English Language and English Teaching Studies.
Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips
The purpose of this article was to examine factors within the school context that facilitates educational resilience among African American high school students. The authors expected academic self-esteem to be positively associated with future expectations (academic and general). They expected perceptions of school-based social support to have…
Williams, Robert; Hewison, Alistair; Wildman, Stuart; Roskell, Carolyn
This paper presents findings from a qualitative study undertaken with 46 African and African Caribbean men exploring their experiences of fatherhood. Data analysis was informed by Connell's theoretical work on changing gender relations. Findings indicate that fathers' lives were mediated by masculinities, racism, gender, migration and…
Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Meyer, Ilan H
Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit African American health chances and that African Americans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy-the belief that all may obtain the American Dream-and has instilled hope in African Americans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for African Americans. PMID:20724679
Brown, Anthony L.
Drawing from ethnographic data, this paper explores how African American male teachers working with African American male students performed their pedagogy. This paper highlights how teachers' understanding of African American males social and educational needs shaped their pedagogical performance. Interestingly however, teachers' performance was…
Kramer, Teresa L.; Han, Xiaotong; Booth, Brenda M.
Early initiation of substance use appears to be an alarming trend among rural minorities. This study focuses on 18–21 year old African American stimulant users in the Arkansas Mississippi Delta. Most participants had no high school diploma and were unemployed; 74.5% had already been arrested. Substance use was initiated early, and nearly all of the men and three quarters of the women already met criteria for lifetime abuse or dependence. Only 18% reported they had ever received substance abuse treatment. The results suggest that substance use interventions in rural communities will require multi-faceted strategies addressing economic, educational and healthcare disparities. PMID:20098663
Puschmann, Andreas; Xiao, Jianfeng; Bastian, Robert W; Searcy, Jill A; LeDoux, Mark S; Wszolek, Zbigniew K
The genetic cause of late-onset focal and segmental dystonia remains unknown in most individuals. Recently, mutations in Thanatos-associated protein domain containing, apoptosis associated protein 1 (THAP1) have been described in DYT6 dystonia and associated with some cases of familial and sporadic late-onset dystonia in Caucasians. We are not aware of any previous descriptions of familial dystonia in African-Americans or reports of THAP1 mutations in African-Americans. Herein, we characterize an African-American (AA) kindred with late-onset primary dystonia, clinically and genetically. The clinical phenotype included cervical, laryngeal and hand-forearm dystonia. Symptoms were severe and disabling for several family members, whereas others only displayed mild signs. There were no accompanying motor or cognitive signs. In this kindred, age of onset ranged from 45 to 50 years and onset was frequently sudden, with symptoms developing within weeks or months. DYT1 was excluded as the cause of dystonia in this kindred. The entire genomic region of THAP1, including non-coding regions, was sequenced. We identified 13 sequence variants in THAP1, although none co-segregated with dystonia. A novel THAP1 variant (c.-237-3G>T/A) was found in 3/84 AA dystonia patient alleles and 3/212 AA control alleles, but not in 5870 Caucasian alleles. In summary, although previously unreported, familial primary dystonia does occur in African-Americans. Genetic analysis of the entire genomic region of THAP1 revealed a novel variant that was specific for African-Americans. Therefore, genetic testing for dystonia and future studies of candidate genes must take genetic background into consideration. PMID:21601506
Mereish, Ethan H; N'cho, Hammad S; Green, Carlton E; Jernigan, Maryam M; Helms, Janet E
Discrimination is related to depression and poor self-esteem among Black men. Poorer self-esteem is also associated with depression. However, there is limited research identifying how self-esteem may mediate the associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms for disparate ethnic groups of Black men. The purpose of this study was to examine ethnic groups as a moderator of the mediating effects of self-esteem on the relationship between discrimination and depressive symptoms among a nationally representative sample of African American (n = 1201) and Afro-Caribbean American men (n = 545) in the National Survey of American Life. Due to cultural socialization differences, we hypothesized that self-esteem would mediate the associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms only for African American men, but not Afro-Caribbean American men. Moderated-mediation regression analyses indicated that the conditional indirect effects of discrimination on depressive symptoms through self-esteem were significant for African American men, but not for Afro-Caribbean men. Our results highlight important ethnic differences among Black men. PMID:27337623
Kim, Kwang Chung, Ed.
The essays in this collection examine relationships between the Korean American and African American communities in Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York. The contrast between the economic power and lack of political power of Korean Americans and the political power and lack of economic power of African Americans is traced. Essays 2-5 cover Los…
Schoenfeld, Elinor R; Francis, Linda E
African American men face the highest rates of prostate cancer, yet with no consensus for screening and treatment, making informed health care decisions is difficult. This study aimed to identify approaches to empowering African American men as proactive participants in prostate cancer decision making using an established community-campus partnership employing elements of community-based participatory research methods. Community stakeholders with an interest in, and knowledge about, health care in two local African American communities were recruited and completed key informant interviews (N = 39). Grounded theory coding identified common themes related to prostate cancer knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and responses to them. Common barriers such as gender roles, fear, and fatalism were identified as barriers to work-up and treatment, and both communities' inadequate and inaccurate prostate cancer information described as the key problem. To build on community strengths, participants said the change must come from inside these communities, not be imposed from the outside. To accomplish this, they suggested reaching men through women, connecting men to doctors they can trust, making men's cancer education part of broader health education initiatives designed as fun and inexpensive family entertainment events, and having churches bring community members in to speak on their experiences with cancer. This study demonstrated the success of community engagement to identify not only barriers but also local strengths and facilitators to prostate cancer care in two suburban/rural African American communities. Building collaboratively on community strengths may improve prostate cancer care specifically and health care in general. PMID:25595017
Anjali G Hinch; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D; Chen, Gary K.; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Akylbekova, Meggie; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berndt, Sonja I.
Recombination, together with mutation, is the ultimate source of genetic variation in populations. We leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing-over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantl...
van der Merwe, Pauline; Greeff, Abraham P.
Evaluates the efficiency of the coping mechanisms of 82 unemployed African men with dependents. Results revealed significant relationships between perceived stress and stressful life events, as well as between perceived stress and four groups of coping mechanisms, the strongest relationships being reported for stressful life events, psychological…
Full Text Available Since the law has been crucial in defining and delineating the dimensions of African American experience both in slavery and in freedom, the encounter with the American legal system and its representatives has left a strong imprint on African American cultural and literary memory and expression. The article sketches out a few aspects and features which characterize the reflection of law and race in African American culture and literature.
Birru, Mehret S; Steinman, Richard A.
African Americans with low incomes and low literacy levels disproportionately suffer poor health outcomes from many preventable diseases. Low functional literacy and low health literacy impede millions of Americans from successfully accessing health information. These problems are compounded for African Americans by cultural insensitivity in health materials. The Internet could become a useful tool for providing accessible health information to low-literacy and low-income African Americans. O...
Since the law has been crucial in defining and delineating the dimensions of African American experience both in slavery and in freedom, the encounter with the American legal system and its representatives has left a strong imprint on African American cultural and literary memory and expression. The article sketches out a few aspects and features which characterize the reflection of law and race in African American culture and literature.
Sims, Regina C.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Ayotte, Brian J.; Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Edwards, Christopher L.; Allaire, Jason C.
The current analysis examined (a) if measures of psychological well-being predict subjective memory, and (b) if subjective memory is consistent with actual memory. Five hundred seventy-nine older African Americans from the Baltimore Study of Black Aging completed measures assessing subjective memory, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress, locus of control, and verbal and working memory. Higher levels of perceived stress and greater externalized locus of control predicted poorer subjecti...
Mehari, Alem; Afreen, Samina; Ngwa, Julius; Setse, Rosanna; Thomas, Alicia N.; Poddar, Vishal; Davis, Wayne; Polk, Octavius D.; Hassan, Sheik; Thomas, Alvin V.
Background Obesity prevalence in United States (US) adults exceeds 30% with highest prevalence being among blacks. Obesity is known to have significant effects on respiratory function and obese patients commonly report respiratory complaints requiring pulmonary function tests (PFTs). However, there is no large study showing the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and PFTs in healthy African Americans (AA). Objective To determine the effect of BMI on PFTs in AA patients who did not have...
Cui, Jie; Wu, Xiangdong; Andrel, Jocelyn; Falkner, Bonita
Adiponectin, a protein secreted by adipose tissue, has anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombogenic and anti-diabetogenic properties. Lower plasma adiponectin levels are present in diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Adiponectin levels are higher in women compared to men. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are relationships between total adiponectin, or the molecular weight fractions of adiponectin, with testosterone levels in African American men and pre-menopausal women. A s...
Full Text Available ... have one of the highest incidences of prostate cancer in the world, and in this country the ... an epidemic. Winston Dyer: My introduction to prostate cancer started with the death of my 46-year- ...
Full Text Available ... fold higher and has remained so over many years. Rev. Thomas L. Walker: The researchers don't ... cancer started with the death of my 46-year-old brother from cancer, then my dad four ...
Full Text Available ... months later. And then I was told by doctors that I should be checked. But being ignorant ... pain, we tend to not go to the doctor's. Curtis Pettaway, M.D.: Those are the individuals ...
Full Text Available ... was -- that was my first, first, first-ever screening, at age 50 -- the same month that my ... and interestingly enough, there a number of free screening programs, I would bet, in every city, but ...
Full Text Available ... not knowing what it was -- that was my first, first, first-ever screening, at age 50 -- the same month ... gotten out there and interestingly enough, there a number of free screening programs, I would bet, in ...
Full Text Available ... is suggested that maybe our diet, maybe our stress level, some have even suggested that our testosterone ... highest mortality and they have the most to benefit from early detection.
Brown, Anthony L.
This article explores the theoretical implications around positioning the Black male teacher as the central agent of social change for Black male students. In addressing such concerns, my intention is not to discourage efforts to recruit and retain more African American men as teachers, but to trouble the commonsense assumptions embedded in such…
Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton
The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…
Lewis, J; Agodoa, L; Cheek, D; Greene, T; Middleton, J; O'Connor, D; Ojo, A; Phillips, R; Sika, M; Wright, J
Renal function measurements were obtained in 1,703 African Americans with presumed hypertensive nephrosclerosis who were screened for entry into the African-American Study of Hypertension and Kidney Disease (AASK). We examined the effect of race on relationships involving renal variables by comparing African Americans enrolled into the AASK with non-African Americans enrolled into the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study. We examined the effect of gender on renal variables by comparing African American men and women. We compared various methods for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with iodine 125-labeled ((125)I)-iothalamate GFR. AASK data were also used to derive a new formula for estimating GFR in African Americans. After adjusting for age, sex, and baseline GFR, African American patients on the AASK study were heavier and had larger body surface areas and body mass indices than either MDRD African Americans or non-African Americans. African Americans had greater serum creatinine levels and urinary creatinine excretions for any given level of GFR. Mean GFR was greater in African American men than African American women (59.7 versus 51.7 mL/min/1.73 m(2)), although serum creatinine levels were also greater in men (1.91 versus 1.73 mg/dL). Seventy-eight percent of women with serum creatinine levels between 1.2 and 1.5 mg/dL had GFRs less than 65 mL/min/1.73 m(2). For African Americans in the AASK, GFR was overestimated by the 24-hour creatinine clearance and underestimated by the Cockcroft-Gault formula. A prediction formula developed in the MDRD study more accurately predicted GFR in AASK patients than these measurements. AASK data were also used to derive a new five-term formula for estimating GFR that was slightly more accurate in the African Americans in the AASK than the MDRD formula (median percentage of error, 12.4% for the MDRD formula versus 12.1% for the AASK formula). Important differences exist in renal variables between African
Hanson, Sandra L.; Johnson, Elizabeth Palmer
Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) for the years 1988 to 1992 are used to explore the science experiences of young African-American women during the high school years. The comparison groups we use in trying to understand these experiences involve White women (for a race contrast) and African-American men (for a gender contrast). Within the context of a critical feminist perspective, it is argued that gender is constructed in a different way in White and African-American communities. Instead of expecting a disadvantage for young African-American women because of their gender and minority statuses, it is suggested that unique gender ideologies and work-family arrangements in the African-American community give these young women the resources and agency that allow them to compete with their White female counterparts and their African-American male counterparts in the science domain. Results from our analyses of the NELS data confirm these expectations. We find that on a majority of science measures, African-American women do as well as - and sometimes better than - White women and African-American men. For example, there are no differences between African-American women and men on attitudes toward science. And when compared with White women, African-American women tend to have more positive attitudes. When disadvantages appear for these young African-American women, they are more likely to be race effects then gender effects. The minimal gender effects in the science experiences of young African-Americans is in contrast to the more frequent male advantage in the White sample. A careful examination of family and individual resources shows that African-American families compensate for disadvantages on some resources (e.g., family socioeconomic status) by providing young women with an excess of other resources (e.g., unique gender ideologies, work expectations, and maternal expectations and involvement). And, unlike White parents, they sometimes
Shanthi Duraimani; Schneider, Robert H.; Randall, Otelio S.; Nidich, Sanford I.; Shichen Xu; Muluemebet Ketete; Maxwell A Rainforth; Carolyn Gaylord-King; Salerno, John W.; John Fagan
Background African Americans suffer from disproportionately high rates of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Psychosocial stress, lifestyle and telomere dysfunction contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. This study evaluated effects of stress reduction and lifestyle modification on blood pressure, telomerase gene expression and lifestyle factors in African Americans. Methods Forty-eight African American men and women with stage I hypertension who part...
Bzowej, Natalie; Han, Steven; Degertekin, Bulent; Keeffe, Emmet B.; Emre, Sukru; Brown, Robert; Reddy, Rajender; Lok, Anna S
Several previous studies found that Asians transplanted for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection had worse post-transplant outcomes than Caucasians. Data on post-transplant outcomes of African Americans and waitlist outcomes of Asian Americans and African Americans with hepatitis B are scant. The aim of this study was to compare waitlist and post-transplant outcomes among Asian Americans, African Americans, and Caucasians who had HBV-related liver disease. Data from a retrospective-prospective s...
Hollingsworth, Lauren Colleen
This project began with the intention to examine the connection between the aesthetic and the political in American literature's construction of African-American subjectivity, or the relationship between resistance and representation in literary portrayals of the African-American subject. I was specifically interested in the moments in American literature where the convergence between aesthetic form and political practice creates a particular crisis in representation for African-American subj...
Ward, Earlise C.; Mengesha, Maigenete; Issa, Fathiya
Little is known about older African American women’s lived experiences with depression. What does depression mean to this group? What are they doing about their depression? Unfortunately, these questions are unanswered. This study examined older African American women’s lived experiences with depression and coping behaviours. The common sense model provided the theoretical framework for present study. Thirteen community-dwelling African American women aged 60 and older (M =71 years) participa...
Goosby, Bridget J.; Heidbrink, Chelsea
Disparities in African American health remain pervasive and persist transgenerationally. There is a growing consensus that both structural and interpersonal racial discrimination are key mechanisms affecting African American health. The Biopsychosocial Model of Racism as a Stressor posits that the persistent stress of experiencing discrimination take a physical toll on the health of African Americans and is ultimately manifested in the onset of illness. However, the degree to which the health...
Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Northouse, Laurel; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death among African Americans. Less than 50% of African Americans have had CRC screening. This study examined the relationships between family support and influence, cultural identity, CRC beliefs, and a screening informed decision among 129 urban African Americans. Family support (p < .01) significantly predicted CRC beliefs and CRC beliefs significantly predicted informed decision (p < .01). Based on study results, practitioners s...
Williams, SF; Nicholas, SB; Vaziri, ND; Norris, KC
African Americans have exceptionally high rates of hypertension and hypertension related complications. It is commonly reported that the blood pressure lowering efficacy of renin angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors is attenuated in African Americans due to a greater likelihood of having a low renin profile. Therefore these agents are often not recommended as initial therapy in African Americans with hypertension. However, the high prevalence of comorbid conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovas...
Spencer, Becky S; Grassley, Jane S
The purpose of this article is to present a review of literature regarding factors that influence breastfeeding intentions, initiation, and duration in the African American population. Research related to health disparities experienced by African Americans in the United States, as well as research regarding the protective benefits of breastfeeding for those specific health disparities, are also presented. Community and institutional interventions and promotional campaigns aimed at increasing initiation and duration of breastfeeding in the African American population are discussed. Future research regarding African American women's breastfeeding experiences using Black feminist thought as a theoretical foundation is recommended. PMID:23445372
Payton, Erica; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Dake, Joseph A
Firearm mortality is the leading cause of death for young African American males, however, few studies have focused on racial/ethnic minority populations and firearm violence. The National Black Caucus of State Legislators advocates for legislation that promotes the health of African Americans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect baseline data on African American legislators' perceptions regarding firearm violence in the African American community. A cross-sectional study of African American legislators (n = 612) was conducted to investigate the research questions. Of the 612 questionnaires mailed, 12 were not deliverable, and 170 were returned (28%). Utilizing a three wave mailing process, African American legislators were invited to participate in the study. The majority (88%) of respondents perceived firearm violence to be very serious among African Americans. Few (10%) legislators perceived that addressing legislative issues would be an effective strategy in reducing firearm violence among African Americans. The majority (72%) of legislators perceived the most effective strategy to reducing firearm violence in the African American community should focus on addressing societal issues (e.g. crime and poverty). After adjusting for the number of perceived barriers, the number of perceived benefits was a significant predictor of legislators' perceived effectiveness of firearm violence prevention legislation for 8 of the 24 potential firearm violence prevention legislative bills. PMID:25301589
Anastasios Dimou; Kostas N Syrigos; Muhammad Wasif Saif
There are differences between African-American and white patients with colorectal cancer, concerning their characteristics before and after diagnosis. Whites are more likely to adhere to screening guidelines. This is also the case among people with positive family history. Colorectal cancer is more frequent in Blacks. Studies have shown that that since 1985, colon cancer rates have dipped 20% to 25% for Whites, while rates have gone up for African-American men and stayed the same for African-American women. Overall, African-Americans are 38% to 43% more likely to die from colon cancer than are Whites. Furthermore, it seems that there is an African-American predominance in right-sited tumors. African Americans tend to be diagnosed at a later stage, to suffer from better differentiated tumors, and to have worse prognosis when compared with Whites. Moreover, less black patients receive adjuvant chemotherapy for resectable colorectal cancer or radiation therapy for rectal cancer. Caucasians seem to respond better to standard chemotherapy regimens than African- Americans. Concerning toxicity, it appears that patients of African-American descent are more likely to develop 5-FU toxicity than Whites, possibly because of their different dihydropyridine dehydrogenase status. Last but not least, screening surveillance seems to be higher among white than among black long-term colorectal cancer survivors. Socioeconomic and educational status account for most of these differences whereas little evidence exists for a genetic contribution in racial disparity. Understanding the nature of racial differences in colorectal cancer allows tailoring of screening and treatment interventions.
Pugh, Sandra Lyniece
An increase in the Mexican American population within the predominantly African American community and school was the basis of this qualitative study. The purpose of the study was to introduce African American second grade students to authentic Mexican and Mexican American children's literature. Interactive read-alouds of nonfiction and realistic…
Williams, Heinric; Powell, Isaac J
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer affecting men in the Western world. In the United States, it is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths after lung and bronchus carcinoma. No definitive causes of prostate cancer (PCa) have been identified to date but, increasing age, a positive family history, and sub-Saharan African ancestry are strongly linked to its development. African American men (AAM) have the highest reported incidence rates in the United States and their mortality from the disease is markedly higher than that of European American men (EAM). Conversely, Asian American men and Pacific Islanders (API), American Indian and Alaskan Native (AI/AN) men, and Hispanic men all have lower incidence and mortality rates as compared with EAM. The reasons for these differences are unclear. However, it is clear that AAM have more advanced PCa when diagnosed. Several other reasons have been suggested and these include differences in treatments and health seeking behavior among the ethnic groups, cultural beliefs, environmental/lifestyle factors, dietary and genetic factors. In conclusion, there are multiple factors that impact prostate cancer outcome and that may be responsible for ethnic disparity. These factors are discussed in this chapter. PMID:19107447
Armengol Carrera, José María
This thesis attempts to "gender" men by theorizing masculinities in American culture and literature. It tries to demonstrate that (white heterosexual) men, like women, are also gendered beings; that they have, therefore, undergone specific social, cultural, and historical gendering processes; and that, in contemporary American culture, such gendering processes play a key role in men's lives as well as their literary representations. Focusing on masculinity as a specific political and social c...
Racial discrimination serves as a psychosocial stressor with implications for health, including mental health. Previous research indicates that while African American men report more discrimination events, African American women are at greater risk for some psychiatric conditions. The responses from Black respondents to the California Quality of Life Survey (Cal-QOL) in 2005 and 2007 were analyzed to test the hypothesis that gender moderates the association between discrimination and distres...
Doherty, Elaine Eggleston; Green, Kerry M.; Reisinger, Heather Schacht; Ensminger, Margaret E.
Cross-sectional analyses and the little existing longitudinal analyses on substance use over the life course have been integral in providing information about the epidemiology of substance use in the United States. However, it is unclear whether these estimates provide an accurate portrayal of long-term substance use patterns among African-American men and women who have grown up in an inner city environment. The current study uses longitudinal data from a community cohort of African-American...
Robinson, Ashley Renee
The number of women in computing is significantly low compared to the number of men in the discipline, with African American women making up an even smaller segment of this population. Related literature accredits this phenomenon to multiple sources, including background, stereotypes, discrimination, self-confidence, and a lack of self-efficacy or belief in one's capabilities. However, a majority of the literature fails to represent African American females in research studies. This r...
Walker, Rheeda L; Salami, Temilola K; Carter, Sierra E; Flowers, Kelci
Suicide is a public health problem for African Americans who are young and of working age. The purpose of this study was to examine mediated and moderated effects of perceived racism on suicide ideation in a community sample of 236 African American men and women. Measures of suicide ideation, depression symptoms, intrinsic/extrinsic religiosity, and perceived racism were administered. Perceived racial discrimination was directly and indirectly associated with suicide ideation. For participants who reported low levels of extrinsic religiosity, the mediated effect of perceived racism (via depression symptoms) was significant. These findings provide some insight into suicide vulnerability for specific subgroups of African Americans. PMID:24690042
Pert, Calvert; Bhuyan, Sanjib
The prominence of FAFH on consumers food expenditure raises some important questions, particularly those related to the health impact of such a trend. This is particularly true among African-Americans because on average African Americans are twice as likely as white Americans to develop Type 2 diabetes, which has been known to have some correlation with ones diet. There is a plethora of studies focusing on FAFH by American consumers. However, there are very few studies that focus exclusively ...
Presents an exploratory examination of the causes of social distance characterizing the association between Africans and African Americans. African American's perceptions about Africa and Africans are assessed through anecdotes and impressions, and thoughts and criticisms of Africans about African Americans are considered. A social science…
Farrar, Angela L.
Among the 44000-plus general managers employed in United States' hotels in 1993, there were only 100 women, 15 African-Americans, and three African-American women. Additionally, less than 0.5 percent of corporate hospitality managers were women. Given this relative underrepresentation of European-American women and African-Americans, combined with the increasing diversity of hotel clientele and service p...
Broman, Clifford L.
Investigated the link between job-related stressors and family life among African Americans. Data from African Americans who participated in the America's Changing Lives survey indicated that job latitude positively affected marital harmony, and physical demands negatively affected marital harmony. Psychosocial demands, job bother, and chronic…
Jones, Martin H.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Shim, Sungok Serena; Hart, Caroline O.
Little extant research attempts to understand why rural African Americans engage in social relationships with peers in school. This is somewhat surprising as rural students' peer interactions often affect their scholastic desires, and peers can alter African Americans' academic performance. Hence, the current study examined both the…
Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang
This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…
Williams, Carmen Braun; Frame, Marsha Wiggins; Green, Evelyn
Explains cultural and spiritual traditions within African American women's experience that form the foundation for group counseling strategies. Reviews literature regarding African American women's experience in groups. Explains group interventions such as art, music, dance, imagery, journaling, and rituals that can help transcend, empower, and…
Black Issues in Higher Education, 2004
African Americans have a significantly lower response rate to treatment for chronic hepatitis C than non-Hispanic Whites, according to a new study led by Duke University Medical Center researchers. Some African Americans--19 percent--did respond to the drug combination of peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin. But in non-Hispanic Whites with the…
.... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-13643 Filed 6-5-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... June 6, 2013 Part III The President Proclamation 8992--African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013... May 31, 2013 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013 By the President of the United States...
Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice…
Polidore, Ellene; Edmonson, Stacey L.; Slate, John R.
A scarcity of research exists regarding the voices of African American teachers who taught in the rural South. In this study, we report the life experiences, perceptions, thoughts, and feelings of three female African American educators as they pertain to their experiences teaching before, during, and after desegregation. Three female African…
Lathan, Christopher S.; Waldman, Laura Tesler; Browning, Emily; Gagne, Joshua; Emmons, Karen
This qualitative study suggests that African American smokers are aware of the relationship between smoking and lung cancer and are interested in smoking-cessation treatment. These data also indicate that lung cancer disparities are unlikely to be associated with differential willingness to receive care but that African Americans may perceive financial and insurance barriers to lung cancer treatment.
Battle, Dolores E.
This article reviews recent investigations of the development of phonology, morphology, semantics, and pragmatics in the development of speech and language by African American children. Clinical implications are offered to aid the distinction between normal language development using features of African American English and language disorders.…
Hunter, Herbert M.
Examines African American employment trends compared with increases or decreases in economic growth and Federal welfare spending during the 1970s and 1980s, focusing primarily on unemployment and labor force participation rates among African American youth. Studies the impact of structural unemployment, racial discrimination, and immigration on…
Day-Vines, Norma L.; Barto, Heather H.; Booker, Beverly L.; Smith, Kim V.; Barna, Jennifer; Maiden, Brian S.; Zegley, Linda; Felder, Monique T.
African American English (AAE) refers to the systematic, rule-governed linguistic patterns of found among African Americans. This article provides an overview of AAE. More specifically, the article enumerates the historical underpinnings associated with AAE, identifies a representative set of AAE characteristics, reviews relevant research, and…
Shropshire, Delia F. B.
The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent teaching style relates to third grade African American male academic achievement. The problem in this study addressed the factors affecting the academic achievement of the African American third grade male. This problem led the researcher to investigate the teaching styles of the…
Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane
Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…
Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming
Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…
Fikes, Robert Jr.
A large number of black scholars have pursued advanced degrees in the German language, history, and culture. Describes the history of African American interest in the German language and culture, highlighting various black scholars who have studied German over the years. Presents data on African Americans in German graduate programs and examines…
Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey
Homeschooling, and academic interest in this phenomenon, have increased tremendously over the last decade. The surge of African American involvement in the homeschool movement has also become noticeable. However, there continues to be a general paucity of research on the motivations of African American parents that choose homeschooling. In order…
There is more to Black History Month than honoring Martin Luther King Jr. Black History Month is a time to honor the significant contributions of African-Americans throughout history. This article presents 20 super-achievers new generation of African-Americans heroes students should meet: (1) Kimberly Oliver; (2) John Lewis; (3) Rita Dove; (4)…
Holbrook, J C
The question of how to increase the number of women and minorities in astronomy has been approached from several directions in the United States including examination of admission policies, mentoring, and hiring practices. These point to departmental efforts to improve conditions for some of the students which has the overall benefit of improving conditions for all of the students. However, women and minority astronomers have managed to obtain doctorates even within the non-welcoming environment of certain astronomy and physics departments. I present here six strategies used by African American men and women to persevere if not thrive long enough to earn their doctorate. Embedded in this analysis is the idea of 'astronomy culture' and experiencing astronomy culture as a cross-cultural experience including elements of culture shock. These survival strategies are not exclusive to this small subpopulation but have been used by majority students, too.
Elo, Irma T; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan
The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America's history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000-2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants-such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas-earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants-such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees-earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes-including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate-figures prominently among important unresolved research questions. PMID:26304845
While numerous studies discuss the importance of black churches and race-based organizations to African American political participation, few of them systematically analyze the gendered nature of such engagement. Employing data from the 1994 National Black Politics Survey, this study compares the influence of church-based activities and race-based organizational participation on African American men’s and women’s electoral and non-electoral political participation, and finds that 1) African ...
Sandra; F; Williams; Susanne; B; Nicholas; Nosratola; D; Vaziri; Keith; C; Norris
African Americans have exceptionally high rates of hypertension and hypertension related complications. It is commonly reported that the blood pressure lowering efficacy of renin angiotensin system(RAS) inhibitors is attenuated in African Americans due to a greater likelihood of having a low renin profile. Therefore these agents are often not recommended as initial therapy in African Americans with hypertension. However, the high prevalence of comorbid conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease makes treatment with RAS inhibitors more compelling. Despite lower circulating renin levels and a less significant fall in blood pressure in response to RAS inhibitors in African Americans, numerous clinical trials support the efficacy of RAS inhibitors to improve clinical outcomes in this population, especially in those with hypertension and risk factors for cardiovascular and related diseases. Here, we discuss the rationale of RAS blockade as part of a comprehensive approach to attenuate the high rates of premature morbidity and mortality associated with hypertension among African Americans.
Booker, Staja Q
African American grandparent caregiving is increasing, and evidence shows that grandparent caregiving influences health and its management. As older adults age, their potential of experiencing chronic pain increases, and this is profound given that physiological research shows that African Americans, aside from aging, may have a predisposition for developing chronic pain. Research shows older African Americans experience significant chronic pain, but few have discussed the implications of managing chronic pain in older African Americans who have added parental responsibility. Many older African Americans receive home healthcare services and there is a unique role for home healthcare clinicians in caring for this vulnerable population. This article discusses the impact of pain on caregiving, challenges in pain management, and practice and policy implications to assist home healthcare clinicians maintain the safety and protection of both the older grandparent and grandchildren. PMID:27243429
Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher
The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women's ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters' reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites' refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women's few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals' marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results. PMID:26223562
Clark, Lawrence M.; Jones Frank, Toya; Davis, Julius
Background/Context: Historians and researchers have documented and explored the work and role of African American teachers in the U.S. educational system, yet there has been limited attention to the specific work, role, and experiences of African American mathematics teachers. To meaningfully and responsibly conceptualize the role of African…
Cooley, Eileen L.; Garcia, Amber L.
This study examined ethnic differences in attachment styles and depression among African American and European American college women. African American women reported less favorable views of others, which suggests that attachment styles emphasizing caution in relationships may be normative and adaptive for these women. There were no differences…
Ijames, Erika Denise
their students about science careers and possibly increase the number of African American men as well as other minorities currently underrepresented in some science careers.
Mama, Scherezade K; Li, Yisheng; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W; Nguyen, Nga T; Reitzel, Lorraine R; McNeill, Lorna H
Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans. PMID:27119366
Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E.; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.
Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans. PMID:27119366
Controversey surrounds the phylogeography and origin of the R haplotype among Native Americans. Some researchers have suggested that Europeans spread this haplotype among Native Americans. The purpose of this study was to determine the origin of the R-M173 y-chromosome among Native Americans . It is the third most frequent y-chromosome possessed by Native Americans. Native Americans with the highest frequency of R-M173 haplotypes like the Ojibwa and Seminoles mated frequently with African mal...
Full Text Available Internet technology has offered many options for online dating. We studied online dating website capabilities and the relationship between African-Americans and White college students (n=101 regarding their preferences for receiving a weekly list of potential matches via e-mail, receiving free assistance in enhancing the written portion of their profile, the ability to sort matches by ethnicity or religion, and the ability to sort matches based on similar interests. Analysis of variance (ANOVA showed a significant difference between African-Americans and Whites regarding the ability to receive weekly lists of potential matches via e-mail, where African-Americans had greater means indicative of their preference for this feature (p0.05. Traditional dating approaches typically involve a man initiating contact with a woman. African-American men may have unique psychological concerns with regard to online dating. They may prefer to wait for automated information about prospective matches rather than initially searching online for prospective matches. An understanding of the gender differences among African-Americans can help understand if it is necessary to advocate a change in this behavioral pattern among African-American men.
Di NOIA, JENNIFER; Schinke, Steven P.; Contento, Isobel R.
This study examined commonly consumed high-fat food sources to estimate dietary fat intake among 314 urban, African American adolescents (mean age (SD) = 12.57 (.98) years; 66% female; 91% African American non-Hispanic; and 9% African American Hispanic). Youths’ fat intake was measured using the Block Fat Screener. Most (77%) participants had diets very high in fat (i.e., 40% to 50% of energy). Mean frequencies of consumption revealed youths’ preferences for the following high-fat food items:...
Reams R Renee
Full Text Available Abstract Background African American men have the highest prostate cancer morbidity and mortality rates than any other racial or ethnic group in the US. Although the overall incidence of and mortality from prostate cancer has been declining in White men since 1991, the decline in African American men lags behind White men. Of particular concern is the growing literature on the disproportionate burden of prostate cancer among other Black men of West African ancestry in the Caribbean Islands, United Kingdom and West Africa. This higher incidence of prostate cancer observed in populations of African descent may be attributed to the fact that these populations share ancestral genetic factors. To better understand the burden of prostate cancer among men of West African Ancestry, we conducted a review of the literature on prostate cancer incidence, prevalence, and mortality in the countries connected by the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Results Several published studies indicate high prostate cancer burden in Nigeria and Ghana. There was no published literature for the countries Benin, Gambia and Senegal that met our review criteria. Prostate cancer morbidity and/or mortality data from the Caribbean Islands and the United Kingdom also provided comparable or worse prostate cancer burden to that of US Blacks. Conclusion The growing literature on the disproportionate burden of prostate cancer among other Black men of West African ancestry follows the path of the Transatlantic Slave Trade. To better understand and address the global prostate cancer disparities seen in Black men of West African ancestry, future studies should explore the genetic and environmental risk factors for prostate cancer among this group.
The Legacy of the U. S. Public Health Services Study of Untreated Syphilis in African American Men at Tuskegee on the Affordable Care Act and Health Care Reform Fifteen Years After President Clinton's Apology.
Mays, Vickie M
This special issue addresses the legacy of the United States Public Health Service Syphilis Study on health reform, particularly the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The 12 manuscripts cover the history and current practices of ethical abuses affecting American Indians, Latinos, Asian Americans and African Americans in the United States and in one case, internationally. Commentaries and essays include the voice of a daughter of one of the study participants in which we learn of the stigma and maltreatment some of the families experienced and how the study has impacted generations within the families. Consideration is given in one essay to utilizing narrative storytelling with the families to help promote healing. This article provides the reader a roadmap to the themes that emerged from the collection of articles. These themes include population versus individual consent issues, need for better government oversight in research and health care, the need for overhauling our bioethics training to develop a population level, culturally driven approach to research bioethics. The articles challenge and inform us that some of our assumptions about how the consent process best works to protect racial/ethnic minorities may be merely assumptions and not proven facts. Articles challenge the belief that low participation rates seen in biomedical studies have resulted from the legacy of the USPHS Syphilis Study rather than a confluence of factors rooted in racism, bias and negative treatment. Articles in this special issue challenge the "cultural paranoia" of mistrust and provide insights into how the distrust may serve to lengthen rather than shorten the lives of racial/ethnic minorities who have been used as guinea pigs on more than one occasion. We hope that the guidance offered on the importance of developing a new framework to bioethics can be integrated into the foundation of health care reform. PMID:23630410
Mahal, Brandon A
Objectives: We evaluated whether African Americans (AA) with intermediate to high-risk prostate cancer receive similar treatment as white patients and whether any observed disparities are persistent with time, across age groups, or by insurance status. Methods: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to identify 128,189 men with localized intermediate to high-risk prostate cancer (PSA >= 10 or Gleason >= 7 or T stage >= T2b) diagnosed from 2004 – 20...
Spencer, Becky; Wambach, Karen; Domain, Elaine Williams
The low rate of breastfeeding among African American women in the United States is a poorly understood, persistent disparity. Our purpose in this study was to gain an understanding of how African American women experience breastfeeding in the context of their day-to-day lives. The Sequential-Consensual Qualitative Design (SCQD), a 3-stage qualitative methodology aimed at exploring the cultural, personal, and political context of phenomena, was used to explore the experiences of African American women who felt successful with breastfeeding. An integration of qualitative content analysis and Black feminist theory was used to analyze the data. Themes that emerged from Stage-2 data analysis included self-determination, spirituality and breastfeeding, and empowerment. In Stage 3 of the study, participant recommendations regarding breastfeeding promotion and support initiatives for African American breastfeeding were categorized into three themes, including engaging spheres of influence, sparking breastfeeding activism, and addressing images of the sexual breast vs. the nurturing breast. PMID:25288408
Barnett, E; Strogatz, D; Armstrong, D; Wing, S
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Despite significant declines since the late 1960s, coronary mortality remains the leading cause of death for African Americans. African Americans in the US South suffer higher rates of cardiovascular disease than African Americans in other regions; yet the mortality experiences of rural-dwelling African Americans, most of whom live in the South, have not been described in detail. This study examined urban-rural differentials in coronary mortality trends among African American...
James, Joy, Ed.; Farmer, Ruth, Ed.
This volume presents the stories of 11 African American women working in higher education and confronting racist and sexist practices. The chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Mixed Blood, New Voices" (Kaylynn Sullivan Two Trees); (2) "Carrying On" (Joyce Scott); (3) "African Philosophy, Theory, and 'Living Thinkers'" (Joy James);…
E. N. Anderson
Review of Grass Roots: African Origins of an American Art. Dale Rosengarten, Theodore Rosengarten, and Enid Schildkrout, eds. 2008. Museum for African Art, New York. Distributed by University of Washington Press, Seattle. Pp. 269, copiously illustrated in black-and-white and color. ISBN (cloth) 978-0-945802-50-1, (paper) 978-0-945802-51-8.
This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME) majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as the framework to better understand their opportunities to engage in free-choice science learning. The article demonstrates that African American women have access to cultural capital and informal sci...
Dotterer, Aryn M.; Lowe, Katie; McHale, Susan M.
This study explored trajectories of African American youths’ academic functioning and assessed whether changes in parent-adolescent relationships were associated with changes in youths’ academic functioning. The data were drawn from a three-year longitudinal study of gender socialization and development in two-parent African American families and included 197 families. Findings revealed gender differences in achievement trajectories and indicated that boys not only had lower levels of academi...
Denson, Cameron D.; Avery, Zanj K.; Schell, John W.
The purpose of this study was to critically examine the perceptions that African- American high school students have towards engineering. A qualitative research design using criterion sampling and snowballing was used to select seven African-American students from urban high schools to participate in the research. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data from participants attending urban high schools on the east and west coast. Using Critical Race Theory (CRT) as the theoretical f...
McDonald, Jasmine A; Weathers, Benita; Barg, Frances K.; Troxel, Andrea B; Shea, Judy A; Bowen, Deborah; Guerra, Carmen E.; Halbert, Chanita Hughes
Aims: Scientific agencies rely on individuals to donate their DNA to support research on chronic conditions that disproportionately affect African Americans; however, donation is variable in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify sociodemographic characteristics, health care variables, and cultural values having significant independent associations with intentions to donate blood or saliva samples for cancer genetics research among African American adults. Method: Cross-se...
Galvan, Frank H.; Davis, E. Maxwell; Banks, Denedria; Bing, Eric G.
HIV-related stigma and discrimination negatively impact African Americans living with HIV. Social support theory hypothesizes that social support can serve to protect individuals against the negative effects of stressors, such as discrimination, by leading them to interpret stressful occasions less negatively. This study sought to examine the relationship between perceived social support and perceived HIV stigma among HIV-positive African Americans. A cross-sectional convenience sample of 283...
Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Godley, Paul; DiMartino, Lisa; White, Brandolyn; Odom, Janice; Richmond, Alan; Carpenter, William
Cancer clinical trials are important for resolving cancer health disparities for several reasons; however, clinical trial participation among African Americans is significantly lower than Caucasians. This study engaged focus groups of 82 female African American cancer survivors or cancer caregivers, including those in better resourced, more urban areas and less resourced, more rural areas. Informed by an integrated conceptual model, the focus groups examined perceptions of cancer clinical tri...
Gilbert, Jackie; Carr-Ruffino, Norma; Ivancevich, John M.; Lownes-Jackson, Millicent
Undergraduates (n=127) read career histories (including photographs) of fictitious employees in a 2x2x2 design depicting job type (engineer/human resources), ethnicity (Asian or African American), and gender, with the same qualifications and performance information. African-American males were rated most negatively on work characteristics;…
... About Peripheral Arterial Disease (P.A.D.) for African Americans One in every 20 Americans over the age ... stroke. P.A.D. is more common in African Americans than any other racial or ethnic group. This ...
During Reconstruction, which is often called the most progressive period in American history, African Americans made great strides. By 1868 African American men constituted a majority of registered voters in South Carolina and Mississippi, and by 1870 eighty-five percent of Mississippi's black jurors could read and write. However, Reconstruction was followed by approximately one hundred years of Jim Crow laws, lynching, disenfranchisement, sharecropping, unequal educational resources, terrorism, racial caricatures, and convict leasing. The Civil Rights Revolution finally ended that period of despair, but the era of mass incarceration can be understood as a reaction to the Civil Rights Movement. This article attempts to understand the persistence of racism in the United States from slavery's end until the present. PMID:27108470
Full Text Available Obesity prevalence in United States (US adults exceeds 30% with highest prevalence being among blacks. Obesity is known to have significant effects on respiratory function and obese patients commonly report respiratory complaints requiring pulmonary function tests (PFTs. However, there is no large study showing the relationship between body mass index (BMI and PFTs in healthy African Americans (AA.To determine the effect of BMI on PFTs in AA patients who did not have evidence of underlying diseases of the respiratory system.We reviewed PFTs of 339 individuals sent for lung function testing who had normal spirometry and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO with wide range of BMI.Functional residual capacity (FRC and expiratory reserve volume (ERV decreased exponentially with increasing BMI, such that morbid obesity resulted in patients breathing near their residual volume (RV. However, the effects on the extremes of lung volumes, at total lung capacity (TLC and residual volume (RV were modest. There was a significant linear inverse relationship between BMI and DLCO, but the group means values remained within the normal ranges even for morbidly obese patients.We showed that BMI has significant effects on lung function in AA adults and the greatest effects were on FRC and ERV, which occurred at BMI values < 30 kg/m2. These physiological effects of weight gain should be considered when interpreting PFTs and their effects on respiratory symptoms even in the absence of disease and may also exaggerate existing lung diseases.
Full Text Available Controversey surrounds the phylogeography and origin of the R haplotype among Native Americans. Some researchers have suggested that Europeans spread this haplotype among Native Americans. The purpose of this study was to determine the origin of the R-M173 y-chromosome among Native Americans . It is the third most frequent y-chromosome possessed by Native Americans. Native Americans with the highest frequency of R-M173 haplotypes like the Ojibwa and Seminoles mated frequently with African males. Our findings indicate that the African male, Native American female pattern of mating in the United States probably led to the introduction and spread of R-M173 among Native Americans during slavery.
Whitfield, Keith E.; Kiddoe, Jared; Gamaldo, Alyssa; Andel, Ross; Christopher L Edwards
We calculated concordance rates and heritability for cognitive impairment in 95 same-sexed pairs of African American twins from the Carolina African American Twin Study on Aging (CAATSA). The average age of the sample was 59.6 yrs (SD = 8.6 years, range 50–88 years) and 60% of the sample was female. The Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS) was used in the assessment of cognitive impairment. We lowered the cutoff for cognitive impairment based on our previous research with African A...
Hussaini, Khaleel S; Hamm, Eric; Means, Toni
The article discusses Arizona's strategic implementation and evaluation of the first time motherhood initiative grant (FTMI) to understand preconception health among African American men and women in Arizona. Longitudinal focus groups assessed whether African American men and women in the targeted areas comprehended and recalled the messages related to preconception health. Matched pre and posttests assessed community members' knowledge of preconception as well as physicians' perceptions on preconception health and care. Focus-group data were transcribed and coded by independent coders to conduct content analyses. Inter-rater reliability and agreement among coders, bivariate and multivariate statistics were conducted for quantitative matched pre and posttests data using SAS v9.2 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). The social marketing campaign had limited impact in recall and comprehension of the preconception health message among African American men and women. Data from focus groups revealed that African American men and women perceived preconception health to be vital. And results from the pretest and posttests of community-based presentations, further supported this finding. Evidence from Grand Round presentations indicated that practitioners and health care providers had diverging views on preconception health. Use of community-based participatory mixed methods research can facilitate better understanding of the efficacy of strategic interventions such as FTMI and can provide valuable information on preconception health. Cost limitations often prohibit extensive evaluation of social marketing campaigns, hence, evaluators and researchers should assess the feasibility of conducting an efficacy study versus an effectiveness study in evaluating social marketing campaigns. PMID:23229170
O'Keefe, S.J.; Li, J.V.; Lahti, Leo; Ou, J.; Carbonero, F.; Khaled, M.; Postma, J.M.; Kinross, J.; Wahl, E.; Ruder, E.; Vipperla, K.; Naidoo, V.; Mtshali, L.; Tims, S.; Puylaert, P.G.B.; DeLany, J.; Krasinskas, A.; Benefiel, A.C.; Kaseb, H.O.; Newton, K.; Nicholson, J.K.; Vos, De W.M.; Gaskins, H.R.; Zoetendal, E.G.
Rates of colon cancer are much higher in African Americans (65:100,000) than in rural South Africans (<5:100,000). The higher rates are associated with higher animal protein and fat, and lower fibre consumption, higher colonic secondary bile acids, lower colonic short-chain fatty acid quantities and
Thompson, Shawn N.; Chambers, John W., Jr.
Investigated three models of relationships between African self-consciousness, health consciousness, and health-promoting behaviors among African American college students. The models included the mediator model, moderator model, and independent model. Surveys of 80 students supported the independent model, suggesting that African…
Hayes, Robert E., III
Globalization of the world economy has confirmed the need for citizens to exemplify competitive capacities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields. Since the 1970s, American higher education has seen increasing numbers of students entering college but has witnessed a decline in the number of students enrolling in STEM programs. African American men fall behind other students in regards to academic performance, persistence, and success throughout primary, secondary, and tertiary schooling. Accordingly, participation of African American men in STEM disciplines is low in comparison to White males and other race groups. Various factors have been identified as contributing to the academic failures of Black men. Poor academic and social preparedness, racial identity issues, institutional climates, negative stereotypes, and fear of success have been cited as potential contributors to the relative invisibility of African American men in STEM disciplines. This study explores the life stories of five African American male scholars in the college of engineering at a predominantly white university. The goal of the qualitative investigation is to help university faculty and administrators understand the institutional, interpersonal, and collective mechanisms influencing the success identities of African American male undergraduates in STEM academic programs. Understanding the lived experiences of this population may help universities innovate stronger supports for men of color in college and broaden the borders for all students interested in STEM careers.
Chen, Christopher Sze-Ming
This dissertation, Not To Repeat History: Racialization and Combinatory Textuality in Contemporary Asian American and African American Experimental Writing, examines the relationship between textual strategies and political imagination at work in Asian American and African American experimental writers Nathaniel Mackey, Myung Mi Kim, and Ed Roberson. Providing one of the first cross-cultural studies of contemporary Asian American and African American experimental writing, I contend that these...
Examined the perceptions of teachers of color and European American teachers regarding their African American principals' ability to lead successful urban schools. Survey and interview data indicated that in the areas of image management and relationship development, the two groups perceived their principals' leadership differently.(SM)
... two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-13944 Filed 6-6-12; 8:45 am] Billing... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8832 of June 1, 2012 African-American Music... piece of American culture, music offers a vibrant soundtrack to the story of our people and our...
AAVE is a form of American English spoken primarily by African Americans. Although an AAVE speaker's dialect may exhibit regional variation, there are still many salient features. The relationship between Black Music and Standard American Eng-lish is a reflection of the special situation of the mutual influence and infiltration of the African-American sub-culture and the main-stream American culture. African-American sub-culture is shaped under pressure from the main-stream culture, and af-fected the latter to so great an extent that African-American sub-culture has been identified as one of the most important feature of American culture. The origin and development of Black Music are closely related to the cultural life of the Blacks. Because of its innate cultural connotation and the musical feature such as lively rhythm, fast talking, omission of pronunciation, full of ob-scene language and rhyme, all the features mentioned above help to have a great effect on the development of the AAVE.
... indelible contributions to our Nation and our world. Throughout our history, African-American music has... traces our Nation's history. These quintessentially American styles of music have helped provide a common... America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-13660 Filed 6-4-10; 8:45...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with coronary artery disease are at high risk for adverse health outcomes. This risk can be diminished by aggressive lipid management, but adherence to lipid management guidelines is far from ideal and substantial racial disparities in care have been reported. Lipid treatment and goal attainment information is not readily available for large patient populations seen in the fee-for-service setting. As a result, national programs to improve lipid management in this setting may focus on lipid testing as an indicator of lipid management. We describe the detection, treatment, and control of dyslipdemia for African Americans and Caucasians with coronary artery disease to evaluate whether public health programs focusing on lipid testing can eliminate racial disparities in lipid management. Methods Physicians and medical practices with high numbers of prescriptions for coronary artery disease medications were invited to participate in the Quality Assurance Program. Medical records were reviewed from a random sample of patients with coronary artery disease seen from 1995 through 1998. Data related to the detection, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia were abstracted from the medical record and evaluated in cross-sectional stratified and logistic regression analyses using generalized estimation equations. Results Data from the medical records of 1,046 African Americans and 22,077 Caucasians seen in outpatient medical practices in 23 states were analyzed. African-American patients were younger, more likely to be women and to have diabetes, heart failure, and hypertension. The low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C testing rate for Caucasian men was over 1.4 times higher than that for African-American women and about 1.3 times higher than that for African-American men. Almost 60% of tested Caucasian men and less than half of tested African Americans were prescribed lipid-lowering drugs. Tested and treated Caucasian men
Aldrich, Melinda C.; Kumar, Rajesh; Colangelo, Laura A.; Williams, L. Keoki; Sen, Saunak; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Meibohm, Bernd; Galanter, Joshua; Hu, Donglei; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Liu, Yongmei; Harris, Tamara B.; Ziv, Elad; Zmuda, Joseph; Garcia, Melissa
Background Smoking tobacco reduces lung function. African Americans have both lower lung function and decreased metabolism of tobacco smoke compared to European Americans. African ancestry is also associated with lower pulmonary function in African Americans. We aimed to determine whether African ancestry modifies the association between smoking and lung function and its rate of decline in African Americans. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated a prospective ongoing cohort of 1,281 Afr...
Myers, HF; Wyatt, GE; Ullman, JB; Loeb, TB; Chin, D.; Prause, N.; Zhang, M.; Williams, JK; Slavich, GM; H. Liu
© 2014 American Psychological Association. All rights reserved. This study examined the utility of a lifetime cumulative adversities and trauma model in predicting the severity of mental health symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. We also tested whether ethnicity and gender moderate the effects of this stress exposure construct on mental health using multigroup structural equation modeling. A sample of 500 low-socioeconomic status African American and Latino men...
This descriptive study examined whether the coverage of African Americans in the feature articles in Sports Illustrated during the 1990s was representative of their participation levels. Nearly half of the articles featured European Americans; about one-third featured African Americans. More African Americans were featured in basketball, boxing,…
Full Text Available This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as the framework to better understand their opportunities to engage in free-choice science learning. The article demonstrates that African American women have access to cultural capital and informal science learning inside and outside of home and school environments in P-16 settings. In primary and secondary schools, African American girls acquire cultural capital and access to free-choice science learning in the home environment, museums, science fairs, student organizations and clubs. However, in high school African American female teenagers have fewer informal science learning opportunities like those such as those provided in primary school settings. In college, cultural capital is transmitted through informal science learning that consisted of involvement in student organizations, research projects, seminars, and conferences. These experiences contributed to their engagement and persistence in SME fields in K-16 settings. This research adds to cultural capital and informal science learning research by allowing scholars to better understand how African American women have opportunities to learn about the hidden curriculum of science through informal science settings throughout the educational pipeline.
Carthron, Dana L.; Busam, Maria Rivera
PURPOSE The purpose of this study is to compare the health of primary caregiving African American grandmothers with diabetes with African American women with diabetes who were not primary caregivers. DESIGN Using a comparative, descriptive, cross-sectional design, 34 African American primary caregiving grandmothers were compared with 34 non-caregiving women with diabetes mellitus; women aged 55–75 years were recruited for this study throughout the central Arkansas. METHODS To measure the overall health, data on blood pressure, body mass index measurements, HbA1c levels, total cholesterol, and urine protein and creatinine levels were collected from all the participants. RESULTS Statistically significant differences between the caregivers and non-caregivers groups in systolic pressure (t = −3.42, P = 0.001) and diastolic pressure (t = −3.790, P = 0.000) and urine protein (W = 294.00, P = 0.000) were noted. Additionally, a clinically significant difference in HbA1c was noted between groups. CONCLUSION Differences in systolic and diastolic pressures, urine protein, and clinically significant differences in HbA1c suggest that African American primary caregiving grandmothers with diabetes mellitus may have more difficulty in maintaining their diabetic health than non-caregiving African American women. PMID:27398044
Millett, Gregorio A; Jeffries, William L; Peterson, John L; Malebranche, David J; Lane, Tim; Flores, Stephen A; Fenton, Kevin A; Wilson, Patrick A; Steiner, Riley; Heilig, Charles M
Pooled estimates from across the African diaspora show that black men who have sex with men (MSM) are 15 times more likely to be HIV positive compared with general populations and 8·5 times more likely compared with black populations. Disparities in the prevalence of HIV infection are greater in African and Caribbean countries that criminalise homosexual activity than in those that do not criminalise such behaviour. With the exception of US and African epidemiological studies, most studies of black MSM mainly focus on outcomes associated with HIV behavioural risk rather than on prevalence, incidence, or undiagnosed infection. Nevertheless, black MSM across the African diaspora share common experiences such as discrimination, cultural norms valuing masculinity, concerns about confidentiality during HIV testing or treatment, low access to HIV drugs, threats of violence or incarceration, and few targeted HIV prevention resources. PMID:22819654
Louis J. Stewart; Jean Wells; Frank Ross
While African – American CPAs have experienced some considerable progress in the US public accounting profession over the past thirty years, their level of participation in the profession remains far below their representation in the general US population. While federal government data suggest that African – American men and women constitute over 11% of US business graduates, the AICPA estimates that only 4% of the major firms’ employment. Moreover, the rate of black CPA participation appear...
Chen, Yung-Chi; Tryon, Georgiana Shick
The present study investigated the direct and additive effects of racial minority stress and sexual minority stress on the psychological well-being among a community sample of 139 Asian American gay men. Self-esteem was tested to see whether it moderated or mediated the effects of perceived dual minority stress on psychological distress. Results…
Afolabi, I; Hamidi Asl, K; Nakamura, M; Jacobs, P; Hendrie, H; Benson, M D
The gene frequency of the transthyretin (TTR) mutation (Val122Ile) was studied in African and African-American populations. The African populations analyzed included the Zulu and Xhosa of South Africa, and Yorubas from the city of Ibadan, Nigeria. The African-American population included patients at the Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center, Indianapolis, and newborns from a local hospital in Indianapolis. The Val122Ile TTR mutation was identified in 1 of 55 Zulu, 0 of 34 Xhosa, 0 of 9 Nigerian subjects, 5 of 51 Veteran patients, and 3 of 103 newborns. Assuming the 2.91% prevalence in newborns to be the norm, there is a significant increased prevalence in the VA patient population. PMID:10842715
Mrug, Sylvie; King, Vinetra; Windle, Michael
African American adolescents report more depressive symptoms than their European American peers, but the reasons for these differences are poorly understood. This study examines whether risk factors in individual, family, school, and community domains explain these differences. African American and European American adolescents participating in the Birmingham Youth Violence Study (N = 594; mean age 13.2 years) reported on their depressive symptoms, pubertal development, aggressive and delinquent behavior, connectedness to school, witnessing violence, and poor parenting. Primary caregivers provided information on family income and their education level, marital status, and depression, and the adolescents' academic performance. African American adolescents reported more depressive symptoms than European American participants. Family socioeconomic factors reduced this difference by 29%; all risk factors reduced it by 88%. Adolescents' exposure to violence, antisocial behavior, and low school connectedness, as well as lower parental education and parenting quality, emerged as significant mediators of the group differences in depressive symptoms. PMID:26580552
Johnson, Diane Wynn
The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (2010) expects new industries to generate approximately 2.7 million jobs in science and technology by the year 2018, and there is concern as to whether there will be enough trained individuals to fill these positions. A tremendous resource remains untapped, African American students, especially African American males (National Science Foundation, 2009). Historically, African American males have been omitted from the so called science pipeline. Fewer African American males pursue a science discipline due, in part; to limiting factors they experience in school and at home (Ogbu, 2004). This is a case study of African American males who are enrolled in advanced science courses at a predominantly African American (84%) urban high school. Guided by expectancy-value theory (EVT) of achievement related results (Eccles, 2009; Eccles et al., 1983), twelve African American male students in two advanced science courses were observed in their science classrooms weekly, participated in an in-depth interview, developed a presentation to share with students enrolled in a tenth grade science course, responded to an open-ended identity questionnaire, and were surveyed about their perceptions of school. Additionally, the students' teachers were interviewed, and seven of the students' parents. The interview data analyses highlighted the important role of supportive parents (key socializers) who had high expectations for their sons and who pushed them academically. The students clearly attributed their enrollment in advanced science courses to their high regard for their science teachers, which included positive relationships, hands-on learning in class, and an inviting and encouraging learning environment. Additionally, other family members and coaches played important roles in these young men's lives. Students' PowerPoint(c) presentations to younger high school students on why they should take advanced science courses highlighted these
Stone, Daryl Bryant
The literature on African-American males (AAM) begins with a statement to the effect that "Today young Black men are more likely to be killed or sent to prison than to graduate from college." Why are the numbers of African-American male college graduates decreasing? Why are those enrolled in college not majoring in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines? This research explored why African-American males are not filling the well-recognized industry need for Computer Scientist/Technologists by choosing college tracks to these careers. The literature on STEM disciplines focuses largely on women in STEM, as opposed to minorities, and within minorities, there is a noticeable research gap in addressing the needs and opportunities available to African-American males. The primary goal of this study was therefore to examine the computer science "pipeline" from the African-American male perspective. The method included a "Computer Science Degree Self-Efficacy Scale" be distributed to five groups of African-American male students, to include: (1) fourth graders, (2) eighth graders, (3) eleventh graders, (4) underclass undergraduate computer science majors, and (5) upperclass undergraduate computer science majors. In addition to a 30-question self-efficacy test, subjects from each group were asked to participate in a group discussion about "African-American males in computer science." The audio record of each group meeting provides qualitative data for the study. The hypotheses include the following: (1) There is no significant difference in "Computer Science Degree" self-efficacy between fourth and eighth graders. (2) There is no significant difference in "Computer Science Degree" self-efficacy between eighth and eleventh graders. (3) There is no significant difference in "Computer Science Degree" self-efficacy between eleventh graders and lower-level computer science majors. (4) There is no significant difference in "Computer Science Degree
Williams, Terrinieka T; Pichon, Latrice C; Campbell, Bettina
While research suggests youth prefer parents and family members to serve as the primary sources of sexual health information, fear and discomfort around discussing sex with their parents may leave youth misinformed and underinformed. This study explored sexual heath communication within religious African-American families. Thirty adolescents participated in four focus groups, and 19 adults and 30 adolescents participated in six focus groups, at two predominantly African-American Christian churches in Flint, MI. All data were analyzed inductively using a constant comparison approach. Nearly all participants reported attending church weekly. Three themes emerged and are described: initiating sex talks, using mistakes as teaching tools, and clarifying prevention messages. Participants highlighted the need for religious parents to offer both religious and practical guidance to adolescents about sexual health. Findings from this study may be used to inform future sexual health promotion interventions for religious African-American families. PMID:24901449
Becker, D; Liddle, H A
Almost two-thirds of African American births are to unmarried mothers, and these single parents are among the most economically vulnerable in the United States. The effects of chronic stressors such as poverty can compromise the ability of these mothers to parent effectively, particularly during the developmental period of adolescence, typically a stressful phase of parenting. This article describes a multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) approach to working with African American adolescents who have drug and/or behavior problems. It is maintained that addressing the intrapersonal functioning of African American single mothers is vital if they are to re-establish the attachment bonds necessary for the maintenance of essential parental influence in the lives of their adolescents. Through systematic attention to the parent as an individual, leading to a balance between self-care and care for others, parental supervision is more easily achieved and relational impasses between parent and adolescent more equitably resolved. PMID:11802488
Cecilia S Obeng
Full Text Available There are health benefits to breastfeeding for both mothers and their children. The preventive health effects of breastfeeding continue into adulthood, lowering rate of various chronic illnesses. African American women, especially of lower socioeconomic status, are less likely to breastfeed in comparison to their racial and ethnic counterparts. The purpose of this study was to explore how African American women experience breastfeeding in the early stages of postpartum care. Two focus groups (N=20, 10 in each group were conducted with African American mothers. Results revealed that participants felt that there were health benefits to breastfeeding, and organizations such as WIC provided support. However, participants stated that lack of information, negative perceptions, and unforeseen circumstances were barriers to breastfeeding. This study proposes support and interventions for this group to increase breastfeeding among this population.
Szpara, Michelle Y.; Wylie, E. Caroline
Differential performance results occur when a specific population subgroup achieves a passing rate which is significantly lower than that of the normative reference group. African Americans do less well, in general, on all types of assessments, including constructed-response tests. The present study examined the writing styles of African American…
Yasui, Miwa; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Keenan, Kate
Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of cultural factors (ethnic identity, perceived discrimination), family relations, and child problem type on mental health service utilization in a community sample of 1,480 adolescent girls (860 African American, 620 European American) between ages 15 and 17 years enrolled in the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Results revealed ethnic identity, caregiver attachment, and conduct disorder were related to service use among African American girls. Among European American girls, correlate patterns differed by clinical need. Findings highlight the need for research on health disparities to examine racially specific influences on service utilization. PMID:25380787
McDougall, Graham J.; Holston, Ezra C.; Wilke, Pat
A total of 218 adults with an average age of seventy-eight years participated in a study of memory performance in community elders. A computer-generated random zip code list of adults ≥70 years of age was purchased and a four-phase telephone-screening plan was adopted. During the second year, the sampling plan had to be changed, with a convenience-sampling plan being adopted to recruit adequate numbers of African-American subjects. Fifty-seven percent of the African-American subjects (N = 55)...
John Schmitt; Ben Zipperer
This report examines the unionization rates of African-American workers and finds that the relative representation of African Americans has been steadily declining in unions, manufacturing, and auto manufacturing.
Tegegne, Fissesha; Ekanem, Enefiok; Singh, Surendra P.; Speller-Henderson, Leslie
This paper documents consumption of Food Away From Home (FAFH) by selected AfricanÂ Americans residing in Nashville, Tennessee, and identifies factors that influence the decision of African-Americans to consume FAFH.
Farkas, George; And Others
Analyses of National Longitudinal Survey data indicate that cognitive skill level affects access to high-skill occupations and earnings. Lower cognitive skill levels for African Americans and U.S.-born Mexican Americans explain a substantial proportion of income differences between these groups and European Americans but not the gender gap in pay…
Danielle Taana Smith
This study examines the participation of African Americans on social networking sites (SNS), and evaluates the degree to which African Americans engage in activities in the online environment to mitigate social capital deficits. Prior literature suggests that compared with whites, African Americans have less social capital that can enhance their socio-economic mobility. As such, my research question is: do African Americans enhance their social capital through their participation on SNS? I us...
Paxton, KC; Williams, JK; Bolden, S; Guzman, Y; Harawa, NT
Background: HIV continues to impact African American women at alarming rates. Yet, few researchers have examined the relationship factors promoting unprotected sex within African American communities, especially instances in which women are aware that their male partners are engaging in high risk behaviors. This qualitative study explored the sexual behaviors, relationship characteristics, and HIV prevention strategies utilized by African American women in relationships with African American ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplotypes have become popular tools for tracing maternal ancestry, and several companies offer this service to the general public. Numerous studies have demonstrated that human mtDNA haplotypes can be used with confidence to identify the continent where the haplotype originated. Ideally, mtDNA haplotypes could also be used to identify a particular country or ethnic group from which the maternal ancestor emanated. However, the geographic distribution of mtDNA haplotypes is greatly influenced by the movement of both individuals and population groups. Consequently, common mtDNA haplotypes are shared among multiple ethnic groups. We have studied the distribution of mtDNA haplotypes among West African ethnic groups to determine how often mtDNA haplotypes can be used to reconnect Americans of African descent to a country or ethnic group of a maternal African ancestor. The nucleotide sequence of the mtDNA hypervariable segment I (HVS-I usually provides sufficient information to assign a particular mtDNA to the proper haplogroup, and it contains most of the variation that is available to distinguish a particular mtDNA haplotype from closely related haplotypes. In this study, samples of general African-American and specific Gullah/Geechee HVS-I haplotypes were compared with two databases of HVS-I haplotypes from sub-Saharan Africa, and the incidence of perfect matches recorded for each sample. Results When two independent African-American samples were analyzed, more than half of the sampled HVS-I mtDNA haplotypes exactly matched common haplotypes that were shared among multiple African ethnic groups. Another 40% did not match any sequence in the database, and fewer than 10% were an exact match to a sequence from a single African ethnic group. Differences in the regional distribution of haplotypes were observed in the African database, and the African-American haplotypes were more likely to match haplotypes
Proctor, Sherrie L.; Truscott, Stephen D.
Since the mid 1960s, there has been a noticeable decrease in the percentage of African American educators. Although a sizeable literature is dedicated to understanding how to recruit African American teachers, fewer studies focus on recruiting and retaining African American school psychologists. Therefore, this exploratory qualitative study…
Curry, Nettavia Doreen
This dissertation examines the impact mentoring relationships, between African American women doctoral students and faculty members, has on the students' professional identity development. Of particular interest is an examination of whether matched mentoring relationships between African American women doctoral students and African American female…
Brooks, Michael; Steen, Sam
The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of African American male counselor educators regarding the limited number of African American male faculty members in counselor education. Implications and suggestions on how universities can recruit and retain African American male faculty members are provided.
Nasuti, John P.; York, Reginald; Sandell, Karen
The number of U.S. children entering foster care is increasing faster than the number of available foster parents. Of particular concern are the growing number of African American children in foster care and the lack of African American foster parents to care for them. This study compares role perceptions of African American and white foster…
Tatum, Alfred W.
Drawing from a sociohistorical understanding of the roles of texts for African American males and data from a recent survey of teens' meaningful experiences with texts, the author provides a general understanding of the roles of texts among African American males and African American male adolescents' meaningful relationships with texts. These…
This paper explores the presence of African American Vernacular English patterns in the reading of one child over a 20-week period. In this paper, I present insights from linguists about African American Vernacular English, list linguistic patterns characteristic of African American Vernacular English speakers, examine the relationship between the…
Horton-Ikard, RaMonda; Pittman, Ramona T.
This article describes the use of African American English (AAE) in the written and oral language of African American adolescents who struggle with writing. Written and oral language samples of 22 African American 10th-grade students were transcribed, analyzed, and coded for AAE, grammatical errors, spelling errors, and punctuation errors. Four…
Sly, Jamilia R.; Edwards, Tiffany; Shelton, Rachel C.; Jandorf, Lina
African Americans have a higher rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality than other racial/ethnic groups. This disparity is alarming given that CRC is largely preventable through the use of endoscopy (screening colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy), yet rates of CRC screening among African Americans is suboptimal. Only 48.9% of African Americans are…
Brown, Stacey Marvetta
The state of African American education is complex. Beginning in the 17th century, African Americans fought for an education that allowed them to read and write. During the 21st century, African Americans value on education extends beyond only reading and writing to using these skills and other skills to maintain strong academic and leadership…
Ross, Henry H.; Edwards, Willie J.
A Delphi method was used with a panel of 24 African American faculty employed at 43 predominantly white doctoral extensive universities to arrive at a group consensus on a list of concerns that African American faculty in general experienced or held. Using the Delphi method a panel of African American faculty initially worked from a list of eight…
Young, Sean D; Shoptaw, Steve
High stimulant-using and at-risk HIV populations, such as African American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), are increasingly using social networking technologies. However, no known research has explored associations between stimulant use, sexual risk behaviors, and social networking among these populations. Participants were recruited using the Facebook Connect software application, which narrowed the sample to 118 (primarily African American and Latino MSM) active Facebook users. Participants completed demographic, Internet and social media use, and drug use survey items. Participants reported high rates of cocaine and methamphetamine use (both more than 15% within the past 12 months). More than 70% of participants reported using social networking technologies to meet people, and more than 30% used them to find sexual partners. A multivariate logistic regression showed that (1) participants using social networks to find sexual partners were more likely to have used methamphetamines within the past 12 months and (2) those who were more comfortable talking online compared to face-to-face had over 4 times the odds of methamphetamine use and over 6 times the odds of cocaine use within the past 12 months. Minority MSM who used social networks to meet men and find sexual partners had high risk for stimulant use. Understanding drug use among minority social networking users will provide insights to incorporate these technologies into drug prevention interventions. PMID:23480246
Clarke-Tasker, Veronica A; Wade, Revia
This study applied the Health Belief Model in determining African American male's knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of prostate cancer and early detection methods. The ultimate value of the information assessed from this population was used to design specific theory-based, culturally relevant interventions which may decrease mortality in this high-risk population. Two focus groups were conducted with African-American men whose ages ranged from 38-80 years. After consenting to audio-taping, participants completed a survey questionnaire and viewed a culturally appropriate video on prostate cancer. Results indicate that, on average, the men believed in the efficacy of prostate cancer early detection methods. Study participants felt physicians did not adequately screen or suggest that they be screened for prostate cancer. Men between 40 and 50 years of age expressed concern about possible changes in their sex life if diagnosed with prostate cancer. Despite having limited knowledge of prostate cancer they considered a digital rectal examination to be embarrassing and uncomfortable. However, they were not opposed to having the procedure done. PMID:12108141
Stephenson, Rob; Elfstrom, K. Miriam; Winter, Amy
Despite efforts to increase HIV testing in the African region, the proportion of men who report ever having been tested for HIV remains low. Research has focused on individual level determinants of women's testing however little is known about factors associated with men's testing behavior. This analysis investigates community influences on HIV testing among men ages 15–54, using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from Chad, Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe...
Epps, Sharon K.
Effective leadership and increasing diversity are central concerns in the library profession. Using qualitative interviewing and research methods, this study identifies the attributes, knowledge, and skills that African American women need in order to be successful leaders in today's Association of Research Libraries (ARL). These findings indicate…
Jett, Christopher C.
In this article, the author utilizes the culturally congruent work of Gay (2010) and Ladson-Billings (2009) to highlight culturally responsive teaching as a viable option for African American students in higher education mathematics spaces. He offers translations of Gay and Ladson-Billings' work to Africana mathematics and argues that these…
Graham, Sandra; Taylor, April; Hudley, Cynthia
A 12-week, 32-lesson afterschool intervention was conducted with third-to fifth-grade urban African American boys classified as aggressive. Grounded in attribution theory and organized around the construct of perceived responsibility in self and others, the intervention focused on increasing both social skills and academic motivation. Participants…
Palapattu, Anuradha G.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.
The present study evaluated gender role theory as an explanation for the observed gender differences in anxiety symptoms among adolescents. Specifically, the relation between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity), self-esteem, and anxiety symptoms was examined in a community sample of 114 African Americans aged 14 to…
Lee, E. Bun
The author examined the environmental attitudes of African American college students by using the 15-item New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) Scale. The author also attempted to determine their everyday environmental behaviors such as recycling and conservation and investigated major information sources for local, national, and international…
Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey
Academic interest in homeschooling has increased over the last decade, as what was once perceived as a marginal development, has, in fact, turned into a significant and growing phenomenon. There has been, in recent years, a noticeable surge in African American involvement in the homeschooling movement as well. However, there continues to be a…
Graves, Scott L., Jr.
Albert Sidney Beckham was the first African American to hold the title school psychologist. This article examines the life and professional career of Beckham in the context of his contributions to the field of school psychology. It explores his graduate education, the founding of Howard University's Psychological Laboratory and his research and…
Irving, Miles Anthony; Hudley, Cynthia
This study investigated the relationship between intercultural perceptions, identity, and academic achievement among African American males. Specifically, this study investigated the relationship of academic achievement, cultural mistrust, oppositional cultural attitudes, ethnic identity development and educational outcome expectations and value,…
O'Brien, Kathryn Mary
The purpose of the current research was to examine racial, male and athletic identities and their individual and collective impact on the academic performance of African American male Division I student-athletes (AAMSAs). Data was collected using the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity (MIBI), the Male Role Norms Scale (MRNS), and the…
Benson, Kirsten F.
This qualitative study interviewed eight academically "at risk" African American athletes at a southeastern university with a major revenue-producing football program. Analysis suggested that the athletes' marginal academic performance was constructed in a system of interrelated practices engaged in by all the significant members of the academic…
Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T; Chavous, Tabbye M; Hurd, Noelle; Varner, Fatima
African American adolescents are faced with the challenge to be successful academically, even though they may experience racial discrimination within school settings. Unfortunately, relatively little scholarship explores how African American adolescents draw on personal and cultural assets to persist and thrive in the face of discriminatory experiences. Additionally, little research has explored the buffering role of assets (e.g., racial pride, self-efficacy, and self-acceptance) on the relationship between school-based racial discriminatory experiences and the academic persistence of African American adolescents. Participants in the current study included 220 (58 % girls) socioeconomically diverse African American adolescents. Latent class analysis was utilized to identify clusters based on participants' racial pride, self-efficacy, and self-acceptance. Three cluster groups were identified. The majority of the students belonged to the average group in which adolescents reported average levels of the three study assets. Adolescents in the higher group reported higher assets relative to their peers in the study and those in the lower group reported lower strength-based assets relative to their peers. Results indicated that school-based racial discrimination was associated with lower levels of academic persistence. Additionally, adolescents in the higher assets group reported higher academic persistence in comparison to the average and low group. Our model reflected a promotive but not protective influence of adolescents' assets on their academic persistence. PMID:23700259
Watson, Laurel B.; Robinson, Dawn; Dispenza, Franco; Nazari, Negar
The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…
.... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-14170 Filed 6-6-11; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8684 of May 31, 2011 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The music of...
Talleyrand, Regine M.
Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…
Kane, Justine M.
The goal of this study is to bring the voices of African American boys front and center in science education research in an effort to strengthen our understandings of their experiences of school and science. Using an interpretivist perspective within a narrative inquiry approach, I focus on the student and science-student identities two African…
Boone, Rosalie S.; King-Berry, Arlene
Impressive advancements have been made in educational opportunities for students with disabilities, whose historic relationship with American public schools has been marked by educational disenfranchisement or mis-education. Critical judicial impetus for these educational opportunities was provided by landmark court cases in which African American…
Uses the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series to trace race differences in African American family structure between 1880 and 1980. Confirms a long-standing high incidence rate of single parenthood and children residing without their parents. Data also show blacks have had a consistently higher percentage of extended households than have whites.…
Peter P. KIRIAKIDIS
Full Text Available The research site was one high school in the southern United States where African American males were suspended at greater rates than their counterparts. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the perspectives of high school administrators and teachers regarding alternatives to suspending African American males in one southern high school within a public school district. Guided by the social learning theory, the research question focused on the suspensions of these students. Data were collected through in-depth, semi structured, face-to-face interviews with a purposive sample of 6 high school teachers and 2 administrators, and coded and analyzed for emergent themes. The findings revealed that African American high school males might benefit from education programs such as character education programs to develop social, academic, and discipline skills. The findings of this study may be used for professional development for teachers and administrators regarding strategies to reduce suspensions of African American high school males, which might facilitate their graduation from high school and subsequent entry into higher education or the workforce.lications to display the level of psychological strain and workplace stressors among nurses as part of the postmodern organizational problems. Classification-JEL: A23
The present study linked gender and grade level to homework management strategies and homework completion behaviours. The participants were 685 African American students in the south-eastern USA, including 370 eighth graders and 315 eleventh graders. Gender appeared related to the majority of homework measures examined in the present study.…
Gentry, Ruben; Stokes, Dorothy
Many African Americans were imbued with the cliché that they must work twice as hard as others to be a success in life. Entering college, students with this belief put extensive effort into earning top grades to ensure quality preparation for their chosen career; yet, some fail to earn top scores. Why? This is the million dollar question, but the…
Oaks, D'Arcy John; Duckett, Kirstan; Suddeth, Todd; Kennedy-Phillips, Lance
Qualitative interviews were employed to assess the effectiveness of a leadership program geared toward African American male personal and professional development, and to examine the relationship between program participation and connectedness. Elements of both social engagement (mentoring and being mentored, peer-to-peer relationships, and…
Uhrig, Jennifer D.; Davis, Kevin C.; Rupert, Doug; Fraze, Jami
Objective: To examine whether there is an association between knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, reported intentions to get an HIV test, and reported HIV testing behaviour at a later date among a sample of African American women. Design: Secondary analysis of data collected from October 2007 through March 2008 for a randomized controlled experiment…
Proctor, Sherrie L.; Truscott, Stephen D.
This phenomenological study used a series of three in-depth interviews with seven African American participants, for a total of 21 interviews, to explore their experiences in the specialist and doctoral level school psychology programs they left prior to obtaining a professional entry-level degree. The study's purpose was to investigate what…
Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Nettles, Saundra Murray; O'Campo, Patricia J.; Lohrfink, Kimberly Fraleigh
Differences in racial socialization practices and their effects were examined in a sample of 241 African American 1st graders (average age 6.59 years) living in an urban area. Child outcomes included cognitive development, receptive language skills, and child problem behavior. The cultural environment of the home was associated with higher…
Jackson, Jacquelyne Faye
Educators should banish the specter of African-American children as high-risk, budding disasters and closely examine these children's schooling environment. Black children of all incomes are schooled in highly segregated settings, due to residential segregation. Exposure to health hazards (lead-based paint) and corporal punishment are serious…
Stansbury, Kim L.; Wimsatt, Maureen; Simpson, Gaynell Marie; Martin, Fayetta; Nelson, Nancy
Depression is a serious public health concern in the United States affecting almost 18.8 million adults. It is a common mental disorder in college students, with estimates of 1 in 4 "experiencing an episode by age 24." African American college students are at an elevated risk for depression due to racism, stress, sleep deprivation, and lack of…
Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.
This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…
Koger, Alicia Kae
A white woman professor teaching a black theater history course describes her experiences in the classroom, including the realization of students' expectations of her, her own fears of miscommunicating, the perspectives expressed by students in their journals, differences in white and African American student responses to the same material, and…
Holmes, Khiela J.; Lochman, John E.
This study examined the role of parent and preadolescent religiosity in aggression among African American preadolescents with moderate to high aggression. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to determine (a) which aspects of parent and preadolescent religiosity (i.e., church attendance, private religious activities, and intrinsic…
James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen
Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…
Rust, Jonathan P.; Jackson, Margo A.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Blumberg, Fran C.
Biculturalism was examined as a factor that may positively affect the academic achievement of African American high school students, beyond cultural identity and self-esteem. Hierarchical regression analyses determined that cultural identity and academic self-esteem were important factors for academic achievement, but not biculturalism.…
Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.
Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship…
Booker, Quinton; Hill, Cecil L.; Wright, Carl
The study provides information on African American accounting majors' views regarding 150-hr issues. The authors collected data from 152 students at two schools. Students at one school supported the requirement while those at the other school did not. However, students believed that the 150-hr requirement enhances the quality of certified public…
Murimi, Mary; Chrisman, Matthew S.; McAllister, Tiffany; McDonald, Olevia D.
Approximately 8.3% of the U.S. population (25.8 million people) is affected by type 2 diabetes. The burden of diabetes is disproportionately greater in the African American community. Compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian adults, the risk of diagnosed type 2 diabetes was 77% higher among non-Hispanic Blacks, who are 27% more likely to die of…
An African-American freshman at Harvard University keeps a diary of her first year at college, noting experiences of racial isolation and solidarity, and the difficulties in being both Black and female in the highly competitive Harvard environment. A recurring theme is that of her alienation from others. (SLD)
O'Neill, Shannon K.
Data from 18 studies were reviewed to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and eating disturbances, focusing on the relationship between African American and white women. Although white women had more risk of eating disturbances, the effect size was small. White women had slightly more risk for all eating disturbances combined. African…
Tatum, Alfred; Gue, Valerie
Historically speaking, reading and writing among African Americans were collaborative acts involving a wide range of texts that held social, economic, political, or spiritual significance. One of the constants of literacy collaboratives was being regularly and purposefully engaged with print within a meaningful social context. During the summer of…
Gallagher, J Christopher; Jindal, Prachi S; Smith, Lynette M
There is limited information on the effects of vitamin D on serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in young people and none on African Americans. The main objective of this trial was to measure the effect of different doses of vitamin D3 on serum 25OHD and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in young women with vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25OHD ≤ 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L). A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D3 was conducted in young white and African American women, age 25 to 45 years. A total of 198 healthy white (60%) and African American (40%) women were randomly assigned to placebo, or to 400, 800, 1600, or 2400 IU of vitamin D3 daily. Calcium supplements were added to maintain a total calcium intake of 1000 to 1200 mg daily. The primary outcomes of the study were the final serum 25OHD and PTH levels at 12 months. The absolute increase in serum 25OHD with 400, 800, 1600, and 2400 IU of vitamin D daily was slightly greater in African American women than in white women. On the highest dose of 2400 IU/d, the mixed model predicted that mean 25OHD increased from baseline 12.4 ng/mL (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.2-15.7) to 43.2 ng/mL (95% CI, 38.2-48.1) in African American women and from 15.0 ng/mL (95% CI, 12.3-17.6) to 39.1 ng/mL (95% CI, 36.2-42.0) in white women. There was no significant effect of vitamin D dose on serum PTH in either race but there was a significant inverse relationship between final serum PTH and serum 25OHD. Serum 25OHD exceeded 20 ng/mL in 97.5% of whites on the 400 IU/d dose and between 800 and 1600 IU/d for African Americans. The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) suggested by the Institute of Medicine for young people is 600 IU daily. The increase in serum 25OHD after vitamin D supplementation was similar in young and old, and in white and African American women. PMID:23761326
Wilson, Travis; Karimpour, Ramin; Rodkin, Philip C.
Focusing on a sample of 382 African American (206 female) and 264 European American (132 female) students in diverse fourth and fifth grade classrooms, this study investigated three questions concerning the connections between peer groups and academic achievement during early adolescence: (a) How is group structure (i.e., hierarchy and cohesion)…
Berkel, LaVerne A.; Constantine, Madonna G.
The authors explored associations among relationship harmony, perceived family conflicts, relational self-concept, and life satisfaction in a sample of 169 African American and Asian American college women. As hypothesized, higher relational self-concept, or the extent to which individuals include close relationships in their self-concepts, and…
Edwards, Jan; Gross, Megan; Chen, Jianshen; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Kaplan, David; Brown, Megan; Seidenberg, Mark S.
Purpose: This study was designed to examine the relationships among minority dialect use, language ability, and young African American English (AAE)-speaking children's understanding and awareness of Mainstream American English (MAE). Method: Eighty-three 4- to 8-year-old AAE-speaking children participated in 2 experimental tasks. One task…
This book contends that the American public education system has made "black male" synonymous with "disabled" through the creation of the labels "Behavior Disorders" and "Emotional Disorders." These labels, which say that African American boys cannot behave without special treatment, juvenile probation, and, in many cases, drugs, condemns African…
Wu, Fang; Qi, Sen
Using the sub-samples drawn from the National Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: Kindergarten (ECLS-K) database, this study examines similarities and differences between African-American and Asian-American parents in their parenting practice (i.e., parental involvement at home, expectations of child, emotional expressiveness, school involvement,…
Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Buchanan, Christy M.; McDonald, Richard M.
Traditional conceptualizations of parenting style assume certain associations between parenting practices/philosophies and parental warmth. This study examines whether those links are similar for European American and African American adolescents. Two hundred and ninety-eight early adolescents and their mothers reported on discipline and control…
Peterson, Tina L; Chatters, Linda M; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Nguyen, Ann W
This study examined demographic and mental health correlates of subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, happiness) using a national sample of older African Americans with psychiatric disorders. We used a subsample of 185 African Americans, 55 and older with at least one of thirteen lifetime psychiatric disorders from The National Survey of American Life: Coping with Stress in the 21st Century (NSAL). The findings indicated that among this population of older adults who had a lifetime psychiatric disorder, having a lifetime suicidal ideation was associated with life satisfaction but not happiness. Further, having a 12-month anxiety disorder or a lifetime suicidal ideation was not associated with happiness. Having a 12-month mood disorder, however, was negatively associated with an individual's level of happiness, as well as their life satisfaction. Additionally, there were two significant interactions. Among men, employment was positively associated with life satisfaction, and marriage was associated with higher levels of happiness among men but not women. The overall pattern of findings reflects both similarities and departures from prior research confirming that well-being evaluations are associated with multiple factors. PMID:25328428
Navid Salehi Babamiri
Full Text Available The three novels try mightily to show African- American women in a politically swift twist. In all these novels women receive political oppressions which are completely hard to cope with. Sexism and racism are menned as formidable obstacles for suppressing and preventing women from social participations. Walker tactfully suggests that besides of interpersonal and communal supports, self-realization and individualism are considered as important elements in liberation of black color women. So the present study takes a look at women‟s miserable life and how they develop to the best of their ability to break the negative effect of masculinity which is done through womanist approach.
Petty, Cailisha L.
This study used narrative inquiry as a methodology to explore the lived experiences of five African American women in science across the academic spectrum, from doctoral candidate to full professor. The research questions guiding the inquiry included one overarching question and three sub-questions: What are the lifestories of successful African American women in science?; a) How do successful African American women in science define themselves?; b) What have been the facilitators and barriers encountered by successful African American women in science?; and c) What have been the systems of support for African American women in science? The study was theoretically positioned within the frameworks of Critical Race Theory and Black Feminist Thought. The two theories were used to guide all aspects of the study including methodology, data collection, and analysis. Data included eleven 40-60 minute semi-structured interview transcripts as well as the participants' Curriculum Vitae. The study design and data analysis were built upon Clandinin and Connelly's (2000) and Clandinin's (2006) model of narrative inquiry which explores narratives as a means to understand experience. Analysis and interpretation created three dominant narratives: Scientific Beginnings, An Unexpected Journey, and Lift as You Climb. Each narrative set explores multiple stories that describe storylines which aligned with the participants' goals of who they were and who they were becoming as scientists; and, storylines of tension which ran counter to the women's goals and aspirations. Barriers and support systems are revealed, as well as the meanings the participants made of their experiences and how it affected their lives.
Full Text Available The incidence of chronic kidney disease varies by ethnic group in the USA, with African Americans displaying a two-fold higher rate than European Americans. One of the two defining variables underlying staging of chronic kidney disease is the glomerular filtration rate. Meta-analysis in individuals of European ancestry has identified 23 genetic loci associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. We conducted a follow-up study of these 23 genetic loci using a population-based sample of 1,018 unrelated admixed African Americans. We included in our follow-up study two variants in APOL1 associated with end-stage kidney disease discovered by admixture mapping in admixed African Americans. To address confounding due to admixture, we estimated local ancestry at each marker and global ancestry. We performed regression analysis stratified by local ancestry and combined the resulting regression estimates across ancestry strata using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effects model. We found that 11 of the 24 loci were significantly associated with eGFR in our sample. The effect size estimates were not significantly different between the subgroups of individuals with two copies of African ancestry vs. two copies of European ancestry for any of the 11 loci. In contrast, allele frequencies were significantly different at 10 of the 11 loci. Collectively, the 11 loci, including four secondary signals revealed by conditional analyses, explained 14.2% of the phenotypic variance in eGFR, in contrast to the 1.4% explained by the 24 loci in individuals of European ancestry. Our findings provide insight into the genetic basis of variation in renal function among admixed African Americans.
Mikuls, Ted R.; Sayles, Harlan; Yu, Fang; LeVan, Tricia; Gould, Karen A.; Thiele, Geoffrey M.; Conn, Doyt; Jonas, Beth L.; Callahan, Leigh F.; Smith, Edwin; Brasington, Richard; Moreland, Larry W.; Reynolds, Richard; Bridges, S. Louis
Objective To examine the associations of cigarette smoking with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in African Americans and to determine to whether this association is impacted by HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE). Methods Smoking status, cumulative smoking exposure, and SE status were measured in African American patients with RA and in healthy controls. Associations of smoking with RA were examined using age- and gender-adjusted logistic regression. Additive and multiplicative SE-smoking interactions were examined. Results After adjusting for age and gender, ever (OR = 1.45; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.97) and current smoking (OR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.07 to 2.26) were more common in African American RA cases (n = 605) than in controls (n = 255). The association of smoking with RA was limited to those with a cumulative exposure exceeding 10 pack-years, associations that were evident in both autoantibody positive and negative disease. There was evidence of a significant additive interaction between SE status and heavy smoking (≥ 10 pack-years) in RA risk (attributable proportion due to interaction [AP] of 0.58, p = 0.007) with an AP of 0.47 (p = 0.006) between SE status and ever smoking. There was no evidence of multiplicative interactions. Conclusion Among African Americans, cigarette smoking is associated not only with the risk of autoantibody positive RA but also with the risk of autoantibody negative disease. RA risk attributable to smoking is limited to African Americans with more than 10 pack-years of exposure and is more pronounced among individuals positive for HLA-DRB1 SE. PMID:20722010
Le, Daisy; Holt, Cheryl L; Hosack, Dominic P; Huang, Jin; Clark, Eddie M
This study reports on the association between religious beliefs and behaviors and the change in both general and religious social support using two waves of data from a national sample of African Americans. The Religion and Health in African Americans (RHIAA) study is a longitudinal telephone survey designed to examine relationships between various aspects of religious involvement and psychosocial factors over time. RHIAA participants were 3173 African American men (1281) and women (1892). A total of 1251 men (456) and women (795) participated in wave 2 of data collection. Baseline religious behaviors were associated with increased overall religious social support from baseline to wave 2 (p < .001) and with increased religious social support from baseline to wave 2 in each of the following religious social support subscales: emotional support received (p < .001), emotional support provided (p < .001), negative interaction (p < .001), and anticipated support (p < .001). Religious beliefs did not predict change in any type of support, and neither beliefs nor behaviors predicted change in general social support. African Americans who are active in faith communities showed increases in all types of religious social support, even the negative aspects, over a relatively modest longitudinal study period. This illustrates the strength of the church as a social network and the role that it plays in people's lives. PMID:26493343
Holt, Cheryl L; Oster, Robert A; Clay, Kimberly S; Urmie, Julie; Fouad, Mona
The literature suggests that religiosity helps cope with illness. The present study examined the role of religiosity in functioning among African Americans and Whites with a cancer diagnosis. Patients were recruited from an existing study and mailed a religiosity survey. Participants (N = 269; 36% African American, 56% women) completed the mail survey, and interview data from the larger cohort was utilized in the analysis. Multivariate analyses indicated that in the overall sample religious behaviors were marginally and positively associated with mental health and negatively with depressive symptoms. Among women, religious behaviors were positively associated with mental health and negatively with depressive symptoms. Religiosity was not a predictor of study outcomes for men. Among African Americans, religious behaviors were positively associated with mental health and vitality. Among Whites, religious behaviors were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. These findings suggest a mixed role of religious involvement in cancer outcomes. The current findings may have applied potential in the areas of emotional functioning and depression. PMID:21966724
Liebson Philip R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk associated with diabetes may be partially attributed to left ventricular structural abnormalities. However, the relations between left ventricular structure and diabetes have not been extensively studied in African-Americans. Methods We studied 514 male and 965 female African-Americans 51 to 70 years old, in whom echocardiographic left ventricular mass measurements were collected for the ARIC Study. In these, we investigated the independent association of diabetes with left ventricular structural abnormalities. Results Diabetes, hypertension and obesity prevalences were 22%, 57% and 45%, respectively. Unindexed left ventricular mass was higher with diabetes in both men (238.3 ± 79.4 g vs. 213.7 ± 58.6 g; p Conclusion In African-Americans, diabetes is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and, with different patterns of left ventricular structural abnormalities between genders. Attenuation seen in adjusted associations suggests that the higher frequency of structural abnormalities seen in diabetes may be due to factors other than hyperglycemia.
Franklin, M E
This article discusses the cultural and educational needs of African-American learners with disabilities. Six theoretical assumptions establish some basic suppositions about culturally and linguistically diverse learners and effective instructional practices. A review of the literature describes African-American cultural practices, interests, and cognitive styles; highlights the attitudes, perceptions, and instructional practices of effective teachers of African-American students; and includes patterns of teacher-student and peer-group interactions that promote high academic achievement among African-American learners. Recommendations include organizing teaching, learning, and performance in ways that are compatible with the social structure of African-American students with disabilities. PMID:1425853
Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.; Felton, Gwen M.; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Trost, Stewart G.
The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure…
Goldstein, Sara E.; Malanchuk, Oksana; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.
The present research explores risk factors for, and longitudinal associations of, sexual harassment by peers during adolescence. Eight-hundred and seventy-two African American and European American adolescents (65.4% African American, 51.1% females) were assessed during the summer after the eighth grade (mean age=14.2 years) and then again in the…
Hamm, Jill V.
Examined variability in adolescent-friend similarity in African American, Asian American, and European American adolescents. Found greatest similarity for substance use, modest for academic orientation, and low for ethnic identity. Found that compared with other groups, African Americans chose friends who were less similar in academic orientation…
... m our online catalog. Alternate Language URL What African Americans with Diabetes or High Blood Pressure Need to ... is the #1 cause of kidney failure among African Americans. High blood pressure is the #2 cause. African ...
Vetta L. Sanders Thompson
Full Text Available Background. Data suggest that colorectal cancer could be cut by approximately 60% if all people aged 50 years or older received regular screening. Studies have identified socio-cultural attitudes that might inform cancer education and screening promotion campaigns. This article applies item response theory (IRT to a set of survey items selected to assess sociocultural attitudes in order to determine how current measures may affect what we know about how these attitudes affect colorectal cancer screening (CRCS.Design and Methods. A survey of colorectal cancer screening, screening attitudes and cultural beliefs was administered to 1021 African Americans – 683 women and 338 men, ages 50 to 75. Eligibility crite ria for participation included being born in the United States, self-identified African American male or female, age 50 to 75 years. The IRT analysis was performed on 655 individuals with complete data for the 43 observed variables. Results. Twenty-nine items comprise the Multi-construct African American Cultural Survey (MAACS that addresses seven cultural con- structs: mistrust/distrust, privacy, ethnic identity, collectivism, empowerment, and male gender roles. The items provide adequate information about the attitudes of the population across most levels of the constructs assessed. Among the sociocultural variables considered, empowerment (OR=1.078; 95% CI: 1.008, 1.151 had the strongest association with CRCS adherence and privacy showed promise. Conclusions. The MAACS provides a fixed length questionnaire to assess African American CRCS attitudes, two new constructs that might assist in CRCS promotion, and a suggested focus for identification of additional constructs of interest.
Venkata K Mukku
Full Text Available Incarceration affects the lives of many African American men and often leads to poverty, ill health, violence, and a decreased quality of life. There has been an unprecedented increase in incarceration among African American males since 1970. In 2009, the incarceration rate among black males was 6.7 times that of white males and 2.6 times of Hispanic males. Substance abuse in African American males leads to higher mortality rates, high rates of alcohol-related problems, more likely to be victims of crimes and HIV/AIDS. African Americans comprised only 14% of the US population but comprised 38% of the jail population. The cost of incarcerating persons involved in substance related crimes has increased considerably over the past two decades in the United States. A reduction in the incarceration rate for non-violent offences would save an estimated $17 billion per year. Substance use disorder makes the individual more prone to polysubstance use and leads to impulse control problems, selling drugs and other crimes. The high rate of incarceration in U.S. may adversely affect health care, the economy of the country and will become a burden on society. Implementation of good mental health care, treatment of addiction during and after incarceration will help to decrease the chances of reoffending. Therapeutic community programs with prison-based and specialized treatment facilities, cognitive behavioral therapy treatment for 91–180 days, and 12-step orientation with staff specialized in substance abuse can be helpful. It is essential for health care professionals to increase public awareness of substance abuse and find ways to decrease the high rates of incarceration.
Hudson, Darrell L.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Geronimus, Arline T.; Jackson, James S.
Evidence from previous studies indicates that racial discrimination is significantly associated with depression and that African Americans with higher levels of socioeconomic status (SES) report greater exposure to racial discrimination compared to those with lower SES levels. Coping strategies could alter the relationship between racial discrimination and depression among African Americans. This study first examined whether greater levels of SES were associated with increased reports of racial discrimination and ratings of John Henryism, a measure of high-effort coping, among African Americans. Second, we examined whether high-effort coping moderated the relationship between racial discrimination and depression. Data were drawn from the National Survey of American Life Reinterview (n = 2,137). Analyses indicated that greater levels of education were positively associated with racial discrimination (p < .001) and increased levels of racial discrimination were positively related to depression (p < .001), controlling for all sociodemographic factors. Greater levels of John Henryism were associated with increased odds of depression but there was no evidence to suggest that the relationship between discrimination and depression was altered by the effects of John Henryism. PMID:16259481
Choe, Daniel Ewon; Shaw, Daniel S.; Hyde, Luke W.; Forbes, Erika E.
Although previous studies have shown that interactions between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype and childhood maltreatment predict Caucasian boys’ antisocial behavior, the generalizability of this gene-environment interaction to more diverse populations and more common parenting behaviors, such as punitive discipline in early childhood, is not clearly understood. Among 189 low-income men (44% African American, 56% Caucasian) who underwent rigorous assessments of family behavior and social ...
Weddle-West, Karen; Hagan, Waldon Joseph; Norwood, Kristie M.
This study focused on the impact of college environments on the spiritual development of African American students. Using the Armstrong Measure of Spirituality (AMOS) survey administered to 125 African American college students, the study sought to ascertain whether or not there were differences in spirituality as reported by African American…
Kersting, Jessica M.; Anderson, Michele A.; Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Nelson, Nickola W.
African American English has a rich oral tradition, with identifiable features across all 5 systems of language--phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. This is an investigation of the extent to which pragmatic features of African American oral storytelling traditions are apparent in the written stories of African American…
English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F.; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B
While evidence indicates that experienced racial discrimination is associated with increased depressive symptoms for African Americans, there is little research investigating predictors of experienced racial discrimination. This paper examines neighborhood racial composition and sociodemographic factors as antecedents to experienced racial discrimination and resultant levels of depressive symptoms among African American adults. The sample included 505 socioeconomically-diverse African America...
Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Goodman, Melody S
Several studies investigating the health effects of racism have reported gender and socioeconomic differences in exposures to racism, with women typically reporting lower frequencies, and individuals with greater resources reporting higher frequencies. This study used diverse measures of socioeconomic position and multiple measures and methods to assess experienced racism. Socioeconomic position included education and financial and employment status. Quantitative racism measures assessed individual experiences with day-to-day and with major lifetime incidents and perceptions of the extent to which African Americans as a group experience racism. A brief qualitative question asked respondents to describe a racist incident that stood out in recent memory. Participants comprised a probability sample of N = 144 African American adults aged 19 to 87 residing in New York City. Results suggested that women reported fewer lifetime incidents but did not differ from men on everyday racism. These differences appear to be partly because of scale content. Socioeconomic position as measured by years of education was positively associated with reported racism in the total sample but differently patterned across gender; subjective social status showed a negative association. Qualitative responses describing memorable incidents fell into 5 key categories: resources/opportunity structures, criminal profiling, racial aggression/assault, interpersonal incivilities, and stereotyping. In these narratives, men were more likely to offer accounts involving criminal profiling, and women encountered incivilities more often. The findings highlight the need for closer attention to the intersection of gender and socioeconomic factors in investigations of the health effects of racism. PMID:26460700
Baker, Christina M; Staiano, Amanda E; Calvert, Sandra L
Digital production is a means through which African American adolescents communicate and express their experiences with peers. This study examined the content and the form of the digital productions of 24 urban, low-income African American adolescents who attended a summer academic program. The content of student digital productions focused on academic experiences and friendships. Their production styles revealed that youth used perceptually salient production features, such as rapid scene changes and loud rap music. The results suggest that when placed in a supportive, academic environment and provided with digital production resources, students who traditionally face barriers due to cultural and economic inequalities digitally express to their peers an interest in academics and positive peer relationships, and that these youth communicate their experiences through a shared production style that reflects their broader cultural experiences. PMID:21910270
Full Text Available Researchers have documented culturally specific family literacy practices in which low-income families engage, which are often a function of the context in which the family is currently embedded. These practices are well documented in ethnographic literature. Although this evidence exists, its utility is limited due to small sample sizes and lack of quantitative documentation on their contribution to children’s language and literacy development. This study attempted to quantify those culturally specific family literacy practices. 51 low-income African-American mother-child dyads participated. The contribution of multiple literacy practices was examined in relation to child language and literacy outcomes. Most low-income African-American families engaged in multiple literacy practices. Recommended areas for future research directions are discussed.
Venable, Victoria M; Guada, Joseph
African American juveniles adjudicated for sexual offenses may struggle with the mistrust of both the judicial and treatment systems. Unlike general mental health services, juvenile sex offender treatment is often mandated by the court or child welfare services, thus these youths and their families must engage in the treatment process. Without clinicians and services that can acknowledge and respond to a minority youth's experience in a sensitive, culturally competent manner, there could be significant resistance to treatment. Traditional treatment approaches fail to prioritize issues involving cultural competence. This article addresses the unique challenges of African American juvenile sex offenders and makes recommendations for creating culturally competent practice for these youth and their families. PMID:24641684
Samson, Zoe Blake; Parker, Monica; Dye, Clinton; Hepburn, Kenneth
Dementia family caregivers display significant rates of psychological and physical symptoms. African Americans (AAs) are disproportionately affected by dementia. African American caregivers display unique patterns of symptomology and responses to interventions designed to promote caregiver well-being. This study analyzed qualitative focus group data from 32 AA caregivers to explore how issues of race and culture may be incorporated into a culturally sensitive intervention for AA dementia family caregivers. Caregivers were asked scripted questions about their caregiving experiences and to suggest alterations to an existing psychoeducation program. Analysis revealed 4 key themes: the tradition of family care, caregiving and caregiving issues, culturally appropriate care, and navigating without a map. Suggestions for an educational program included a focus on developing caregiver skills and knowledge for caregiving, promotion of self-care, and reflection on the AA family and community as resources for care. PMID:26953236
Elsaesser, Caitlin M; Voisin, Dexter R
African American adolescents are exposed to high rates of community violence, and recent evidence indicates that these youth may also be at high risk of polyvictimization. Guided by an ecological approach, this study explored individual, familial, and extra-familial correlates of single and multiple forms of violence exposures (i.e., witnessing verbal parental aggression, witnessing or being a victim of community violence exposures) among a sample of 563 urban African American adolescents. Findings indicated that boys reported higher levels of polyvictimization than girls. In addition, the correlates of violence exposures varied by typology and gender. These findings support the development and use of gender-oriented approaches for identifying youth at risk of various types of violence exposures. PMID:25392381
Dotterer, Aryn M.; Lowe, Katie; McHale, Susan M.
This study explored trajectories of African American youths’ academic functioning and assessed whether changes in parent-adolescent relationships were associated with changes in youths’ academic functioning. The data were drawn from a three-year longitudinal study of gender socialization and development in two-parent African American families and included 197 families. Findings revealed gender differences in achievement trajectories and indicated that boys not only had lower levels of academic achievement compared to girls, but also experienced steeper declines in school self-esteem during adolescence. Changes in parent-adolescent relationship quality were linked to changes in academic functioning: Increases in conflict were related to decreases in GPA, school bonding, and school self-esteem and increases in warmth were related to increases in school bonding and school self-esteem. PMID:27122959
Susan E Steck
Full Text Available African Americans (AAs have lower circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OHD3] concentrations and higher prostate cancer (CaP aggressiveness than other racial/ethnic groups. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between plasma 25(OHD3, African ancestry and CaP aggressiveness among AAs and European Americans (EAs.Plasma 25(OHD3 was measured using LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry in 537 AA and 663 EA newly-diagnosed CaP patients from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP classified as having either 'high' or 'low' aggressive disease based on clinical stage, Gleason grade and prostate specific antigen at diagnosis. Mean plasma 25(OHD3 concentrations were compared by proportion of African ancestry. Logistic regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI for high aggressive CaP by tertile of plasma 25(OHD3.AAs with highest percent African ancestry (>95% had the lowest mean plasma 25(OHD3 concentrations. Overall, plasma 25(OHD3 was associated positively with aggressiveness among AA men, an association that was modified by calcium intake (ORT 3vs.T1: 2.23, 95%CI: 1.26-3.95 among men with low calcium intake, and ORT 3vs.T1: 0.19, 95%CI: 0.05-0.70 among men with high calcium intake. Among EAs, the point estimates of the ORs were <1.0 for the upper tertiles with CIs that included the null.Among AAs, plasma 25(OHD3 was associated positively with CaP aggressiveness among men with low calcium intake and inversely among men with high calcium intake. The clinical significance of circulating concentrations of 25(OHD3 and interactions with calcium intake in the AA population warrants further study.
Leavitt, Charles L.
In the aftermath of the Second World War, Italian intellectuals participated in Italy’s reconstruction with an ideological commitment inspired by the African-American struggle for equal rights in the United States. Drawing on the work of many of the leading figures in postwar Italian culture, including Italo Calvino, Giorgio Caproni, Cesare Pavese, and Elio Vittorini, this essay argues that Italian intellectual impegno—defined as the effort to remake Italian culture and to guide Italian socia...
Gollop, C J
This study explored the ways in which urban, older, African American women obtain health information and some of the factors that influence such activity. Among the possible determinants examined were self-perceived literacy, access to health information, and mobility. The findings suggest that respondents receive health information from their physicians, the mass media, and members of their social networks. The results of this research also indicated that members of this population have a hi...
Herman, Keith C.; Trotter, Reid; Reinke, Wendy M.; Ialongo, Nicholas
The present study used a person-centered latent variable approach to classify types of perfectionism among 6th-grade African American children living in an urban setting. In particular, the authors were interested in determining whether an adaptive subtype could be found and validated against external criteria. The authors also attempted to identify any developmental precursors that could reliably differentiate the perfectionist subtypes. A social learning and competence framework was used to...
Rahman, Selina; Hu, Howard; McNeely, Eileen; Rahman, Saleh M. M.; Krieger, Nancy; Waterman, Pamela; Peters, Junenette; Harris, Cynthia; Harris, Cynthia H.; Prothrow-Stith, Deborah; Gibbs, Brian K.; Brown, Perry C.; Johnson, Genita; Burgess, Angela; Gragg, Richard D
This study tests the hypothesis that disparities of hypertension risk in African Americans is related to lead exposure, perceptions of racism, and stress, among urban (Roxbury, MA) and rural (Gadsden, FL) communities. Analysis of preliminary data from Phase I reveal 60% in Gadsden and 39% in Roxbury respondents self-reported having hypertension. In Gadsden 80% people did not know if their residence contained lead paint, compared to 45% in Roxbury. In Gadsden County, 58% of respondents reporte...
Gathers, Raechele Cochran; Mahan, Meredith Grace
Objectives: The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hair loss among African American women; explore the psychosocial impact of hair grooming difficulties; and examine both perceptions related to physician encounters in this group and the relationship between hair grooming, physical activity, and weight maintenance. Design: An anonymous retrospective and qualitative survey, the Hair Care Assessment Survey, is an 18-question novel survey instrument designed at the Henry F...
Coughlin, Steven S.; Matthews-Juarez, Patricia; Juarez, Paul D.; Melton, Courtnee E; King, Mario
Race and socioeconomic status are well known to influence lung cancer incidence and mortality patterns in the U.S. Lung cancer incidence and mortality rates are higher among blacks than whites. In this article we review opportunities to address disparities in lung cancer incidence, mortality, and survivorship among African Americans. First, we summarize recent advances in the early detection and treatment of lung cancer. Then we consider black-white disparities in lung cancer treatment includ...
Holliday, Rhonda Conerly; Braithwaite, Ronald L.; Yancey, Elleen; Akintobi, Tabia; Stevens-Watkins, Danielle; Smith, Selina; Powell, C. Lamonte
Substance use correlates of depressive symptoms among incarcerated adult male African American substance users were examined in the current study. Frequency of drug use was assessed with 12 items specific to an individual’s substance use. The Patient Depression Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess symptoms of depression. Approximately 90% of the sample displayed symptoms of depression ranging from minimal to severe. Regression models revealed that three substance use variables demonstrate...
Shiriki K. Kumanyika, PhD, MPH
Full Text Available Obesity is more prevalent among African Americans and other racial and ethnic minority populations than among whites. The behaviors that determine weight status are embedded in the core social and cultural processes and environments of day-to-day life in these populations. Therefore, identifying effective, sustainable solutions to obesity requires an ecological model that is inclusive of relevant contextual variables. Race and ethnicity are potent stratification variables in U.S. society and strongly influence life contexts, including many aspects that relate to eating and physical activity behaviors. This article describes a synthesis initiated by the African American Collaborative Obesity Research Network (AACORN to build and broaden the obesity research paradigm. The focus is on African Americans, but the expanded paradigm has broader implications and may apply to other populations of color. The synthesis involves both community and researcher perspectives, drawing on and integrating insights from an expanded set of knowledge domains to promote a deeper understanding of relevant contexts. To augment the traditional, biomedical focus on energy balance, the expanded paradigm includes insights from family sociology, literature, philosophy, transcultural psychology, marketing, economics, and studies of the built environment. We also emphasize the need for more attention to tensions that may affect African American or other researchers who identify or are identified as members of the communities they study. This expanded paradigm, for which development is ongoing, poses new challenges for researchers who focus on obesity and obesity-related health disparities but also promises discovery of new directions that can lead to new solutions.
Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.
Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship between child maltreatment (i.e., neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other/mixed abuse) and the likelihood of a delinquency petition using a...
This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools. Created: 1/15/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 1/15/2014.
Bailey, Rahn K; Fileti, Cecelia Pozo; Keith, Jeanette; Tropez-Sims, Susanne; Price, Winston; Allison-Ottey, Sharon Denise
Dairy foods contribute nine essential nutrients to the diet including calcium, potassium and vitamin D; nutrients identified by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans as being "of public health concern" within the U.S. population. Milk and milk product intake is associated with better diet quality and has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases or conditions including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and osteoporosis. Some research also indicates dairy food intake may be linked to reduced body fat, when accompanied by energy-restriction. On average, both African Americans and Hispanic Americans consume less than the recommended levels of dairy foods, and perceived or actual lactose intolerance can be a primary reason for limiting or avoiding dairy intake. True lactose intolerance prevalence is not known because healthcare providers do not routinely measure for it, and no standardized assessment method exists. Avoiding dairy may lead to shortfalls of essential nutrients and increased susceptibility to chronic disease. This updated Consensus Statement aims to provide the most current information about lactose intolerance and health, with specific relevance to the African American and Hispanic American communities. Topics covered include diagnostic considerations, actual and recommended dairy food intake and levels of consumption of key dairy nutrients among African Americans and Hispanic Americans; prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance among various racial/ethnic groups; the association between dairy food intake, lactose intolerance and chronic disease; and research-based management recommendations for those with lactose intolerance. PMID:24079212
Samantha M. Bomotti
Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is an increasing concern in the United States due to its rapidly rising prevalence, particularly among African Americans. Epigenetic DNA methylation markers are becoming important biomarkers of chronic diseases such as CKD. To better understand how these methylation markers play a role in kidney function, we measured 26,428 DNA methylation sites in 972 African Americans from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA study. We then evaluated (1 whether epigenetic markers are associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, (2 whether the significantly associated markers are also associated with traditional risk factors and/or novel biomarkers for eGFR, and (3 how much additional variation in eGFR is explained by epigenetic markers beyond established risk factors and biomarkers. The majority of methylation markers most significantly associated with eGFR (24 out of the top 30 appeared to function, at least in part, through pathways related to aging, inflammation, or cholesterol. However, six epigenetic markers were still able to significantly predict eGFR after adjustment for other risk factors. This work shows that epigenetic markers may offer valuable new insight into the complex pathophysiology of CKD in African Americans.
Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Jewkes, Rachel
Men's experiences of sexual coercion is seldom the subject of research, yet it is commonly reported in all settings and increasingly evidence from South Africa points to the health risks associated with sexual coercion of men by men. Thirty-one in-depth interviews were conducted with heterosexual men aged 18-25 years who were volunteers in a HIV prevention behavioural intervention evaluation in the Eastern Cape. Men chosen included some who had reported coercion by men and women in their baseline structure interviews and some who had not. Sexual coercion by men involved abuse of trust and age-related power, temptation through material goods, as well as use of aggression. The narratives were notable for the anger that was caused by these assaults. In contrast, coercion by women was framed as ‘temptation’. In some cases young men were tempted by much older women and those in a position of trust and the experience did not make them feel good. There are very substantial differences in the circumstances of coercion of young men by men and women. This needs to be taken into account in the growing trend to research coercion of men and present findings in a way that equates these two experiences. PMID:19499390
Russell, Timothy Dale
The Spanish-American War, which began in 1898, coincided with a virulent campaign of racial violence and legal segregation directed at African Americans throughout the "Jim Crow" South. As the jingoism of the day stirred American nationalism, the question of whether to support the war against Spain was much more complicated to even the most patriotic African Americans as they faced an unceasing assault on their civil rights. Utilizing numerous editorials from the black press, and letters fr...
Mitchell, Karen S.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.
The current study evaluated a structural equation model of objectification theory among European American (n = 408) and African American women (n = 233). Modeling results indicated a particularly strong association between thin-ideal internalization/body monitoring and eating disorder symptoms, with weaker relationships among body dissatisfaction, depression, anxiety, and eating disorder symptoms. The measurement model was not equivalent for European Americans and African Americans; however, ...
John J. Murray; Joseph Akamah; Oghenerukevwe Odiete; Olagoke Akinwande
Following the development of penicillin, complications from streptococcus pneumonia such as endocarditis have become rare. However, certain independent risk factors such as cigarette smoking and being of African-American (AA) decent have been associated with a higher incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease, but only cigarette smoking has been targeted by current recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunological Practices (ACIPs). We report a case of a young AA smoker, who develo...
Johnson, Tamara Therese
The purpose of this study was to investigate the sociological impact of public polices enacted during slavery in the United States. Another goal was to discover whether the negative stereotypes of African-Americans in film are related to the reinforcement of negative perceptions established during slavery. Finally, a review of the disparate outcomes produced by new discriminatory policies within the criminal justice system details the impact of current policies that disproportionately impac...
Cookson, Peter W., Jr.; Persell, Caroline Hodges
Examines elements of the African American experience in American prep schools, using data from a survey of 55 schools. African Americans must cope with both racial and class distinctions in these schools, but the majority subsequently gain admission to highly selective colleges. (DM)
Hunter, Lora Rose; Schmidt, Norman B.
In this review, the extant literature concerning anxiety psychopathology in African American adults is summarized to develop a testable, explanatory framework with implications for future research. The model was designed to account for purported lower rates of anxiety disorders in African Americans compared to European Americans, along with other…
Scheuerell, Scott; Jaeger, Matt
The authors discuss how high school students participated in a unit in which they learned about African American history in a 1:1 computer classroom--in particular, how they were able to use digital history to learn about a variety of African American leaders who are not frequently covered in the traditional American History textbook. In addition,…
Flowers, Kelci C.; Levesque, Maurice J.; Fischer, Sarah
Research on eating disorders has shown that European American women suffer from eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction more than African American women. However, recent meta-analyses suggest these differences may be decreasing and that some African American women may be particularly susceptible to body dissatisfaction and eating disorder…
Full Text Available Duration of nocturnal melatonin secretion, a marker of “biological night” that relates to sleep duration, is longer in winter than in summer in patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD, but not in healthy controls. In this study of African and African American college students, we hypothesized that students who met criteria for winter SAD or subsyndromal SAD (S-SAD would report sleeping longer in winter than in summer. In addition, based on our previous observation that Africans report more “problems” with change in seasons than African Americans, we expected that the seasonal changes in sleep duration would be greater in African students than in African American students. Based on Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ responses, African American and African college students in Washington, D.C. (N = 575 were grouped into a winter SAD/S-SAD group or a no winter diagnosis group, and winter and summer sleep length were determined. We conducted a 2 (season × 2 (sex × 2 (ethnicity × 2 (winter diagnosis group ANCOVA on reported sleep duration, controlling for age. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that African and African American students with winter SAD/S-SAD report sleeping longer in the summer than in the winter. No differences in seasonality of sleep were found between African and African American students. Students with winter SAD or S-SAD may need to sacrifice sleep duration in the winter, when their academic functioning/efficiency may be impaired by syndromal or subsyndromal depression, in order to meet seasonally increased academic demands.
Daria C. Crawley
Full Text Available Employment predictions continue to forecast increasing racial diversity in the American workforce as firms face global competition and strive to grasp the challenges of a global business landscape. As American multinational corporations use expatriate assignments; supplemented by flexipatriates and inpatriates to meet customer preferences in the global marketplace, growing racial diversity may generate more expatriates of color. Global human resource management research has focused on issues such as adjustment and cross-cultural development and recently mentoring as critical factors for expatriate success. A growing body of mentoring research details the career experiences of employees with diverse backgrounds, yet few studies center on the experiences of the African American expatriate. This article aims to examine African Americans mentoring opportunities in a global environment, with a focus on understanding the role mentoring plays for this particular population group. This work is intended to contribute to the increasing literature on global mentoring and will help to influence the thinking of multinational corporations’ response to the increasing diversity of their global workforce.
Kim, Sei-Hill; Tanner, Andrea; Friedman, Daniela B; Foster, Caroline; Bergeron, Caroline
Analyzing data from a survey of African American and White residents in South Carolina, this study attempts to understand how to better promote clinical trial participation specifically within the African American population. To explore why participation is lower in the African American population, the authors examined two sets of potential barriers: structural/procedural (limited accessibility, lack of awareness, doctors not discussing clinical trial options, lack of health insurance) and cognitive/psychological (lack of subjective and factual knowledge, misperceptions, distrust, fear, perceived risk). Findings revealed that African Americans were significantly less willing than Whites to participate in a clinical trial. African Americans also had lower subjective and factual knowledge about clinical trials and perceived greater risk involved in participating in a clinical trial. The authors found that lack of subjective knowledge and perceived risk were significant predictors of African Americans' willingness to participate in a clinical trial. Implications of the findings are discussed in detail. PMID:26042496
Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T; Estrada-Martinez, Lorena; Colin, Rosa J; Jones, Brittni D
Little scholarship explores how adolescents' beliefs about school and peers influence the academic outcomes of African American boys and girls. The sample included 612 African American boys (N = 307, Mage = 16.84) and girls (N = 305, Mage = 16.79). Latent class analysis (LCA) revealed unique patterns for African American boys and girls. Findings indicate that for African American boys, school attachment was protective, despite having peers who endorsed negative achievement values. Furthermore, socio-economic (SES) status was associated with higher grade point averages (GPA) for African American girls. Overall, these findings underscore the unique role of school, peer, and gendered experiences in lives of African American adolescents. PMID:26277404
Jones, Veronnie Faye; Rowland, Michael L.; Young, Linda; Atwood, Katherine; Thompson, Kirsten; Sterrett, Emma; Honaker, Sarah Morsbach; Joel E. Williams; Johnson, Knowlton; Davis, Deborah Winders
Background: Childhood obesity is a growing problem for children in the United States, especially for children from low-income, African American families. Objective: The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand facilitators and barriers to engaging in healthy lifestyles faced by low-income African American children and their families. Methods: This qualitative study used semi-structured focus group interviews with eight African American children clinically identified as overwe...
Paxton, Raheem J.; Wendell C Taylor; Shine Chang; Courneya, Kerry S.; Jones, Lovell A.
INTRODUCTION: African American breast cancer survivors experience poor cancer outcomes that may, in part, be remedied by healthy lifestyle choices. Few studies have evaluated the health and lifestyle behaviors of this population. The purpose of this study was to characterize the health and lifestyle habits of African American breast cancer survivors and evaluate the socio-demographic and medical correlates of these behaviors. METHODS: A total of 470 African American breast cancer survivors (m...
Sheppard, Vanessa B.; Graves, Kristi D.; Christopher, Juleen; Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Talley, Costellia; Williams, Karen Patricia
Genetic counseling and testing for hereditary breast cancer have the potential benefit of early detection and early interventions in African American women. However, African American women have low use of these services compared to White women. We conducted two focus groups with African American women diagnosed with breast cancer (affected group, n=13) and women with at least one first-degree relative with breast/ovarian cancer (unaffected group, n= 8). A content analysis approach was employe...
Simmons, Crystal Marie
AbstractReducing Stereotype Threat in Academically At-Risk African- Americans Students: A Self- Affirmation InterventionbyCrystal Marie SimmonsDoctor of Philosophy in EducationUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor Frank C. Worrell, ChairIn this study, I examined the effectiveness of a self-affirmation intervention (Cohen et al., 2006) with a sample of African American high school students who were at risk for academic failure. Participants consisted of 47 African-American students from ...
Jones, Lakaii A.; Cook-Cottone, Catherine
Objective. To investigate media and cultural influences in eating disorder development in African-American adolescent females. Method. Fifty-seven participants were recruited through churches and community organizations to complete a questionnaire. Results. Mainstream sociocultural identification was associated with more eating disorder behavior in African-American females; cultural ethnic identification was not significantly associated with eating disorder behavior in African-American female...
Edwards, Adrienne Laney
The salience of racial socialization among African American families has received considerable attention in the literature; however, few scholars have examined how the process of racial socialization unfolds in families with very young children. This study investigated how African American mothers of preschool-age children approached the process of racial socialization. I interviewed African American mothers who were at least age 18 (N=12) with biological children between the ages of three an...
Hoffman, Robert P.
African-Americans have more hypertension, stroke, and type 2 diabetes than do Caucasians. Endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance are precursors for each. Since these diseases have origins in pediatrics and are associated with obesity, this study was designed to determine if obesity has different effects on endothelial function, insulin sensitivity, and secretion in African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Thirty-three Caucasian and 25 African-Americans (10–18 years old) were subdiv...
Taneja, Indu; So, Suzanna; Stewart, Julian M.; Evans, Meredyth; Jason, Leonard A.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013), African Americans have a substantially greater prevalence of a range of health conditions when compared to other racial or ethnic groups. Many of these conditions have been attributed to the historical and contemporary social and economic disparities faced by the African American community. While many health conditions occur at a higher rate in African Americans, it is unclear whether there are specific symptom clusters that ...
Walker, B.; Figgs, L.W.; Zahm, S H
This report highlights selected evidence of different cancer patterns among African Americans and whites and considers potential risk factors associated with these cancers. During the years 1987 to 1991, African Americans experienced higher incidence and mortality rates than whites for multiple myeloma and for cancers of the oropharynx, colorectum, lung and bronchus, cervix, and prostate. African Americans had lower incidence and mortality for cancer of the urinary bladder. The incidence of b...
Hall, Jennifer L.; Duprez, Daniel A; Barac, Ana; Rich, Stephen S.
The prevalence of hypertension in African Americans in the United States is amongst the highest in the world and increasing. The identification of genes and pathways regulating blood pressure in African Americans has been challenging. An early predictor of hypertension is arterial stiffness. The prevalence of arterial stiffness is significantly higher in African Americans compared to Caucasians. Approximately 20% of the variance in arterial stiffness is estimated to be heritable. Identifying ...
Hancock, Dana B.; Levy, Joshua L.; Gaddis, Nathan C.; Bierut, Laura J; Saccone, Nancy L.; Page, Grier P.; Johnson, Eric O.
Genotype imputation, used in genome-wide association studies to expand coverage of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), has performed poorly in African Americans compared to less admixed populations. Overall, imputation has typically relied on HapMap reference haplotype panels from Africans (YRI), European Americans (CEU), and Asians (CHB/JPT). The 1000 Genomes project offers a wider range of reference populations, such as African Americans (ASW), but their imputation performance has had l...
Bowser, B P
African Americans make up an increasing proportion of persons with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). I identify and describe cultural elements such as oral traditions, multiple naming, a collective identity, extended families, and sexuality influenced by myth and exaggeration that condition African Americans' reactions to AIDS prevention. I also offer suggestions on how these cultural elements can be used for effective AIDS prevention efforts in African-American communities.
Williams, JK; Wyatt, GE; Wingood, G
HIV/AIDS continues to be a devastating epidemic with African American communities carrying the brunt of the impact. Despite extensive biobehavioral research, current strategies have not resulted in significantly decreasing HIV/AIDS cases among African Americans. The next generation of HIV prevention and risk reduction interventions must move beyond basic sex education and condom use and availability. Successful interventions targeting African Americans must optimize strategies that integrate ...
Jones, Zella Higginbotham
African American males in all socioeconomic levels are underperforming in school. Many researchers have conducted studies hoping to find reasons for the underperformance. This study focused on three middle class African American males in a suburban school district. These African American male students took upper level math courses that included Algebra III, Math Analysis, AP Calculus, and AP Statistics. This study modeled the study by E. Wayne Harris. He believed students were influenced...
Boyd, Rhonda C; Waanders, Christine
Maternal depression has a deleterious impact on child psychological outcomes, including depression symptoms. However, there is limited research on the protective factors for these children and even less for African Americans. The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of positive parenting skills on child depression and the potential protective effects of social skills and kinship support among African American children whose mothers are depressed and low-income. African American moth...
Bransford, T. L.; St Vrain, J. A.; Webb, M.
In this pilot study, we sought to compare the vasodilatory and hemodynamic properties of the peripheral vasculature in the forearms of young, healthy African-American females to similarly matched white females. We used high-resolution ultrasound of the brachial artery to evaluate 11 African-American females and 8 white females. When normalized to nitrate-induced dilation, endothelium-dependent dilation was reduced in young African American females compared to white females (0.6 in African American females compared to 1.0 in white females). These results indicate the need for a larger study to examine this phenomenon. PMID:12653397
Ukoli, Flora A; Patel, Kushal; Hargreaves, Margaret; Beard, Katina; Moton, Pierre J; Bragg, Richard; Beech, Derrick; Davis, Rodney
African American men bear disproportionate burden of prostate cancer (PCa) that can be reduced by early detection. A 15-minute culturally appropriate PCa education intervention developed to communicate effective, relevant, and balanced PCa screening information to low-income African American men was evaluated in men 42 years and older who had not been screened in one year. Of 539 men enrolled, 392 (72.7%) completed the six-month follow-up. Mean age was 54.4±8.9, 34.7% had no high school diploma, and 65.3% earned less than $25,000 annually. Barriers to screening included health insurance (41.4%), discomfort of digital rectal exam (32.1%), and fear of cancer diagnosis (29.9%). Mean knowledge score of 21 points increased from 13.27±3.51 to 14.95±4.14 (pschool diploma recorded the lowest post-intervention PCa knowledge and screening rate (47.7%), suggestive of the need for more than a single education session. Annual physicals with free prostate examination can maintain the positive trend observed. PMID:23377736
Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E; Yu, Tianyi; Brody, Gene H
In the present study, we investigated associations of macro-economic conditions - the Great Recession - with cellular epigenetic aging, allostatic load, and self-reported health, in a group that experiences significant health disparities, African Americans. A sample of 330 African American adolescents in Georgia was followed from pre-recession (2007, M age=16.6) to post-recession (2010, M age=19.3). Economic data were collected in both 2007 and 2010. Three groups were formed to represent economic trajectories across the period of the Great Recession (stable low economic hardship, downward mobility, and stable high economic hardship). At age 19, measures of cellular epigenetic aging (derived from leukocyte DNA methylation profiles, reflecting the disparity between a person's biological and chronological age), allostatic load (composite of blood pressure, C reactive protein, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and body mass index), and adolescent self-report of health were obtained. Linear trend analyses documented significant differences across all outcomes. The more time adolescents spent under economic hardship, the higher their epigenetic aging [estimate=1.421, SE=0.466, p=.002] and allostatic load [estimate=1.151, SE=0.375, p=.002] scores, and the worse their self-report of health [estimate=4.957, SE=1.800, p=.006]. Specific group comparisons revealed that adolescents in the downward mobility group had higher levels of allostatic load than adolescents in the stable low hardship group [p<.05]. Overall, these findings suggest that the health profiles of African American youth may in part be shaped by environmental macro-economic societal conditions, and that effects on biological markers can be detected relatively early in life. PMID:26718449
Mary L. Dudziak
Full Text Available Thurgood Marshall became a living icon of civil rights when he argued Brown v. Board of Education before the Supreme Court in 1954. Six years later, he was at a crossroads. A rising generation of activists were making sit-ins and demonstrations rather than lawsuits the hallmark of the civil rights movement. What role, he wondered, could he now play? When in 1960 Kenyan independence leaders asked him to help write their constitution, Marshall threw himself into their cause. Here was a new arena in which law might serve as the tool with which to forge a just society. In Exporting American Dreams, Mary Dudziak recounts with poignancy and power the untold story of Marshall's journey to Africa. African Americans were enslaved when the U.S. constitution was written. In Kenya, Marshall could become something that had not existed in his own country: a black man helping to found a nation. He became friends with Kenyan leaders Tom Mboya and Jomo Kenyatta, serving as advisor to the Kenyans, who needed to demonstrate to Great Britain and to the world that they would treat minority races (whites and Asians fairly once Africans took power. He crafted a bill of rights, aiding constitutional negotiations that helped enable peaceful regime change, rather than violent resistance. Marshall's involvement with Kenya's foundation affirmed his faith in law, while also forcing him to understand how the struggle for justice could be compromised by the imperatives of sovereignty. Marshall's beliefs were most sorely tested later in the decade when he became a Supreme Court Justice, even as American cities erupted in flames and civil rights progress stalled. Kenya's first attempt at democracy faltered, but Marshall's African journey remained a cherished memory of a time and a place when all things seemed possible.
Quaker E Harmon
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Keloids and fibroids share a number of biologic and demographic similarities however there are no published reports of the association between them. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported keloids and ultrasound detected fibroids in a population of young African American women. STUDY DESIGN: The Study of Environment, Life-style & Fibroids (SELF, is a volunteer cohort of over 1600 African American women aged 23-34 years recruited in Detroit, Michigan. Enrollment occurred between December 2010 and December 2012. Data are available for the first 1196 participants. Participants self-reported a history of raised (hypertrophic scars or scars extending beyond the limits of the original injury (keloid and had an enrollment pelvic ultrasound examination to detect prevalent fibroids. Log linear regression was used to model the association between abnormal scars and prevalent fibroids controlling for possible covariates. Among women with fibroids, associations between particular fibroid characteristics (tumor location, size or number and scarring were assessed using chi-square and Mann Whitney U-tests. RESULTS: Both abnormal scarring (keloids, 9.0%; hypertrophic scars, 28.3% and fibroids (23.3% were common in this cohort. There was no indication [adjusted Risk Ratio (95% Confidence Interval: 0.7 (0.5-1.1] of an association between self-reported keloids and prevalent fibroids. Nor was there any association with hypertrophic scars. Specific characteristics of the prevalent fibroids were not associated with abnormal scarring. CONCLUSION: Despite similarly dysregulated extracellular matrices in keloids and fibroids, these conditions did not tend to co-occur in this young African American population.
Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC and atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF share several risk factors including increasing age and obesity. However, the association between CRC and AF has not been thoroughly examined, especially in African Americans. In this study we aimed to assess the prevalence of AF and its risk factors in colorectal neoplasia in an African American.We reviewed records of 527 African American patients diagnosed with CRC and 1008 patients diagnosed with benign colonic lesions at Howard University Hospital from January 2000 to December 2012. A control group of 731 hospitalized patients without any cancer or colonic lesion were randomly selected from the same time and age range, excluding patients who had diagnosis of both CRC and/or adenoma. The presence or absence of AF was based upon ICD-9 code documentation. The prevalence of AF in these three groups was compared by multivariate logistic regression.The prevalence of AF was highest among CRC patients (10% followed by adenoma patients (7.2% then the control group (5.4%, P for trend = 0.002. In the three groups of participants, older age (P<0.008 and heart failure (P<0.001 were significantly associated with higher risk of AF. After adjusting for these risk factors, CRC (OR: 1.4(95%CI:0.9-2.2, P = 0.2 and adenoma (OR: 1.1(95%CI:0.7-1.6, P = 0.7 were not significantly associated AF compared to control group.AF is highly prevalent among CRC patients; 1 in 10 patients had AF in our study. The predictors of AF in CRC was similar to that in adenoma and other patients after adjustment for potential confounders suggesting that the increased AF risk in CRC is explained by higher prevalence of AF risk factors.
Janna Volkov; Kelly J. Rohan; Yousufi, Samina M.; Minh-Chau Nguyen; Jackson, Michael A.; Thrower, Courtney M.; Stiller, John W.; Teodor T. Postolache
Duration of nocturnal melatonin secretion, a marker of “biological night” that relates to sleep duration, is longer in winter than in summer in patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD), but not in healthy controls. In this study of African and African American college students, we hypothesized that students who met criteria for winter SAD or subsyndromal SAD (S-SAD) would report sleeping longer in winter than in summer. In addition, based on our previous observation that Africans repor...
Gil, Andres G.; Vega, William A.; Turner, R. Jay
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the relationship between risk factors experienced during adolescence by African Americans and European Americans and DSM-IV alcohol dependence and marijuana abuse or dependence in early adulthood. METHODS: The authors followed a cohort of adolescents from 1990-91 (grades 6 and 7) to 1998-2000 (ages 19-21), evaluating risk factors during early adolescence as predictors of DSM-IV alcohol dependence and marijuana abuse and dependence. RESULTS: African Americans had...
Lozoff, Betsy; Angelilli, Mary Lu; Zatakia, Jigna; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Calatroni, Agustin; Beard, John
The iron status of African-American infants continues to be subject to debate. We characterized the iron status of 198 9-month-old inner-city infants (94% fed iron-fortified formula) using a comprehensive panel of measures and assessing lead and inflammation markers. The proportion with iron deficiency was calculated based on three approaches (≥ 2 abnormal iron measures with or without anemia for MCV model—NHANES II, ferritin model—NHANES III, or Sweden/Honduras study) and a promising new mea...
Black, Beverly M; Chido, Lisa M; Preble, Kathleen M; Weisz, Arlene N; Yoon, Jina S; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Kernsmith, Poco; Lewandowski, Linda
This study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, and family with dating violence attitudes and behaviors among 175 urban African American youth. Age, gender, state support and experiences with neglect, school violence, and community violence were the most significant predictors of acceptance of dating violence. Experiences with community violence and age were important predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization. Findings highlight the importance of planning prevention programs that address variables affecting attitudes and behaviors of high-risk youth who have already been exposed to multiple types of violence. PMID:25287413
Thomas, Cecilia L
Through this qualitative study the author explores the resiliency processes demonstrated by older African American Hurricane Katrina survivors who relocated in the aftermath of the storm and were consequently faced with difficult challenges. In-depth interviews were used to assess the multidimensional characteristics of resiliency that enabled these older adults to deal with adversity. These findings highlight distinct processes reflecting resiliency: (a) Trusting in a higher power, and the importance of (b) living in the present, (c) activating resources, (d) creating community, and (e) doing for others. The author concludes this study with suggestions on how these findings may inform social work practice with older adults. PMID:22830937
A. Sankar; Luborsky, M.; Schuman, P.; Roberts, G.
Low adherence is the single most important challenge to controlling HIV through the use of high acting anti-retrovirals (HAART). Non-adherence poses an immediate threat to individuals who develop resistant forms of the virus as well as a public health threat if those individuals pass on treatment-resistant forms of the virus. To understand the concerns and perceptions that promote or deter adherence to antiretroviral medication by HIV-positive African-American women, we conducted in-depth int...
McMath, Cynthia Stewart
This study focused on science teaching that promoted the interest of African American teenage girls in the science classroom of an exemplary African American science teacher. It focused on, observed and examined the planning, teaching and learning strategies used by the science teacher. It also described what the science teacher experienced during her high school years, during college, during her teaching career. The case study approach/method was used for this research to capture the description and examination of the practices of the science teacher. This research described how an African American female science teacher serves as a role model and influence a number of African Americans students, especially girls, who experience careers in science. During the interviews and observations the researcher used a system of record keeping for the study to include note taking, audio taping and pictures. It is evident in the findings that the teacher in this study had qualities of an exemplary teacher according to the research. It is further evident that the teacher served as a role model for her students. The results indicated that the exemplary African America science teacher was motivated by her former African American science teacher that served as a role model. The results in this study implied that the lack of the presence of more exemplary African American science teachers has an impact on the level of interest that African American students have in science. Further, it is implied that there is a great need for more practical research that may lead to closing the gap of missing African American science teachers.
Danielle Taana Smith
Full Text Available This study examines the participation of African Americans on social networking sites (SNS, and evaluates the degree to which African Americans engage in activities in the online environment to mitigate social capital deficits. Prior literature suggests that compared with whites, African Americans have less social capital that can enhance their socio-economic mobility. As such, my research question is: do African Americans enhance their social capital through their participation on SNS? I use nationally representative data collected from the Pew Internet and American Life Project to explore the research question. The results suggest that the online environment is potentially a space in which African Americans can lessen social capital deficits.
Barton, Allen W; Beach, Steven R H; Hurt, Tera R; Fincham, Frank D; Stanley, Scott M; Kogan, Steven M; Brody, Gene H
Although most efficacious marital enrichment programs are multisession, few studies have explored whether outcomes differ according to session attendance, particularly among minority groups with lower than average participation in prevention programs. This study therefore investigates attendance levels and long-term improvements in couple functioning among 164 couples participating in the Promoting Strong African American Families program. Structural equation models indicated session attendance predicted 2-year changes for men's reports of communication, commitment, and spousal support (marginally) but not for women's. Individual and couple characteristics that predicted attendance levels were also identified. Results highlight distinct gender differences in the effects of sustained attendance as well as characteristics that provide early identifiers for African American couples at increased risk of low program attendance. PMID:25919769
Parker, Nathan H; O'Connor, Daniel P; Kao, Dennis T; Lee, Rebecca E
Few studies have examined neighborhood influences on physical activity (PA) among low-income African Americans living in public housing. This study measured the associations of PA resources and land use with PA among 216 African Americans living in 12 low-income housing developments in Houston, Texas. Neighborhood measures included both detailed information from in-person audits and geographic information systems (GIS) data. Hierarchical linear regression models tested the associations of neighborhood PA resource availability and quality and land use density and diversity with individual-level, self-reported PA. Land use diversity was positively associated with walking among men after controlling for other neighborhood characteristics. Policies that promote land use diversity or improve the pedestrian environment in areas with diverse destinations may encourage PA among public housing residents. PMID:27524771
Craig, Holly K.; Grogger, Jeffrey T.
Purpose In this study, the authors examined the influences of selected social (gender, employment status, educational achievement level) and style variables (race of examiner, interview topic) on the production of African American English (AAE) by adults. Method Participants were 50 African American men and women, ages 20–30 years. The authors used Rapid and Anonymous Survey (RAS) methods to collect responses to questions on informal situational and formal message-oriented topics in a short interview with an unacquainted interlocutor. Results Results revealed strong systematic effects for academic achievement, but not gender or employment status. Most features were used less frequently by participants with higher educational levels, but sharp declines in the usage of 5 specific features distinguished the participants differing in educational achievement. Strong systematic style effects were found for the 2 types of questions, but not race of addressee. The features that were most commonly used across participants—copula absence, variable subject–verb agreement, and appositive pronouns—were also the features that showed the greatest style shifting. Conclusions The findings lay a foundation with mature speakers for rate-based and feature inventory methods recently shown to be informative for the study of child AAE and demonstrate the benefits of the RAS. PMID:22361105
Lara E Sucheston
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Family history and African-American race are important risk factors for both prostate cancer (CaP incidence and aggressiveness. When studying complex diseases such as CaP that have a heritable component, chances of finding true disease susceptibility alleles can be increased by accounting for genetic ancestry within the population investigated. Race, ethnicity and ancestry were studied in a geographically diverse cohort of men with newly diagnosed CaP. METHODS: Individual ancestry (IA was estimated in the population-based North Carolina and Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP, a cohort of 2,106 incident CaP cases (2063 with complete ethnicity information comprising roughly equal numbers of research subjects reporting as Black/African American (AA or European American/Caucasian/Caucasian American/White (EA from North Carolina or Louisiana. Mean genome wide individual ancestry estimates of percent African, European and Asian were obtained and tested for differences by state and ethnicity (Cajun and/or Creole and Hispanic/Latino using multivariate analysis of variance models. Principal components (PC were compared to assess differences in genetic composition by self-reported race and ethnicity between and within states. RESULTS: Mean individual ancestries differed by state for self-reporting AA (p = 0.03 and EA (p = 0.001. This geographic difference attenuated for AAs who answered "no" to all ethnicity membership questions (non-ethnic research subjects; p = 0.78 but not EA research subjects, p = 0.002. Mean ancestry estimates of self-identified AA Louisiana research subjects for each ethnic group; Cajun only, Creole only and both Cajun and Creole differed significantly from self-identified non-ethnic AA Louisiana research subjects. These ethnicity differences were not seen in those who self-identified as EA. CONCLUSIONS: Mean IA differed by race between states, elucidating a potential contributing factor to these differences in AA
Pallock, Linda L; Lamborn, Susie D
This study examined adolescents' perceptions of parenting practices and extended kinship support in relation to academic adjustment for 104 African American and 60 European American 9th and 10th graders (14 and 15 year olds). For African-American teens, parental acceptance was associated with school values, teacher bonding, and work orientation. Higher levels of behavioral control and lower levels of psychological control were associated with a stronger work orientation. After accounting for the demographic variables and the three parenting practices, higher levels of extended kinship support related to stronger school values, higher teacher bonding, and a stronger work orientation. For European-American teens, parental acceptance related to academic adjustment, including stronger school values, higher teacher bonding, and a stronger work orientation. European-American adolescents with stronger extended kinship networks reported higher teacher bonding and a stronger work orientation. Results indicate the importance of extended kinship support for both African-American and European-American adolescents. PMID:16455133
... t have child care Be active with your children: bike, play tag, or walk together. don’t like or don’t want to exercise Do something you enjoy, like dancing to the radio or planning active outings with ...
... ways to be physically active, or have limited time and money. Start by talking to your doctor about ways to improve your eating, drinking, and physical activity habits. Consuming healthier foods and beverages and getting regular physical activity ...
Full Text Available In theory, the American justice system is designed to ensure that each American’s basic constitutional rights are preserved and protected. Most Americans, including African-Americans, believe that the justice system protects the constitutional rights of all Americans. However, the extent of this protection is viewed differently by whites and African-Americans. Indeed, African-Americans feel that their constitutional rights have been marginalized by the very systems in place to protect their rights.
In theory, the American justice system is designed to ensure that each American’s basic constitutional rights are preserved and protected. Most Americans, including African-Americans, believe that the justice system protects the constitutional rights of all Americans. However, the extent of this protection is viewed differently by whites and African-Americans. Indeed, African-Americans feel that their constitutional rights have been marginalized by the very systems in place to protect t...
Hubbard, Philip G.
This autobiography recounts the life story of an African American educator at the University of Iowa from 1965 to 1991, as its first African American professor and then as its first African American administrator. The book recounts his childhood and family relations, his student years at the university and his graduation as an electrical engineer,…
65 pages The Ellison/Baraka Debate: The Conflict in (African) AmericanAcknowledgementsI. Introduction: Critical Representations of African AmericanMusic…… 1II. The Songs of Sorrow: The Spirituals in the Process ofAmericanization…… 6III. The People of the Blues: The Snowball Effect of the BluesAesthetic…… 16IV. The Representation of Modern Jazz and the Theory of AfricanAmerican Music…… 381. The conflict of the Old and New Guard: Bebop and the Future ofJazz…… 382. The Signifiyin(g) African A...
Gray, Simone C; Holmes, Kristin; Bradford, Denise R
The purpose of this study was to examine the social and behavioral factors associated with pregnancy history among a sample of African American adolescent girls recruited from a short-term juvenile detention center in order to better understand the needs of this vulnerable population. Data were collected from a sample of 188 detained African American, 13-17-year-old girls in Atlanta, Georgia, who participated in a larger HIV prevention study. An audio computer-assisted self-interviewing survey was completed by participants to obtain information on socioecological factors to include individual, parental/familial, sexual risk, psychosocial, and substance use factors. Among the 188 participants, 25.5 % reported a history of pregnancy. A multivariable logistic regression model showed that girls with a history of pregnancy were more likely to live in a household receiving government aid, use hormonal contraceptives at last sex, participate in sex trading, have casual sex partners, have condomless sex in the past 90 days, and have a history of physical abuse. Girls with no history of pregnancy were more likely to have been incarcerated at least twice and to have previously used alcohol. Detention-based interventions and pregnancy prevention programs for this vulnerable population may benefit by addressing factors related to sexual behavior and development, substance use, individual background, and psychosocial health. PMID:27271026
Boyraz, Güler; Horne, Sharon G; Owens, Archandria C; Armstrong, Aisha P
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between depressive symptomatology and college outcomes among African American students, as well as to determine whether these relationships were moderated by gender and type of university. Participants included 569 African American first-year students attending two public universities in the Southeast United States: a historically Black college/university (HBCU) and a predominantly White institution (PWI). Using a longitudinal study design, data were collected at three time points. Results indicated that, after adjusting for the effects of the control variables (gender, type of institution, high school GPA, participation in on-campus activities, institutional and goal commitments), depressive symptomatology present in the first semester of college was associated with increased likelihood of dropping out of college before the end of the second year of college. The relationship between these two variables was mediated by first-year cumulative GPA. Results also indicated that the hypothesized relationships did not vary as a function of gender and the university type. PMID:27055080
Ellis, Addie Lucille; Geller, Kathy D.
This narrative study is based on stories told by African American adolescents experiencing homelessness. It offers insights into their lived experiences and describes the challenges faced in negotiating the urban education system. African American youth are disproportionately represented in the adolescent homeless demographic. "Unheard and…
Frazier, Kimberly N.
The author discusses the problem of retention of African American faculty due to tenure and promotion issues. The author outlines obstacles that African American face in the workplace while seeking tenure and promotion in academia. A case example is presented that illuminates how these stressors manifest in the academic setting and recommendations…
Kohl, Patricia L.; Seay, Kristen D.
The Positive Parenting Program, Triple P, is an evidence-based parenting program with strong empirical support that increases parenting skills and decreases child behavior problems. Few studies on Triple P include fathers or African American fathers. This study was undertaken to determine if adaptation to Triple P level 4 is necessary to ensure fit with urban African American fathers.
Paschal, Angelia M.; Lewis-Moss, Rhonda K.; Hsiao, Tracy
Despite the growing body of research on the topic of adolescent parenthood, few studies have examined the perceptions and lived experiences of African American teen fathers. The primary aim of this study was to examine how this group defines and performs the father role. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 African American fathers aged 14…
There is an ongoing debate about whether African American students need to sever ties with their families to be successful in college. Adding nuance to this debate, this ethnographic study examines African American women's experiences of navigating family relationships in a predominantly White institution. The women described multiple pressures…
Conchas, Gilberto Q.; Lin, Alex R.; Oseguera, Leticia; Drake, Sean J.
Through a Multiple Marginality Framework, this exploratory case study highlights how African American male youth in an urban high school setting perceive the opportunity structure during the historic election of the first African American President. Youth optimism generated by Obama's election gives students a sense of hope despite the persistent…
Isaac, Paulette; Rowland, Michael
Examined institutional deterrents to participation in adult education among African American Christian church members. Focus group interview data highlighted six categories of deterrents: lack of relevance, programmatic, communication, individual/personal, instructional techniques, and interpersonal. Results suggest that African American Christian…
Davis, Jacqueline L.
The underachievement of African American and Hispanic students has been an ongoing problem for schools in the United States. The purpose of this investigation was to add to the existing body of knowledge concerning social capital of African American and Hispanic high school students' academic achievement. Using a nationally representative sample…
Drake, Carl Timothy
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting the attitudes that African-American college students have towards introductory college physics. The population targeted for this study consisted of African-American males and females enrolled in introductory college physics classes at an urban public historical black college or…
Fitzpatrick, Kevin M.; Dulin, Akilah J.; Piko, Bettina F.
Background: The primary purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of bullying among a sample of African American adolescents and the risk factors associated with odds that a student engages in bullying behavior. Methods: Using a self-report school-based survey, 1542 African American adolescents from a single school district (grades 5-12)…
This study examined if coping was predictive of perceived racism and racism related stress of African American female graduate students. Participants were 217 African American female graduate students attending Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs), Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs) and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and…
Morgan, Adrienne L.
The history of African Americans seeking medical education in the United States is rooted in a legacy of racial segregation, cultural constructs, and legal doctrine that differs from other ethnic and racial groups. The disturbing results of this legacy are that while African Americans account for 12.9% of the U.S. population, they only account for…
Grant, Cosette M.; Ghee, Sarah
This article is purposed with operationalizing the concept of mentoring as a nuanced approach and attempt to thwart the upward trajectories of African-American women in predominantly White institutions (PWIs). We struggled as African-American women to balance and decipher the various facets inherent in our respective roles--professor and doctoral…
Wasserberg, Martin J.
This study investigated whether a diagnostic testing condition leads to stereotype threat effects for African American children (n = 198) at an urban elementary school. Results indicated that presenting a reading test as diagnostic of abilities hindered the performance of African American children aware of racial stereotypes but not of those…
Spencer, Natalie F.; Dowden, Angel Riddick
Gifted African American students are underrepresented and underserved in gifted education. The current article provides an overview of proper identification, racial identity development implications, psycho-social concerns and the importance of family involvement in the development of gifted African American students. A case study is presented to…
Since the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the retention of African American students at predominately White colleges and universities continues to be problematic. Although many of these institutions have implemented retention programs for African American students, few have incorporated a comprehensive program that utilizes multi-program…
Sato, Takahiro; Hodge, Samuel R.
Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) programs typically require their graduates to learn to swim proficiently. However, the research base is underdeveloped regarding the aquatic experiences of African Americans in PETE programs. The purpose of this study was to explore the meaning African American PETE teacher candidates ascribe to their…
Mayes, Renae D.; Hines, Erik M.
Current literature on college and career readiness highlights the role of educators in promoting the success of all students. However, few studies have focused on the specific needs of gifted African American girls. This article discusses the school experiences and career development of gifted African American girls and it provides a culturally…
Haizlip, Breyan N.
Over the last two decades, there has been an upward trend in the number of African-American doctoral students completing counseling and psychology programs. However, despite these trends, African-American faculty continue to be significantly underrepresented as counseling educators and psychology faculty. Similarly, counseling education programs…
Hill, K. Dara
This case study narrative examines the circumstances underlying problems of residency in an affluent Midwest suburb experiencing an unexpected influx of working class African American students. Dilemmas engender a cultural mismatch between teachers and students and discomfort with African-American males. In a controversial climate where students…
This study focuses on how social class affects the college experiences and outcomes for African American students in 4-year colleges and universities. Using a national, longitudinal data base, the findings indicate that low SES African American students have less contact with faculty, study less, are less involved with student organizations, work…
Buchanan, Taneisha S.; Fischer, Ann R.; Tokar, David M.; Yoder, Janice D.
Objectification theory has emphasized objectification in terms of body shape and size. African American women may expect to be evaluated on additional physical attributes such as skin tone. Therefore, we extended previous research on objectification theory by adding separate measures of skin-tone concerns in a survey of 117 African American women.…
Brown, Tiffany L.; Linver, Miriam R.; Evans, Melanie
Scholars in the field of African American family studies recognize the influence of gender on socialization. However, few studies investigate how gender influences the racial and ethnic socialization of African American youth. To examine the role of gender (both caregiver and adolescent) in socialization practices, data were obtained from 218…
Hines, Erik M.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl
Parental characteristics, ecological factors, and the academic achievement of African American male high school students were examined. One hundred fifty-three 11th and 12th grade African American males completed the Parenting Style Index (Steinberg, Lamborn, Darling, Mounts, & Dornbusch, 1994) and a demographic questionnaire. Results…
Burkett, Karen; Morris, Edith; Manning-Courtney, Patricia; Anthony, Jean; Shambley-Ebron, Donna
Cultural factors such as health care access and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom interpretations have been proposed as impacting delayed diagnosis and treatment for African American children with ASD. A qualitative study of urban African American families caring for their child with autism was conducted with 24 family members and 28 ASD…
Voisin, Dexter R.; Bird, Jason D. P.; Hardestry, Melissa; Shiu, Cheng Shi
This study explores community violence exposures among African American adolescents and whether coping strategies were gendered. In-depth interviews are conducted with a sample of 32 African American high school students. Data are analyzed using a thematic analysis. The primary forms of violence exposures are physical attacks, fighting, and…
Noble, Richard, III; Morton, Crystal Hill
This study investigated within group differences between African American female and male students who participated in the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress mathematics assessment. Using results from participating states, we compare average scale scores of African American students based on home regulatory environment and interest…
Tatum, Alfred W.; Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.
Advancing the literacy development of African American males in contexts that are characteristically urban has been a challenging task for educators across the P-12 spectrum. Frames that have been traditionally used to improve the reading achievement of African American males have not reversed trends in reading achievement that find many of these…
Holland, Nicole E.
Engagement in and transitions between academic institutions may be enhanced for African American urban youth if we consider the role of religiosity, spirituality, and places of worship. This article presents the manner by which African American university students, who attended public high schools, conveyed the influence of their religious and…
Lewis, LaToya L.
The March of Dimes, Texas Chapter, partnered with the faith community to pilot Honey Child[SM], a prenatal education program for African American women. The program is designed to combat prematurity, which is the leading cause of death for African American infants. Honey Child uses a spiritual approach to promote prenatal health through…
Historically, religion and spirituality have been major influences in the social, cultural, and political lives of African Americans. Spirituality is deeply embedded into their rich cultural heritage, and it is intertwined into all aspects of their life, including beliefs about health and illness. For African Americans, health and illness are a…
Joe, Emanique M.; Davis, James Earl
This study examined the relationship between parental influence and the school readiness of African American boys, using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: ECLS-K, Parents' influence, via their academic beliefs and behaviors, was associated with the cognitive performance of African American boys during kindergarten. While previous…
Gardner, Levester, Jr.; Barrett, T. Gregory; Pearson, L. Carolyn
Despite literature emphasizing the importance of their presence on college campuses to minority student success, African American administrators are severely underrepresented in higher education. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the lived experiences of successful African American student affairs administrators at predominantly…
Chambers, Anthony L.; Kravitz, Aliza
African Americans have the lowest marriage rate of any racial and ethnic group in America. Although the low marriage rate among African Americans has been largely examined through a sociological lens by documenting structural barriers, which has important policy implications, researchers have not sufficiently examined the psychological and…
Martins, David; Agodoa, Lawrence; Norris, Keith C.
African Americans have a disproportionate burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD), which tends to have an earlier onset and a more rapid progression in this population. Many of the factors responsible for the rapid progression of CKD in African Americans are detectable by screening and are modifiable with prompt therapy.
Williams, Jeanine L.
Race plays a major role in the lived experiences of African Americans. Consequently, race significantly impacts the identities and educational experiences of African American college students--many of whom require developmental reading courses. These courses, which are gateway courses in higher education, should address race along with reading…
Littlefield, Melissa B.; Edwards, Lorece; Akers, Timothy
The Internet is increasingly used to disseminate health information about diseases and prevention and to help in obtaining health services. Although technology can empower African Americans to adopt healthy lifestyles, the gap in usage between African Americans and Whites undermines the potential power of health Internet technology (IT) to…
Utsey, Shawn O.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Reynolds, Amy L.; Cancelli, Anthony A.
Study examines the coping strategies used by African Americans in managing the stressful effects of racism. Results indicate that women preferred avoidance coping for racism experienced on a personal level. For African Americans in general, seeking social support and racism condition were the best predictors of racism-related stress. Life…
Hodges, Janice; Pringle, Lajuan S.
The African American male psyche is a complicated multi-layered mixture of outside media influences, stereotypes, peer pressure, how they see themselves, and how they think others see them. This article describes how school and public librarians can help raise the literacy efforts of young African American males. It cites the need for libraries to…
Patton-Terry, Nicole; Connor, Carol
This study explored the spelling skills of African American second graders who produced African American English (AAE) features in speech. The children (N = 92), who varied in spoken AAE use and word reading skills, were asked to spell words that contained phonological and morphological dialect-sensitive (DS) features that can vary between AAE and…
Treiman, Rebecca; Bowman, Margo
This study examined the effect of dialect variation on children's spelling by using devoicing of final /d/ in African American Vernacular English (AAVE) as a test case. In line with the linguistic interference hypothesis, African American 6-year-olds were significantly poorer at spelling the final "d" of words such as "salad"…
Attempts to address racial disproportionality in child welfare must include a focus on the benefits and challenges facing children in kinship care. African American children not only are overrepresented in the child welfare system, but also are placed disproportionately in kinship foster care. Using a sample of 18 African American adolescents ages…
Czujko, Roman; Nicholson, Starr
Physics and geoscience consistently rank near the bottom among all disciplines in their ability to attract and retain African American students. Before delving into these trends, it is important to establish a context for discussing the data and their implications. African Americans comprise 12.4% of the U.S. population, but their representation…
Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.; Van Brakle, Mischelle; St. Vil, Christopher
Research indicates that inner-city neighborhood effects are correlated with school dropout, substance abuse, crime, violence, homicide, HIV risk related behaviors, and incarceration for adolescent African American males. Parents of adolescent African American males face many challenges as they try to keep their children safe in high-risk…
More, Timothy; Taylor, David; Turner, Dion
Examines motivational factors associated with malt liquor consumption in African American youth. (Malt liquor is directly marketed to African-American youth.) Over 90% of respondents consumed alcohol in the past. Students viewed malt liquor commercials as being more associated with sex and power than were beer commercials. (MMU)
Abdullah, Tahirah; Brown, Tamara L.
This study examined whether a relationship exists between acculturation and alcohol use among African American college students and if the relationship varies by religiosity and gender. Most researchers use unidimensional African American acculturation measures that cannot capture the construct's complexity; this study is the first to use a…
Powell-Mikle, Angiline; Patton, Mary Martin
Despite some characterization as being uninvolved in the education of their children, African American parents have always valued education and recognized it as the key to economic and political freedom. Despite laws in the United States prohibiting the education of slaves, African Americans were the first southerners to campaign for universal,…
Greathouse, Betty; Sparling, Saundra
Examines the advantages and disadvantages of African-American male-only classes and schools, which are staffed mainly by African-American male teachers. Focuses on attempts to create such institutions in Detroit, Baltimore, Milwaukee, and Dade County, Florida. (MDM)
Purpose: This study explored the type and adequacy of cohesive devices that are produced by school-age children who use African American English (AAE). Method: The language samples of 33 African American children, ages 7, 9, and 11 years, were transcribed, analyzed, and coded for AAE use and cohesive adequacy (e.g., personal reference,…
Godley, Amanda; Escher, Allison
This article describes the perspectives of bidialectal African American adolescents--adolescents who speak both African American Vernacular English (AAVE) and Standard English--on spoken language expectations in their English classes. Previous research has demonstrated that many teachers hold negative views of AAVE, but existing scholarship has…
Farmer, Thomas W.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Thompson, Jana H.; Hutchins, Bryan C.; Leung, Man-Chi
This study examined the relationship between end-of-year grades and the academic, behavioral, and social characteristics of rural African American youth. Participants included 392 7th and 8th grade students from 2 rural middle schools in the south. Participants were African American and were from 2 communities that have child poverty rates…
Robinson, Sheila Teel; Baber, Ceola Ross
Existing scholarship on teacher leadership fails to account for the perspectives of African American female teacher leaders. In this article, we profile 3 African American female teacher leaders located at different trajectories on historical and professional timelines. Our analysis is grounded in understandings from the intersection of social…
This article discusses the process of incorporating spirituality and religion into the treatment of African American clients. It addresses religious diversity within the African American community. The roles of spirituality and religion as survival and coping mechanisms for overcoming racism, adversity, and loss are emphasized. The cases presented…
Toyokawa, Teru; McLoyd, Vonnie C.
This study examined African American mothers' work socialization messages in relation to adolescents' work-related values. Moderation effects of mother-adolescent relation quality on the linkage between maternal socialization messages and adolescents' outcomes were also examined. Participants were 245 single African American mothers and their…