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Sample records for african american men

  1. Discrimination, Mastery, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…

  2. Black and Blue: Depression and African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowden, Keith O; Thompson Adams, Linda; Wiley, Dana

    2016-10-01

    Depression is a common mental disorder affecting individuals. Although many strides have been made in the area of depression, little is known about depression in special populations, especially African American men. African American men often differ in their presentation of depression and are often misdiagnosed. African American men are at greater risk for depression, but they are less likely to participate in mental health care. This article explores depression in African American by looking at environmental factors, sigma, role, and other unique to this populations, such as John Henryism. Interventions to encourage early screening and participation in care are also discussed.

  3. Active surveillance of prostate cancer in African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Jonathan L; Feibus, Allison H; Maddox, Michael M; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Moparty, Krishnarao; Thomas, Raju; Sartor, Oliver

    2014-12-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is a treatment strategy for prostate cancer (PCa) whereby patients diagnosed with PCa undergo ongoing characterization of their disease with the intent of avoiding radical treatment. Previously, AS has been demonstrated to be a reasonable option for men with low-risk PCa, but existing cohorts largely consist of Caucasian Americans. Because African Americans have a greater incidence, more aggressive, and potentially more lethal PCa than Caucasian Americans, it is unclear if AS is appropriate for African Americans. We performed a review of the available literature on AS with a focus on African Americans.

  4. Substance Abuse: Implications for Counseling African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Jay C.

    1994-01-01

    Examines factors--such as unemployment, economic deprivation, racism, issues pertaining to gender roles--and their contribution to substance abuse in African American men. Specifically reviews the use of alcohol, opiates, crack, and cocaine. Argues that a biopsychosocial model offers the best framework in conceptualizing substance abuse and…

  5. HIV among African American Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among African American Gay and Bisexual Men Format: ...

  6. Factors Predicting Communal Attitudes among African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattis, Jacqueline S.; Hearn, Kimberly D.; Jagers, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Studied the direct effects of demographic variables, religiosity, psychosocial stress variables, and sociostructural variables on the communal attitudes of 171 African American adult men, aged 17 to 79 years. Age and educational attainment were not significantly associated with communalism. Relational stress, financial stress, and stress resulting…

  7. Aspects of the Student Engagement of African American Men in Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romney, Paulette B.

    2012-01-01

    High attrition rates of African American college students' is a continuing concern of higher education administrators. This is particularly true of African American men attending community college. African American men consistently experience low levels of scholastic achievement as a result of entering college underprepared, with academic deficits…

  8. W.E.B. Du Bois: Role Model and Mentor for African American Undergraduate Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Larry L.

    2001-01-01

    With the dearth of African American men in academe, African American college men have few opportunities to be mentored by those who can best help them make sense of their experience. Du Bois' writings give voice to much of the African American college experience and provide concrete examples of how to think, act, and persevere in the U.S.…

  9. Playing spades: The rich resources of African American young men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schademan, Alfred R.

    Research has shown that African American young men as a demographic group occupy the lowest levels of academic performance in both science and mathematics. In spite of this educational problem, little research has been conducted on the knowledge related to these disciplines that these young men learn and develop through everyday cultural practices. Such knowledge is needed in order to: (1) combat the deficit views that many teachers currently hold of African American young men, and (2) inform teachers interested in implementing pedagogies in their classrooms that draw upon the knowledge of African American young men. To add to our knowledge in this field, this study examines the resources that African American young men learn, use, and develop through a card game called Spades. Specifically, the study identifies and analyzes the models and model-based reasoning that the players use in order to win games. The study focuses upon modeling as it is central to both science and mathematics. To imbed player models and reasoning in context, the study employs a syncretic theoretical framework that examines how Spades has changed over time and how it is currently played in a high school setting. The qualitative study uses ethnographic methods combined with play-by-play analyses to reconstruct games and examine player strategies and reasoning that guide their decisions. The study found that the players operate from a number of different models while playing the game. Specifically, the players consider multiple variables and factors, as well as their mathematical relationships, to predict future occurrences and then play cards accordingly. Further, the players use a number of resources to win games including changing the game to maintain a competitive edge, counting cards, selectively memorizing cards played, assessing risk, bluffing, reading partners as well as opponents, reneging, estimating probabilities, and predicting outcomes. The player models and resources bear

  10. Alternative Locales for the Health Promotion of African American Men: A Survey of African American Men in Chicago Barbershops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, A B; Moore, N J; Wright, M; Gipson, J; Keeter, M; Cornelious, T; Reed, D; Russell, J; Watson, K S; Murray, M

    2017-02-01

    African American men (AA) carry unequal burdens of several conditions including cancer, diabetes, hypertension, and HIV. Engagement of diverse populations including AA men in research and health promotion practice is vital to examining the health disparities that continue to plague many racially and ethnically diverse communities. To date, there is little research on best practices that indicate locations, community areas and settings to engage AA men in research and health promotion. Traditionally, the AA church has been a key area to engage AA men and women. However, changing tides in attendance of AA parishioners require additional information to identify areas where AAs, particularly, AA men congregate. The AA barbershop has been identified as a place of social cohesion, cultural immersion and solidarity for AA men but specific sub-populations of AA men may be underrepresented. To further investigate additional locales where AA men congregate, this study engaged AA barbers and clients in several urban community barbershops in Chicago, Illinois. 127 AA men over age 18y/o receiving grooming services in 25 Chicago area barbershops across 14 predominantly AA communities were consented and recruited for a quantitative survey study. The self-administered surveys were completed in ~15 min and $10 compensation was provided to men. Descriptive statistics were reported for demographic variables and for frequency of responses for locations to find AA men of specific age ranges for health promotion and screening activities. Outside of the traditionally used churches or barbershops, the top recommended recruitment sites by age were: 18-29y/o- city park or a recreational center; 30-39y/o- gym, bars or the street; 40-49y/o- various stores, especially home improvement stores, and the mall; and 50y/o+- fast food restaurants in the mornings, such as McDonalds, and individual's homes. The study participants also reported that locations where AA men congregate vary by age

  11. Images of Male Friendships: An Investigation of How African American Undergraduate Men Develop Interpersonal Relationships with Other Men at a Predominantly White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Brian Lamont

    2013-01-01

    African American men enter postsecondary institutions having been socialized to adopt stereotypical notions of masculinity. These traditional expectations of masculinity play a role in how African American men negotiate relationships with their male counterparts on the campus. African American men cultivate close relationships with other men to…

  12. Male Gender Role Strain as a Barrier to African American Men's Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Derek M.; Gunter, Katie; Allen, Julie Ober

    2011-01-01

    Despite the potential health consequences, African American men tend to treat their roles as providers, fathers, spouses, and community members as more important than engaging in health behaviors such as physical activity. We conducted 14 exploratory focus groups with 105 urban, middle-aged African American men from the Midwest to examine factors…

  13. Genomic Basis of Prostate Cancer Health Disparity Among African-American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Cancer Health Disparity Among African-American Men PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Harry Ostrer, M.D. RECIPIENT: Albert Einstein College of...ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Albert Einstein College of Medicine Of Yeshiva University Bronx, NY 10461 9. SPONSORING

  14. Correlates of Psychological Distress and Major Depressive Disorder Among African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Karen D; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Watkins, Daphne C; Chatters, Linda M

    2011-05-01

    This study examines the demographic correlates of depressive symptoms, serious psychological distress (SPD), and major depressive disorder (MDD; 12-month and lifetime prevalence) among a national sample of African American men. Analysis of the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) data set provides first-time substantiation of important demographic differences in depressive symptoms (measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale [CES-D]), SPD (measured by the K6), and 12-month and lifetime MDD among African American men. Findings illuminate the heterogeneity within the African American male population. Findings also demonstrate the need for additional research focusing on within-group differences and a comprehensive research and mental health promotion agenda that recognizes the importance of improving access to education and employment and promoting healthy coping behaviors, while acknowledging the larger social context in which African American men live.

  15. Differences in African American and White Women’s Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Wilson; Peterson, John L.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine racial differences in women’s attitudes toward lesbians and gay men and to offer an understanding of these differences. Participants were 224 18–30 year old heterosexual African American (64%) and White (36%) female undergraduates from a large urban university in the southeastern United States. Participants completed measures of social demographics, sexual orientation, and sexual prejudice. Results showed that African American, relative to White, women endorsed more negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Also, unlike White women, African American women reported more negative attitudes toward gay men than lesbians. Implications are discussed regarding differences in cultural contexts that exist between African American and White women. PMID:20161368

  16. Health Information-Seeking Practices of African American Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, India D.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Spencer, S. Melinda; Annang, Lucy; Lindley, Lisa L.

    2016-01-01

    The current study used a qualitative, phenomenological approach to investigate the health information-seeking practices of African American young men who have sex with men (AAYMSM). Forty-two self-identified AAYMSM, aged 18 to 21, residing in a Southeastern U.S. city participated in a qualitative focus group or face-to-face interview to examine…

  17. Interpersonal Relationships: Exploring Race and Relationship Decisions among African American College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Brian L.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores how race influenced African American men's interpersonal relationships with other men at a predominantly White institution. The use of both semi-structured and photo-elicitation interview formats provided participants an opportunity to reflect on their precollege experiences, identity, and relationships. Two categories emerged…

  18. Eating behaviors and related cultural attitudes of African American men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Oney

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultural groups often participate in traditions and activities surrounding food and eating, which contribute to group differences in maladaptive eating-related patterns and outcomes. This study explored the relationships between cultural attitudes and eating behaviors of young adult African American men and women. Endorsing a strong orientation on various dimensions of African American culture were related to less dieting, bulimic, and anorexic behaviors and attitudes. This study extended our knowledge of the ways in which cultural attitudes were related to the physical and mental health of African Americans and recognized the significance of individual differences within this group.

  19. Correlates of Psychological Distress and Major Depressive Disorder among African American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Watkins, Daphne C.; Chatters, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the demographic correlates of depressive symptoms, serious psychological distress (SPD), and major depressive disorder (MDD; 12-month and lifetime prevalence) among a national sample of African American men. Analysis of the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) data set provides first-time substantiation of important…

  20. Religiousness and prostate cancer screening in African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Alexis D; Houston, Tina R; Bjorck, Jeffrey P; Gorsuch, Richard L; Arnold, Harold L

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the relationship between religiousness (organized, nonorganized, and intrinsic) and religious problem solving (collaborative, deferring, and self-directing) in prostate cancer screening (PCS) attitudes and behavior. Men (N = 481) of African descent between the ages of 40 and 70 participated. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that religiousness and self-directed problem solving were associated with PCS attitudes. Intrinsic religiousness was associated with PCS attitudes after controlling for health and organized religiousness. Religiousness was not associated with PCS behavior. Intrinsic religiousness may be an important dimension of religiousness to be considered in tailoring cancer interventions for individuals from faith-based communities.

  1. Do men hold African-American and Caucasian women to different standards of beauty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Rachel E K; Carter, Michele M; Sbrocco, Tracy; Gray, James J

    2007-08-01

    Racial differences in men's preferences for African-American and Caucasian women's body size and shape were examined. As expected, there was a trend for African-American men to choose ideal figures with a lower waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), which is associated with a more curvaceous figure. Contrary to expectations, however, African-American men did not choose heavier female figures as ideal. In fact, both groups chose underweight and normal weight figures as ideal. The results from this study suggest that while preferences for WHR may continue to be associated with cultural factors, African-American and Caucasian men may have become more similar than different in their preferences for female weight. Also, the results suggest that within the African-American sample, there were two subsamples with regard to WHR preferences, with one subgroup endorsing the same ideal WHR as their Caucasian counterparts. The results are discussed in terms of possible changes to cultural values that may be reflected in a change in what is considered attractive.

  2. Urban African-American men speak out on sexual partner concurrency: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Michael P; Senn, Theresa E; Seward, Derek X; Vanable, Peter A

    2010-02-01

    Sexual partner concurrency, which fuels the spread of HIV, has been hypothesized as a cause of higher rates of HIV among low-income, urban African-Americans. Despite this hypothesis, little is known about the phenomenology of partner concurrency. To address this gap in the literature, we recruited 20 urban African-American men from a public STD clinic to elicit their ideas about partner concurrency. Five themes emerged during focus group discussions. First, there was a general consensus that it is normative to have more than one sexual partner. Second, men agreed it is acceptable for men to have concurrent partners, but disagreed about whether it is acceptable for women. Third, although men provided many reasons for concurrent partnerships, the most common reasons were that (a) multiple partners fulfill different needs, and (b) it is in a man's nature to have multiple partners. Fourth, men described some (but not all) of the negative consequences of having concurrent partners. Finally, men articulated spoken and unspoken rules that govern concurrent partnerships. These findings increase knowledge about urban, African-American men's attitudes toward concurrent partnerships, and can help to improve the efficacy of sexual risk-reduction interventions for this group of underserved men and their partners.

  3. Urban African-American Men Speak Out on Sexual Partner Concurrency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Michael P.; Senn, Theresa E.; Seward, Derek X.; Vanable, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    Sexual partner concurrency, which fuels the spread of HIV, has been hypothesized as a cause of higher rates of HIV among low-income, urban African-Americans. Despite this hypothesis, little is known about the phenomenology of partner concurrency. To address this gap in the literature, we recruited 20 urban African-American men from a public STD clinic to elicit their ideas about partner concurrency. Five themes emerged during focus group discussions. First, there was a general consensus that it is normative to have more than one sexual partner. Second, men agreed it is acceptable for men to have concurrent partners, but disagreed about whether it was acceptable for women. Third, although men provided many reasons for concurrent partnerships, the most common reasons were that (a) multiple partners fulfill different needs, and (b) it is in a man’s nature to have multiple partners. Fourth, men described some (but not all) of the negative consequences of having concurrent partners. Finally, men articulated spoken and unspoken rules that govern concurrent partnerships. These findings increase knowledge about urban, African-American men’s attitudes toward concurrent partnerships, and can help to improve the efficacy of sexual risk-reduction interventions for this group of underserved men and their partners. PMID:18483847

  4. Multiple Identity Considerations among African American Christian Men Experiencing Same-Sex Attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarhouse, Mark A.; Nowacki-Butzen, Stephanie; Brooks, D. Fredrica

    2009-01-01

    The authors explored the experiences of African American men who identified as Christian and experienced same-sex attraction. Participants completed an online questionnaire addressing experiences of same-sex attraction; meaning attributed to their attractions; the sharing of their experiences with others; and perceptions regarding the intersection…

  5. Cardiovascular Risk Reduction for African-American Men through Health Empowerment and Anger Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Torrance; Braithwaite, Harold; Johnson, Larry; Harris, Catrell; Katkowsky, Steven; Troutman, Adewale

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine impact of CVD risk reduction intervention for African-American men in the Atlanta Empowerment Zone (AEZ) designed to target anger management. Design: Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test was employed as a non-parametric alternative to the t-test for independent samples. This test was employed because the data used in this analysis…

  6. Role of Mitochondrial Inheritance on Prostate Cancer Outcome in African-American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0737 TITLE: Role of Mitochondrial Inheritance on Prostate Cancer Outcome in...2013-29 Sept 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Role of Mitochondrial Inheritance on Prostate Cancer Outcome in African-American Men 5a. CONTRACT...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We are examining the hypothesis that mitochondrial inheritance plays a significant role in

  7. Two Worlds: African American Men's Negotiation of Predominantly White Educational and Occupational Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A.

    2007-01-01

    Negotiating 2 worlds, a predominantly White opportunity structure and one's community of origin, often produces distress among persons of color. In this qualitative study, the author examines the perspectives and competencies of African American men who negotiate 2 worlds and suggests that bicultural competence may facilitate participation in the…

  8. HIV treatment optimism and sexual risk behaviors among HIV positive African American men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, John L; Miner, Michael H; Brennan, David J; Rosser, B R Simon

    2012-04-01

    The association between HIV treatment optimism--beliefs about susceptibility to transmit HIV, motivation to use condoms, and severity of HIV--and sexual risk behavior was examined among HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men (MSM). Participants were 174 men recruited in four major metropolitan areas of the United States to participate in a weekend HIV risk reduction intervention. Baseline results revealed that beliefs in less susceptibility to transmit HIV and less motivation to use condoms were significantly associated with more unprotected anal intercourse among serodiscordant casual partners. Less motivation to use condoms also predicted more unprotected insertive and receptive anal sex and was more important than susceptibility beliefs in predicting these behaviors. Suggestions are offered of ways to better inform HIV-positive African American MSM about their misperceptions about HIV treatment and how their level of optimism about HIV treatment may diminish or encourage condom use.

  9. Male role norms, knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of colorectal cancer screening among young adult African American men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Rogers, Ph.D., CHES

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparities in health among African American men in the United States are extensive. In contrast to their White counterparts, African American men have more illnesses and die younger. African American men have colorectal cancer (CRC incidence and mortality rates 25% and 50% higher, respectively, than White men. Due to CRC’s younger age at presentation and high incidence among African American men, CRC screening is warranted at the age of 45 rather than 50, but little is known about younger African American men’s views of CRC screening. Employing survey design, the purpose of the study was to describe the male role norms, knowledge, attitudes, perceived subjective norms, and perceived barriers associated with screening for CRC among a non-random sample of 157 young adult African American men (ages 19-45. Sixty-seven percent of the study sample received a passing knowledge score (85% or better, yet no significant differences were found among the three educational levels (i.e., low, medium, high. More negative attitudes towards CRC screening correlated with the participants’ strong perceptions of barriers, but no extremely negative or positive male role norms and perceived subjective norms were found. The factors significantly associated with attitudes were family history of cancer (unsure, work status, and perceived barriers. Findings from this study provide a solid basis for developing structured health education interventions that address the salient factors shaping young adult African American men's view of CRC and early detection screening behaviors.

  10. What Does Playing Cards Have to Do with Science? A Resource-Rich View of African American Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schademan, Alfred R.

    2011-01-01

    The study examines the resources related to science that African American young men learn and develop by playing a card game called Spades, a common cultural practice in African American communities that dates back to the Civil War Era. The qualitative study examines what the Spades players at a local high school consider when making decisions…

  11. Patterns of information behavior and prostate cancer knowledge among African-American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Levi; Dark, Tyra; Orom, Heather; Underwood, Willie; Anderson-Lewis, Charkarra; Johnson, Jarrett; Erwin, Deborah O

    2011-12-01

    The purposes of this study are to explore cancer information acquisition patterns among African-American men and to evaluate relationships between information acquisition patterns and prostate cancer prevention and control knowledge. A random sample of 268 men participated in a statewide interviewer-administered, telephone survey. Men classified as non-seekers, non-medical source seekers, and medical source seekers of prostate cancer information differed on household income, level of education, and beliefs about personal risk for developing prostate cancer. Results from multiple regression analysis indicated that age, education, and information-seeking status were associated with overall levels of prostate cancer knowledge. Results from logistic regression analyses indicated that men who included physicians as one of many information resources (medical source seekers) had superior knowledge over non-seekers and non-medical source seekers on 33% of individual knowledge details. The findings emphasize the need to connect lower-income and lower-educated African-American men to physicians as a source of prostate cancer control information.

  12. Influences on HIV Testing among Young African-American Men Who Have Sex with Men and the Moderating Effect of the Geographic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashburn, Andrew J.; Peterson, John L.; Bakeman, Roger; Miller, Robin L.; Clark, Leslie F.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the influence of demographic characteristics, risk behaviors, knowledge, and psychosocial variables on HIV testing among a sample (n = 551) of young African-American men who have sex with men (MSM) from three cities--Atlanta (n = 241), Birmingham (n = 174), and Chicago (n = 136). Among the entire sample of young men, age,…

  13. Barriers and Motivators to Participating in mHealth Research Among African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Delores C S; Harville, Cedric

    2015-12-03

    Most African American (AA) men own a smartphone, which positions them to be targeted for a variety of programs, services, and health interventions using mobile devices (mHealth). The goal of this study was to assess AA men's use of technology and the barriers and motivators to participating in mHealth research. A self-administered survey was completed by 311 men. Multinomial logistic regression examined associations between three age groups (18-29 years, 30-50 years, and 51+ years), technology access, and motivators and barriers to participating in mHealth research. Sixty-five percent of men owned a smartphone and a laptop. Men aged 18 to 29 years were more likely willing to use a health app and smartwatch/wristband monitor than older men (p < .01). Men aged 18 to 29 years were also more likely than older men to be motivated to participate for a free cell phone/upgraded data plan and contribution to the greater good (p < .05). Older men were more likely than younger ones to be motivated to become more educated about the topic (p < .05). Younger men were more likely than older ones to report lack of interest in the topic as a barrier to participating (p < .01), while older men were more likely than younger ones to cite lack of research targeted to minority communities as a barrier (p < .05). This study suggests that culturally tailored mHealth research using smartphones may be of interest to AA men interested in risk reduction and chronic disease self-management. Opportunities also exist to educate AA men about the topic at hand and why minority men are being targeted for the programs and interventions.

  14. The production of disability culture among young African-American men.

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    Devlieger, Patrick J; Albrecht, Gary L; Hertz, Miram

    2007-05-01

    During the past two decades, debate about disability definitions, concepts, models and policies has been led primarily by Western white middle class disability activists and scholars. This paper contributes to the discussion by examining how disability is conceived and disability culture is developed in a poor, African-American community. The recognition of disability as a defining identity and disability culture as a cohesive force is unusual in the African-American community, and we ask what conditions are necessary for such an identity and culture to develop. To address this question, in 1998 we began a 5 year ethnographic research project concerning young African-American men in the spinal cord injury unit of an inner city rehabilitation hospital in Chicago USA. Based on this research, we argue that there are three necessary conditions for a disability culture to emerge in a group of African-Americans who acquired their disability violently. First, is the perception of social alienation from family and fellow gang members. Second, is immersion in a supportive physical and social environment where disability meanings are produced, reinforced and passed on across generations. Third, is the development of personal narratives and metaphors that give meaning to disability, anchor behavioral changes and help to reconcile value conflicts. Our analysis allows us to understand a change in identity among these young men and the emergence of a shared disability culture represented through signs, symbols, language, rules and ceremonies. This analytical framework also permits us to re-examine disability culture in white society and in specific disability cultures such as deaf culture and to suggest that while there are similarities across groups, disability culture is not monolithic.

  15. Minority stress and sexual problems among African-American gay and bisexual men.

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    Zamboni, Brian D; Crawford, Isiaah

    2007-08-01

    Minority stress, such as racism and gay bashing, may be associated with sexual problems, but this notion has not been examined in the literature. African-American gay/bisexual men face a unique challenge in managing a double minority status, putting them at high risk for stress and sexual problems. This investigation examined ten predictors of sexual problems among 174 African-American gay/bisexual men. Covarying for age, a forward multiple regression analysis showed that the measures of self-esteem, male gender role stress, HIV prevention self-efficacy, and lifetime experiences with racial discrimination significantly added to the prediction of sexual problems. Gay bashing, psychiatric symptoms, low life satisfaction, and low social support were significantly correlated with sexual problems, but did not add to the prediction of sexual problems in the regression analysis. Mediation analyses showed that stress predicted psychiatric symptoms, which then predicted sexual problems. Sexual problems were not significantly related to HIV status, racial/ethnic identity, or gay identity. The findings from this study showed a relationship between experiences with racial and sexual discrimination and sexual problems while also providing support for mediation to illustrate how stress might cause sexual problems. Addressing minority stress in therapy may help minimize and treat sexual difficulties among minority gay/bisexual men.

  16. Association between Serum 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D and Aggressive Prostate Cancer in African American Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakira M. Nelson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available African American men have higher incidence rates of aggressive prostate cancer, where high levels of calcium and serum vitamin D deficient levels play a role in the racial differences in incidence. In this study, we examined associations of serum vitamin D with aggressive prostate cancer to improve our understanding of higher susceptibility of aggressive disease in this racial cohort. From Howard University Hospital, 155 African American men with clinically-identified prostate cancer were identified; 46 aggressive cases, and 58 non-aggressive cases. Serum vitamin D was assessed from fasting blood samples, and total calcium intake was assessed using the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms from three different loci were genotyped; rs731236, rs1544410, and rs11568820. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI comparing aggressive to non-aggressive prostate cancer. Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL significantly increased risk of aggressive disease (OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.03–9.57, p-value = 0.04. Stratification by total calcium showed high calcium levels (≥800 mg/day modified this association (OR: 7.3, 95% CI: 2.15–47.68, p-interaction = 0.03. Genetic variant rs11568820 appeared to increase the magnitude of association between deficient serum vitamin D and aggressive prostate cancer (OR: 3.64, 95% CI: 1.12–11.75, p-value = 0.05. These findings suggest that high incidence of aggressive prostate cancer risk in African American men may be due in-part to deficient levels of serum vitamin D. Other factors, including genetics, should be considered for future studies.

  17. Assessing Collectivism in Latino, Asian/Pacific Islander, and African American Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Psychometric Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauceda, John A; Paul, Jay P; Gregorich, Steven E; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2016-02-01

    The study of collectivism has implications for HIV prevention research, especially in studies that use a social networking or community mobilization approach. However, research on collectivism in race/ethnicity and sexual minority groups is limited. We psychometrically evaluated a brief version of the Individualism-Collectivism Interpersonal Assessment Inventory (ICIAI) in a chain-referral sample of 400 Latino, 393 Asian/Pacific Islander, and 403 African American men who have sex with men (MSM). Data were collected via a one-time survey on demographics, the ICIAI, acculturation, and ethnicity identity. We conducted a multiple groups confirmatory factor analysis to assess for measurement invariance across the three groups of MSM, as well as tested its reliability and validity. The ICIAI evidenced good psychometric properties and was invariant across all groups. We highlight implications for how this measure of collectivism can be applied toward the study of HIV prevention and in lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender communities.

  18. Rapid clinical progression to diagnosis among African-American men with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuckle, M R; James, J A; Dennis, G J; Rubertone, M V; McClain, M T; Kim, X R; Harley, J B

    2003-01-01

    The initial clinical course of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is variable, ranging from relatively minor manifestations progressing over years to rapid onset of fulminate disease. We sought to identify factors associated with the rapid manifestation of SLE. Chart review of military medical records was used to identify 130 patients who met the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for SLE. Demographics, clinical criteria date of occurrence, and the date of SLE classification (at least four clinical criteria) met were documented. Prospectively stored serum samples prior to the diagnosis were evaluated for SLE autoantibodies. Median time from the first recorded criteria to diagnosis was significantly shorter in African-American (AA) males compared with AA females and European American (EA) females and males combined. AA males were more likely to have nephritis as their first clinical symptom. Also, less time transpired between the first clinical criterion and SLE diagnosis in AA males with nephritis than in other groups presenting with nephritis. Even when cases presenting with nephritis were excluded, a diagnosis of SLE was made more rapidly in AA males. African-American men progress from initial clinical manifestations to SLE diagnosis more rapidly than other ethnic or gender groups.

  19. Imprisoned by Empathy: Familial Incarceration and Psychological Distress among African American Men in the National Survey of American Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tony N; Bell, Mary Laske; Patterson, Evelyn J

    2016-06-01

    The stress process model predicts that current incarceration of a family member should damage the health status of the inmate's relatives. We address this prediction with data from the National Survey of American Life, focusing exclusively on African American men (n = 1,168). In survey-adjusted generalized linear models, we find that familial incarceration increases psychological distress, but its effect attenuates ostensibly after controlling for other chronic strains. Familial incarceration remains statistically insignificant with the introduction of mastery and family emotional support and their respective interactions with familial incarceration. However, a statistical interaction between familial incarceration and former incarceration reveals that levels of psychological distress are significantly higher among never-incarcerated respondents whose family members are incarcerated but significantly lower among formerly incarcerated respondents whose family members are incarcerated. We conclude that familial incarceration's influence on black men's mental health status may be more complex than extant theory predicts.

  20. A novel genomic alteration of LSAMP associates with aggressive prostate cancer in African American men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyorgy Petrovics

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of cancer genomes in global context is of great interest in light of changing ethnic distribution of the world population. We focused our study on men of African ancestry because of their disproportionately higher rate of prostate cancer (CaP incidence and mortality. We present a systematic whole genome analyses, revealing alterations that differentiate African American (AA and Caucasian American (CA CaP genomes. We discovered a recurrent deletion on chromosome 3q13.31 centering on the LSAMP locus that was prevalent in tumors from AA men (cumulative analyses of 435 patients: whole genome sequence, 14; FISH evaluations, 101; and SNP array, 320 patients. Notably, carriers of this deletion experienced more rapid disease progression. In contrast, PTEN and ERG common driver alterations in CaP were significantly lower in AA prostate tumors compared to prostate tumors from CA. Moreover, the frequency of inter-chromosomal rearrangements was significantly higher in AA than CA tumors. These findings reveal differentially distributed somatic mutations in CaP across ancestral groups, which have implications for precision medicine strategies.

  1. Making decisions: the process of HIV disclosure for rural African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskins, Susan W; Payne Foster, Pamela; Sowell, Richard L; Lewis, Timothy L; Gardner, Antonio; Parton, Jason M

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the process of HIV disclosure for rural African American men-a population disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Forty men were interviewed about their experience of making an HIV disclosure. Grounded theory methodology guided data collection and analysis. The core category or variable that emerged from the data was a process-Making Decisions: The Process of HIV Disclosure. Five categories accounted for variations in disclosures: (a) beliefs and knowledge about HIV/AIDS, (b) influencing factors, (c) disclosure decisions, (d) disclosure efficacy, and (e) outcomes of disclosure. Most of the men had disclosed to others; however, the disclosures were selective, and the decisions were iterative. The majority of the men did not disclose their diagnosis for several months to several years. The findings provide a framework of the many factors related to HIV disclosure that can guide health care providers in counseling persons living with HIV/AIDS in making disclosure decisions.

  2. Aging out: a qualitative exploration of ageism and heterosexism among aging African American lesbians and gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Imani

    2014-01-01

    African Americans elders, like their non-African American counterparts, are not a homogeneous group; however an early characteristic placed on all African Americans is in their shared history in the United States. As members of multiple minority groups, older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people of African descent have survived racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and now ageism. This article describes a qualitative study grounded in Black feminist and minority stress theories that explored the issues of perceived social discrimination and alienation of 15 older African American lesbians and gay males whose lived experiences were captured using in-depth, face-to-face interviews. Several themes were identified in the study, including (a) Sense of Alienation in the African American Community, (b) Deliberate Concealment of Sexual Identity and Orientation, (c) Aversion to LGBT Labels, (d) Perceived Discrimination and Alienation From Organized Religion, (e) Feelings of Grief and Loss Related to Aging, (f) Isolation, and (g) Fear of Financial and Physical Dependence. The implication of the findings suggests that the ethos and needs of older African American lesbian women and gay men need to be addressed to eliminate potential barriers to successful aging for this cohort.

  3. Straight Talk: HIV Prevention for African-American Heterosexual Men--Theoretical Bases and Intervention Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Victoria; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Henny, Kirk; Bond, Keosha; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Smith, Stephen; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, racial disparities in HIV/AIDS are stark. Although African Americans comprise an estimated 14% of the U.S. population, they made up 52% of new HIV cases among adults and adolescents diagnosed in 2009. Heterosexual transmission is now the second leading cause of HIV in the United States. African Americans made up a full…

  4. Atlas of prostate cancer heritability in European and African-American men pinpoints tissue-specific regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gusev, Alexander; Shi, Huwenbo; Kichaev, Gleb

    2016-01-01

    Although genome-wide association studies have identified over 100 risk loci that explain ∼33% of familial risk for prostate cancer (PrCa), their functional effects on risk remain largely unknown. Here we use genotype data from 59,089 men of European and African American ancestries combined with c...

  5. Understanding the Role of Spirituality in African American Undergraduate Men's Responses to Stereotype Threat at Predominately White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, George H.

    2014-01-01

    Some African American undergraduate men attending Predominately White Institutions (PWIs) are adversely affected by perception of institutional barriers, such as negative stereotypes, that may exist on campus. The awareness of the possibility of being stereotyped can have a negative impact on a student's academic performance. This phenomenon is…

  6. Sex-Role Egalitarian Attitudes and Gender Role Socialization Experiences of African American Men and Women: A Mixed Methods Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Courtney Christian Charisse

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the sex-role egalitarian attitudes and gender role socialization experiences of African American men and women. A sequential mixed-methods design was employed to research this phenomenon. The Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale-Short Form BB (SRES-BB) was utilized to assess sex-role egalitarian attitudes (King…

  7. Persistence of African American Men in Science: Exploring the Influence of Scientist Identity, Mentoring, and Campus Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Breonte Stephan

    The scant literature on persistence of African American males in science typically takes a deficits-based approach to encapsulate the myriad reasons this population is so often underrepresented. Scientist Identity, Mentoring, and Campus Climate have, individually, been found to be related to the persistence of African American students. However, the unified impact of these three variables on the persistence of African American students with science interests has not been evaluated, and the relationship between the variables, the students' gender, and markers of academic achievement have not been previously investigated. The current study takes a strengths-based approach to evaluating the relationship between Scientist Identity, Mentoring, and Campus climate with a population of African American students with science interests who were studying at six Minority Serving Institutions and Predominantly White Institutions in the Southern United States. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the impact of Scientist Identity, Mentoring, and Campus Climate on Intention to Persist of African American males. The results indicate that Scientist Identity predicts Intention to Persist, and that gender, academic performance, and institution type moderate the relationship between Scientist Identity and Intention to Persist. These results lend credence to the emerging notion that, for African American men studying science, generating a greater depth and breadth of understanding of the factors that lead to persistence will aid in the development of best practices for supporting persistence among this perpetually underrepresented population.

  8. Comparison of strategies to increase HIV testing among African-American gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men in Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytop, Chanza; Royal, Scott; Hubbard McCree, Donna; Simmons, Ron; Tregerman, Rebecca; Robinson, Carolyn; Johnson, Wayne D; McLaughlin, Mike; Price, Cristofer

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results from a study conducted to compare the relative effectiveness of three strategies - alternate venue testing (AVT), the social network strategy (SNS), and partner counseling and referral services (PCRS; standard care) - for reaching and motivating previously undiagnosed, African-American men who have sex with men (AA MSM) to be tested for HIV. Data were collected between June 2008 and February 2010 at a gay-identified, community-based organization (CBO) serving AA MSM in Washington, DC. Men were eligible to participate if they were 18-64 years old, self-identified as black or African-American, were biologically male, and self-reported oral or anal sex with a man in the past six months. Fisher's exact test of independence was used to assess differences in demographics, testing history, HIV status and sexual behaviors across the three strategies. The final sample included 470 men who met all eligibility requirements. There were no statistically significant differences in HIV positivity rates across the three strategies. However, relative to standard care, the SNS, and (to a lesser degree) the AVT strategies were more successful in recruiting men that had never been tested. Additionally, the results indicate that each strategy recruited different subgroups of men. Specifically, heterosexually identified men and men who reported engaging in unprotected sex were most likely to be recruited via SNS. Bisexually identified men and older men were most likely to be recruited via AVT or SNS, while standard care tended to reach greater proportions of young men and homosexually identified men. These findings suggest that a combination of strategies may be the best approach for engaging African-American MSM in HIV testing.

  9. "We as Black Men Have to Encourage Each other:" Facilitators and Barriers Associated with HIV Testing among Black/African American Men in Rural Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Ashley; Toledo, Lauren; Brown, Emma Ej; Sutton, Madeline Y

    2017-01-01

    HIV testing for some African American men remains a challenge, and effective interventions are lacking. We explored facilitators and barriers associated with HIV testing among heterosexual African American men in rural Florida. We conducted focus group interviews with 67 African American men who were low-income, and HIV-uninfected based on prior testing or had unknown HIV status. Using computer-assisted thematic analyses, we examined transcribed focus group responses for main themes. Thematic analyses revealed three main themes regarding facilitators of HIV testing: 1) using preferred HIV testing community locations (park, library, gym); 2) receiving incentives (food or money); and 3) the importance of peer-led messaging for free, rapid HIV testing. Barriers included HIV testing at the local health department, and perceived social and emotional consequences to testing and the possibility of receiving a positive result. Effective HIV testing interventions for heterosexual African American men in rural Florida may need to incorporate suggested facilitators and reduce perceived barriers in order to improve HIV testing strategies.

  10. ‘It’s my inner strength’: Spirituality, religion and HIV in the lives of young African American men who have sex with men

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Michael L.; Arnold, Emily; Rebchook, Gregory; Kegeles, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) account for 48% of 13–29 year old HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA. It is important to develop an effective HIV prevention approach that is grounded in the context of young men’s lives. Towards this goal, we conducted 31 interviews with 18–30 year old YBMSM in the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Area. This paper examines the roles of religion and spirituality in YBMSM’s lives, which is central in the lives of many African American...

  11. 'It's my inner strength': spirituality, religion and HIV in the lives of young African American men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Michael L; Arnold, Emily; Rebchook, Gregory; Kegeles, Susan M

    2011-10-01

    Young black men who have sex with men account for 48% of 13-29-year-old HIV-positive men who have sex with men in the USA. It is important to develop an effective HIV prevention approach that is grounded in the context of young men's lives. Towards this goal, we conducted 31 interviews with 18-30-year-old men who have sex with men in the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Area. This paper examines the roles of religion and spirituality in men who have sex with men's lives, which is central in the lives of many African Americans. Six prominent themes emerged: (1) childhood participation in formal religious institutions, (2) the continued importance of spirituality among men who have sex with men, (3) homophobia and stigmatisation in traditional black churches, (4) tension between being a man who has sex with men and being a Christian, (5) religion and spirituality's impact on men's sense of personal empowerment and coping abilities and (6) treatment of others and building compassion. Findings suggest that integrating spiritual practice into HIV prevention may help programmes be more culturally grounded, thereby attracting more men and resonating with their experiences and values. In addition, faith-based HIV/AIDS ministries that support HIV-positive men who have sex with men may be particularly helpful. Finally, targeting pastors and other church leaders through anti-stigma curricula is crucial.

  12. A mixed methods study of health and social disparities among substance-using African American/Black men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttram, Mance E; Kurtz, Steven P

    2015-03-01

    African American/Black men who have sex with men (MSM) in the U.S. experience health and social disparities at greater rates than MSM of other races/ethnicities, including HIV infection and substance use. This mixed methods paper presents: 1) a quantitative examination of health and social disparities among a sample of substance-using African American/Black MSM (N=108), compared to Caucasian/White MSM (N=250), and 2) in-depth qualitative data from a subsample of African American/Black MSM (N=21) in order to contextualize the quantitative data. Findings indicate that compared to Caucasian/White MSM, African American/Black MSM experienced a wide range of health and social disparities including: substance use and dependence; buying, trading or selling sex; educational attainment; employment; homelessness; identifying as gay; HIV status; arrest history; social support; and satisfaction with one's living situation. Qualitative data suggests that structural interventions that address homophobia and the social environment would be likely to mitigate many of the health and social disparities experienced by African American/Black MSM.

  13. HIV-Related Sexual Risk among African American Men Preceding Incarceration: Associations with Support from Significant Others, Family, and Friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coatsworth, Ashley M; Scheidell, Joy D; Wohl, David A; Whitehead, Nicole E; Golin, Carol E; Judon-Monk, Selena; Khan, Maria R

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated the association between social support received from significant others, family, and friends and HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among African American men involved in the criminal justice system. Project DISRUPT is a cohort study among African American men released from prison in North Carolina (N = 189). During the baseline (in-prison) survey, we assessed the amount of support men perceived they had received from significant others, family, and friends. We measured associations between low support from each source (well-being during community re-entry, while supporting and strengthening relationships with a significant other in particular may help reduce sex risk. Studies should evaluate the protective effects of distinct support sources to avoid masking effects of support and to best understand the influence of social support on health.

  14. The Subjective Experience of Social Class and Upward Mobility Among African American Men in Graduate School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Francisco J; Liu, William Ming; Leathers, Leslie; Goins, Joyce; Vilain, Eric

    2011-10-01

    We used Consensual Qualitative Research Methodology to analyze responses from 14 African American men (Mdn(Age) = 25 years-old) in graduate school at a predominantly-White university in the Midwestern region of the United Sates regarding how they acquired awareness of their social-class status; how social class was related to their sense of masculinity; how social class was related to race and skin tone; and the role that education and a romantic partner could play in upward mobility. School peers were the main source for their early awareness of social class. Many believed that discrimination maintains social class stratification that disadvantages racial minorities and that one's race will always trump any personal characteristics-including having light-complected skin and an advanced degree. Finally many overcame several obstacles during their educational career, and most believed that a romantic relationship with a woman from a privileged background could facilitate upward mobility. Psychological scientists and practitioners are encouraged to consider the role that social class plays when examining men's well-being.

  15. Reactions of heterosexual African American men to women's condom negotiation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto-Salaj, Laura L; Traxel, Nicole; Brondino, Michael J; Reed, Barbara; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Kelly, Jeffrey A; Stevenson, L Yvonne

    2010-11-01

    This study describes responses of 172 single heterosexual African American men, ages 18 to 35, to condom negotiation attempts. Strategies used included reward, coercive, legitimate, expert, referent, and informational strategies, based on Raven's (1992) influence model. The purpose was (a) to identify strategies influencing participant acquiescence to request and (b) to identify predictors of participant compliance/refusal to comply with negotiation attempts. Participants viewed six videotape segments showing an actress, portrayed in silhouette, speaking to the viewer as a "steady partner." After each segment, participants completed measures of request compliance, positive and negative affect, and attributions concerning the model and themselves. No significant differences were found in men's ratings across all vignettes. However, differences in response existed across subgroups of individuals, suggesting that, although the strategy used had little impact on participant response, the act of suggesting condom use produced responses that differed across participant subgroups. Subgroups differed on levels of AIDS risk knowledge, sexually transmitted disease history, and experience with sexual coercion. Also, the "least willing to use" subgroup was highest in anger-rejection and least likely to make attributions of caring for partner. Effective negotiation of condom use with a male sexual partner may not be determined as much by specific strategy used as by partner characteristics.

  16. Efficacy of HIV/STI behavioral interventions for heterosexual African American men in the United States: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, Kirk D; Crepaz, Nicole; Lyles, Cynthia M; Marshall, Khiya J; Aupont, Latrina W; Jacobs, Elizabeth D; Liau, Adrian; Rama, Sima; Kay, Linda S; Willis, Leigh A; Charania, Mahnaz R

    2012-07-01

    This meta-analysis estimates the overall efficacy of HIV prevention interventions to reduce HIV sexual risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among heterosexual African American men. A comprehensive search of the literature published during 1988-2008 yielded 44 relevant studies. Interventions significantly reduced HIV sexual risk behaviors and STIs. The stratified analysis for HIV sexual risk behaviors indicated that interventions were efficacious for studies specifically targeting African American men and men with incarceration history. In addition, interventions that had provision/referral of medical services, male facilitators, shorter follow-up periods, or emphasized the importance of protecting family and significant others were associated with reductions in HIV sexual risk behaviors. Meta-regression analyses indicated that the most robust intervention component is the provision/referral of medical services. Findings indicate that HIV interventions for heterosexual African American men might be more efficacious if they incorporated a range of health care services rather than HIV/STI-related services alone.

  17. Affecting African American men's prostate cancer screening decision-making through a mobile tablet-mediated intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Dawood H; Rivers, Brian M; Osongo, Ben O; Wilson, Danyell S; Schenck, April; Carvajal, Rodrigo; Rivers, Desiree; Roetzheim, Richard; Green, B Lee

    2014-08-01

    African American men experience a 60% higher incidence of prostate cancer and are more than twice as likely to die from it than White men. Evidence is insufficient to conclude that definitively screening for prostate cancer reduces the likelihood of morbidity or death. Patients are encouraged to discuss screening alternatives with health care providers for informed decision-making (IDM). The extent of IDM in clinical or community setting is not known. This study uses data from a community-based, computer-mediated, IDM intervention that targeted 152 African American aged 40 to 70. Pretest-posttest differences in means for prostate cancer knowledge, screening decisional conflict, and screening decisional self-efficacy were examined by two-tailed t-tests. Overall, the intervention significantly improved respondents' prostate cancer knowledge (peducation, being married, having financial resources, and younger age.

  18. Unity in diversity: results of a randomized clinical culturally tailored pilot HIV prevention intervention trial in Baltimore, Maryland, for African American men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Karin; Kuramoto, Satoko J; German, Danielle; Fields, Errol; Spikes, Pilgrim S; Patterson, Jocelyn; Latkin, Carl

    2013-06-01

    Unity in Diversity was a randomized controlled trial of a culturally tailored HIV prevention intervention for African American men who have sex with men. The intervention condition was six group-based sessions and one individual session. The control condition was a single-session HIV prevention review. Participants were aged 18 years or older, identified as African American/Black race, reported having at least two sex partners in the prior 90 days (at least one of whom must be a male partner), unprotected anal sex with male partner in the prior 90 days, and willing to test for HIV. Retention exceeded 95% at 3-month follow-up. Results of multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for baseline risk, HIV status, and health insurance indicate intervention efficacy in decreasing the number of male sex partners and marginal effects on condom use with male partners and HIV-negative/unknown partners. Specifically, intervention condition was associated with increased odds of zero male sex partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26-7.28), condom use with male partners (AOR = 2.64, 95% CI = 0.95-7.36), and HIV-negative/unknown status partners (AOR = 3.19, 95% CI = 0.98-10.38) at follow-up. These results contribute to the limited number of culturally appropriate models of HIV prevention intervention that are urgently needed for African American men who have sex with men to address their persistently high rates of HIV.

  19. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  20. African-American Biography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ron

    1995-01-01

    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  1. Men of the Cloth: African-American Clergy's Knowledge and Experience in Providing Pastoral Care to African-American Elders with Late-Life Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansbury, Kim L.

    2011-01-01

    African-American clergy's ability to recognize late-life depression and their capacity to provide support with this illness have been neglected in the literature. Using a mental health literacy framework, the purpose of this research was to explore African-American clergy's knowledge of and treatments for late-life depression. In-depth interviews…

  2. Joint trajectories of victimization and marijuana use and their health consequences among urban African American and Puerto Rican young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, Judith S; Lee, Jung Yeon

    2013-06-01

    We examined the joint trajectories of violent victimization and marijuana use from emerging adulthood to the early thirties and their health consequences in the early thirties among urban African American and Puerto Rican men. Data were collected from a community sample of young men (N = 340) when they were 19, 24, 29, and 32 years old. The joint trajectories of violent victimization and marijuana use were extracted using growth mixture modeling. Three distinct joint trajectory groups of violent victimization and marijuana use were identified: high violent victimization/consistently high marijuana use; low violent victimization/increasingly high marijuana use, and low violent victimization/low marijuana use. Group comparisons using regression analyses showed that men who had experienced high levels of violent victimization and were high frequency marijuana over time users experienced the most adverse psychological and physical health outcomes, including more health problems, psychological maladjustment, and substance use disorders.

  3. Role of Mitochondrial Inheritance on Prostate Cancer Outcome in African American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    DNA sequencing, Prostate Cancer, Cybrid Cells , African Americans 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a...NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON USAMRMC a. REPORT Unclassified b. ABSTRACT Unclassified c. THIS PAGE Unclassified Unclassified 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER ...genome as well including the coding regions of for a number of components of the electron transport chain. Similar data in Figure 3B shows the

  4. HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of primarily African-American and Latino men who have sex with men social media users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garett, Renee; Smith, Justin; Chiu, Jason; Young, Sean D

    2016-01-01

    The recent increase in social media use allows these technologies to rapidly reach communities with higher HIV prevalence, such as African-American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). However, no studies have looked at HIV/AIDS stigma among social media users from African-American and Latino MSM communities, or the association between stigma and social media use among these groups. This study sought to assess the level of HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of social media-using African-American and Latino MSM from Los Angeles. A total of 112 (primarily African-American and Latino, n = 98, 88%) MSM Facebook users completed a survey on demographics, online social network use, and HIV/AIDS stigma. A composite stigma score was created by taking the cumulative score from a 15-item stigma questionnaire. Cumulative logistic models were used to assess the association between HIV/AIDS stigma and online social network use. In general, participants reported a low level of HIV/AIDS stigma (mean = 22.2/75, SD = 5.74). HIV/AIDS stigma composite score was significantly associated with increased time spent on online social networks each day (Adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 1.07, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.15). Among this diverse sample of MSM online social network users, findings suggest that HIV/AIDS stigma is associated with usage of social media. We discuss the implications of this work for future HIV prevention.

  5. Differences in Perceptions of the Food Environment between African American Men Who Did and Did Not Consume Recommended Levels of Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Derek M.; Cornish, Emily K.; McKissic, Sydika A.; Dean, Donnatesa A. L.

    2016-01-01

    African American men have high rates of chronic disease morbidity and mortality associated with their low rates of fruit and vegetable consumption. In an effort to inform tailored behavioral interventions for this demographic, we sought to assess if men with healthier eating practices viewed their environment differently than those who ate less…

  6. Novel Nomogram That Predicts Aggressive Disease and Treatment Failure Among African-American Men with Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Kattan MW, Vickers AJ, Karakiewicz PI, Scardino PT. Critical review of prostate cancer predictive tools. Future Oncol 2009;5:1555-84. 10. Eastham JA...Mod Pathol 2010;23:1325-33. 21. Bjartell AS, Al-Ahmadie H, Serio AM, Eastham JA, Eggener SE, Fine SW, Udby L, Gerald WL, Vickers AJ, Lilja H...African-American men after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2010;78:1292–300. [6] Shariat SF, Kattan MW, Vickers AJ

  7. The Academic Self-Concept of African American and Latina(o) Men and Women in STEM Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Lorelle L.

    If we are to respond to the call for equity in the representation of minority men and women in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines, we must be concerned with those college experiences that impact students' sense of self. This study addresses the 4-year development of academic self-concept for African American and Latina(o) students graduating with STEM degrees, with an emphasis placed on gender differences. Ordinary Least Squares regression was utilized to explore predictors of academic self-concept for male and female students. Findings emphasize the paramount role of the college environment as compared to background and precollege characteristics. Significant predictors exclusive to women include having positive academic self-expectations and valuing group work in a classroom setting. Significant predictors for men include being given the opportunity to work on a professor's research project and finding satisfaction with science and math coursework.

  8. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  9. Beyond the ball: implications for HIV risk and prevention among the constructed families of African American men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Owczarzak, Jill; St Lawrence, Janet; Sitzler, Cheryl; Quinn, Katherine; Pearson, Broderick; Kelly, Jeffrey A; Amirkhanian, Yuri A

    2014-11-01

    African American men who have sex with men (AAMSM) are disproportionately burdened by new and existing HIV infections. In spite of this, few HIV prevention interventions have been developed that meet the specific needs of AAMSM and that are culturally appropriate and build on strengths and resources. In this paper, we examine constructed families, including those who belong to houses and those who do not, from a three city sample of 196 AAMSM. Results show that the majority of AAMSM who belong to constructed families do not participate in houses or balls. Both house and non-house affiliated constructed families are important sources of social support among AAMSM. Participants reported limited success in spreading HIV messages at ball events, but talk about HIV within their constructed families. Social network approaches to HIV prevention may capitalize on existing social ties within constructed families to promote safer sexual behaviors.

  10. Depression and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Depression And African Americans Depression And African Americans Not “Just the Blues” Clinical ... or spiritual communities. Commonly Asked Questions about Clinical Depression How do I get help for clinical depression? ...

  11. Atlas of prostate cancer heritability in European and African-American men pinpoints tissue-specific regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Alexander; Shi, Huwenbo; Kichaev, Gleb; Pomerantz, Mark; Li, Fugen; Long, Henry W.; Ingles, Sue A.; Kittles, Rick A.; Strom, Sara S.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Nemesure, Barbara; Isaacs, William B.; Zheng, Wei; Pettaway, Curtis A.; Yeboah, Edward D.; Tettey, Yao; Biritwum, Richard B.; Adjei, Andrew A.; Tay, Evelyn; Truelove, Ann; Niwa, Shelley; Chokkalingam, Anand P.; John, Esther M.; Murphy, Adam B.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Carpten, John; Leske, M. Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hennis, Anslem J. M.; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Hsing, Ann W.; Chu, Lisa; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Klein, Eric A.; Witte, John S.; Casey, Graham; Kaggwa, Sam; Cook, Michael B.; Stram, Daniel O.; Blot, William J.; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Easton, Douglas; Kote-Jarai, ZSofia; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham G.; Southey, Melissa C.; Fitzgerald, Liesel M.; Gronberg, Henrik; Wiklund, Fredrik; Aly, Markus; Henderson, Brian E.; Schleutker, Johanna; Wahlfors, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo L. J.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Key, Tim J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Neal, David E.; Donovan, Jenny L.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stanford, Janet L.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; McDonnell, Shannon K.; Schaid, Daniel J.; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Luedeke, Manuel; Herkommer, Kathleen; Kibel, Adam S.; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Kluzniak, Wojciech; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Teerlink, Craig; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida K.; Arndt, Volker; Park, Jong Y.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Slavov, Chavdar; Kaneva, Radka; Mitev, Vanio; Batra, Jyotsna; Spurdle, Amanda; Clements, Judith A.; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Pandha, Hardev; Michael, Agnieszka; Paulo, Paula; Maia, Sofia; Kierzek, Andrzej; Cook, Margaret; Guy, Michelle; Govindasami, Koveela; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Sawyer, Emma J.; Wilkinson, Rosemary; Saunders, Edward J.; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Dadaev, Tokhir; Morgan, Angela; Fisher, Cyril; Hazel, Steve; Livni, Naomi; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Pedersen, John; Hopper, John L.; Adolfson, Jan; Stattin, Paer; Johansson, Jan-Erik; Cavalli-Bjoerkman, Carin; Karlsson, Ami; Broms, Michael; Auvinen, Anssi; Kujala, Paula; Maeaettaenen, Liisa; Murtola, Teemu; Taari, Kimmo; Weischer, Maren; Nielsen, Sune F.; Klarskov, Peter; Roder, Andreas; Iversen, Peter; Wallinder, Hans; Gustafsson, Sven; Cox, Angela; Brown, Paul; George, Anne; Marsden, Gemma; Lane, Athene; Davis, Michael; Zheng, Wei; Signorello, Lisa B.; Blot, William J.; Tillmans, Lori; Riska, Shaun; Wang, Liang; Rinckleb, Antje; Lubiski, Jan; Stegmaier, Christa; Pow-Sang, Julio; Park, Hyun; Radlein, Selina; Rincon, Maria; Haley, James; Zachariah, Babu; Kachakova, Darina; Popov, Elenko; Mitkova, Atanaska; Vlahova, Aleksandrina; Dikov, Tihomir; Christova, Svetlana; Heathcote, Peter; Wood, Glenn; Malone, Greg; Saunders, Pamela; Eckert, Allison; Yeadon, Trina; Kerr, Kris; Collins, Angus; Turner, Megan; Srinivasan, Srilakshmi; Kedda, Mary-Anne; Alexander, Kimberly; Omara, Tracy; Wu, Huihai; Henrique, Rui; Pinto, Pedro; Santos, Joana; Barros-Silva, Joao; Conti, David V.; Albanes, Demetrius; Berg, Christine; Berndt, Sonja I.; Campa, Daniele; Crawford, E. David; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Hoover, Robert; Hunter, David J.; Johansson, Mattias; Kraft, Peter; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindström, Sara; Navarro, Carmen; Overvad, Kim; Riboli, Elio; Siddiq, Afshan; Stevens, Victoria L.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vineis, Paolo; Yeager, Meredith; Trynka, Gosia; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Schumacher, Frederick R.; Price, Alkes L.; Freedman, Matthew L.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Pasaniuc, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Although genome-wide association studies have identified over 100 risk loci that explain ∼33% of familial risk for prostate cancer (PrCa), their functional effects on risk remain largely unknown. Here we use genotype data from 59,089 men of European and African American ancestries combined with cell-type-specific epigenetic data to build a genomic atlas of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) heritability in PrCa. We find significant differences in heritability between variants in prostate-relevant epigenetic marks defined in normal versus tumour tissue as well as between tissue and cell lines. The majority of SNP heritability lies in regions marked by H3k27 acetylation in prostate adenoc7arcinoma cell line (LNCaP) or by DNaseI hypersensitive sites in cancer cell lines. We find a high degree of similarity between European and African American ancestries suggesting a similar genetic architecture from common variation underlying PrCa risk. Our findings showcase the power of integrating functional annotation with genetic data to understand the genetic basis of PrCa. PMID:27052111

  12. Atlas of prostate cancer heritability in European and African-American men pinpoints tissue-specific regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Alexander; Shi, Huwenbo; Kichaev, Gleb; Pomerantz, Mark; Li, Fugen; Long, Henry W; Ingles, Sue A; Kittles, Rick A; Strom, Sara S; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Nemesure, Barbara; Isaacs, William B; Zheng, Wei; Pettaway, Curtis A; Yeboah, Edward D; Tettey, Yao; Biritwum, Richard B; Adjei, Andrew A; Tay, Evelyn; Truelove, Ann; Niwa, Shelley; Chokkalingam, Anand P; John, Esther M; Murphy, Adam B; Signorello, Lisa B; Carpten, John; Leske, M Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hennis, Anslem J M; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Hsing, Ann W; Chu, Lisa; Goodman, Phyllis J; Klein, Eric A; Witte, John S; Casey, Graham; Kaggwa, Sam; Cook, Michael B; Stram, Daniel O; Blot, William J; Eeles, Rosalind A; Easton, Douglas; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham G; Southey, Melissa C; Fitzgerald, Liesel M; Gronberg, Henrik; Wiklund, Fredrik; Aly, Markus; Henderson, Brian E; Schleutker, Johanna; Wahlfors, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Key, Tim J; Travis, Ruth C; Neal, David E; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stanford, Janet L; Thibodeau, Stephen N; McDonnell, Shannon K; Schaid, Daniel J; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Luedeke, Manuel; Herkommer, Kathleen; Kibel, Adam S; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Kluzniak, Wojciech; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Teerlink, Craig; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida K; Arndt, Volker; Park, Jong Y; Sellers, Thomas A; Lin, Hui-Yi; Slavov, Chavdar; Kaneva, Radka; Mitev, Vanio; Batra, Jyotsna; Spurdle, Amanda; Clements, Judith A; Teixeira, Manuel R; Pandha, Hardev; Michael, Agnieszka; Paulo, Paula; Maia, Sofia; Kierzek, Andrzej; Conti, David V; Albanes, Demetrius; Berg, Christine; Berndt, Sonja I; Campa, Daniele; Crawford, E David; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaziano, J Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Hoover, Robert; Hunter, David J; Johansson, Mattias; Kraft, Peter; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindström, Sara; Navarro, Carmen; Overvad, Kim; Riboli, Elio; Siddiq, Afshan; Stevens, Victoria L; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vineis, Paolo; Yeager, Meredith; Trynka, Gosia; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Schumacher, Frederick R; Price, Alkes L; Freedman, Matthew L; Haiman, Christopher A; Pasaniuc, Bogdan

    2016-04-07

    Although genome-wide association studies have identified over 100 risk loci that explain ∼33% of familial risk for prostate cancer (PrCa), their functional effects on risk remain largely unknown. Here we use genotype data from 59,089 men of European and African American ancestries combined with cell-type-specific epigenetic data to build a genomic atlas of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) heritability in PrCa. We find significant differences in heritability between variants in prostate-relevant epigenetic marks defined in normal versus tumour tissue as well as between tissue and cell lines. The majority of SNP heritability lies in regions marked by H3k27 acetylation in prostate adenoc7arcinoma cell line (LNCaP) or by DNaseI hypersensitive sites in cancer cell lines. We find a high degree of similarity between European and African American ancestries suggesting a similar genetic architecture from common variation underlying PrCa risk. Our findings showcase the power of integrating functional annotation with genetic data to understand the genetic basis of PrCa.

  13. Knowledge, Beliefs and Behaviours Related to STD Risk, Prevention, and Screening among a Sample of African American Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrig, Jennifer D.; Friedman, Allison; Poehlman, Jon; Scales, Monica; Forsythe, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Current data on sexually transmitted disease (STD) among African Americans show significant racial/ethnic disparities. The purpose of this study was to explore knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours related to STD risk, prevention, and testing among African American adults to help inform the development of a health communication…

  14. Condom use: exploring verbal and non-verbal communication strategies among Latino and African American men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukoski, Ann P; Harvey, S Marie; Branch, Meredith

    2009-08-01

    A growing body of literature provides evidence of a link between communication with sexual partners and safer sexual practices, including condom use. More research is needed that explores the dynamics of condom communication including gender differences in initiation, and types of communication strategies. The overall objective of this study was to explore condom use and the dynamics surrounding condom communication in two distinct community-based samples of African American and Latino heterosexual couples at increased risk for HIV. Based on 122 in-depth interviews, 80% of women and 74% of men reported ever using a condom with their primary partner. Of those who reported ever using a condom with their current partner, the majority indicated that condom use was initiated jointly by men and women. In addition, about one-third of the participants reported that the female partner took the lead and let her male partner know she wanted to use a condom. A sixth of the sample reported that men initiated use. Although over half of the respondents used bilateral verbal strategies (reminding, asking and persuading) to initiate condom use, one-fourth used unilateral verbal strategies (commanding and threatening to withhold sex). A smaller number reported using non-verbal strategies involving condoms themselves (e.g. putting a condom on or getting condoms). The results suggest that interventions designed to improve condom use may need to include both members of a sexual dyad and focus on improving verbal and non-verbal communication skills of individuals and couples.

  15. Reinterpreting ethnic patterns among white and African American men who inject heroin: a social science of medicine approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Bourgois

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Street-based heroin injectors represent an especially vulnerable population group subject to negative health outcomes and social stigma. Effective clinical treatment and public health intervention for this population requires an understanding of their cultural environment and experiences. Social science theory and methods offer tools to understand the reasons for economic and ethnic disparities that cause individual suffering and stress at the institutional level. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used a cross-methodological approach that incorporated quantitative, clinical, and ethnographic data collected by two contemporaneous long-term San Francisco studies, one epidemiological and one ethnographic, to explore the impact of ethnicity on street-based heroin-injecting men 45 years of age or older who were self-identified as either African American or white. We triangulated our ethnographic findings by statistically examining 14 relevant epidemiological variables stratified by median age and ethnicity. We observed significant differences in social practices between self-identified African Americans and whites in our ethnographic social network sample with respect to patterns of (1 drug consumption; (2 income generation; (3 social and institutional relationships; and (4 personal health and hygiene. African Americans and whites tended to experience different structural relationships to their shared condition of addiction and poverty. Specifically, this generation of San Francisco injectors grew up as the children of poor rural to urban immigrants in an era (the late 1960s through 1970s when industrial jobs disappeared and heroin became fashionable. This was also when violent segregated inner city youth gangs proliferated and the federal government initiated its "War on Drugs." African Americans had earlier and more negative contact with law enforcement but maintained long-term ties with their extended families. Most of the whites were expelled

  16. Optimism and education buffer the effects of syndemic conditions on HIV status among African American men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Ann; Jemmott, John B; Stevens, Robin; Rutledge, Scott Edward; Icard, Larry D

    2014-11-01

    The present study sought to replicate effects of the number of syndemic psychosocial health conditions on sexual risk behavior and HIV infection among a sample of high-risk African American men who have sex with men (MSM) and to identify resilience factors that may buffer these effects. We used baseline data from an HIV risk-reduction trial to examine whether a higher number of syndemic conditions was associated with higher rates of self-reported sexual risk behavior and HIV infection. Using logistic regression models, we tested for interactions between number of syndemic conditions and several potential resilience factors to identify buffering effects. Replicating previous studies, we found significant associations between numbers of syndemic conditions and higher rates of sexual risk behavior and HIV infection. Surprisingly, we also replicated a previous finding (Stall et al., Am J Public Health, 93(6):939-942, 2003) that the effects of syndemic burden on HIV status fell off at the highest levels of syndemic conditions. Among a variety of potential resilience factors, two-optimism and education-buffered the syndemic effect on HIV prevalence. This is, to our knowledge, the first paper to identify resilience factors buffering against syndemic effects among MSM. It also constitutes a significant contribution to the literature regarding prevention among black MSM. These results point to the need to identify HIV-positive black MSM and provide effective treatment for them and to develop interventions addressing both syndemic and resilience factors.

  17. Social networks and social support among ball-attending African American men who have sex with men and transgender women are associated with HIV-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Emily A; Sterrett-Hong, Emma; Jonas, Adam; Pollack, Lance M

    2016-05-11

    The House Ball Community (HBC) is an understudied network of African American men who have sex with men and transgender women, who join family-like houses that compete in elaborate balls in cities across the United States. From 2011 to 2012, we surveyed 274 recent attendees of balls in the San Francisco Bay Area, focusing on social networks, social support, and HIV-related behaviours. Participants with a high percentage of alters who were supportive of HIV testing were significantly more likely to have tested in the past six months (p = .02), and less likely to have engaged in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the past three months (p = .003). Multivariate regression analyses of social network characteristics, and social support, revealed that testing in the past six months was significantly associated with social support for safer sex, instrumental social support, and age. Similarly, UAI in the past three months was significantly associated with social support for safer sex, homophily based on sexual identity and HIV status. HIV-related social support provided through the HBC networks was correlated with recent HIV testing and reduced UAI. Approaches utilising networks within alternative kinship systems, may increase HIV-related social support and improve HIV-related outcomes.

  18. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...

  19. Correlates of requesting home HIV self-testing kits on online social networks among African-American and Latino men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, ChingChe J; Young, Sean D

    2016-01-01

    High levels of HIV stigma are one of the main difficulties in engaging African-American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in HIV testing. The availability of home HIV test and the possibility of self-testing in private may improve uptake and counteract stigma. This paper sought to determine the correlates of requesting home HIV test kits among a sample of MSM social media users. The odds of participants requesting a test kit were significantly associated with using social networks to seek sexual partners (aOR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.07-6.06) and thinking it is easier to use social networks for seeking sexual partners (1.87, 1.2-3.12), uncertain HIV status (4.29, 1.37-14.4), and having sex under the influence of alcohol (2.46, 1.06-5.77). Participants who had not been tested for more than 6 months were more likely to request a test kit than those who were tested in the past 6 months (2.53, 1.02-6.37). Participants who frequently talked to others about having sex with men online were less likely to request a test kit (0.73, 0.56-0.92). By reaching people over social media and offering them access to test kits, we were able to reach at-risk individuals who were uncertain about their HIV status and had not been regularly tested. The findings of the study will help to inform future HIV testing interventions.

  20. Men on the Move-Nashville: Feasibility and Acceptability of a Technology-Enhanced Physical Activity Pilot Intervention for Overweight and Obese Middle and Older Age African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Donnatesa A L; Griffith, Derek M; McKissic, Sydika A; Cornish, Emily K; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki

    2016-04-19

    Men on the Move-Nashvillewas a quasi-experimental, 10-week pilot physical activity intervention. A total of 40 overweight or obese African American men ages 30 to 70 (mean age = 47) enrolled in the intervention. Participants attended 8 weekly, 90-minute small group sessions with a certified personal trainer. Each session consisted of discussions aimed to educate and motivate men to be more physically active, and an exercise component aimed to increase endurance, strength, and flexibility. Throughout each week, men used wearable activity trackers to promote self-monitoring and received informational and motivational SMS text messages. Of the 40 enrolled men, 85% completed the intervention, and 80% attended four or more small group sessions. Additionally, 70% of participants successfully used the activity tracker, but only 30% of men utilized their gym memberships. Participants benefited from both the small group discussions and activities through increasing social connection and guidance from their trainer and group members. These African American men reported being motivated to engage in physical activity through each of these technologies. Men reported that the activity trackers provided an important extension to their social network of physically active people. The intervention resulted in significant increases in men's self-reported levels of light, moderate, vigorous, and sports-related physical activities, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and significant decreases in weight and body fat percentage with small, moderate and large effects shown. Including technology and didactic components in small group-based interventions holds promise in motivating African American men to increase their physical activity.

  1. A novel genomic alteration of LSAMP associates with aggressive prostate cancer in African American men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovics, Gyorgy; Li, Hua; Stümpel, Tanja;

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of cancer genomes in global context is of great interest in light of changing ethnic distribution of the world population. We focused our study on men of African ancestry because of their disproportionately higher rate of prostate cancer (CaP) incidence and mortality. We present a syst...

  2. Stress and coping with racism and their role in sexual risk for HIV among African American, Asian/Pacific Islander, and Latino men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chong-suk; Ayala, George; Paul, Jay P; Boylan, Ross; Gregorich, Steven E; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2015-02-01

    The deleterious effects of racism on a wide range of health outcomes, including HIV risk, are well documented among racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States. However, little is known about how men of color who have sex with men (MSM) cope with stress from racism and whether the coping strategies they employ buffer against the impact of racism on sexual risk for HIV transmission. We examined associations of stress and coping with racism with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in a sample of African American (N = 403), Asian/Pacific Islander (N = 393), and Latino (N = 400) MSM recruited in Los Angeles County, CA during 2008-2009. Almost two-thirds (65 %) of the sample reported being stressed as a consequence of racism experienced within the gay community. Overall, 51 % of the sample reported having UAI in the prior 6 months. After controlling for race/ethnicity, age, nativity, marital status, sexual orientation, education, HIV serostatus, and lifetime history of incarceration, the multivariate analysis found statistically significant main effects of stress from racism and avoidance coping on UAI; no statistically significant main effects of dismissal, education/confrontation, and social-support seeking were observed. None of the interactions of stress with the four coping measures were statistically significant. Although stress from racism within the gay community increased the likelihood of engaging in UAI among MSM of color, we found little evidence that coping responses to racism buffered stress from racism. Instead, avoidance coping appears to suggest an increase in UAI.

  3. “Boys Must be Men, and Men Must Have Sex with Women”: A Qualitative CBPR Study to Explore Sexual Risk among African American, Latino, and White Gay Men and MSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Vissman, Aaron T.; Stowers, Jason; Davis, A. Bernard; Hannah, Anthony; Alonzo, Jorge; Marsiglia, Flavio F.

    2012-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately impacted by HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STD). This study was designed to explore sexual risk among MSM using community-based participatory research (CBPR). An academic-community partnership conducted nine focus groups with 88 MSM. Participants self-identified as African American/Black (n=28), Hispanic/Latino (n=33), white (n=21), and bi-racial/ethnic (n=6). Mean age was 27 (range 18–60) years. Grounded theory was used. Twelve themes related to HIV risk emerged, including low HIV and STD knowledge particularly among Latino MSM and MSM who use the Internet for sexual networking; stereotyping of African American MSM as sexually “dominant” and Latino MSM as less likely to be HIV infected; and the eroticization of “barebacking.” Twelve intervention approaches also were identified, including developing culturally congruent programming using community-identified assets; harnessing social media used by informal networks of MSM; and promoting protection within the context of intimate relationships. A community forum was held to develop recommendations and move these themes to action. PMID:20413391

  4. Fatalistic Cancer Beliefs and Information Seeking in Formerly Incarcerated African-American and Hispanic Men: Implications for Cancer Health Communication and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Pamela; Lian, Zi; Brotzman, Laura; Reid, Andrea

    2017-03-03

    African-American and Hispanic men are disproportionately affected by cancer experiencing higher rates of cancer-related morbidity and mortality for many cancers (but not all). These challenges may be magnified for a subpopulation of African-American and Hispanic men who have been incarcerated. A survey assessing demographics, incarceration experience, psychosocial, behavioral, and cancer health information seeking was administered to 230 previously incarcerated men aged 35 years and older. Data analysis was performed to assess the association between fatalism, perceived susceptibility, and health information seeking in this population. This study revealed the following: the majority of the participants (68.7%) held the fatalistic belief: "When I think of cancer, I automatically think of death." Second, the fatalistic belief, "There's not much you can do to lower your chances of getting cancer," is more prevalent among those who perceived a higher risk of developing cancer. Third, older participants (those between 55 and 70 years old) and widowed are less likely to think of death when they think of cancer. In addition, those who use the Internet to look for health or medical information (i.e., engaging in health information seeking) are less likely to agree with the fatalistic belief: "It seems like everything causes cancer." Given the high incidence of certain cancers among African-American and Hispanic men and the vulnerability of those involved in the criminal justice system, our findings highlight the importance of understanding perceived susceptibility to cancer, fatalistic beliefs about cancer, and information seeking in formerly incarcerated men.

  5. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by ... and eventually, in developing more effective treatments. Does glaucoma treatment differ? Although treatment varies for all individuals, ...

  6. Rationale, Design and Methods of the Ecological Study of Sexual Behaviors and HIV/STI among African American Men Who Have Sex with Men in the Southeastern United States (The MARI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeMarc A Hickson

    Full Text Available This paper describes the rationale, design, and methodology of the Ecological Study of Sexual Behaviors and HIV/STI among African American Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM in the Southeastern United States (U.S.; known locally simply as the MARI Study.Participants are African American MSM aged 18 years and older residing in the deep South.Between 2013 and 2015, 800 African American MSM recruited from two study sites (Jackson, MS and Atlanta, GA will undergo a 1.5-hour examination to obtain anthropometric and blood pressure measures as well as to undergo testing for sexually transmitted infections (STI, including HIV. Intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental factors are assessed by audio computer-assisted self-interview survey. Primary outcomes include sexual risk behaviors (e.g., condomless anal sex and prevalent STIs (HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and Chlamydia.The MARI Study will typify the HIV environmental 'riskscape' and provide empirical evidence into novel ecological correlates of HIV risk among African American MSM in the deep South, a population most heavily impacted by HIV. The study's anticipated findings will be of interest to a broad audience and lead to more informed prevention efforts, including effective policies and interventions, that achieve the goals of the updated 2020 U.S. National HIV/AIDS Strategy.

  7. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  8. The Influence of Metabolic Syndrome on Prostate Cancer Progression and Risk of Recurrence in African American and European American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    MetSyn: 1) abdominal obesity ( waist circumference of> 102cm in men or> 88 em in women); 2) hypertriglyceridemia (<: 150mg/dl); 3)1ow high-density...possess at least three of the following five features are classified as having metabolic syndrome: l) abdominal obesity ( waist circumference of> 102...measured through the use of measured waist circumference was more prevalent in white patients (62%) compared to black patients ( 48% ). Approximately

  9. Marketing a Healthy Mind, Body, and Soul: An Analysis of How African American Men View the Church as a Social Marketer and Health Promoter of Colorectal Cancer Risk and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Vanchy, Priya; Baker, Tamara A.; Daley, Christine; Ndikum-Moffer, Florence; Greiner, K. Allen

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ranks colorectal cancer (CRC) as the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in the United States; African American (AA) men are at even greater risk. The present study was from a larger study that investigates the church's role as a social marketer of CRC risk and prevention messages, and…

  10. Mental Health and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  11. On the Efficacy and Mediation of a One-on-One HIV Risk-Reduction Intervention for African American Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemmott, John B; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; O'Leary, Ann; Icard, Larry D; Rutledge, Scott E; Stevens, Robin; Hsu, Janet; Stephens, Alisa J

    2015-07-01

    We examined the efficacy and mediation of Being Responsible for Ourselves (BRO), an HIV/STI risk-reduction intervention for African American men who have sex with men (MSM), the population with the highest HIV-diagnosis rate in the US. We randomized African American MSM to one of two interventions: BRO HIV/STI risk-reduction, targeting condom use; or attention-matched control, targeting physical activity and healthy diet. The interventions were based on social cognitive theory, the reasoned-action approach, and qualitative research. Men reporting anal intercourse with other men in the past 90 days were eligible and completed pre-intervention, immediately post-intervention, and 6 and 12 months post-intervention surveys. Of 595 participants, 503 (85 %) completed the 12-month follow-up. Generalized-estimating-equations analysis indicated that, compared with the attention-matched control intervention, the BRO intervention did not increase consistent condom use averaged over the 6- and 12-month follow-ups, which was the primary outcome. Although BRO did not affect the proportion of condom-protected intercourse acts, unprotected sexual intercourse, multiple partners, or insertive anal intercourse, it did reduce receptive anal intercourse compared with the control, a behavior linked to incident HIV infection. Mediation analysis using the product-of-coefficients approach revealed that although BRO increased seven of nine theoretical constructs it was designed to affect, it increased only one of three theoretical constructs that predicted consistent condom use: condom-use impulse-control self-efficacy. Thus, BRO indirectly increased consistent condom use through condom-use impulse-control self-efficacy. In conclusion, although BRO increased several theoretical constructs, most of those constructs did not predict consistent condom use; hence, the intervention did not increase it. Theoretical constructs that interventions should target to increase African American MSM

  12. African American Diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. With regard to all historic migrations (forced and voluntary, the African Union defined the African diaspora as "[consisting] of people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union." Its constitutive act declares that it shall "invite and encourage the full participation of the African diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union." Keywords: literature concepts, African American abstracts

  13. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Catherine C; Falchi, Lorenzo; Weinberg, J Brice; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Lanasa, Mark C

    2012-11-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent leukemia in the United States with almost 4390 attributable deaths per year. Epidemiologic data compiled by the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program identifies important differences in incidence and survival for African Americans with CLL. Although the incidence of CLL is lower among African Americans than among Caucasians (4.6 and 6.2 per 100 000 men, respectively), age-adjusted survival is inferior. African American patients with CLL are almost twice as likely to die from a CLL-related complication in the first 5 years after diagnosis as are Caucasian patients with CLL. The biologic basis for these observations is almost entirely unexplored, and a comprehensive clinical analysis of African American patients with CLL is lacking. This is the subject of the present review.

  14. Prostate cancer in men of African origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Kathleen F; Tay, Kae Jack; Moul, Judd W

    2016-02-01

    Men of African origin are disproportionately affected by prostate cancer: prostate cancer incidence is highest among men of African origin in the USA, prostate cancer mortality is highest among men of African origin in the Caribbean, and tumour stage and grade at diagnosis are highest among men in sub-Saharan Africa. Socioeconomic, educational, cultural, and genetic factors, as well as variations in care delivery and treatment selection, contribute to this cancer disparity. Emerging data on single-nucleotide-polymorphism patterns, epigenetic changes, and variations in fusion-gene products among men of African origin add to the understanding of genetic differences underlying this disease. On the diagnosis of prostate cancer, when all treatment options are available, men of African origin are more likely to choose radiation therapy or to receive no definitive treatment than white men. Among men of African origin undergoing surgery, increased rates of biochemical recurrence have been identified. Understanding differences in the cancer-survivorship experience and quality-of-life outcomes among men of African origin are critical to appropriately counsel patients and improve cultural sensitivity. Efforts to curtail prostate cancer screening will likely affect men of African origin disproportionately and widen the racial disparity of disease.

  15. Critical social theory and the domination of African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S P

    1995-01-01

    This historical reconstruction of the experiences of African American women in America from slavery to the present exposes the prevailing and enduring system of White male domination. From White men having control of their reproductive choices, to conspiracy to withhold the right to vote, African American women were victims of both sexism and racism. Later, as a result of the myth conceived by White sociologists of the super African American woman, further divisiveness became apparent in the African American home. As African American women took advantage of educational opportunities only to find that there was a dearth of similarly educated African American males to marry, increasing numbers of African American men were reported as parties to violent acts, drugs or illness. All of these variables are conjectured as impacting on the African American woman's experience. Lastly, data were presented depicting the increasing trend of African American women marrying White men, and the emergence of a more diverse workforce. It was concluded that economics serve as a catalyst for this change in human relations.

  16. African American Male Achievement: Using a Tenet of Critical Theory to Explain the African American Male Achievement Disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2011-01-01

    Although African Americans continue to demonstrate a desire for education, Black male enrollment and completion rates in higher education are dismal when compared to other ethnic groups. Researchers and scholars have noted various theories and philosophies responsible for the academic disengagement of African American men in higher education. This…

  17. Innovative and Community-Guided Evaluation and Dissemination of a Prostate Cancer Education Program for African-American Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dawnyea D; Owens, Otis L; Friedman, Daniela B; Dubose-Morris, Ragan

    2015-12-01

    African Americans (AA) are more likely to develop and die from cancer than any other racial or ethnic group. The aims of this research were to (1) evaluate current education materials being implemented in a community-based prostate cancer education program for AA communities, (2) refine materials based on findings from aim 1, (3) share updated materials with participants from aim 1 for additional improvements, and (4) disseminate and evaluate the improved education program through a statewide videoconference with AA men and women. AA individuals evaluated the current education program through a mail survey (n=32) and community forum (n=38). Participants reported that the existing prostate cancer education program content could be understood by lay persons, but recommendations for improvement were identified. They included the following: defining unknown and/or scientific terminology, increasing readability by increasing font size and enlarging images, and including more recent and relevant statistics. Following refinement of the education materials based on survey and forum feedback, a statewide videoconference was implemented. Following the videoconference, participants (25 men; 3 women) reported that they would encourage others to learn more about prostate cancer, talk to their doctor about whether or not to get screened for prostate cancer, and recommend the conference to others. There is great potential for using this type of iterative approach to education program development with community and clinical partners for others conducting similar work.

  18. Feasibility of Ecological Momentary Assessment of Daily Sexting and Substance Use Among Young Adult African American Gay and Bisexual Men: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmasry, Hoda; Webb Hooper, Monica; Niaura, Raymond S; Hamilton, Alison B; Milburn, Norweeta G

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that sexualized text communication (“sexting”) is associated with substance use and sexual risk behaviors among young adults, yet little is known about this relationship among young adult African American gay and bisexual men, a population disproportionately impacted by HIV in the United States. Rapid advances in mobile phone technology indicate a clear need for research using mobile health (mHealth) methods such as ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to serve as a viable counterpart to retrospective evaluation methods by using real-time data collection to assess sexting and substance use among this population. Objective The objective of this pilot study was to (1) describe the EMA study design and protocol, (2) characterize the study population, and (3) assess the feasibility of a random prompt text message-based thrice-daily EMA over 14 days, as a means of prospectively studying sexting, marijuana, and alcohol use among a sample of young adult African American gay and bisexual men ages 21 to 25. Methods Participants were recruited through flyers and snowball sampling during spring and summer 2015 at a community-based HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and support organization in Washington, DC. Eligible participants were enrolled in a one-time in-person study visit that consisted of informed written consent to participate in the study, a self-administered survey, a semi-structured interview, and enrollment and training in EMA data collection. Commencing the day after the study visit, a random prompt survey was texted to participants on their personal mobile phones 3 times a day over a 14-day data collection period assessing mood, texts sent, texts received, sexts sent, sexts received, marijuana want, marijuana use, and alcohol use. Results EMA feasibility was tested with 25 self-identified African American gay (n=16) and bisexual (n=9) men (mean age of 23.48 years, SD 1.5). Each random prompt survey had 8 questions with responses

  19. Decline of African American Enlistment in the United States Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    be considered equal men. Racially motivated slander, bigotry, and condemnation of African Americans’ wartime service plagued the Army at the... workplace . The Vietnam Era Veterans’ Readjustment Assistance Act of 1974 was another program that assisted Vietnam Veterans in education and job placement...programs, which are now nearly extinct , gave priority to hiring of minorities and offering government contracts to African American businesses. Many

  20. Usability Testing the "Personal Patient Profile-Prostate" in a Sample of African American and Hispanic Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpin, Seth; Halpenny, Barbara; Sorrentino, Erica; Stewart, Mark; McReynolds, Justin; Cvitkovic, Ivan; Chang, Peter; Berry, Donna

    2016-07-01

    Shared treatment decision making in a cancer setting requires a patient's understanding of the potential benefits and risks of each treatment option. Graphical display of risk information is one approach to improving understanding. Little is known about how patients engage with infographics in the context of health education materials and whether interactions vary with health literacy levels. We conducted an observational study, using an eye tracker device, of how men with newly diagnosed localized prostate cancer visually engaged with an on-screen infographic depicting risk information in the Personal Patient Profile-Prostate. Health literacy was measured with the Short Assessment of Health Literacy-English. Gaze patterns on an exemplar screens containing infographics about survival were analyzed and explored with respect to sociodemographic and health literacy data. Acceptability of Personal Patient Profile-Prostate was measured with the Acceptability E-scale. Twenty-six English-speaking men participated, and eye tracking data were collected for 12 men on the exemplar page of risk information that we analyzed. We found preliminary evidence of visual scanning and of participants with lower literacy focusing sooner on infographics versus text. Acceptability for Personal Patient Profile-Prostate was high. These findings suggest that infographics may be of higher relative value to participants with low health literacy. Eye trackers may provide valuable information on how people visually engage with infographics and may inform development of health education materials, although care must be taken to minimize data loss.

  1. Marital Status, Hypertension, Coronary Heart Disease, Diabetes, and Death among African American Women and Men: Incidence and Prevalence in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, Hilary M.; Coresh, Josef; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2010-01-01

    Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, and African Americans disproportionately experience more cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, and diabetes. The literature documents a complex relationship between marital status and health, which varies by gender. We prospectively examine…

  2. Variation in HNF1B and Obesity May Influence Prostate Cancer Risk in African American Men: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganna Chornokur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prostate cancer (PCa racial disparity is multifactorial, involving biological, sociocultural, and lifestyle determinants. We investigated the association between selected potentially functional polymorphisms (SNPs and prostate cancer (PCa risk in Black (AAM and White (EAM men. We further explored if these associations varied by the body mass index (BMI and height. Methods. Age-matched DNA samples from 259 AAM and 269 EAM were genotyped for 10 candidate SNPs in 7 genes using the TaqMan allelic differentiation analysis. The dominant, recessive, and additive age-adjusted unconditional logistic regression models were fitted. Results. Three SNPs showed statistically significant associations with PCa risk: in AAM, HNF1B rs7501939 (OR=2.42, P=0.0046 and rs4430796 (OR=0.57, P=0.0383; in EAM, CTBP2 rs4962416 (OR=1.52, P=0.0384. In addition, high BMI in AAM (OR=1.06, P=0.022 and height in EAM (OR=0.92, P=0.0434 showed significant associations. Interestingly, HNF1B rs7501939 was associated with PCa exclusively in obese AAM (OR=2.14, P=0.0103. Conclusion. Our results suggest that variation in the HNF1B may influence PCa risk in obese AAM.

  3. House/ball culture and adolescent African-American transgender persons and men who have sex with men: a synthesis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gregory; Peterson, James; Binson, Diane; Hidalgo, Julia; Magnus, Manya

    2011-04-01

    Transgender persons and young men of color who have sex with men (YMSM of color) have been severely affected by HIV in the USA. Houses and balls in the USA have historically been a primary meeting ground for YMSM of color and transgender people, offering an opportunity for HIV prevention activities. Houses provide a familial structure for YMSM of color and transgender people, while balls provide them with events at which they can congregate for social support and entertainment. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using Scopus and PubMed, Internet websites, and HIV prevention and care resources for YMSM of color associated with a multisite evaluation. Houses and balls have been responsive to the HIV/AIDS epidemic and have developing networks that are critical in providing a social and familiar context for often-disenfranchised youth. The organizations have embraced the need for HIV prevention, and their methodology may be transferable to other prevention contexts. Future studies are needed to identify culturally appropriate and effective methods of integration of house/ball methods into HIV prevention services aimed at transgender persons and YMSM of color.

  4. Increasing Reading Engagement in African American Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husband, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written concerning the challenges many teachers face in engaging African American males in reading practices. While much of this extant scholarship focuses on African American males at the pre-adolescent stage of development and beyond, little has been written regarding increasing reading engagement in African American boys in P-5…

  5. African American Teaching and the Matriarchal Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes

    This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…

  6. Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium collaborates on epidemiologic studies to address the high burden of prostate cancer and to understand the causes of etiology and outcomes among men of African ancestry.

  7. Classic African American Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  8. Prostate cancer chemoprevention in men of African descent: current state of the art and opportunities for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chornokur, Ganna; Kumar, Nagi B

    2013-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in men. However, African American/Black men are 60 % more likely to be diagnosed with and 2.4 times more likely to die from prostate cancer, compared to Non-Hispanic White men. Despite the increased burden of this malignancy, no evidence-based recommendation regarding prostate cancer screening exists for the high-risk population. Moreover, in addition to screening and detection, African American men may constitute a prime population for chemoprevention. Early detection and chemoprevention may thus represent an integral part of prostate cancer control in this population. Importantly, recent research has elucidated biological differences in the prostate tumors of African American compared to European American men. The latter may enable a more favorable response in African American men to specific chemopreventive agents that target relevant signal transduction pathways. Based on this evolving evidence, the aims of this review are threefold. First, we aim to summarize the biological differences that were reported in the prostate tumors of African American and European American men. Second, we will review the single- and multi-target chemopreventive agents placing specific emphasis on the pathways implicated in prostate carcinogenesis. And lastly, we will discuss the most promising nutraceutical chemopreventive compounds. Our review underscores the promise of chemoprevention in prostate cancer control, as well as provides justification for further investment in this filed to ultimately reduce prostate cancer morbidity and mortality in this high-risk population of African American men.

  9. American mines, methods and men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, S.C.A. (Thames Water Utilities (UK))

    1992-04-01

    The paper is based on the author's visits to a number of American mines, to see their mining machinery and to discuss with mine management their industrial relations problems. The paper gives a brief review of American mines, methods and men and is in the form of a diary. Mines visited are: Ohio Valley Coal Company; Big John Mine; Pittsburgh Research Center of the US Bureau of Mines; Martinka Mine; Robin Hood Complex No 9 Mine (Boone County, West Virginia), Green Briar Mine (Virginia); Martin County Coal (Kentucky); Wabash Mine (Keensburgh, Illinois); Galatia Mine (Harrisburgh, Illinois); and William Station Mine (Sturgis, Kentucky). Details given include mining methods productivity and staffing levels. The mining machinery is described in detail in a separate article. 5 figs.

  10. Carotenoid Intake and Adipose Tissue Carotenoid Levels in Relation to Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness among African-American and European-American Men in the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi, Samuel O.; Steck, Susan E.; Su, L. Joseph; Hebert, James R.; Zhang, Hongmei; Craft, Neal E.; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Smith, Gary J.; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Mohler, James L.; Arab, Lenore

    2016-01-01

    Background Associations between carotenoid intake and prostate cancer (CaP) incidence have varied across studies. This may be due to combining indolent with aggressive disease in most studies. This study examined whether carotenoid intake and adipose tissue carotenoid levels were inversely associated with CaP aggressiveness. Methods Data on African-American (AA, n=1,023) and European-American (EA, n=1,079) men with incident CaP from North Carolina and Louisiana were analyzed. Dietary carotenoid intake was assessed using a detailed food frequency questionnaire, and abdominal adipose tissue samples were analyzed for carotenoid concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography. Multivariable logistic regression was used in race-stratified analysis to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) comparing high aggressive CaP with low/intermediate aggressive CaP. Results Carotenoid intake differed significantly between AAs and EAs, which included higher intake of lycopene among EAs and higher β–cryptoxanthin intake among AAs. Comparing the highest and lowest tertiles, dietary lycopene was associated inversely with high aggressive CaP among EAs (OR=0.55, 95%CI: 0.34–0.89, Ptrend=0.02), while an inverse association was observed between dietary β–cryptoxanthin intake and high aggressive CaP among AAs (OR=0.56, 95%CI: 0.36–0.87, Ptrend=0.01). Adipose tissue α–carotene and lycopene (cis + trans) concentrations were higher among EAs than AAs, and marginally significant inverse linear trends were observed for adipose α–carotene (Ptrend=0.07) and lycopene (Ptrend=0.11), and CaP aggressiveness among EAs only. Conclusions These results suggest that diets high in lycopene and β–cryptoxanthin may protect against aggressive CaP among EAs and AAs, respectively. Differences in dietary behaviors may explain the racial differences in associations. PMID:27271547

  11. Allostatic Load and Health Status of African Americans and Whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuster, Patricia A.; Kim-Dorner, Su Jong; Remaley, Alan T.; Poth, Merrily

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare health risks in 84 healthy African American and 45 white men and women after calculating allostatic load (AL) from biologic, psychosocial, and behavioral measures. Methods: Participants (18-45 years) ranging in weight from normal to obese and without hypertension or diabetes. Fitness, body fat, CRP, mood, social support,…

  12. African American girls and the challenges ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L

    2002-01-01

    The research on the psychosocial development of African American girls is limited. Information that is available focuses on teen pregnancy and health issues such as nutrition and physical activity. African American girls are facing challenges, including poverty, crime, poor self-esteem, and peer pressure. Despite some of the negative characteristics attributed to African American girls, many are achieving some success. Policy makers and service providers need to recognize the resiliency and unique needs of African American girls and develop services that ensure their needs are being fully met.

  13. Female genital mutilation in African and African American women's literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Marinšek

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.

  14. Case-control assessment of diet and lung cancer risk in African Americans and Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillow, P C; Hursting, S D; Duphorne, C M; Jiang, H; Honn, S E; Chang, S; Spitz, M R

    1997-01-01

    In this case-control study we determined whether dietary differences underlie some of the ethnic and sex differences in US lung cancer rates. We examined the relationship between diet and lung cancer development in 137 lung cancer cases (93 African Americans and 44 Mexican Americans) and 187 controls (78 African Americans and 109 Mexican Americans). Cases reported a higher daily mean total fat intake (p fruits (p = 0.02). Ethnic differences in diet were also observed: Mexican Americans consumed less total fat (p fruits (p lung cancer risk (p fruit consumption and lung cancer risk (p = 0.05). In conclusion, our findings support the hypothesis that diet, particularly high fat consumption and low fruit and vegetable consumption, contributes (independent of cigarette smoking) to the excess lung cancer risk in African-American men, who have the highest lung cancer rates in the United States.

  15. Cultural aspects of African American eating patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airhihenbuwa, C O; Kumanyika, S; Agurs, T D; Lowe, A; Saunders, D; Morssink, C B

    1996-09-01

    The high mortality from diet-related diseases among African Americans strongly suggests a need to adopt diets lower in total fat, saturated fat and salt and higher in fiber. However, such changes would be contrary to some traditional African American cultural practices. Focus group interviews were used to explore cultural aspects of eating patterns among low- and middle-income African Americans recruited from an urban community in Pennsylvania. In total, 21 males and 32 females, aged 13-65+ years were recruited using a networking technique. Participants identified eating practices commonly attributed to African Americans and felt that these were largely independent of socioeconomic status. They were uncertain about links between African American eating patterns and African origins but clear about influences of slavery and economic disadvantage. The perception that African American food patterns were characteristically adaptive to external conditions, suggest that, for effective dietary change in African American communities, changes in the food availability will need to precede or take place in parallel with changes recommended to individuals. Cultural attitudes about where and with whom food is eaten emerged as being equivalent in importance to attitudes about specific foods. These findings emphasize the importance of continued efforts to identify ways to increase the relevance of cultural context and meanings in dietary counseling so that health and nutrition interventions are anchored in values as perceived, in this case, by African Americans.

  16. Race-Related Stress, Quality of Life Indicators, and Life Satisfaction among Elderly African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsey, Shawn O.; Payne, Yasser A.; Jackson, Ebonique S.; Jones, Antoine M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the relationships among race-related stress, quality of life indicators, and life satisfaction among elderly African Americans. Results indicated that elderly African American men and women differed significantly with regard to institutional and collective racism-related stress. In addition, institutional racism-related stress was a…

  17. African American Teachers and Culturally Relevant Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Michele

    An overview is presented of research on African American teachers, addressing the large body of literature written by policy analysts, first-person narratives, and the sociological and anthropological literature. Policy research has identified the small number of African American teachers and has studied some reasons for this shortage and some of…

  18. A Mirror Image African American Student Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon Dawson, Candice

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…

  19. Hidden Education among African Americans during Slavery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundaker, Grey

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: Historical studies examine aspects of African American education in and out of school in detail (Woodson 1915, 1933, Bullock 1970, Anderson 1988, Morris 1982, Rachal 1986, Rose 1964, Webber 1978, Williams 2005). Scholars of African American literacy have noted ways that education intersects other arenas such as religion and…

  20. Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

  1. African Americans and the medical establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C

    1999-09-01

    The African American community's response to the AIDS epidemic has reflected the profound mistrust of the medical establishment which many African Americans feel. Among African Americans, the belief that the epidemic originated in a genocidal plot is widespread. It is thought that organized medicine has been significantly involved in this plot. If we look at African Americans' historical relationship to the medical establishment from the era of slavery to the recent past, the suspicious attitudes which make such beliefs possible can be seen as an intelligible response to a new disease which disproportionately affects African Americans. Successful medical and public health responses to the epidemic have depended and will continue to depend upon overcoming the historical legacy of suspicion and gaining the trust of the community.

  2. Global Patterns of Prostate Cancer Incidence, Aggressiveness, and Mortality in Men of African Descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. Rebbeck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (CaP is the leading cancer among men of African descent in the USA, Caribbean, and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. The estimated number of CaP deaths in SSA during 2008 was more than five times that among African Americans and is expected to double in Africa by 2030. We summarize publicly available CaP data and collected data from the men of African descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate (MADCaP Consortium and the African Caribbean Cancer Consortium (AC3 to evaluate CaP incidence and mortality in men of African descent worldwide. CaP incidence and mortality are highest in men of African descent in the USA and the Caribbean. Tumor stage and grade were highest in SSA. We report a higher proportion of T1 stage prostate tumors in countries with greater percent gross domestic product spent on health care and physicians per 100,000 persons. We also observed that regions with a higher proportion of advanced tumors reported lower mortality rates. This finding suggests that CaP is underdiagnosed and/or underreported in SSA men. Nonetheless, CaP incidence and mortality represent a significant public health problem in men of African descent around the world.

  3. Stimulant Use among African American and Latino MSM social networking users

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Sean D.; Shoptaw, Steve

    2013-01-01

    High stimulant-using and at-risk HIV populations, such as African American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), are increasingly using social networking technologies. However, no known research has explored associations between stimulant use, sexual risk behaviors, and social networking among these populations. Participants were recruited using state-of-the-art computer science methods, which narrowed the sample to 118 (primarily African American and Latino MSM) active Facebook users. ...

  4. Calling Out the Elephant: An Examination of African American Male Achievement in Community Colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Bush

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This mixed method study examines the effects of community college institutional factors on the academic achievement of African American males and their perceptions of their college experience. We found that African American men in comparison to other ethnic and gender sub-groups (for both the California community college system and at Inland Community College are disproportionately underachieving in all segments of the academic outcomes measured. African American men throughout California’s community college system (including Inland Community College are the lowest performing subgroup when one considers: percentage of degrees earned, persistence rates, and average cumulative grade point average. The analysis of African American men’s perceptions of their college experience suggest that African American men have greater amounts of dissatisfaction and do not engage with the various segments of the college when compared to the other subgroups in the study. African American males were more likely not to meet with faculty members or have contact with them outside of the classroom. More importantly, faculty interaction predicted if African American male students persisted, transferred, and maintained a higher grade point average at the case study institution. The variables associated with campus climate predicted if African American male students transferred, had higher grade point averages, and graduated at higher rates from the case institution.

  5. Disparate Vitamin D Activity in the Prostate of Men with African Ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0252 TITLE: Disparate Vitamin D Activity in the Prostate of Men with African Ancestry PRINCIPAL...SUBTITLE Disparate Vitamin D Activity in the Prostate of Men with African Ancestry 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0252 W81XWH-13...increased risk of PCa compared to American men of European descent (EA), but also are at the highest risk of aggressive PCa and death from PCa. Vitamin

  6. Acculturation and acculturative stress as indicators for suicide risk among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rheeda L

    2007-07-01

    The literature on African American suicide and the acculturation literature were examined to derive a possible explanation for increases in suicide deaths for African American men and apparent resilience for African American women. Historically, African Americans were believed to be unaffected by suicide because of protective factors (e.g., strong religious values and cohesive familial support systems) embedded in the culture. However, minority mental health investigators have found that acculturation sometimes leads to negative consequences for individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds. Accordingly, acculturation and acculturative phenomena are proposed as a model to shed light on African American male suicide as African Americans increasingly engage mainstream values, beliefs, and practices in the absence of traditional protective factors.

  7. The Relationship Between Online Social Network Use, Sexual Risk Behaviors, and HIV Sero-Status Among a Sample of Predominately African American and Latino Men Who have Sex with Men (MSM) Social Media Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, ChingChe J; Young, Sean D

    2015-06-01

    Social networking technologies have emerged as potential platforms to reach HIV(+) MSM in HIV interventions. This study sought to compare use of online social networking sites (SNSs) and sexual risk behaviors between HIV(+) and HIV(-) individuals among a sample of predominately African American and Latino SNS-using MSM. A total of 112 MSM Facebook users were recruited online and offline and completed an online survey. We performed regression models to assess the association between HIV status, SNS use, and sexual risk behaviors. After adjusting for age, race, and employment status, being HIV positive was significantly associated with a greater number of sexual partners (ARR = 2.84, p = 0.0017) and lower comfort levels of discussing HIV/STI status on SNSs (AOR: 0.23, p = 0.011). Findings suggest that HIV status is associated with sexual risk behaviors and SNS use among SNS-using MSM. We discuss the implications for online HIV prevention.

  8. African names for American plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.

    2015-01-01

    African slaves brought plant knowledge to the New World, sometimes applying it to related plants they found there and sometimes bringing Old World plants with them. By tracing the linguistic parallels between names for plants in African languages and in communities descended from African slaves, pie

  9. School Counseling for African American Adolescents: The Alfred Adler Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Marty

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…

  10. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Tesia Denis

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest…

  11. Prevalence of Stuttering in African American Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Adele; Yairi, Ehud; Duff, Melissa C.; Zhang, Jie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors sought to determine the prevalence of stuttering in African American (AA) 2- to 5-year-olds as compared with same-age European Americans (EAs). Method: A total of 3,164 children participated: 2,223 AAs and 941 EAs. Data were collected using a 3-pronged approach that included investigators' individual…

  12. African-American Women in History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ron

    1994-01-01

    Describes two reference books suitable for middle/junior high school library media centers that present information about African-American women and suggests activities for Afro-American History Month. Library media skills objectives, social studies and art objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, activities and procedures,…

  13. The Contribution of Community and Family Contexts to African American Young Adults' Romantic Relationship Health: A Prospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Steven M.; Lei, Man-Kit; Grange, Christina R.; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Chen, Yi-fu

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that African American men and women experience unique challenges in developing and maintaining stable, satisfying romantic relationships. Extant studies have linked relationship quality among African American couples to contemporaneous risk factors such as economic hardship and racial discrimination. Little research,…

  14. History Matters: What Happens When African Americans Confront Their Difficult Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Phillip

    2016-05-01

    History and Reconstruction is an interdisciplinary project to assess the impact of African American history education for black men. Under the theory of trauma recovery, leading scholars of African American history worked with a group of ten ex-offenders, supported by the services of a psychologist and an African American cultural expert and storyteller. Results based on psychological testing and qualitative feedback showed that history can be a catalyst for personal development and transformation. It also demonstrated that difficult history can be taught and assimilated for audience benefit. History and Reconstruction was supported by the Pew Center for Arts and Heritage.

  15. Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Pi Chapter: African American Male Identity and Fraternity Culture, 1923-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Edwin T.

    2009-01-01

    Pi Chapter of the Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc. at Morgan State University made a significant contribution to the identity construction of college-educated African American men in the state of Maryland. The initiates of Pi Chapter constructed identities that allowed the members to see themselves as participants in mainstream American society as…

  16. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...

  17. HIV Risk Behaviors among African American Women with at-Risk Male Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Keisha C.; Williams, John K.; Bolden, Sherica; Guzman, Yesenia; Harawa, Nina T.

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV continues to impact African American women at alarming rates. Yet, few researchers have examined the relationship factors promoting unprotected sex within African American communities, especially instances in which women are aware that their male partners are engaging in high risk behaviors. This qualitative study explored the sexual behaviors, relationship characteristics, and HIV prevention strategies utilized by African American women in relationships with African American men at-risk for HIV. Method To understand the issues that should be addressed in a sexual risk-reduction intervention, data were collected from three, two-hour focus group discussions (n=24) comprised primarily of low-income African American women with histories of at-risk male sex partners. At-risk partners included specifically men who had sex with other men or with transgender individuals, used crack cocaine or injection drugs, had lengthy incarceration periods, or an unknown sexual history. Discussion questions examined external factors affecting sexual risk behaviors such as societal pressures, peer norms, and financial vulnerability. Discussions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using a consensual qualitative research approach. Results Five themes, including self-esteem, social influences on behavior, relationship fidelity, sexual risk behavior, and partners' sexual behaviors, were identified as placing women at increased risk for HIV. Reasons for inconsistent condom use included concern for maintaining the relationship and substance use before and during sex. African American women also believed that men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) were dishonest about their sexuality due to stigma towards homosexuality/bisexuality. Despite these challenges, participants indicated that African American women have a strong sense of pride that can positively impact behaviors in relationships. Conclusion The findings of this study support that social and contextual factor

  18. Seeing African Americans as Competent Parents: Implications for Family Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla

    2011-01-01

    One of the primary roles of parents is to guide and socialize children to make meaningful life choices. African American parents, in particular, have the additional tasks of preparing their children to thrive in an environment that has historically been hostile toward African Americans. Yet, many African American parents are often depicted as…

  19. 77 FR 5375 - National African American History Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8776 of January 31, 2012 National African American History Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The story of African Americans is a story of... for the better. During National African American History Month, we celebrate the rich legacy...

  20. Representing African American Women in U.S. History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…

  1. Barriers to Hospice Use among African Americans: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Karla T.; Bickel-Swenson, Denise; Stephens, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    The present review was undertaken to explore recent evidence in the professional literature pertaining to use of hospice services by African Americans. The article addresses the research methods that have been used to study African American hospice use, obstacles to African American participation in hospice that have been identified, and…

  2. Registers in the Academic Writing of African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrquin, Anna F.

    2006-01-01

    The study examines the development of the registers of academic writing by African American college-level students through style and grammar: indirection inherent in the oral culture of the African American community and the paratactic functions of "because." Discourse analysis of 74 samples of academic writing by 20 African American undergraduate…

  3. African American Homeschooling Practices: Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazama, Ama

    2016-01-01

    Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…

  4. African American Women Counselors, Wellness, and Spirituality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.

    2011-01-01

    Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…

  5. HIV/AIDS among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among African Americans Format: Select One File [163K] ...

  6. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Mack McKinney (left), chief, Programs Resources Management, and Delores Abraham (right), with the Astronaut office, flank one of the posters decorating the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. McKinney is chairperson for the event.

  7. Examining School Engagement of African American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Selcuk; Jackson, Lisa R.

    This study investigated the impact of behavioral and affective factors on 688 African American high school students' academic performance, examining the relationship between school engagement, educational expectations, self-esteem, and school achievement; noting differences between males and females; and discussing whether behavioral and affective…

  8. The African American Public Policy Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Robert; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reviews actions of the 102nd Congress of particular interest to African Americans, including the (1) Domestic Marshall Plan House Resolution; (2) Unemployment Benefits extension; (3) Job Training Partnership Act; (4) Workplace Fairness Act; (5) Family and Medical Leave Act; and (6) Civil Rights Act of 1991. (SLD)

  9. Violent Behaviors among African-American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Darhyl

    1995-01-01

    Explores the development of behaviors by using Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, with emphasis on adolescents. Examines factors, such as identity versus identity diffusion, that may be contributing to increasing acts of violence by African American adolescents. Other factors are examined that may contribute to increased violence.…

  10. African American Vernacular English and Rap Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡波

    2015-01-01

    African American Vernacular English (AAVE) is the language spoken by almost 20 milion speakers al over the world. It is also used frequently in rap lyrics. Studying the origin and grammar rules of AAVE is a very important topic in today's English Language and English Teaching Studies.

  11. Heart Truth for African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE HEART TRUTH ® FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN: AN ACTION PLAN When you hear the term “heart disease,” what’s your first reaction? ... That’s a man’s disease.” But here’s The Heart Truth ® : Heart disease is the #1 killer of women ...

  12. African-American Axioms and Maxims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Itibari M.

    1998-01-01

    Examines and describes 30 African-American centered quotation and motivational books, all but one of which were published between 1993 and 1997. The books articulate a diversity of genres and themes. Annotations are divided into: (1) general quotation; (2) daily words and meditation/motivation sources; (3) religion and theology; and (4)…

  13. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  14. Ideological schisms about HIV/AIDS helping systems in the African American community, with an emphasis on women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfax, Colita Nichols

    2010-10-01

    This article is an initial exploration about the impact of ideological beliefs on helping services in the African American community. Newly infected HIV/AIDS cases place African Americans at 45% of such new cases, with African American women becoming infected at a rate 18 times that of Whites. Yet, helping services that are organic to African American women should be stronger through a discussion of cultural beliefs held in the community, where the genesis of helping services exists. Values and beliefs should be at the center of community partnerships, public media strategies, generalist-practice curricula in macro-level systems, and creating more space for relationship dialogue between African American men and women, which includes gender and racial distortions. Given the exponentially high numbers of HIV/AIDS cases in the African American community, a more earnest examination of values and beliefs is warranted.

  15. Predicting Non-African American Lesbian and Heterosexual Preadoptive Couples' Openness to Adopting an African American Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2009-01-01

    Despite increases in transracial adoption, African American children remain the least likely to be adopted. No research has examined the factors that predict prospective adopters' willingness to adopt an African American child. This study used multilevel modeling to examine predictors of willingness to adopt an African American child in a sample…

  16. Keep It Up: development of a community-based health screening and HIV prevention strategy for reaching young African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Lydia; Bonaparte, Beverly; Joseph, Heather; Agronick, Gail; Leow, Deborah McLean; Myint-U, Athi; Stueve, Ann

    2009-08-01

    This article addresses the challenge of developing HIV prevention interventions that not only prove to be efficacious but also are designed from the outset to overcome obstacles to reaching priority populations. We describe how community input has informed development of Keep It Up (KIU), a community health screening and behavioral prevention program for young Black men. KIU embeds HIV prevention in a broader health promotion campaign, with the goal of reducing stigma and reaching a population that bears a disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS and other health problems-hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes, asthma, and obesity. Information from community partners, expert advisers, and focus groups was collected at key junctures and incorporated into four core components: social marketing, a computerized behavioral learning module, biological testing for HIV and other conditions, and a personalized health profile and risk reduction plan. A pilot with 116 participants provided evidence that the KIU model of integrating HIV prevention with other health screening is acceptable and has the potential to reach Black men at risk for HIV as well as other chronic health conditions.

  17. The South African Constitution requires men to be feminist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P.P. Lótter

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Can a man be a feminist? If so, what would it mean? I want to participate in a dialogue between women and men on how to accommodate women's moral concerns. I propose that the fundamental values of justice embodied in the South African constitutional democracy require men to be feminist. These values provide the best safeguard of the important interests and values of both women and men. Men who accept these values can support the main concerns of feminism. The implications of the argument in this article range from public issues to the most private aspects of marriage.

  18. African-American women and abortion: a neglected history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, L J

    1992-01-01

    The history of African-American women's efforts to control their fertility is largely unknown. From slavery to the present, the growth rate of the African-American population has been cut in half. Demographers and historians frequently attribute this change to external factors such as poverty, disease, and coerced birth control, rather than the deliberate agency of African-American women. This essay assembles a brief historical record of the ways African-American women have sought to control their fertility through the use of abortion and birth control. It also examines the activism of African-American women in the establishment of family planning clinics and in defense of abortion rights.

  19. Family Support and Colorectal Cancer Screening among Urban African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Northouse, Laurel; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2012-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death among African Americans. Less than 50% of African Americans have had CRC screening. This study examined the relationships between family support and influence, cultural identity, CRC beliefs, and a screening informed decision among 129 urban African Americans. Family support (p < .01) significantly predicted CRC beliefs and CRC beliefs significantly predicted informed decision (p < .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely assess family support and CRC beliefs with African Americans patients. This may improve patient-provider shared decision-making satisfaction and CRC screening adherence among African American patients.

  20. Changing Fatherhood: An Exploratory Qualitative Study with African and African Caribbean Men in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert; Hewison, Alistair; Wildman, Stuart; Roskell, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a qualitative study undertaken with 46 African and African Caribbean men exploring their experiences of fatherhood. Data analysis was informed by Connell's theoretical work on changing gender relations. Findings indicate that fathers' lives were mediated by masculinities, racism, gender, migration and generational…

  1. Lift every voice: voices of African-American lesbian elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Imani

    2015-01-01

    Old lesbians of African descent have experienced racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and ageism. This article explores the topics of aging, ageism, heterosexism, and minority stress among older African-American lesbians. The narratives and subsequent analysis offer significant contributions to the dialogue regarding Black aging lesbians in the aging and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities generally and in the African-American and African-American lesbian communities specifically.

  2. Word on the Street: Engaging Local Leaders in a Dialogue About Prostate Cancer Among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Elinor R; Francis, Linda E

    2016-09-01

    African American men face the highest rates of prostate cancer, yet with no consensus for screening and treatment, making informed health care decisions is difficult. This study aimed to identify approaches to empowering African American men as proactive participants in prostate cancer decision making using an established community-campus partnership employing elements of community-based participatory research methods. Community stakeholders with an interest in, and knowledge about, health care in two local African American communities were recruited and completed key informant interviews (N = 39). Grounded theory coding identified common themes related to prostate cancer knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and responses to them. Common barriers such as gender roles, fear, and fatalism were identified as barriers to work-up and treatment, and both communities' inadequate and inaccurate prostate cancer information described as the key problem. To build on community strengths, participants said the change must come from inside these communities, not be imposed from the outside. To accomplish this, they suggested reaching men through women, connecting men to doctors they can trust, making men's cancer education part of broader health education initiatives designed as fun and inexpensive family entertainment events, and having churches bring community members in to speak on their experiences with cancer. This study demonstrated the success of community engagement to identify not only barriers but also local strengths and facilitators to prostate cancer care in two suburban/rural African American communities. Building collaboratively on community strengths may improve prostate cancer care specifically and health care in general.

  3. The Reflection of Race and Law in African American Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schneck

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the law has been crucial in defining and delineating the dimensions of African American experience both in slavery and in freedom, the encounter with the American legal system and its representatives has left a strong imprint on African American cultural and literary memory and expression. The article sketches out a few aspects and features which characterize the reflection of law and race in African American culture and literature.

  4. Managing the hair and skin of African American pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W; Burns, C

    1999-01-01

    In Africa, the ancestral home of most African Americans, hair is viewed as the epitome of beauty. However, when Africans were brought to America as slaves, they were unable to care for their hair and skin adequately and were exposed to the predominant white culture, which valued straight hair and light skin. As a result, many African Americans lost self-esteem because of the characteristics of their hair and skin. In this article we examine the anatomic and physiologic features of African American hair and skin and typical African American hair and skin care practices. Common African American hair and skin disorders and their management are discussed. The goal of this article is to help primary care providers understand the special hair and skin care required for African American children (as well as other dark-skinned patients). With good patient education, understanding one's own hair and skin characteristics can also support positive self-esteem.

  5. Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms Among Black American Men: Moderated-Mediation Effects of Ethnicity and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H; N'cho, Hammad S; Green, Carlton E; Jernigan, Maryam M; Helms, Janet E

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is related to depression and poor self-esteem among Black men. Poorer self-esteem is also associated with depression. However, there is limited research identifying how self-esteem may mediate the associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms for disparate ethnic groups of Black men. The purpose of this study was to examine ethnic groups as a moderator of the mediating effects of self-esteem on the relationship between discrimination and depressive symptoms among a nationally representative sample of African American (n = 1201) and Afro-Caribbean American men (n = 545) in the National Survey of American Life. Due to cultural socialization differences, we hypothesized that self-esteem would mediate the associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms only for African American men, but not Afro-Caribbean American men. Moderated-mediation regression analyses indicated that the conditional indirect effects of discrimination on depressive symptoms through self-esteem were significant for African American men, but not for Afro-Caribbean men. Our results highlight important ethnic differences among Black men.

  6. African American teen mothers' perceptions of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayland, J; Rawlins, R

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the childbearing African American teens' perceptions of parenting based on their own experiences. Focus group discussions were held with 17 teens in their school setting for 50 minutes each week. Group discussions were audiotaped, tapes were transcribed, and then analyzed for common themes. The unmarried teens ranged in age from 15 to 18 years. Findings indicated that the teens depended on grandmothers to provide child care and for information about parenting. The teens identified parenting problems including crying, discipline, and conflicts dealing with grandmothers and the child's father. Teens wanted more information about breastfeeding and minor childhood diseases. The researchers identified that teens lacked information about their children's growth and development and safety issues. Findings have implications for nurses who care for childbearing teens and their children; and those involved in planning and implementing parent education programs for African American teen mothers and their families. Further research is indicated with larger samples of African American teens; and to explore the context of family relationships in which teen mothers and grandmothers share parenting for the teens' children.

  7. Characterizing genetic risk at known prostate cancer susceptibility loci in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Haiman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available GWAS of prostate cancer have been remarkably successful in revealing common genetic variants and novel biological pathways that are linked with its etiology. A more complete understanding of inherited susceptibility to prostate cancer in the general population will come from continuing such discovery efforts and from testing known risk alleles in diverse racial and ethnic groups. In this large study of prostate cancer in African American men (3,425 prostate cancer cases and 3,290 controls, we tested 49 risk variants located in 28 genomic regions identified through GWAS in men of European and Asian descent, and we replicated associations (at p≤0.05 with roughly half of these markers. Through fine-mapping, we identified nearby markers in many regions that better define associations in African Americans. At 8q24, we found 9 variants (p≤6×10(-4 that best capture risk of prostate cancer in African Americans, many of which are more common in men of African than European descent. The markers found to be associated with risk at each locus improved risk modeling in African Americans (per allele OR = 1.17 over the alleles reported in the original GWAS (OR = 1.08. In summary, in this detailed analysis of the prostate cancer risk loci reported from GWAS, we have validated and improved upon markers of risk in some regions that better define the association with prostate cancer in African Americans. Our findings with variants at 8q24 also reinforce the importance of this region as a major risk locus for prostate cancer in men of African ancestry.

  8. 77 FR 33595 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... piece of American culture, music offers a vibrant soundtrack to the story of our people and our Union... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8832 of June 1, 2012 African-American Music... universal truths of our shared humanity. African-American musicians have left an indelible mark on...

  9. Phonological Awareness Skills in Young African American English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…

  10. 76 FR 32851 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ...-American Music Appreciation Month, we honor the rich musical traditions of African-American musicians and their gifts to our country and our world. From the cadenced hums of spirituals to the melodies of rhythm... and equality for all. Today, African-American musicians continue to create new musical genres...

  11. The Lived Experience of African American Caregivers Caring for Adult African American Patients With Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Heather

    2016-04-01

    Assistance from informal caregivers such as family members, friends, or neighbors is crucial to adequately managing the complex care of heart failure (HF) patients. This study examined the lived experience of African American caregivers caring for African American patients with HF. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 10 participants who were formally interviewed. The interviews, analyzed using Colaizzi's steps, revealed six themes: layers of support, realization of self-neglect, experiencing the "blues," connecting with healthcare providers, unmet financial needs, and perception of nonadherence. The information regarding the experience of African American caregivers of HF patients obtained through this research will inform the delivery of culturally competent support to caregivers, thereby improving quality of life for both the HF patients and their caregivers.

  12. Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies: WMS-R norms for African American elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, John A; Ivnik, Robert J; Smith, Glenn E; Ferman, Tanis J; Willis, Floyd B; Petersen, Ronald C; Graff-Radford, Neill R

    2005-06-01

    Norms for African American elders on the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) were derived from a sample of 309 community-dwelling individuals participating in Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies (MOAANS). Normative estimates are provided for traditional WMS-R subtest scores and for supplemental procedures to evaluate forgetting rates and recognition memory. Tables are provided to convert raw WMS-R subtest and supplemental scores to age-corrected scaled scores. These may be further adjusted for years of education, if desired, by applying regression-based corrections. We anticipate that these data will enhance the diagnostic utility and clinical interpretation of WMS-R performance in older African Americans.

  13. A Community-Driven Intervention for Prostate Cancer Screening in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kushal; Ukoli, Flora; Liu, Jianguo; Beech, Derrick; Beard, Katina; Brown, Byron; Sanderson, Maureen; Kenerson, Donna; Cooper, Leslie; Canto, Marie; Blot, Bill; Hargreaves, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of an educational intervention on prostate cancer screening behavior and knowledge. Participants were 104 African American men, 45 years and older, who had not been screened for prostate cancer with a prostate-specific antigen and/or digital rectal exam within the past year. All participants…

  14. Gender Differences in Student Engagement among African American Undergraduates at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Shaun R.; Carini, Robert M.; Bridges, Brian K.; Hayek, John C.

    2004-01-01

    Differences in student engagement between women and men at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) are examined in this study. Data were collected from 1,167 African American undergraduate students at 12 four-year HBCUs that participated in the National Survey of Student Engagement. Controlling for several factors that might obscure…

  15. What Motivational Factors Influence African American Males to Enter a Doctorial Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the motivational factors that influence African American men to enter a doctoral program by identifying the motivational factors that influenced them to enter a doctorial program. The findings were compared to Dr. Gloria J. Hill's dissertation study (2005), "What Motivational Factors Influence…

  16. Becoming Custodial Dads: Exploring Parenting among Low-Income and Working-Class African American Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Jennifer; Marchioro, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Explores circumstances in which working-class and low-income custodial African American fathers (N=24) gained custody of their children and transitioned to full-time parenting. Findings suggest that these men are often reluctant to take on single, full-time parenting role. Adaptation to role seems to be enhanced by use of extended kin support…

  17. Transgenerational Consequences of Racial Discrimination for African American Health

    OpenAIRE

    Goosby, Bridget J.; Heidbrink, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Disparities in African American health remain pervasive and persist transgenerationally. There is a growing consensus that both structural and interpersonal racial discrimination are key mechanisms affecting African American health. The Biopsychosocial Model of Racism as a Stressor posits that the persistent stress of experiencing discrimination take a physical toll on the health of African Americans and is ultimately manifested in the onset of illness. However, the degree to which the health...

  18. "Coolin": The Psychosocial Communication of African and Latino Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cancela, Victor

    1993-01-01

    Explores the relationship between Latino "machismo" and the "cool pose" of the African-American male. It is suggested that both masculine postures can be used to design empowering psychological interventions in clinical, community, educational, and policy areas. Positive features could be used in curricula of diversity. (SLD)

  19. African American women and breastfeeding: an integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Becky S; Grassley, Jane S

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a review of literature regarding factors that influence breastfeeding intentions, initiation, and duration in the African American population. Research related to health disparities experienced by African Americans in the United States, as well as research regarding the protective benefits of breastfeeding for those specific health disparities, are also presented. Community and institutional interventions and promotional campaigns aimed at increasing initiation and duration of breastfeeding in the African American population are discussed. Future research regarding African American women's breastfeeding experiences using Black feminist thought as a theoretical foundation is recommended.

  20. The landscape of recombination in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinch, Anjali G; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D; Chen, Gary K; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Akylbekova, Ermeg L; Aldrich, Melinda C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L; Diver, W Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue A; Isaacs, William; John, Esther M; Kao, W H Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A; Kolonel, Laurence N; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H; Millikan, Robert C; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J; Press, Michael F; Psaty, Bruce M; Reiner, Alex P; Rich, Stephen S; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rotter, Jerome I; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Schwartz, Ann G; Signorello, Lisa B; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S; Thun, Michael J; Tucker, Margaret A; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K; Witte, John S; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Henderson, Brian E; Taylor, Herman A; Price, Alkes L; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J; Haiman, Christopher A; Wilson, James G; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R

    2011-07-20

    Recombination, together with mutation, gives rise to genetic variation in populations. Here we leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P value < 10(-245)). We identify a 17-base-pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of PRDM9 alleles common in West Africans and rare in Europeans. Sites of this motif are predicted to be risk loci for disease-causing genomic rearrangements in individuals carrying these alleles. More generally, this map provides a resource for research in human genetic variation and evolution.

  1. Other race recognition: a comparison of black American and African subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroo, A W

    1986-02-01

    The ability of black American and black African men to recognize previously seen white male faces was assessed. Relationships between recognition, performance scores and quality of interracial experience were also examined. Black American participants (n = 10) performed significantly better and made fewer false responses than the Nigerian participants (n = 10). Significant positive relationships were found between performance scores and interracial experience. Differential use of cues for discriminating white male faces by both groups was also found.

  2. Disparities in colorectal cancer in African-Americans vs Whites: Before and after diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anastasios Dimou; Kostas N Syrigos; Muhammad Wasif Saif

    2009-01-01

    There are differences between African-American and white patients with colorectal cancer, concerning their characteristics before and after diagnosis. Whites are more likely to adhere to screening guidelines. This is also the case among people with positive family history. Colorectal cancer is more frequent in Blacks. Studies have shown that that since 1985, colon cancer rates have dipped 20% to 25% for Whites, while rates have gone up for African-American men and stayed the same for African-American women. Overall, African-Americans are 38% to 43% more likely to die from colon cancer than are Whites. Furthermore, it seems that there is an African-American predominance in right-sited tumors. African Americans tend to be diagnosed at a later stage, to suffer from better differentiated tumors, and to have worse prognosis when compared with Whites. Moreover, less black patients receive adjuvant chemotherapy for resectable colorectal cancer or radiation therapy for rectal cancer. Caucasians seem to respond better to standard chemotherapy regimens than African- Americans. Concerning toxicity, it appears that patients of African-American descent are more likely to develop 5-FU toxicity than Whites, possibly because of their different dihydropyridine dehydrogenase status. Last but not least, screening surveillance seems to be higher among white than among black long-term colorectal cancer survivors. Socioeconomic and educational status account for most of these differences whereas little evidence exists for a genetic contribution in racial disparity. Understanding the nature of racial differences in colorectal cancer allows tailoring of screening and treatment interventions.

  3. Raising Cultural Awareness of Second Grade African American Students Using Mexican American Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Sandra Lyniece

    2009-01-01

    An increase in the Mexican American population within the predominantly African American community and school was the basis of this qualitative study. The purpose of the study was to introduce African American second grade students to authentic Mexican and Mexican American children's literature. Interactive read-alouds of nonfiction and realistic…

  4. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Baharian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance.

  5. Perceived racism and suicide ideation: mediating role of depression but moderating role of religiosity among African American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rheeda L; Salami, Temilola K; Carter, Sierra E; Flowers, Kelci

    2014-10-01

    Suicide is a public health problem for African Americans who are young and of working age. The purpose of this study was to examine mediated and moderated effects of perceived racism on suicide ideation in a community sample of 236 African American men and women. Measures of suicide ideation, depression symptoms, intrinsic/extrinsic religiosity, and perceived racism were administered. Perceived racial discrimination was directly and indirectly associated with suicide ideation. For participants who reported low levels of extrinsic religiosity, the mediated effect of perceived racism (via depression symptoms) was significant. These findings provide some insight into suicide vulnerability for specific subgroups of African Americans.

  6. An ecological approach to physical activity in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott-McQuigg, J A; Zerwic, J J; Dan, A; Kelley, M A

    2001-12-01

    Physical activity in women has assumed increasing significance as a policy issue as a result of the release of the 1996 Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health. This report revealed that women in the United States were less likely than men to adhere to the recommended guidelines for physical activity. African American women are less likely than white women to participate in leisure time physical activity across age, occupational, and income groups. The purpose of this study was to use the Ecological Model of Health Promotion to explore policy, environmental, and individual factors influencing physical activity of middle- to older-aged African American women in a mixed income community in a large midwestern city. Focus group discussions were held with 3 groups of women -- administrators/community leaders, exercisers, and nonexercisers. Thirty-three women between the ages of 40 and 78 participated in the study. The women identified 6 themes influencing physical activity: perceptions of physical activity and exercise; perceived barriers to exercise; perceived benefits of and motivators to exercise; past and present opportunities for exercise; factors that enhance the successful delivery of an exercise program; and coalition building to deliver an exercise program to women in the community. The results of this study reveal that to successfully increase physical activity in an ethnic urban community, researchers and other concerned individuals need to collaborate at multiple ecological levels, with an initial emphasis on establishing coalitions between institutions, community groups, policy makers, and individuals.

  7. Their Own Story: Literature for African-American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlinn, Jeanne

    1994-01-01

    Notes that too few books reflect the contemporary experiences of African American children. Suggests that African American literature that is available is school libraries is often limited to folktales or focused on problems of poverty and racism. Appends a 39-item annotated bibliography. (RS)

  8. Academic Achievement and the Third Grade African American Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shropshire, Delia F. B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent teaching style relates to third grade African American male academic achievement. The problem in this study addressed the factors affecting the academic achievement of the African American third grade male. This problem led the researcher to investigate the teaching styles of the…

  9. Perceived Racism as a Predictor of Paranoia among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Dennis R.; Penn, David L.; Cassisi, Jeffrey; Michael, Chris; Wood, Terry; Wanner, Jill; Adams, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Recent theoretical models suggest that perceived racism acts as a stressor for African Americans and may be associated with a variety of negative psychological consequences, notably paranoia. Paranoia among African Americans is believed to reflect the lower end of the paranoia continuum based on experiences with racism. Thus, it may be beneficial…

  10. Sleeping Beauty Redefined: African American Girls in Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusimo, Patricia S.

    This paper examines the interests, perceptions, and participation of 16 African American girls in a program designed to improve girls' persistence in science, mathematics, and technology (SMT). The girls are among 33 African American and 73 total original participants in "Rural and Urban Images: Voices of Girls in Science, Mathematics, and…

  11. African American English: Implications for School Counseling Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Barto, Heather H.; Booker, Beverly L.; Smith, Kim V.; Barna, Jennifer; Maiden, Brian S.; Zegley, Linda; Felder, Monique T.

    2009-01-01

    African American English (AAE) refers to the systematic, rule-governed linguistic patterns of found among African Americans. This article provides an overview of AAE. More specifically, the article enumerates the historical underpinnings associated with AAE, identifies a representative set of AAE characteristics, reviews relevant research, and…

  12. Poverty, safety net programs, and African Americans' mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Lonnie R

    2014-11-01

    African Americans' poverty and deep-poverty rates are higher than those of Whites, and African Americans' poverty spells last longer. Furthermore, nonpoor African Americans are especially likely to slip into poverty, and over the course of a lifetime, very many African Americans will experience poverty. Accordingly, African Americans are disproportionately likely to be assisted by safety net programs providing income support and health and social assistance. When mental health-related outcomes are assessed, U.S.-focused and international studies of safety net programs sometimes find that adults and children show a decline in symptoms of mental illness after participating. All things being equal, these improvements can disproportionately benefit African Americans' mental health. Safety net programs' mental health-related impact should be routinely assessed when evaluating the programs' economic and social outcomes and the impact they have on African Americans' mental health. Policy research of this kind can help us to understand whether these very large interventions show society-wide mental health-related improvement in the disproportionately large number of African Americans who participate in them.

  13. Parenting African American Children in the Context of Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Angela W.; Smyke, Anna T.; Middleton, Melissa; Black, Corey L.

    2015-01-01

    The legacy of slavery in the United States has impacted generations of African Americans, especially parents who must prepare their children to face the challenges associated with being a person of color in this country. The authors explore aspects of racism, White privilege, racial socialization, and African American parents' fears as they equip…

  14. African American Homeschooling and the Question of Curricular Cultural Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey

    2013-01-01

    Homeschooling, and academic interest in this phenomenon, have increased tremendously over the last decade. The surge of African American involvement in the homeschool movement has also become noticeable. However, there continues to be a general paucity of research on the motivations of African American parents that choose homeschooling. In order…

  15. Stalling Out: The Relative Progress of African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Billy J.

    The socioeconomic progress of African Americans appears to be in a stalled state. This study analyzes the progress of African Americans toward parity with Whites over a 15- to 20-year period in the following areas: (1) employment; (2) economic development; (3) education; (4) health; (5) housing; and (6) political empowerment. For individual…

  16. Indigenous Systems within the African-American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbley, Aretha Faye; Rouson, Leon

    2011-01-01

    For the African-American family, life ain't been no crystal stair. The African-American family has trotted for over 400 years through a wilderness of racism, poverty, discrimination of all kinds, crossing seas of monsters and forests of demons. Yet, despite the numerous obstacles and attacks that society has mounted against it since slavery, the…

  17. Enriching Inclusive Learning: African Americans in Historic Costume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratute, Ashley; Marcketti, Sara B.

    2009-01-01

    Educating students to embrace diversity and value all people is a core value of educators in family and consumer sciences (FCS). For instructors in FCS, integrating the contributions of African Americans--particularly in textiles and clothing--can be an inclusive learning opportunity. The authors compiled resources on African Americans and…

  18. Teaching African-American History in the Age of Obama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    When the author proposed a spring course on major topics in African-American history, drawing a large enrollment was her chief concern. She had previously taught the course under a different title at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, a campus with a sizable African-American presence among students and faculty members. She now teaches…

  19. The Struggle of African American Students in the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubenga, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    The long road of slavery from generation to generation has left a legacy in the mind of African American students that has impacted their achievements in schools. In this project, the struggle of African American students in the public school education will be analyzed from the historical standpoint of view and its impact on their achievements.…

  20. Higher Education and the Early Education of African American Ministers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The education of African American ministers in the United States has been little researched. Numerous books address the profession of ministry and the education of Blacks in general, but most do not specifically address issues pertaining to the professional education of Black ministers. The majority of the hurdles African Americans faced were…

  1. Self-Esteem and Anger among African-American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryujin, Donald H.; Abitia, Fred B.

    Self-esteem may be an issue for certain minority groups more than others. In particular, given their long and difficult history, this issue may be of more relevance to minorities of African-American descent. To assess whether renewed signs of racism at a college were negatively affecting the self-esteem of African-American students the Race…

  2. Support Needs of Overweight African American Women for Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine social support needs of obese and overweight African American women for weight loss. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with overweight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results: Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD = 12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in…

  3. Components of School Engagement among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Rogers-Sirin, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    This study examined how various components of school engagement contribute to the academic performance of African American adolescents. The sample consisted of 499 African American adolescents in Grades 9 to 11. We investigated how adolescents' gender, grade, cognitive functioning, and parental education affect their school engagement and whether…

  4. Beyond Statistics: African American Male Persistence in Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Manuel Dewayne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study that consists of six African American male participants is to examine, describe, and analyze African American male persistence factors at a community college in the midwest of the United States. The study uses qualitative content analysis as a research method that provides a systematic and objective means…

  5. Asthma Management Disparities: A Photovoice Investigation with African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Agnew, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice…

  6. Interaction of African American Learners Online: An Adult Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…

  7. Culturally Competent Counseling for Religious and Spiritual African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Day-Vines, Norma L.

    2008-01-01

    Religion and spirituality are deeply rooted in traditional African American culture. Data suggest that African American adolescents maintain higher baseline rates of religious activities and beliefs than their peers (Bachman, Johnston, & O'Malley, 2005; Smith, Faris, Denton, & Regnerus, 2003). Recognizing these data, this article examines…

  8. EPEC-O - Plenary AA - Cancer & the African American Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the many factors that lead to inequalities in cancer care outcomes for African Americans.

  9. EPEC-O for African Americans - Module 16 AA - Spirituality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sixteenth module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the importance of spirituality in the lived experience of most African Americans, and how they utilize spirituality and religion to cope with serious stressors such as life-threatening illness.

  10. Perceived Racism and Encouragement among African American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming

    2012-01-01

    Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…

  11. Social Achievement Goals: Validation among Rural African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martin H.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Shim, Sungok Serena; Hart, Caroline O.

    2013-01-01

    Little extant research attempts to understand why rural African Americans engage in social relationships with peers in school. This is somewhat surprising as rural students' peer interactions often affect their scholastic desires, and peers can alter African Americans' academic performance. Hence, the current study examined both the presence and…

  12. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  13. 76 FR 6519 - National African American History Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ..., 2011 National African American History Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... February 4, 2011 Part II The President Proclamation 8627--National African American History Month, 2011 #0..., there is no progress.'' Progress in America has not come easily, but has resulted from the...

  14. 78 FR 8347 - National African American History Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8930 of January 31, 2013 National African American History Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In America, we share a dream that lies at the heart... Nation's history, that dream has gone unfulfilled. For African Americans, it was a dream denied until...

  15. African-American Press Coverage of Clarence Thomas Nomination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearn-Banks, Kathleen

    1994-01-01

    Examines pressures facing the African American press by focusing on its coverage of the 1991 nomination of Clarence Thomas to the United States Supreme Court. Discusses the dilemma these newspapers faced in choosing between supporting African Americans and supporting civil rights, with their mixed coverage of the story reflecting this dilemma. (SR)

  16. Training African-American residents in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green-McKenzie, Judith

    2004-03-01

    Bellevue Hospital, the oldest public hospital in the United States and a lineal descendant of an infirmary for slaves, accepted its first African-American resident, Dr. Ubert Conrad Vincent, in 1918. This occurred at a time when many medical centers were not accepting African-American residents. At the end of WWII, one-third of the accredited medical schools still barred African Americans. However, Bellevue Hospital continued to train African-American residents. Between the 1920s and 1940s four African Americans matriculated at Bellevue Hospital. There were six in the 1950s, four in the 1960s, and 25 in the 1970s. By the 1980s, 40 African Americans matriculated, and between 1990 and 1995, 61 matriculated. Despite its historic first, Bellevue lagged slightly behind the national average. While the number of African-American residents occupying U.S. residency slots increased from 2.8% in 1978 to 6.5% in 1996, African Americans comprised 3.6% of residency slots at Bellevue between 1985-1995. Currently, only 7% of practicing physicians and 5% in faculty positions are latino, African-American, and Native American. Increasing the number of under-represented minority (URM) physicians is important to the United States, as URM physicians are more likely to serve the poor and uninsured, therefore improving the overall healthcare of the underprivileged. A study by the Association of American Medical Colleges indicated that minority medical school graduates were five times more likely to report that they planned to serve minority populations than other graduates. In their position paper, the American College of Physicians expressed the belief that increasing the number of URM physicians will help reduce healthcare disparities that can hurt minority populations and lead to poor health outcomes. The Supreme Court acknowledged the importance of racial diversity by upholding the University of Michigan affirmative action admissions policy in its June 2003 ruling. URM physicians are

  17. Perceived value in food selection when dining out: comparison of African Americans and Euro-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Debra M; Philipp, Steven F

    2007-06-01

    This descriptive study compares African Americans' and Euro-Americans' perceived value of food selection pertaining to cost, portion size, and meal satisfaction when eating away from home. A stratified sample was drawn from a southern U.S. metropolitan area (N= 1,011; 486 African American, 525 Euro-American). Analysis showed no difference between African-American and Euro-American adults by sex or how often they dined out. These two groups significantly differed across years of education, age, and answering 14 of 18 rated statements on value perceptions. African-Americans' value perceptions were influenced more by lower cost foods and larger portion sizes than those of Euro-Americans. For meal satisfaction, African Americans were more likely to agree with statements that indicate preferring foods high in energy and low in essential micronutrient density. This study supports the need for more investigation.

  18. Horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism-collectivism: a comparison of African Americans and European Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarraju, Meera; Cokley, Kevin O

    2008-10-01

    The current study examined ethnic differences in horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism among 96 African American and 149 European American college students. Participants completed the 32-item Singelis et al. (1995) Individualism/Collectivism Scale. Multivariate analyses of variance results yielded a main effect for ethnicity, with African Americans being significantly higher on horizontal individualism and European Americans being higher on horizontal collectivism and vertical individualism. A moderated multiple regression analysis indicated that ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between individualism and collectivism. Individualism and collectivism were significantly and positively associated among African Americans, but not associated among European Americans. In addition, collectivism was related to grade point average for African Americans but not for European Americans. Contrary to the prevailing view of individualism-collectivism being unipolar, orthogonal dimensions, results provide support for individualism-collectivism to be considered as unipolar, related dimensions for African Americans.

  19. African Americans,hypertension and the renin angiotensin system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandra; F; Williams; Susanne; B; Nicholas; Nosratola; D; Vaziri; Keith; C; Norris

    2014-01-01

    African Americans have exceptionally high rates of hypertension and hypertension related complications. It is commonly reported that the blood pressure lowering efficacy of renin angiotensin system(RAS) inhibitors is attenuated in African Americans due to a greater likelihood of having a low renin profile. Therefore these agents are often not recommended as initial therapy in African Americans with hypertension. However, the high prevalence of comorbid conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease makes treatment with RAS inhibitors more compelling. Despite lower circulating renin levels and a less significant fall in blood pressure in response to RAS inhibitors in African Americans, numerous clinical trials support the efficacy of RAS inhibitors to improve clinical outcomes in this population, especially in those with hypertension and risk factors for cardiovascular and related diseases. Here, we discuss the rationale of RAS blockade as part of a comprehensive approach to attenuate the high rates of premature morbidity and mortality associated with hypertension among African Americans.

  20. Survival Strategies for African American Astronomers and Astrophysicists

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, J C

    2012-01-01

    The question of how to increase the number of women and minorities in astronomy has been approached from several directions in the United States including examination of admission policies, mentoring, and hiring practices. These point to departmental efforts to improve conditions for some of the students which has the overall benefit of improving conditions for all of the students. However, women and minority astronomers have managed to obtain doctorates even within the non-welcoming environment of certain astronomy and physics departments. I present here six strategies used by African American men and women to persevere if not thrive long enough to earn their doctorate. Embedded in this analysis is the idea of 'astronomy culture' and experiencing astronomy culture as a cross-cultural experience including elements of culture shock. These survival strategies are not exclusive to this small subpopulation but have been used by majority students, too.

  1. Survival Strategies for African American Astronomers and Astrophysicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Jarita C.

    2012-08-01

    The question of how to increase the number of women and minorities in astronomy has been approached from several directions in the United States including examination of admission policies, mentoring, and hiring practices. These point to departmental efforts to improve conditions for some of the students which has the overall benefit of improving conditions for all of the students. However, women and minority astronomers have managed to obtain doctorates even within the non-welcoming environment of certain astronomy and physics departments. I present here six strategies used by African American men and women to persevere if not thrive long enough to earn their doctorate. Embedded in this analysis is the idea of `astronomy culture' and experiencing astronomy culture as a cross-cultural experience including elements of culture shock. These survival strategies are not exclusive to this small subpopulation but have been used by majority students, too.

  2. Gender Distrust and Intimate Unions among Low-Income Hispanic and African-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estacion, Angela; Cherlin, Andrew

    2010-04-01

    We investigate levels of generalized distrust of men among low-income African American, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican, and non-Hispanic white women in a three-city survey. The results reveal substantial variation. We find Hispanics' overall levels of distrust to be higher than levels for either African Americans or whites. Among Hispanics, however, Dominicans are the most distrusting group followed by Puerto Ricans; whereas Mexicans report levels of distrust that are comparable to African Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Married women are less distrusting than cohabiting women who, in turn, are less distrusting than non-cohabiting women. Nevertheless, distrust is not a significant predictor of a woman's total number of lifetime marital and cohabiting relationships; and distrust only marginally predicts a woman's desire to be in a steady relationship. We suggest that studies of trust in this population should focus more on attitudes displayed in specific encounters than on overall, generalized attitudes about gender distrust.

  3. Stainable hepatic iron in 341 African American adults at coroner/medical examiner autopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acton Ronald T

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results of previous autopsy studies indicate that increased hepatic iron stores or hepatic iron overload is common in African Americans dying in hospitals, but there are no reports of hepatic iron content in other cohorts of African Americans. Methods We investigated the prevalence of heavy liver iron deposition in African American adults. Using established histochemical criteria, we graded Perls' acid ferrocyanide-reactive iron in the hepatocytes and Kupffer cells of 341 consecutive African American adults who were autopsied in the coroner/medical examiner office. Heavy staining was defined as grade 3 or 4 hepatocyte iron or grade 3 Kupffer cell iron. Results There were 254 men and 85 women (mean age ± 1 SD: 44 ± 13 y vs. 48 ± 14 y, respectively; p = 0.0255; gender was unstated or unknown in two subjects. Approximately one-third of subjects died of natural causes. Heavy staining was observed in 10.2% of men and 4.7% of women. 23 subjects had heavy hepatocyte staining only, six had heavy Kupffer cell staining only, and one had a mixed pattern of heavy staining. 15 subjects had histories of chronic alcoholism; three had heavy staining confined to hepatocytes. We analyzed the relationships of three continuous variables (age at death in years, hepatocyte iron grade, Kupffer cell iron grade and two categorical variables (sex, cause of death (natural and non-natural causes in all 341 subjects using a correlation matrix with Bonferroni correction. This revealed two positive correlations: hepatocyte with Kupffer cell iron grades (p Conclusions The present results confirm and extend previous observations that heavy liver iron staining is relatively common in African Americans. The pertinence of these observations to genetic and acquired causes of iron overload in African Americans is discussed.

  4. Perceptions of selected science careers by African American high school males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijames, Erika Denise

    their students about science careers and possibly increase the number of African American men as well as other minorities currently underrepresented in some science careers.

  5. Exploring the Link between Self-Construal and Distress among African American and Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Michael S.; Skillman, Gemma D.

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated ethnicity, self-construal, and distress among African American and Asian American college students. African American students expressed more salient independent self-construals, whereas Asian American students expressed more salient interdependent self-construals. As hypothesized, among African American participants,…

  6. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mama, Scherezade K; Li, Yisheng; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W; Nguyen, Nga T; Reitzel, Lorraine R; McNeill, Lorna H

    2016-01-01

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans.

  7. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherezade K Mama

    Full Text Available Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467 completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination, and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001 and U.S. (p < .001 and low social support (p < .001 were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans.

  8. African and Arab American Achievement Motivation: Effects of Minority Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Bernadette S.; Hillman, Stephen B.

    The association between ethnic group identification, attributional style, and the use of self-protective attributions with respect to self-esteem, academic achievement and motivation among ethnically diverse adolescents was examined. Participants in the study included 422 African American, 90 Arab American, and 194 European American high school…

  9. E-Commerce and Internet Dating Websites: Differences in Match Options Between African-Americans and Whites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Sardella

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet technology has offered many options for online dating. We studied online dating website capabilities and the relationship between African-Americans and White college students (n=101 regarding their preferences for receiving a weekly list of potential matches via e-mail, receiving free assistance in enhancing the written portion of their profile, the ability to sort matches by ethnicity or religion, and the ability to sort matches based on similar interests. Analysis of variance (ANOVA showed a significant difference between African-Americans and Whites regarding the ability to receive weekly lists of potential matches via e-mail, where African-Americans had greater means indicative of their preference for this feature (p0.05. Traditional dating approaches typically involve a man initiating contact with a woman. African-American men may have unique psychological concerns with regard to online dating. They may prefer to wait for automated information about prospective matches rather than initially searching online for prospective matches. An understanding of the gender differences among African-Americans can help understand if it is necessary to advocate a change in this behavioral pattern among African-American men.

  10. African American teens and the neo-juvenile justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L

    2002-01-01

    African American youth continue to be overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. As a result of the current political environment and the perceived increase in crime among young people, the nation has moved away from rehabilitation and toward harsher treatment of delinquents. The African American community must encourage policy makers and community leaders to continue to address the disproportionate representation of African American youth in the system. Current policing and prosecutorial policies must also be examined and challenged to end the perception of an unjust system.

  11. Ebony and Ivory? Interracial dating intentions and behaviors of disadvantaged African American women in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, David J; Oser, Carrie B

    2015-09-01

    Using data from 595 predominantly disadvantaged African American women in Kentucky, this study examines perceptions about racial/ethnic partner availability, cultural mistrust, and racism as correlates of interracial dating intentions and behaviors with both white and Hispanic men. Participants reported levels of dating intentions and behaviors were significantly higher with whites than Hispanics. The multivariate models indicate less cultural mistrust and believing it is easier to find a man of that racial/ethnic category were associated with higher interracial dating intentions. Women were more likely to have dated a white man if they believed it was easier to find a white man and had interracial dating intentions; however, interracial dating intentions was the only significant correlate of having dated a Hispanic man. Findings suggest a shrinking social distance between racial groups, broadening the MMPI for African American women; yet, the low levels of interracial relationships are likely driven by preferences of men.

  12. Ebony and Ivory?:Interracial Dating Intentions and Behaviors of Disadvantaged African American Women in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, David J.; Oser, Carrie B.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from 595 predominantly disadvantaged African American women in Kentucky, this study examines perceptions about racial/ethnic partner availability, cultural mistrust, and racism as correlates of interracial dating intentions and behaviors with both white and Hispanic men. Participants reported levels of dating intentions and behaviors were significantly higher with whites than Hispanics. The multivariate models indicate less cultural mistrust and believing it is easier to find a man of that racial/ethnic category were associated with higher interracial dating intentions. Women were more likely to have dated a white man if they believed it was easier to find a white man and had interracial dating intentions; however, interracial dating intentions was the only significant correlate of having dated a Hispanic man. Findings suggest a shrinking social distance between racial groups, broadening the MMPI for African American women; yet, the low levels of interracial relationships are likely driven by preferences of men. PMID:26188458

  13. Ebony and Ivory?:Interracial Dating Intentions and Behaviors of Disadvantaged African American Women in Kentucky

    OpenAIRE

    Luke, David J.; Oser, Carrie B.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from 595 predominantly disadvantaged African American women in Kentucky, this study examines perceptions about racial/ethnic partner availability, cultural mistrust, and racism as correlates of interracial dating intentions and behaviors with both white and Hispanic men. Participants reported levels of dating intentions and behaviors were significantly higher with whites than Hispanics. The multivariate models indicate less cultural mistrust and believing it is easier to find a man...

  14. 75 FR 32075 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... celebrate the extraordinary legacy of African-American singers, composers, and musicians, as well as their... dance floor, but also in our churches, in our public spaces, and in our homes. This month, we honor...

  15. Assessing Stigma among African Americans Living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Deepa; Molina, Yamile; Lambert, Nina; Cohn, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In the present study, we validated a culturally adapted stigma scale designed to assess stigma among African Americans living with HIV. Methods We collected data on the scale using an audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) format. We validated the scale with a sample of 62 African American participants living with HIV. Results Findings demonstrated that stigma can be measured succinctly and effectively in a 14-item scale with two subscales measuring enacted and internalized stigma. Discussion We identified many advantages to using the scale, which demonstrated good psychometric properties when used with an audio computer assisted self-interview format and with an African American sample. We recommend this scale’s use in both clinical practice and research study of HIV-stigma reduction interventions with African American populations.

  16. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Mack McKinney, chief, program resources management at NASA and chairperson for African-American History Month, presents a plaque to Bhetty Waldron at the kick-off ceremony of African-American History Month on Feb. 3 at the NASA Training Auditorium. The award was given in thanks for Waldron's portrayal of Dr. Mary McLeod Bethune and Zora Neal Hurston during the ceremony. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  17. Directory of Scholarships for African-American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This database lists scholarships specifically available to African American students and some available to minority students in general. Scholarships for undergraduates in general and specific fields and awards for graduate and professional students are listed. (SLD)

  18. African American marriage in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinderhughes, Elaine B

    2002-01-01

    It is not possible to understand African American marriages fully without attention to the social, economic, racial, and historical factors that have stressed male-female relationships beyond those stresses experienced by majority couples. I propose that the societal projection process (Bowen, 1978) has entrapped African Americans in ways that have continually and severely strained their marital and couple relationships. These experiences, and the ways in which African Americans have responded to them, have created a vulnerability that is compounded by societal shifts and changes, and is manifest in the precipitous decline of marriages at a rate higher than that found in all other racial groups in the U.S. I will examine the state of African American marriages in this cultural context, with specific attention to the effects of the unequal sex ratio, socioeconomic conditions, and overstressed male-female relationships. I will then discuss implications and offer suggestions for therapists who work with this population.

  19. Telephone surveys underestimate cigarette smoking among African-Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope eLandrine

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study tested the hypothesis that data from random digit-dial telephone surveys underestimate the prevalence of cigarette smoking among African-American adults. Method. A novel, community-sampling method was used to obtain a statewide, random sample of N= 2118 California (CA African-American/Black adults, surveyed door-to-door. This Black community sample was compared to the Blacks in the CA Health Interview Survey (N = 2315, a statewide, random digit-dial telephone-survey conducted simultaneously. Results. Smoking prevalence was significantly higher among community (33% than among telephone-survey (19% Blacks, even after controlling for sample-differences in demographics.Conclusions. Telephone surveys underestimate smoking among African-Americans and probably underestimate other health risk behaviors as well. Alternative methods are needed to obtain accurate data on African-American health behaviors and on the magnitude of racial disparities in them.

  20. 78 FR 34241 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... music they made-- songs of hurt and hardship, yearning and hope, and struggle for a better day. Those feelings speak to something common in all of us. With passion and creativity, African-American...

  1. Prostate cancer disparities in Black men of African descent: a comparative literature review of prostate cancer burden among Black men in the United States, Caribbean, United Kingdom, and West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reams R Renee

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African American men have the highest prostate cancer morbidity and mortality rates than any other racial or ethnic group in the US. Although the overall incidence of and mortality from prostate cancer has been declining in White men since 1991, the decline in African American men lags behind White men. Of particular concern is the growing literature on the disproportionate burden of prostate cancer among other Black men of West African ancestry in the Caribbean Islands, United Kingdom and West Africa. This higher incidence of prostate cancer observed in populations of African descent may be attributed to the fact that these populations share ancestral genetic factors. To better understand the burden of prostate cancer among men of West African Ancestry, we conducted a review of the literature on prostate cancer incidence, prevalence, and mortality in the countries connected by the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Results Several published studies indicate high prostate cancer burden in Nigeria and Ghana. There was no published literature for the countries Benin, Gambia and Senegal that met our review criteria. Prostate cancer morbidity and/or mortality data from the Caribbean Islands and the United Kingdom also provided comparable or worse prostate cancer burden to that of US Blacks. Conclusion The growing literature on the disproportionate burden of prostate cancer among other Black men of West African ancestry follows the path of the Transatlantic Slave Trade. To better understand and address the global prostate cancer disparities seen in Black men of West African ancestry, future studies should explore the genetic and environmental risk factors for prostate cancer among this group.

  2. Developing culturally sensitive cancer genetics communication aids for African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baty, Bonnie Jeanne; Kinney, Anita Yeomans; Ellis, Sara Marie

    2003-04-15

    The goal of this project was to develop educational materials to communicate genetic health information in a culturally sensitive manner. These materials were designed to communicate information about cancer risk, genetic testing options, and health management options in an African American kindred with a known BRCA1 mutation. Educational materials were pilot-tested in four African American focus groups varying in socioeconomic status and gender. The audiotaped focus groups consisted of presentation of the educational materials, followed by a feedback session led by an African American facilitator. Qualitative analysis of the focus group transcripts identified important themes and the educational materials were revised in response to the participants' suggestions. The products included a booklet and a flip chart for use in educational sessions. Focus group participants recommended a substantial reduction in technical detail, and recommended that information be personalized and made relevant to the lives of the target population. Other critical themes included the importance of building trust in the medical system and avoiding words and images that have strong negative associations in the African American community. Strategies that were successful included nontechnical images to explain genetic concepts, clip art images to energize and personalize word slides, vibrant color, identifiably African American figures, and the development of themes relevant to many African Americans. The use of these materials in an ongoing study offering BRCA1 counseling and testing to a large, rural Louisiana-based kindred will provide additional feedback about the effectiveness of the culturally tailored genetic education and counseling materials.

  3. Cultural barriers to African American participation in anxiety disorders research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Monnica T; Beckmann-Mendez, Diana A; Turkheimer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are understudied, underdiagnosed, and undertreated in African Americans. Research focused on the phenomenology, etiology, and treatment of anxiety in African Americans has been hampered by lack of inclusion of this population in clinical research studies. The reason for exclusion is not well understood, although cultural mistrust has been hypothesized as a major barrier to research participation. This article reviews the relevant literature to date and examines the experience of 6 African American adults who participated in a larger clinical assessment study about anxiety. Drawing upon in-depth semistructured interviews about their subjective experiences, we examined participant perspectives about the assessment process, opinions about African American perception of anxiety studies, and participant-generated ideas about how to improve African American participation. Based on a qualitative analysis of responses, feelings of mistrust emerged as a dominant theme. Concerns fell under 6 categories, including not wanting to speak for others, confidentiality, self and group presentation concerns, repercussions of disclosure, potential covert purposes of the study, and the desire to confide only in close others. Suggestions for increasing African American participation are discussed, including assurances of confidentiality, adequate compensation, and a comfortable study environment.

  4. Clozapine underutilization and discontinuation in African Americans due to leucopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Deanna L; Kreyenbuhl, Julie; Dixon, Lisa; Love, Raymond C; Medoff, Deborah; Conley, Robert R

    2007-09-01

    Clozapine use has been notably lower in African American patients than in Caucasians. It has been suggested that lower normal ranges for white blood cell (WBC) counts in African Americans, known as benign ethnic neutropenia, may account partially for the disparity. We examined the rates of leucopenia and agranulocytosis as reasons for discontinuation of clozapine in a sample of 1875 patients with schizophrenia treated in the State of Maryland. Between 1989 and 1999, 5.3% (31/588) of African Americans and 2.4% (31/1287) of Caucasians discontinued clozapine treatment due to leucopenia (chi square = 10.35, df = 1, P = 0.001). No African American patients developed agranulocytosis while 8 Caucasian patients (0.62%) developed this blood dyscrasia. Discontinuations due to leucopenia occurred throughout treatment. Discontinuations due to agranulocytosis occurred primarily in the first 18 weeks (7/8; 87.5% patients with agranulocytosis). It is likely that African Americans had clozapine discontinued unnecessarily due to benign ethnic neutropenia. We concur with recent recommendations to acknowledge differences in WBC values in African Americans and to modify prescribing guidelines or formally acknowledge benign ethnic leucopenia like in other countries in order to facilitate greater use of clozapine in these patients.

  5. Bessie Coleman, First African American Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    1921-01-01

    Born on January 26, 1892 in Atlanta, Texas to a family of sharecroppers, Bessie Coleman grew up in poverty. Her father abandoned the family when she was nine, and her elder brothers soon left as well, leaving her mother with the four youngest of her thirteen children. While taking care of her younger sisters, Bessie completed all eight available years of primary education, excelling in math. She enrolled at the Colored Agricultural and Normal University in Langston, Oklahoma in 1910, but lack of funds forced her to leave after only one term. Five years later, she left the South and moved to Chicago to join two of her brothers, Walter and John, where she worked as a beautician for several years. An avid reader, she learned about World War I pilots in the newspaper and became intrigued by the prospect of flying. As a black woman, she had no chance of acceptance at any American pilot school, so she moved to France in 1919 and enrolled at the Ecole d'Aviation des Freres Caudon at Le Crotoy. After returning briefly to the United States, she spent one more term in France practicing more advanced flying before finally settling back in her birth country. She did exhibition flying and gave lectures across the country from 1922 to 1926. While flying, she refused to perform unless the audiences were desegregated. She was test flying a new plane on April 30, 1926 when it malfunctioned, killing both her and the mechanic who was piloting it. Her career as the world's first African American pilot inspired many who followed.

  6. Post Civil War African American History: Brief Periods of Triumph, and Then Despair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Gilda

    2016-01-01

    During Reconstruction, which is often called the most progressive period in American history, African Americans made great strides. By 1868 African American men constituted a majority of registered voters in South Carolina and Mississippi, and by 1870 eighty-five percent of Mississippi's black jurors could read and write. However, Reconstruction was followed by approximately one hundred years of Jim Crow laws, lynching, disenfranchisement, sharecropping, unequal educational resources, terrorism, racial caricatures, and convict leasing. The Civil Rights Revolution finally ended that period of despair, but the era of mass incarceration can be understood as a reaction to the Civil Rights Movement. This article attempts to understand the persistence of racism in the United States from slavery's end until the present.

  7. Illness beliefs in African Americans with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Stephanie; Allen, Wilfred; Franklin, Mary; Peters, Rosalind M

    2014-02-01

    Guided by Leventhal's common sense model of illness representations, this study examined the relationship between hypertension beliefs and self-care behaviors necessary for blood pressure (BP) control in a sample of 111 community-dwelling African Americans with hypertension. Participants completed the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire, BP Self-Care Scale, and a demographic data sheet, and had BP measured. Analyses revealed that beliefs about the causes of hypertension differed by gender and educational level. Stress-related causal attributions accounted for 34.7% of the variance in hypertension beliefs. Participants who believed stress or external factors caused hypertension were less likely to engage in healthy self-care behaviors (e.g., keeping doctor visits, eating low-salt, low-fat diets). Results suggest that patients who are nonadherent with hypertension self-care recommendations may hold hypertension beliefs that are not consistent with the medically endorsed views of this disease. To more effectively treat and control BP, providers should assess patients' hypertension beliefs.

  8. The Influence of the African American Father on Level of Self-Efficacy, Career Achievement, and Aspirations of His African American Daughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, April E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate the influence of perceived and desired paternal involvement of the African American father on his African American daughter. The research problem is how father involvement may influence self-efficacy, career achievements, and aspirations of African American females. This study sought to…

  9. African Self-Consciousness and Health-Promoting Behaviors among African American College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Shawn N.; Chambers, John W., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated three models of relationships between African self-consciousness, health consciousness, and health-promoting behaviors among African American college students. The models included the mediator model, moderator model, and independent model. Surveys of 80 students supported the independent model, suggesting that African…

  10. Crossing Cultures in Marriage: Implications for Counseling African American/African Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durodoye, Beth A.; Coker, Angela D.

    2008-01-01

    A wealth of literature exists regarding intermarriage between White and ethnic minority couples. Noticeably lacking, however, is information considering within-group diversity amongst Black couples. This paper will focus on cultural dynamics that may operate with African American and African couples residing in the United States. Through an…

  11. Vital Signs: The State of African Americans in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Theodore L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Presents a statistical record of the progress of African Americans in institutions of higher education in the United States. Statistics include trends in black enrollment, library resources in historically black colleges, leading foundation grants, blacks in business schools, and comparative analysis of Asian Americans and blacks in higher…

  12. An analysis of African American Vernacular English in Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Chen-yang

    2014-01-01

    AAVE is a form of American English spoken primarily by African Americans. Although an AAVE speaker's dialect may exhibit regional variation, there are still many salient features. The relationship between Black Music and Standard American Eng-lish is a reflection of the special situation of the mutual influence and infiltration of the African-American sub-culture and the main-stream American culture. African-American sub-culture is shaped under pressure from the main-stream culture, and af-fected the latter to so great an extent that African-American sub-culture has been identified as one of the most important feature of American culture. The origin and development of Black Music are closely related to the cultural life of the Blacks. Because of its innate cultural connotation and the musical feature such as lively rhythm, fast talking, omission of pronunciation, full of ob-scene language and rhyme, all the features mentioned above help to have a great effect on the development of the AAVE.

  13. Cultural Enrichment: Connecting African American Elementary Children to Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Deborah L.

    2011-01-01

    A large, growing number of mis-educated American citizens are being produced by America's public schools. Many of these students are being funneled into the penal system shortly after dropping out of high school. This phenomenon is especially prevalent among African American male students, many of whom have withdrawn academically years prior…

  14. Cultural Dysthymia: An Unrecognized Disorder among African Americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontress, Clemmont E.; Woodland, Calvin E.; Epp, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Many African Americans experience low-grade depression, referred to as dysthymia in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). After more than 250 years of enslavement, prejudice, and discrimination, dysthymia is reflected in chronic low-grade sadness, anger, hostility,…

  15. Sexual risk and HIV prevention behaviours among African-American and Latino MSM social networking users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sean D; Szekeres, Greg; Coates, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    This study explores the feasibility of recruiting minority men who have sex with men Facebook users for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention studies and notes demographic and sexual risk behaviours. Facebook-registered men who have sex with men (MSM; N = 118) were recruited using online and offline methods. Participants validated Facebook-user status through using a Facebook Connect (computer science) application. Participants were primarily Latino (60.2%) and African-American (28.0%), with 33.1% using social media to find sex partners. Black MSM social networking users reported engaging in a lower frequency (coefficient = -0.48, p < 0.05) of unprotected receptive anal intercourse compared to Latino MSM. Results suggest that minority social media users can be recruited for HIV studies and that sexual risk behavioural differences exist among minority social networking users. Findings highlight the importance of incorporating technologies into population-focused HIV interventions.

  16. Disparities in lipid management for African Americans and Caucasians with coronary artery disease: A national cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter-Edwards Lori

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with coronary artery disease are at high risk for adverse health outcomes. This risk can be diminished by aggressive lipid management, but adherence to lipid management guidelines is far from ideal and substantial racial disparities in care have been reported. Lipid treatment and goal attainment information is not readily available for large patient populations seen in the fee-for-service setting. As a result, national programs to improve lipid management in this setting may focus on lipid testing as an indicator of lipid management. We describe the detection, treatment, and control of dyslipdemia for African Americans and Caucasians with coronary artery disease to evaluate whether public health programs focusing on lipid testing can eliminate racial disparities in lipid management. Methods Physicians and medical practices with high numbers of prescriptions for coronary artery disease medications were invited to participate in the Quality Assurance Program. Medical records were reviewed from a random sample of patients with coronary artery disease seen from 1995 through 1998. Data related to the detection, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia were abstracted from the medical record and evaluated in cross-sectional stratified and logistic regression analyses using generalized estimation equations. Results Data from the medical records of 1,046 African Americans and 22,077 Caucasians seen in outpatient medical practices in 23 states were analyzed. African-American patients were younger, more likely to be women and to have diabetes, heart failure, and hypertension. The low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C testing rate for Caucasian men was over 1.4 times higher than that for African-American women and about 1.3 times higher than that for African-American men. Almost 60% of tested Caucasian men and less than half of tested African Americans were prescribed lipid-lowering drugs. Tested and treated Caucasian men

  17. Informal learning in SME majors for African American female undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezella McPherson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as the framework to better understand their opportunities to engage in free-choice science learning. The article demonstrates that African American women have access to cultural capital and informal science learning inside and outside of home and school environments in P-16 settings. In primary and secondary schools, African American girls acquire cultural capital and access to free-choice science learning in the home environment, museums, science fairs, student organizations and clubs. However, in high school African American female teenagers have fewer informal science learning opportunities like those such as those provided in primary school settings. In college, cultural capital is transmitted through informal science learning that consisted of involvement in student organizations, research projects, seminars, and conferences. These experiences contributed to their engagement and persistence in SME fields in K-16 settings. This research adds to cultural capital and informal science learning research by allowing scholars to better understand how African American women have opportunities to learn about the hidden curriculum of science through informal science settings throughout the educational pipeline.

  18. African American Perspectives and Experiences of Domestic Violence in a Rural Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valandra; Murphy-Erby, Yvette; Higgins, Brandon M; Brown, Lucy M

    2016-09-21

    Relatively few studies have explored domestic violence from a multiplicity of African American perspectives, experiences, and socio-demographic backgrounds within rural African American communities. Community-based participatory action research methods were used to explore domestic violence perceptions of African Americans with heterogeneous backgrounds and experiences of violence. Ten focus groups were held throughout the community with 52 diverse women (n = 33) and men (n = 19) living in the northwest region of Arkansas. Demographic data were collected from 47 women (n = 28) and men (n = 19) participating in focus groups regarding their perceptions and experiences of domestic violence, media messages, help-seeking behaviors, and services. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Three major themes emerged, including (a) a heightened awareness of race, gender, and class differences; (b) imbalanced and mixed messages from media; and (c) multi-systemic dynamics influencing abusive behavior and relationships. Results indicate that study participants' perspectives and experiences with domestic violence reflect a complex interrelated gamut of societal, community, familial, and individual dynamics. Participant recommendations related to interpersonal dynamics, media messages, and societal influences are reported with implications for practice, policy, and future research.

  19. Family therapy with unmarried African American mothers and their adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, D; Liddle, H A

    2001-01-01

    Almost two-thirds of African American births are to unmarried mothers, and these single parents are among the most economically vulnerable in the United States. The effects of chronic stressors such as poverty can compromise the ability of these mothers to parent effectively, particularly during the developmental period of adolescence, typically a stressful phase of parenting. This article describes a multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) approach to working with African American adolescents who have drug and/or behavior problems. It is maintained that addressing the intrapersonal functioning of African American single mothers is vital if they are to re-establish the attachment bonds necessary for the maintenance of essential parental influence in the lives of their adolescents. Through systematic attention to the parent as an individual, leading to a balance between self-care and care for others, parental supervision is more easily achieved and relational impasses between parent and adolescent more equitably resolved.

  20. Sexual health communication within religious African-American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Terrinieka T; Pichon, Latrice C; Campbell, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    While research suggests youth prefer parents and family members to serve as the primary sources of sexual health information, fear and discomfort around discussing sex with their parents may leave youth misinformed and underinformed. This study explored sexual heath communication within religious African-American families. Thirty adolescents participated in four focus groups, and 19 adults and 30 adolescents participated in six focus groups, at two predominantly African-American Christian churches in Flint, MI. All data were analyzed inductively using a constant comparison approach. Nearly all participants reported attending church weekly. Three themes emerged and are described: initiating sex talks, using mistakes as teaching tools, and clarifying prevention messages. Participants highlighted the need for religious parents to offer both religious and practical guidance to adolescents about sexual health. Findings from this study may be used to inform future sexual health promotion interventions for religious African-American families.

  1. African American parents' HPV vaccination intent and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders Thompson, Vetta L; Arnold, Lauren D; Notaro, Sheri R

    2012-02-01

    This study describes attitudes and social and environmental factors that affect African American parents' intent to vaccinate their daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV). Thirty African American parents of daughters aged nine to 17 years and no history of HPV infection completed semi-structured interviews. Interviews addressed factors that influenced intent to vaccinate, perception of community norms related to vaccination, vaccination scenarios involving place of vaccination, and vaccination prior to or after the child's initiation of sexual activity. A recurring theme was the influence of physician recommendation on African American parents' intent to obtain HPV vaccination for their daughters. Most parents reported that they could overcome barriers to vaccination, except vaccine costs and lack of insurance. While religious beliefs were important to parents, they reported that they would not interfere with vaccination decisions; fears of early sexuality due to vaccination were limited. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  2. Assessment of religious and spiritual capital in African American communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Cheryl L; Schulz, Emily; Williams, Beverly; Clark, Eddie M; Wang, Min Qi; Southward, Penny L

    2012-12-01

    African American faith communities are an important source of social capital. The present study adapted a theory-based social capital instrument to result in religious (e.g., from organized worship) and spiritual (e.g., from relationship with higher power) capital measures. Data from a national sample of 803 African Americans suggest the instruments have high internal reliability and are distinct from general religiosity. Measurement models confirmed factor structures. Religious capital was positively associated with self-rated health status. Religious and spiritual capital were negatively associated with depressive symptoms, but these associations largely became nonsignificant in multivariate models that controlled for demographic characteristics. An exception is for spiritual capital in the form of community participation, which retained a negative association with depressive symptoms. These instruments may have applied value for health promotion research and practice in African American communities.

  3. Culturally Conscientious Pain Measurement in Older African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Staja Q; Herr, Keela A; Tripp-Reimer, Toni

    2016-10-01

    Despite considerable pain disparities across the care continuum, pain is an understudied health problem in older ethnic minority groups, such as African Americans. Quality pain measurement is a core task in pain management and a mechanism by which pain disparities may be reduced. Pain measurement includes the methods (e.g., assessment approaches, tools) and metrics that researchers and clinicians use to understand the characteristics of pain. However, there are significant issues and gaps that negatively affect pain measurement in older African Americans. Of concern is insufficient representation in pain research, which impedes the testing and refinement of many standardized self-report, behavioral and surrogate report, physiological, and composite measures of pain. The purposes for this article are to discuss the status of pain measurement and factors that affect our knowledge on pain measurement in older African Americans, and to provide guidance for culturally conscientious pain measurement using the available literature.

  4. African American women's experience of infection with HIV in the rural southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The design of effective behavioral interventions to prevent HIV infection among African American women requires a more complete understanding of the context and circumstances that precipitate infection with the virus. A descriptive study was designed to explore African American women's experiences of infection with HIV in the rural southeastern United States. Ten women living with HIV participated in interviews. All were infected through sex with a man or men; three had engaged in high-risk activities associated with HIV infection including sex trading; seven described themselves as at low risk for infection related to serial monogamy, no injection drug use, and no history of addiction. Participants reported that desire for intimacy coupled with inaccurate risk appraisal of sex partners contributed to their infection. These results provide insight into the role of intimacy in sexual risk taking. Inquiry into how women can be assisted to protect themselves in the context of intimate relationships may improve interventions to prevent HIV.

  5. Incarceration and Unstable Housing Interact to Predict Sexual Risk Behaviors among African American STD Clinic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Laura; Noar, Seth M.; Golin, Carol E.; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Crosby, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Given dramatic racial disparities in rates of HIV/STDs among African Americans, understanding broader structural factors that increase the risk for HIV/STDs is crucial. This study investigated incarceration history and unstable housing as two structural predictors of HIV risk behavior among 293 African Americans (159 men/134 women, Mage=27). Participants were recruited from an urban STD clinic in the southeastern U.S. Approximately half the sample had been incarcerated in their lifetime (54%), and 43% had been unstably housed in the past 6 months. Incarceration was independently associated with number of sex partners and the frequency of unprotected sex. Unstable housing was independently associated with the frequency of unprotected sex. However, these main effects were qualified by significant interactions: individuals with a history of incarceration and more unstable housing had more sex partners and more unprotected sex in the past three months than individuals without these structural barriers. Implications for structural-level interventions are discussed. PMID:24060677

  6. African-American males in computer science---Examining the pipeline for clogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Daryl Bryant

    The literature on African-American males (AAM) begins with a statement to the effect that "Today young Black men are more likely to be killed or sent to prison than to graduate from college." Why are the numbers of African-American male college graduates decreasing? Why are those enrolled in college not majoring in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines? This research explored why African-American males are not filling the well-recognized industry need for Computer Scientist/Technologists by choosing college tracks to these careers. The literature on STEM disciplines focuses largely on women in STEM, as opposed to minorities, and within minorities, there is a noticeable research gap in addressing the needs and opportunities available to African-American males. The primary goal of this study was therefore to examine the computer science "pipeline" from the African-American male perspective. The method included a "Computer Science Degree Self-Efficacy Scale" be distributed to five groups of African-American male students, to include: (1) fourth graders, (2) eighth graders, (3) eleventh graders, (4) underclass undergraduate computer science majors, and (5) upperclass undergraduate computer science majors. In addition to a 30-question self-efficacy test, subjects from each group were asked to participate in a group discussion about "African-American males in computer science." The audio record of each group meeting provides qualitative data for the study. The hypotheses include the following: (1) There is no significant difference in "Computer Science Degree" self-efficacy between fourth and eighth graders. (2) There is no significant difference in "Computer Science Degree" self-efficacy between eighth and eleventh graders. (3) There is no significant difference in "Computer Science Degree" self-efficacy between eleventh graders and lower-level computer science majors. (4) There is no significant difference in "Computer Science Degree

  7. Common roots: a contextual review of HIV epidemics in black men who have sex with men across the African diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Gregorio A; Jeffries, William L; Peterson, John L; Malebranche, David J; Lane, Tim; Flores, Stephen A; Fenton, Kevin A; Wilson, Patrick A; Steiner, Riley; Heilig, Charles M

    2012-07-28

    Pooled estimates from across the African diaspora show that black men who have sex with men (MSM) are 15 times more likely to be HIV positive compared with general populations and 8·5 times more likely compared with black populations. Disparities in the prevalence of HIV infection are greater in African and Caribbean countries that criminalise homosexual activity than in those that do not criminalise such behaviour. With the exception of US and African epidemiological studies, most studies of black MSM mainly focus on outcomes associated with HIV behavioural risk rather than on prevalence, incidence, or undiagnosed infection. Nevertheless, black MSM across the African diaspora share common experiences such as discrimination, cultural norms valuing masculinity, concerns about confidentiality during HIV testing or treatment, low access to HIV drugs, threats of violence or incarceration, and few targeted HIV prevention resources.

  8. Psychodynamics of Coping and Survival of the African-American Female in a Changing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Carlene

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes the sociopsychological factors that account for increased stressors and dysfunctionality in contemporary African American women. Discusses the importance of African American family life values in combating dehumanization. (FMW)

  9. African American families' expectations and intentions for mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard; Dancy, Barbara L; Wiley, Tisha R A; Najdowski, Cynthia J; Perry, Sylvia P; Wallis, Jason; Mekawi, Yara; Knafl, Kathleen A

    2013-09-01

    A cross-sectional qualitative descriptive design was used to examine the links among expectations about, experiences with, and intentions toward mental health services. Individual face-to-face interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 32 African American youth/mothers dyads. Content analysis revealed that positive expectations were linked to positive experiences and intentions, that negative expectations were not consistently linked to negative experiences or intentions, nor were ambivalent expectations linked to ambivalent experiences or intentions. Youth were concerned about privacy breeches and mothers about the harmfulness of psychotropic medication. Addressing these concerns may promote African Americans' engagement in mental health services.

  10. Effects of Ethnically Diverse Photographic Stimuli on Preference and Discourse Tasks in African American and Caucasian American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Dagenais, Paul A.; Evans, Kelli J.; Camp, Travis J.; Ferguson, Neina N.

    2013-01-01

    This study determined whether using photographic stimuli displaying different ethnicity (African American vs. Caucasian American) influenced preference, word count, and number of content units produced by African American or Caucasian American participants. Six photograph pairs depicting common scenes were developed, differing only by model…

  11. Slaves No More: The Caring Power of African-American Female Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sernak, Kathleen S.

    2004-01-01

    In this article the author examines the historical significance of the cultural aspect of race on African American females' leadership values and styles that encourage caring in schools. The author focuses her study by asking: What aspects of their (African American female leaders) cultural backgrounds as Africans and as African Americans…

  12. Parental Attachment, Self-Esteem, and Antisocial Behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbona, Consuelo; Power, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relation of mother and father attachment to self-esteem and self-reported involvement in antisocial behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American high school students. Findings indicated that adolescents from the 3 ethnic/racial groups did not differ greatly in their reported attachment. (Contains 70…

  13. Beauty and Body Image Concerns Among African American College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Germine H.; Norwood, Carolette; Taylor, Desire S.; Martinez, Mercedes; McClain, Shannon; Jones, Bianca; Holman, Andrea; Chapman-Hilliard, Collette

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined body image concerns among African American women. In recent years, there has been an attempt to include ethnic minority samples in body image studies (e.g., Grabe & Hyde, 2006; Hrabosky & Grilo, 2007; Lovejoy, 2001) but few specifically examine unique issues pertaining to beauty and body image for African American college age women. A total of 31 African American women participated in one of five focus groups on the campus of a large Southwestern University to examine beauty and body image. Data were analyzed using a thematic approach and several themes were identified. The majority of themes pertained to issues related to hair, skin tone, body type, and message sources. Themes included: sacrifice, ignorance/racial microaggressions, and validation and invalidation by others, thick/toned/curvy as optimal, hypersexualization, and being thin is for White women. Findings of the current study suggest a reconceptualization of body image for African American women where relevant characteristics such as hair and skin tone are given more priority over traditional body image concerns often associated with European American women. PMID:26778866

  14. Protective factors for HIV infection among Mexican American men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Mark A; Champion, Jane Dimmitt

    2010-01-01

    Latinos in the United States have been disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic. The purpose of this study was to identify potential themes for inclusion in effective HIV prevention interventions for Mexican American men who have sex with men (MSM). The authors used a phenomenological design to explore the lived experiences of Mexican American MSM who had grown up in Dallas, Texas, regarding protective factors for HIV infection. A total of 20 30- to 60-year-old Mexican American MSM participated in semistructured interviews. During data analysis, the following themes concerning protective behaviors for HIV emerged: (a) accepting one's sexuality; (b) machismo; (c) being in love; (d) respect for family, self, and life; and (e) having HIV-living now. Strategies for potential inclusion in HIV prevention interventions geared toward Mexican American MSM were identified based on these themes. The recommendations encompass modification of behavioral interventions and related social policies.

  15. Dual Minority Stress and Asian American Gay Men's Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chi; Tryon, Georgiana Shick

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the direct and additive effects of racial minority stress and sexual minority stress on the psychological well-being among a community sample of 139 Asian American gay men. Self-esteem was tested to see whether it moderated or mediated the effects of perceived dual minority stress on psychological distress. Results…

  16. Orienting African American Male Adolescents toward Meaningful Literacy Exchanges with Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, Alfred W.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from a sociohistorical understanding of the roles of texts for African American males and data from a recent survey of teens' meaningful experiences with texts, the author provides a general understanding of the roles of texts among African American males and African American male adolescents' meaningful relationships with texts. These…

  17. African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

  18. "Eyes in the back of Your Head": Moral Themes in African American Narratives of Racial Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Janie Victoria

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes African-Americans narratives of interracial conflict. Concludes that issues of power and authority are imbedded in interracial interpersonal relationships. Explores themes of justice and care in the psychological development of African Americans and in the transmission of race-related morals and values in African-American culture. (DK)

  19. Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

  20. A Case Study of the Development of African American Women Executives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks Greaux, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Even in an era when the country elected an African American man as President of the United States, there is still a paucity of African American women executives within Fortune 500 companies. Although more African American women have joined the ranks of corporate management over the last two decades, the numbers, when compared to those of White…

  1. 3 CFR 8345 - Proclamation 8345 of February 2, 2009. National African American History Month, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... African American History Month, 2009 8345 Proclamation 8345 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8345 of February 2, 2009 Proc. 8345 National African American History Month, 2009By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The history of African Americans is unique and...

  2. What's So "Powerful" about African American Children's Literature?: Let's Ask the Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefflin, Bena R.

    2003-01-01

    Outlines what educators and academics describe as the "power" of children's literature and multicultural children's literature, which includes African American children's literature. Explores what four African American third-graders have to say about the "power" of six African American children's books. Concludes with the patterns and implications…

  3. Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Offspring of African American Mothers with Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Rhonda C.; Diamond, Guy S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive research demonstrates the negative impact of maternal depression on their offspring. Unfortunately, few studies have been explored in African American families. This study examined emotional and behavioral functioning among children of African American mothers with depression. African American mothers (n = 63), with a past year diagnosis…

  4. Influence of culture and discrimination on care-seeking behavior of elderly African Americans: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Shadi S; Trask, Jacqueline; Peterson, Tina; Martin, Bryan C; Baldwin, Josh; Knapp, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    In this study, the influence of culture and discrimination on care-seeking behavior of elderly African Americans was explored. This was a qualitative phenomenological study that involved in-depth interviews with 15 African American men and women aged 60 and older in Alabama. The sample size of 15 was adequate for the phenomenological method of this study. While this was a small exploratory study and was not intended for any generalizations, it did provide a unique opportunity to hear the voices, the concerns, and the stories of elderly African Americans, which have often been overlooked in the literature. The following themes emerged from the analysis of data: (1) perception of health as ability to be active, (2) reluctance toward prescription medicine use, (3) lack of trust in doctors, (4) avoidance of bad news, (5) race of doctors, (6) use of home remedies, and (7) importance of God and spirituality on health, illness, and healing.

  5. Environmental Attitudes and Information Sources among African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E. Bun

    2008-01-01

    The author examined the environmental attitudes of African American college students by using the 15-item New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) Scale. The author also attempted to determine their everyday environmental behaviors such as recycling and conservation and investigated major information sources for local, national, and international…

  6. Physical Education and Academic Performance in Urban African American Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to examine urban African American girls' participation in physical education and its association with academic performance. One hundred eighty four participants completed questionnaires assessing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and learning engagement in physical education while their academic performance was based…

  7. Childhood Maltreatment, PTSD, and Suicidal Behavior among African American Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Martie P.; Kaslow, Nadine J.; Lane, Danielle Bradshaw; Kingree, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates how childhood maltreatment and current post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) predict nonfatal suicide attempts among 335 African American women. PTSD in combination with any of the maltreatments of childhood increased the risk of suicide attempts. Suggests that interventions designed to reduce suicidal behavior should focus on women…

  8. Alternatives to Suspending African American High School Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. KIRIAKIDIS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research site was one high school in the southern United States where African American males were suspended at greater rates than their counterparts. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the perspectives of high school administrators and teachers regarding alternatives to suspending African American males in one southern high school within a public school district. Guided by the social learning theory, the research question focused on the suspensions of these students. Data were collected through in-depth, semi structured, face-to-face interviews with a purposive sample of 6 high school teachers and 2 administrators, and coded and analyzed for emergent themes. The findings revealed that African American high school males might benefit from education programs such as character education programs to develop social, academic, and discipline skills. The findings of this study may be used for professional development for teachers and administrators regarding strategies to reduce suspensions of African American high school males, which might facilitate their graduation from high school and subsequent entry into higher education or the workforce.lications to display the level of psychological strain and workplace stressors among nurses as part of the postmodern organizational problems. Classification-JEL: A23

  9. African American Women's Sexual Objectification Experiences: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Laurel B.; Robinson, Dawn; Dispenza, Franco; Nazari, Negar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…

  10. African American Homeschooling and the Quest for a Quality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey

    2015-01-01

    Academic interest in homeschooling has increased over the last decade, as what was once perceived as a marginal development, has, in fact, turned into a significant and growing phenomenon. There has been, in recent years, a noticeable surge in African American involvement in the homeschooling movement as well. However, there continues to be a…

  11. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance Among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Family history of breast cancer  specifically mother or sister diagnosed with breast cancer  Not the same as genetic risk for breast cancer...treatment. Table 5 presents sociodemographic variables for the first 20 SIS participants. The majority of participants were African American, unmarried

  12. Developmental Origins of Perfectionism among African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Keith C.; Trotter, Reid; Reinke, Wendy M.; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    The present study used a person-centered latent variable approach to classify types of perfectionism among 6th-grade African American children living in an urban setting. In particular, the authors were interested in determining whether an adaptive subtype could be found and validated against external criteria. The authors also attempted to…

  13. Developmental Trajectories of Maladaptive Perfectionism among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Keith C.; Wang, Kenneth; Trotter, Reid; Reinke, Wendy M.; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the developmental trajectories of maladaptive perfectionism over a 7-year period among African American youth living in an urban setting (N = 547). In particular, the study attempted to determine whether two maladaptive aspects of perfectionism (socially prescribed and self-critical) changed over time and could be distinguished…

  14. Mnemopoetics. Memory and Slavery in African American Drama

    OpenAIRE

    Bada, Valérie

    2008-01-01

    Through the close reading and socio-historical analysis of 8 African American plays from 1939 to 1996, Bada seeks to unravel the fluctuating patterns in the shaping of the theatrical memory of slavery ("a mnemopoetics of slavery") long after its abolition.

  15. Culturally Responsive Collegiate Mathematics Education: Implications for African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author utilizes the culturally congruent work of Gay (2010) and Ladson-Billings (2009) to highlight culturally responsive teaching as a viable option for African American students in higher education mathematics spaces. He offers translations of Gay and Ladson-Billings' work to Africana mathematics and argues that these…

  16. Cultural Identification and Academic Achievement among African American Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Miles Anthony; Hudley, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between intercultural perceptions, identity, and academic achievement among African American males. Specifically, this study investigated the relationship of academic achievement, cultural mistrust, oppositional cultural attitudes, ethnic identity development and educational outcome expectations and value,…

  17. Teaching and Learning African American History in a Multiracial Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikkatur, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The author explores the challenges of teaching and learning African American history, a history fraught with uncomfortable implications about contemporary race relations and race-based inequalities. Drawing on various theories of anti-oppressive education, and using data from an ethnographic study conducted in one history classroom, the author…

  18. The Origins of African-American Family Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Steven

    1994-01-01

    Uses the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series to trace race differences in African American family structure between 1880 and 1980. Confirms a long-standing high incidence rate of single parenthood and children residing without their parents. Data also show blacks have had a consistently higher percentage of extended households than have whites.…

  19. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Madam , The project entitled INCREASING BREAST CANCER SURVEILLANCE AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN BREAST CANCER SURVIVORS includes activities involving human...B b- d § fr. Thomisonwill Work e .y .With’Dra) Vdldf naTir, W and y Bo • rganif Janidorf on data a"_`l- ssi reatihfiutfor pres~entatidns and publi

  20. Kin networks and poverty among African Americans: past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cribbs, Julie E; Farber, Naomi B

    2008-01-01

    Trends in social welfare policy and programs place increasing expectations on families to provide members with various forms of material and socioemotional support. The historic ability of kin networks of many African Americans to provide such support has been compromised by long-term community and family poverty. The potential mismatch between the expectations of social welfare systems for kin support and the actual functional capacities of kin networks places African Americans living in poverty at great risk of chronic poverty and its long-term multiple consequences. This article reviews historical and contemporary research on the structure and function of African American kin networks. On the basis of evidence of functional decline, the authors argue that social workers must re-examine the a priori assumption of viable kin networks as a reliable source of resilience among African Americans living in poverty. Social workers must focus assessment at all levels of practice on a variety of aspects of kin networks to make accurate judgments about not only the availability of resources, but also the perceived costs and benefits of participation in exchange for resources.

  1. Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

  2. African American Women and Eating Disturbances: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Shannon K.

    2003-01-01

    Data from 18 studies were reviewed to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and eating disturbances, focusing on the relationship between African American and white women. Although white women had more risk of eating disturbances, the effect size was small. White women had slightly more risk for all eating disturbances combined. African…

  3. African American Child-Women: Nutrition Theory Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpade, Medha

    2006-01-01

    Past research indicates a significantly higher prevalence of early sexual maturation in African American (AA) girls, which is associated with a number of psychological and behavioral problems as well as with health problems such as childhood obesity and diabetes. Both nutrition and body image perceptions have never before been empirically…

  4. Mathematics Achievement and African-American Students in Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethington, Corinna A.; Wilson, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    Designed to examine the effect of various factors on the mathematics achievement of African-American students attending urban schools, this study analyzed the importance of seven constructs that are believed to either directly or indirectly impact student success. Based on factors identified by research as essential to mathematics achievement, all…

  5. Wellness and Coping Activities of African American Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kathy M.

    1997-01-01

    Examined physical, emotional, cognitive, and spiritual wellness activities of African American mental health counselors and behaviors they used to cope with racism. Counselors used a wide variety of wellness strategies, although counselors in school settings were less likely to engage in occupational wellness activities. Confrontation was the most…

  6. African American College Students: Literacy of Depression and Help Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansbury, Kim L.; Wimsatt, Maureen; Simpson, Gaynell Marie; Martin, Fayetta; Nelson, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Depression is a serious public health concern in the United States affecting almost 18.8 million adults. It is a common mental disorder in college students, with estimates of 1 in 4 "experiencing an episode by age 24." African American college students are at an elevated risk for depression due to racism, stress, sleep deprivation, and lack of…

  7. Meetings with Elaine, an African and Native American Woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Melanie Merola

    2006-01-01

    The author, a Caucasian doctoral student of clinical psychology, examined her ongoing interaction with Elaine, an adult woman of African and Native American descent. Incidents of learning during the interaction process are reviewed and qualitative and quantitative assessments are provided to examine the effectiveness of such interactions in a…

  8. Strategies for Preventing Disproportionate Exclusions of African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Tary J.; Vincent, Claudia G.

    2011-01-01

    The authors studied changes in disproportionate exclusion of African American students, compared with their White peers, in relation to implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support using data from 46 schools. They measured (a) exclusion through suspension and expulsion data collected with the Schoolwide Information System; (b) Schoolwide…

  9. Substance Abuse in Rural African-American Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Marvin P.; Williams, Mary M.

    More research into illicit substance abuse in rural African-American communities is needed. The existing literature indicates that patterns of use for licit substances (alcohol and cigarettes) are either similar for rural Blacks and Whites or lower for Blacks. However, the negative health and social consequences of smoking and abusive drinking are…

  10. Young African American Boys Narrating Identities in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Justine M.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to bring the voices of African American boys front and center in science education research in an effort to strengthen our understandings of their experiences of school and science. Using an interpretivist perspective within a narrative inquiry approach, I focus on the student and science-student identities two African…

  11. Gender Role Orientation and Anxiety Symptoms among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palapattu, Anuradha G.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2006-01-01

    The present study evaluated gender role theory as an explanation for the observed gender differences in anxiety symptoms among adolescents. Specifically, the relation between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity), self-esteem, and anxiety symptoms was examined in a community sample of 114 African Americans aged 14 to…

  12. African American Male College Athletes' Narratives on Education and Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, John N.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents narrative case study vignettes of three elite African American male football athletes at a major historically White institution of higher education with a big-time athletics department. More specifically, I draw from critical race theory to garner insight into their secondary schooling background, what education means to them,…

  13. Reasons for African American Student Attrition from School Psychology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Sherrie L.; Truscott, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological study used a series of three in-depth interviews with seven African American participants, for a total of 21 interviews, to explore their experiences in the specialist and doctoral level school psychology programs they left prior to obtaining a professional entry-level degree. The study's purpose was to investigate what…

  14. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset among African American Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.

    2010-01-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship…

  15. Fostering Healthy Lifestyles in the African American Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murimi, Mary; Chrisman, Matthew S.; McAllister, Tiffany; McDonald, Olevia D.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 8.3% of the U.S. population (25.8 million people) is affected by type 2 diabetes. The burden of diabetes is disproportionately greater in the African American community. Compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian adults, the risk of diagnosed type 2 diabetes was 77% higher among non-Hispanic Blacks, who are 27% more likely to die of…

  16. Eating Disorders in African American Girls: Implications for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…

  17. Exploring the Sexuality of African American Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganá, Luciana; White, Theresa; Bruzzone, Daniel E.; Bruzzone, Cristine E.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To identify sexually-related themes of the sexuality of older African American women. Study Design Mixed method. Place and Duration of Study Department of Psychology, California State University Northridge, between July 2009 and June 2011. Methodology We included 13 African American older women (57 to 82 years of age), 11 of whom self-identified as heterosexual, one as bisexual, and one as lesbian. We used a semi-structured interview protocol through which we explored some aspects of the respondents’ sexuality (assessed at a superficial level, to be as tactful as possible). Moreover, we collected information on demographics and self-rated physical health. Two co-authors served as coders, and used content analysis to identify the most salient sexuality themes. Results Emerging themes were (in order from most to least endorsed): having sexual desire (often unfulfilled); engaging in less sexual activity in older age; experiencing changes in one’s sexual life as a function of absence of a spouse; and exercising control over how one’s sexual life is conducted. Motivated by the paucity of our sexuality data, we have also provided suggestions to scholars interested in conducting more in-depth further research on this topic with older African American women. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the common notion that older women are asexual is a myth, while lack of a suitable sexual partner is a problem reported by many African American older women who would otherwise enjoy sexual interaction. PMID:25632380

  18. Social Cognitive Predictors of Dietary Behavior among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Torrance T.; Resinicow, Ken; Latimer-Sport, Markita; Walker, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined the extent to which social cognitive theory is involved in dietary behavior changes among a sample of African Americans in Georgia. Purpose: We examined whether outcome expectations, barriers, and self-efficacy mediate changes in fruit and vegetable intake behavior. Methods: To accomplish this, we used change scores…

  19. African American Accounting Majors and the 150-hr Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Quinton; Hill, Cecil L.; Wright, Carl

    2010-01-01

    The study provides information on African American accounting majors' views regarding 150-hr issues. The authors collected data from 152 students at two schools. Students at one school supported the requirement while those at the other school did not. However, students believed that the 150-hr requirement enhances the quality of certified public…

  20. Knowledge and Attitudes about Colon Cancer Screening among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…

  1. Albert Sidney Beckham: The First African American School Psychologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Scott L., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Albert Sidney Beckham was the first African American to hold the title school psychologist. This article examines the life and professional career of Beckham in the context of his contributions to the field of school psychology. It explores his graduate education, the founding of Howard University's Psychological Laboratory and his research and…

  2. Positive Parenting among African American Mothers with a Serious Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyserman, Daphna; Bybee, Deborah; Mowbray, Carol T.; MacFarlane, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Using a sample of African American mothers (N=202) diagnosed with mental illness, the effects of poverty; maternal education; social support; maternal and social stress; current mental health; and psychiatric history were examined for effects on positive parenting. Strongest predictors of parenting attitudes were stress and current mental health.…

  3. "Brown," Political Economy, and the Scientific Education of African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, William F., IV

    2004-01-01

    The goals of this chapter are threefold. The first goal is to examine the scientific attainment of African Americans in the post-"Brown" era. The term scientific attainment is used here to describe more broadly mathematics and scientific achievement as measured in trend studies, academic coursework, and degrees. A second, related goal is to…

  4. NGOMA: Celebrate the Dream with African-American Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinson, Sabrina A.

    2008-01-01

    How can everyone celebrate the most powerful dream (Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s) in America's history, which paved the way for civil rights, equality, and social justice? How can everyone heighten students' awareness of these civil and social issues? An increased use of African-American literature is one effective way. In this article,…

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Household Change on African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Tracey E.; Rowley, Stephanie; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Vansadia, Preeti; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of household change on adolescent development. We study household composition change and its effect on development, as measured by both internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors, in a sample of urban African American adolescents. Household change was defined based on the movement in or out of the…

  6. African American Preschool Children's Physical Activity Levels in Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…

  7. Knowledge of young African American adults about heart disease: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Kathleen M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African Americans have higher rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality than other ethnic groups. Young adults are prime targets for intervention strategies to prevent and reduce disease risk. The study purpose was to determine the level of knowledge of lifestyle risk factors for CVD among young African American adults in Phoenix. The results will be used to guide the development of CVD outreach programs targeted to this population. The Health Belief Model was used as a conceptual framework. Methods A convenience sample of 172 African American men and women aged 18-26 years completed a questionnaire adapted from the American Heart Association national surveys. Descriptive statistics were compared by age, gender, education level, and health status variables including BMI, smoking status, and physical activity. Results Some aspects of heart-disease were well known among young adult African Americans. Knowledge of certain other important risk factors (menopause and preventive behaviors (eating fewer animal products, however, was more variable and inconsistent among the respondents. Differences in knowledge of individual variables was greater by education level than by gender overall. Predictors of a summary CVD knowledge score included higher education, female gender, and high self-efficacy (adjusted R2 = 0.158, p 2 = 0.064, p Conclusions Evaluation of baseline knowledge of CVD is essential before designing and implementing health promotion programs. Existing strengths and weaknesses in knowledge can guide tailoring of programs to be more effective. Further research would help to identify the range of other characteristics that determine knowledge and risk perception.

  8. Stimulant use among African American and Latino MSM social networking users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sean D; Shoptaw, Steve

    2013-01-01

    High stimulant-using and at-risk HIV populations, such as African American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), are increasingly using social networking technologies. However, no known research has explored associations between stimulant use, sexual risk behaviors, and social networking among these populations. Participants were recruited using the Facebook Connect software application, which narrowed the sample to 118 (primarily African American and Latino MSM) active Facebook users. Participants completed demographic, Internet and social media use, and drug use survey items. Participants reported high rates of cocaine and methamphetamine use (both more than 15% within the past 12 months). More than 70% of participants reported using social networking technologies to meet people, and more than 30% used them to find sexual partners. A multivariate logistic regression showed that (1) participants using social networks to find sexual partners were more likely to have used methamphetamines within the past 12 months and (2) those who were more comfortable talking online compared to face-to-face had over 4 times the odds of methamphetamine use and over 6 times the odds of cocaine use within the past 12 months. Minority MSM who used social networks to meet men and find sexual partners had high risk for stimulant use. Understanding drug use among minority social networking users will provide insights to incorporate these technologies into drug prevention interventions.

  9. Relationship of Pain and Ancestry in African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, John A.; Qi, Lihong; Garcia, Lorena; Younger, Jarred W.; Seldin, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Background African Americans are reported to be more sensitive to pain than European Americans. Pain sensitivity has been shown to be genetically linked in animal models and is likely to be in humans. Methods 11,239 self-identified African American post menopausal women enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative had percentage African ancestry determined by ancestry informative markers, “Pain Construct” measurements and covariate information. They answered 5 questions about specific types and location of pain, such as joint, neck, low back, headache, and urinary. They also answered 2 questions which were used to derive a “Pain Construct”, a measure of general pain scored on a scale of 1 to 100. Associations were tested in linear regression models adjusting for age, self-reported medical conditions, neighborhood socio-economic status, education, and depression. Results In the unadjusted model of the 5 specific types of pain measures, greater pain perception was associated with a higher proportion of African ancestry. However, some of the specific types of pain measures were no longer associated with African ancestry after adjustment for other study covariates. The Pain Construct was statistically significantly associated with African ancestry in both the unadjusted [Beta = −0.132, 95% confidence interval (C I) = −099 – −0.164; r = −0.075, 95% CI −0.056 – −0.093] and the adjusted models (Beta = −0.069 95% CI = −0.04 – 0.10). Conclusions Greater African ancestry was associated with higher levels of self-reported pain although this accounted for only a minor fraction of the overall variation in the Pain Construct. PMID:25752262

  10. Kill Them Before They Grow. Misdiagnosis of African American Boys in American Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael

    This book contends that the American public education system has made "black male" synonymous with "disabled" through the creation of the labels "Behavior Disorders" and "Emotional Disorders." These labels, which say that African American boys cannot behave without special treatment, juvenile probation, and,…

  11. African American and European American Students' Peer Groups during Early Adolescence: Structure, Status, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Travis; Karimpour, Ramin; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on a sample of 382 African American (206 female) and 264 European American (132 female) students in diverse fourth and fifth grade classrooms, this study investigated three questions concerning the connections between peer groups and academic achievement during early adolescence: (a) How is group structure (i.e., hierarchy and cohesion)…

  12. Predictors of African American and European American Adolescents' Endorsement of Race-Conscious Social Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Julie Milligan; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2011-01-01

    To examine the predictors of adolescents' evaluations of affirmative action and school desegregation policies, African American and European American students (ns = 94 and 116, respectively; aged 14 to 17 years) attending a racially diverse high school in the Midwestern United States completed measures of (a) implicit racial attitudes, (b)…

  13. Consequences of Learning about Historical Racism among European American and African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Julie M.; Bigler, Rebecca S.; Levy, Sheri R.

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge about racism is a critical component of educational curricula and contemporary race relations. To examine children's responses to learning about racism, European American (Study 1; N = 48) and African American (Study 2; N = 69) elementary-aged children (ages 6-11) received history lessons that included information about racism…

  14. Factors that Influence Career Choice among Native American and African American High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett-Smith, Keisha K.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for research in the area of career choice of minority students in the United States. This descriptive study examined the factors that may influence Native American and African American high school students' career choices. These factors include such variables as parental educational level, family composition, and potential grade…

  15. African American and European American College Students' Expectations for Self and for Future Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines self-expectations, expectations for future partners, and comparative expectations (self versus partner) held by college students. African Americans had higher self-expectations regarding future income, professional success, and educational achievement than European Americans. No differences emerged in expectations for future partners'…

  16. Parenting and Perceived Maternal Warmth in European American and African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Buchanan, Christy M.; McDonald, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional conceptualizations of parenting style assume certain associations between parenting practices/philosophies and parental warmth. This study examines whether those links are similar for European American and African American adolescents. Two hundred and ninety-eight early adolescents and their mothers reported on discipline and control…

  17. Successful African American women in science: A narrative inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Cailisha L.

    This study used narrative inquiry as a methodology to explore the lived experiences of five African American women in science across the academic spectrum, from doctoral candidate to full professor. The research questions guiding the inquiry included one overarching question and three sub-questions: What are the lifestories of successful African American women in science?; a) How do successful African American women in science define themselves?; b) What have been the facilitators and barriers encountered by successful African American women in science?; and c) What have been the systems of support for African American women in science? The study was theoretically positioned within the frameworks of Critical Race Theory and Black Feminist Thought. The two theories were used to guide all aspects of the study including methodology, data collection, and analysis. Data included eleven 40-60 minute semi-structured interview transcripts as well as the participants' Curriculum Vitae. The study design and data analysis were built upon Clandinin and Connelly's (2000) and Clandinin's (2006) model of narrative inquiry which explores narratives as a means to understand experience. Analysis and interpretation created three dominant narratives: Scientific Beginnings, An Unexpected Journey, and Lift as You Climb. Each narrative set explores multiple stories that describe storylines which aligned with the participants' goals of who they were and who they were becoming as scientists; and, storylines of tension which ran counter to the women's goals and aspirations. Barriers and support systems are revealed, as well as the meanings the participants made of their experiences and how it affected their lives.

  18. Multiple loci associated with renal function in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Shriner

    Full Text Available The incidence of chronic kidney disease varies by ethnic group in the USA, with African Americans displaying a two-fold higher rate than European Americans. One of the two defining variables underlying staging of chronic kidney disease is the glomerular filtration rate. Meta-analysis in individuals of European ancestry has identified 23 genetic loci associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. We conducted a follow-up study of these 23 genetic loci using a population-based sample of 1,018 unrelated admixed African Americans. We included in our follow-up study two variants in APOL1 associated with end-stage kidney disease discovered by admixture mapping in admixed African Americans. To address confounding due to admixture, we estimated local ancestry at each marker and global ancestry. We performed regression analysis stratified by local ancestry and combined the resulting regression estimates across ancestry strata using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effects model. We found that 11 of the 24 loci were significantly associated with eGFR in our sample. The effect size estimates were not significantly different between the subgroups of individuals with two copies of African ancestry vs. two copies of European ancestry for any of the 11 loci. In contrast, allele frequencies were significantly different at 10 of the 11 loci. Collectively, the 11 loci, including four secondary signals revealed by conditional analyses, explained 14.2% of the phenotypic variance in eGFR, in contrast to the 1.4% explained by the 24 loci in individuals of European ancestry. Our findings provide insight into the genetic basis of variation in renal function among admixed African Americans.

  19. Subjective Well-being of Older African Americans with DSM IV Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Tina L; Chatters, Linda M; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Nguyen, Ann W

    2014-10-01

    This study examined demographic and mental health correlates of subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, happiness) using a national sample of older African Americans with psychiatric disorders. We used a subsample of 185 African Americans, 55 and older with at least one of thirteen lifetime psychiatric disorders from The National Survey of American Life: Coping with Stress in the 21st Century (NSAL). The findings indicated that among this population of older adults who had a lifetime psychiatric disorder, having a lifetime suicidal ideation was associated with life satisfaction but not happiness. Further, having a 12-month anxiety disorder or a lifetime suicidal ideation was not associated with happiness. Having a 12-month mood disorder, however, was negatively associated with an individual's level of happiness, as well as their life satisfaction. Additionally, there were two significant interactions. Among men, employment was positively associated with life satisfaction, and marriage was associated with higher levels of happiness among men but not women. The overall pattern of findings reflects both similarities and departures from prior research confirming that well-being evaluations are associated with multiple factors.

  20. African-Americans and Clinical Trials Research: Recommendations for Client Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon E. Moore

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available African-Americans have, without their knowledge and consent, been used as human guinea pigs in scientific and medical experiments by private and governmental organizations. As a result many African-Americans approach the health care industry with caution and apprehension. African-Americans are admonished to remember the atrocities they once experienced and to approach participation in clinical studies with skepticism. This paper presents an historical overview of conspiracy theories, discusses various health issues that affect African-Americans, identifies for whom participation in clinical trials could prove beneficial, and recommends methods that can be used to attract African-American clients as active participants in clinical studies.

  1. Race consciousness and the health of African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Rosalyn J

    2003-01-01

    The historical experience of African Americans in our country has been shaped by the institution of slavery, dehumanization of blacks, segregation, pursuit of civil rights, and racism in contemporary American society. Disparities in health care provide compelling evidence that issues of race or skin color for the descendants of slaves and other ethnic minorities persist in the 21st century. Nurses providing care for African Americans must bridge the racial divide and incorporate culturally relevant content in the health history. As an integral aspect of their professional growth as culturally competent health care providers, they must incorporate the idea of "race consciousness" which is described as an awareness of the historical journey of the group, knowledge of disparities in health care for the people, and a self appraisal of one's attitudes and biases toward the group.

  2. Religious Participation is Associated with Increases in Religious Social Support in a National Longitudinal Study of African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Daisy; Holt, Cheryl L; Hosack, Dominic P; Huang, Jin; Clark, Eddie M

    2016-08-01

    This study reports on the association between religious beliefs and behaviors and the change in both general and religious social support using two waves of data from a national sample of African Americans. The Religion and Health in African Americans (RHIAA) study is a longitudinal telephone survey designed to examine relationships between various aspects of religious involvement and psychosocial factors over time. RHIAA participants were 3173 African American men (1281) and women (1892). A total of 1251 men (456) and women (795) participated in wave 2 of data collection. Baseline religious behaviors were associated with increased overall religious social support from baseline to wave 2 (p social support from baseline to wave 2 in each of the following religious social support subscales: emotional support received (p negative interaction (p social support. African Americans who are active in faith communities showed increases in all types of religious social support, even the negative aspects, over a relatively modest longitudinal study period. This illustrates the strength of the church as a social network and the role that it plays in people's lives.

  3. African American fathers’ perspectives on their children’s health education: A qualitative, exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary eOdum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate African American fathers’ perceptions regarding the applicability and need for their involvement as a health connection for their children and describe how participating fathers’ behavior was affected by their attitudes, knowledge, and perceptions of their influence on their children’s health.Methods: This exploratory study gathered data via semi-structured focus groups (n=3 and thematically analyzed it utilizing a grounded theory approach. Participants included African American fathers (n=20 with a mean age of 37 years (SD 11.79, with at least one child between 6-18 years old.Results: Four major themes were revealed: (1 appropriate health education for participants’ children (should first and foremost be delivered by parents; (2 participants’ paternal health-related guidance approach (reactive, rather than proactive; (3 participants’ perceived influences on health-related communication with their children (gender roles, efficacy constraints; and (4 paternal definitions of health (most often associated with diet.Conclusion: Understanding African American fathers’ perceived and desired role in their children’s health edification can inform initiatives that actively engage these men, and nurture their level of involvement, to promote positive health behaviors among their children; this is necessary to realize their potential to actively improve the health of their children, families, and communities.

  4. Prevalence of sexual violence and posttraumatic stress disorder in an urban African-American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kate; Koenen, Karestan C; Aiello, Allison E; Uddin, Monica; Galea, Sandro

    2014-12-01

    Sexual violence is prevalent nationally and contributes to psychopathology in the general population. Despite elevated traumatic event exposure among economically disadvantaged urban-dwelling African-Americans, there is insufficient information on lifetime sexual violence exposure and associated psychopathology in this population. In 2008-2009, 1,306 African-Americans from a Detroit household probability sample reported on lifetime rape and sexual assault and past-month and lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Lifetime sexual violence prevalence was 26.3 % for women and 5.1 % for men. Relative to non-victims, sexual violence victims: reported more other traumatic events; had 4 times greater unadjusted odds of past-month and lifetime PTSD; had 1.6 times greater adjusted odds of lifetime PTSD only after controlling for other traumatic events. Sexual violence was associated with increased risk for lifetime PTSD and exposure to other traumas. Findings highlight a need to screen for sexual violence and PTSD among urban African-Americans.

  5. African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gandy, M.D., a cardiologist and chief medical marketing officer with the Piedmont Heart Institute in Atlanta and a volunteer with the American Heart Association. High blood pressure , obesity and diabetes are the ...

  6. Physical Activities and Sedentary Pursuits in African American and Caucasian Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.; Felton, Gwen M.; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Trost, Stewart G.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure…

  7. Attrition biases in a study of Euro-American and African-American marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oggins, Jean

    2004-06-01

    Based on survey data from 174 Euro-American and 199 African-American newlywed couples, this study analyzed attrition biases by comparing first-year responses of couples who stayed in the study into its third year (133 Euro-American and 115 African-American couples) with responses from the initial sample. Stayers--who were more likely than leavers to be better educated, wealthier, and Euro-American--tended to report happier, more affirming, more communicative marriages. For stayers, compared to a random subsample of the original sample, first-year marital happiness also correlated significantly less strongly with first-year reports of receiving affirmation from a spouse, having an unsupportive spouse, and engaging in marital conflict. Further, race differences in predictors of happiness for the initial sample were not evident among stayers, perhaps due to smaller variances in reported marital happiness and frequency of conflict for African-American stayers compared to African Americans in the original sample. Methodological implications for cross-cultural longitudinal studies are discussed.

  8. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and inherited risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Catherine C.; Rassenti, Laura Z.; Falchi, Lorenzo; Slager, Susan L.; Strom, Sara S.; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Weinberg, J. Brice; Kipps, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is significantly lower in African Americans than whites, but overall survival is inferior. The biologic basis for these observations remains unexplored. We hypothesized that germline genetic predispositions differ between African Americans and whites with CLL and yield inferior clinical outcomes among African Americans. We examined a discovery cohort of 42 African American CLL patients ascertained at Duke University and found that the risk allele frequency of most single nucleotide polymorphisms known to confer risk of development for CLL is significantly lower among African Americans than whites. We then confirmed our results in a distinct cohort of 68 African American patients ascertained by the CLL Research Consortium. These results provide the first evidence supporting differential genetic risk for CLL between African Americans compared with whites. A fuller understanding of differential genetic risk may improve prognostication and therapeutic decision making for all CLL patients. PMID:22745306

  9. Cross-cultural Differences in Preferred Forms of Address: Implications for Work with African American Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wanda Lott Collins; Moore, Sharon E.

    2004-01-01

    Using an individual’s last name indicates respect and contributes to positive interaction with African American clients and adults of African descent. This paper discusses the importance of using social titles as a proper form of address during, and sometimes after, the initial professional relationship. Two case vignettes will highlight potential difficulties that non-African American practitioners may experience when using first names with African Americans within the profess...

  10. Exploring the Relationships between Racial/Cultural Identity and Ego Identity among African Americans and Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miville, Marie L.; Koonce, Danel; Darlington, Pat; Whitlock, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Relationships between collective identity and ego identity were examined among 229 African American and Mexican American university students. Participants completed scales measuring racial or cultural identity and ego identity. Regression analyses indicated that ego identity was significantly related to racial identity for African Americans and…

  11. Overview of substance use disorders and incarceration of African American males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata K Mukku

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Incarceration affects the lives of many African American men and often leads to poverty, ill health, violence, and a decreased quality of life. There has been an unprecedented increase in incarceration among African American males since 1970. In 2009, the incarceration rate among black males was 6.7 times that of white males and 2.6 times of Hispanic males. Substance abuse in African American males leads to higher mortality rates, high rates of alcohol-related problems, more likely to be victims of crimes and HIV/AIDS. African Americans comprised only 14% of the US population but comprised 38% of the jail population. The cost of incarcerating persons involved in substance related crimes has increased considerably over the past two decades in the United States. A reduction in the incarceration rate for non-violent offences would save an estimated $17 billion per year. Substance use disorder makes the individual more prone to polysubstance use and leads to impulse control problems, selling drugs and other crimes. The high rate of incarceration in U.S. may adversely affect health care, the economy of the country and will become a burden on society. Implementation of good mental health care, treatment of addiction during and after incarceration will help to decrease the chances of reoffending. Therapeutic community programs with prison-based and specialized treatment facilities, cognitive behavioral therapy treatment for 91–180 days, and 12-step orientation with staff specialized in substance abuse can be helpful. It is essential for health care professionals to increase public awareness of substance abuse and find ways to decrease the high rates of incarceration.

  12. The utility of cancer-related cultural constructs to understand colorectal cancer screening among African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetta L. Sanders Thompson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Data suggest that colorectal cancer could be cut by approximately 60% if all people aged 50 years or older received regular screening. Studies have identified socio-cultural attitudes that might inform cancer education and screening promotion campaigns. This article applies item response theory (IRT to a set of survey items selected to assess sociocultural attitudes in order to determine how current measures may affect what we know about how these attitudes affect colorectal cancer screening (CRCS.Design and Methods. A survey of colorectal cancer screening, screening attitudes and cultural beliefs was administered to 1021 African Americans – 683 women and 338 men, ages 50 to 75. Eligibility crite ria for participation included being born in the United States, self-identified African American male or female, age 50 to 75 years. The IRT analysis was performed on 655 individuals with complete data for the 43 observed variables. Results. Twenty-nine items comprise the Multi-construct African American Cultural Survey (MAACS that addresses seven cultural con- structs: mistrust/distrust, privacy, ethnic identity, collectivism, empowerment, and male gender roles. The items provide adequate information about the attitudes of the population across most levels of the constructs assessed. Among the sociocultural variables considered, empowerment (OR=1.078; 95% CI: 1.008, 1.151 had the strongest association with CRCS adherence and privacy showed promise. Conclusions. The MAACS provides a fixed length questionnaire to assess African American CRCS attitudes, two new constructs that might assist in CRCS promotion, and a suggested focus for identification of additional constructs of interest.

  13. Overview of substance use disorders and incarceration of african american males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukku, Venkata K; Benson, Timothy G; Alam, Farzana; Richie, William D; Bailey, Rahn K

    2012-01-01

    Incarceration affects the lives of many African American men and often leads to poverty, ill health, violence, and a decreased quality of life. There has been an unprecedented increase in incarceration among African American males since 1970. In 2009, the incarceration rate among black males was 6.7 times that of white males and 2.6 times of Hispanic males. Substance abuse in African American males leads to higher mortality rates, high rates of alcohol-related problems, more likely to be victims of crimes, and HIV/AIDS. African Americans comprised only 14% of the U.S. population but comprised 38% of the jail population. The cost of incarcerating persons involved in substance related crimes has increased considerably over the past two decades in the U.S. A reduction in the incarceration rate for non-violent offences would save an estimated $17 billion per year. Substance use disorder makes the individual more prone to polysubstance use and leads to impulse control problems, selling drugs, and other crimes. The high rate of incarceration in U.S. may adversely affect health care, the economy of the country, and will become a burden on society. Implementation of good mental health care, treatment of addiction during and after incarceration will help to decrease the chances of reoffending. Therapeutic community programs with prison-based and specialized treatment facilities, cognitive behavioral therapy treatment for 91-180 days, and 12-step orientation with staff specialized in substance abuse can be helpful. It is essential for health care professionals to increase public awareness of substance abuse and find ways to decrease the high rates of incarceration.

  14. Access to health care and religion among young American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillum, R Frank; Jarrett, Nicole; Obisesan, Thomas O

    2009-12-01

    In order to elucidate cultural correlates of utilization of primary health services by young adult men, we investigated religion in which one was raised and service utilization. Using data from a national survey we tested the hypothesis that religion raised predicts access to and utilization of a regular medical care provider, examinations, HIV and other STD testing and counseling at ages 18-44 years in men born between 1958 and 1984. We also hypothesized that religion raised would be more predictive of utilization for Hispanic Americans and non-Hispanic Black Americans than for non-Hispanic White Americans. The study included a national sample of 4276 men aged 18-44 years. Descriptive and multivariate statistics were used to assess the hypotheses using data on religion raised and responses to 14 items assessing health care access and utilization. Compared to those raised in no religion, those raised mainline Protestant were more likely (p Religion raised was not associated with testicular exams, STD counseling or HIV testing. In multivariate analyses controlling for confounders, significant associations of religion raised with insurance coverage, a physician as usual source of care and physical examination remained which varied by race/ethnicity. In conclusion, although religion is a core aspect of culture that deserves further study as a possible determinant of health care utilization, we were not able to document any consistent pattern of significant association even in a population with high rates of religious participation.

  15. Significant differences in fecal microbiota are associated with various stages of glucose tolerance in African American male veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Ciubotaru, Irina; Stefan J Green; KUKREJA, SUBHASH; Barengolts, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The importance of gut microbiota in pathogenesis of diabetes remains unknown. This study investigated the relationship between microbiota and metabolic markers in African American men (AAM) with prediabetes and hypovitaminosis D. The study was ancillary to a randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation with weekly ergocalciferol (50,000 IU) conducted in AAM veterans over 12 months (D Intervention in Veterans Affairs). Glycemic groups (Gr) were characterized based on changes in oral glucose t...

  16. Pragmatic Features in Original Narratives Written by African American Students at Three Grade Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, Jessica M.; Anderson, Michele A.; Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Nelson, Nickola W.

    2015-01-01

    African American English has a rich oral tradition, with identifiable features across all 5 systems of language--phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. This is an investigation of the extent to which pragmatic features of African American oral storytelling traditions are apparent in the written stories of African American…

  17. Untapped Talent and Unlimited Potential: African American Students and the Science Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Melody L.

    2005-01-01

    Historically, lack of access to educational opportunities has been a constant and unfortunate reality for many African Americans. As a result of tracking and ability grouping many African American students lack the necessary accoutrement for persistence in the sciences. Some critical factors for the persistence and success of African American…

  18. African-American Literature and "Post-Racial" America. Or, You Know, Not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Jacqueline A.

    2011-01-01

    In 1983, when the author began graduate school at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville as the only black student in the Graduate English School, it offered no graduate-level African-American Literature course. Today an undergraduate student at the University of Virginia can major in African-American and African Studies and take courses…

  19. The business of preventing African-American infant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates-Williams, J; Jackson, M N; Jenkins-Monroe, V; Williams, L R

    1992-09-01

    African-American women are twice as likely as women from other ethnic groups to have babies with low birth weights and to experience the loss of infant death. The problem is so endemic in black communities in Alameda County, California, that numerous programs have been developed over the past decade to reduce maternal risk factors and eliminate barriers to prenatal care. Despite these efforts, African-American ethnicity continues to be a major risk factor for infant mortality for reasons that are poorly understood. We take a critical look at 3 types of studies characteristic of infant mortality research: epidemiologic, studies that advocate prenatal care, and ethnomedical (cultural). We argue that the assumptions informing this research restrict the thinking about infant mortality and the political issues involved in how prevention programs are developed and structured. The persistent focus on maternal behavioral characteristics limits more in-depth analysis of the micropolitics of perinatal bureaucracies established in response to this ongoing crisis.

  20. Competing Claims: Religious Affiliation and African Americans' Intolerance of Homosexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledet, Richard

    2016-09-15

    Literature on religion and political intolerance indicates competing expectations about how Black Protestant church affiliation affects African Americans' attitudes about civil liberties. On the one hand, Black Protestant theology emphasizes personal freedom and social justice, factors generally linked to more tolerant attitudes. On the other hand, Black Protestants tend to be conservative on family and social issues, factors often linked to intolerance of gays and lesbians. Data from the General Social Survey are used to examine the influence of religious group identification, as well as other relevant aspects of religiosity, on political intolerance among African Americans. Results indicate that although other aspects of religion (beliefs and behaviors) help explain variation in political intolerance, Black Protestant church affiliation has no relationship with attitudes about the civil liberties of homosexuals. However, additional tests show that Black Protestant church affiliation significantly predicts intolerance of other target groups (atheists and racists).

  1. Digital expression among urban, low-income African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christina M; Staiano, Amanda E; Calvert, Sandra L

    2011-01-01

    Digital production is a means through which African American adolescents communicate and express their experiences with peers. This study examined the content and the form of the digital productions of 24 urban, low-income African American adolescents who attended a summer academic program. The content of student digital productions focused on academic experiences and friendships. Their production styles revealed that youth used perceptually salient production features, such as rapid scene changes and loud rap music. The results suggest that when placed in a supportive, academic environment and provided with digital production resources, students who traditionally face barriers due to cultural and economic inequalities digitally express to their peers an interest in academics and positive peer relationships, and that these youth communicate their experiences through a shared production style that reflects their broader cultural experiences.

  2. Physicians' cultural competency as perceived by African American patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulou, Georgia; Falzarano, Pamela; Arfken, Cynthia; Rosenberg, David

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the association between African American patients' perceptions of physician cultural competency and patient satisfaction with the visit, independent of other factors, including physician and patient race concordance. African American participants were surveyed at urban clinics. Cultural competency (Perceived Cultural Competency scale) was based on the 3-factor model that includes patients' perception of (1) physicians' cultural knowledge, (2) physicians' cultural awareness, and (3) physicians' cultural skill. The results confirmed that patients' perceptions of physician cultural competency are independently associated with satisfaction with the visit. These results further validate use of the Perceived Cultural Competency scale as a tool to measure patients' perceptions of physicians' cultural competency.

  3. Home Literacy Environment of African American Head Start Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janese Daniels

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have documented culturally specific family literacy practices in which low-income families engage, which are often a function of the context in which the family is currently embedded.  These practices are well documented in ethnographic literature. Although this evidence exists, its utility is limited due to small sample sizes and lack of quantitative documentation on their contribution to children’s language and literacy development.  This study attempted to quantify those culturally specific family literacy practices.  51 low-income African-American mother-child dyads participated.  The contribution of multiple literacy practices was examined in relation to child language and literacy outcomes.  Most low-income African-American families engaged in multiple literacy practices.  Recommended areas for future research directions are discussed.

  4. Home Literacy Environment of African American Head Start Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janese Daniels

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Researchers have documented culturally specific family literacy practices in which low-income families engage, which are often a function of the context in which the family is currently embedded.  These practices are well documented in ethnographic literature. Although this evidence exists, its utility is limited due to small sample sizes and lack of quantitative documentation on their contribution to children’s language and literacy development.  This study attempted to quantify those culturally specific family literacy practices.  51 low-income African-American mother-child dyads participated.  The contribution of multiple literacy practices was examined in relation to child language and literacy outcomes.  Most low-income African-American families engaged in multiple literacy practices.  Recommended areas for future research directions are discussed.

  5. Reading, Interpreting, and Teaching African American History: Examining How African American History Influences the Curricular and Pedagogical Decisions of Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, LaGarrett Jarriel

    2012-01-01

    African American history and how it is taught in classroom spaces have been a point of contention with activists, historians, and educators for decades. In it current form, African American history narratives often are ambiguous and truncated, leaving students with a disjointed construction about U.S. history. Additionally, the pedagogical…

  6. Parental depression, family functioning and obesity among African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melvin; Young, LaShun; Davis, Sheila P; Moll, George

    2008-01-01

    Obesity has reached an epidemic level in America (National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] 1999), and this epidemic is more acute for African Americans than for other groups of Americans. In this study, 44 parent-child dyads completed measurements of height, depression, and body fat composition. In addition, parents completed a demographic questionnaire, and instruments, which measured family functioning, parental psychopathology, child behavior, and cardiovascular risks. Several models emerged for predicting childhood and parental body mass index, parental depression, and child behavioral problems. Findings indicated a role for parental depression in childhood obesity. These findings are discussed in light of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory, and the family's role in childhood obesity.

  7. Racism at the intersections: Gender and socioeconomic differences in the experience of racism among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Goodman, Melody S

    2015-09-01

    Several studies investigating the health effects of racism have reported gender and socioeconomic differences in exposures to racism, with women typically reporting lower frequencies, and individuals with greater resources reporting higher frequencies. This study used diverse measures of socioeconomic position and multiple measures and methods to assess experienced racism. Socioeconomic position included education and financial and employment status. Quantitative racism measures assessed individual experiences with day-to-day and with major lifetime incidents and perceptions of the extent to which African Americans as a group experience racism. A brief qualitative question asked respondents to describe a racist incident that stood out in recent memory. Participants comprised a probability sample of N = 144 African American adults aged 19 to 87 residing in New York City. Results suggested that women reported fewer lifetime incidents but did not differ from men on everyday racism. These differences appear to be partly because of scale content. Socioeconomic position as measured by years of education was positively associated with reported racism in the total sample but differently patterned across gender; subjective social status showed a negative association. Qualitative responses describing memorable incidents fell into 5 key categories: resources/opportunity structures, criminal profiling, racial aggression/assault, interpersonal incivilities, and stereotyping. In these narratives, men were more likely to offer accounts involving criminal profiling, and women encountered incivilities more often. The findings highlight the need for closer attention to the intersection of gender and socioeconomic factors in investigations of the health effects of racism.

  8. Mentorship: Strategically Leveling the Playing Field for African American Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-10

    voice2001/010608/survey.htm (accessed December 18, 2008). 2 Molefi Kete Asante, 100 Greatest African Americans (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2002), 41-43. 3...Clinician-Scientist,” Clinical and Investigative Medicine 21, no. 6 (December 1998): 279-282, http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/201/300/cdn_medical_association/ cim/vol-21/issue-6/0279.htm (accessed December 29, 2008).

  9. The Underrepresentation of African Americans in Army Combat Arms Branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    Henry Barnard, Military Schools and Courses of Instruction in the Science and Art of War, in France, Prussia, Austria, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland ...problem exists, it hides that fact that African Americans are underrepresented in the flag officer ranks. Unfortunately, this issue requires significant...Prussia, Austria, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland , Sardinia, England, and the United States. Rev. Ed. New York: Greenwood Press, 1969. Berger, Peter L

  10. Promoting Physical Activity Among Overweight Young African American Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools.  Created: 1/15/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  11. Lactose intolerance and health disparities among African Americans and Hispanic Americans: an updated consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rahn K; Fileti, Cecelia Pozo; Keith, Jeanette; Tropez-Sims, Susanne; Price, Winston; Allison-Ottey, Sharon Denise

    2013-01-01

    Dairy foods contribute nine essential nutrients to the diet including calcium, potassium and vitamin D; nutrients identified by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans as being "of public health concern" within the U.S. population. Milk and milk product intake is associated with better diet quality and has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases or conditions including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and osteoporosis. Some research also indicates dairy food intake may be linked to reduced body fat, when accompanied by energy-restriction. On average, both African Americans and Hispanic Americans consume less than the recommended levels of dairy foods, and perceived or actual lactose intolerance can be a primary reason for limiting or avoiding dairy intake. True lactose intolerance prevalence is not known because healthcare providers do not routinely measure for it, and no standardized assessment method exists. Avoiding dairy may lead to shortfalls of essential nutrients and increased susceptibility to chronic disease. This updated Consensus Statement aims to provide the most current information about lactose intolerance and health, with specific relevance to the African American and Hispanic American communities. Topics covered include diagnostic considerations, actual and recommended dairy food intake and levels of consumption of key dairy nutrients among African Americans and Hispanic Americans; prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance among various racial/ethnic groups; the association between dairy food intake, lactose intolerance and chronic disease; and research-based management recommendations for those with lactose intolerance.

  12. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset Among African American Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E

    2010-05-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship between child maltreatment (i.e., neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other/mixed abuse) and the likelihood of a delinquency petition using a sample of African American males (N = 2,335) born before 1990. Multivariable logistic regression models compared those with a delinquency-based juvenile justice petition to those without. Results indicate that African American males with a history of neglect, physical abuse, or other/mixed abuse were more likely to be involved in the juvenile justice system than those without any child maltreatment. Additionally, multiple maltreatment reports, a prior history of mental health treatment, victimization, and having a parent who did not complete high school also increased the likelihood of a delinquency petition. Implications for intervention and prevention are discussed.

  13. Epigenetic Markers of Renal Function in African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha M. Bomotti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is an increasing concern in the United States due to its rapidly rising prevalence, particularly among African Americans. Epigenetic DNA methylation markers are becoming important biomarkers of chronic diseases such as CKD. To better understand how these methylation markers play a role in kidney function, we measured 26,428 DNA methylation sites in 972 African Americans from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA study. We then evaluated (1 whether epigenetic markers are associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, (2 whether the significantly associated markers are also associated with traditional risk factors and/or novel biomarkers for eGFR, and (3 how much additional variation in eGFR is explained by epigenetic markers beyond established risk factors and biomarkers. The majority of methylation markers most significantly associated with eGFR (24 out of the top 30 appeared to function, at least in part, through pathways related to aging, inflammation, or cholesterol. However, six epigenetic markers were still able to significantly predict eGFR after adjustment for other risk factors. This work shows that epigenetic markers may offer valuable new insight into the complex pathophysiology of CKD in African Americans.

  14. Mild test anxiety influences neurocognitive performance among African Americans and European Americans: identifying interfering and facilitating sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thames, April D; Panos, Stella E; Arentoft, Alyssa; Byrd, Desiree A; Hinkin, Charles H; Arbid, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined ethnic/racial differences in test-related anxiety and its relationship to neurocognitive performance in a community sample of African American (n = 40) and European American (n = 36) adults. The authors hypothesized the following: (a) Test-anxiety related to negative performance evaluation would be associated with lower neurocognitive performance, whereas anxiety unrelated to negative evaluation would be associated with higher neurocognitive performance. (b) African American participants would report higher levels of anxiety about negative performance evaluation than European Americans. (c) European Americans would report higher levels of anxiety unrelated to negative performance evaluation. The first two hypotheses were supported: Ethnic/racial differences in test-taking anxiety emerged such that African Americans reported significantly higher levels of negative performance evaluation, which was associated with lower cognitive performance. The third hypothesis was not supported: African Americans and European Americans reported similar levels of test-anxiety unrelated to negative evaluation.

  15. Association between Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Ancestry and Aggressive Prostate Cancer among African Americans and European Americans in PCaP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan E Steck

    Full Text Available African Americans (AAs have lower circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OHD3] concentrations and higher prostate cancer (CaP aggressiveness than other racial/ethnic groups. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between plasma 25(OHD3, African ancestry and CaP aggressiveness among AAs and European Americans (EAs.Plasma 25(OHD3 was measured using LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry in 537 AA and 663 EA newly-diagnosed CaP patients from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP classified as having either 'high' or 'low' aggressive disease based on clinical stage, Gleason grade and prostate specific antigen at diagnosis. Mean plasma 25(OHD3 concentrations were compared by proportion of African ancestry. Logistic regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI for high aggressive CaP by tertile of plasma 25(OHD3.AAs with highest percent African ancestry (>95% had the lowest mean plasma 25(OHD3 concentrations. Overall, plasma 25(OHD3 was associated positively with aggressiveness among AA men, an association that was modified by calcium intake (ORT 3vs.T1: 2.23, 95%CI: 1.26-3.95 among men with low calcium intake, and ORT 3vs.T1: 0.19, 95%CI: 0.05-0.70 among men with high calcium intake. Among EAs, the point estimates of the ORs were <1.0 for the upper tertiles with CIs that included the null.Among AAs, plasma 25(OHD3 was associated positively with CaP aggressiveness among men with low calcium intake and inversely among men with high calcium intake. The clinical significance of circulating concentrations of 25(OHD3 and interactions with calcium intake in the AA population warrants further study.

  16. Listening to their voices: Exploring mathematics-science identity development of African American males in an urban school community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kimi Leemar

    National data continues to show an underrepresentation of African American males pursuing science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) majors, careers and professions in the United States. Whites and Asian Americans are continuously positioned as the face of STEM education and participation. And while research has provided ways to support mathematics and science learning for African American males, there still remains a gap in understanding how their formed mathematics-science identities in K-12 public schooling influences STEM participation. The research undertaken in this study explores this gap, and uses an integrative identity framework to understand mathematics-science identity development which goes beyond personal identity, and explores the relational, collective and material components of identity. Specifically, this research seeks to answer the following research questions: What are the shared lived experiences that exist between a group of African American male students developing a mathematics-science identity, and how these shared lived experiences shape their mathematics-science identity development? Therefore, by analyzing African American males lived experiences employing an integrative identity framework fosters a greater understanding of how mathematics-science identity is formed in K-12 public schools, which impacts STEM education and participation. The high school aged youth featured in this study consist of four African American males, who live in a moderate size city in California. Data for this study consists of observations, phenomenological interviews, and policy document analysis that took place over six months. Data has been analyzed to describe and interpret the young men's mathematics and science experiences, as revealed in their K-12 public school education. This inquiry sought to make meaning of how African American males experience mathematics and science teaching and learning within K-12 public schooling and how these

  17. Digital History: Using the Internet to Enhance African American Studies in the Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuerell, Scott; Jaeger, Matt

    2015-01-01

    The authors discuss how high school students participated in a unit in which they learned about African American history in a 1:1 computer classroom--in particular, how they were able to use digital history to learn about a variety of African American leaders who are not frequently covered in the traditional American History textbook. In addition,…

  18. Predictors of Academic Achievement for African American Males at a Predominantly White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jarvis M.

    2013-01-01

    African American male college students are graduating at rates lower than their White male college counterparts. This epidemic is a result of the historical implications of institutional racism within American society. Despite these barriers, there are African American males that achieve academically and graduate college. This phenomenological…

  19. The African American Male Librarian: Motivational Factors in Choosing a Career in Library and Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Kendrick, Kaetrena D.

    2009-01-01

    A recent American Library Association (ALA) report has shown that less than 1% of credentialed librarians are African American males. This article discusses possible reasons for this dearth; and, in an effort to inform future LIS recruiting and marketing campaigns, the included study attempted to discover which factors lead African American males…

  20. Seasonal Changes in Sleep Duration in African American and African College Students Living In Washington, D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Volkov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Duration of nocturnal melatonin secretion, a marker of “biological night” that relates to sleep duration, is longer in winter than in summer in patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD, but not in healthy controls. In this study of African and African American college students, we hypothesized that students who met criteria for winter SAD or subsyndromal SAD (S-SAD would report sleeping longer in winter than in summer. In addition, based on our previous observation that Africans report more “problems” with change in seasons than African Americans, we expected that the seasonal changes in sleep duration would be greater in African students than in African American students. Based on Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ responses, African American and African college students in Washington, D.C. (N = 575 were grouped into a winter SAD/S-SAD group or a no winter diagnosis group, and winter and summer sleep length were determined. We conducted a 2 (season × 2 (sex × 2 (ethnicity × 2 (winter diagnosis group ANCOVA on reported sleep duration, controlling for age. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that African and African American students with winter SAD/S-SAD report sleeping longer in the summer than in the winter. No differences in seasonality of sleep were found between African and African American students. Students with winter SAD or S-SAD may need to sacrifice sleep duration in the winter, when their academic functioning/efficiency may be impaired by syndromal or subsyndromal depression, in order to meet seasonally increased academic demands.

  1. Cardiometabolic Risk among African-American Women: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Susan J.; Oster, Robert A.; Floyd, Natalie A.; Ovalle, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the associations of the Homeostatic Model of Assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-ir), acanthosis nigricans, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) with two of the commonly used definitions of the metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III {ATP III} and International Diabetes Federation {IDF}) among reproductive age healthy free living African-American women. Methods A pilot study with a cross-sectional design examined 33 African-American women aged 20 to 46 (mean 31.24, +/- 7.25), for the presence of metabolic syndrome determined by ATP III and IDF criteria, insulin resistance (HOMA-ir and/or acanthosis nigricans), degree of inflammation (hs-CRP) and presence of dysfibrinolysis (PAI-1). Results HOMA-ir identified insulin resistance in 27 (81.8%) of the women, whereas the presence of acanthosis nigricans indicated that 16 (48 %) of these women manifested insulin resistance. Metabolic syndrome was found in 7 women (21.2 %) by ATP III or 9 (27.3 %) by IDF criteria. Bivariate correlations showed associations between HOMA-ir and waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), acanthosis nigricans, the ATP III and IDF definitions for metabolic syndrome. PAI-1 was significantly correlated with waist circumference, BMI, fasting glucose, HOMA-ir, and ATP III. Both HOMA-ir and PAI-1 were significantly and negatively correlated with HDL-C. hs-CRP was significantly correlated with BMI and 2-hour post glucose. Conclusion Both dysfibrinolysis (PAI-1 levels) and insulin resistance (HOMA-ir) when individually regressed on the ATP III definition of metabolic syndrome explained 32 % and 29% of the respective variance. The addition of HOMA-ir measurement may significantly improve early recognition of cardiometabolic risk among reproductive age African-American women who have not yet met the criteria for the ATP III or IDF definitions of the metabolic syndrome. Likewise, acanthosis nigricans is potentially a

  2. A pooled analysis of body mass index and mortality among African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah S Cohen

    Full Text Available Pooled analyses among whites and East Asians have demonstrated positive associations between all-cause mortality and body mass index (BMI, but studies of African Americans have yielded less consistent results. We examined the association between BMI and all-cause mortality in a sample of African Americans pooled from seven prospective cohort studies: NIH-AARP, 1995-2009; Adventist Health Study 2, 2002-2008; Black Women's Health Study, 1995-2009; Cancer Prevention Study II, 1982-2008; Multiethnic Cohort Study, 1993-2007; Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Screening Trial, 1993-2009; Southern Community Cohort Study, 2002-2009. 239,526 African Americans (including 100,175 never smokers without baseline heart disease, stroke, or cancer, age 30-104 (mean 52 and 71% female, were followed up to 26.5 years (mean 11.7. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for mortality were derived from multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Among healthy, never smokers (11,386 deaths, HRs (CI for BMI 25-27.4, 27.5-29.9, 30-34.9, 35-39.9, 40-49.9, and 50-60 kg/m(2 were 1.02 (0.92-1.12, 1.06 (0.95-1.18, 1.32 (1.18-1.47, 1.54 (1.29-1.83, 1.93 (1.46-2.56, and 1.93 (0.80-4.69, respectively among men and 1.06 (0.99-1.15, 1.15 (1.06-1.25, 1.24 (1.15-1.34, 1.58 (1.43-1.74, 1.80 (1.60-2.02, and 2.31 (1.74-3.07 respectively among women (reference category 22.5-24.9. HRs were highest among those with the highest educational attainment, longest follow-up, and for cardiovascular disease mortality. Obesity was associated with a higher risk of mortality in African Americans, similar to that observed in pooled analyses of whites and East Asians. This study provides compelling evidence to support public health efforts to prevent excess weight gain and obesity in African Americans.

  3. Mentoring African American Expatriates: Providing The Bridge To Success Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria C. Crawley

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Employment predictions continue to forecast increasing racial diversity in the American workforce as firms face global competition and strive to grasp the challenges of a global business landscape.  As American multinational corporations use expatriate assignments; supplemented by flexipatriates and inpatriates to meet customer preferences in the global marketplace, growing racial diversity may generate more expatriates of color.  Global human resource management research has focused on issues such as adjustment and cross-cultural development and recently mentoring as critical factors for expatriate success.  A growing body of mentoring research details the career experiences of employees with diverse backgrounds, yet few studies center on the experiences of the African American expatriate.  This article aims to examine African Americans mentoring opportunities in a global environment, with a focus on understanding the role mentoring plays for this particular population group. This work is intended to contribute to the increasing literature on global mentoring and will help to influence the thinking of multinational corporations’ response to the increasing diversity of their global workforce.

  4. Elder abuse and neglect in African American families: informing practice based on ecological and cultural frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsford, Sheena R; Parra-Cardona, José Rubén; Schiamberg, Larry; Post, Lori A

    2011-01-01

    Despite the rapid growth of the elderly African American population in the U.S., elder abuse and neglect in African American families continue to be underdeveloped areas of study. This article presents an ecological and culturally informed framework for the study of elder abuse in African American populations. The model was developed based on Bronfenbrenner's Human Ecological Theory. The model identifies risk factors associated with different systems that have an influence on the lives of African American families. Cultural protective factors also are identified in the model. The model is intended to provide an understanding of elder abuse and neglect in African American families by considering the influence of contextual factors such as the legacy of slavery, social exclusion, and structural segregation and racism. Specific suggestions for practice are proposed according to cultural strengths of African American communities as well as the ecological premises of the model.

  5. Why African American women leave the academy: barriers to and opportunities for retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, S T

    1994-01-01

    African American women have participated in higher education for well over a century. Although the journey has been difficult, significant achievements have been made. Today, fewer African American women doctoral recipients are choosing academic employment, and many of those who enter the academy later leave for employment in business, industry and the professions where salaries are often more attractive. Furthermore, the present decline of African American faculty women is expected to become more severe as the growth of the academic labor market levels off. If we are to successfully retain the pool of African American faculty women it is important to discover the reasons why an increasing number are voluntarily leaving the academy. This article is based on a cross-sectional study of 384 African American academic women which examines the primary barriers to faculty retention and offer suggestions to help prevent the further loss of African American women scholars.

  6. Immunohistological Analysis of ABCD3 Expression in Caucasian and African American Prostate Tumors

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    R. Renee Reams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previously published study, we showed that expression of the ABCD3 gene increased with increasing metastatic potential in a panel of prostate cancer cell lines derived from African American and Caucasian American men. Given importance of identifying biomarker(s that can distinguish indolent versus aggressive prostate tumors, we conducted an immunohistochemical analysis of ABCD3 expression Caucasian and African American prostate tumors. ABCD3 expression in each patient population was compared with clinicopathologic characteristics, Gleason score, and age. ABCD3 expression increased with increasing Gleason score (P=0.0094, age (P=0.0014, and pathology grade (P=0.0007 in Caucasian patients. Interestingly, in the AA patients, ABCD3 expression highly increased to the same degree in both low and high Gleason score tumors. Similarly, ABCD3 expression was elevated to the same degree in BPH derived from AA. Our findings demonstrate that increased ABCD3 expression correlates with Gleason Score in CA prostate tumors. However, in AA prostate tumors, ABCD3 expression was higher and was sustained in both low Gleason and high Gleason AA tumors. While the functional role of ABCD3 in prostate cancer is not completely elucidated, this gene warrants further study as a potential biomarker for aggressive prostate.

  7. Fear of Crime among African-American Males in Two American Cities: A Multivariate Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Keith D.; Wright, Earl II; Wingren, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    Examines the distribution of fear of crime and the influence of selected predictors of fear of crime among African American males from two large U.S. cities. Survey data indicated that about three-quarters of the respondents did not view fear of crime as problematic in their communities. Results supported a relationship between fear of crime, age,…

  8. Media and Cultural Influences in African-American Girls’ Eating Disorder Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Lakaii A.; Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate media and cultural influences in eating disorder development in African-American adolescent females. Method. Fifty-seven participants were recruited through churches and community organizations to complete a questionnaire. Results. Mainstream sociocultural identification was associated with more eating disorder behavior in African-American females; cultural ethnic identification was not significantly associated with eating disorder behavior in African-American female...

  9. Reaching an Underserved Wine Customer: Connecting with the African American Wine Consumer.

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, Rhonda; Sydnor, Sandra; Kang, Eunjoo

    2014-01-01

    Marketing strategies addressing underserved African American wine customers’ needs that also positively impact producers’ and retailers’ clientele was the impetus for this exploratory, qualitative paper. African Americans demonstrate a thirst to elevate their education about and be more involved in the wine industry as evidenced by the proliferation of African American wine-tasting groups designed to help educate and expose their membership to a variety of wines. Moreover, compared to the ave...

  10. African-Americans and Clinical Trials Research: Recommendations for Client Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Sharon E.; Wanda Lott Collins

    2002-01-01

    African-Americans have, without their knowledge and consent, been used as human guinea pigs in scientific and medical experiments by private and governmental organizations. As a result many African-Americans approach the health care industry with caution and apprehension. African-Americans are admonished to remember the atrocities they once experienced and to approach participation in clinical studies with skepticism. This paper presents an historical overview of conspiracy ...

  11. Vitamin D and immune response: implications for prostate cancer in African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken eBatai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the most common cancer among men in the U.S. African American (AA men have a higher incidence and mortality rate compared to European American (EA men, but the cause of PCa disparities is still unclear. Epidemiologic studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency is associated with advanced stage, and higher tumor grade and mortality, while its association with overall PCa risk is inconsistent. Vitamin D deficiency is also more common in AAs than EAs, and the difference in serum vitamin D levels may help explain the PCa disparities. However, the role of vitamin D in aggressive PCa in AAs is not well explored. Studies demonstrated that the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, has anti-inflammatory effects by mediating immune-related gene expression in prostate tissue. Inflammation also plays an important role in PCa pathogenesis and progression, and expression of immune-related genes in PCa tissues differs significantly between AAs and EAs. Unfortunately, the evidence linking vitamin D and immune response in relation to PCa is still scarce. This relationship should be further explored at a genomic level in AA populations that are at high risk for vitamin D deficiency and fatal PCa.

  12. Experiences and perspectives of African American, Latina/o, Asian American, and European American psychology graduate students: A national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maton, Kenneth I; Wimms, Harriette E; Grant, Sheila K; Wittig, Michele A; Rogers, Margaret R; Vasquez, Melba J T

    2011-01-01

    A national, Web-based survey of 1,219 African American, Latina/o, Asian American, and European American psychology graduate students revealed both similarities and differences in experiences and perspectives. Mentoring was found to be the strongest predictor of satisfaction across groups. Academic supports and barriers, along with perceptions of diversity within the academic environment, were also important predictors of satisfaction. Students of color perceived less fairness of representation of their ethnic group within psychology than European American students, and a greater linkage between aspects of the graduate school experience and their ethnicity. Limitations of the study and implications for future research and action are discussed.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA diversity in the African American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Derek C; Shrestha, Sadeep; Wiener, Howard W; Makowsky, Robert; Kurundkar, Ashish; Wilson, Craig M; Aissani, Brahim

    2015-06-01

    Genetic polymorphism along mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defines population-specific signatures called mtDNA haplogroups. Estimation of mtDNA haplogroup distribution may be prone to errors, notably if the study sample is not drawn from a multicenter cohort. Here, we report on mtDNA diversity in a sample of African American individuals (n = 343) enrolled in a multicenter cohort. Sequencing of the hypervariable regions I and II of the D-loop control region showed that the most common mitochondrial variants are 73G, 146C, 150T, 152C, 189G, 16278T, and 16311C. In agreement with the published data, we observed 17 common mtDNA haplogroups: L0, L1, L1b, L1c, L2, L2a, L2b, L2c, L2e, L3, L3b, L3d, L3e, L3f, L3h, L3x, and L4. The most commonly observed haplogroup is L2a (19.8%), followed by L1b (10.2%). Overall, the observed mtDNA haplogroup distribution in our study is similar to those published for the African American and the African populations.

  14. Media and cultural influences in african-american girls' eating disorder risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lakaii A; Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate media and cultural influences in eating disorder development in African-American adolescent females. Method. Fifty-seven participants were recruited through churches and community organizations to complete a questionnaire. Results. Mainstream sociocultural identification was associated with more eating disorder behavior in African-American females; cultural ethnic identification was not significantly associated with eating disorder behavior in African-American females, mainstream sociocultural identification, cultural ethnic identification, and body dissatisfaction significantly predicted eating disorder behavior; and cultural ethnic identification was positively correlated with mainstream sociocultural identification. This study provides support for the importance of eating disorder prevention interventions that focus specifically on African-American girls.

  15. Relationship between social support, self-esteem and codependency in the African American female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D L; Barber, K R

    1997-01-01

    Increasing numbers of minorities are seeking mental health assistance. Inclusion of cultural considerations is important for increasing sensitivity to those whose life experiences differ. For African Americans, therapy is better facilitated if one operates from a cultural specific frame of reference. African American women attending a women's support group were surveyed. Questionnaires querying dimensions on family relationships, self-esteem and dependency were utilized. Results indicated a relationship between social support, self-esteem and codependency in African American females. Social support and self-esteem were inversely associated with codependency. This study provides insight for mental health professionals in counseling African American females.

  16. Characterizing the learning styles and testing the science-related attitudes of African American middle school students: Implications for the underrepresentation of African Americans in the sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perine, Donald Ray

    African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans and women are underrepresented among the population of scientists and science teachers in the United States. Specifically, the shortage of African Americans teaching math and science at all levels of the educational process and going into the many science-related fields is manifested throughout the entire educational and career structure of our society. This shortage exists when compared to the total population of African Americans in this country, the population of African American students, and to society's demand for more math and science teachers and professionals of all races. One suggestion to address this problem is to update curricular and instructional programs to accommodate the learning styles of African Americans from elementary to graduate school. There is little in the published literature to help us understand the learning styles of African American middle school students and how they compare to African American adults who pursue science careers. There is also little published data to help inform us about the relationship between learning styles of African American middle school students and their attitudes toward science. The author used a learning styles inventory instrument to identify the learning style preferences of the African American students and adults. The preferences identified describe how African American students and African American adult science professionals prefer to function, learn, concentrate, and perform in their educational and work activities in the areas of: (a) immediate environment, (b) emotionality, (c) sociological needs, and (d) physical needs. The learning style preferences for the students and adults were not significantly different in key areas of preference. A Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) was used to measure seven distinct science-related attitudes of the middle school students. A comparison of the profile of the mean scores for the students in this study

  17. Paternal Hostility and Maternal Hostility in European American and African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ed Y; Reeb, Ben T; Martin, Monica J; Gibbons, Frederick X; Simons, Ronald L; Conger, Rand D

    2014-06-01

    The authors examined the hypothesized influence of maternal and paternal hostility on youth delinquency over time. The investigation addressed significant gaps in earlier research on parental hostility, including the neglect of father effects, especially in African American families. Using prospective, longitudinal data from community samples of European American (n = 422) and African American (n = 272) 2-parent families, the authors examined the independent effects of paternal and maternal hostility on youth delinquency. The results indicated that paternal hostility significantly predicted relative increases in youth delinquent behaviors above and beyond the effects of maternal hostility; conversely, maternal hostility did not predict youth delinquency after controlling for paternal hostility. Multiple-group analyses yielded similar results for both ethnic groups and for boys and girls. These results underscore the importance of including both parents in research on diverse families. Neglecting fathers provides an incomplete account of parenting in relation to youth development.

  18. Developing culturally competent marriage and family therapists: treatment guidelines for non-African-American therapists working with African-American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Roy A; Perry, Benjamin J; Bedell, Tina M

    2002-04-01

    To serve African-American families effectively, marriage and family therapists need to develop a level of cultural competence. This content analysis of the relevant treatment literature was conducted to examine the most common expert recommendations for family therapy with African Americans. Fifteen specific guidelines were generated, including orient the family to therapy, do not assume familiarity, address issue of racism, intervene multi-systemically, do home visits, use problem-solving focus, involve religious leader, incorporate the father, and acknowledge strengths. Conceptual and empirical support for each guideline is discussed, and conclusions are made regarding culturally competent therapy with African-American families.

  19. "Women ... Mourn and Men Carry on": African Women Storying Mourning Practices--A South African Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, Elmarie; Els, Lishje; Rajuili-Masilo, Ntsiki

    2012-01-01

    African mourning of loss of lives in South Africa has been shaped by discursive practices of both traditional African cultures and the sociopolitical developments under apartheid and in post-apartheid South Africa. This article reports on changes in mourning practices on the basis of a literature review and uses a collection of examples to…

  20. Keloids and ultrasound detected fibroids in young African American women.

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    Quaker E Harmon

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Keloids and fibroids share a number of biologic and demographic similarities however there are no published reports of the association between them. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported keloids and ultrasound detected fibroids in a population of young African American women. STUDY DESIGN: The Study of Environment, Life-style & Fibroids (SELF, is a volunteer cohort of over 1600 African American women aged 23-34 years recruited in Detroit, Michigan. Enrollment occurred between December 2010 and December 2012. Data are available for the first 1196 participants. Participants self-reported a history of raised (hypertrophic scars or scars extending beyond the limits of the original injury (keloid and had an enrollment pelvic ultrasound examination to detect prevalent fibroids. Log linear regression was used to model the association between abnormal scars and prevalent fibroids controlling for possible covariates. Among women with fibroids, associations between particular fibroid characteristics (tumor location, size or number and scarring were assessed using chi-square and Mann Whitney U-tests. RESULTS: Both abnormal scarring (keloids, 9.0%; hypertrophic scars, 28.3% and fibroids (23.3% were common in this cohort. There was no indication [adjusted Risk Ratio (95% Confidence Interval: 0.7 (0.5-1.1] of an association between self-reported keloids and prevalent fibroids. Nor was there any association with hypertrophic scars. Specific characteristics of the prevalent fibroids were not associated with abnormal scarring. CONCLUSION: Despite similarly dysregulated extracellular matrices in keloids and fibroids, these conditions did not tend to co-occur in this young African American population.

  1. Atrial Fibrillation and Colonic Neoplasia in African Americans.

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    Mehdi Nouraie

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC and atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF share several risk factors including increasing age and obesity. However, the association between CRC and AF has not been thoroughly examined, especially in African Americans. In this study we aimed to assess the prevalence of AF and its risk factors in colorectal neoplasia in an African American.We reviewed records of 527 African American patients diagnosed with CRC and 1008 patients diagnosed with benign colonic lesions at Howard University Hospital from January 2000 to December 2012. A control group of 731 hospitalized patients without any cancer or colonic lesion were randomly selected from the same time and age range, excluding patients who had diagnosis of both CRC and/or adenoma. The presence or absence of AF was based upon ICD-9 code documentation. The prevalence of AF in these three groups was compared by multivariate logistic regression.The prevalence of AF was highest among CRC patients (10% followed by adenoma patients (7.2% then the control group (5.4%, P for trend = 0.002. In the three groups of participants, older age (P<0.008 and heart failure (P<0.001 were significantly associated with higher risk of AF. After adjusting for these risk factors, CRC (OR: 1.4(95%CI:0.9-2.2, P = 0.2 and adenoma (OR: 1.1(95%CI:0.7-1.6, P = 0.7 were not significantly associated AF compared to control group.AF is highly prevalent among CRC patients; 1 in 10 patients had AF in our study. The predictors of AF in CRC was similar to that in adenoma and other patients after adjustment for potential confounders suggesting that the increased AF risk in CRC is explained by higher prevalence of AF risk factors.

  2. Introduction to Exporting American Dreams: Thurgood Marshall's African Journey

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    Mary L. Dudziak

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Thurgood Marshall became a living icon of civil rights when he argued Brown v. Board of Education before the Supreme Court in 1954. Six years later, he was at a crossroads. A rising generation of activists were making sit-ins and demonstrations rather than lawsuits the hallmark of the civil rights movement. What role, he wondered, could he now play? When in 1960 Kenyan independence leaders asked him to help write their constitution, Marshall threw himself into their cause. Here was a new arena in which law might serve as the tool with which to forge a just society. In Exporting American Dreams, Mary Dudziak recounts with poignancy and power the untold story of Marshall's journey to Africa. African Americans were enslaved when the U.S. constitution was written. In Kenya, Marshall could become something that had not existed in his own country: a black man helping to found a nation. He became friends with Kenyan leaders Tom Mboya and Jomo Kenyatta, serving as advisor to the Kenyans, who needed to demonstrate to Great Britain and to the world that they would treat minority races (whites and Asians fairly once Africans took power. He crafted a bill of rights, aiding constitutional negotiations that helped enable peaceful regime change, rather than violent resistance. Marshall's involvement with Kenya's foundation affirmed his faith in law, while also forcing him to understand how the struggle for justice could be compromised by the imperatives of sovereignty. Marshall's beliefs were most sorely tested later in the decade when he became a Supreme Court Justice, even as American cities erupted in flames and civil rights progress stalled. Kenya's first attempt at democracy faltered, but Marshall's African journey remained a cherished memory of a time and a place when all things seemed possible.

  3. Genome-wide meta-analyses of smoking behaviors in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, S P; Hamidovic, A; Chen, G K; Bergen, A W; Wessel, J; Kasberger, J L; Brown, W M; Petruzella, S; Thacker, E L; Kim, Y; Nalls, M A; Tranah, G J; Sung, Y J; Ambrosone, C B; Arnett, D; Bandera, E V; Becker, D M; Becker, L; Berndt, S I; Bernstein, L; Blot, W J; Broeckel, U; Buxbaum, S G; Caporaso, N; Casey, G; Chanock, S J; Deming, S L; Diver, W R; Eaton, C B; Evans, D S; Evans, M K; Fornage, M; Franceschini, N; Harris, T B; Henderson, B E; Hernandez, D G; Hitsman, B; Hu, J J; Hunt, S C; Ingles, S A; John, E M; Kittles, R; Kolb, S; Kolonel, L N; Le Marchand, L; Liu, Y; Lohman, K K; McKnight, B; Millikan, R C; Murphy, A; Neslund-Dudas, C; Nyante, S; Press, M; Psaty, B M; Rao, D C; Redline, S; Rodriguez-Gil, J L; Rybicki, B A; Signorello, L B; Singleton, A B; Smoller, J; Snively, B; Spring, B; Stanford, J L; Strom, S S; Swan, G E; Taylor, K D; Thun, M J; Wilson, A F; Witte, J S; Yamamura, Y; Yanek, L R; Yu, K; Zheng, W; Ziegler, R G; Zonderman, A B; Jorgenson, E; Haiman, C A; Furberg, H

    2012-05-22

    The identification and exploration of genetic loci that influence smoking behaviors have been conducted primarily in populations of the European ancestry. Here we report results of the first genome-wide association study meta-analysis of smoking behavior in African Americans in the Study of Tobacco in Minority Populations Genetics Consortium (n = 32,389). We identified one non-coding single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs2036527[A]) on chromosome 15q25.1 associated with smoking quantity (cigarettes per day), which exceeded genome-wide significance (β = 0.040, s.e. = 0.007, P = 1.84 × 10(-8)). This variant is present in the 5'-distal enhancer region of the CHRNA5 gene and defines the primary index signal reported in studies of the European ancestry. No other SNP reached genome-wide significance for smoking initiation (SI, ever vs never smoking), age of SI, or smoking cessation (SC, former vs current smoking). Informative associations that approached genome-wide significance included three modestly correlated variants, at 15q25.1 within PSMA4, CHRNA5 and CHRNA3 for smoking quantity, which are associated with a second signal previously reported in studies in European ancestry populations, and a signal represented by three SNPs in the SPOCK2 gene on chr10q22.1. The association at 15q25.1 confirms this region as an important susceptibility locus for smoking quantity in men and women of African ancestry. Larger studies will be needed to validate the suggestive loci that did not reach genome-wide significance and further elucidate the contribution of genetic variation to disparities in cigarette consumption, SC and smoking-attributable disease between African Americans and European Americans.

  4. Exploring Leadership through Spiritual Practices and African Moral Virtues: Portraits of African American Women Principals in Urban Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sharon Irene

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the influences of spirituality on decisions made by African American women principals at the elementary school level in schools where children of color and poverty exist in significant numbers and to gain an understanding of how African moral virtues were evidenced in the day to day professional…

  5. African American College Women's Body Image: An Examination of Body Mass, African Self-Consciousness, and Skin Color Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Jameca Woody; Neville, Helen A.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the general and cultural factors associated with body image perceptions of African American female college students. Data from surveys of 124 women at a historically black college indicated that African self-consciousness, skin color satisfaction, and body mass index collectively accounted for significant variance in dimensions of…

  6. Breast cancer fear in African American breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lynette M; Thomas, Sheila; Parker, Veronica; Mayo, Rachel; Wetsel, Margaret Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe breast cancer fear according to phase of survivorship, determine whether breast cancer fear levels differed among survivorship phases, and determine the relationship between fear and age in African-American breast cancer survivors. The study utilized secondary data analysis from the study, Inner Resources as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being in AABCS. A new subscale entitled, "Breast Cancer Fear" was adapted from the Psychological Well Being Subscale by Ferrell and Grant. There was no significant difference between fear and phase of survivorship. There was a significant positive relationship between age and fear.

  7. Violence exposure and teen dating violence among African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Beverly M; Chido, Lisa M; Preble, Kathleen M; Weisz, Arlene N; Yoon, Jina S; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Kernsmith, Poco; Lewandowski, Linda

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, and family with dating violence attitudes and behaviors among 175 urban African American youth. Age, gender, state support and experiences with neglect, school violence, and community violence were the most significant predictors of acceptance of dating violence. Experiences with community violence and age were important predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization. Findings highlight the importance of planning prevention programs that address variables affecting attitudes and behaviors of high-risk youth who have already been exposed to multiple types of violence.

  8. African Americans and Network Disadvantage: Enhancing Social Capital through Participation on Social Networking Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Taana Smith

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the participation of African Americans on social networking sites (SNS, and evaluates the degree to which African Americans engage in activities in the online environment to mitigate social capital deficits. Prior literature suggests that compared with whites, African Americans have less social capital that can enhance their socio-economic mobility. As such, my research question is: do African Americans enhance their social capital through their participation on SNS? I use nationally representative data collected from the Pew Internet and American Life Project to explore the research question. The results suggest that the online environment is potentially a space in which African Americans can lessen social capital deficits.

  9. Promoting the interest of African American teenage girls in science: What can we learn from an exemplary African American science teacher?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMath, Cynthia Stewart

    This study focused on science teaching that promoted the interest of African American teenage girls in the science classroom of an exemplary African American science teacher. It focused on, observed and examined the planning, teaching and learning strategies used by the science teacher. It also described what the science teacher experienced during her high school years, during college, during her teaching career. The case study approach/method was used for this research to capture the description and examination of the practices of the science teacher. This research described how an African American female science teacher serves as a role model and influence a number of African Americans students, especially girls, who experience careers in science. During the interviews and observations the researcher used a system of record keeping for the study to include note taking, audio taping and pictures. It is evident in the findings that the teacher in this study had qualities of an exemplary teacher according to the research. It is further evident that the teacher served as a role model for her students. The results indicated that the exemplary African America science teacher was motivated by her former African American science teacher that served as a role model. The results in this study implied that the lack of the presence of more exemplary African American science teachers has an impact on the level of interest that African American students have in science. Further, it is implied that there is a great need for more practical research that may lead to closing the gap of missing African American science teachers.

  10. Parental depression, family functioning, and obesity among African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melvin; Young, LaShun; Davis, Sheila P; Moll, George

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has reached an epidemic level in America (National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] 1999), and this epidemic is more acute for African Americans than for other groups ofAmericans. In this study, 44 parent-child dyads completed measurements of height, weight, depression, and body fat composition. In addition, parents completed a demographic questionnaire, and instruments, which measured family functioning, parental psychopathology, child behavior, and cardiovascular risks. Several models emerged for predicting childhood and parental body mass index, parental depression, and child behavioral problems. Findings indicated a role for parental depression in childhood obesity. These findings are discussed in light of Bandura 's Social Cognitive Theory, and the family's role in childhood obesity.

  11. Predictors of unprotected sex among young sexually active African American, Hispanic, and White MSM: the importance of ethnicity and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jacob C; Fernández, M Isabel; Harper, Gary W; Hidalgo, Marco A; Jamil, Omar B; Torres, Rodrigo Sebastián

    2008-05-01

    Despite the recognized need for culturally tailored HIV prevention interventions for gay, bisexual, and questioning youth, few studies have examined if predictors of unprotected sex vary for youth from different ethnic groups. This study reports on a sample of 189 gay, bisexual, and questioning youth (age 15-22) from three racial/ethnic backgrounds (African American, Hispanic, and White) recruited in Chicago, IL and Miami-Dade and Broward Counties, Florida. For African American youth, being in a long-term relationship, having been kicked out of the home for having sex with men, and younger age at initiation of sexual behavior were associated with unprotected sex. For Hispanic youth, higher ethnic identification and older age at initiation of sexual behavior were associated with unprotected sex. For White youth, no predictors were associated with unprotected sex. Our findings point to the importance of understanding the varying predictors of unprotected sex and integrating them into tailored prevention interventions.

  12. Perceived discrimination, coping, and quality of life for African-American and Caucasian persons with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merluzzi, Thomas V; Philip, Errol J; Zhang, Zhiyong; Sullivan, Courtney

    2015-07-01

    In racial disparities research, perceived discrimination is a proposed risk factor for unfavorable health outcomes. In a proposed "threshold-constraint" theory, discrimination intensity may exceed a threshold and require coping strategies, but social constraint limits coping options for African Americans, who may react to perceived racial discrimination with disengagement, because active strategies are not viable under this social constraint. Caucasian Americans may experience less discrimination and lower social constraint, and may use more active coping strategies. There were 213 African Americans and 121 Caucasian Americans with cancer who participated by completing measures of mistreatment, coping, and quality of life. African Americans reported more mistreatment than Caucasian Americans (p quality of life relationship, disengagement was a significant mediator for Caucasians (B = -.39; CI .13-.83) and African Americans (B = -.20; CI .07-.43). Agentic coping was a significant mediator only for Caucasians (B = -.48; CI .18-.81). Discrimination may exceed threshold more often for African Americans than for Caucasians and social constraint may exert greater limits for African Americans. Results suggest that perceived discrimination affects quality of life for African Americans with cancer because their coping options to counter mistreatment, which is racially based, are limited. This process may also affect treatment, recovery, and survivorship.

  13. Influences of Social and Style Variables on Adult Usage of African American English Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Holly K.; Grogger, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the authors examined the influences of selected social (gender, employment status, educational achievement level) and style variables (race of examiner, interview topic) on the production of African American English (AAE) by adults. Method Participants were 50 African American men and women, ages 20–30 years. The authors used Rapid and Anonymous Survey (RAS) methods to collect responses to questions on informal situational and formal message-oriented topics in a short interview with an unacquainted interlocutor. Results Results revealed strong systematic effects for academic achievement, but not gender or employment status. Most features were used less frequently by participants with higher educational levels, but sharp declines in the usage of 5 specific features distinguished the participants differing in educational achievement. Strong systematic style effects were found for the 2 types of questions, but not race of addressee. The features that were most commonly used across participants—copula absence, variable subject–verb agreement, and appositive pronouns—were also the features that showed the greatest style shifting. Conclusions The findings lay a foundation with mature speakers for rate-based and feature inventory methods recently shown to be informative for the study of child AAE and demonstrate the benefits of the RAS. PMID:22361105

  14. Compassion-Based Meditation in African Americans: Self-Criticism Mediates Changes in Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Suzanne B; Goodnight, Bradley L; Zhang, Huaiyu; Daboin, Irene; Patterson, Bobbi; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2017-03-21

    This study examines self-criticism as a mechanism through which compassion meditation reduces depressive symptoms in low-income African American men and women (N = 59) who had recently attempted suicide. After completing several measures, including the Levels of Self-Criticism Scale and Beck Depression Inventory-II, participants were randomly assigned to receive either a six-session compassion meditation (CM) group (Grady Compassion and Meditation Program) or a six-session support group. As predicted, path analysis results showed that treatment condition led to changes in self-criticism from pre- to posttreatment, with those receiving CM showing greater reductions in levels of self-criticism than those randomized to the support group. Path analyses also revealed that changes in self-criticism fully mediated the link between condition and changes in depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the importance and value of targeting levels of self-criticism in compassion-based interventions to reduce the depressive symptoms of suicidal African Americans.

  15. "I am Not a Statistic": Identities of African American Males in Advanced Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Diane Wynn

    The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (2010) expects new industries to generate approximately 2.7 million jobs in science and technology by the year 2018, and there is concern as to whether there will be enough trained individuals to fill these positions. A tremendous resource remains untapped, African American students, especially African American males (National Science Foundation, 2009). Historically, African American males have been omitted from the so called science pipeline. Fewer African American males pursue a science discipline due, in part; to limiting factors they experience in school and at home (Ogbu, 2004). This is a case study of African American males who are enrolled in advanced science courses at a predominantly African American (84%) urban high school. Guided by expectancy-value theory (EVT) of achievement related results (Eccles, 2009; Eccles et al., 1983), twelve African American male students in two advanced science courses were observed in their science classrooms weekly, participated in an in-depth interview, developed a presentation to share with students enrolled in a tenth grade science course, responded to an open-ended identity questionnaire, and were surveyed about their perceptions of school. Additionally, the students' teachers were interviewed, and seven of the students' parents. The interview data analyses highlighted the important role of supportive parents (key socializers) who had high expectations for their sons and who pushed them academically. The students clearly attributed their enrollment in advanced science courses to their high regard for their science teachers, which included positive relationships, hands-on learning in class, and an inviting and encouraging learning environment. Additionally, other family members and coaches played important roles in these young men's lives. Students' PowerPoint(c) presentations to younger high school students on why they should take advanced science courses highlighted these

  16. Beyond parenting practices: extended kinship support and the academic adjustment of African-American and European-American teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallock, Linda L; Lamborn, Susie D

    2006-10-01

    This study examined adolescents' perceptions of parenting practices and extended kinship support in relation to academic adjustment for 104 African American and 60 European American 9th and 10th graders (14 and 15 year olds). For African-American teens, parental acceptance was associated with school values, teacher bonding, and work orientation. Higher levels of behavioral control and lower levels of psychological control were associated with a stronger work orientation. After accounting for the demographic variables and the three parenting practices, higher levels of extended kinship support related to stronger school values, higher teacher bonding, and a stronger work orientation. For European-American teens, parental acceptance related to academic adjustment, including stronger school values, higher teacher bonding, and a stronger work orientation. European-American adolescents with stronger extended kinship networks reported higher teacher bonding and a stronger work orientation. Results indicate the importance of extended kinship support for both African-American and European-American adolescents.

  17. Perceptions of communication choice and usage among African American hearing parents: Afrocentric cultural implications for African American deaf and hard of hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borum, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    In a qualitative study employing an exploratory design, the researcher explored the perceptions of communication choice and usage among 14 African American hearing parents of deaf and hard of hearing children. Semistructured, in-depth thematic interviews were used with a modified grounded-theory approach in which themes were analyzed and coded. Four thematic challenges and opportunities related to communication choice and usage were found: (a) oral tradition-nommo, (b) sign and oral-diunital, (c) literacy, and (d) racial/ethnic cultural socialization. Afrocentric implications for deaf and hard of hearing children are explored based on research observations pertaining to the significance of the oral tradition in African American culture and the socialization of African American deaf and hard of hearing children in the context of African American hearing families.

  18. Cross-cultural Differences in Preferred Forms of Address: Implications for Work with African American Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Lott Collins

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Using an individual’s last name indicates respect and contributes to positive interaction with African American clients and adults of African descent. This paper discusses the importance of using social titles as a proper form of address during, and sometimes after, the initial professional relationship. Two case vignettes will highlight potential difficulties that non-African American practitioners may experience when using first names with African Americans within the professional realm. The vignettes include a scenario for a supervisor and a client.

  19. Genetic ancestry, self-reported race and ethnicity in African Americans and European Americans in the PCaP cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara E Sucheston

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Family history and African-American race are important risk factors for both prostate cancer (CaP incidence and aggressiveness. When studying complex diseases such as CaP that have a heritable component, chances of finding true disease susceptibility alleles can be increased by accounting for genetic ancestry within the population investigated. Race, ethnicity and ancestry were studied in a geographically diverse cohort of men with newly diagnosed CaP. METHODS: Individual ancestry (IA was estimated in the population-based North Carolina and Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP, a cohort of 2,106 incident CaP cases (2063 with complete ethnicity information comprising roughly equal numbers of research subjects reporting as Black/African American (AA or European American/Caucasian/Caucasian American/White (EA from North Carolina or Louisiana. Mean genome wide individual ancestry estimates of percent African, European and Asian were obtained and tested for differences by state and ethnicity (Cajun and/or Creole and Hispanic/Latino using multivariate analysis of variance models. Principal components (PC were compared to assess differences in genetic composition by self-reported race and ethnicity between and within states. RESULTS: Mean individual ancestries differed by state for self-reporting AA (p = 0.03 and EA (p = 0.001. This geographic difference attenuated for AAs who answered "no" to all ethnicity membership questions (non-ethnic research subjects; p = 0.78 but not EA research subjects, p = 0.002. Mean ancestry estimates of self-identified AA Louisiana research subjects for each ethnic group; Cajun only, Creole only and both Cajun and Creole differed significantly from self-identified non-ethnic AA Louisiana research subjects. These ethnicity differences were not seen in those who self-identified as EA. CONCLUSIONS: Mean IA differed by race between states, elucidating a potential contributing factor to these differences in AA

  20. Differences in Career and Life Planning between African American and Caucasian Undergraduate Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Caroline S.; Myers, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    Women, especially African American women, have traditionally been in low-paying careers. This exploratory study examined how career aspirations are affected by future career and family plans. Results revealed that African American undergraduate women had higher career aspirations than Caucasian undergraduate women and also planned for multiple…

  1. Understanding the Disproportionately Low Marriage Rate among African Americans: An Amalgam of Sociological and Psychological Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Anthony L.; Kravitz, Aliza

    2011-01-01

    African Americans have the lowest marriage rate of any racial and ethnic group in America. Although the low marriage rate among African Americans has been largely examined through a sociological lens by documenting structural barriers, which has important policy implications, researchers have not sufficiently examined the psychological and…

  2. Welcoming Taye: How His English Teacher Embraced an African American Transfer Student in an Affluent Suburb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, K. Dara

    2014-01-01

    This case study narrative examines the circumstances underlying problems of residency in an affluent Midwest suburb experiencing an unexpected influx of working class African American students. Dilemmas engender a cultural mismatch between teachers and students and discomfort with African-American males. In a controversial climate where students…

  3. African American and Latina(o) Community College Students' Social Capital and Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Lucero, Elena; Maes, Johanna B.; Klingsmith, Libby

    2014-01-01

    Using a framework of social and cultural capital, this study examined successful African American and Latina/o community college students. Based on focus group interviews with twenty two African American and Latina/o undergraduates at an urban community college, the authors reveal how social and cultural capital gained from students'…

  4. Developmental Processes in African American Families: An Application of McLoyd's Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nievar, M. Angela; Luster, Tom

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with McLoyd's model of African American children's development, we examined the linkages among family income, maternal psychological distress, marital conflict, parenting, and children's outcomes in early and middle childhood, using a sample of 591 African American children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Income…

  5. African-American College Student Attitudes toward Physics and Their Effect on Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Carl Timothy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting the attitudes that African-American college students have towards introductory college physics. The population targeted for this study consisted of African-American males and females enrolled in introductory college physics classes at an urban public historical black college or…

  6. Parental Characteristics, Ecological Factors, and the Academic Achievement of African American Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Erik M.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Parental characteristics, ecological factors, and the academic achievement of African American male high school students were examined. One hundred fifty-three 11th and 12th grade African American males completed the Parenting Style Index (Steinberg, Lamborn, Darling, Mounts, & Dornbusch, 1994) and a demographic questionnaire. Results…

  7. Learning Other People's History: Pre-Service Teachers' Developing African American Historical Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, LaGarrett Jarriel

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from the historical lens of cultural memory, I examined the development of three social studies pre-service teachers' African American history knowledge. The participants were engaged in a rigorous summer reading program dedicated to learning African American history. This qualitative case study examined both pre and post interpretations…

  8. Help-Seeking Behaviors and Depression among African American Adolescent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Michael A.; Korr, Wynne S.; Broitman, Marina; Bone, Lee; Green, Alan; Leaf, Philip J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the help-seeking behaviors of depressed, African American adolescents. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 18 urban, African American boys, ages 14 to 18, who were recruited from community-based mental health centers and after-school programs for youths. Interviews covered sociodemographic information, questions…

  9. Risk and Protective Factors for Depressive Symptoms in Urban African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Darius S.; Solomon, Barry S.

    2009-01-01

    There is limited understanding of risk and protective factors associated with depression among African American adolescents living in impoverished, urban settings. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify a range of risk and protective factors associated with depressive symptoms among low-income urban African American adolescents. The…

  10. Faith-Based Mental Health Interventions with African Americans: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Krystal; Aranda, Maria P.

    2016-01-01

    Faith-based interventions have emerged culturally sensitive way to address mental health issues among African Americans. This systematic review explores the scope and efficacy of faith-based mental health intervention outcomes among African Americans. Extracted data included the study population, setting, study design, intervention, adaptations,…

  11. Academic and Career Trajectories of African American Males in San Bernardino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Lolita Laree

    2013-01-01

    A qualitative grounded theory approach is utilized to study the academic and career trajectories of twenty African American male collegiate students living in San Bernardino, California. There is limited research that explores the positive educational experiences of young adult African American males. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to…

  12. The Black Arts Movement and African American Young Adult Literature: An Evaluation of Narrative Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Laretta

    2005-01-01

    In this article I question whether or not African American young adult literature serves as a primer for, and a version of, African American adult literature. Using the Black Aesthetic as my literary theory and the Coretta Scott King Award as the young adult canon, I note that while the content of adolescent literature is consistent with the…

  13. Exploration of Anaemia as a Progression Factor in African Americans with Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the higher incidence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) among African Americans, whites in the United States population have a higher prevalence of chronic kidney disease. This may be due, in part, to a faster rate of progression to ESRD among African Americans with kidney disease. Anemia i...

  14. Stress and Tobacco Use among African-American Adolescents: The Buffering Effect of Cultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgrave, Faye Z.; Johnson, Jessica; Nguyen, Anh; Hood, Kristina; Tademy, Raymond; Clark, Trenette; Nasim, Aashir

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco is a leading contributor to morbidity and mortality and a primary reason for health disparities among African Americans. In this study we explore the role of stress in smoking and cultural factors that protect against stress among African-American adolescents. Our sample consisted of 239 youth who were recruited into the study while…

  15. Something Every Teacher and Counselor Needs to Know about African-American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Patrick E.

    2007-01-01

    African-American student academic performance, as a group, in most educational settings causes alarm to educators, policymakers, and laypeople, alike. Some suggest that the problems associated with the academic under-achievement of many African-American students are perhaps the most pressing issues facing both educators and researchers. Much…

  16. Perceived Racism and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, LaBarron K.; Kobayashi, Ihori; Hughes, Joel W.

    2007-01-01

    Experiences with racial discrimination may contribute to stress-induced blood pressure (BP) elevations among African Americans. It was reported that perceived racism was associated with ambulatory BP (ABP) during waking hours. This study examined perceived racism and ABP among 40 African American college students, who completed an ABP assessment…

  17. A genome-wide association search for type 2 diabetes genes in African Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Nicholette D; McDonough, Caitrin W; Hicks, Pamela J

    2012-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wid...

  18. A Genome-Wide Association Search for Type 2 Diabetes Genes in African Americans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmer, Nicholette D.; McDonough, Caitrin W.; Hicks, Pamela J.; Roh, Bong H.; Wing, Maria R.; An, S. Sandy; Hester, Jessica M.; Cooke, Jessica N.; Bostrom, Meredith A.; Rudock, Megan E.; Talbert, Matthew E.; Lewis, Joshua P.; Ferrara, Assiamira; Lu, Lingyi; Ziegler, Julie T.; Sale, Michele M.; Divers, Jasmin; Shriner, Daniel; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Rotimi, Charles N.; Ng, Maggie C. Y.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Freedman, Barry I.; Bowden, Donald W.

    2012-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide A

  19. The African American Adolescent Respect Scale: A Measure of a Prosocial Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Joy D.; Brennan, Eileen M.; Briggs, Harold E.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The respect that African American youth feel promotes psychological wellness and social identity; conversely, a lack of respect compromises their identities and is viewed as a threat to safety. This article describes the development, psychometric analysis, and validation of the African American Respect Scale, a 20-item instrument…

  20. Keeping Current. African American History Month--More than Book Reports!

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Anita J.

    2005-01-01

    Mention the observance of African American History Month and the name Carter G. Woodson immediately comes to mind. Woodson, an educator, publisher, and historian, initiated the "Negro History Week" observance in 1926. Known as the "Father of Black History," Woodson believed that it was important for African Americans to know their history in…

  1. Brothers in Excellence: An Empowerment Model for the Career Development of African American Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmett, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    The author describes Brothers in Excellence (BE), a conceptual model for understanding African American boys and helping them to be successful. BE addresses 3 domains of development proposed to be essential to the success of all African American boys: identity development, social development, and career development. (Contains 1 figure.)

  2. Academic Bullying: A Barrier to Tenure and Promotion for African-American Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Kimberly N.

    2011-01-01

    The author discusses the problem of retention of African American faculty due to tenure and promotion issues. The author outlines obstacles that African American face in the workplace while seeking tenure and promotion in academia. A case example is presented that illuminates how these stressors manifest in the academic setting and recommendations…

  3. Caregiver Mental Health, Neighborhood, and Social Network Influences on Mental Health Needs among African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Michael A.; Browne, Dorothy C.; Thompson, Richard; Hawley, Kristin M.; Graham, Christopher J.; Weisbart, Cindy; Harrington, Donna; Kotch, Jonathan B.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the combined effects of caregiver mental health, alcohol use, and social network support/satisfaction on child mental health needs among African American caregiver-child dyads at risk of maltreatment. The sample included 514 eight-year-old African American children and their caregivers who participated in the…

  4. African-American Firsts. Famous, Little-Known and Unsung Triumphs of Blacks in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Joan; Claytor, Constance

    Stories of more than 400 "firsts" by African Americans, break-through achievements in a variety of fields, are told in question-and-answer form ("Who was the first African American to ...?"). These are stories of people who were forced to contend with racism, directly or indirectly, in their struggle towards goals that require…

  5. Examining Individualism, Collectivism, and Self-Differentiation in African American College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushue, George V.; Constantine, Madonna G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines aspects of individualism, collectivism, and self-differentiation in 123 African American women attending a predominantly White university. Results reveled that aspects of individualism and collectivism were differentially related to self-differentiation in African American college women. Implications of the findings are discussed.…

  6. African American Children and Mental Health. Child Psychology and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nancy E., Ed.; Mann, Tammy L., Ed.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This groundbreaking two-volume set examines the psychological, social, physical, and environmental factors that undermine or support healthy development in African American children while considering economic, historical, and public policies. African American children are at the highest risk for becoming school dropouts, for academic disengagement…

  7. Racial Identity Attitudes, Self-Esteem, and Academic Achievement among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvillain, Jocelyn Freeman; Honora, Detris

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the extent to which racial identity attitudes and self-esteem could predict academic performance for African American middle school students. A total of 175 African American adolescents in 7th grade attending one of two urban schools participated in the study. The Multi-Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM)…

  8. Concepts of Healthful Food among Low-Income African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane; Keim, Kathryn; Koneman, Sylvia A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Describe beliefs about what makes foods healthful among low-income African American women. Methods: In one-on-one interviews, 28 low-income African American mothers viewed 30 pairs of familiar foods and explained which food in the pair was more healthful and why. Responses were grouped into codes describing concepts of food…

  9. Spelling in African American Children: The Case of Final Consonant Devoicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Bowman, Margo

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of dialect variation on children's spelling by using devoicing of final /d/ in African American Vernacular English (AAVE) as a test case. In line with the linguistic interference hypothesis, African American 6-year-olds were significantly poorer at spelling the final "d" of words such as "salad"…

  10. A new model for developing and executing culturally appropriate behavior modification clinical trials for African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ard, Jamy D; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Svetkey, Laura P

    2003-01-01

    Past clinical trials addressing behavior modification for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention have not been culturally appropriate for African Americans. This supposition is borne out by the continued challenges researchers face not only in recruiting and retaining African Americans in clinical trials, but also in achieving the desired outcomes among this population. Investigators have limited resources to develop culturally appropriate CVD prevention trials. The scientific literature reveals 2 models for implementing culturally appropriate interventions applicable to CVD prevention among African Americans; however, these models are not easily applied to the clinical trial setting. We propose a new model for developing a culturally appropriate clinical trial. The clinical trial is a function of the investigator's cultural framework, meaning that an investigator will have more difficulty designing clinical trials appropriate for use with cultures other than his or her own, a definite limitation when attempting to effectively reach diverse populations. Differences between the cultural frameworks of most clinical trials and African Americans' cultural frameworks lead to intrinsic biases, limiting the ability of African Americans to achieve the desired outcomes for any particular trial. An African-American participant's degree of immersion in traditional African-American culture, or acculturation, influences the magnitude of these biases. Investigators must be aware of, and attempt to mitigate, such biases so that the trial's potential for success is equitable across ethnic groups. In addition, investigators must understand how to effectively address relevant biases of African Americans without challenging their ethnic identity. Steps to decrease biases are described.

  11. "Making Space" for Ourselves: African American Student Responses to Their Marginalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venzant Chambers, Terah T.; McCready, Lance T.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing from two separate case studies, one on lower track African American students and another on gay and gender nonconforming African American male students, this article explores how students with multiple stigmatized identities make sense of and respond to their marginalization, a process we term "making space." In particular, we consider how…

  12. African American and Latino Enrollment Trends among Medicine, Law, Business, and Public Affairs Graduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Garza, Rodolfo; Moghadam, Sepehr Hejazi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this Tomas Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI) report is twofold: to provide an analysis of the enrollment trends for African American and Latino students among graduate professional programs in the fields of medicine, business, law, and public affairs, and to present other relevant data pertaining to African American and Latino students…

  13. Bidialectal African American Adolescents' Beliefs about Spoken Language Expectations in English Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godley, Amanda; Escher, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the perspectives of bidialectal African American adolescents--adolescents who speak both African American Vernacular English (AAVE) and Standard English--on spoken language expectations in their English classes. Previous research has demonstrated that many teachers hold negative views of AAVE, but existing scholarship has…

  14. Sisters in the Struggle: African American Female Graduate Students Coping with Racism and Racism-Related

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kelsie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined if coping was predictive of perceived racism and racism related stress of African American female graduate students. Participants were 217 African American female graduate students attending Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs), Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs) and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and…

  15. Stereotype Threat Effects on African American Children in an Urban Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserberg, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether a diagnostic testing condition leads to stereotype threat effects for African American children (n = 198) at an urban elementary school. Results indicated that presenting a reading test as diagnostic of abilities hindered the performance of African American children aware of racial stereotypes but not of those…

  16. Taking Boys out of the Hood: Exile as a Parenting Strategy for African American Male Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.; Van Brakle, Mischelle; St. Vil, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that inner-city neighborhood effects are correlated with school dropout, substance abuse, crime, violence, homicide, HIV risk related behaviors, and incarceration for adolescent African American males. Parents of adolescent African American males face many challenges as they try to keep their children safe in high-risk…

  17. Racial Discrimination, Coping, Life Satisfaction, and Self-Esteem among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsey, Shawn O.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Reynolds, Amy L.; Cancelli, Anthony A.

    2000-01-01

    Study examines the coping strategies used by African Americans in managing the stressful effects of racism. Results indicate that women preferred avoidance coping for racism experienced on a personal level. For African Americans in general, seeking social support and racism condition were the best predictors of racism-related stress. Life…

  18. "Together, We Are Strong": A Qualitative Study of Happy, Enduring African American Marriages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Loren D.; Hopkins, Katrina; Chaney, Cassandra; Monroe, Pamela A.; Nesteruk, Olena; Sasser, Diane D.

    2008-01-01

    Thirty African American married couples (N = 60 individuals) were interviewed regarding the challenges and benefits of their happy, enduring marriages. Qualitative coding and analysis revealed 4 key themes: (1) Challenges in African American Marriages, (2) Overcoming External Challenges to Marriage, (3) Resolving Intramarital Conflict, and (4)…

  19. The Trickster Figure in African-American Teaching: Pre- and Postdesegregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes

    1994-01-01

    Explores African American cultural performance as it exists in education. It focuses on the trickster performance and reveals this community tradition in action through research, designed to increase the recognition and use of cultural performance in schools and create an enhanced learning environment, and conducted with African American educators…

  20. African American and Latina(o) Community College Students' Social Capital and Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Lucero, Elena; Maes, Johanna B.; Klingsmith, Libby

    2014-01-01

    Using a framework of social and cultural capital, this study examined successful African American and Latina/o community college students. Based on focus group interviews with twenty two African American and Latina/o undergraduates at an urban community college, the authors reveal how social and cultural capital gained from students' relationships…

  1. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to Promote Smoking Cessation among African American Smokers: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Monica S.; de Ybarra, Denise Rodriguez; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Reis, Isildinha M.; Carey, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The health consequences of tobacco smoking disproportionately affect African Americans, but research on whether efficacious interventions can be generalized to this population is limited. This study examined the efficacy of group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation among African Americans. Method: Participants…

  2. Addressing the Underrepresentation of African-Americans in Counseling and Psychology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haizlip, Breyan N.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there has been an upward trend in the number of African-American doctoral students completing counseling and psychology programs. However, despite these trends, African-American faculty continue to be significantly underrepresented as counseling educators and psychology faculty. Similarly, counseling education programs…

  3. EPEC-O for African Americans - Module 7 AA - Communicating Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seventh module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores communication issues pertinent to African Americans with cancer and their health care providers, discusses strategies for culturally sensitive communication, and presents the SPIKES protocol, a practical framework for effective communication.

  4. Acculturation Style and Alcohol Use among African American College Students: An Exploration of Potential Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Tahirah; Brown, Tamara L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship exists between acculturation and alcohol use among African American college students and if the relationship varies by religiosity and gender. Most researchers use unidimensional African American acculturation measures that cannot capture the construct's complexity; this study is the first to use a…

  5. African-American Youth Perceptions of Alcohol Advertisements: A Preliminary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Timothy; Taylor, David; Turner, Dion

    1998-01-01

    Examines motivational factors associated with malt liquor consumption in African American youth. (Malt liquor is directly marketed to African-American youth.) Over 90% of respondents consumed alcohol in the past. Students viewed malt liquor commercials as being more associated with sex and power than were beer commercials. (MMU)

  6. Low Income African Americans' Parental Involvement in Intermediate Schools: Perceptions, Practices, and Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine how the parental involvement perceptions, practices, and influences of low-income African Americans in an intermediate school setting are affected by low-incomes. Although involving African American parents in the educational process is a difficult task for educators (Alldred & Edwards, 2000;…

  7. Effect of adolescent obesity on cardiometabolic risk in african-americans and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    African-Americans have more hypertension, stroke, and type 2 diabetes than do Caucasians. Endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance are precursors for each. Since these diseases have origins in pediatrics and are associated with obesity, this study was designed to determine if obesity has different effects on endothelial function, insulin sensitivity, and secretion in African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Thirty-three Caucasian and 25 African-Americans (10-18 years old) were subdivided by BMI into lean, overweight, and obesity groups. Endothelial function was measured as forearm vascular resistance (FVR) over 1 min following 5 min of upper arm vascular occlusion. Insulin sensitivity and secretion were measured using intravenous glucose tolerance test and minimal model. Postocclusive FVR was significantly increased in obese African-Americans. Insulin sensitivity was reduced in obese subjects but did not differ by race. Insulin secretion was increased in African-Americans but did not differ by obesity. Subjects were subdivided into risk groups based on 20th percentile for postocclusion FVR response in lean. Seven of nine obese African-Americans were in the high risk group compared to 0 of 5 obese Caucasians. These results demonstrate that obesity significantly impairs endothelial function in African-Americans. Endothelial dysfunction likely predisposes to future cardiometabolic disease in obese African-American adolescents.

  8. Methylphenidate Improves Aspects of Executive Function in African American Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel-Fernandez, Leslie Ann; Klorman, Rafael; Wallace, James M.; Cook, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The undertreatment of ethnic minority children with ADHD prompted a study on the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on the executive functions of African American children with ADHD. Method: Nineteen African American children with ADHD are tested on the Tower of Hanoi (TOH) and the Paired Associates Learning Task (PAL) in a double-blind…

  9. A Campus-Community Partnership to Disseminate Health Internet Technology Resources among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Melissa B.; Edwards, Lorece; Akers, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The Internet is increasingly used to disseminate health information about diseases and prevention and to help in obtaining health services. Although technology can empower African Americans to adopt healthy lifestyles, the gap in usage between African Americans and Whites undermines the potential power of health Internet technology (IT) to…

  10. Womanist Spirituality as a Response to the Racism-Sexism Double Bind in African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Carmen Braun; Wiggins, Marsha I.

    2010-01-01

    Many African American women begin counseling stigmatized by race and gender and may be targets of additional discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, class, age, and other social variables. In this article, the authors discuss "womanist" spirituality as a means for African American women to cope with racism, sexism, and multiple social…

  11. Meeting the Learning Needs of African American Youth in the Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Janice; Pringle, Lajuan S.

    2013-01-01

    The African American male psyche is a complicated multi-layered mixture of outside media influences, stereotypes, peer pressure, how they see themselves, and how they think others see them. This article describes how school and public librarians can help raise the literacy efforts of young African American males. It cites the need for libraries to…

  12. Trends in Themes of African American Family Research 1939-1989: A Synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lenwood G.

    1990-01-01

    Themes in research on African-American families between 1939 and 1989 are discussed, and the following recently developed themes are highlighted: (1) stress, (2) aging, (3) adoption, (4) prison, (5) polygamy, and (6) violence. Much more research is needed to provide better understanding of the African-American family. (SLD)

  13. Racial Identity Development and Academic Achievement of Academically Gifted African American Students: Implications for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Natalie F.; Dowden, Angel Riddick

    2014-01-01

    Gifted African American students are underrepresented and underserved in gifted education. The current article provides an overview of proper identification, racial identity development implications, psycho-social concerns and the importance of family involvement in the development of gifted African American students. A case study is presented to…

  14. Understanding African American Adolescents' Identity Development: A Relational Developmental Systems Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittian, Aerika S.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the development of African American adolescents' identity using a relational developmental systems theory framework, which led to the expectation that identity development is linked to both the reduction of risk behaviors and the promotion of African American adolescents' healthy development. Different personological theories…

  15. Contextual Influences on Gendered Racial Identity Development of African American Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Anita Jones; Hoxha, Denada; Hacker, Jason Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the contextual factors and socialization experiences most salient to the identity development of African American girls. Seventeen African American young women participated in dyadic focus groups. Themes that emerged included exposure to stereotypes, negative classroom environments, and parental and peer…

  16. Helping Moms, Saving Babies: Faith-Based Partnerships to Reduce Prematurity in the African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, LaToya L.

    2008-01-01

    The March of Dimes, Texas Chapter, partnered with the faith community to pilot Honey Child[SM], a prenatal education program for African American women. The program is designed to combat prematurity, which is the leading cause of death for African American infants. Honey Child uses a spiritual approach to promote prenatal health through…

  17. Long-Term Effects of the Strong African American Families Program on Youths' Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Murry, Velma McBride; Brown, Anita C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective:This report extends earlier accounts by addressing the effects of the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program across 65 months. Two hypotheses were tested: (a) Rural African American youths randomly assigned to participate in SAAF would demonstrate lower rates of alcohol use than would control youths more than 5 years later, and…

  18. The Images of African Americans in Children's Literature of the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Regina

    Focusing on the early examples of African American literature for children, this paper provides a glimpse into the historical development of children's literature that portrays African Americans and the people who had a definite effect on it. In contemporary time, numerous books are available that reflect the social and cultural traditions…

  19. The Importance of Visibility: Students' and Teachers' Criteria for Selecting African American Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Erika Swarts

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that African American children do not always relate to the literature available in their classrooms. The study examined fifth-grade students' responses to African American literature to determine the criteria students use to select books. Students' selection criteria were then compared with teachers' selection…

  20. "It Was like a Book Buffet!" Parents and Children Selecting African American Children's Literature Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how African American children--in grades kindergarten through 2--and their parents selected books within the context of a unique family literacy program entitled, "I Never Knew There Were So Many Books About Us!: Parents and Children Reading African American Children's Literature Together". This study is informed by research…

  1. Parental Involvement Promotes Rural African American Youths Self-Pride and Sexual Self-Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride Murry, V.; Brody, Gene H.; McNair, Lily D.; Luo, Zupei; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Wills, Thomas Ashby

    2005-01-01

    This study, an evaluation of the Strong African American Families Program, was designed to determine whether intervention-induced changes in targeted parenting behaviors were associated with young adolescents development of racial pride, self-esteem, and sexual identity. Participants were 332 African American mothers and their 11-year-old children…

  2. Jumping through Hoops: College Choice Experiences of African American Male Community College Club Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Kimberly Carlotta

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to learn what factors influenced the college choice decision-making process of African American male club basketball players in the community college. To understand how the participants determined their educational path, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 African American male students who were enrolled in at least six…

  3. Our Voices: A Descriptive Account of African American Parental Involvement in an Urban Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudduth, Charletta D.

    2011-01-01

    Parent involvement may have implications for student achievement (Epstein, 1986; Hoover-Dempsey, Bassler, & Brisse, 1987; Lopez, Scribner, & Mahitivanichcha, 2001). Today African-American parents are frequently criticized for not being involved enough in their students' education (Dearing, Kreider, Simpkins, & Weiss, 2006). African-American parent…

  4. Natural Mentors, Racial Identity, and Educational Attainment among African American Adolescents: Exploring Pathways to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Sanchez, Bernadette; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored how relationships with natural mentors may contribute to African American adolescents' long-term educational attainment by influencing adolescents' racial identity and academic beliefs. This study included 541 academically at-risk African American adolescents transitioning into adulthood. The mean age of participants at…

  5. Rationales for Support That African American Grandmothers Provide to Their Children Who Are Parenting Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumo, Jen'nea; Dancy, Barbara; Julion, Wrenetha; Wilbur, JoEllen

    2015-01-01

    African American grandmothers are known to be a major source of support for their children who are parenting adolescents, but little is known about why they provide support. The purpose of this study was to describe the kinds of support provided by African American maternal and paternal grandmothers to their parenting adolescents and the reasons…

  6. Suicide acceptability in African- and white Americans : The role of religion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Wessely, S; Lewis, G

    1998-01-01

    Rates of suicidal behavior are lower among African- than white Americans. We analyzed the association of suicide acceptability with religious, sociodemographic, and emotional variables in representative samples of African-and white Americans (1990). Adjusted for ethnic response bias, the former were

  7. Video telehealth for weight maintenance of African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Ben S; Schiffer, Linda; Brown, Allison A; Berbaum, Michael L; Rimmer, James H; Braunschweig, Carol L; Fitzgibbon, Marian L

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated the effect of home telehealth on weight maintenance after a group-based weight loss programme. The home telehealth intervention comprised telephone counselling and home Internet-enabled digital video recorders (DVRs) with three channels of video programmes. The video content provided reinforcement and support to promote problem solving, prevent relapse and sustain motivation. Eighty-eight obese or overweight African-American women were randomized to receive monthly telephone counselling (control) or the home telehealth intervention. The weight change during maintenance was not significant in either group (0.6 kg in the intervention group, 0.0 kg in the control group), and there was no significant difference between them. Changes in diet, physical activity, social support and self-efficacy during the maintenance period did not differ significantly between groups. DVR use was low: during the intervention, the number of valid DVR viewings ranged from zero to 42 per person. DVR use was positively associated with previous attendance at the weight loss classes. Home video-based telehealth is a new method of delivering a weight loss maintenance intervention to African-American women. It had no effect on weight maintenance in the present study.

  8. Depressive Symptomatology and College Persistence among African American College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyraz, Güler; Horne, Sharon G; Owens, Archandria C; Armstrong, Aisha P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between depressive symptomatology and college outcomes among African American students, as well as to determine whether these relationships were moderated by gender and type of university. Participants included 569 African American first-year students attending two public universities in the Southeast United States: a historically Black college/university (HBCU) and a predominantly White institution (PWI). Using a longitudinal study design, data were collected at three time points. Results indicated that, after adjusting for the effects of the control variables (gender, type of institution, high school GPA, participation in on-campus activities, institutional and goal commitments), depressive symptomatology present in the first semester of college was associated with increased likelihood of dropping out of college before the end of the second year of college. The relationship between these two variables was mediated by first-year cumulative GPA. Results also indicated that the hypothesized relationships did not vary as a function of gender and the university type.

  9. Stressors, Resources, and Stress Responses in Pregnant African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Kavanaugh, Karen; Norr, Kathleen F.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Twigg, Naomi; McFarlin, Barbara L.; Engeland, Christopher G.; Hennessy, Mary Dawn; White-Traut, Rosemary C.

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to develop an initial understanding of the stressors, stress responses, and personal resources that impact African American women during pregnancy, potentially leading to preterm birth. Guided by the ecological model, a prospective, mixed-methods, complementarity design was used with 11 pregnant women and 8 of their significant others. Our integrated analysis of quantitative and qualitative data revealed 2 types of stress responses: high stress responses (7 women) and low stress responses (4 women). Patterns of stress responses were seen in psychological stress and cervical remodeling (attenuation or cervical length). All women in the high stress responses group had high depression and/or low psychological well-being and abnormal cervical remodeling at one or both data collection times. All but 1 woman had at least 3 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network). In contrast, 3 of the 4 women in the low stress responses group had only 2 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network) and 1 had none; these women also reported higher perceived support. The findings demonstrate the importance of periodically assessing stress in African American women during pregnancy, particularly related to their support network as well as the positive supports they receive. PMID:23360946

  10. Perceptions of Elder Abuse and Help-Seeking Patterns among African-American, Caucasian American, and Korean-American Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ailee; Williams, Oliver

    1993-01-01

    Used 13 scenarios to measure and compare perceptions of elder abuse and help-seeking behaviors of African-American, Caucasian American, and Korean-American elderly women. Significant group differences existed in perceptions of elder abuse with regard to six scenarios, and Korean-American women were substantially less likely to perceive given…

  11. Attractiveness in African American and Caucasian women: is beauty in the eyes of the observer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Dawnavan S; Sbrocco, Tracy; Odoms-Young, Angela; Smith, Dionne M

    2010-01-01

    Traditional body image studies have been constrained by focusing on body thinness as the sole component of attractiveness. Evidence suggests that African American women may hold a multifactorial view of attractiveness that extends beyond size to include factors such as dress attire and race. The current study employed a culturally sensitive silhouette Model Rating Task (MRT) to examine the effects of attire, body size, and race on attractiveness. Unexpectedly, minimal differences on attractiveness ratings emerged by attire, body size, or model race between African American and Caucasian women. Overall, participants preferred the dressed, underweight, and African American models. Factors such as exposure to diverse groups and changes in African American culture may explain the present findings. Future studies to delineate the components of attractiveness for African American and Caucasian women using the MRT are needed to broaden our understanding and conceptualization of attractiveness across racial groups.

  12. African-American lesbian identity management and identity development in the context of family and community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shannon J

    2011-01-01

    Don't Ask, Don't Tell is gaining attention in family studies literature as a cultural specific context to understand lesbian, gay, and bisexual visibility in African-American families and communities. This policy suggests that sexual minorities are accepted within African-American families and communities as long as they do not label themselves or acknowledge publicly that they engage in same-sex relationships. The narratives of two African-American lesbians (aged 26 and 27 years) are chronicled in the present study to reveal their lesbian identity development, lesbian identity management, and how they defined and navigated Don't Ask, Don't Tell. They encountered challenges and successes in a quest to find communities that would embrace and affirm their multiple marginalized identities. Their stories are offered as a point of entry to further inquiry concerning African-American lesbian visibility and identity proclamation within African-American families and communities.

  13. Disordered eating in African American and Caucasian women: the role of ethnic identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttlesworth, Mary E; Zotter, Deanne

    2011-01-01

    The influential roles of culture and ethnic identity are frequently cited in developing disordered eating and body dissatisfaction, constituting both protective and risk factors. For African American women, strongly identifying with African American cultural beauty ideals may protect against disordered eating to lose weight, but may actually increase risk in development of disordered eating directed at weight gain, such as binge eating. This study compares African American and Caucasian women on disordered eating measures, positing that African American women show greater risk for binge eating due to the impact of ethnic identity on body dissatisfaction. Findings indicate low levels of ethnic identity represent a risk factor for African American women, increasing the likelihood of showing greater binge eating and bulimic pathology. In Caucasian women, high levels of ethnic identity constitute a risk factor, leading to higher levels of both binge eating and global eating pathology. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed.

  14. Problems in Translating Musical Elements in African American Poetry after 1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Kočan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In most cases, African American poetry eschews traditional literary norms. Contemporary African American poets tend to ignore grammatical rules, use unusual typography on many occasions, include much of their cultural heritage in their poetry, and interweave musical elements into literary genres. The influence of such musical genres as jazz, blues, soul, and gospel, together with the dilemmas that occur for the translator, will be shown to great extent, since music, like black speech, is a major part of African American culture and literature. The translator will have to maintain the specific African American rhythm, blues adaptations and the improvisational language under the jazz impact. The paper presents the problems in translating post-1950 African American poetry into Slovene, and asks to what extent can one successfully transfer the musical elements within this poetry for the target culture? Inevitably, it will identify a share of elements that are lost in translation.

  15. Sexual health information seeking on the Internet: comparisons between White and African American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Joshua; Fajiram, Sandra; Morgan, Phyllis D

    2010-01-01

    College students are often interested in information about sexual health topics. A study of 149 college students and their use of the Internet for sexual health information was conducted. The study findings indicated that African American college students, as compared to White college students, and women, as compared to men, had greater odds for searching on the Internet for birth control information. Among male college students, a higher internal locus of control was associated with lower odds for looking at birth control information on the Internet. Nurses and healthcare providers working in college settings can use these findings to develop strategies for identifying those who are more likely to reference the Internet to obtain birth control and sexual health information.

  16. A culturally adapted depression intervention for African American adults experiencing depression: Oh Happy Day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Earlise C; Brown, Roger L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe development of a culturally adapted depression intervention (Oh Happy Day Class, OHDC) designed for African American adults experiencing major depressive disorder (MDD). This project included 2 pilot studies testing the feasibility and acceptability of the OHDC and examining short-term effects of the OHDC in reducing symptoms of MDD. The OHDC is a 2.5-hr weekly, culturally specific, cognitive behavioral, group counseling intervention for 12 weeks. Cultural adaptations of the OHDC are based on the ecological validity and culturally sensitive framework, along with an Afrocentric paradigm. Fifty African American participants with MDD were enrolled (15 in Pilot I and 35 in Pilot II). All participants in Pilots I and II received the 12-week intervention and completed assessments at baseline, mid-intervention, end-intervention, and 3 months postintervention. General linear mixed modeling for assessment of pre-post longitudinal data analysis was conducted. Results for Pilot I showed 73% of participants completed the full OHDC, a statistically significant decline in depression symptoms from pre- to postintervention, and a 0.38 effect size. Participants were very satisfied with the OHDC. In Pilot II, 66% of participants completed the full OHDC, and there was a significant pre-post intervention decrease in depression symptoms. For men, the OHDC showed a 1.01 effect size and for women, a 0.41 effect size. Both men and women were very satisfied with the OHDC based on the satisfaction measure. These promising findings are discussed with a focus on future plans for examining efficacy of the OHDC in a large-scale, randomized, control trial.

  17. Unique Genomic Alterations in Prostate Cancers in African American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    with MNX1 mRNA in AA PCa by Pearson Product Moment. Correlation coefficient and p-value are shown. 13 Subtask 6: Validation of key gene...associated with aggressive pathological features (high Gleason score , seminal vesicle invasion and extracapsular extension). Figure 6. Expression of...was seen in stromal tissues. C, D. Weak expression of MNX1 mRNA in prostate cancer cells (arrowheads). Subtask 4: Correlate expression

  18. Improving Your Health: Tips for African American Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can’t digest lactose (the sugar found in milk), try these foods for calcium: dark leafy vegetables like collard greens or kale “lactose-reduced” low-fat or fat-free milk, or soy beverages with added calcium and vitamin D orange juice with calcium How ...

  19. Unequal Burden of Disease, Unequal Participation in Clinical Trials: Solutions from African American and Latino Community Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Marvella E.; Siminoff, Laura A.; Pickelsimer, Elisabeth; Mainous, Arch G.; Smith, Daniel W.; Diaz, Vanessa A.; Soderstrom, Lea H.; Jefferson, Melanie S.; Tilley, Barbara C.

    2013-01-01

    African Americans and Latinos are underrepresented in clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to elicit solutions to participation barriers from African Americans and Latinos. Fifty-seven adults (32 African Americans, 25 Latinos) ages 50 years and older participated. The Institute of Medicine's "Unequal Treatment" conceptual framework was…

  20. Associations between depression, distress tolerance, delay discounting, and alcohol-related problems in European American and African American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennhardt, Ashley A; Murphy, James G

    2011-12-01

    Although levels of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems are high in college students, there is significant variability in the number and type of problems experienced, even among students who drink heavily. African American students drink less and experience fewer alcohol-related problems than European American students, but are still at risk, and little research has investigated the potentially unique patterns and predictors of problems among these students. Depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting have been implicated in adult substance abuse and may be important predictors of alcohol problem severity among college students. We examined the relationship between these variables and alcohol-related problems among African American and European American students (N = 206; 53% female; 68% European American; 28% African American) who reported recent heavy drinking. In regression models that controlled for drinking level, depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting were associated with alcohol problems among African American students, but only depression was associated with alcohol problems among European American students. These results suggest that negative affect is a key risk factor for alcohol problems among college student drinkers. For African American students, the inability to tolerate negative emotions and to organize their behavior around future outcomes may also be especially relevant risk factors.